Sample records for tio spectral features

  1. Spectral Feature Selection for Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zheng Alan


    Spectral Feature Selection for Data Mining introduces a novel feature selection technique that establishes a general platform for studying existing feature selection algorithms and developing new algorithms for emerging problems in real-world applications. This technique represents a unified framework for supervised, unsupervised, and semisupervised feature selection. The book explores the latest research achievements, sheds light on new research directions, and stimulates readers to make the next creative breakthroughs. It presents the intrinsic ideas behind spectral feature selection, its th

  2. Spectral features : How to reduce them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, H. van; Bloemendal, D. ten; Goeij, B. de; Vink, R.; Maresi, L.


    Spectral features are introduced by the diffuser that is used during on-board sun calibration. New findings are presented on how to reduce the size of these spectral features. Reduction can be obtained via optical design of the calibration unit, but also in creating a better diffuser. A novel

  3. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris


    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  4. Novel spectral features of nanoelectromechanical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.


    Electron transport through a quantum dot or single molecule coupled to a quantum oscillator is studied by the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism to obtain insight into the quantum dynamics of the electronic and oscillator degrees of freedom. We tune the electronic level of the quantum dot by a gate voltage, where the leads are kept at zero temperature. Due to the nonequilibrium distribution of the electrons in the quantum dot, the spectral function becomes a function of the gate voltage. Novel spectral features are identified for the ground and excited states of nanomechanical oscillators that can be used to enhance the measurement sensitivity.

  5. Spectral feature classification and spatial pattern recognition (United States)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Wilson, R. G.


    This paper introduces a spatial pattern recognition processing concept involving the use of spectral feature classification technology and coherent optical correlation. The concept defines a hybrid image processing system incorporating both digital and optical technology. The hybrid instrument provides simplified pseudopattern images as functions of pixel classification from information embedded within a real-scene image. These pseudoimages become simplified inputs to an optical correlator for use in a subsequent pattern identification decision useful in executing landmark pointing, tracking, or navigating functions. Real-time classification is proposed as a research tool for exploring ways to enhance input signal-to-noise ratio as an aid in improving optical correlation. The approach can be explored with developing technology, including a current NASA Langley Research Center technology plan that involves a series of related Shuttle-borne experiments. A first-planned experiment, Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE), is undergoing final ground testing, and is scheduled for flight on the NASA Shuttle (STS2/flight OSTA-1) in 1980. FILE will evaluate a technique for autonomously classifying earth features into the four categories: bare land; water; vegetation; and clouds, snow, or ice.

  6. Spectral features of nasals in Standard Latvian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Taperte


    Full Text Available In the article, the acoustic features of nasals in Standard Latvian are investigated. The aim of the study is to examine whether some of the spectral properties of nasal murmur (namely anti-formant frequency, as well as frequency and bandwidth of the first nasal formant can be considered as efficient cues for distinguishing between nasal places of articulation.Speech recordings from 10 native speakers of Standard Latvian, five male and five female, aged 19–39, without any disorders or dialectal traces in their pronunciation, were used for the analysis. Prevocalic nasals [m; n; ɲ] were analyzed in isolated CVC syllables, where C is one of the nasals and V is one of the vowels [i(ː; e(ː; æ(ː; ɑ(ː; ɔ(ː; u(ː]. The velar [ŋ] — the allophone of the phoneme /n/ — was recorded in postvocalic position in [k]V[ŋks] structure units. 1260 items were analyzed in total.According to the results, the nasals of Standard Latvian can be distinguished by anti-formant frequencies rather efficiently, and the results generally agree with those obtained in previous research of Latvian as well as data reported for other languages. The frequencies and the bandwidths of the first nasal formant are less informative regarding nasal place of articulation and can be used only for distinguishing between [ŋ] and [m; n; ɲ]. Conducting perception tests to assess the auditory relevance of these acoustic features is necessary.

  7. Robust emotion recognition using spectral and prosodic features

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa


    In this brief, the authors discuss recently explored spectral (sub-segmental and pitch synchronous) and prosodic (global and local features at word and syllable levels in different parts of the utterance) features for discerning emotions in a robust manner. The authors also delve into the complementary evidences obtained from excitation source, vocal tract system and prosodic features for the purpose of enhancing emotion recognition performance. Features based on speaking rate characteristics are explored with the help of multi-stage and hybrid models for further improving emotion recognition performance. Proposed spectral and prosodic features are evaluated on real life emotional speech corpus.

  8. On the Use of Complementary Spectral Features for Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Krishnan


    Full Text Available The most popular features for speaker recognition are Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs and linear prediction cepstral coefficients (LPCCs. These features are used extensively because they characterize the vocal tract configuration which is known to be highly speaker-dependent. In this work, several features are introduced that can characterize the vocal system in order to complement the traditional features and produce better speaker recognition models. The spectral centroid (SC, spectral bandwidth (SBW, spectral band energy (SBE, spectral crest factor (SCF, spectral flatness measure (SFM, Shannon entropy (SE, and Renyi entropy (RE were utilized for this purpose. This work demonstrates that these features are robust in noisy conditions by simulating some common distortions that are found in the speakers' environment and a typical telephone channel. Babble noise, additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, and a bandpass channel with 1 dB of ripple were used to simulate these noisy conditions. The results show significant improvements in classification performance for all noise conditions when these features were used to complement the MFCC and ΔMFCC features. In particular, the SC and SCF improved performance in almost all noise conditions within the examined SNR range (10–40 dB. For example, in cases where there was only one source of distortion, classification improvements of up to 8% and 10% were achieved under babble noise and AWGN, respectively, using the SCF feature.

  9. Unsupervised Feature Selection via Nonnegative Spectral Analysis and Redundancy Control. (United States)

    Li, Zechao; Tang, Jinhui


    In many image processing and pattern recognition problems, visual contents of images are currently described by high-dimensional features, which are often redundant and noisy. Toward this end, we propose a novel unsupervised feature selection scheme, namely, nonnegative spectral analysis with constrained redundancy, by jointly leveraging nonnegative spectral clustering and redundancy analysis. The proposed method can directly identify a discriminative subset of the most useful and redundancy-constrained features. Nonnegative spectral analysis is developed to learn more accurate cluster labels of the input images, during which the feature selection is performed simultaneously. The joint learning of the cluster labels and feature selection matrix enables to select the most discriminative features. Row-wise sparse models with a general ℓ(2, p)-norm (0 image benchmarks, including face data, handwritten digit data, and object image data. The proposed method achieves encouraging the experimental results in comparison with several representative algorithms, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for unsupervised feature selection.

  10. Spectral feature variations in x-ray diffraction imaging systems (United States)

    Wolter, Scott D.; Greenberg, Joel A.


    Materials with different atomic or molecular structures give rise to unique scatter spectra when measured by X-ray diffraction. The details of these spectra, though, can vary based on both intrinsic (e.g., degree of crystallinity or doping) and extrinsic (e.g., pressure or temperature) conditions. While this sensitivity is useful for detailed characterizations of the material properties, these dependences make it difficult to perform more general classification tasks, such as explosives threat detection in aviation security. A number of challenges, therefore, currently exist for reliable substance detection including the similarity in spectral features among some categories of materials combined with spectral feature variations from materials processing and environmental factors. These factors complicate the creation of a material dictionary and the implementation of conventional classification and detection algorithms. Herein, we report on two prominent factors that lead to variations in spectral features: crystalline texture and temperature variations. Spectral feature comparisons between materials categories will be described for solid metallic sheet, aqueous liquids, polymer sheet, and metallic, organic, and inorganic powder specimens. While liquids are largely immune to texture effects, they are susceptible to temperature changes that can modify their density or produce phase changes. We will describe in situ temperature-dependent measurement of aqueous-based commercial goods in the temperature range of -20°C to 35°C.

  11. Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Fluorescence characteristics of human breast tissues are investigated through wavelet transform and principal component analysis (PCA). Wavelet transform of polar- ized fluorescence spectra of human breast tissues is found to localize spectral features that can reliably differentiate different tissue types.

  12. Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence characteristics of human breast tissues are investigated through wavelet transform and principal component analysis (PCA). Wavelet transform of polarized fluorescence spectra of human breast tissues is found to localize spectral features that can reliably differentiate different tissue types. The emission range ...

  13. Visual inspection by spectral features in the ceramics industry (United States)

    Kukkonen, Saku; Kalviainen, Heikki A.; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.


    Visual quality control is an important application area of machine vision. In ceramics industry, it is essential that in each set of ceramic tiles every single tile looks similar, while considering e.g. color and texture. Our goal is to design a machine vision system that can estimate the sufficient similarity or same appearance to the human eye. Currently, the estimation is usually done by human vision. Our main approach is to use accurate spectral representation of color, and compare spectral features to the RGB color features. The authors have recently proposed preliminary methods and results for the classification of color features. In this paper the approach is developed further to cope with illumination effects and to take more advantage of spectral features more. Experiments with five classes of brown tiles are discussed. Besides the k-NN classifier, a neural network, called the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is used for understanding spectral features. Every single spectrum in each tile is used as input to a 2-D SOM with 30 X 30 nodes or neurons. The SOM is analyzed in order to understand how spectra are clustered. As a result, the nodes are labeled according to the classes. Another interest is to know whether we can find the order of spectral colors. In our approach, all spectra are clustered by 32 nodes in a 1-D SOM, and each pixel (spectrum) is presented by pseudocolors according to the trained nodes. Thus, each node corresponds to one pseudocolor and every spectrum is mapped into one of these nodes. Finally, the results are compared to experiments with human vision.

  14. Gamelan Music Onset Detection based on Spectral Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyon Kusnendar Suprapto


    Full Text Available This research detects onsets of percussive instruments by examining the performance on the sound signals of gamelan instruments as one of traditional music instruments in Indonesia. Onset plays important role in determining musical rythmic structure, like beat, tempo, and is highly required in many applications of music information retrieval. There are four onset detection methods compared that employ spectral features, such as magnitude, phase, and the combination of both, which are phase slope (PS, weighted phase deviation (WPD, spectral flux (SF, and rectified complex domain (RCD. These features are extracted by representing the sound signals into time-frequency domain using overlapped Short-time Fourier Transform (STFT and varying the window length. Onset detection functions are processed through peak-picking using dynamic threshold. The results showed that by using suitable window length and parameter setting of dynamic threshold, F-measure which is greater than 0.80 can be obtained for certain methods.

  15. Constraining Cometary Crystal Shapes from IR Spectral Features (United States)

    Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S.; Harker, D. E.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Murphy, J. R.


    A major challenge in deriving the silicate mineralogy of comets is ascertaining how the anisotropic nature of forsterite crystals affects the spectral features' wavelength, relative intensity, and asymmetry. Forsterite features are identified in cometary comae near 10, 11.05-11.2, 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5 and 33 μm [1-10], so accurate models for forsterite's absorption efficiency (Qabs) are a primary requirement to compute IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs, λFλ vs. λ) and constrain the silicate mineralogy of comets. Forsterite is an anisotropic crystal, with three crystallographic axes with distinct indices of refraction for the a-, b-, and c-axis. The shape of a forsterite crystal significantly affects its spectral features [13-16]. We need models that account for crystal shape. The IR absorption efficiencies of forsterite are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) code DDSCAT [11,12]. Starting from a fiducial crystal shape of a cube, we systematically elongate/reduce one of the crystallographic axes. Also, we elongate/reduce one axis while the lengths of the other two axes are slightly asymmetric (0.8:1.2). The most significant grain shape characteristic that affects the crystalline spectral features is the relative lengths of the crystallographic axes. The second significant grain shape characteristic is breaking the symmetry of all three axes [17]. Synthetic spectral energy distributions using seven crystal shape classes [17] are fit to the observed SED of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The Hale-Bopp crystalline residual better matches equant, b-platelets, c-platelets, and b-columns spectral shape classes, while a-platelets, a-columns and c-columns worsen the spectral fits. Forsterite condensation and partial evaporation experiments demonstrate that environmental temperature and grain shape are connected [18-20]. Thus, grain shape is a potential probe for protoplanetary disk temperatures where the cometary crystalline forsterite formed. The

  16. Modeling photoacoustic spectral features of micron-sized particles. (United States)

    Strohm, Eric M; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael C


    The photoacoustic signal generated from particles when irradiated by light is determined by attributes of the particle such as the size, speed of sound, morphology and the optical absorption coefficient. Unique features such as periodically varying minima and maxima are observed throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum, where the periodicity depends on these physical attributes. The frequency content of the photoacoustic signals can be used to obtain the physical attributes of unknown particles by comparison to analytical solutions of homogeneous symmetric geometric structures, such as spheres. However, analytical solutions do not exist for irregularly shaped particles, inhomogeneous particles or particles near structures. A finite element model (FEM) was used to simulate photoacoustic wave propagation from four different particle configurations: a homogeneous particle suspended in water, a homogeneous particle on a reflecting boundary, an inhomogeneous particle with an absorbing shell and non-absorbing core, and an irregularly shaped particle such as a red blood cell. Biocompatible perfluorocarbon droplets, 3-5 μm in diameter containing optically absorbing nanoparticles were used as the representative ideal particles, as they are spherical, homogeneous, optically translucent, and have known physical properties. The photoacoustic spectrum of micron-sized single droplets in suspension and on a reflecting boundary were measured over the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and compared directly to analytical models and the FEM. Good agreement between the analytical model, FEM and measured values were observed for a droplet in suspension, where the spectral minima agreed to within a 3.3 MHz standard deviation. For a droplet on a reflecting boundary, spectral features were correctly reproduced using the FEM but not the analytical model. The photoacoustic spectra from other common particle configurations such as particle with an absorbing shell and a

  17. [Visible-NIR spectral feature of citrus greening disease]. (United States)

    Li, Xiu-hua; Li, Min-zan; Won Suk, Lee; Reza, Ehsani; Ashish, Ratn Mishra


    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, or HLB) is a devastating disease caused by Candidatus liberibacter which uses psyllids as vectors. It has no cure till now, and poses a huge threat to citrus industry around the world. In order to diagnose, assess and further control this disease, it is of great importance to first find a quick and effective way to detect it. Spectroscopy method, which was widely considered as a fast and nondestructive way, was adopted here to conduct a preliminary exploration of disease characteristics. In order to explore the spectral differences between the healthy and HLB infected leaves and canopies, this study measured the visible-NIR spectral reflectance of their leaves and canopies under lab and field conditions, respectively. The original spectral data were firstly preprocessed with smoothing (or moving average) and cluster average procedures, and then the first derivatives were also calculated to determine the red edge position (REP). In order to solve the multi-peak phenomenon problem, two interpolation methods (three-point Lagrangian interpolation and four-point linear extrapolation) were adopted to calculate the REP for each sample. The results showed that there were, obvious differences at the visible & NIR spectral reflectance between the healthy and HLB infected classes. Comparing with the healthy reflectance, the HLB reflectance was higher at the visible bands because of the yellowish symptoms on the infected leaves, and lower at NIR bands because the disease blocked water transportation to leaves. But the feature at NIR bands was easily affected by environmental factors such as light, background, etc. The REP was also a potential indicator to distinguish those two classes. The average REP was slowly moving toward red bands while the infection level was getting higher. The gap of the average REPs between the healthy and HLB classes reached to a maximum of 20 nm. Even in the dataset with relatively lower variation, the classification

  18. Spectral Sensitization of TiO2 Substrates by Monolayers of Porphyrin Heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehorst, R.B.M.; Boschloo, G.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Goossens, A.; Schaafsma, T.J.


    Photoelectrochemical cells have been constructed by depositing monolayers of oriented covalently linked zinc/free base porphyrin heterodimers onto ~30 nm nonporous layers of TiO2 on ITO, deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MO-CVD), and onto ~100 nm porous, nanostructured TiO2

  19. On the relevance of spectral features for instrument classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai


    Automatic knowledge extraction from music signals is a key component for most music organization and music information retrieval systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of instrument modelling and instrument classification from the rough audio data. Existing systems for automatic instrument...... classification operate normally on a relatively large number of features, from which those related to the spectrum of the audio signal are particularly relevant. In this paper, we confront two different models about the spectral characterization of musical instruments. The first assumes a constant envelope...... on a large database of real instrument recordings show that the first model offers a more satisfactory characterization, and therefore MFCCs should be preferred to HR for instrument modelling/classification....

  20. Spectral EEG Features of a Short Psycho-physiological Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teplan Michal


    Full Text Available Short-lasting psycho-physiological relaxation was investigated through an analysis of its bipolar electroencephalographic (EEG characteristics. In 8 subjects, 6-channel EEG data of 3-minute duration were recorded during 88 relaxation sessions. Time course of spectral EEG features was examined. Alpha powers were decreasing during resting conditions of 3-minute sessions in lying position with eyes closed. This was followed by a decrease of total power in centro-parietal cortex regions and an increase of beta power in fronto-central areas. Represented by EEG coherences the interhemispheric communication between the parieto-occipital regions was enhanced within a frequency range of 2-10 Hz. In order to discern between higher and lower levels of relaxation distinguished according to self-rated satisfaction, EEG features were assessed and discriminating parameters were identified. Successful relaxation was determined mainly by the presence of decreased delta-1 power across the cortex. Potential applications for these findings include the clinical, pharmacological, and stress management fields.

  1. Effect of TiO2 on the Gas Sensing Features of TiO2/PANi Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Ngoc Huyen


    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and polyaniline (PANi was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi monomer and TiCl4 as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO2 and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH3 gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO2 shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600–700%, 20–25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO2 nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules.

  2. Spectral features of background ULF noise during magnetic storms (United States)

    Kotik, Dmitry; Ermakova, Elena; Ryabov, Alexander; Shchecoldin, Aexander

    The monitoring of tangential components of ULF noise below first Schumann resonance was permanently provided since 2003 up to now at mid-latitude station New Life (56N, 44,7E). The regular structure in ULF spectrograms named SRS -spectral resonance structure could be observed practically every night excepting years of solar activity maximum. The SRS appears in the ULF noise due existing the resonator for Alfven waves in the ionosphere at heights from the bottom up to 600 -1000 km [1]. It was noticed that during magnetically disturbed time the strong anti-correlation between the intensity of SRS events and K index from station on neighbor magnetic meridian [2]. For more detail investigation it was choused several magnetic storms. First one is storm witch has began at November 20, 2003 with maximum Kp=9 (strong), second -at March 19, 2006 with Kp=6+ (moderate) and the third -at November 25, 2008 with Kp=5 (weak). The spectra of magnetic component amplitude and polarization parameter were analyzed. The comparison with ionosond and magnetic field data as well as world TEC maps for mentioned storm periods were made. The dynamics of changing the properties of ULF spectra during the storms were explored. The general regularities of these changes were displayed. One of the prominent feathers appeared at the end of the strong and moderate storms looked like fish shoals. Perhaps this kind of ULF bursts is the same nature as well known pearls pulsation but displayed in broad frequency range 1-6 Hz. May be it could be classified as special spectral structure. The analysis of changing the properties of ULF spectra during the storms together with geo-physical data has shown that the main regularities in changes the SRS caused by changing of the ionospheric parameters above the observation point. But some of ULF spectral features are results of interaction waves and particles in the magnetosphere. 1. Belyaev P.P., Polyakov S.V., Ermakova E.N., Isaev S.V. Solar cycle variations in

  3. The role played by different TiO2 features on the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol (United States)

    Rimoldi, Luca; Meroni, Daniela; Falletta, Ermelinda; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Gervasini, Antonella; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Ardizzone, Silvia


    Photocatalytic reactions promoted by TiO2 can be affected by a large number of oxide features (e.g. surface area, morphology and phase composition). In this context, the role played by the surface characteristics (e.g. surface acidity, wettability, etc.) has been often disregarded. In this work, pristine and Ta-doped TiO2 nanomaterials with different phase composition (pure anatase and anatase/brookite mixture) were synthesized by sol-gel and characterized under the structural and morphological point of view. A careful characterization of the acid properties of the materials has been performed by liquid-solid acid-base titration by means of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) adsorption to determine the acid site density and average acid strength. Photocatalytic tests were performed in the degradation of paracetamol (acetaminophen) under UV irradiation and results were discussed in the light of the detailed scenarios describing the different oxides. The surface acidity of the samples, was recognized as one of the key parameters controlling the photocatalytic activity. A possible molecule degradation route is proposed on the ground of GC-MS and ESI-MS analyses.

  4. Simultaneous Spectral-Spatial Feature Selection and Extraction for Hyperspectral Images. (United States)

    Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Qian; Du, Bo; Huang, Xin; Tang, Yuan Yan; Tao, Dacheng


    In hyperspectral remote sensing data mining, it is important to take into account of both spectral and spatial information, such as the spectral signature, texture feature, and morphological property, to improve the performances, e.g., the image classification accuracy. In a feature representation point of view, a nature approach to handle this situation is to concatenate the spectral and spatial features into a single but high dimensional vector and then apply a certain dimension reduction technique directly on that concatenated vector before feed it into the subsequent classifier. However, multiple features from various domains definitely have different physical meanings and statistical properties, and thus such concatenation has not efficiently explore the complementary properties among different features, which should benefit for boost the feature discriminability. Furthermore, it is also difficult to interpret the transformed results of the concatenated vector. Consequently, finding a physically meaningful consensus low dimensional feature representation of original multiple features is still a challenging task. In order to address these issues, we propose a novel feature learning framework, i.e., the simultaneous spectral-spatial feature selection and extraction algorithm, for hyperspectral images spectral-spatial feature representation and classification. Specifically, the proposed method learns a latent low dimensional subspace by projecting the spectral-spatial feature into a common feature space, where the complementary information has been effectively exploited, and simultaneously, only the most significant original features have been transformed. Encouraging experimental results on three public available hyperspectral remote sensing datasets confirm that our proposed method is effective and efficient.

  5. Interpretation of archaeological small-scale features in spectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Palmer, Susanna; Stylegar, Frans-Arne


    The paper's focus is the use of spectral images for the distinction of small archaeological anomalies on the basis of the authors work. Special attention is given to the ground-truthing perspective in the discussion of a number of cases from Norway. Different approaches to pattern-recognition are......The paper's focus is the use of spectral images for the distinction of small archaeological anomalies on the basis of the authors work. Special attention is given to the ground-truthing perspective in the discussion of a number of cases from Norway. Different approaches to pattern...

  6. Thermal Infrared Spectra of Microcrystalline Sedimentary Phases: Effects of Natural Surface Roughness on Spectral Feature Shape (United States)

    Hardgrove, C.; Rogers, A. D.


    Thermal infrared spectral features of common microcrystalline phases (chert, alabaster, micrite) are presented. Spectra are sensitive to mineralogy and micron-scale (~1-25 µm) surface roughness. Roughness is on the scale of the average crystal size.

  7. Air-suspended TiO2-based HCG reflectors for visible spectral range (United States)

    Hashemi, Ehsan; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Johan; Carlsson, Stefan; Rossbach, Georg; Haglund, Åsa


    For GaN-based microcavity light emitters, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and resonant cavity light emitting diodes (RCLEDs) in the blue-green wavelength regime, achieving a high reflectivity wide bandwidth feedback mirror is truly challenging. The material properties of the III-nitride alloys are hardly compatible with the conventional distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and the newly proposed high-contrast gratings (HCGs). Alternatively, at least for the top outcoupling mirror, dielectric materials offer more suitable material combinations not only for the DBRs but also for the HCGs. HCGs may offer advantages such as transverse mode and polarization control, a broader reflectivity spectrum than epitaxially grown DBRs, and the possibility to set the resonance wavelength after epitaxial growth by the grating parameters. In this work we have realized an air-suspended TiO2 grating with the help of a SiO2 sacrificial layer. The deposition processes for the dielectric layers were fine-tuned to minimize the residual stress. To achieve an accurate control of the grating duty cycle, a newly developed lift-off process, using hydrogen silesquioxan (HSQ) and sacrificial polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resists, was applied to deposit the hard mask, providing sub-10 nm resolution. The finally obtained TiO2/air HCGs were characterized in a micro-reflectance measurement setup. A peak power reflectivity in excess of 95% was achieved for TM polarization at the center wavelength of 435 nm, with a reflectivity stopband width of about 80 nm (FWHM). The measured HCG reflectance spectra were compared to corresponding simulations obtained from rigorous coupled-wave analysis and very good agreement was found.

  8. Io's Thermal Regions and Non-SO2 Spectral Features (United States)

    Smythe, W. D.; Soderblom, L. A.; Lopes, R. M. C.


    Several absorptions have been identified in the Galileo NIMS spectra of Io that are not related to SO2. [1,2]. These absorptions have band centers at 2.97, 3.15, 3.85, and 3.91 microns. There are also broad absorptions in the regions 1-1.3 and 3- 3.4 microns. Patterning noise in wavelength registration, arising from the pushbroom imaging and grating motion of the NIMS instrument have previously inhibited reliable mapping of weak absorptions. Recent improvements in techniques to remove the coherent pattern noise from the NIMS dataset have been made by Soderblom. This greatly improves the signal to noise ratio and enables mapping of weak spectral signatures such as the 3.15 micron absorption on Io.

  9. Spectral-based features ranking for gamelan instruments identification using filter techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah P Wulandari


    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an approach of spectral-based features ranking for Javanese gamelaninstruments identification using filter techniques. The model extracted spectral-based features set of thesignal using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT. The rank of the features was determined using the fivealgorithms; namely ReliefF, Chi-Squared, Information Gain, Gain Ratio, and Symmetric Uncertainty. Then,we tested the ranked features by cross validation using Support Vector Machine (SVM. The experimentshowed that Gain Ratio algorithm gave the best result, it yielded accuracy of 98.93%.

  10. Hyperspectral Image Classification Based on the Combination of Spatial-spectral Feature and Sparse Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhaoxia


    Full Text Available In order to avoid the problem of being over-dependent on high-dimensional spectral feature in the traditional hyperspectral image classification, a novel approach based on the combination of spatial-spectral feature and sparse representation is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we extract the spatial-spectral feature by reorganizing the local image patch with the first d principal components(PCs into a vector representation, followed by a sorting scheme to make the vector invariant to local image rotation. Secondly, we learn the dictionary through a supervised method, and use it to code the features from test samples afterwards. Finally, we embed the resulting sparse feature coding into the support vector machine(SVM for hyperspectral image classification. Experiments using three hyperspectral data show that the proposed method can effectively improve the classification accuracy comparing with traditional classification methods.

  11. Atomic layer deposition TiO2 coated porous silicon surface: Structural characterization and morphological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iatsunskyi, Igor; Jancelewicz, Mariusz; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Kempiński, Mateusz; Peplińska, Barbara; Jarek, Marcin; Załęski, Karol; Jurga, Stefan; Smyntyna, Valentyn


    TiO 2 thin films were grown on highly-doped p-Si (100) macro- and mesoporous structures by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using TiCl 4 and deionized water as precursors at 300 °C. The crystalline structure, chemical composition, and morphology of the deposited films and initial silicon nanostructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mean size of TiO 2 crystallites was determined by TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the mean crystallite size and the crystallinity of the TiO 2 are influenced dramatically by the morphology of the porous silicon, with the mesoporous silicon resulting in a much finer grain size and amorphous structure than the macroporous silicon having a partially crystal anatase phase. A simple model of the ALD layer growth inside the pores was presented. - Highlights: • The morphology and chemical composition of TiO 2 and porous Si were established. • The approximate size of TiO 2 nanocrystals was estimated. • The model of the atomic layer deposition coating in the porous Si was presented

  12. Research on intelligent fault diagnosis of gears using EMD, spectral features and data mining techniques (United States)

    Sagar, M.; Vivekkumar, G.; Reddy, Mallikarjuna; Devendiran, S.; Amarnath, M.


    In this present work aims to formulate an automated prediction model using vibration signals of various gear operating conditions by using EMD (empirical mode decomposition) and spectral features and different classification algorithms. In this present work empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is a signal processing technique used to extract more useful fault information from the vibration signals. The proposed method described in following parts gear test rig, data acquisition system, signal processing, feature extraction and classification algorithms and finally identification. Meanwhile, in order to remove the redundant and irrelevant spectral features and classification algorithms, data mining is implemented and it showed promising prediction results.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We consider the problem of pixel-by-pixel classification of a multi-spectral image using supervised learning. Conventional supervised classification techniques such as maximum likelihood classification and less conventional ones such as neural networks, typically base such classifications solely on the spectral components of each pixel. It is easy to see why the color of a pixel provides a nice, bounded, fixed dimensional space in which these classifiers work well. It is often the case however, that spectral information alone is not sufficient to correctly classify a pixel. Maybe spatial neighborhood information is required as well. Or may be the raw spectral components do not themselves make for easy classification, but some arithmetic combination of them would. In either of these cases we have the problem of selecting suitable spatial, spectral or spatio-spectral features that allow the classifier to do its job well. The number of all possible such features is extremely large. How can we select a suitable subset? We have developed GENIE, a hybrid learning system that combines a genetic algorithm that searches a space of image processing operations for a set that can produce suitable feature planes, and a more conventional classifier which uses those feature planes to output a final classification. In this paper we show that the use of a hybrid GA provides significant advantages over using either a GA alone or more conventional classification methods alone. We present results using high-resolution IKONOS data, looking for regions of burned forest and for roads.

  14. Spectral-spatial feature learning for hyperspectral imagery classification using deep stacked sparse autoencoder (United States)

    Abdi, Ghasem; Samadzadegan, Farhad; Reinartz, Peter


    Classification of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery is one of the most popular topics because of its intrinsic potential to gather spectral signatures of materials and provides distinct abilities to object detection and recognition. In the last decade, an enormous number of methods were suggested to classify hyperspectral remote sensing data using spectral features, though some are not using all information and lead to poor classification accuracy; on the other hand, the exploration of deep features is recently considered a lot and has turned into a research hot spot in the geoscience and remote sensing research community to enhance classification accuracy. A deep learning architecture is proposed to classify hyperspectral remote sensing imagery by joint utilization of spectral-spatial information. A stacked sparse autoencoder provides unsupervised feature learning to extract high-level feature representations of joint spectral-spatial information; then, a soft classifier is employed to train high-level features and to fine-tune the deep learning architecture. Comparative experiments are performed on two widely used hyperspectral remote sensing data (Salinas and PaviaU) and a coarse resolution hyperspectral data in the long-wave infrared range. The obtained results indicate the superiority of the proposed spectral-spatial deep learning architecture against the conventional classification methods.

  15. Experimentation Using Short-Term Spectral Features for Secure Mobile Internet Voting Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Thakur


    Full Text Available We propose a secure mobile Internet voting architecture based on the Sensus reference architecture and report the experiments carried out using short-term spectral features for realizing the voice biometric based authentication module of the architecture being proposed. The short-term spectral features investigated are Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs, Mel-Frequency Discrete Wavelet Coefficients (MFDWC, Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC, and Spectral Histogram of Oriented Gradients (SHOGs. The MFCC, MFDWC, and LPCC usually have higher dimensions that oftentimes lead to high computational complexity of the pattern matching algorithms in automatic speaker recognition systems. In this study, higher dimensions of each of the short-term features were reduced to an 81-element feature vector per Speaker using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG algorithm while neural network ensemble was utilized as the pattern matching algorithm. Out of the four short-term spectral features investigated, the LPCC-HOG gave the best statistical results with R statistic of 0.9127 and mean square error of 0.0407. These compact LPCC-HOG features are highly promising for implementing the authentication module of the secure mobile Internet voting architecture we are proposing in this paper.

  16. Detection of Corn and Weed Species by the Combination of Spectral, Shape and Textural Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenfang Lin


    Full Text Available Accurate detection of weeds in farmland can help reduce pesticide use and protect the agricultural environment. To develop intelligent equipment for weed detection, this study used an imaging spectrometer system, which supports micro-scale plant feature analysis by acquiring high-resolution hyper spectral images of corn and a number of weed species in the laboratory. For the analysis, the object-oriented classification system with segmentation and decision tree algorithms was utilized on the hyper spectral images to extract shape and texture features of eight species of plant leaves, and then, the spectral identification characteristics of different species were determined through sensitive waveband selection and using vegetation indices calculated from the sensitive band data of the images. On the basis of the comparison and analysis of the combined characteristics of spectra, shape, and texture, it was determined that the spectral characteristics of the ratio vegetation index of R677/R710 and the normalized difference vegetation index, shape features of shape index, area, and length, as well as the texture feature of the entropy index could be used to build a discrimination model for corn and weed species. Results of the model evaluation showed that the Global Accuracy and the Kappa coefficient of the model were both over 95%. In addition, spectral and shape features can be regarded as the preferred characteristics to develop a device of weed identification from the view of accessibility to crop/weeds discriminant features, according to different roles of various features in classifying plants. Therefore, the results of this study provide valuable information for the portable device development of intelligent weed detection.

  17. Three-Dimensional Spatial-Spectral Filtering Based Feature Extraction for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKYUREK, H. A.


    Full Text Available Hyperspectral pixels which have high spectral resolution are used to predict decomposition of material types on area of obtained image. Due to its multidimensional form, hyperspectral image classification is a challenging task. Hyperspectral images are also affected by radiometric noise. In order to improve the classification accuracy, many researchers are focusing on the improvement of filtering, feature extraction and classification methods. In the context of hyperspectral image classification, spatial information is as important as spectral information. In this study, a three-dimensional spatial-spectral filtering based feature extraction method is presented. It consists of three main steps. The first is a pre-processing step which include spatial-spectral information filtering in three-dimensional space. The second comprises extract functional features of filtered data. The last one is combining extracted features by serial feature fusion strategy and using to classify hyperspectral image pixels. Experiments were conducted on two popular public hyperspectral remote sensing image, 1%, 5%, 10% and 15% of samples of each classes used as training set, the remaining is used as test set. The proposed method compared with well-known methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieved outstanding performance than compared methods in hyperspectral image classification task.

  18. Swarm intelligence based wavelet coefficient feature selection for mass spectral classification: an application to proteomics data. (United States)

    Zhao, Weixiang; Davis, Cristina E


    This paper introduces the ant colony algorithm, a novel swarm intelligence based optimization method, to select appropriate wavelet coefficients from mass spectral data as a new feature selection method for ovarian cancer diagnostics. By determining the proper parameters for the ant colony algorithm (ACA) based searching algorithm, we perform the feature searching process for 100 times with the number of selected features fixed at 5. The results of this study show: (1) the classification accuracy based on the five selected wavelet coefficients can reach up to 100% for all the training, validating and independent testing sets; (2) the eight most popular selected wavelet coefficients of the 100 runs can provide 100% accuracy for the training set, 100% accuracy for the validating set, and 98.8% accuracy for the independent testing set, which suggests the robustness and accuracy of the proposed feature selection method; and (3) the mass spectral data corresponding to the eight popular wavelet coefficients can be located by reverse wavelet transformation and these located mass spectral data still maintain high classification accuracies (100% for the training set, 97.6% for the validating set, and 98.8% for the testing set) and also provide sufficient physical and medical meaning for future ovarian cancer mechanism studies. Furthermore, the corresponding mass spectral data (potential biomarkers) are in good agreement with other studies which have used the same sample set. Together these results suggest this feature extraction strategy will benefit the development of intelligent and real-time spectroscopy instrumentation based diagnosis and monitoring systems.

  19. Separation of Atmospheric and Surface Spectral Features in Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Spectra (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Christensen, Philip R.


    We present two algorithms for the separation of spectral features caused by atmospheric and surface components in Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. One algorithm uses radiative transfer and successive least squares fitting to find spectral shapes first for atmospheric dust, then for water-ice aerosols, and then, finally, for surface emissivity. A second independent algorithm uses a combination of factor analysis, target transformation, and deconvolution to simultaneously find dust, water ice, and surface emissivity spectral shapes. Both algorithms have been applied to TES spectra, and both find very similar atmospheric and surface spectral shapes. For TES spectra taken during aerobraking and science phasing periods in nadir-geometry these two algorithms give meaningful and usable surface emissivity spectra that can be used for mineralogical identification.

  20. Spectral Polarimetric Features Analysis of Wind Turbine Clutter in Weather Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, J.; Krasnov, O.A.; Unal, C.M.H.; Medagli, S.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.


    Wind turbine clutter has gradually become a concern for the radar community for its increasing size and quantity worldwide. Based on the S-band polarimetric Doppler PARSAX radar measurements, this paper demonstrates the micro-Doppler features and spectral-polarimetric characteristic of wind turbine

  1. Digital mammography: Mixed feature neural network with spectral entropy decision for detection of microcalcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, B. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)]|[Nanjing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications (China). Dept. of Telecommunication Engineering; Qian, W.; Clarke, L.P. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)


    A computationally efficient mixed feature based neural network (MFNN) is proposed for the detection of microcalcification clusters (MCC`s) in digitized mammograms. The MFNN employs features computed in both the spatial and spectral domain and uses spectral entropy as a decision parameter. Backpropagation with Kalman Filtering (KF) is employed to allow more efficient network training as required for evaluation of different features, input images, and related error analysis. A previously reported, wavelet-based image-enhancement method is also employed to enhance microcalcification clusters for improved detection. The relative performance of the MFNN for both the raw and enhanced images is evaluated using a common image database of 30 digitized mammograms, with 20 images containing 21 biopsy proven MCC`s and ten normal cases. The computed sensitivity (true positive (TP) detection rate) was 90.1% with an average low false positive (FP) detection of 0.71 MCCs/image for the enhanced images using a modified k-fold validation error estimation technique. The corresponding computed sensitivity for the raw images was reduced to 81.4% and with 0.59 FP`s MCCs/image. A relative comparison to an earlier neural network (NN) design, using only spatially related features, suggests the importance of the addition of spectral domain features when the raw image data are analyzed.

  2. Digital mammography: Mixed feature neural network with spectral entropy decision for detection of microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, B.


    A computationally efficient mixed feature based neural network (MFNN) is proposed for the detection of microcalcification clusters (MCC's) in digitized mammograms. The MFNN employs features computed in both the spatial and spectral domain and uses spectral entropy as a decision parameter. Backpropagation with Kalman Filtering (KF) is employed to allow more efficient network training as required for evaluation of different features, input images, and related error analysis. A previously reported, wavelet-based image-enhancement method is also employed to enhance microcalcification clusters for improved detection. The relative performance of the MFNN for both the raw and enhanced images is evaluated using a common image database of 30 digitized mammograms, with 20 images containing 21 biopsy proven MCC's and ten normal cases. The computed sensitivity (true positive (TP) detection rate) was 90.1% with an average low false positive (FP) detection of 0.71 MCCs/image for the enhanced images using a modified k-fold validation error estimation technique. The corresponding computed sensitivity for the raw images was reduced to 81.4% and with 0.59 FP's MCCs/image. A relative comparison to an earlier neural network (NN) design, using only spatially related features, suggests the importance of the addition of spectral domain features when the raw image data are analyzed

  3. Non-Negative Spectral Learning and Sparse Regression-Based Dual-Graph Regularized Feature Selection. (United States)

    Shang, Ronghua; Wang, Wenbing; Stolkin, Rustam; Jiao, Licheng


    Feature selection is an important approach for reducing the dimension of high-dimensional data. In recent years, many feature selection algorithms have been proposed, but most of them only exploit information from the data space. They often neglect useful information contained in the feature space, and do not make full use of the characteristics of the data. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a new unsupervised feature selection algorithm, called non-negative spectral learning and sparse regression-based dual-graph regularized feature selection (NSSRD). NSSRD is based on the feature selection framework of joint embedding learning and sparse regression, but extends this framework by introducing the feature graph. By using low dimensional embedding learning in both data space and feature space, NSSRD simultaneously exploits the geometric information of both spaces. Second, the algorithm uses non-negative constraints to constrain the low-dimensional embedding matrix of both feature space and data space, ensuring that the elements in the matrix are non-negative. Third, NSSRD unifies the embedding matrix of the feature space and the sparse transformation matrix. To ensure the sparsity of the feature array, the sparse transformation matrix is constrained using the -norm. Thus feature selection can obtain accurate discriminative information from these matrices. Finally, NSSRD uses an iterative and alternative updating rule to optimize the objective function, enabling it to select the representative features more quickly and efficiently. This paper explains the objective function, the iterative updating rules and a proof of convergence. Experimental results show that NSSRD is significantly more effective than several other feature selection algorithms from the literature, on a variety of test data.

  4. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková


    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  5. National-scale cropland mapping based on spectral-temporal features and outdated land cover information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Waldner

    Full Text Available The lack of sufficient ground truth data has always constrained supervised learning, thereby hindering the generation of up-to-date satellite-derived thematic maps. This is all the more true for those applications requiring frequent updates over large areas such as cropland mapping. Therefore, we present a method enabling the automated production of spatially consistent cropland maps at the national scale, based on spectral-temporal features and outdated land cover information. Following an unsupervised approach, this method extracts reliable calibration pixels based on their labels in the outdated map and their spectral signatures. To ensure spatial consistency and coherence in the map, we first propose to generate seamless input images by normalizing the time series and deriving spectral-temporal features that target salient cropland characteristics. Second, we reduce the spatial variability of the class signatures by stratifying the country and by classifying each stratum independently. Finally, we remove speckle with a weighted majority filter accounting for per-pixel classification confidence. Capitalizing on a wall-to-wall validation data set, the method was tested in South Africa using a 16-year old land cover map and multi-sensor Landsat time series. The overall accuracy of the resulting cropland map reached 92%. A spatially explicit validation revealed large variations across the country and suggests that intensive grain-growing areas were better characterized than smallholder farming systems. Informative features in the classification process vary from one stratum to another but features targeting the minimum of vegetation as well as short-wave infrared features were consistently important throughout the country. Overall, the approach showed potential for routinely delivering consistent cropland maps over large areas as required for operational crop monitoring.

  6. [Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection]. (United States)

    Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu


    Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85.

  7. Identification of Hindi Dialects and Emotions using Spectral and Prosodic features of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sreenivasa Rao


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have explored speech features to identify Hindi dialects and emotions. A dialect is any distinguishable variety of a language spoken by a group of people. Emotions provide naturalness to speech. In this work, five prominent dialects of Hindi are considered for the identification task. They are Chattisgharhi (spoken in central India, Bengali (Bengali accented Hindi spoken in Eastern region, Marathi (Marathi accented Hindi spoken in Western region, General (Hindi spoken in Northern region and Telugu (Telugu accented Hindi spoken in Southern region. Along with dialect identification, we have also carried out emotion recognition in this work. Speech database considered for dialect identification task consists of spontaneous speech spoken by male and female speakers. Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Simulated Emotion Hindi Speech Corpus (IITKGP-SEHSC is used for conducting the emotion recognition studies. The emotions considered in this study are anger, disgust, fear, happy, neutral and sad. Prosodic and spectral features extracted from speech are used for discriminating the dialects and emotions. Spectral features are represented by Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC and prosodic features are represented by durations of syllables, pitch and energy contours. Auto-associative neural network (AANN models and Support Vector Machines (SVM are explored for capturing the dialect specific and emotion specific information from the above specified features. AANN models are expected to capture the nonlinear relations specific to dialects or emotions through the distributions of feature vectors. SVMs perform dialect or emotion classification based on discriminative characteristics present among the dialects or emotions. Classification systems are developed separately for dialect classification and emotion classification. Recognition performance of the dialect identification and emotion recognition systems is found to be 81% and

  8. Spectral feature characterization methods for blood stain detection in crime scene backgrounds (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.; Messinger, David W.


    Blood stains are one of the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Blood spectral signatures containing unique reflectance or absorption features are important both for forensic on-site investigation and laboratory testing. They can be used for target detection and identification applied to crime scene hyperspectral imagery, and also be utilized to analyze the spectral variation of blood on various backgrounds. Non-blood stains often mislead the detection and can generate false alarms at a real crime scene, especially for dark and red backgrounds. This paper measured the reflectance of liquid blood and 9 kinds of non-blood samples in the range of 350 nm - 2500 nm in various crime scene backgrounds, such as pure samples contained in petri dish with various thicknesses, mixed samples with different colors and materials of fabrics, and mixed samples with wood, all of which are examined to provide sub-visual evidence for detecting and recognizing blood from non-blood samples in a realistic crime scene. The spectral difference between blood and non-blood samples are examined and spectral features such as "peaks" and "depths" of reflectance are selected. Two blood stain detection methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses index to denote the ratio of "depth" minus "peak" over"depth" add"peak" within a wavelength range of the reflectance spectrum. The second method uses relative band depth of the selected wavelength ranges of the reflectance spectrum. Results show that the index method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples in most tested crime scene backgrounds, but is not able to detect it from black felt. Whereas the relative band depth method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples on all of the tested background material types and colors.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulanantham, Nicole A.; Herbst, William; Gilmore, Martha S.; Cauley, P. Wilson [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: [Gemini Observatory (North), Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)


    We report on Gemini/GNIRS observations of the binary T Tauri system V582 Mon (KH 15D) at three orbital phases. These spectra allow us to untangle five components of the system: the photosphere and magnetosphere of star B, the jet, scattering properties of the ring material, and excess near-infrared (near-IR) radiation previously attributed to a possible self-luminous planet. We confirm an early-K subgiant classification for star B and show that the magnetospheric He i emission line is variable, possibly indicating increased mass accretion at certain times. As expected, the H{sub 2} emission features associated with the inner part of the jet show no variation with orbital phase. We show that the reflectance spectrum for the scattered light has a distinctive blue slope and spectral features consistent with scattering and absorption by a mixture of water and methane ice grains in the 1–50 μ m size range. This suggests that the methane frost line is closer than ∼5 au in this system, requiring that the grains be shielded from direct radiation. After correcting for features from the scattered light, jet, magnetosphere, and photosphere, we confirm the presence of leftover near-IR light from an additional source, detectable near minimum brightness. A spectral emission feature matching the model spectrum of a 10 M {sub J}, 1 Myr old planet is found in the excess flux, but other expected features from this model are not seen. Our observations, therefore, tentatively support the picture that a luminous planet is present within the system, although they cannot yet be considered definitive.

  10. Beyond intensity: Spectral features effectively predict music-induced subjective arousal. (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Fitch, W Tecumseh


    Emotions in music are conveyed by a variety of acoustic cues. Notably, the positive association between sound intensity and arousal has particular biological relevance. However, although amplitude normalization is a common procedure used to control for intensity in music psychology research, direct comparisons between emotional ratings of original and amplitude-normalized musical excerpts are lacking. In this study, 30 nonmusicians retrospectively rated the subjective arousal and pleasantness induced by 84 six-second classical music excerpts, and an additional 30 nonmusicians rated the same excerpts normalized for amplitude. Following the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models of acoustic communication, we hypothesized that arousal and pleasantness ratings would be similar for both versions of the excerpts, and that arousal could be predicted effectively by other acoustic cues besides intensity. Although the difference in mean arousal and pleasantness ratings between original and amplitude-normalized excerpts correlated significantly with the amplitude adjustment, ratings for both sets of excerpts were highly correlated and shared a similar range of values, thus validating the use of amplitude normalization in music emotion research. Two acoustic parameters, spectral flux and spectral entropy, accounted for 65% of the variance in arousal ratings for both sets, indicating that spectral features can effectively predict arousal. Additionally, we confirmed that amplitude-normalized excerpts were adequately matched for loudness. Overall, the results corroborate our hypotheses and support the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models.

  11. Detection of faint X-ray spectral features using wavelength, energy, and spatial discrimination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L.T.; Gillaspy, J.D.; Pomeroy, J.M.; Szabo, C.I.; Tan, J.N.; Radics, B.; Takacs, E.; Chantler, C.T.; Kimpton, J.A.; Kinnane, M.N.; Smale, L.F.


    We report here our methods and results of measurements of very low-signal X-ray spectra produced by highly charged ions in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). A megapixel Si charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used in a direct-detection, single-photon-counting mode to image spectra with a cylindrically bent Ge(2 2 0) crystal spectrometer. The resulting wavelength-dispersed spectra were then processed using several intrinsic features of CCD images and image-analysis techniques. We demonstrate the ability to clearly detect very faint spectral features that are on the order of the noise due to cosmic-ray background signatures in our images. These techniques remove extraneous signal due to muon tracks and other sources, and are coupled with the spectrometer wavelength dispersion and atomic-structure calculations of hydrogen-like Ti to identify the energy of a faint line that was not in evidence before applying the methods outlined here

  12. Evaluation of Spectral and Prosodic Features of Speech Affected by Orthodontic Appliances Using the Gmm Classifier (United States)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Ďuračkoá, Daniela


    The paper describes our experiment with using the Gaussian mixture models (GMM) for classification of speech uttered by a person wearing orthodontic appliances. For the GMM classification, the input feature vectors comprise the basic and the complementary spectral properties as well as the supra-segmental parameters. Dependence of classification correctness on the number of the parameters in the input feature vector and on the computation complexity is also evaluated. In addition, an influence of the initial setting of the parameters for GMM training process was analyzed. Obtained recognition results are compared visually in the form of graphs as well as numerically in the form of tables and confusion matrices for tested sentences uttered using three configurations of orthodontic appliances.

  13. Recognizing stationary and locomotion activities using combinational of spectral analysis with statistical descriptors features (United States)

    Zainudin, M. N. Shah; Sulaiman, Md Nasir; Mustapha, Norwati; Perumal, Thinagaran


    Prior knowledge in pervasive computing recently garnered a lot of attention due to its high demand in various application domains. Human activity recognition (HAR) considered as the applications that are widely explored by the expertise that provides valuable information to the human. Accelerometer sensor-based approach is utilized as devices to undergo the research in HAR since their small in size and this sensor already build-in in the various type of smartphones. However, the existence of high inter-class similarities among the class tends to degrade the recognition performance. Hence, this work presents the method for activity recognition using our proposed features from combinational of spectral analysis with statistical descriptors that able to tackle the issue of differentiating stationary and locomotion activities. The noise signal is filtered using Fourier Transform before it will be extracted using two different groups of features, spectral frequency analysis, and statistical descriptors. Extracted signal later will be classified using random forest ensemble classifier models. The recognition results show the good accuracy performance for stationary and locomotion activities based on USC HAD datasets.

  14. Feature driven classification of Raman spectra for real-time spectral brain tumour diagnosis using sound. (United States)

    Stables, Ryan; Clemens, Graeme; Butler, Holly J; Ashton, Katherine M; Brodbelt, Andrew; Dawson, Timothy P; Fullwood, Leanne M; Jenkinson, Michael D; Baker, Matthew J


    Spectroscopic diagnostics have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of disease states from human tissue. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopic probes are of particular interest as they allow for in vivo spectroscopic diagnostics, for tasks such as the identification of tumour margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate a feature-driven approach to the classification of metastatic brain cancer, glioblastoma (GB) and non-cancer from tissue samples, and we provide a real-time feedback method for endoscopic diagnostics using sound. To do this, we first evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of three classifiers (SVM, KNN and LDA), when trained with both sub-band spectral features and principal components taken directly from Raman spectra. We demonstrate that the feature extraction approach provides an increase in classification accuracy of 26.25% for SVM and 25% for KNN. We then discuss the molecular assignment of the most salient sub-bands in the dataset. The most salient sub-band features are mapped to parameters of a frequency modulation (FM) synthesizer in order to generate audio clips from each tissue sample. Based on the properties of the sub-band features, the synthesizer was able to maintain similar sound timbres within the disease classes and provide different timbres between disease classes. This was reinforced via listening tests, in which participants were able to discriminate between classes with mean classification accuracy of 71.1%. Providing intuitive feedback via sound frees the surgeons' visual attention to remain on the patient, allowing for greater control over diagnostic and surgical tools during surgery, and thus promoting clinical translation of spectroscopic diagnostics.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul


    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the K S -band luminosity (M K ), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf M K and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet–host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the K{sub S}-band luminosity (M{sub K}), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf M{sub K} and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet–host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2.

  17. An Exercise on Calibration: DRIFTS Study of Binary Mixtures of Calcite and Dolomite with Partially Overlapping Spectral Features (United States)

    De Lorenzi Pezzolo, Alessandra


    Unlike most spectroscopic calibrations that are based on the study of well-separated features ascribable to the different components, this laboratory experience is especially designed to exploit spectral features that are nearly overlapping. The investigated system consists of a binary mixture of two commonly occurring minerals, calcite and…

  18. A Closer Look at Deep Learning Neural Networks with Low-level Spectral Periodicity Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Kereliuk, Corey; Pikrakis, Aggelos


    at the behavior of a DeSPerF system we create and evaluate using the benchmark dataset BALLROOM. We find through time stretching that this DeSPerF system appears to obtain a high figure of merit on the task of music genre recognition because of a confounding of tempo with “ground truth” in BALLROOM......Systems built using deep learning neural networks trained on low-level spectral periodicity features (DeSPerF) reproduced the most “ground truth” of the systems submitted to the MIREX 2013 task, “Audio Latin Genre Classification.” To answer why this was the case, we take a closer look...

  19. On- and off-axis spectral emission features from laser-produced gas breakdown plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S. S.; Skrodzki, P. J.; Miloshevsky, A.; Brumfield, B. E.; Phillips, M. C.; Miloshevsky, G.


    Laser-heated gas breakdown plasmas or sparks emit profoundly in the ultraviolet and visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum with contributions from ionic, atomic, and molecular species. Laser created kernels expand into a cold ambient with high velocities during its early lifetime followed by confinement of the plasma kernel and eventually collapse. However, the plasma kernels produced during laser breakdown of gases are also capable of exciting and ionizing the surrounding ambient medium. Two mechanisms can be responsible for excitation and ionization of surrounding ambient: viz. photoexcitation and ionization by intense ultraviolet emission from the sparks produced during the early times of its creation and/or heating by strong shocks generated by the kernel during its expansion into the ambient. In this study, an investigation is made on the spectral features of on- and off-axis emission features of laser-induced plasma breakdown kernels generated in atmospheric pressure conditions with an aim to elucidate the mechanisms leading to ambient excitation and emission. Pulses from an Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm with 6 ns pulse duration are used to generate plasma kernels. Laser sparks were generated in air, argon, and helium gases to provide different physical properties of expansion dynamics and plasma chemistry considering the differences in laser absorption properties, mass density and speciation. Point shadowgraphy and time-resolved imaging were used to evaluate the shock wave and spark self-emission morphology at early and late times while space and time resolved spectroscopy is used for evaluating the emission features as well as for inferring plasma fundaments at on- and off-axis. Structure and dynamics of the plasma kernel obtained using imaging techniques are also compared to numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics code. The emission from the kernel showed that spectral features from ions, atoms and molecules are separated in

  20. Poly(A) motif prediction using spectral latent features from human DNA sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Bo


    Motivation: Polyadenylation is the addition of a poly(A) tail to an RNA molecule. Identifying DNA sequence motifs that signal the addition of poly(A) tails is essential to improved genome annotation and better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms and stability of mRNA.Existing poly(A) motif predictors demonstrate that information extracted from the surrounding nucleotide sequences of candidate poly(A) motifs can differentiate true motifs from the false ones to a great extent. A variety of sophisticated features has been explored, including sequential, structural, statistical, thermodynamic and evolutionary properties. However, most of these methods involve extensive manual feature engineering, which can be time-consuming and can require in-depth domain knowledge.Results: We propose a novel machine-learning method for poly(A) motif prediction by marrying generative learning (hidden Markov models) and discriminative learning (support vector machines). Generative learning provides a rich palette on which the uncertainty and diversity of sequence information can be handled, while discriminative learning allows the performance of the classification task to be directly optimized. Here, we used hidden Markov models for fitting the DNA sequence dynamics, and developed an efficient spectral algorithm for extracting latent variable information from these models. These spectral latent features were then fed into support vector machines to fine-tune the classification performance.We evaluated our proposed method on a comprehensive human poly(A) dataset that consists of 14 740 samples from 12 of the most abundant variants of human poly(A) motifs. Compared with one of the previous state-of-the-art methods in the literature (the random forest model with expert-crafted features), our method reduces the average error rate, false-negative rate and false-positive rate by 26, 15 and 35%, respectively. Meanwhile, our method makes ?30% fewer error predictions relative to the other

  1. Use of feature extraction techniques for the texture and context information in ERTS imagery. [discrimination of land use categories in Kansas from MSS textural-spectral features (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Kelly, G. L. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.


    The author has identified the following significant results. The land use category of subimage regions over Kansas within an MSS image can be identified with an accuracy of about 70% using the textural-spectral features of the multi-images from the four MSS bands.

  2. Spectral features of tidal disruption candidates and alternative origins for such transient flares (United States)

    Saxton, Curtis J.; Perets, Hagai B.; Baskin, Alexei


    UV and optically selected candidates for stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) often exhibit broad spectral features (He II emission, H α emission, or absorption lines) on a blackbody-like continuum (104 K≲ T≲ 105 K). The lines presumably emit from TDE debris or circumnuclear clouds photoionized by the flare. Line velocities however are much lower than expected from a stellar disruption by supermassive black hole (SMBH), and are somewhat faster than expected for the broad line region (BLR) clouds of a persistently active galactic nucleus (AGN). The distinctive spectral states are not strongly related to observed luminosity and velocity, nor to SMBH mass estimates. We use exhaustive photoionization modelling to map the domain of fluxes and cloud properties that yield (e.g.) an He-overbright state where a large He II(4686 Å)/H α line ratio creates an illusion of helium enrichment. Although observed line ratios occur in a plausible minority of cases, AGN-like illumination cannot reproduce the observed equivalent widths. We therefore propose to explain these properties by a light-echo photoionization model: the initial flash of a hot blackbody (detonation) excites BLR clouds, which are then seen superimposed on continuum from a later, expanded, cooled stage of the luminous source. The implied cloud mass is substellar, which may be inconsistent with a TDE. Given these and other inconsistencies with TDE models (e.g. host-galaxies distribution) we suggest to also consider alternative origins for these nuclear flares, which we briefly discuss (e.g. nuclear supernovae and starved/subluminous AGNs).

  3. Stacked sparse autoencoder in hyperspectral data classification using spectral-spatial, higher order statistics and multifractal spectrum features (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Chunhui; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Wu


    This paper proposes a novel classification paradigm for hyperspectral image (HSI) using feature-level fusion and deep learning-based methodologies. Operation is carried out in three main steps. First, during a pre-processing stage, wave atoms are introduced into bilateral filter to smooth HSI, and this strategy can effectively attenuate noise and restore texture information. Meanwhile, high quality spectral-spatial features can be extracted from HSI by taking geometric closeness and photometric similarity among pixels into consideration simultaneously. Second, higher order statistics techniques are firstly introduced into hyperspectral data classification to characterize the phase correlations of spectral curves. Third, multifractal spectrum features are extracted to characterize the singularities and self-similarities of spectra shapes. To this end, a feature-level fusion is applied to the extracted spectral-spatial features along with higher order statistics and multifractal spectrum features. Finally, stacked sparse autoencoder is utilized to learn more abstract and invariant high-level features from the multiple feature sets, and then random forest classifier is employed to perform supervised fine-tuning and classification. Experimental results on two real hyperspectral data sets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms some traditional alternatives.

  4. A spectral-structural bag-of-features scene classifier for very high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery (United States)

    Zhao, Bei; Zhong, Yanfei; Zhang, Liangpei


    Land-use classification of very high spatial resolution remote sensing (VHSR) imagery is one of the most challenging tasks in the field of remote sensing image processing. However, the land-use classification is hard to be addressed by the land-cover classification techniques, due to the complexity of the land-use scenes. Scene classification is considered to be one of the expected ways to address the land-use classification issue. The commonly used scene classification methods of VHSR imagery are all derived from the computer vision community that mainly deal with terrestrial image recognition. Differing from terrestrial images, VHSR images are taken by looking down with airborne and spaceborne sensors, which leads to the distinct light conditions and spatial configuration of land cover in VHSR imagery. Considering the distinct characteristics, two questions should be answered: (1) Which type or combination of information is suitable for the VHSR imagery scene classification? (2) Which scene classification algorithm is best for VHSR imagery? In this paper, an efficient spectral-structural bag-of-features scene classifier (SSBFC) is proposed to combine the spectral and structural information of VHSR imagery. SSBFC utilizes the first- and second-order statistics (the mean and standard deviation values, MeanStd) as the statistical spectral descriptor for the spectral information of the VHSR imagery, and uses dense scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) as the structural feature descriptor. From the experimental results, the spectral information works better than the structural information, while the combination of the spectral and structural information is better than any single type of information. Taking the characteristic of the spatial configuration into consideration, SSBFC uses the whole image scene as the scope of the pooling operator, instead of the scope generated by a spatial pyramid (SP) commonly used in terrestrial image classification. The experimental

  5. Lung injury induced by TiO2 nanoparticles depends on their structural features: size, shape, crystal phases, and surface coating. (United States)

    Wang, Jiangxue; Fan, Yubo


    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, a variety of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are being produced. Nanotoxicology has become a hot topic in many fields, as researchers attempt to elucidate the potential adverse health effects of NPs. The biological activity of NPs strongly depends on physicochemical parameters but these are not routinely considered in toxicity screening, such as dose metrics. In this work, nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2), one of the most commonly produced and widely used NPs, is put forth as a representative. The correlation between the lung toxicity and pulmonary cell impairment related to TiO2 NPs and its unusual structural features, including size, shape, crystal phases, and surface coating, is reviewed in detail. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in pulmonary inflammation in response to the properties of TiO2 NPs is also briefly described. To fully understand the potential biological effects of NPs in toxicity screening, we highly recommend that the size, crystal phase, dispersion and agglomeration status, surface coating, and chemical composition should be most appropriately characterized.

  6. Ultrafast transient absorption revisited: Phase-flips, spectral fingers, and other dynamical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cina, Jeffrey A., E-mail:; Kovac, Philip A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Oregon Center for Optical, Molecular, and Quantum Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403 (United States); Jumper, Chanelle C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Dean, Jacob C.; Scholes, Gregory D., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)


    We rebuild the theory of ultrafast transient-absorption/transmission spectroscopy starting from the optical response of an individual molecule to incident femtosecond pump and probe pulses. The resulting description makes use of pulse propagators and free molecular evolution operators to arrive at compact expressions for the several contributions to a transient-absorption signal. In this alternative description, which is physically equivalent to the conventional response-function formalism, these signal contributions are conveniently expressed as quantum mechanical overlaps between nuclear wave packets that have undergone different sequences of pulse-driven optical transitions and time-evolution on different electronic potential-energy surfaces. Using this setup in application to a simple, multimode model of the light-harvesting chromophores of PC577, we develop wave-packet pictures of certain generic features of ultrafast transient-absorption signals related to the probed-frequency dependence of vibrational quantum beats. These include a Stokes-shifting node at the time-evolving peak emission frequency, antiphasing between vibrational oscillations on opposite sides (i.e., to the red or blue) of this node, and spectral fingering due to vibrational overtones and combinations. Our calculations make a vibrationally abrupt approximation for the incident pump and probe pulses, but properly account for temporal pulse overlap and signal turn-on, rather than neglecting pulse overlap or assuming delta-function excitations, as are sometimes done.

  7. Spectral and Temporal Acoustic Features Modulate Response Irregularities within Primary Auditory Cortex Columns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Carrasco

    Full Text Available Assemblies of vertically connected neurons in the cerebral cortex form information processing units (columns that participate in the distribution and segregation of sensory signals. Despite well-accepted models of columnar architecture, functional mechanisms of inter-laminar communication remain poorly understood. Hence, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of sensory information features on columnar response properties. Using acute recording techniques, extracellular response activity was collected from the right hemisphere of eight mature cats (felis catus. Recordings were conducted with multichannel electrodes that permitted the simultaneous acquisition of neuronal activity within primary auditory cortex columns. Neuronal responses to simple (pure tones, complex (noise burst and frequency modulated sweeps, and ecologically relevant (con-specific vocalizations acoustic signals were measured. Collectively, the present investigation demonstrates that despite consistencies in neuronal tuning (characteristic frequency, irregularities in discharge activity between neurons of individual A1 columns increase as a function of spectral (signal complexity and temporal (duration acoustic variations.

  8. Manifold learning based feature extraction for classification of hyper-spectral data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D


    Full Text Available Advances in hyperspectral sensing provide new capability for characterizing spectral signatures in a wide range of physical and biological systems, while inspiring new methods for extracting information from these data. Hyperspectral image data...

  9. Perceptual Confusions Among Consonants, Revisited: Cross-Spectral Integration of Phonetic-Feature Information and Consonant Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich; Greenberg, Steven


    The perceptual basis of consonant recognition was experimentally investigated through a study of how information associated with phonetic features (Voicing, Manner, and Place of Articulation) combines across the acoustic-frequency spectrum. The speech signals, 11 Danish consonants embedded......-spectral summation. This difference is mirrored in a measure of error-pattern similarity across bands—Symmetric Redundancy. Consonants, as well as Voicing and Manner, share a moderate degree of redundancy between bands. In contrast, the cross-spectral redundancy associated with Place is close to zero, which means...... for why conventional cross-spectral integration speech models, such as the Articulation Index, Speech Intelligibility Index, and the Speech Transmission Index do not predict intelligibility and segment recognition well under certain conditions (e.g., discontiguous frequency bands, audio-visual speech)....

  10. Spectral Features and Charge Dynamics of Lead Halide Perovskites: Origins and Interpretations. (United States)

    Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Xing, Guichuan; Lim, Swee Sien; Chong, Wee Kiang; Giovanni, David; Dewi, Herlina Arianita


    to the spectral features of halide perovskites and their origins. In the process, we emphasize some key findings of seminal photophysical studies and draw attention to the interpretations that remain divergent and the open questions. This is followed by a general description into how we prepare and conduct the TAS characterization of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films in our laboratory with specific discussions into the potential pitfalls and the influence of thin film processing on the kinetics. Lastly, we conclude with our views on the challenges and opportunities from the photophysical perspective for the field and our expectations for systems beyond lead halide perovskites.

  11. Atmospheric-water absorption features near 2.2 micrometers and their importance in high spectral resolution remote sensing (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.; Clark, R. N.


    Selective absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atmospheric gases and water vapor is an accepted fact in terrestrial remote sensing. Until recently, only a general knowledge of atmospheric effects was required for analysis of remote sensing data; however, with the advent of high spectral resolution imaging devices, detailed knowledge of atmospheric absorption bands has become increasingly important for accurate analysis. Detailed study of high spectral resolution aircraft data at the U.S. Geological Survey has disclosed narrow absorption features centered at approximately 2.17 and 2.20 micrometers not caused by surface mineralogy. Published atmospheric transmission spectra and atmospheric spectra derived using the LOWTRAN-5 computer model indicate that these absorption features are probably water vapor. Spectral modeling indicates that the effects of atmospheric absorption in this region are most pronounced in spectrally flat materials with only weak absorption bands. Without correction and detailed knowledge of the atmospheric effects, accurate mapping of surface mineralogy (particularly at low mineral concentrations) is not possible.

  12. Spectral Feature Analysis of Minerals and Planetary Surfaces in an Introductory Planetary Science Course (United States)

    Urban, Michael J.


    Using an ALTA II reflectance spectrometer, the USGS digital spectral library, graphs of planetary spectra, and a few mineral hand samples, one can teach how light can be used to study planets and moons. The author created the hands-on, inquiry-based activity for an undergraduate planetary science course consisting of freshman to senior level…

  13. Analysis of Unresolved Spectral Infrared Signature for the Extraction of Invariant Features (United States)

    Chaudhary, A.; Payne, T.; Wilhelm, S.; Gregory, S.; Skinner, M.; Rudy, R.; Russell, R.; Brown, J.; Dao, P.


    This paper demonstrates a simple analytical technique for extraction of spectral radiance values for the solar panel and body from an unresolved spectral infrared signature of 3-axis stabilized low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites. It uses data collected by The Aerospace Corporation’s Broad-band Array Spectrograph System (BASS) instrument at the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing (AMOS) site. The observation conditions were such that the signatures were due to the emissive phenomenology and contribution of earthshine was negligible. The analysis is based on a two-facet orientation model of the satellite. This model captures the basic, known behavior of the satellite body and its solar panels. One facet points to nadir and the second facet tracks the sun. The facet areas are unknown. Special conditions are determined on the basis of observational geometry that allows separation of the spectral radiance values of the solar panel and body. These values remain unchanged (i.e., are invariant) under steady illumination conditions even if the signature appears different from one observation to another. In addition, they provide information on the individual spectral makeup of the satellite solar panel and body materials.

  14. Spectral characteristics and feature selection of satellite remote sensing data for climate and anthropogenic changes assessment in Bucharest area (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Tautan, Marina; Miclos, Sorin; Cristescu, Luminita; Carstea, Elfrida; Baschir, Laurentiu


    Urban systems play a vital role in social and economic development in all countries. Their environmental changes can be investigated on different spatial and temporal scales. Urban and peri-urban environment dynamics is of great interest for future planning and decision making as well as in frame of local and regional changes. Changes in urban land cover include changes in biotic diversity, actual and potential primary productivity, soil quality, runoff, and sedimentation rates, and cannot be well understood without the knowledge of land use change that drives them. The study focuses on the assessment of environmental features changes for Bucharest metropolitan area, Romania by satellite remote sensing and in-situ monitoring data. Rational feature selection from the varieties of spectral channels in the optical wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum (VIS and NIR) is very important for effective analysis and information extraction of remote sensing data. Based on comprehensively analyses of the spectral characteristics of remote sensing data is possibly to derive environmental changes in urban areas. The information quantity contained in a band is an important parameter in evaluating the band. The deviation and entropy are often used to show information amount. Feature selection is one of the most important steps in recognition and classification of remote sensing images. Therefore, it is necessary to select features before classification. The optimal features are those that can be used to distinguish objects easily and correctly. Three factors—the information quantity of bands, the correlation between bands and the spectral characteristic (e.g. absorption specialty) of classified objects in test area Bucharest have been considered in our study. As, the spectral characteristic of an object is influenced by many factors, being difficult to define optimal feature parameters to distinguish all the objects in a whole area, a method of multi-level feature selection

  15. An effective feature extraction method by power spectral density of EEG signal for 2-class motor imagery-based BCI. (United States)

    Kim, Chungsong; Sun, Jinwei; Liu, Dan; Wang, Qisong; Paek, Sunggyun


    EEG signals have weak intensity, low signal-to-noise ratio, non-stationary, non-linear, time-frequency-spatial characteristics. Therefore, it is important to extract adaptive and robust features that reflect time, frequency and spatial characteristics. This paper proposes an effective feature extraction method WDPSD (feature extraction from the Weighted Difference of Power Spectral Density in an optimal channel couple) that can reflect time, frequency and spatial characteristics for 2-class motor imagery-based BCI system. In the WDPSD method, firstly, Power Spectral Density (PSD) matrices of EEG signals are calculated in all channels, and an optimal channel couple is selected from all possible channel couples by checking non-stationary and class separability, and then a weight matrix which reflects non-stationary of PSD difference matrix in selected channel couple is calculated; finally, the robust and adaptive features are extracted from the PSD difference matrix weighted by the weight matrix. The proposed method is evaluated from EEG signals of BCI Competition IV Dataset 2a and Dataset 2b. The experimental results show a good classification accuracy in single session, session-to-session, and the different types of 2-class motor imagery for different subjects.

  16. Reflectance Spectral Features and Significant Minerals in Kaishantun Ophiolite Suite, Jilin Province, NE China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Shi


    Full Text Available This study used spectrometry to determine the spectral absorption of five types of mafic-ultramafic rocks from the Kaishantun ophiolite suite in Northeast China. Absorption peak wavelengths were determined for peridotite, diabase, basalt, pyroxenite, and gabbro. Glaucophane, actinolite, zoisite, and epidote absorption peaks were also measured, and these were used to distinguish such minerals from other associated minerals in ophiolite suite samples. Combined with their chemical compositions, the blueschist facies (glaucophane + epidote + chlorite and greenschist facies (actinolite + epidote + chlorite mineral assemblage was distinct based on its spectral signature. Based on the regional tectonic setting, the Kaishantun ophiolite suite probably experienced the blueschist facies metamorphic peak during subduction and greenschist facies retrograde metamorphism during later slab rollback.

  17. When Low Rank Representation Based Hyperspectral Imagery Classification Meets Segmented Stacked Denoising Auto-Encoder Based Spatial-Spectral Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang


    Full Text Available When confronted with limited labelled samples, most studies adopt an unsupervised feature learning scheme and incorporate the extracted features into a traditional classifier (e.g., support vector machine, SVM to deal with hyperspectral imagery classification. However, these methods have limitations in generalizing well in challenging cases due to the limited representative capacity of the shallow feature learning model, as well as the insufficient robustness of the classifier which only depends on the supervision of labelled samples. To address these two problems simultaneously, we present an effective low-rank representation-based classification framework for hyperspectral imagery. In particular, a novel unsupervised segmented stacked denoising auto-encoder-based feature learning model is proposed to depict the spatial-spectral characteristics of each pixel in the imagery with deep hierarchical structure. With the extracted features, a low-rank representation based robust classifier is then developed which takes advantage of both the supervision provided by labelled samples and unsupervised correlation (e.g., intra-class similarity and inter-class dissimilarity, etc. among those unlabelled samples. Both the deep unsupervised feature learning and the robust classifier benefit, improving the classification accuracy with limited labelled samples. Extensive experiments on hyperspectral imagery classification demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Downscaling Sentinel-2 Imagery for Land Use and Land Cover Classification by Spectral-Spatial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongrui Zheng


    Full Text Available Land Use and Land Cover (LULC classification is vital for environmental and ecological applications. Sentinel-2 is a new generation land monitoring satellite with the advantages of novel spectral capabilities, wide coverage and fine spatial and temporal resolutions. The effects of different spatial resolution unification schemes and methods on LULC classification have been scarcely investigated for Sentinel-2. This paper bridged this gap by comparing the differences between upscaling and downscaling as well as different downscaling algorithms from the point of view of LULC classification accuracy. The studied downscaling algorithms include nearest neighbor resampling and five popular pansharpening methods, namely, Gram-Schmidt (GS, nearest neighbor diffusion (NNDiffusion, PANSHARP algorithm proposed by Y. Zhang, wavelet transformation fusion (WTF and high-pass filter fusion (HPF. Two spatial features, textural metrics derived from Grey-Level-Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM and extended attribute profiles (EAPs, are investigated to make up for the shortcoming of pixel-based spectral classification. Random forest (RF is adopted as the classifier. The experiment was conducted in Xitiaoxi watershed, China. The results demonstrated that downscaling obviously outperforms upscaling in terms of classification accuracy. For downscaling, image sharpening has no obvious advantages than spatial interpolation. Different image sharpening algorithms have distinct effects. Two multiresolution analysis (MRA-based methods, i.e., WTF and HFP, achieve the best performance. GS achieved a similar accuracy with NNDiffusion and PANSHARP. Compared to image sharpening, the introduction of spatial features, both GLCM and EAPs can greatly improve the classification accuracy for Sentinel-2 imagery. Their effects on overall accuracy are similar but differ significantly to specific classes. In general, using the spectral bands downscaled by nearest neighbor interpolation can meet

  19. Integrated Spectral Energy Distributions and Absorption Feature Indices of Single Stellar Populations


    Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang; Hurley, Jarrod R.


    Using evolutionary population synthesis, we present integrated spectral energy distributions and absorption-line indices defined by the Lick Observatory image dissector scanner (referred to as Lick/IDS) system, for an extensive set of instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs). The ages of the SSPs are in the range 1-19 Gyr and the metallicities [Fe/H] are in the range -2.3 - 0.2. Our models use the rapid single stellar evolution algorithm of Hurley, Pols and Tout for the stellar e...

  20. Аssociation of spectral closeness of flicker-noise parameters with features of underlying structure of system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodiy Z. A.


    Full Text Available The results of computer design of chaotic motion of elementary particles are resulted in a flat rectangle which can be put in accordance to a pellicle resistor with the electrons of conductivity. The analysis of spectral closeness of chaotic motion shows that one of parameters of flicker-noise depends only on the amount of elementary particles and middle rate of their movement. The second parameter of flicker-noise (time of relaxation depends on the features of underlying structure of the system. It can be used for prognostication of reliability as separate elements of electronics so apparatus as a whole on the measured level of their flicker-noise.

  1. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  2. Charge-transfer complex formation between TiO2 nanoparticles and thiosalicylic acid: A comprehensive experimental and DFT study (United States)

    Milićević, Bojana; Đorđević, Vesna; Lončarević, Davor; Dostanić, Jasmina M.; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Sredojević, Dušan; Švrakić, Nenad M.; Nedeljković, Jovan M.


    Under normal conditions, titanium dioxide does not absorb visible light photons due to large band gap. Nevertheless, when titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are surface-modified with thiosalicylic acid (TSA), their optical properties are altered owing to the formation of charge transfer complex that initiates absorption in the visible spectral range. Colloidal and sol-gel techniques were used to synthesize uniform TiO2 NPs of different sizes (average diameters in the range 4-15 nm), and effects of their subsequent modification by TSA molecules were compared with effect of modification of commercial Degussa TiO2 powder. Thorough microstructural characterization of TiO2 nanoparticulates was performed including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, as well as nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Optical measurements revealed that all surface-modified TiO2 samples with TSA have similar spectral features independent of their morphological differences, and, more importantly, absorption onset of modified TiO2 samples was found to be red-shifted by 1.0 eV compared to the unmodified ones. The mode of binding between TSA and surface Ti atoms was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. Finally, the quantum chemical calculations, based on density functional theory, were performed to support optical characterization of surface-modified TiO2 with TSA.

  3. Correlations of Power-law Spectral and QPO Features In Black Hole Candidate Sources (United States)

    Fiorito, Ralph; Titarchuk, Lev


    Recent studies have shown that strong correlations are observed between low frequency QPO s and the spectral power law index for a number of black hole candidate sources (BHCs), when these sources exhibit quasi-steady hard x-ray emission states. The dominant long standing interpretation of QPO's is that they are produced in and are the signature of the thermal accretion disk. Paradoxically, strong QPO's are present even in the cases where the thermal component is negligible. We present a model which identifies the origin of the QPO's and relates them directly to the properties of a compact coronal region which is bounded by the adjustment from Kepleriaa to sub-Kelperian inflow into the BH, and is primarily responsible for the observed power law spectrum. The model also predicts the relationship between high and low frequency QPO's and shows how BH's can be unique identified from observations of the soft states of NS's and BHC's.

  4. Automatic Detection and Recognition of Craters Based on the Spectral Features of Lunar Rocks and Minerals (United States)

    Ye, L.; Xu, X.; Luan, D.; Jiang, W.; Kang, Z.


    Crater-detection approaches can be divided into four categories: manual recognition, shape-profile fitting algorithms, machine-learning methods and geological information-based analysis using terrain and spectral data. The mainstream method is Shape-profile fitting algorithms. Many scholars throughout the world use the illumination gradient information to fit standard circles by least square method. Although this method has achieved good results, it is difficult to identify the craters with poor "visibility", complex structure and composition. Moreover, the accuracy of recognition is difficult to be improved due to the multiple solutions and noise interference. Aiming at the problem, we propose a method for the automatic extraction of impact craters based on spectral characteristics of the moon rocks and minerals: 1) Under the condition of sunlight, the impact craters are extracted from MI by condition matching and the positions as well as diameters of the craters are obtained. 2) Regolith is spilled while lunar is impacted and one of the elements of lunar regolith is iron. Therefore, incorrectly extracted impact craters can be removed by judging whether the crater contains "non iron" element. 3) Craters which are extracted correctly, are divided into two types: simple type and complex type according to their diameters. 4) Get the information of titanium and match the titanium distribution of the complex craters with normal distribution curve, then calculate the goodness of fit and set the threshold. The complex craters can be divided into two types: normal distribution curve type of titanium and non normal distribution curve type of titanium. We validated our proposed method with MI acquired by SELENE. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has good performance in the test area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ye


    Full Text Available Crater-detection approaches can be divided into four categories: manual recognition, shape-profile fitting algorithms, machine-learning methods and geological information-based analysis using terrain and spectral data. The mainstream method is Shape-profile fitting algorithms. Many scholars throughout the world use the illumination gradient information to fit standard circles by least square method. Although this method has achieved good results, it is difficult to identify the craters with poor "visibility", complex structure and composition. Moreover, the accuracy of recognition is difficult to be improved due to the multiple solutions and noise interference. Aiming at the problem, we propose a method for the automatic extraction of impact craters based on spectral characteristics of the moon rocks and minerals: 1 Under the condition of sunlight, the impact craters are extracted from MI by condition matching and the positions as well as diameters of the craters are obtained. 2 Regolith is spilled while lunar is impacted and one of the elements of lunar regolith is iron. Therefore, incorrectly extracted impact craters can be removed by judging whether the crater contains "non iron" element. 3 Craters which are extracted correctly, are divided into two types: simple type and complex type according to their diameters. 4 Get the information of titanium and match the titanium distribution of the complex craters with normal distribution curve, then calculate the goodness of fit and set the threshold. The complex craters can be divided into two types: normal distribution curve type of titanium and non normal distribution curve type of titanium. We validated our proposed method with MI acquired by SELENE. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has good performance in the test area.

  6. Wavelet-Based Rust Spectral Feature Set (WRSFs: A Novel Spectral Feature Set Based on Continuous Wavelet Transformation for Tracking Progressive Host–Pathogen Interaction of Yellow Rust on Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shi


    Full Text Available Understanding the progression of host–pathogen interaction through time by hyperspectral features is vital for tracking yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis development, one of the major diseases of wheat. However, well-designed features are still open issues that impact the performance of relevant models to nondestructively detect pathological progress of wheat rust. The aim of this paper is (1 to propose a novel wavelet-based rust spectral feature set (WRSFs to uncover wheat rust-related processes; and (2 to evaluate the performance and robustness of the proposed WRSFs and models for retrieving the progression of host–pathogen interaction and tracking rust development. A hyperspectral dataset was collected by analytical spectral devices (ASD spectroradiometer and Headwall spectrograph, along with corresponding physiological measurements of chlorophyll index (CHL, nitrogen balance index (NBI, anthocyanin index (ANTH, and percentile dry matter (PDM from the 7th to 41st day after inoculation (dai under controlled conditions. The resultant findings suggest that the progression of yellow rust on wheat is better characterized by the proposed WRSFs (R2 > 0.7. The WRSFs-based PLSR model provides insight into specific leaf biophysical variations in the rust pathological progress. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed WRSFs on yellow rust discrimination during different infestation stages, the identified WRSFs and vegetation indices (VIs were fed into linear discriminant analysis (LDA and support vector machine (SVM classification frames. The WRSFs in conjunction with a SVM classifier can obtain better performance than that of LDA method and the VIs-based models. Overall, synthesizing the biophysical analysis, retrieving accuracy, and classification performance, we recommend the proposed WRSFs for monitoring the progression of the host–pathogen interaction of yellow rust on wheat cross various hyperspectral sensors.

  7. An unsupervised technique for optimal feature selection in attribute profiles for spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Kaushal; Patra, Swarnajyoti


    Inclusion of spatial information along with spectral features play a significant role in classification of remote sensing images. Attribute profiles have already proved their ability to represent spatial information. In order to incorporate proper spatial information, multiple attributes are required and for each attribute large profiles need to be constructed by varying the filter parameter values within a wide range. Thus, the constructed profiles that represent spectral-spatial information of an hyperspectral image have huge dimension which leads to Hughes phenomenon and increases computational burden. To mitigate these problems, this work presents an unsupervised feature selection technique that selects a subset of filtered image from the constructed high dimensional multi-attribute profile which are sufficiently informative to discriminate well among classes. In this regard the proposed technique exploits genetic algorithms (GAs). The fitness function of GAs are defined in an unsupervised way with the help of mutual information. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is assessed using one-against-all support vector machine classifier. The experiments conducted on three hyperspectral data sets show the robustness of the proposed method in terms of computation time and classification accuracy.

  8. Detection of corn and weed species by the combination of spectral, shape and textural features (United States)

    Accurate detection of weeds in farmland can help reduce pesticide use and protect the agricultural environment. To develop intelligent equipment for weed detection, this study used an imaging spectrometer system, which supports micro-scale plant feature analysis by acquiring high-resolution hyper sp...

  9. A comparison of random forest and its Gini importance with standard chemometric methods for the feature selection and classification of spectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmelreich Uwe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regularized regression methods such as principal component or partial least squares regression perform well in learning tasks on high dimensional spectral data, but cannot explicitly eliminate irrelevant features. The random forest classifier with its associated Gini feature importance, on the other hand, allows for an explicit feature elimination, but may not be optimally adapted to spectral data due to the topology of its constituent classification trees which are based on orthogonal splits in feature space. Results We propose to combine the best of both approaches, and evaluated the joint use of a feature selection based on a recursive feature elimination using the Gini importance of random forests' together with regularized classification methods on spectral data sets from medical diagnostics, chemotaxonomy, biomedical analytics, food science, and synthetically modified spectral data. Here, a feature selection using the Gini feature importance with a regularized classification by discriminant partial least squares regression performed as well as or better than a filtering according to different univariate statistical tests, or using regression coefficients in a backward feature elimination. It outperformed the direct application of the random forest classifier, or the direct application of the regularized classifiers on the full set of features. Conclusion The Gini importance of the random forest provided superior means for measuring feature relevance on spectral data, but – on an optimal subset of features – the regularized classifiers might be preferable over the random forest classifier, in spite of their limitation to model linear dependencies only. A feature selection based on Gini importance, however, may precede a regularized linear classification to identify this optimal subset of features, and to earn a double benefit of both dimensionality reduction and the elimination of noise from the classification task.

  10. Application of higher order spectral features and support vector machines for bearing faults classification. (United States)

    Saidi, Lotfi; Ben Ali, Jaouher; Fnaiech, Farhat


    Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings timely and accurately are very important to ensure the reliability of rotating machinery. This paper presents a novel pattern classification approach for bearings diagnostics, which combines the higher order spectra analysis features and support vector machine classifier. The use of non-linear features motivated by the higher order spectra has been reported to be a promising approach to analyze the non-linear and non-Gaussian characteristics of the mechanical vibration signals. The vibration bi-spectrum (third order spectrum) patterns are extracted as the feature vectors presenting different bearing faults. The extracted bi-spectrum features are subjected to principal component analysis for dimensionality reduction. These principal components were fed to support vector machine to distinguish four kinds of bearing faults covering different levels of severity for each fault type, which were measured in the experimental test bench running under different working conditions. In order to find the optimal parameters for the multi-class support vector machine model, a grid-search method in combination with 10-fold cross-validation has been used. Based on the correct classification of bearing patterns in the test set, in each fold the performance measures are computed. The average of these performance measures is computed to report the overall performance of the support vector machine classifier. In addition, in fault detection problems, the performance of a detection algorithm usually depends on the trade-off between robustness and sensitivity. The sensitivity and robustness of the proposed method are explored by running a series of experiments. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve made the results more convincing. The results indicated that the proposed method can reliably identify different fault patterns of rolling element bearings based on vibration signals. Copyright © 2014 ISA

  11. Raman spectral features of single walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by laser vaporization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, MK


    Full Text Available Breathing Mode (RBM) • Tangential stretching mode-in plane • Experimental • Results and Discussion • Conclusions Page 3 © CSIR 2006 Raman scattering in SWCNTs • In Raman spectra of SWCNTs there many features which...= 120 micron 20x objective on microscope Page 5 © CSIR 2006 Radial Breathing Mode (RBM) • this frequency mode determines whether there is SWCNTs in the sample • diameter and diameter distribution can...

  12. A search for spectral features in the XMM-Newton observation of UGC 11763 (United States)

    Cardaci, M. V.; Santos-Lleó, M.; Krongold, Y.; Rodríguez-Pascual, P.; Hägele, G. F.; Díaz, A. I.


    We have performed the analysis of the X-ray XMM-Newton spectra of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy UGC 11763 (Mkn 1513). We have studied the EPIC data in the range 0.35-10.0 keV (1.2-35.4 Å) and also the high resolution soft X-ray spectra taken with the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGSs) in the range 10-30 Å (0.41-1.2 keV). The principal feature observed in the hard X-ray spectrum is a weak Fe-Kalpha fluorescence line. The soft X-ray spectra are characterised by absorption features. The most significant of them is the one between 15 and 18 Å (in the rest frame of the object). We have identified this broad absorption with the UTA (unresolved transition array) produced by Fe M-shell transitions which was reported for the first time by Sako et al. (2001), and that is indicative of the presence of absorbing material in the vicinity of the active nucleus.

  13. Analysis of morphological features and vascular layers of choroid in diabetic retinopathy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Adhi, Mehreen; Brewer, Erika; Waheed, Nadia K; Duker, Jay S


    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is characterized by microaneurysms, capillary nonperfusion, and ischemia within the retina, ultimately leading to neovascularization and/or macular edema. Evidence suggests that choroidal angiopathy may coexist with retinal vascular damage. Recent advances in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) permit an efficient visualization of the choroid. To analyze the morphological features and vascular layers of the choroid in patients with DR using SD-OCT. A cross-sectional retrospective review identified patients with DR and healthy (control) subjects who underwent 1-line raster scanning from February 1, 2010, through June 30, 2012. Patients were classified into the following 3 groups: nonproliferative DR without macular edema (9 eyes), proliferative DR without macular edema (PDR) (10 eyes), and diabetic macular edema (DME) (14 eyes). Two independent raters experienced in analyzing OCT images evaluated the morphological features and vasculature of the choroid. New England Eye Center. Thirty-three eyes of 33 patients with DR and 24 eyes of 24 controls. Diabetic retinopathy. Choroidal morphological features and vasculature analysis. The choroidoscleral interface had an irregular contour in 8 of 9 eyes with nonproliferative DR (89%), 9 of 10 eyes with PDR (90%), and 13 of 14 eyes with DME (93%) compared with 0 of 24 controls. The thickest point of the choroid was displaced from under the fovea, and focal choroidal thinning was observed in eyes with DR. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness and mean subfoveal medium choroidal vessel layer and choriocapillaris layer thickness were significantly reduced in eyes with PDR (P morphological features are altered in patients with moderate to severe DR. The subfoveal choroidal thickness and the subfoveal medium choroidal vessel layer and choriocapillaris layer thicknesses are significantly reduced in patients with PDR and DME. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the

  14. Morfology of SEE spectral features in a wide pump wave frequency range (United States)

    Sergeev, E. N.; Frolov, V. L.; Grach, S. M.; Kotov, P. V.

    Systematic study of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) stationary spectrum dependence on the pump wave (PW) frequency f_0 was continued. Investigations were performed at the SURA facility for the PW frequency range 4.3≤ f_0 ≤ 9.5 MHz with stepping of ≈ 5-50 kHz including the vicinities of the electron gyroharmonics nfce from n=4 to n=7 for most prominent SEE features like downshifted maximum (DM) and its satellites, narrow and broad continua (NC and BC), upshifted maximum (UM), broad upshifted maximum (BUM), and broad upshifted structure (BUS) (for references see, e.g., Leyser et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1993, v. 98, p. 17597, 1994, Frolov et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2001, v. 28, p. 3103). Main attention was paid to maximal and integral intensities of the SEE features and their frequency shifts Δ f from f_0. The results can be summarized as follows. (i) While the SEE qualitative behaviour periodically repeats between successive gyroharmonics, maximal intensity for all of the SEE features is observed for 4fce5fce (except of narrow range below 6 and 7fce) the BC is replaced by a set of DM satellites in the SEE spectrum. (iii) DM intensity decreases with f_0 and DM peak frequency shift increases with f_0 as Δ fDM ˜ 2 f_0\\cdot10-3 across the whole f_0 frequency range, except of narrow ranges near f_0 ≃ nfce, where the DM intensity falls up to the noise level, and Δ fDM decreases up to ≈ 9 kHz. (iv) The UM behaviour is similar for the DM one, but for f_0≃ nfce the maximal UM and minimal DM intensities occur for the same f_0, while the minimal UM is observed for f_0 less by 10-20 kHz in comparison with f_0 for the minimal DM. (v) Maximal BUM intensity is observed for f_0 just above nfce where the frequency shift of BUM peak Δ fBUM ≃ 20 kHz; for f_0 ≳ nfce+30 kHz Δ fBUM linearly increases as Δ fBUM ≃ f_0 - nfce. (vi) The BUS is observed for f_0 well above nfce (n=3-5) in the PW frequency range nfce+150 kHz ≲ f_0 ≲ (n+1/2)fce. BUS

  15. Application of self-organizing feature maps to analyze the relationships between ignitable liquids and selected mass spectral ions. (United States)

    Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Williams, Mary R; Waddell, Erin E; Sigman, Michael E


    The unsupervised artificial neural networks method of self-organizing feature maps (SOFMs) is applied to spectral data of ignitable liquids to visualize the grouping of similar ignitable liquids with respect to their American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) class designations and to determine the ions associated with each group. The spectral data consists of extracted ion spectra (EIS), defined as the time-averaged mass spectrum across the chromatographic profile for select ions, where the selected ions are a subset of ions from Table 2 of the ASTM standard E1618-11. Utilization of the EIS allows for inter-laboratory comparisons without the concern of retention time shifts. The trained SOFM demonstrates clustering of the ignitable liquid samples according to designated ASTM classes. The EIS of select samples designated as miscellaneous or oxygenated as well as ignitable liquid residues from fire debris samples are projected onto the SOFM. The results indicate the similarities and differences between the variables of the newly projected data compared to those of the data used to train the SOFM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Transit Light Source Effect: False Spectral Features and Incorrect Densities for M-dwarf Transiting Planets (United States)

    Rackham, Benjamin V.; Apai, Dániel; Giampapa, Mark S.


    Transmission spectra are differential measurements that utilize stellar illumination to probe transiting exoplanet atmospheres. Any spectral difference between the illuminating light source and the disk-integrated stellar spectrum due to starspots and faculae will be imprinted in the observed transmission spectrum. However, few constraints exist for the extent of photospheric heterogeneities in M dwarfs. Here we model spot and faculae covering fractions consistent with observed photometric variabilities for M dwarfs and the associated 0.3–5.5 μm stellar contamination spectra. We find that large ranges of spot and faculae covering fractions are consistent with observations and corrections assuming a linear relation between variability amplitude, and covering fractions generally underestimate the stellar contamination. Using realistic estimates for spot and faculae covering fractions, we find that stellar contamination can be more than 10× larger than the transit depth changes expected for atmospheric features in rocky exoplanets. We also find that stellar spectral contamination can lead to systematic errors in radius and therefore the derived density of small planets. In the case of the TRAPPIST-1 system, we show that TRAPPIST-1's rotational variability is consistent with spot covering fractions {f}{spot}={8}-7+18 % and faculae covering fractions {f}{fac}={54}-46+16 % . The associated stellar contamination signals alter the transit depths of the TRAPPIST-1 planets at wavelengths of interest for planetary atmospheric species by roughly 1–15× the strength of planetary features, significantly complicating JWST follow-up observations of this system. Similarly, we find that stellar contamination can lead to underestimates of the bulk densities of the TRAPPIST-1 planets of {{Δ }}(ρ )=-{8}-20+7 % , thus leading to overestimates of their volatile contents.

  17. The correlation between structural properties, geometrical features, and photoactivity of freestanding TiO2 nanotubes in comparative degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and methylene blue (United States)

    Vahabzadeh Pasikhani, Javad; Gilani, Neda; Ebrahimian Pirbazari, Azadeh


    Freestanding TiO2 nanotubes (FSNTs) with various physical dimensions were fabricated by two-step anodization process with different voltages and anodization times. The detachment method employed in this study involved voltage reduction at the end of the second step and ultrasonic chemical treatment. The results demonstrated that this detachment method is a beneficial technique to create thin open-mouthed and closed-end FSNTs (with lengths of 6–14 μm). Moreover, the influences of anodization conditions on photocatalytic activity, structural properties and geometrical features of FSNTs in comparative degradation of two non-colored (2,4-dichlorophenol) and colored (methylene blue) pollutants were investigated. Findings revealed that the quantity of the photocatalyst utilized is an effective parameter and using the optimum weight (10 mg/100 ml of 2,4-dichlorophenol) could increase the efficiency of the process up to 21%. Further, the results demonstrated that if equal optimum weights of FSNTs are chosen, decreases in voltage and anodization time significantly influence the structural properties, geometrical features, and photodegradation efficiency. The enhancement achieved in the degradation of both 2,4-dichlorophenol and methylene blue using the nanotubes with the shortest diameter (54 nm) and length (6.5 μm), which possess the lowest porosity (0.5) and also the highest surface area (0.53 m2 g‑1), nanotubes’ density (19 cm2 cm‑2) and wall thickness to length ratio (2). In addition, the results obtained indicated that the degradation reactions follow first-order kinetics in the degradation of the both pollutants. The apparent degradation rate constant of methylene blue was approximately 1.2 times greater than of the 2,4-dichlorophenol due to the negative charge of the nanotubes’ surface and electrostatic adsorptions.

  18. The water withdraws and spectral characteristic analysis of back groundsurface features in Zengcheng City (United States)

    Gao, Ai; Xia, Lihua


    Many achievements in studies of extracting water have been made in the past ten years.According to the foundation of remote sensing and spectrum theory, the general extracting principal of remote sensing information is introduced. Zengcheng was rich in water resources, and it is an idel back garden of Guangzhou city. Therefore, it is important to use the water resources rationally in Zengcheng.TM image dated 10 November 2006 was elected in this paper.Both interpreted maps were analyzed and managed by ENVI and ArcGIS software. Single-band threshold method, the relationship between spectrum, vegetation index and water index method were used in this paper. At last, Water index method was considered to be the most suitable one after a comparative analysis.In this paper landscape types within the study area were classified into (1) farmland, (2)forest land, (3)urban Inhabitant land and other land,(4)orchard land, (5)unused land, (6)water, with the help of Land cover map 2006 of Zengcheng. A reconnaissance survey of the study area was made to correlate the image characteristics and ground features by the standard technique of human-computer 'dialogue' interpretation.According to the foundation of remote sensing and spectrum theory, a model of water body extraction is set up in this paper.

  19. Classifying spatially heterogeneous wetland communities using machine learning algorithms and spectral and textural features. (United States)

    Szantoi, Zoltan; Escobedo, Francisco J; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Pearlstine, Leonard; Dewitt, Bon; Smith, Scot


    Mapping of wetlands (marsh vs. swamp vs. upland) is a common remote sensing application.Yet, discriminating between similar freshwater communities such as graminoid/sedge fromremotely sensed imagery is more difficult. Most of this activity has been performed using medium to low resolution imagery. There are only a few studies using highspatial resolutionimagery and machine learning image classification algorithms for mapping heterogeneouswetland plantcommunities. This study addresses this void by analyzing whether machine learning classifierssuch as decisiontrees (DT) and artificial neural networks (ANN) can accurately classify graminoid/sedgecommunities usinghigh resolution aerial imagery and image texture data in the Everglades National Park, Florida.In addition tospectral bands, the normalized difference vegetation index, and first- and second-order texturefeatures derivedfrom the near-infrared band were analyzed. Classifier accuracies were assessed using confusiontablesand the calculated kappa coefficients of the resulting maps. The results indicated that an ANN(multilayerperceptron based on backpropagation) algorithm produced a statistically significantly higheraccuracy(82.04%) than the DT (QUEST) algorithm (80.48%) or the maximum likelihood (80.56%)classifier (α<0.05). Findings show that using multiple window sizes provided the best results. First-ordertexture featuresalso provided computational advantages and results that were not significantly different fromthose usingsecond-order texture features.

  20. Hyperspectral data mining to identify relevant canopy spectral features for estimating durum wheat growth, nitrogen status, and yield (United States)

    Modern hyperspectral sensors permit reflectance measurements of crop canopies in hundreds of narrow spectral wavebands. While these sensors describe plant canopy reflectance in greater detail than multispectral sensors, they also suffer from issues with data redundancy and spectral autocorrelation. ...

  1. Use of feature extraction techniques for the texture and context information in ERTS imagery: Spectral and textural processing of ERTS imagery. [classification of Kansas land use (United States)

    Haralick, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.


    The author has identified the following significant results. A procedure was developed to extract cross-band textural features from ERTS MSS imagery. Evolving from a single image texture extraction procedure which uses spatial dependence matrices to measure relative co-occurrence of nearest neighbor grey tones, the cross-band texture procedure uses the distribution of neighboring grey tone N-tuple differences to measure the spatial interrelationships, or co-occurrences, of the grey tone N-tuples present in a texture pattern. In both procedures, texture is characterized in such a way as to be invariant under linear grey tone transformations. However, the cross-band procedure complements the single image procedure by extracting texture information and spectral information contained in ERTS multi-images. Classification experiments show that when used alone, without spectral processing, the cross-band texture procedure extracts more information than the single image texture analysis. Results show an improvement in average correct classification from 86.2% to 88.8% for ERTS image no. 1021-16333 with the cross-band texture procedure. However, when used together with spectral features, the single image texture plus spectral features perform better than the cross-band texture plus spectral features, with an average correct classification of 93.8% and 91.6%, respectively.

  2. The mid-IR spectral effects of darkening agents and porosity on the silicate surface features of airless bodies (United States)

    Young, C. L.; Wray, J. J.; Poston, M.; Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.


    The surfaces of airless bodies present opportunities to investigate the physical processes acting on planetary systems over time, without the need to account for surface-atmosphere interactions. Silicate surfaces mixed with fine-grained optically dark material with varying degrees of porosity are ubiquitous on many airless bodies (e.g., Earth's Moon, Deimos, Phobos, asteroids, meteorites, and moons of the outer solar system). Although the mid-IR is rich in emissivity features of important minerals and molecular groups, including organics [e.g., 1], it is less studied for airless conditions and presents challenges in signal-to-noise ratio, especially for the colder outer solar system bodies with fined-grained surfaces [2, 3]. We systematically measured the mid-IR spectra of different mixtures of three silicates (antigorite, lizardite, and pure silica) with varying porosities and amounts of darkening agent (iron oxide and carbon). Serpentines, such as antigorite and lizardite, are common to airless surfaces, and their mid-IR spectra in the presence of darkening agents and different surface porosities would be typical for those measured by spacecraft. Although pure silica has only been measured in the plumes of Enceladus, it presents exciting possibilities for other Saturn-system surfaces due to long range transport [4], and it is therefore important to investigate how its spectral signature would be manifested in the mid-IR. Overall, this work provides a library of mineral mixtures to facilitate dealing with current and future mid-IR datasets of airless bodies. These results are also applicable to the development of future missions to airless bodies, and our continuing efforts will help determine if mid-IR spectrometry is worthwhile for surface compositional studies of icy bodies. The mixtures presented here could be useful for testing future mid-IR instruments by confirming detectability of spectral features for typical materials on the surfaces of interest. [1

  3. Improving the classification accuracy for IR spectroscopic diagnosis of stomach and colon malignancy using non-linear spectral feature extraction methods. (United States)

    Lee, Sanguk; Kim, Kyoungok; Lee, Hyeseon; Jun, Chi-Hyuck; Chung, Hoeil; Park, Jong-Jae


    Non-linear feature extraction methods, neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE) and supervised NPE (SNPE), were employed to effectively represent the IR spectral features of stomach and colon biopsy tissues for classification, and improve the classification accuracy for diagnosis of malignancy. The motivation was to utilize the NPE and SNPE's capability of capturing non-linear spectral behaviors by simultaneously preserving local relationships in order that minute spectral differences among classes would be effectively recognized. NPE and SNPE derive an optimal embedding feature such that the local neighborhood structure can be preserved in reduced spaces (variables). The IR spectra collected from stomach and colon tissues were represented by several new variables through NPE and SNPE, and also by using the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, the feature-extracted variables were subsequently classified into normal, adenoma and cancer tissues by using both k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and support vector machine (SVM), and the resulting accuracies were compared with each other. In both cases, the combination of SNPE-SVM provided the best classification performance, and the accuracy was substantially improved compared to when PCA-SVM was used. Overall results demonstrate that NPE and SNPE could be potential feature-representation strategies useful in biomedical diagnosis based on vibrational spectroscopy where effective recognition of minute spectral differences is critical.

  4. Spectral reflectance and emissivity features of broad leaf plants: Prospects for remote sensing in the thermal infrared (8.0-14.0 μm) (United States)

    Ribeiro da Luz, Beatriz; Crowley, James K.


    Field emissivity measurements were made of leaves collected from nine deciduous tree and agricultural plant species. The data show, for the first time, that it is possible to discriminate subtle spectral emissivity features of leaves from the natural background emission. Under conditions of controlled measurement geometry (leaves arranged to cover a flat surface), the field emissivity spectra agreed fairly well with emissivity values calculated from laboratory directional hemispherical reflectance measurements. Spectral features associated with a variety of leaf chemical constituents, including cellulose, cutin, xylan, silica, and oleanolic acid could be identified in the field emissivity data. Structural aspects of leaf surfaces also influenced spectral behavior, notably the abundance of trichomes, as well as wax thickness and texture.

  5. Identifying Planetary Biosignature Impostors: Spectral Features of CO and O4 Resulting from Abiotic O2/O3 Production (United States)

    Schwieterman, Edward W.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Deming, Drake; Arney, Giada N.; Luger, Rodrigo; Harman, Chester E.; Misra, Amit; Barnes, Rory


    O2 and O3 have been long considered the most robust individual biosignature gases in a planetary atmosphere, yet multiple mechanisms that may produce them in the absence of life have been described. However, these abiotic planetary mechanisms modify the environment in potentially identifiable ways. Here we briefly discuss two of the most detectable spectral discriminants for abiotic O2/O3: CO and O4. We produce the first explicit self-consistent simulations of these spectral discriminants as they may be seen by James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). If JWST-NIRISS (Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph) and/or NIRSpec (Near InfraRed Spectograph) observe CO (2.35, 4.6 micrometers) in conjunction with CO2 (1.6, 2.0, 4.3 micrometers) in the transmission spectrum of a terrestrial planet it could indicate robust CO2 photolysis and suggest that a future detection of O2 or O3 might not be biogenic. Strong O4 bands seen in transmission at 1.06 and 1.27 micrometers could be diagnostic of a post-runaway O2-dominated atmosphere from massive H-escape. We find that for these false positive scenarios, CO at 2.35 micrometers, CO2 at 2.0 and 4.3 micrometers, and O4 at 1.27 micrometers are all stronger features in transmission than O2/O3 and could be detected with sigal to noise ratios greater than or approximately 3 for an Earth-size planet orbiting a nearby M dwarf star with as few as 10 transits, assuming photon-limited noise. O4 bands could also be sought in UV/VIS/NIR reflected light (at 0.345, 0.36, 0.38, 0.445, 0.475, 0.53, 0.57, 0.63, 1.06, and 1.27 micrometers) by a next generation direct imaging telescope such as LUVOIR (Large Ultraviolet Visible Infrared)/HDST (High-Definition Space Telescope) or HabEx (Habitable-Exoplanet Imaging Mission) and would indicate an oxygen atmosphere too massive to be biologically produced.

  6. Heart rate variability in conscious neonatal swine: spectral features and responses to short-term intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ning


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spectral analysis of the cardiac time series has been used as a tool for assessing levels of parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation of the sinoatrial node. In the present investigation we evaluated daily changes in heart rate variability spectra in conscious neonatal piglets that were either neurally intact (n = 5 or had undergone right stellate ganglionectomy (n = 5. The partial stellectomized animals and their intact litter mates were exposed to four days of intermittent hypoxia, each day comprising nine episodes of hypoxia alternating with nine episodes of normoxia. A time control group (n = 7 comprised animals from different litters that were not exposed to intermittent hypoxia. We hypothesized that exposure to intermittent hypoxia would increase sympathetic efferent neuronal modulation of heart rate variability spectra in neurally intact animals and in those with right stellate ganglionectomy, and that his effect would be observed in heart rate variability spectra computed from baseline recordings. Results Overall, heart rate variability spectra during baseline conditions were dominated by high frequency activity, a reflection of parasympathetic efferent neuronal innervation and linkage to the ventilatory cycle manifested as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Exposure to intermittent hypoxia did not alter daily baseline spectral features that would indicate an increase of sympathetic cardiac activity: low frequency (0.05 – 0.15 Hz activity was unaffected and the ratio of low- to -high frequency activity remained less than unity indicating a predominance of high frequency activity. The resultant spectra were remarkably similar despite differences in cardiac sympathetic efferent neuronal innervation and experimental treatment. When spectra were computed from cardiac time series during representative hypoxic episodes, significant increases in activity across the low frequency region (0.05 – 0.15 Hz of heart rate

  7. Characteristic Tandem Mass Spectral Features Under Various Collision Chemistries for Site-Specific Identification of Protein S-Glutathionylation (United States)

    Chou, Chi-Chi; Chiang, Bing-Yu; Lin, Jason Ching-Yao; Pan, Kuan-Ting; Lin, Chun-Hung; Khoo, Kay-Hooi


    Protein S-glutathionylation is a reversible post-translational modification widely implicated in redox regulated biological functions. Conventional biochemical methods, however, often do not allow such a mixed disulfide modification to be reliably identified on specific cysteine residues or be distinguished from other related oxidized forms. To develop more efficient mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical strategies for this purpose, we first investigated the MS/MS fragmentation pattern of S-glutathionylated peptides under various dissociation modes, including collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD), and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), using synthetic peptides derived from protein tyrosine phosphatase as models. Our results indicate that a MALDI-based high energy CID MS/MS on a TOF/TOF affords the most distinctive spectral features that would facilitate rapid and unambiguous identification of site-specific S-glutathionylation. For more complex proteomic samples best tackled by LC-MS/MS approach, we demonstrate that HCD performed on an LTQ-Orbitrap hybrid instrument fairs better than trap-based CID and ETD in allowing more protein site-specific S-glutathionylation to be confidently identified by direct database searching of the generated MS/MS dataset using Mascot. Overall, HCD afforded more peptide sequence-informative fragment ions retaining the glutathionyl modification with less neutral losses of side chains to compromise scoring. In conjunction with our recently developed chemo-enzymatic tagging strategy, our nanoLC-HCD-MS/MS approach is sufficiently sensitive to identify endogenous S-glutathionylated peptides prepared from non-stressed cells. It is anticipated that future applications to global scale analysis of protein S-glutathionylation will benefit further from current advances in both speed and mass accuracy afforded by HCD MS/MS mode on the Orbitrap series.

  8. An effective noise reduction method for multi-energy CT images that exploit spatio-spectral features. (United States)

    Li, Zhoubo; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Manduca, Armando; McCollough, Cynthia H


    To develop and evaluate an image-domain noise reduction method for multi-energy CT (MECT) data. Multi-Energy Non-Local Means (MENLM) is a technique that uses the redundant information in MECT images to achieve noise reduction. In this method, spatio-spectral features are used to determine the similarity between pixels, making the similarity evaluation more robust to image noise. The performance of this MENLM filter was tested on images acquired on a whole-body research photon counting CT system. The impact of filtering on image quality was quantitatively evaluated in phantom studies in terms of image noise level (standard deviation of pixel values), noise power spectrum (NPS), in-plane and cross-plane spatial resolution, CT number accuracy, material decomposition performance, and subjective low-contrast spatial resolution using the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation phantom. Clinical feasibility was assessed by performing MENLM on contrast-enhanced swine images and unenhanced cadaver head images using clinically relevant doses and dose rates. The phantom studies demonstrated that the MENLM filter reduced noise substantially and still preserved the shape and peak frequency of the NPS. With 80% noise reduction, MENLM filtering caused no degradation of high-contrast spatial resolution, as illustrated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice sensitivity profile (SSP). CT number accuracy was also maintained for all energy channels, demonstrating that energy resolution was not affected by filtering. Material decomposition performance was improved with MENLM filtering. The subjective evaluation using the ACR phantom demonstrated an improvement in low-contrast performance. MENLM achieved effective noise reduction in both contrast-enhanced swine images and unenhanced cadaver head images, resulting in improved detection of subtle vascular structures and the differentiation of white/gray matter. In MECT, MENLM achieved around 80% noise reduction

  9. Spectral sensitization of TiO2 by new hemicyanine dyes in dye solar cell yielding enhanced photovoltage: Probing chain length effect on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadadu, Kishan B.; Soni, Saurabh S.


    Graphical abstract: New hemicyanine dyes based on indolenine moiety were utilized as light harvesting materials in dye sensitized solar cell. Chain lengths of the molecules were varied in order to study its effect of chain length on the performance of DSSC. Electron transfer kinetic of the solar cell was studied and it was found that the chain length changes the electron transfer kinetic. We have achieved remarkable photovoltage and overall performance of DSSC. Highlights: ► New hemicyanine dyes based on indolenine moiety were utilized as light harvesting materials in dye sensitized solar cell. ► Chain lengths of the molecules were varied in order to study its effect of chain length on the performance of DSSC. ► Electron transfer kinetic of the solar cell was studied and it was found that the chain length changes the electron transfer kinetic. -- Abstract: New hemicyanine dyes having indole nucleus with different alkyl chain length were synthesized and characterized using 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopy. These dyes were used to sensitize the TiO 2 film in dye sensitized solar cell. Nanocrystalline dye solar cells were fabricated and characterized using various electrochemical techniques. It has been found that the alkyl chain length present in the dye molecules greatly affects the overall performance of dye solar cell. Molecules having longer alkyl chain are having better sensitizers which enhance V oc to significant extent. Chain length dependent performance was further investigated using Tafel polarization and impedance method. Hemicyanine dye having hexyl chain has outperformed by attaining 2.9% solar to electricity conversion efficiency

  10. Automatic Object-Oriented, Spectral-Spatial Feature Extraction Driven by Tobler’s First Law of Geography for Very High Resolution Aerial Imagery Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Lv


    Full Text Available Aerial image classification has become popular and has attracted extensive research efforts in recent decades. The main challenge lies in its very high spatial resolution but relatively insufficient spectral information. To this end, spatial-spectral feature extraction is a popular strategy for classification. However, parameter determination for that feature extraction is usually time-consuming and depends excessively on experience. In this paper, an automatic spatial feature extraction approach based on image raster and segmental vector data cross-analysis is proposed for the classification of very high spatial resolution (VHSR aerial imagery. First, multi-resolution segmentation is used to generate strongly homogeneous image objects and extract corresponding vectors. Then, to automatically explore the region of a ground target, two rules, which are derived from Tobler’s First Law of Geography (TFL and a topological relationship of vector data, are integrated to constrain the extension of a region around a central object. Third, the shape and size of the extended region are described. A final classification map is achieved through a supervised classifier using shape, size, and spectral features. Experiments on three real aerial images of VHSR (0.1 to 0.32 m are done to evaluate effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach. Comparisons to state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in VHSR image classification.

  11. Lunar mare TiO2 abundances estimated from UV/Vis reflectance (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Robinson, Mark S.; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Denevi, Brett W.; Hapke, Bruce; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Hiesinger, Harald


    The visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-2800 nm) reflectance of the lunar regolith is dominantly controlled by variations in the abundance of plagioclase, iron-bearing silicate minerals, opaque minerals (e.g., ilmenite), and maturation products (e.g., agglutinate glass, radiation-produced rims on soil grains, and Fe-metal). The same materials control reflectance into the near-UV (250-400 nm) with varying degrees of importance. A key difference is that while ilmenite is spectrally neutral in the visible to near-infrared, it exhibits a diagnostic upturn in reflectance in the near-UV, at wavelengths shorter than about 450 nm. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) filters were specifically designed to take advantage of this spectral feature to enable more accurate mapping of ilmenite within mare soils than previously possible. Using the reflectance measured at 321 and 415 nm during 62 months of repeated near-global WAC observations, first we found a linear correlation between the TiO2 contents of the lunar soil samples and the 321/415 nm ratio of each sample return site. We then used the coefficients from the linear regression and the near-global WAC multispectral mosaic to derive a new TiO2 map. The average TiO2 content is 3.9 wt% for the 17 major maria. The highest TiO2 values were found in Mare Tranquillitatis (∼12.6 wt%) and Oceanus Procellarum (∼11.6 wt%). Regions contaminated by highland ejecta, lunar swirls, and the low-TiO2 maria (e.g., Mare Frigoris, the northeastern units of Mare Imbrium) exhibit very low TiO2 values (2.6 Ga), whereas only medium to high TiO2 values (average = 6.8 wt%, minimum = 4.5 wt%) are found for younger mare units (<2.6 Ga).

  12. Highly stable colloidal TiO2 nanocrystals with strong violet-blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, Morteza Sasani; Gaeeni, Mohammad Reza; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho


    Improved sol–gel method has been applied to prepare highly stable colloidal TiO 2 nanocrystals. The synthesized titania nanocrystals exhibit strong emission in the violet-blue wavelength region. Very long evolution time was obtained by preventing the sol to gel conversion with reflux process. FTIR, XRD, UV–vis absorption, photoluminescence and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to study the optical properties, crystalline phase, morphology, shape and size of prepared TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals. HRTEM showed that the diameter of TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is about 5 nm. Although the PL spectra show similar spectral features upon excitation wavelengths at 280, 300 and 350 nm, but their emission intensities are significantly different from each other. Photoluminescence quantum yield for TiO 2 colloidal nanocrystals is estimated to be 49% with 280 nm excitation wavelength which is in agreement and better than reported before. Obtained results confirm that the prepared colloidal TiO 2 sample has enough potential for optoelectronics applications.

  13. Heterogeneous terahertz quantum cascade lasers exceeding 1.9 THz spectral bandwidth and featuring dual comb operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rösch Markus


    Full Text Available We report on a heterogeneous active region design for terahertz quantum cascade laser based frequency combs. Dynamic range, spectral bandwidth and output power have been significantly improved with respect to previous designs. When individually operating the lasers, narrow and stable intermode beatnote indicate frequency comb operation up to a spectral bandwidth of 1.1 THz, while in a dispersion-dominated regime a bandwidth up to 1.94 THz at a center frequency of 3 THz can be reached. A self-detected dual-comb setup has been used to verify the frequency comb nature of the lasers.

  14. Radiometric Normalization of Temporal Images Combining Automatic Detection of Pseudo-Invariant Features from the Distance and Similarity Spectral Measures, Density Scatterplot Analysis, and Robust Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Radiometric precision is difficult to maintain in orbital images due to several factors (atmospheric conditions, Earth-sun distance, detector calibration, illumination, and viewing angles. These unwanted effects must be removed for radiometric consistency among temporal images, leaving only land-leaving radiances, for optimum change detection. A variety of relative radiometric correction techniques were developed for the correction or rectification of images, of the same area, through use of reference targets whose reflectance do not change significantly with time, i.e., pseudo-invariant features (PIFs. This paper proposes a new technique for radiometric normalization, which uses three sequential methods for an accurate PIFs selection: spectral measures of temporal data (spectral distance and similarity, density scatter plot analysis (ridge method, and robust regression. The spectral measures used are the spectral angle (Spectral Angle Mapper, SAM, spectral correlation (Spectral Correlation Mapper, SCM, and Euclidean distance. The spectral measures between the spectra at times t1 and t2 and are calculated for each pixel. After classification using threshold values, it is possible to define points with the same spectral behavior, including PIFs. The distance and similarity measures are complementary and can be calculated together. The ridge method uses a density plot generated from images acquired on different dates for the selection of PIFs. In a density plot, the invariant pixels, together, form a high-density ridge, while variant pixels (clouds and land cover changes are spread, having low density, facilitating its exclusion. Finally, the selected PIFs are subjected to a robust regression (M-estimate between pairs of temporal bands for the detection and elimination of outliers, and to obtain the optimal linear equation for a given set of target points. The robust regression is insensitive to outliers, i.e., observation that appears to deviate

  15. Universal Features of Electron Dynamics in Solar Cells with TiO2 Contact: From Dye Solar Cells to Perovskite Solar Cells. (United States)

    Todinova, Anna; Idígoras, Jesús; Salado, Manuel; Kazim, Samrana; Anta, Juan A


    The electron dynamics of solar cells with mesoporous TiO2 contact is studied by electrochemical small-perturbation techniques. The study involved dye solar cells (DSC), solid-state perovskite solar cells (SSPSC), and devices where the perovskite acts as sensitizer in a liquid-junction device. Using a transport-recombination continuity equation we found that mid-frequency time constants are proper lifetimes that determine the current-voltage curve. This is not the case for the SSPSC, where a lifetime of ∼1 μs, 1 order of magnitude longer, is required to reproduce the current-voltage curve. This mismatch is attributed to the dielectric response on the mid-frequency component. Correcting for this effect, lifetimes lie on a common exponential trend with respect to open-circuit voltage. Electron transport times share a common trend line too. This universal behavior of lifetimes and transport times suggests that the main difference between the cells is the power to populate the mesoporous TiO2 contact with electrons.

  16. Benefits of Red-Edge Spectral Band and Texture Features for the Object-based Classification using RapidEye sSatellite Image data (United States)

    Kim, H. O.; Yeom, J. M.


    Space-based remote sensing in agriculture is particularly relevant to issues such as global climate change, food security, and precision agriculture. Recent satellite missions have opened up new perspectives by offering high spatial resolution, various spectral properties, and fast revisit rates to the same regions. Here, we examine the utility of broadband red-edge spectral information in multispectral satellite image data for classifying paddy rice crops in South Korea. Additionally, we examine how object-based spectral features affect the classification of paddy rice growth stages. For the analysis, two seasons of RapidEye satellite image data were used. The results showed that the broadband red-edge information slightly improved the classification accuracy of the crop condition in heterogeneous paddy rice crop environments, particularly when single-season image data were used. This positive effect appeared to be offset by the multi-temporal image data. Additional texture information brought only a minor improvement or a slight decline, although it is well known to be advantageous for object-based classification in general. We conclude that broadband red-edge information derived from conventional multispectral satellite data has the potential to improve space-based crop monitoring. Because the positive or negative effects of texture features for object-based crop classification could barely be interpreted, the relationships between the textual properties and paddy rice crop parameters at the field scale should be further examined in depth.

  17. Spectral dependence of backscattering coefficient of mixed phase clouds over West Africa measured with two-wavelength Raman polarization lidar: Features attributed to ice-crystals corner reflection (United States)

    Veselovskii, I.; Goloub, P.; Podvin, T.; Tanre, D.; Ansmann, A.; Korenskiy, M.; Borovoi, A.; Hu, Q.; Whiteman, D. N.


    The existing models predict that corner reflection (CR) of laser radiation by simple ice crystals of perfect shape, such as hexagonal columns or plates, can provide a significant contribution to the ice cloud backscattering. However in real clouds the CR effect may be suppressed due to crystal deformation and surface roughness. In contrast to the extinction coefficient, which is spectrally independent, consideration of diffraction associated with CR results in a spectral dependence of the backscattering coefficient. Thus measuring the spectral dependence of the cloud backscattering coefficient, the contribution of CR can be identified. The paper presents the results of profiling of backscattering coefficient (β) and particle depolarization ratio (δ) of ice and mixed-phase clouds over West Africa by means of a two-wavelength polarization Mie-Raman lidar operated at 355 nm and 532 nm during the SHADOW field campaign. The lidar observations were performed at a slant angle of 43 degree off zenith, thus CR from both randomly oriented crystals and oriented plates could be analyzed. For the most of the observations the cloud backscatter color ratio β355/β532 was close to 1.0, and no spectral features that might indicate the presence of CR of randomly oriented crystals were revealed. Still, in two measurement sessions we observed an increase of backscatter color ratio to a value of nearly 1.3 simultaneously with a decrease of the spectral depolarization ratio δ355/δ532 ratio from 1.0 to 0.8 inside the layers containing precipitating ice crystals. We attribute these changes in optical properties to corner reflections by horizontally oriented ice plates.

  18. [Spectral Analysis of CdZnSe Ternary Quantum Dots Sensitized TiO2 Tubes and Its Application in Visible-Light Photocatalysis]. (United States)

    Han, Zhi-zhong; Ren, Li-li; Pan, Hai-bo; Li, Chun-yan; Chen, Jing-hua; Chen, Jian-zhong


    In this work, cadmium nitrate hexahydrate [Cd(NO₃)₂ · 6H₂O] is as a source of cadmium, zinc nitrate [Zn(NO₃)₂] as a source of zinc source, and NaHSe as a source of selenium which was prepared through reducing the elemental selenium with sodium borohydride (NaBH₄). Then water-soluble Cd₁₋xZnxSe ternary quantum dots with different component were prepared by colloid chemistry. The as-prepared Cd₁₋xZnx Se ternary quantum dots exhibit stable fluorescent property in aqueous solution, and can still maintain good dispersivity at room temperature for four months. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to analyze crystal structure and morphology of the prepared Cd₁₋xZnxSe. It is found that the as-prepared ternary quantum dots are cubic phase, show as sphere, and the average of particle size is approximate 4 nm. The spectral properties and energy band structure of the as-prepared ternary quantum dots were modulated through changing the atom ratio of elements Zn and Cd. Compared with binary quantum dots CdSe and ZnSe, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) absorption spectrum and fluorescence (FL) emission spectrum of ternary quantum dots are both red-shift. The composites (Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs) of Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes (TNTs) were prepared by directly immerging TNTs into quantum dots dispersive solution for 5 hours. TEM image shows that the Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots were closely combined to nanotube surface. The infrared spectra show that the Ti-Se bond was formed between Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes, which improve the stability of the composite. Compared to pristine TNTs, UV-Visible absorption spectrum of the composites is significantly enhanced in the visible region of light. And the absorption band edge of Cd₀.₅Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs red-shift from 400 to 700 nm. The recombination of the

  19. Origin of Spectral Features and Acid-Base Properties of 3,7-Dihydroxyflavone and Its Monofunctional Derivatives in the Ground and Excited States. (United States)

    Serdiuk, Illia E; Roshal, Alexander D; Błażejowski, Jerzy


    Comprehensive spectral investigations of 3,7-dihydroxyflavone and its two derivatives, which each contain a methyl-blocked hydroxyl group, reveal complex radiation absorption in the 300-450 nm range and emission in the 370-650 nm range. The absorption and fluorescence characteristics of these compounds depend on the pH/H0 of the water/methanol media, which is caused by the existence of the compounds in various protolytic (cationic, neutral, anionic) and tautomeric forms. Combined analysis of steady-state, time-dependent and fluorescence decay spectral data enabled the identification of the emitting species, determination of their lifetimes with respect to radiative and nonradiative deactivation processes, fluorescence quantum yields, protolytic and tautomeric abilities under various conditions, and acidic dissociation constants of the cationic, neutral, and anionic forms of the compounds. Results of calculations carried out at the DFT and TD DFT levels of theory generally confirmed the experimental findings concerning tautomeric/protolytic transformations and equilibria. Computational methods also provided insight into possible tautomerization pathways. Electronically excited molecules are generally much more susceptible to tautomerization and acidic dissociation than ground-state ones. 3,7-Dihydroxyflavone exhibits distinguishable features among the compounds investigated and can be considered as potential spectral indicator of properties (polarity, hydrophobicity, hydrogen-bonding ability) and acidity/basicity of liquid environments.

  20. Recognition of wake-sleep stage 1 multichannel eeg patterns using spectral entropy features for drowsiness detection. (United States)

    Sriraam, N; Padma Shri, T K; Maheshwari, Uma


    Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded during the entire sleep cycle reflects various complex processes associated with brain and exhibits a high degree of irregularity through various stages of sleep. The identification of transition from wakefulness to stage1 sleep is a challenging area of research for the biomedical community. In this paper, spectral entropy (SE) is used as a complexity measure to quantify irregularities in awake and stage1 sleep of 8-channel sleep EEG data from the polysomnographic recordings of ten healthy subjects. The SE measures of awake and stage1 sleep EEG data are estimated for each second and applied to a multilayer perceptron feed forward neural network (MLP-FF). The network is trained using back propagation algorithm for recognizing these two patterns. Initially, the MLP network is trained and tested for randomly chosen subject-wise combined datasets I and II and then for the combined large dataset III. In all cases, 60 % of the entire dataset is used for training while 20 % is used for testing and 20 % for validation. Results indicate that the MLP neural network learns with maximum testing accuracy of 95.9 % for dataset II. In the case of combined large dataset, the network performs with a maximum accuracy of 99.2 % with 100 hidden neurons. Results show that in channels O1, O2, F3 and F4 (A1, A2 as reference), the mean of the spectral entropy value is higher in awake state than in stage1 sleep indicating that the EEG becomes more regular and rhythmic as the subject attains stage1 sleep from wakefulness. However, in C3 and C4 the mean values of SE values are not very much discriminative of both groups. This may prove to be a very effective indicator for scoring the first two stages of sleep EEG and may be used to detect the transition from wakefulness to stage1 sleep.

  1. Special features of bile acids spectral composition in patients with hyperuricemia in combination with obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Володимирівна Барабанчик


    Full Text Available Aim. To study changes of the bile acids spectral composition in patients with hyperuricemia combined with obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis using thin-layer chromatography.Materials and methods. We examined 146 patients separated in two groups. The main group included 84 patients with hyperurecimia combined with obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. 62 patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis without additional factors of metabolic syndrome formed the control group. The non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH was diagnosed on the base of criteria of exclusion of the chronic diffuse disease of liver of viral, autoimmune, inherited and medicamental genesis as a cause of cytolytic syndrome and also increase of exogeneity and decrease of sound conductivity of the liver according to the results of ultrasound examination.Results. Examined patients with hyperurecemia combined with NASH and obesity demonstrated the reliable increase of cholic acid level in cystic bile in 2,9 times (р<0,001 and deoxycholic acid level in 2,6 times (р<0,001. We observed decrease of taurocholic acid in cystic bile in 1,4 times (р<0,001 and decrease of glycocholic acid in 2,1 times (р<0,01. We noticed an increase of index of taurohenodeoxycholic and taurodeoxycholic acids mixture in 1,5 times (р<0,05 and also glycohenodeoxycholic and glycodeoxycholic ones in 1,3 times (р<0,01.Conclusions. So during the research there were demonstrated changes of spectral composition of bile acids in patients with hyperuricemia combined with obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. There was demonstrated an importance of defining the bile acids spectrum with the method of thin-layer chromatography for further prevention of cholelithiasis development

  2. A comparison of the near-infrared spectral features of early-type galaxies in the Coma Cluster, the Virgo cluster and the field (United States)

    Houdashelt, Mark L.; Frogel, Jay A.


    Earlier researchers derived the relative distance between the Coma and Virgo clusters from color-magnitude relations of the early-type galaxies in each cluster. They found that the derived distance was color-dependent and concluded that the galaxies of similar luminosity in the two clusters differ in their red stellar populations. More recently, the color-dependence of the Coma-Virgo distance modulus has been called into question. However, because these two clusters differ so dramatically in their morphologies and kinematics, it is plausible that the star formation histories of the member galaxies also differed. If the conclusions of earlier researchers are indeed correct, then some signature of the resulting stellar population differences should appear in the near-infrared and/or infrared light of the respective galaxies. We have collected near-infrared spectra of 17 Virgo and 10 Coma early-type galaxies; this sample spans about four magnitudes in luminosity in each cluster. Seven field E/S0 galaxies have been observed for comparison. Pseudo-equivalent widths have been measured for all of the field galaxies, all but one of the Virgo members, and five of the Coma galaxies. The features examined are sensitive to the temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity of the reddest stars. A preliminary analysis of these spectral features has been performed, and, with a few notable exceptions, the measured pseudo-equivalent widths agree well with previously published values.

  3. Color Shift Failure Prediction for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs by Modeling Features of Spectral Power Distribution with a Nonlinear Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Fan


    Full Text Available With the expanding application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs, the color quality of white LEDs has attracted much attention in several color-sensitive application fields, such as museum lighting, healthcare lighting and displays. Reliability concerns for white LEDs are changing from the luminous efficiency to color quality. However, most of the current available research on the reliability of LEDs is still focused on luminous flux depreciation rather than color shift failure. The spectral power distribution (SPD, defined as the radiant power distribution emitted by a light source at a range of visible wavelength, contains the most fundamental luminescence mechanisms of a light source. SPD is used as the quantitative inference of an LED’s optical characteristics, including color coordinates that are widely used to represent the color shift process. Thus, to model the color shift failure of white LEDs during aging, this paper first extracts the features of an SPD, representing the characteristics of blue LED chips and phosphors, by multi-peak curve-fitting and modeling them with statistical functions. Then, because the shift processes of extracted features in aged LEDs are always nonlinear, a nonlinear state-space model is then developed to predict the color shift failure time within a self-adaptive particle filter framework. The results show that: (1 the failure mechanisms of LEDs can be identified by analyzing the extracted features of SPD with statistical curve-fitting and (2 the developed method can dynamically and accurately predict the color coordinates, correlated color temperatures (CCTs, and color rendering indexes (CRIs of phosphor-converted (pc-white LEDs, and also can estimate the residual color life.

  4. The spectral features of EEG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex depend on the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials. (United States)

    Fecchio, Matteo; Pigorini, Andrea; Comanducci, Angela; Sarasso, Simone; Casarotto, Silvia; Premoli, Isabella; Derchi, Chiara-Camilla; Mazza, Alice; Russo, Simone; Resta, Federico; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Mariotti, Maurizio; Ziemann, Ulf; Massimini, Marcello; Rosanova, Mario


    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) can excite both cortico-cortical and cortico-spinal axons resulting in TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), respectively. Despite this remarkable difference with other cortical areas, the influence of motor output and its amplitude on TEPs is largely unknown. Here we studied TEPs resulting from M1 stimulation and assessed whether their waveform and spectral features depend on the MEP amplitude. To this aim, we performed two separate experiments. In experiment 1, single-pulse TMS was applied at the same supra-threshold intensity on primary motor, prefrontal, premotor and parietal cortices and the corresponding TEPs were compared by means of local mean field power and time-frequency spectral analysis. In experiment 2 we stimulated M1 at resting motor threshold in order to elicit MEPs characterized by a wide range of amplitudes. TEPs computed from high-MEP and low-MEP trials were then compared using the same methods applied in experiment 1. In line with previous studies, TMS of M1 produced larger TEPs compared to other cortical stimulations. Notably, we found that only TEPs produced by M1 stimulation were accompanied by a late event-related desynchronization (ERD-peaking at ~300 ms after TMS), whose magnitude was strongly dependent on the amplitude of MEPs. Overall, these results suggest that M1 produces peculiar responses to TMS possibly reflecting specific anatomo-functional properties, such as the re-entry of proprioceptive feedback associated with target muscle activation.

  5. Validation of maritime spectral features (United States)

    Hubler, Matthew J.

    In 1991 a research team led by Klaus Hasselmann developed a general technique to build synthetic aperture radar (SAR) spectra from scans of the ocean surface; however these techniques were verified on older equipment. The algorithms input a SAR spectrum from an ocean spectrum, an inversion from SAR spectrum to ocean spectrum, and determine the threshold of the azimuthal cutoff. Originally designed for platforms that have since fulfilled their missions, the question remains as to whether the algorithms are valid with newer systems such as TerraSAR-X operated by German Aerospace Centre (DLR). One of the larger differences that may skew data analysis by these algorithms is that TerraSAR-X has much finer resolution, pixels being on the scale of 5--10 meters (or less), while older satellites returned images with pixel scaling on the order of kilometers. The finer pixel scaling allows for more detail to be recovered and analyzed, specifically the individual waves on the ocean surface become visible. To that end, algorithms developed for older satellites will be employed on data collected from TerraSAR-X and compared to ground truth data in order to assess the compatibility of existing algorithms. During the course of the validation, several sets of code, written in Matlab, will be employed and discussed, each providing a different approach, more focused results. In aggregate a clearer picture will emerge describing the accuracy that older algorithms have with newer machinery. The imagery data, being satellite borne, comes with individual collection geometry that needs to be addressed in the processing as well, currently through parsing the accompanying metadata. The determination that these algorithms indeed work with newer systems and the validation of an azimuthal cutoff demonstrate that little fine tuning of older algorithms is needed at these higher resolutions. While the Hasselmann algorithms become cumbersome to use, a new approach to the algorithms yield useful quantifiable measurements. Thus combination of these new algorithms, buoy ground truth data, and more recent SAR technology deliver a powerful analytical tool. The eventual result of these algorithms could apply to meteorology, commercial shipping, disaster planning and recovery, ecology, and a vast assortment of other fields that would seek the wind patterns in open ocean scenes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwieterman, Edward W.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Arney, Giada N.; Luger, Rodrigo; Misra, Amit; Barnes, Rory [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Deming, Drake; Harman, Chester E., E-mail: [NASA Astrobiology Institute’s Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Seattle, WA 981195 (United States)


    O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} have been long considered the most robust individual biosignature gases in a planetary atmosphere, yet multiple mechanisms that may produce them in the absence of life have been described. However, these abiotic planetary mechanisms modify the environment in potentially identifiable ways. Here we briefly discuss two of the most detectable spectral discriminants for abiotic O{sub 2}/O{sub 3}: CO and O{sub 4}. We produce the first explicit self-consistent simulations of these spectral discriminants as they may be seen by James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). If JWST-NIRISS and/or NIRSpec observe CO (2.35, 4.6 μm) in conjunction with CO{sub 2} (1.6, 2.0, 4.3 μm) in the transmission spectrum of a terrestrial planet it could indicate robust CO{sub 2} photolysis and suggest that a future detection of O{sub 2} or O{sub 3} might not be biogenic. Strong O{sub 4} bands seen in transmission at 1.06 and 1.27 μm could be diagnostic of a post-runaway O{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere from massive H-escape. We find that for these false positive scenarios, CO at 2.35 μm, CO{sub 2} at 2.0 and 4.3 μm, and O{sub 4} at 1.27 μm are all stronger features in transmission than O{sub 2}/O{sub 3} and could be detected with S/Ns ≳ 3 for an Earth-size planet orbiting a nearby M dwarf star with as few as 10 transits, assuming photon-limited noise. O{sub 4} bands could also be sought in UV/VIS/NIR reflected light (at 0.345, 0.36, 0.38, 0.445, 0.475, 0.53, 0.57, 0.63, 1.06, and 1.27 μm) by a next generation direct-imaging telescope such as LUVOIR/HDST or HabEx and would indicate an oxygen atmosphere too massive to be biologically produced.

  7. An empirical method for determination of elemental components of radiated powers and impurity concentrations from VUV and XUV spectral features in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, K.; Peacock, N.; Gianella, R.


    The derivation of elemental components of radiated powers and impurity concentrations in bulk tokamak plasmas is complex, often requiring a full description of the impurity transport. A novel, empirical method, the Line Intensity Normalization Technique (LINT) has been developed on the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak to provide routine information about the impurity content of the plasma and elemental components of radiated power (P rad ). The technique employs a few VUV and XUV resonance line intensities to represent the intrinsic impurity elements in the plasma. From a data base comprising these spectral features, the total bolometric measurement of the radiated power and the Z eff measured by visible spectroscopy, separate elemental components of P rad and Z eff are derived. The method, which converts local spectroscopic signals into global plasma parameters, has the advantage of simplicity, allowing large numbers of pulses to be processed, and, in many operational modes of JET, is found to be both reliable and accurate. It relies on normalizing the line intensities to the absolute calibration of the bolometers and visible spectrometers, using coefficients independent of density and temperature. Accuracies of the order of ± 15% can be achieved for the elemental P rad components of the most significant impurities and the impurity concentrations can be determined to within ±30%. Trace elements can be monitored, although with reduced accuracy. The present paper deals with limiter discharges, which have been the main application to date. As a check on the technique and to demonstrate the value of the LINT results, they have been applied to the transport modelling of intrinsic impurities carried out with the SANCO transport code, which uses atomic data from ADAS. The simulations provide independent confirmation of the concentrations empirically derived using the LINT technique. For this analysis, the simple case of the L-mode regime is considered, the chosen

  8. Far-ultraviolet spectral changes of titanium dioxide with gold nanoparticles by ultraviolet and visible light (United States)

    Tanabe, Ichiro; Kurawaki, Yuji


    Attenuated total reflectance spectra including the far-ultraviolet (FUV, ≤ 200 nm) region of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with and without gold (Au) nanoparticles were measured. A newly developed external light-irradiation system enabled to observe spectral changes of TiO2 with Au nanoparticles upon light irradiations. Absorption in the FUV region decreased and increased by the irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light, respectively. These spectral changes may reflect photo-induced electron transfer from TiO2 to Au nanoparticles under ultraviolet light and from Au nanoparticles to TiO2 under visible light, respectively.

  9. Spectral clustering for water body spectral types analysis (United States)

    Huang, Leping; Li, Shijin; Wang, Lingli; Chen, Deqing


    In order to study the spectral types of water body in the whole country, the key issue of reservoir research is to obtain and to analyze the information of water body in the reservoir quantitatively and accurately. A new type of weight matrix is constructed by utilizing the spectral features and spatial features of the spectra from GF-1 remote sensing images comprehensively. Then an improved spectral clustering algorithm is proposed based on this weight matrix to cluster representative reservoirs in China. According to the internal clustering validity index which called Davies-Bouldin(DB) index, the best clustering number 7 is obtained. Compared with two clustering algorithms, the spectral clustering algorithm based only on spectral features and the K-means algorithm based on spectral features and spatial features, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed spectral clustering algorithm based on spectral features and spatial features has a higher clustering accuracy, which can better reflect the spatial clustering characteristics of representative reservoirs in various provinces in China - similar spectral properties and adjacent geographical locations.

  10. [Review of digital ground object spectral library]. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu


    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  11. Detecting molecular features of spectra mainly associated with structural and non-structural carbohydrates in co-products from bioEthanol production using DRIFT with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses. (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Azarfar, Arash; Niu, Zhiyuan


    The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 1292-1198 cm(-1)), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187-950 cm(-1)), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 952-910 cm(-1)), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 880-827 cm(-1)), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm(-1) with baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm(-1) with a baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292-1198 cm(-1) and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187-950 cm(-1) with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular spectra, but not wheat and wheat DDGS. This study indicated that the bioethanol processing changes carbohydrate molecular structural profiles, compared

  12. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode


    Jiaoping Cai; Zexiang Chen; Jun Li; Yan Wang; Dong Xiang; Jijun Zhang; Hai Li


    A new titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon ...

  13. The gravitational wave background from massive black hole binaries in Illustris: spectral features and time to detection with pulsar timing arrays (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars; Sesana, Alberto; Taylor, Stephen R.


    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) around the world are using the incredible consistency of millisecond pulsars to measure low-frequency gravitational waves from (super)massive black hole (MBH) binaries. We use comprehensive MBH merger models based on cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to predict the spectrum of the stochastic gravitational wave background (GWB). We use real time-of-arrival specifications from the European, NANOGrav, Parkes, and International PTA (IPTA) to calculate realistic times to detection of the GWB across a wide range of model parameters. In addition to exploring the parameter space of environmental hardening processes (in particular: stellar scattering efficiencies), we have expanded our models to include eccentric binary evolution which can have a strong effect on the GWB spectrum. Our models show that strong stellar scattering and high characteristic eccentricities enhance the GWB strain amplitude near the PTA-sensitive `sweet-spot' (near the frequency f = 1 yr-1), slightly improving detection prospects in these cases. While the GWB amplitude is degenerate between cosmological and environmental parameters, the location of a spectral turnover at low frequencies (f ≲ 0.1 yr-1) is strongly indicative of environmental coupling. At high frequencies (f ≳ 1 yr-1), the GWB spectral index can be used to infer the number density of sources and possibly their eccentricity distribution. Even with merger models that use pessimistic environmental and eccentricity parameters, if the current rate of PTA expansion continues, we find that the IPTA is highly likely to make a detection within about 10 yr.

  14. Principal component analysis of Raman spectra for TiO2 nanoparticle characterization (United States)

    Ilie, Alina Georgiana; Scarisoareanu, Monica; Morjan, Ion; Dutu, Elena; Badiceanu, Maria; Mihailescu, Ion


    The Raman spectra of anatase/rutile mixed phases of Sn doped TiO2 nanoparticles and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles, synthesised by laser pyrolysis, with nanocrystallite dimensions varying from 8 to 28 nm, was simultaneously processed with a self-written software that applies Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the measured spectrum to verify the possibility of objective auto-characterization of nanoparticles from their vibrational modes. The photo-excited process of Raman scattering is very sensible to the material characteristics, especially in the case of nanomaterials, where more properties become relevant for the vibrational behaviour. We used PCA, a statistical procedure that performs eigenvalue decomposition of descriptive data covariance, to automatically analyse the sample's measured Raman spectrum, and to interfere the correlation between nanoparticle dimensions, tin and carbon concentration, and their Principal Component values (PCs). This type of application can allow an approximation of the crystallite size, or tin concentration, only by measuring the Raman spectrum of the sample. The study of loadings of the principal components provides information of the way the vibrational modes are affected by the nanoparticle features and the spectral area relevant for the classification.

  15. Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Azarfar, Arash; Niu, Zhiyuan


    The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 1292–1198 cm−1), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187–950 cm−1), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 952–910 cm−1), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 880–827 cm−1), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm−1 with baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm−1 with a baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292–1198 cm−1 and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187–950 cm−1 with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular spectra, but not wheat and wheat DDGS. This

  16. Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Niu


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum, corn (Zea mays. The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1, A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 1292–1198 cm−1, A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187–950 cm-1, A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 952–910 cm−1, A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 880–827 cm-1, H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm−1 with baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1, H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm−1 with a baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1. The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P < 0.05, higher (P < 0.05 intensities of the non-structural carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0 and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6 than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05 in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO at 1292–1198 cm−1 and A_CHO (total CHO at 1187–950 cm−1 with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05 in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS

  17. A novel real-time patient-specific seizure diagnosis algorithm based on analysis of EEG and ECG signals using spectral and spatial features and improved particle swarm optimization classifier. (United States)

    Nasehi, Saadat; Pourghassem, Hossein


    This paper proposes a novel real-time patient-specific seizure diagnosis algorithm based on analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals to detect seizure onset. In this algorithm, spectral and spatial features are selected from seizure and non-seizure EEG signals by Gabor functions and principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, four features based on heart rate acceleration are extracted from ECG signals to form feature vector. Then a neural network classifier based on improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) learning algorithm is developed to determine an optimal nonlinear decision boundary. This classifier allows to adjust the parameters of the neural network classifier, efficiently. This algorithm can automatically detect the presence of seizures with minimum delay which is an important factor from a clinical viewpoint. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on a dataset consisting of 154 h records and 633 seizures from 12 patients. The results indicate that the algorithm can recognize the seizures with the smallest latency and higher good detection rate (GDR) than other presented algorithms in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vocal projection in actors: the long-term average spectral features that distinguish comfortable acting voice from voicing with maximal projection in male actors. (United States)

    Pinczower, Rachel; Oates, Jennifer


    This study explored whether acoustic and perceptual features could distinguish comfortable from maximally projected acting voice. Thirteen professional male actors performed a passage from William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar twice. The first delivery used their comfortably projected voices, whereas the second used maximal projection. Acoustic measures, expert ratings, and self-ratings of projection and voice quality were investigated. Long-term average spectra (LTAS) and sound pressure level (SPL) analyses were conducted. Perceptual variables included projection, breathiness, roughness, and strain. When comparing the intensity difference between the higher (2-4 kHz) and lower (0-2 kHz) regions of the spectrum in voice samples from the maximal projected condition, LTAS analyses demonstrated increased acoustic energy in the higher part of the spectrum. This LTAS pattern was not as evident in the comfortable projected condition. These findings offered some preliminary support for the existence of an actor's formant (prominent peak in the upper part of the spectrum) during maximal projection.

  19. Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous-chondrite Inclusions in the Kapoeta Meteorite: Discovery of Nanodiamonds with New Spectral Features and Astrophysical Implications (United States)

    Abdu, Yassir A.; Hawthorne, Frank C.; Varela, Maria E.


    We report the finding of nanodiamonds, coexisting with amorphous carbon, in carbonaceous-chondrite (CC) material from the Kapoeta achondritic meteorite by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. In the C–H stretching region (3100–2600 cm‑1), the FTIR spectrum of the Kapoeta CC material (KBr pellet) shows bands attributable to aliphatic CH2 and CH3 groups, and is very similar to IR spectra of organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites and the diffuse interstellar medium. Nanodiamonds, as evidenced by micro-Raman spectroscopy, were found in a dark region (∼400 μm in size) in the KBr pellet. Micro-FTIR spectra collected from this region are dramatically different from the KBr-pellet spectrum, and their C–H stretching region is dominated by a strong and broad absorption band centered at ∼2886 cm‑1 (3.47 μm), very similar to that observed in IR absorption spectra of hydrocarbon dust in dense interstellar clouds. Micro-FTIR spectroscopy also indicates the presence of an aldehyde and a nitrile, and both of the molecules are ubiquitous in dense interstellar clouds. In addition, IR peaks in the 1500–800 cm‑1 region are also observed, which may be attributed to different levels of nitrogen aggregation in diamonds. This is the first evidence for the presence of the 3.47 μm interstellar IR band in meteorites. Our results further support the assignment of this band to tertiary CH groups on the surfaces of nanodiamonds. The presence of the above interstellar bands and the absence of shock features in the Kapoeta nanodiamonds, as indicated by Raman spectroscopy, suggest formation by a nebular-condensation process similar to chemical-vapor deposition.

  20. Excess electrons in reduced rutile and anatase TiO2 (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Jin; Wen, Bo; Zhou, Chuanyao; Selloni, Annabella; Liu, Li-Min


    As a prototypical photocatalyst, TiO2 is a material of scientific and technological interest. In photocatalysis and other applications, TiO2 is often reduced, behaving as an n-type semiconductor with unique physico-chemical properties. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the fundamental properties and applications of excess electrons in reduced, undoped TiO2. We discuss the characteristics of excess electrons in the bulk and at the surface of rutile and anatase TiO2 focusing on their localization, spatial distribution, energy levels, and dynamical properties. We examine specific features of the electronic states for photoexcited TiO2, for intrinsic oxygen vacancy and Ti interstitial defects, and for surface hydroxyls. We discuss similarities and differences in the behaviors of excess electrons in the rutile and anatase phases. Finally, we consider the effect of excess electrons on the reactivity, focusing on the interaction between excess electrons and adsorbates.

  1. Spectral Lag Evolution among -Ray Burst Pulses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We analyse the spectral lag evolution of -ray burst (GRB) pulses with observations by CGRO/BATSE. No universal spectral lag evolution feature and pulse luminosity-lag relation within a GRB is observed.Our results suggest that the spectral lag would be due to radiation physics and dynamics of a given ...

  2. Dynamics of fibronectin adsorption on TiO2 surfaces. (United States)

    Sousa, S R; Brás, M Manuela; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Barbosa, M A


    incubation. Time dependence is also observed for the evolution of the atomic (%) of N determined by XPS and by the increase of the thickness by ellipsometry. TiO2 cp adsorbs more FN than the TiO2 sp surfaces, after 60 min of adsorption, as shown by the radiolabeling data. FN molecules are also more strongly attached to the former surface as indicated by the exchangeability studies. The overall results provide novel evidence that FN spontaneously adsorbs as a self-assembly at TiO2 surfaces as a function of time. The aggregate structure is an intermediate feature shared by some protein fibrillar assemblies at interfaces, which is believed to promote cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization (Pellenc, D.; Berry, H.; Gallet, O. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2006, 298 (1), 132-144. Maheshwari, G.; Brown, G.; Lauffenburger, D. A.; Wells, A.; Griffith, L. G. J. Cell Sci. 2000, 113 (10), 1677-1686).

  3. Spectral Pollution


    Davies, E B; Plum, M


    We discuss the problems arising when computing eigenvalues of self-adjoint operators which lie in a gap between two parts of the essential spectrum. Spectral pollution, i.e. the apparent existence of eigenvalues in numerical computations, when no such eigenvalues actually exist, is commonplace in problems arising in applied mathematics. We describe a geometrically inspired method which avoids this difficulty, and show that it yields the same results as an algorithm of Zimmermann and Mertins.

  4. High-performance self-powered UV photodetectors based on TiO2 nano-branched arrays (United States)

    Xie, Yanru; Wei, Lin; Li, Qinghao; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Jiao, Jun; Liu, Guolei; Mei, Liangmo


    Nano-branched TiO2 arrays were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile two-step chemical synthesis process. Self-powered UV photodetectors based on photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) were assembled using these TiO2 nano-branched arrays as photoanodes. These visible-blind self-powered UV photodetectors exhibit high sensitivity and high-speed photoresponse. Compared with photodetectors based on bare TiO2 nanorod arrays, TiO2 nano-branched arrays show drastically improved photodetecting performance as photoanodes. The photosensitivity increases from 0.03 to 0.22 A W-1 when optimized nano-branched TiO2 arrays are used, corresponding to an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency higher than 77%. The UV photodetectors also exhibit excellent spectral selectivity and fast response (0.05 s decay time). The improved performance is attributed to a markedly enlarged TiO2/electrolyte contact area and good electron conductivity in the one-dimensional, well-aligned TiO2 nanorod trunk.

  5. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next ...

  6. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency ...

  7. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.


    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  8. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  9. The effect of particles size distribution on aesthetic and thermal performances of polydisperse TiO2 pigmented coatings: Comparison between numerical and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baneshi, Mehdi; Gonome, Hiroki; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao


    A new approach in designing pigmented coatings considering both visual and thermal concerns was introduced by authors in previous works. The objective was to design a pigmented coating with dark appearance which can stay cool while exposed to sunlight. This behavior can be achieved by coating a typical black substrate with a pigmented coating with controlled size and concentration of particles and coating thickness. In present work, the spectral behaviour of polydisperse TiO 2 pigmented coatings was studied. The radiative properties of polydisperse TiO 2 powders were evaluated and the radiative transfer in the pigmented coating was modelled using the radiation element method by ray emission model (REM 2 ). The effects of particles size distribution on spectral reflectivity, optimization parameter, and color coordinates were discussed. The results of numerical calculation were validated by experimental reflectivity measurements of several TiO 2 pigmented coating samples made from two different TiO 2 powders with different size distributions of particles. The results show that our model can reasonably predict the spectral reflectivity of TiO 2 pigmented coating samples. Moreover, the results of optimized monodisperse TiO 2 pigmented coatings were again validated.

  10. Algorithms for Spectral Decomposition with Applications (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The analysis of spectral signals for features that represent physical phenomenon is ubiquitous in the science and engineering communities. There are two main...

  11. Structural features of bionanocomposite derived from novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 2. Structural features of bionanocomposite derived from novel designed poly(ester-imide) based on natural amino acids with hydroxyl segments tailored for better dispersion of TiO2 nanofiller. Shadpour Mallakpour Parvin Asadi. Volume 36 Issue 2 April 2013 ...

  12. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard sili...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance.......We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...

  13. Defect-rich TiO2-δ nanocrystals confined in a mooncake-shaped porous carbon matrix as an advanced Na ion battery anode (United States)

    He, Hanna; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hehe; Li, Jiadong; Peng, Zhiguang; Tang, Yougen; Shao, Minhua


    Inferior electronic conductivity and sluggish sodium ion diffusion are still two big challenges for TiO2 anode material for Na ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, we synthesize TiO2/C composites by the pyrolysis of MIL-125(Ti) precursor and successfully introduce defects to TiO2/C composite by a simple magnesium reduction. The as-prepared defect-rich TiO2-δ/C composite shows mooncake-shaped morphology consisting of TiO2-δ nanocrystals with an average particle size of 5 nm well dispersed in the carbon matrix. When used as a SIBs anode, the defect-rich TiO2-δ/C composite exhibits a high reversible capacity of 330.2 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 at the voltage range of 0.001-3.0 V and long-term cycling stability with negligible decay after 5000 cycles. Compared with other four TiO2/C samples, the electrochemical performance of defect-rich TiO2-δ/C is highly improved, which may benefit from the enhanced electronic/ionic conductivities owing to the defect-rich features, high surface area rendering shortened electronic and ionic diffusion path, and the suppress of the TiO2 crystal aggregation during sodiation and desodiation process by the carbon matrix.

  14. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoping Cai


    Full Text Available A new titanium dioxide (TiO2 slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs into the TiO2 slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO2 photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ∼0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO2 slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  15. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode (United States)

    Cai, Jiaoping; Chen, Zexiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Jijun; Li, Hai


    A new titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ˜63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the TiO2 slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO2 photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ˜0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO2 slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  16. TiO3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    High purity Bi2O3, Na2CO3, TiO2, MgCO3 and Nb2O5. (purity over 99⋅5%) powders were used as starting mate- rials. Our preliminary experiments found that (Bi1/2Na1/2). Ti1–x(Mg1/3Nb2/3)xO3 ceramics were not well synthesized by mixing and calcinating all these above powders as used in the conventional oxide ...

  17. Textural, structural and electrical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles using Brij 35 and P123 as surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Solís et al


    Full Text Available The effect of the use of the triblock copolymer Pluronic P123[(PEO20(PPO70(PEO20, Aldrich] and the non-ionic polyoxyethylene-lauryl ether Brij 35 as surfactants on the textural, structural and electrical properties of nanosized TiO2 is analyzed in this work. The as-obtained samples were thermally treated at 400 °C to eliminate the surfactant, promote dehydroxylation and crystallize the sample. The TiO2 samples were characterized by thermal analysis, N2 physisorption, x-ray diffraction analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate the TiO2 electrical features, I–V data were obtained. The x-ray diffraction results show that in the chemical synthesis using surfactants, the crystallite size is smaller than that of the commercial sample. The Raman spectroscopy results clearly indicate that, when P123 is used, the anatase phase of TiO2 is obtained, whereas when Brij 35 is used a mixture of the anatase and brookite phases is obtained. The specific surface area and crystallite size of the TiO2 prepared as indicated above are higher and smaller, respectively, than the corresponding properties found in commercial TiO2. The I–V plot showed a nonlinear behavior of the nanosized TiO2. The samples obtained with P123 showed the best electrical conductivity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Irwan


    Full Text Available TiO2/activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds (TiO2/WCGAC has been prepared by a sol gel method . Waste coffee ground was chemically activated using hydrochloric acid 0.1 M solution and modified with titanium tetraisopropoxide as TiO2 precursor. The structural features of the photocatalyst was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM EDX,  Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The XRD results showed that TiO2 is anatase and rutile phase, while FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of  Ti-O groups. The specifics surface area of TiO2/WCGAC was higher than that of activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/WGCAC has been evaluated for degradation of indigo carmine solution under UV and solar light irradiation. It was found that degradation percentage of indigo carmine under solar light was higher than that of under UV light.

  19. Microwave-assisted self-doping of TiO2 photonic crystals for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai


    In this article, we report that the combination of microwave heating and ethylene glycol, a mild reducing agent, can induce Ti3+ self-doping in TiO2. A hierarchical TiO2 nanotube array with the top layer serving as TiO2 photonic crystals (TiO2 NTPCs) was selected as the base photoelectrode. The self-doped TiO2 NTPCs demonstrated a 10-fold increase in visible-light photocurrent density compared to the nondoped one, and the optimized saturation photocurrent density under simulated AM 1.5G illumination was identified to be 2.5 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, which is comparable to the highest values ever reported for TiO2-based photoelectrodes. The significant enhancement of photoelectrochemical performance can be ascribed to the rational coupling of morphological and electronic features of the self-doped TiO 2 NTPCs: (1) the periodically morphological structure of the photonic crystal layer traps broadband visible light, (2) the electronic interband state induced from self-doping of Ti3+ can be excited in the visible-light region, and (3) the captured light by the photonic crystal layer is absorbed by the self-doped interbands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Kelvin probe force microscopy of nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes. (United States)

    Henning, Alex; Günzburger, Gino; Jöhr, Res; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Bozic-Weber, Biljana; Housecroft, Catherine E; Constable, Edwin C; Meyer, Ernst; Glatzel, Thilo


    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) provide a promising third-generation photovoltaic concept based on the spectral sensitization of a wide-bandgap metal oxide. Although the nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrode of a DSC consists of sintered nanoparticles, there are few studies on the nanoscale properties. We focus on the microscopic work function and surface photovoltage (SPV) determination of TiO2 photoelectrodes using Kelvin probe force microscopy in combination with a tunable illumination system. A comparison of the surface potentials for TiO2 photoelectrodes sensitized with two different dyes, i.e., the standard dye N719 and a copper(I) bis(imine) complex, reveals an inverse orientation of the surface dipole. A higher surface potential was determined for an N719 photoelectrode. The surface potential increase due to the surface dipole correlates with a higher DSC performance. Concluding from this, microscopic surface potential variations, attributed to the complex nanostructure of the photoelectrode, influence the DSC performance. For both bare and sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes, the measurements reveal microscopic inhomogeneities of more than 100 mV in the work function and show recombination time differences at different locations. The bandgap of 3.2 eV, determined by SPV spectroscopy, remained constant throughout the TiO2 layer. The effect of the built-in potential on the DSC performance at the TiO2/SnO2:F interface, investigated on a nanometer scale by KPFM measurements under visible light illumination, has not been resolved so far.

  1. Preparation of an antibacterial, hydrophilic and photocatalytically active polyacrylic coating using TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by graphene oxide. (United States)

    Nosrati, Rahimeh; Olad, Ali; Shakoori, Sahar


    In recent years more attentions have been paid for preparation of coatings with self-cleaning and antibacterial properties. These properties allow the surface to maintain clean and health over long times without any need to cleaning or disinfection. Acrylic coatings are widely used on various surfaces such as automotive, structural and furniture which their self-cleaning and antibacterial ability is very important. The aim of this work is the preparation of a polyacrylic based self-cleaning and antibacterial coating by the modification of TiO 2 as a coating additive. TiO 2 nanoparticles were sensitized to the visible light irradiation using graphene oxide through the preparation of TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite. Graphene oxide was prepared via a modified Hummers method. TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite was used as additive in a polyacrylic coating formulation. Hydrophilicity, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities as well as coating stability were evaluated for TiO 2 /graphene oxide modified polyacrylic coating and compared with that of pristine TiO 2 modified and unmodified polyacrylic coatings. TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite and polyacrylic coating modified by TiO 2 /graphene oxide additive were characterized using FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, and FESEM techniques. The effect of TiO 2 /graphene oxide composition and its percent in the coating formulation was evaluated on the polyacrylic coating properties. Results showed that polyacrylic coating having 3% W TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite additive with TiO 2 to graphene oxide ratio of 100:20 is the best coating considering most of beneficial features such as high photodecolorization efficiency of organic dye contaminants, high hydrophilicity, and stability in water. According to the results, TiO 2 is effectively sensitized by graphene oxide and the polyacrylic coating modified by TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite shows good photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. Copyright © 2017

  2. Facile synthesis and characterization of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance (United States)

    Jia, Tiekun; Fu, Fang; Yu, Dongsheng; Cao, Jianliang; Sun, Guang


    Ultrafine anatase N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals modified with carbon (denoted as N-doped TiO2/C) were successfully prepared via a facile and low-cost approach, using titanium tetrachloride, aqueous ammonia and urea as starting materials. The phase composition, surface chemical composition, morphological structure, electronic and optical properties of the as-prepared photocatalysts were well characterized and analyzed. On the basis of Raman spectral characterization combining with the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it could be concluded that N dopant ions were successfully introduced into TiO2 crystal lattice and carbon species were modified on the surface or between the nanoparticles to form N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites. Compared with that of bare TiO2, the adsorption band edge of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites were found to have an evident red-shift toward visible light region, implying that the bandgap of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites is narrowed and the visible light absorption capacity is significantly enhanced due to N doping and carbon modification. The photoactivity of the as-prepared photocatalytsts was tested by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light (λ > 420 nm), and the results showed that the N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites exhibited much higher photodegradation rate than pure TiO2 and N-doped TiO2, which was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of the enhanced light harvesting, augmented catalytic active sites and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  3. Feature selection using feature dissimilarity measure and density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 28, 2015 ... ical data for improving the models involved in sequence analysis, microarray analysis, spectral analysis, literature mining, etc. 21. Feature selection is useful for multiple reasons. The main objectives of feature selection are as follows: (a) accelerating the model creation task; (b) avoiding model over-fitting or ...

  4. Spectral characterization of Quillaja saponaria (Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Acuña


    Full Text Available This paper presents a spectral reflectance characterization of the specie Quillaja saponaria (Mol., endemic tree of Chile and valued by society due to its provision of several ecosystem services that gives to society and also for its high concentration of saponins in cortex widely used in the pharmacological industry. For spectral characterization a foliar spectral signatures protocol was designed which included standardized instrumental and environmental parameters. The spectral response of different individuals was measured to evaluate the spectral behaviour and degree of variability within species in the visible and near infrared ranges (VNIR; 400-990 nm with two hyperspectral sensors (ASD HH and camera PDF-65-V10E. The resulting spectral signatures obtained with ASD HH showed a variation less than 5% of reflectance in VNIR and lesser than that in the transition zone from red to near infrared (red-edge; 680-730 nm. Additionally, two distinctive spectral features were detected for the specie, the first is related to a fast increase of reflectance in bands 450-480 nm and the second, to a marked decrease in the 920-970 nm range associated with water absorption features. At branch level, these distinctive features are maintained but with a smaller magnitude of reflectance, which could indicate that they are useful characteristic spectral patterns that can eventually be used for monitoring the physical health state of the specie using remote sensing. On the other hand, we used a PDF-65 camera for study the plant vigour from different health states (healthy, ill, died with spectral vegetation index. The Plant Senescence Reflectance Index detected stress on leaves, and Triangular Vegetation Index allows for a gradually characterization of every state. This work provides the first spectral reference for one of the most important sclerophyll species of Chile.

  5. Patterned TiO2 nanostructures fabricated with a novel inorganic resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotto, Giovanni; Antonello, Alessandro; Ferraro, Davide; Mattei, Giovanni; Martucci, Alessandro


    The fabrication of nanostructures is a very intense field of research in material science over the last decades. Overcoming the limit imposed by the diffraction limit in lithography was addressed in several ways: shifting to smaller wavelength, changing radiation and using electrons or ions instead of photons or using non-conventional bottom up techniques like self-assembly. There are few studies on fabrication of ordered TiO 2 nanostructures, mostly confined to non-scalable technologies, while nanostructured TiO 2 is a material used in many different fields of applications. In our work we present a hybrid nanofabrication technique based on self-assembly coupled with standard UV lithography. With this method we were able to fabricate in a single step and with the use of inexpensive equipment a 2D Nano Bowl Array of TiO 2 with sub wavelength features and easily scalable pattern features. - Highlights: • Titanate nanosheet were proven to be useful as an inorganic negative photo resist. • A Nano Bowl Array structure with features smaller than the diffraction limit of light was obtained. • 2D plasmonic gratings have been obtained by coating the Nano Bowl Array with Ag. • TiO 2 Nano Bowl Array have been used as superhydrophilic/hydrophobic surfaces

  6. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements-Part I: Results and analysis of spectral absorbing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.


    In this paper, the first part of two, we present new high-spectral-resolution infrared (IR) optical constants for multi-component aqueous solutions composed of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sulfuric acid and nitric acid over a range of compositions and temperatures representative of tropospheric conditions and atmospheric aerosols. The optical constants were determined from ATR measurements via a Kramers-Kronig transformation. To accomplish this, we adapted an existing technique for estimating the real index of refraction of aqueous sulfate and nitrate solutions at multiple visible frequencies as a function of concentration and temperature. An approximation of the low-frequency behavior of the ATR spectrum was also used to reduce the error associated with using ATR data of finite frequency range. This paper also provides a brief examination of absorption spectra for analyzed mixtures in relation to their composition and temperature and discusses possible implications. The new optical constants will be of great utility to high-spectral-resolution IR remote sensing as well as radiative balance analysis in climate studies because they will enable researchers for the first time to model the impacts of tropospheric aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component aerosols, including their mixtures with other important species such as dust or soot

  7. TIO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakab, Agnes; Pode, Rodica; Pop, Aniela; Schoonman, J.; Orha, Corina; Manea, Florica


    Three types of composite electrode materials, i.e. carbon nanotubes-epoxy (CNT), zeolite-carbon nanotubes-epoxy (ZCNT) and TiO2-modified zeolite-carbon nanotubes-epoxy (TiZCNT), were synthesized, morphologically and electrically characterized, and tested in the photoelectrodegradation

  8. The Morphology of TiO2 (B) Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Hua, Xiao; Liu, Zheng; Bruce, Peter G; Grey, Clare P


    The morphology of a nanomaterial (geometric shape and dimension) has a significant impact on its physical and chemical properties. It is, therefore, essential to determine the morphology of nanomaterials so as to link shape with performance in specific applications. In practice, structural features with different length scales are encoded in a specific angular range of the X-ray or neutron total scattering pattern of the material. By combining small- and wide-angle scattering (typically X-ray) experiments, the full angular range can be covered, allowing structure to be determined accurately at both the meso- and the nanoscale. In this Article, a comprehensive morphology analysis of lithium-ion battery anode material, TiO2 (B) nanoparticles (described in Ren, Y.; Liu, Z.; Pourpoint, F.; Armstrong, A. R.; Grey, C. P.; Bruce, P. G. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 2164), incorporating structure modeling with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), pair distribution function (PDF), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques, is presented. The particles are oblate-shaped, contracted along the [010] direction, this particular morphology providing a plausible rationale for the excellent electrochemical behavior of these TiO2(B) nanoparticles, while also provides a structural foundation to model the strain-driven distortion induced by lithiation. The work demonstrates the importance of analyzing various structure features at multiple length scales to determine the morphologies of nanomaterials.

  9. Synthesis of biomorphological mesoporous TiO2 templated by mimicking bamboo membrane in supercritical CO2. (United States)

    Li, Jinhong; Shi, Xiaoying; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Fei


    A new approach is presented for preparing biomorphological mesoporous TiO2 templated by mimicking bamboo inner shell membrane via supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) transportation through titanium tetrabutyloxide (TTBO). The analysis of wide-angle X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) showed the prepared TiO2 in phase of anatase, and the small-angle XRD revealed the presence of mesopores without periodicity. The product exhibited the shape of crinkled films and extended in two dimensions up to centimeters. The electron microscopic observation showed that the TiO2 films were around 200 nm in thickness, and across the films there were numerous round or ellipse-shaped mesopores, being 10-50 nm in diameter, which were formed by the close packing of TiO2 particles. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) displayed that the single TiO2 particle size was about 12.5 nm. The UV-vis absorption spectrum was transparent in the wavelength of 320-350 nm for suspensions of the prepared mesoporous TiO2 in ethanol at the concentration of 5.0 mg/l. The mesoporous TiO2 prepared with the aid of SCCO2 exhibited an obvious blue shift compared with the TiO2 prepared by sol-gel infiltration. The possible mechanism for the formation of the mesoporous TiO2 is summarized into a biomimetic mineralization pathway. First, TTBO was transported to the membrane surface via SCCO2, and then condensed. Hydrolysis reactions between the functional groups of organic membrane and TTBO took place to form the nuclear TiO2, and the TiO2 seeds grew around the organic membrane into TiO2 mesoporous materials. The approach provides a low-cost and efficient route for the production of ceramics nanomaterials with unique structural features, which may have potential application in designing UV-selective shielding devices [S. Zhao, X.H. Wang, S.B. Xin, Q. Jiang, X.P. Liang, Rare Metal Mater. Eng. 35 (2006) 508-510].

  10. Dynamic Mechanical and Gel Content Properties of Irradiated ENR/PVC blends with TiO2 Nanofillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azrini Ramlee


    indicates incorporation of TiO2 nanofillers in ENR/PVC blends is potentially to provide the nanocomposites features.  Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.24-30 [How to cite this article:  Ramlee, N.A., Ratnam, C.T., Alias, N.H., Rahman, M.F.A.. 2014. Dynamic Mechanical and Gel Content Properties of Irradiated ENR/PVC blends with TiO2 Nanofillers. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 6(1,24-30. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.24-30

  11. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+) (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee


    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  12. Pilot-plant evaluation of TiO2and TiO2-based hybrid photocatalysts for solar treatment of polluted water. (United States)

    Andronic, Luminita; Isac, Luminita; Miralles-Cuevas, Sara; Visa, Maria; Oller, Isabel; Duta, Anca; Malato, Sixto


    Materials with photocatalytic and adsorption properties for advanced wastewater treatment targeting reuse were studied. Making use of TiO 2 as a well-known photocatalyst, Cu 2 S as a Vis-active semiconductor, and fly ash as a good adsorbent, dispersed mixtures/composites were prepared to remove pollutants from wastewater. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, band gap energy, point of zero charge (pH pzc ) and BET porosity were used to characterize the substrates. Phenol, imidacloprid and dichloroacetic acid were used as pollutants for photocatalytic activity of the new photocatalysts. Experiments using the new dispersed powders were carried out at laboratory scale in two solar simulators and under natural solar irradiation at the Plataforma Solar de Almería, in a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) for a comparative analysis of pollutants removal and mineralization efficiencies, and to identify features that could facilitate photocatalyst separation and reuse. The results show that radiation intensity significantly affects the phenol degradation rate. The composite mixture of TiO 2 and fly ash is 2-3 times less active than sol-gel TiO 2 . Photodegradation kinetic data on the highly active TiO 2 are compared for pollutants elimination. Photodegradation of dichloroacetic acid was fast and complete after 90min in the CPC, while after 150min imidacloprid and phenol removal was 90% and 56% respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. One-Dimensional Self-Standing TiO2Nanotube Array Layers Designed for Perovskite Solar Cell Applications. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Pauporté, Thierry


    Nanotube (NT) layers of TiO 2 are important one-dimensional nanostructures for advanced applications. ZnO nanowire arrays prepared through electrochemical deposition with tuned morphological properties are converted into anatase TiO 2 NTs by using a titanate solution adjusted to an ad hoc pH. The tubes are polycrystalline and their diameter and length can be tuned to obtain nanostructures of tailored dimensions. The layers are integrated in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Their morphology is optimized for maximum performance and is compared to mesoscopic TiO 2 PSCs. As compared to the latter, the use of NTs improved the perovskite absorbance in the green-to-near-infrared solar spectral region. Moreover, it is shown that the surface treatment of the TiO 2 NTs with TiCl 4 optimizes the interface between the oxide and CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , which leads to better charge injection between the perovskite layer and the TiO 2 NTs. The current density-voltage curve hysteresis index is low for the best NT morphology and significantly increases with tube length and diameter. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarti Andayani


    Full Text Available Study of TiO2 and TiO2 active carbon photocatalyst was done. Immobilization was carried out by sol-gel process using titanium diisopropokside bis-acetylacetonato as titanium precursor. The catalyst was characterized using XRD and SEM. The activity of catalyst was tested using 10 ppm of pentachlorophenol (PCP as a model of organic waste. The test was done by irradiating PCP solution using UV lamp and varying the catalysts of TiO2, and TiO2/C of 8/2 and 5/5. About 5 mL of sample was taken out at interval time of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h iradiation followed by the measurement of PCP residue and chloride ions. From the characterization results it is known that calcined TiO2 andTiO2/C of 8/2 and 5/5 have anatase structure and active as a catalyst. The activity results using PCP as an organic waste showed that combination of TiO2 and active carbon would increase the activity of the catalyst, but at high percentage of active carbon the performance of the photocatalyst decreased.   Keywords: catayist TiO2,  catayist TiO2/active carbon, photocatalysis

  15. Nitrogen-doped carbon-embedded TiO2 nanofibers as promising oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts (United States)

    Hassen, D.; Shenashen, M. A.; El-Safty, S. A.; Selim, M. M.; Isago, H.; Elmarakbi, A.; El-Safty, A.; Yamaguchi, H.


    The development of inexpensive and effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a substitute for commercial Pt/C catalyst is an important issue in fuel cells. In this paper, we report on novel fabrication of self-supported nitrogen-doped carbon-supported titanium nanofibers (Nsbnd TiO2@C) and carbon-supported titanium (TiO2@C) electrocatalysts via a facile electrospinning route. The nitrogen atom integrates physically and homogenously into the entire carbon-titanium structure. We demonstrate the catalytic performance of Nsbnd TiO2@C and TiO2@C for ORR under alkaline conditions in comparison with Pt/C catalyst. The Nsbnd TiO2@C catalyst shows excellent ORR reactivity and durability. Interestingly, among all the catalysts used in this ORR, Nsbnd TiO2@C-0.75 exhibits remarkable competitive oxygen reduction activity in terms of current density and onset potential, as well as superior methanol tolerance. Such tolerance attributes to maximizing the diffusion of trigger pulse electrons during catalytic reactions because of enhanced electronic features. Results indicate that our fabrication strategy can provide an opportunity to produce a simple, efficient, cost-effective, and promising ORR electrocatalyst for practical applications in energy conversion and storage technologies.

  16. EPR Investigations of G-C3N4/TiO2 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Dvoranová


    Full Text Available The g-C3N4/TiO2 nanopowders prepared by the annealing of melamine and TiO2 P25 at 550 °C were investigated under dark and upon UV or visible-light photoactivation using X- and Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The EPR spectra of powders monitored at room temperature and 100 K showed the impact of the initial loading ratio of melamine/TiO2 on the character of paramagnetic centers observed. For the photocatalysts synthesized using a lower titania content, the paramagnetic signals characteristic for the g-C3N4/TiO2 nanocomposites were already found before exposure. The samples annealed using the higher TiO2 loading revealed the photoinduced generation of paramagnetic nitrogen bulk centers (g-tensor components g1 = 2.005, g2 = 2.004, g3 = 2.003 and hyperfine couplings from the nitrogen A1 = 0.23 mT, A2 = 0.44 mT, A3 = 3.23 mT typical for N-doped TiO2. The ability of photocatalysts to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS upon in situ UV or visible-light photoexcitation was tested in water or dimethyl sulfoxide by EPR spin trapping using 5,5-dimethyl 1-pyrroline N-oxide. The results obtained reflect the differences in photocatalyst nanostructures caused by the differing initial ratio of melamine/TiO2; the photocatalyst prepared by the high-temperature treatment of melamine/TiO2 wt. ratio of 1:3 revealed an adequate photoactivity in both spectral regions.

  17. Spectral Tensor-Train Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Marzouk, Youssef M.


    discretizations of the target function. We assess the performance of the method on a range of numerical examples: a modified set of Genz functions with dimension up to 100, and functions with mixed Fourier modes or with local features. We observe significant improvements in performance over an anisotropic......The accurate approximation of high-dimensional functions is an essential task in uncertainty quantification and many other fields. We propose a new function approximation scheme based on a spectral extension of the tensor-train (TT) decomposition. We first define a functional version of the TT.......e., the “cores”) comprising the functional TT decomposition. This result motivates an approximation scheme employing polynomial approximations of the cores. For functions with appropriate regularity, the resulting spectral tensor-train decomposition combines the favorable dimension-scaling of the TT...

  18. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  19. USGS Digital Spectral Library splib06a (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wise, Richard A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Stephen J.


    Introduction We have assembled a digital reflectance spectral library that covers the wavelength range from the ultraviolet to far infrared along with sample documentation. The library includes samples of minerals, rocks, soils, physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures, plants, vegetation communities, microorganisms, and man-made materials. The samples and spectra collected were assembled for the purpose of using spectral features for the remote detection of these and similar materials. Analysis of spectroscopic data from laboratory, aircraft, and spacecraft instrumentation requires a knowledge base. The spectral library discussed here forms a knowledge base for the spectroscopy of minerals and related materials of importance to a variety of research programs being conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey. Much of this library grew out of the need for spectra to support imaging spectroscopy studies of the Earth and planets. Imaging spectrometers, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Visible/Infra Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) or the NASA Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) which is currently orbiting Saturn, have narrow bandwidths in many contiguous spectral channels that permit accurate definition of absorption features in spectra from a variety of materials. Identification of materials from such data requires a comprehensive spectral library of minerals, vegetation, man-made materials, and other subjects in the scene. Our research involves the use of the spectral library to identify the components in a spectrum of an unknown. Therefore, the quality of the library must be very good. However, the quality required in a spectral library to successfully perform an investigation depends on the scientific questions to be answered and the type of algorithms to be used. For example, to map a mineral using imaging spectroscopy and the mapping algorithm of Clark and others (1990a, 2003b

  20. Spectral Trends of Titan's Tropical Surface (United States)

    Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Penteado, Paulo F.; Turner, Jake; Montiel, Nicholas; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Neish, Catherine; Radebaugh, Jani


    Titan's surface can be observed most clearly at 8 spectral regions that lie in between the strong methane bands in Titan's spectrum. Within these "windows", between 0.9 to 5 microns, the surface is nonetheless obscured by methane and haze, the latter of which is optically thick at lower wavelengths. Thus studies of Titan's surface must eliminate the effects of atmospheric extinction and extract the subtle spectral features that underlie the dominant spectral trends.To determine the subtle spectral features of Titan's tropical surface (30S--30N) we conducted a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the I/F at the 1.1, 1.3, 1.6 and 2.0 um wavelength windows, recorded by Cassini/VIMS. The PCA analysis identifies the spectral trend that defines the highest variance in the data (the principal component), as well as successively weaker orthogonal trends, without a priori assumptions about the surface composition, e.g. as needed in radiative transfer analyses.Our analysis derives the spectral features at the four wavelengths that describe Titan's tropical surface. We detect a large almost contiguous region that extends roughly 160 degrees in longitude and which exhibits absorption features at 1.6 and 2.0, as well as 2.8 um (characteristic of water ice). This vast and perhaps tectonic feature is, in part, associated with terrain that is hypothesized to be some of the oldest surfaces on Titan. In addition, the PCA analysis indicates at least 2 separate organic spectra signatures, potentially due to the separation of liquid and refractory sediments or to their chemically alteration over time. Here we discuss the PCA analysis and compare our derived compositional maps of Titan's surface with Radar maps of the topography and morphology, to entertain questions regarding the geology of Titan's surface the age of its atmosphere.

  1. Phase transition and dielectric study in Ba0⋅95Dy0⋅05TiO3 ceramic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    05TiO3 was prepared by ... is rich in nano contrast regions of 2–5 nm apparent sizes. The detailed features of these nano contrasts are ... regions were found to change contrast simultaneously during tilt, these might originate from strain fields due ...

  2. Spectral Characterization of Laser Induced Plasma from Titanium Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dann, V J; Mathew, M V; Nampoori, V P N; Vallabhan, C P G; Nandakumaran, V M; Radhakrishnan, P


    Optical emission from TiO 2 plasma, generated by a nanosecond laser is spectroscopically analysed. The main chemical species are identified and the spatio-temporal distribution of the plasma parameters such as electron temperature and density are characterized based on the study of spectral distribution of the line intensities and their broadening characteristics. The parameters of laser induced plasma vary quickly owing to its expansion at low background pressure and the possible deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are tested to show its validity

  3. Efficient photodegradation of organic dye using anatase TiO2 plants as catalyst (United States)

    Bahadur, Jitendra; Pal, Kaushik


    Anatase TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures with higher photocatalytic activity are of special importance in various applications. We have reported the synthesis of TiO2 as water chestnut plants like morphology via facile hydrothermal method, by using Titanium (IV) butoxide (TBOT) as a precursor solution. It is found that TiO2 nanoparticles work as seed and completely convert into water chestnut plants like structure or morphology, which are composed of crystallized anatase nanocrystals. X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed the presence of anatase phase of crystallized TiO2 plants (TPs). The average life time delay for generated charge carriers in TPs was calculated to be around 2.45 ns, which reflects slow recombination of charge carriers. The prepared TPs show excellent photocatalytic performance when applied in photo degradation of Rhodamine B organic dye. The unique features exhibited by TPs make them a promising candidate for vast potential applications in field such as solar cells, photocatalysis, supercapacitor, lithium ion batteries and some related fields.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Spectral Representations of Fingerprint Minutiae Subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    The investigation of the privacy protection of biometric templates gains more and more attention. The spectral minutiae representation is a novel method to represent a minutiae set as a fixed-length feature vector, which is invariant to translation, and in which rotation and scaling become

  5. Synthesis of ascorbic acid enhanced TiO2 photocatalyst: its characterization and catalytic activity in CO2 photoreduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farid Bin Mohd Na'aim


    Full Text Available To date, the development of solar environmental remediation has shifted more emphasis on the green and simple synthesis of catalyst for CO2 photocatalysis process. Herein, TiO2 photocatalyst was successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method. The effects of the different molar ratio of ascorbic acid C6H8O6, (AA added during the preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles were comprehensively studied. The characterization of TiO2 nanocrystals was performed via XRD, XPS, DRUV-vis, and FTIR. The results show the AA loading into TiO2 nanoparticles significantly intensified the XRD spectra of anatase structure. In fact, this feature had signified a reactivity of the photocatalyst in the visible region. In an instance, BET surface area was also enhanced with the highest recorded value of 135.14 m2/g for 0.8AA. Meanwhile, the CO2 photoreduction over synthesized TiO2 had produced the highest amount of HCOOH at 39.3 μmol/g cat for 0.8AA within 6 hours of reaction time. Furthermore, the DRUV-vis analysis had illustrated better light absorption ability of 0.8AA. This profound finding is attributed to the correlation between large surface area, pure anatase phase, and high adsorbed water molecules. Therefore, this study had significantly demonstrated the potential of modified TiO2 with AA in CO2 photocatalysis area while simultaneously presents a green and simple method for TiO2 synthesis.

  6. Fabrication of a Porous TiO2-Coated Silica Glass Tube and Its Application for a Handy Water Purification Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai


    Full Text Available A simple, handy, reusable, and inexpensive water purification unit including a one-end sealed porous amorphous-silica (a-silica tube coated with 2 μm of porous TiO2 photocatalyst layers has been developed. Both TiO2 and a-silica layers were formed through outside vapor deposition (OVD. Raman spectrum of the porous TiO2-coated a-silica glass tube indicated that the anatase content of the TiO2 layers of the tube was estimated to be approximately 60 wt%. Developed porous TiO2-coated a-silica glass tube has been assayed for the tube filtering feature against Escherichia coli (E. coli solution used as one of the typical bacteria size species or Qβ phage also used as typical virus size species and compared with the feature of porous a-silica tubes alone. The tubes removed E. coli completely from the aqueous suspension which contained 106 CFU/mL of E. coli without UV irradiation. The porous TiO2-coated a-silica glass tube with UV-C lamps successfully reduced the Qβ phage amount in the suspension from 109 to 103 PFU/mL.

  7. Nano-crystalline thin and nano-particulate thick TiO2 layer: Cost effective sequential deposition and study on dye sensitized solar cell characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Sengupta, D.; Kasinadhuni, U.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.


    Highlights: • Thin TiO 2 layer is deposited on conducting substrate using sol–gel based dip coating. • TiO 2 nano-particles are synthesized using hydrothermal route. • Thick TiO 2 particulate layer is deposited on prepared thin layer. • Dye sensitized solar cells are made using thin and thick layer based photo-anode. • Introduction of thin layer in particulate photo-anode improves the cell efficiency. - Abstract: A compact thin TiO 2 passivation layer is introduced between the mesoporous TiO 2 nano-particulate layer and the conducting glass substrate to prepare photo-anode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In order to understand the effect of passivation layer, other two DSSCs are also developed separately using TiO 2 nano-particulate and compact thin film based photo-anodes. Nano-particles are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis route and the compact passivation layer is prepared by simply dip coating the precursor sol prepared through wet chemical route. The TiO 2 compact layer and the nano-particles are characterised in terms of their micro-structural features and phase formation behavior. It is found that introduction of a compact TiO 2 layer in between the mesoporous TiO 2 nano-particulate layer and the conducting substrate improves the solar to electric conversion efficiency of the fabricated cell. The dense thin passivation layer is supposed to enhance the photo-excited electron transfer and prevent the recombination of photo-excited electrons

  8. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan


    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  9. Spectral broadening in anatase titanium dioxide waveguides at telecommunication and near-visible wavelengths. (United States)

    Evans, Christopher C; Shtyrkova, Katia; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Reshef, Orad; Ippen, Erich; Mazur, Eric


    We observe spectral broadening of femtosecond pulses in single-mode anatase-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) waveguides at telecommunication and near-visible wavelengths (1565 and 794 nm). By fitting our data to nonlinear pulse propagation simulations, we quantify nonlinear optical parameters around 1565 nm. Our fitting yields a nonlinear refractive index of 0.16 × 10(-18) m(2)/W, no two-photon absorption, and stimulated Raman scattering from the 144 cm(-1) Raman line of anatase with a gain coefficient of 6.6 × 10(-12) m/W. Additionally, we report on asymmetric spectral broadening around 794 nm. The wide wavelength applicability and negligible two-photon absorption of TiO(2) make it a promising material for integrated photonics.

  10. Superhydrophobic TiO2-polymer nanocomposite surface with UV-induced reversible wettability and self-cleaning properties. (United States)

    Xu, Qian Feng; Liu, Yang; Lin, Fang-Ju; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M


    Multifunctional superhydrophobic nanocomposite surfaces based on photocatalytic materials, such as fluorosilane modified TiO2, have generated significant research interest. However, there are two challenges to forming such multifunctional surfaces with stable superhydrophobic properties: the photocatalytic oxidation of the hydrophobic functional groups, which leads to the permanent loss of superhydrophobicity, as well as the photoinduced reversible hydrolysis of the catalytic particle surface. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive template lamination method to fabricate multifunctional TiO2-high-density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposite surfaces exhibiting superhydrophobicity, UV-induced reversible wettability, and self-cleaning properties. The laminated surface possesses a hierarchical roughness spanning the micro- to nanoscale range. This was achieved by using a wire mesh template to emboss the HDPE surface creating an array of polymeric posts while partially embedding untreated TiO2 nanoparticles selectively into the top surface of these features. The surface exhibits excellent superhydrophobic properties immediately after lamination without any chemical surface modification to the TiO2 nanoparticles. Exposure to UV light causes the surface to become hydrophilic. This change in wettability can be reversed by heating the surface to restore superhydrophobicity. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticle surface coverage and chemical composition on the mechanism and magnitude of wettability changes was studied by EDX and XPS. In addition, the ability of the surface to shed impacting water droplets as well as the ability of such droplets to clean away particulate contaminants was demonstrated.

  11. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  12. Effect of Ti Substrate Ion Implantation on the Physical Properties of Anodic TiO2 Nanotubes (United States)

    Jedi-Soltanabadi, Zahra; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Ghorannevis, Zohreh; Akbari, Hossein


    The influence of nitrogen-ion implantation on the titanium (Ti) surface is studied. The nontreated Ti and the Ti treated with ion implantation were anodized in an ethylene-glycol-based electrolyte solution containing 0.3 wt% ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and 3 vol% deionized (DI) water at a potential of 60 V for 1 h at room temperature. The current density during the growth of the TiO2 nanotubes was monitored in-situ. The surface roughnesses of the Ti substrates before and after the ion implantation were investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface roughness was lower for the treated Ti substrate. The morphology of the anodic TiO2 nanotubes was studied by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Clearly, the titanium nanotubes grown on the treated substrate were longer. In addition, some ribs were observed on their walls. The optical band gap of the anodic TiO2 nanotubes was characterized by using a diffuse reflection spectral (DRS) analysis. The anodic TiO2 nanotubes grown on the treated Ti substrate revealed a band gap energy of approximately 3.02 eV.

  13. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter


    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  14. High Resolution Spectral Analysis (United States)


    liable methods for high resolution spectral analysis of multivariable processes, as well as to distance measures for quantitative assessment of...called "modern nonlinear spectral analysis methods " [27]. An alternative way to reconstruct /„(#), based on Tn, is the periodogram/correlogram f{6...eie). A homotopy method was proposed in [8, 9] leading to a differential equation for A(T) in a homotopy variable r. If the statistics are consistent

  15. USGS Spectral Library Version 7 (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.


    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  16. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  17. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-M.; Cheung, Kingman


    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is n s > or approx. 1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to n s =0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  18. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman


    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  19. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard


    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  20. Spectral properties of 441 radio pulsars (United States)

    Jankowski, F.; van Straten, W.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Johnston, S.; Kerr, M.


    We present a study of the spectral properties of 441 pulsars observed with the Parkes radio telescope near the centre frequencies of 728, 1382 and 3100 MHz. The observations at 728 and 3100 MHz were conducted simultaneously using the dual-band 10-50 cm receiver. These high-sensitivity, multifrequency observations provide a systematic and uniform sample of pulsar flux densities. We combine our measurements with spectral data from the literature in order to derive the spectral properties of these pulsars. Using techniques from robust regression and information theory, we classify the observed spectra in an objective, robust and unbiased way into five morphological classes: simple or broken power law, power law with either low- or high-frequency cut-off and log-parabolic spectrum. While about 79 per cent of the pulsars that could be classified have simple power-law spectra, we find significant deviations in 73 pulsars, 35 of which have curved spectra, 25 with a spectral break and 10 with a low-frequency turn-over. We identify 11 gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) pulsars, with 3 newly identified in this work and 8 confirmations of known GPS pulsars; 3 others show tentative evidence of GPS, but require further low-frequency measurements to support this classification. The weighted mean spectral index of all pulsars with simple power-law spectra is -1.60 ± 0.03. The observed spectral indices are well described by a shifted log-normal distribution. The strongest correlations of spectral index are with spin-down luminosity, magnetic field at the light-cylinder and spin-down rate. We also investigate the physical origin of the observed spectral features and determine emission altitudes for three pulsars.

  1. Enhanced biocompatibility of TiO2 surfaces by highly reactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junkar, Ita; Recek, Nina; Kovač, Janez; Mozetič, Miran; Kulkarni, Mukta; Iglič, Aleš; Drašler, Barbara; Rugelj, Neža; Drobne, Damjana; Humpolicek, Petr


    In the present study the biological response to various nanotopographic features after gaseous plasma treatment were studied. The usefulness of nanostructured surfaces for implantable materials has already been acknowledged, while less is known on the combined effect of nanostructured plasma modified surfaces. In the present work the influence of oxygen plasma treatment on nanostructured titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) surfaces was studied. Characterization of the TiO 2 surface chemical composition and morphological features was analyzed after plasma modification by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and by scanning electron microscopy while surface wettability was studied with measuring the water contact angle. Cell adhesion and morphology was assessed from images taken with scanning electron microscopy, whereas cell viability was measured with a calorimetric assay. The obtained results showed that oxygen plasma treatment of TiO 2 nanotube surfaces significantly influences the adhesion and morphology of osteoblast-like cells in comparison to untreated nanostructured surfaces. Marked changes in surface composition of plasma treated surfaces were observed, as plasma treatment removed hydrocarbon contamination and removed fluorine impurities, which were present due to the electrochemical anodization process. However no differences in wettability of untreated and plasma treated surfaces were noticed. Treatment with oxygen plasma stimulated osteoblast-like cell adhesion and spreading on the nanostructured surface, suggesting the possible use of oxygen plasma surface treatment to enhance osteoblast-like cell response. (paper)

  2. Site Features (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  3. Feature Extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.

  4. Solar Features (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  5. Structural transformation and enhanced gas sensing characteristics of TiO2 nanostructures induced by annealing (United States)

    Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P.; Motaung, David E.; Swart, Hendrik C.


    The improved sensitivity and selectivity, and admirable stability are fundamental features required for the current age gas sensing devices to appease future humanity and environmental requirements. Therefore, herein, we report on the room temperature gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 nanotubes with significance response and sensitivity towards 60 ppm NO2 gas. Improved sensitivity of 29.44 ppm-1 and admirable selectivity towards NO2, among other gases ensuring adequate safety in monitoring NO2 in automobile and food industries. The improved sensitivity of TiO2 nanotubes was attributed to larger surface area provided by the hollow nanotubes resulting to improved gas adsorption and the relatively high concentration of oxygen vacancies.

  6. Structurally stabilized mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargol Hasani Bijarbooneh


    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanostructures are very desirable for providing fascinating properties and features, such as high electron mobility, quantum confinement effects, and high specific surface area. Herein, 1D mesoporous TiO2 nanofibres were prepared using the electrospinning method to verify their potential for use as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The 1D mesoporous nanofibres, 300 nm in diameter and 10-20 μm in length, were aggregated from anatase nanoparticles 20-30 nm in size. The employment of these novel 1D mesoporous nanofibres significantly improved dye loading and light scattering of the DSSC photoanode, and resulted in conversion cell efficiency of 8.14%, corresponding to an ∼35% enhancement over the Degussa P25 reference photoanode.

  7. TiO2-TiO2 composite resistive humidity sensor: ethanol crosssensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamboran, Milad; Saedi, Yasin


    The fabrication method and characterization results of a TiO 2 -TiO 2 composite bead used for humidity sensing along with its negative cross-sensitivity to ethanol vapor are reported. The bead shaped resistive sample sensors are fabricated by the drop-casting of a TiO 2 slurry on two Pt wire segments. The dried bead is pre-fired at 750°C and subsequently impregnated with a Ti-based sol. The sample is ready for characterization after a thermal annealing at 600°C in air. Structurally, the bead is a composite of the micron-sized TiO 2 crystallites embedded in a matrix of nanometric TiO 2 particle aggregates. The performance of the beads as resistive humidity sensors is recorded at room temperature in standard humidity level chambers. Results evince the wide dynamic range of the sensors fabricated in the low relative humidity range. While the sensor conductance is not sensitive to ethanol vapor in dry air, in humid air, sensor's responses are negatively affected by the contaminant. (paper)

  8. Study of the spectral features of different biological samples (United States)

    Atif, M.


    In the present study we have observed and analyzed the fluorescence changes in the fluorescence spectra of four different samples like brilliant sulphaflanine, quinine bisulphate, coumarine 120 and porcine cornea and sclera including the changes in fluorescence spectrum of cornea are also observed after CO2 laser exposure. The preliminary study clearly explains the proof of concept only.

  9. Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using laser as an excitation source, where flavin and porphyrin are some of the active fluorophores. A number of ... spectroscopy can provide quantitative biochemical information about the state of the tissue, which may not .... In conclusion, the systematic separation of variations at different wavelength scales from the broad ...

  10. Performance Of Modified Power Spectral Density Features In EEG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 10, 2017 ... person with closed eyes have more dominant wave of alpha rhythm over the back of the head. [11]. Fig. 1 shows the .... We can see that there is for input signal which is alpha, beta, theta and delta frequency band. The number of ... Generation of words beginning with the same random letter. We use the ...

  11. A systematic profile/feature-based intelligence for spectral sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, M.C.


    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been creating a special-purpose software-engineering tool to support research and development of spectrum-output-type [chemical] sensors. The modular software system is called SAGE, the Sensor Algorithm Generation Environment and includes general-purpose signal conditioning algorithms (GP/SAGE) as well as intelligent classifiers, pattern recognizes, response accelerators, and sensitivity analyzers. GP/SAGE is an implementation of an approach for delivering a level of encapsulated intelligence to a wide range of sensors and instruments. It capitalizes on the genene classification and analysis needed to process most profile-type data. The GP/SAGE native data format is a generalized one-dimensional vector, signature, or spectrum. GP/SAGE modules form a computer-aided software engineering (CASE) workbench where users can experiment with various conditioning, filtering, and pattern recognition stages, then automatically generate final algorithm source code for data acquisition and analysis systems. SAGE was designed to free the [chemical] sensor developer from the signal processing allowing them to focus on understanding and improving the basic sensing mechanisms. The SAGE system's strength is its creative application of advanced neural computing techniques to response-vector and response-surface data, affording new insight and perspectives with regard to phenomena being studied for sensor development

  12. Noise-resistant spectral features for retrieving foliar chemical parameters (United States)

    Foliar chemical constituents are important indicators for understanding vegetation growing status and ecosystem functionality. Provided the noncontact and nondestructive traits, the hyperspectral analysis is a superior and efficient method for deriving these parameters. In practical implementation o...

  13. Multiple spectral splits of supernova neutrinos. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Raffelt, Georg G; Smirnov, Alexei Yu


    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f(nu(e))(E) and f(nu[over ](e))(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu[over ] channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f(nu(e))=f(nu(x)), f(nu[over ](e))=f(nu[over ](x)) as well as E-->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  14. Fabrication and enhanced photocatalytic properties of Pt@SiO2@TiO2 composites by surface plasma resonance from Pt nanoparticles (United States)

    Zhang, Fangfang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yousong; Wang, Junyi; Ji, Guangbin


    Pt@SiO2@TiO2 composites with an average diameter of about 120 nm were synthesized by an aqueous method. Morphology, microstructure, and light absorption performance of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results indicate that 5-nm-thick SiO2 interlayer coated on the Pt nanoparticles were used to separate the Pt from the TiO2. The covering SiO2 layer between Pt nanoparticles and TiO2 layer present a wide spectral response. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency under both the full spectrum and visible light can be attributed to the existence of Pt nanoparticles and interlayer SiO2. The coupling processes between TiO2 and plasmon were presented and the mechanism was discussed. The localized surface plasmon resonance effect of Pt nanoparticles is the main reason for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the composite Pt@SiO2@TiO2.

  15. Enhancement of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles doped with CeO2 and supported on SiO2 for phenol degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Chunjing; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zailei; Ji, Yongjun; Zhan, Hanhui; Xiao, Fangxing; Wang, Dan; Liu, Bin; Su, Fabing


    Highlights: • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared via a facile co-precipitation method. • Introduction of SiO 2 support increases the dispersion of CeO 2 -TiO 2 . • CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for phenol degradation. • Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ pair coexisting in CeO 2 improves electron–hole pairs separation efficiency. - Abstract: A series of CeO 2 -TiO 2 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 composites were prepared with TiCl 4 and Ce (NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursors via a facile co-precipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (N 2 -BET), Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–Vis spectroscopy measurements. The results indicated that TiO 2 doped with CeO 2 and supported on SiO 2 could reduce the crystallite size, inhibit the phase transformation, enhance the thermal stability, and effectively extend the spectral response from UV to visible range. When applied to the phenol photodegradation on a homemade batch reactor with an external cooling jacket, the CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts exhibited significantly enhanced photodegradation efficiency in comparison with commercial Degussa P25 and CeO 2 -TiO 2 . The unique catalytic properties of CeO 2 -TiO 2 /SiO 2 were ascribed to improved electron–hole pairs separation efficiency and formation of more reactive oxygen species owing to the presence of Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ , as well as high dispersion of active component of CeO 2 -TiO 2 as a result of the introduction of SiO 2 support. Furthermore, the catalysts can be easily recovered from the reaction solution by centrifugation and reused for four cycles without significant loss of activity

  16. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.


    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  17. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R


    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  18. Matrix infrared spectra and density functional calculations of TiO3 and TiO5 in solid argon. (United States)

    Gong, Yu; Zhou, Mingfei


    The reaction of titanium monoxide molecules and O2 was studied by using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy as well as theoretical calculations. The titanium monoxide molecule reacts with O2 to form TiO 3 spontaneously on annealing. The TiO3 molecule is characterized to be a side-on bonded peroxo titanium monoxide complex, (eta(2)-O2)TiO, which has a nonplanar Cs symmetry with a 1A' ground state. The (eta(2)-O2)TiO complex can further coordinate another dioxygen to give TiO 5, a disuperoxo titanium monoxide complex, (eta(2)-O2)(2)TiO, which possesses a 3A'' ground state and a nonplanar Cs geometry.

  19. X-ray spectral components observed in the afterglow of GRB 130925A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Bhalerao, Varun


    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at >4σ significance, and its spectral shape varies between...

  20. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.


    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  1. Synergistic effects of graphene quantum dot sensitization and nitrogen doping of ordered mesoporous TiO2 thin films for water splitting photocatalysis(Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Islam, Syed Z.; Wanninayake, Namal; Reed, Allen D.; Kim, Doo-Young; Rankin, Stephen E.


    The optical and electronic properties of TiO2 thin films provide tremendous opportunities in several applications including photocatalysis, photovoltaics and photoconductors for energy production. Despite many attractive features of TiO2, critical challenges include the innate inability of TiO2 to absorb visible light and the fast recombination of photoexcited charge carriers. In this study, we prepared ordered mesoporous TiO2 films co-modified by graphene quantum dot sensitization and nitrogen doping (GQD-N-TiO2) for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical water splitting under visible light irradiation. First, cubic ordered mesoporous TiO2 films were prepared by a surfactant templated sol-gel method. Then, TiO2 films were treated with N2/Ar plasma for the incorporation of substitutional N atoms into the lattice of TiO2. GQDs were prepared by chemically oxidizing carbon nano-onions. The immobilization of GQDs was accomplished by reacting carboxyl groups of GQDs with amine groups of N-TiO2 developed by the prior immobilization of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES). Successful immobilization of GQDs onto N-TiO2 was probed by UV-Vis, FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy. Further, zeta potential and contact angle measurements showed enhanced surface charge and hydrophilicity, confirming the successful immobilization of GQDs. The GQD-N-TiO2, N-TiO2 and GQD-TiO2 films showed 400 times, 130 times and 8 times photocurrent enhancement, respectively, compared to TiO2 films for water splitting with a halogen bulb light source. This outstanding enhancement is attributed to the high surface area of mesoporous films and synergistic effects of nitrogen doping and GQD sensitization resulting in enhanced visible light absorption, efficient charge separation and transport.

  2. Synthesis of calcium-phosphorous doped TiO2 nanotubes by anodization and reverse polarization: A promising strategy for an efficient biofunctional implant surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Sofia A.; Patel, Sweetu B.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Filho, Paulo N.; Celis, Jean-Pierre


    Highlights: • A new surface modification methodology for bio-functionalization of TiO2 NTs is addressed • Bone-like structured TiO2 nanotubular surfaces containing Ca and P were synthesized. • Ca/P-doped TiO2 NTs enhanced adhesion and proliferation of osteoblastic-like cells. • The bio-functionalization granted improved bio-electrochemical stability to TiO2 NTs. - Abstract: The modification of surface features such as nano-morphology/topography and chemistry have been employed in the attempt to design titanium oxide surfaces able to overcome the current dental implants failures. The main goal of this study is the synthesis of bone-like structured titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes enriched with Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) able to enhance osteoblastic cell functions and, simultaneously, display an improved corrosion behavior. To achieve the main goal, TiO 2 nanotubes were synthetized and doped with Ca and P by means of a novel methodology which relied, firstly, on the synthesis of TiO 2 nanotubes by anodization of titanium in an organic electrolyte followed by reverse polarization and/or anodization, in an aqueous electrolyte. Results show that hydrophilic bone-like structured TiO 2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized presenting a highly ordered nano-morphology characterized by non-uniform diameters. The chemical analysis of such nanotubes confirmed the presence of CaCO 3 , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , CaHPO 4 and CaO compounds. The nanotube surfaces submitted to reverse polarization, presented an improved cell adhesion and proliferation compared to smooth titanium. Furthermore, these surfaces displayed a significantly lower passive current in artificial saliva, and so, potential to minimize their bio-degradation through corrosion processes. This study addresses a very simple and promising multidisciplinary approach bringing new insights for the development of novel methodologies to improve the outcome of osseointegrated implants.

  3. Radial gradients in initial mass function sensitive absorption features in the Coma brightest cluster galaxies (United States)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Thatte, Niranjan; Davies, Roger L.; Vaughan, Sam P.


    Using the Oxford Short Wavelength Integral Field specTrograph, we trace radial variations of initial mass function (IMF)-sensitive absorption features of three galaxies in the Coma cluster. We obtain resolved spectroscopy of the central 5 kpc for the two central brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) NGC4889, NGC4874, and the BCG in the south-west group NGC4839, as well as unresolved data for NGC4873 as a low-σ* control. We present radial measurements of the IMF-sensitive features: sodium Na ISDSS, calcium triplet CaT, and iron-hydride FeH0.99, along with the magnesium Mg I0.88 and titanium oxide TiO0.89 features. We employ two separate methods for both telluric correction and sky subtraction around the faint FeH feature to verify our analysis. Within NGC4889 we find strong gradients of Na ISDSS and CaT but a flat FeH profile, which, from comparing to stellar population synthesis models, suggests an old, α-enhanced population with a Chabrier, or even bottom-light IMF. The age and abundance are in line with previous studies but the normal IMF is in contrast to recent results suggesting an increased IMF slope with increased velocity dispersion. We measure flat Na ISDSS and FeH profiles within NGC4874, and determine an old, possibly slightly α-enhanced and Chabrier IMF population. We find an α-enhanced, Chabrier IMF population in NGC4873. Within NGC4839 we measure both strong Na ISDSS and strong FeH, although with a large systematic uncertainty, suggesting a possible heavier IMF. The IMFs we infer for these galaxies are supported by published dynamical modelling. We stress that IMF constraints should be corroborated by further spectral coverage and independent methods on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis.

  4. Schrodinger Eigenmaps for spectral target detection (United States)

    Dorado-Munoz, Leidy P.; Messinger, David W.


    Spectral imagery such as multispectral and hyperspectral data could be seen as a set of panchromatic images stacked as a 3d cube, with two spatial dimensions and one spectral. For hyperspectral imagery, the spectral dimension is highly sampled, which implies redundant information and a high spectral dimensionality. Therefore, it is necessary to use transformations on the data not only to reduce processing costs, but also to reveal some features or characteristics of the data that were hidden in the original space. Schrodinger Eigenmaps (SE) is a novel mathematical method for non-linear representation of a data set that attempts to preserve the local structure while the spectral dimension is reduced. SE could be seen as an extension of Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE), where the diffusion process could be steered in certain directions determined by a potential term. SE was initially introduced as a semi supervised classification technique and most recently, it has been applied to target detection showing promising performance. In target detection, only the barrier potential has been used, so different forms to define barrier potentials and its influence on the data embedding are studied here. In this way, an experiment to assess the target detection vs. how strong the influence of potentials is and how many eigenmaps are used in the detection, is proposed. The target detection is performed using a hyperspectral data set, where several targets with different complexity are presented in the same scene.

  5. CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICO-MINERALÓGICAS DE FONTES DE PIGMENTOS MINERAIS EM DEPÓSITOS NATURAIS DO ENTORNO DO SÍTIO ARQUEOLÓGICO PEDRA DO CANTAGALO I, EM PIRIPIRI, PIAUÍ, BRASIL (Chemical-Mineralogical Features of Mineral Pigments Sources in Natural Deposits Surrounding the Pedra do Cantagalo I Archaeological Site, in Piripiri, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heralda Kelis Sousa Bezerra da Silva


    Full Text Available Pigmentos minerais de jazidas existentes no entorno do sítio arqueológico Pedra do Cantagalo I, localizado em Piripiri, Piauí, Brasil, foram investigados por fluorescência de raios X por dispersão de energia (EDXRF, difratometria de raios X (DRX pelo método do pó, análise elementar CHN e espectroscopia Mössbauer do 57Fe. O teor de ferro, determinado por EDXRF, expresso na forma de Fe2O3, é de ~15 massa% no pigmento cinza, ~12 massa% no amarelo e de ~19 a ~21 massa% no vermelho. Espectros Mössbauer mostram sextetos atribuíveis à hematita e dupletos de Fe3+ para os pigmentos cinza e vermelho. Alguns campos magnéticos hiperfinos relativamente baixos para a hematita sugerem que frações desse óxido de ferro têm pequenos tamanhos de partículas. O espectro Mössbauer para o pigmento amarelo mostrou apenas dois dupletos de Fe3+, atribuíveis a espécies superparamagnéticas, muito provavelmente incluindo goethita, de pequenos tamanhos de partículas, ou a ferro paramagnético na estrutura cristalina de aluminossilicatos. Os padrões de DRX mostram reflexões características de quartzo, muscovita, caulinita, ilita, albita, hematita, rutilo e anatásio. ENGLISH: Mineral pigments from deposits surrounding the Pedra do Cantagalo I archaeological site, in the municipality of Piripiri, Piauí-Brazil, were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF, powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD, CHN elemental analysis and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The iron contents, as determined by EDXRF, expressed as Fe2O3, is ~15 mass% for the gray, ~12 mass% for the yellow and from ~19 to ~21 mass% for the red pigment. Mössbauer spectra show sextets attributed to hematite and Fe3+ doublets, for the gray and red pigments. Even appearing as relatively low values, the hyperfine magnetic fields are assignable to hematite occurring in fractions of small particle sizes. The Mössbauer spectrum for the yellow pigment showed only two Fe3+ doublets

  6. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel


    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS -1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  7. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres


    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  8. SpecViz: Interactive Spectral Data Analysis (United States)

    Earl, Nicholas Michael; STScI


    The astronomical community is about to enter a new generation of scientific enterprise. With next-generation instrumentation and advanced capabilities, the need has arisen to equip astronomers with the necessary tools to deal with large, multi-faceted data. The Space Telescope Science Institute has initiated a data analysis forum for the creation, development, and maintenance of software tools for the interpretation of these new data sets. SpecViz is a spectral 1-D interactive visualization and analysis application built with Python in an open source development environment. A user-friendly GUI allows for a fast, interactive approach to spectral analysis. SpecViz supports handling of unique and instrument-specific data, incorporation of advanced spectral unit handling and conversions in a flexible, high-performance interactive plotting environment. Active spectral feature analysis is possible through interactive measurement and statistical tools. It can be used to build wide-band SEDs, with the capability of combining or overplotting data products from various instruments. SpecViz sports advanced toolsets for filtering and detrending spectral lines; identifying, isolating, and manipulating spectral features; as well as utilizing spectral templates for renormalizing data in an interactive way. SpecViz also includes a flexible model fitting toolset that allows for multi-component models, as well as custom models, to be used with various fitting and decomposition routines. SpecViz also features robust extension via custom data loaders and connection to the central communication system underneath the interface for more advanced control. Incorporation with Jupyter notebooks via connection with the active iPython kernel allows for SpecViz to be used in addition to a user’s normal workflow without demanding the user drastically alter their method of data analysis. In addition, SpecViz allows the interactive analysis of multi-object spectroscopy in the same straight

  9. Single-hole spectral function and spin-charge separation in the t-J model (United States)

    Mishchenko, A. S.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.


    Worm algorithm Monte Carlo simulations of the hole Green function with subsequent spectral analysis were performed for 0.1hole spectral function in the thermodynamic limit. Spectral analysis reveals a δ-function-sharp quasiparticle peak at the lower edge of the spectrum that is incompatible with the power-law singularity and thus rules out the possibility of spin-charge separation in this parameter range. Spectral continuum features two peaks separated by a gap ~4÷5 t.

  10. Performance and electron transport properties of TiO2 nanocomposite dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J-J; Chen, G-R; Lu, C-C; Wu, W-T; Chen, J-S


    TiO 2 nanowire (NW)/nanoparticle (NP) composite films have been fabricated by hybridizing various ratios of hydrothermal anatase NWs and TiO 2 NPs for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that uniform NW/NP composite films were formed on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by the dip-coating method. The NWs are randomly but neither vertically nor horizontally oriented within the composite film. The TiO 2 NP DSSC possesses superior performance to those of the NW/NP composite and the pure NW cells, and the efficiency of the NW/NP composite DSSC increases on increasing the NP/NW ratio in the composite anode. All types of DSSC possess the same dependence of performance on the anode thickness that the efficiency increases with the anode thickness to a maximum value, then it decreases when the anode is thickened further. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses reveal that the NP DSSCs possess larger effective electron diffusion coefficients (D eff ) in the photoanodes and smaller diffusion resistances of I 3 - in electrolytes compared to those in the NW/NP and the NW DSSCs. D eff decreases when NWs are added into the photoanode. These results suggest that the vertical feature of the NWs within the anodes is crucial for achieving a high electron transport rate in the anode

  11. Fabrication of TiO2/PU Superhydrophobic Film by Nanoparticle Assisted Cast Micromolding Process. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zheng, Jianyong; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Jie


    Lotus-like surfaces have attracted great attentions in recent years for their wide applications in water repellency, anti-fog and self-cleaning. This paper introduced a novel process, nanoparticle assisted cast micromolding, to create polymer film with superhydrophobic surface. Briefly, waterborne polyurethane (WPU) sol and nano TiO2/WPU sol were each cast onto the featured surfaces of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps replicated from fresh lotus leaves. After being dried and peeled off from the stamps, PU and TiO2/WPU replica films were created respectively. To the former, only high hydrophobic property was observed with static water contact angle (WCA) at 142.5 degrees. While to the later, superhydrophobic property was obtained with WCA more than 150 degrees and slide angle less than 3 degrees. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed that the PU replica film only had the micro-papillas and the TiO2/PU replica film not only had micro papillas but also had a large number of nano structures distributed on and between the micro-papillas. Such nano and micro hierarchical structures were very similar with those on the natural lotus leaf surface, thus was the main reason for causing superhydrophobic property. Although an elastic PDMS stamp from lotus leaf was used in herein process, hard molds may also be used in theory. This study supplied an alternative technique for large scale production of polymeric films with superhydrophobic.

  12. Wavelength conversion based spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    There has been a strong, application driven development of Si-based cameras and spectrometers for imaging and spectral analysis of light in the visible and near infrared spectral range. This has resulted in very efficient devices, with high quantum efficiency, good signal to noise ratio and high...... resolution for this spectral region. Today, an increasing number of applications exists outside the spectral region covered by Si-based devices, e.g. within cleantech, medical or food imaging. We present a technology based on wavelength conversion which will extend the spectral coverage of state of the art...... visible or near infrared cameras and spectrometers to include other spectral regions of interest....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Simultaneously, ethanol oxidation on Au/TiO2 catalyst was followed by dehydration to ethene at 300oC. (characteristic of TiO2) and dehydrogenation to ethanal at high temperature. The pathway which gives ethene as seen on TiO2 remains, but a ...

  14. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, S. David; Pedersen, Thomas


    The present work demonstrates that tuning the donor density of protective TiO2 layers on a photocathode has dramatic consequences for electronic conduction through TiO2 with implications for the stabilization of oxidation-sensitive catalysts on the surface. Vacuum annealing at 400 °C for 1 hour o...

  15. Versatile preparation method for mesoporous TiO2 electrodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Physical properties of these electrodes were compared with the electrodes prepared by ... semiconductor paste used in DB method, it is difficult to get thick enough ... DB technique. TiO2 paste was prepared following a com- monly used method described in the literature (Barbé et al 1997). 2.2 Characterization of TiO2 films.

  16. Controlled Directional Growth of TiO2 Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie


    We demonstrate how the anodization direction and growth rate of vertically aligned, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can be controlled and manipulated by the local concentration of O-2 in the electrolyte. This leads to the growth of highly active TiO2 NT arrays directly on nonconducting s...

  17. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  18. Control of interface between anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and rutile TiO2 nanorods for efficient photocatalytic H2 generation (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Peng, Shuai; Bao, Yuwen; Wang, Yu; Lei, Binglong; Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Zhongbing; Gao, Yun


    In recent years, production of H2 through photocatalytic water splitting has attracted considerable attention in the chemistry and material fields. In this work, TiO2 based heterojunction photocatalyst, which is consisted of rutile nanorods and anatase nanoparticles, is systematically studied by controlling the HCl concentration in hydrothermal process. With the help of loaded Pt, an interesting two-peak feature ("M" shape) is observed in the HCl-dependent H2 production efficiency. The peak values are 54.3 mmol h-1 g-1 and 74.4 mmol h-1 g-1, corresponding to 83.9% and 12% anatase phase, respectively. A detailed analysis based on the microstructure and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the "M" shape feature is directly linked to the HCl-controlled interface area. Moreover, an unexpected zero interface area is revealed at an intermediate HCl concentration. In terms of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleations, an interface growth mechanism is proposed to clarify its HCl-sensitive character. This work provides a route to enhance the photocatalytic activity in TiO2 based photocatalyst via increasing the interface area.

  19. Effect of concentration on the growth of rutile TiO2 nanocrystals. (United States)

    Danish, Rehan; Ahmed, Faheem; Koo, Bon Heun


    In the following study we present an easy and scalable method for the synthesis of Rutile Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) nano-rods by using bulk TiO2 powder, Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), distilled water and ethanol. We demonstrated the effects of concentration on the size, morphology and band gap of the finally obtained nanostructures. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) studies indicated that the samples were crystalline and were free from any impurities with a little hint of anatase at the lower concentrations and the average crystal size ranges between 20 nm to 41 nm, FESEM studies revealed that nano structures are rod like. Further UV-Visible Spectroscopy and Raman studies were conducted of the prepared samples and the band gap of the samples was found to be ranging from 3.5 eV to 3.8 eV. The photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange was done by the sample prepared in the presence of UV source and was compared with the degrading capacity of bulk TiO2 and was inferred that the Methyl orange is degraded much efficiently with the use of the synthesized sample. The central feature of the presented approach being the use of simple technique and instruments like hot plate, economical and easily accessible chemical like NaOH as a reactant, and a facilitator for the growth of nano-rods and with the reaction being carried out at very low temperatures and less reaction times makes this technique highly feasible for being used in mass production of Rutile TiO2 nano-rods and the fact that the morphology and size can be tuned by varying the concentration of the NaOH.

  20. Improved Discrimination of Volcanic Complexes, Tectonic Features, and Regolith Properties in Mare Serenitatis from Earth-Based Radar Mapping (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Hawke, B. Ray; Morgan, Gareth A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael


    Radar images at 70 cm wavelength show 4-5 dB variations in backscatter strength within regions of relatively uniform spectral reflectance properties in central and northern Mare Serenitatis, delineating features suggesting lava flow margins, channels, and superposition relationships. These backscatter differences are much less pronounced at 12.6 cm wavelength, consistent with a large component of the 70 cm echo arising from the rough or blocky transition zone between the mare regolith and the intact bedrock. Such deep probing is possible because the ilmenite content, which modulates microwave losses, of central Mare Serenitatis is generally low (2-3% by weight). Modeling of the radar returns from a buried interface shows that an average regolith thickness of 10m could lead to the observed shifts in 70 cm echo power with a change in TiO2 content from 2% to 3%. This thickness is consistent with estimates of regolith depth (10-15m) based on the smallest diameter for which fresh craters have obvious blocky ejecta. The 70 cm backscatter differences provide a view of mare flow-unit boundaries, channels, and lobes unseen by other remote sensing methods. A localized pyroclastic deposit associated with Rima Calippus is identified based on its low radar echo strength. Radar mapping also improves delineation of units for crater age dating and highlights a 250 km long, east-west trending feature in northern Mare Serenitatis that we suggest is a large graben flooded by late-stage mare flows.

  1. Context Dependent Spectral Unmixing (United States)


    remote sensing [1–13]. It is also used in food safety [14–17], pharmaceutical process monitoring and quality control [18–22], as well as in biomedical...23,24], industrial [25], biometric [26] and forensic applications [27]. Hyperspectral sensors capture both the spatial and spectral information of a...imagery,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 58–69, 2002. [12] A. Plaza, J. A. Benediktsson, J. W. Boardman, J. Brazile , L. Bruzzone, G

  2. Spectral distributions and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, C.


    As it is now well known, the spectral distribution method has both statistical and group theoretical aspects which make for great simplifications in many-Fermion system calculations with respect to more conventional ones. Although both aspects intertwine and are equally essential to understand what is going on, we are only going to discuss some of the group theoretical aspects, namely those connected with the propagation of information, in view of their fundamental importance for the actual calculations of spectral distributions. To be more precise, let us recall that the spectral distribution method may be applied in principle to many-Fermion spaces which have a direct-product structure, i.e., are obtained by distributing a certain number n of Fermions over N single-particle states (O less than or equal to n less than or equal to N), as it is the case for instance for the nuclear shell model spaces. For such systems, the operation of a central limit theorem is known to provide us with a simplifying principle which, when used in conjunction with exact or broken symmetries, enables us to make definite predictions in those cases which are not amendable to exact shell model diagonalizations. The distribution (in energy) of the states corresponding to a fixed symmetry is then defined by a small number of low-order energy moments. Since the Hamiltonian is defined in few-particle subspaces embedded in the n-particlespace, the low-order moments, we are interested in, can be expressed in terms of simpler quantities defined in those few-particle subspaces: the information is said to propagate from the simple subspaces to the more complicated ones. The possibility of actually calculating spectral distributions depends upon the finding of simple ways to propagate the information

  3. Spectral and Diffraction Tomography


    Lionheart, William


    We discuss several cases of what we call "Rich Tomography" problems in which more data is measured than a scalar for each ray. We give examples of infra red spectral tomography and Bragg edge neutron tomography in which the data is insufficient. For diffraction tomography of strain for polycrystaline materials we give an explicit reconstruction procedure. We go on to describe a way to find six independent rotation axes using Pascal's theorem of projective geometry

  4. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.


    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  5. Water Adsorption on TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Wendt, Stefan; Besenbacher, Flemming


    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies and Density Functional Theory (DFT) investigations of the interaction of water with the rutile TiO2 (110) surface are summarized. From high-resolution STM the following reactions have been revealed: water adsorption and diffusion in the Ti troughs, water...... dissociation in bridging oxygen vacancies, assembly of adsorbed water monomers into rapidly diffusing water dimers, and formation of water dimers by reduction of oxygen molecules. The STM results are rationalized based on DFT calculations, revealing the bonding geometries and reaction pathways of the water...

  6. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens (United States)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.


    TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions 25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  7. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.


    TiO 2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO 2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO 2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions ∼25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO 2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  8. Preparation and characterization of TiO2/silicate hierarchical coating on titanium surface for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Huang, Qianli; Liu, Xujie; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling


    In the current work, TiO2/silicate hierarchical coatings with various nanostructure morphologies were successfully prepared on titanium substrates through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequent hydrothermal treatment (HT). Moreover, the nucleation mechanism and growth behavior of the nanostructures, hydrophilicity, protein adsorption and apatite-inducing ability of various coatings were also explored. The novel TiO2/silicate hierarchical coatings comprised calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) as an outer-layer and TiO2 matrix as an inner-layer. According to the morphological features, the nanostructures were classified as nanorod, nanoplate and nanoleaf. The morphology, degree of crystallinity and crystalline phases of CSH nanostructures could be controlled by optimizing the HT conditions. The nucleation of CSH nanostructures is caused by release and re-precipitation mechanism. The TiO2/CSH hierarchical coatings exhibited some enhanced physical and biological performances compared to MAO-fabricated coating. The improvement of the hydrophilicity, fibronectin adsorption and apatite-inducing ability was found to be morphological dependent according to the following trend: nanoleaf coating>nanoplate coating>nanorod coating>MAO coating. The results indicate that the tuning of physical and morphological properties of nanostructures coated on biomaterial surface could significantly influence the hydrophilicity, protein adsorption and in vitro bioactivity of biomaterial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimum-Light Spectral Types for Four Mira Variables (United States)

    Wing, R. F.; Yuan, Y.; Benfer, S. R.


    Spectral types for four little-studied Mira variables have been derived from narrow-band classification photometry obtained within three weeks of minimum light. The observations were made on May 24, 1997, with the CTIO 1.5-m telescope and ASCAP photometer when targets of a primary program were not accessible. The following stars were selected for observation based on AAVSO predicted times of minimum light. Star P V Sp.T.(pub) Phase I(104) Sp.T.(8c) RR Aqr 182.5 9.1--14.4 M2e--M4e 0.52 7.63 M7.5 RS Aqr 214.6 9.5--14.4 Me 0.62 6.63 M7.5 Z Aql 129.2 8.2--14.8 M3 0.67 7.07 M8.3 RU Cap 347.4 9.2--15.2 M9e 0.68 5.49 M8.8 The first four columns give data from the GCVS: the star's name, mean period in days, observed range in visual magnitude, and published spectral type. The last three columns refer to our own observations: the phase on 1997 May 24 (according to the AAVSO predictions), the apparent magnitude in a narrow band centered at 10400 Angstroms, and our spectral classification on the eight-color system, which is based on measurements of TiO at 7120 Angstroms and VO at 10540 Angstroms. The very late published spectral type of RU Cap (which appears to have been observed only at minimum) is confirmed. The three other stars, which had not previously been observed later than M4, all showed very strong TiO and significant absorption by VO, indicative of types M7.5 or later. These and earlier observations show that published spectral types of Mira variables --- even those that are brighter than V = 10 at maximum --- are often very incomplete and can be misleading. Indeed, it is difficult to find Miras that do not attain types of at least M7 at minimum.

  10. Effect of Low Cobalt Loading on TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Water-Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pozio


    Full Text Available This work is intended to define a new possible methodology for the TiO2 doping through the use of an electrochemical deposition of cobalt directly on the titanium nanotubes obtained by a previous galvanostatic anodization treatment in an ethylene glycol solution. This method does not seem to cause any influence on the nanotube structure, showing final products with news and interesting features with respect to the unmodified sample. Together with an unmodified photoconversion efficiency under UV light, the cobalt doped specimen reports an increase of the electrocatalytic efficiency for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER.

  11. ??????????? ??????????????? ????? ??????-???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?aO?Al2O3?TiO2 ??? ???????? ?????? ?????


    ???????, ????; ??????, ?????????


    ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????-????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?aO?Al2O3?TiO2, ?? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? 12000?, ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ???? ? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ????????, ?? ?? ...

  12. Featuring animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ritter


    Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories. 

  13. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source (United States)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.


    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  14. On the spectral dependence of the critical temperature of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescot, R.


    The authors have solved analytically the linearized Eliashberg equations for T c in the weak coupling limit. The corrections to their result go to zero in this limit. Their calculation is valid for any spectral shape. They find a smooth dependence of T c on the spectral shape. Only the gross features of the spectrum are relevant. The authors propose for T c an interpolation formula valid for any coupling strength and any spectral shape. This formula is in good agreement with known numerical results. It agrees with all the qualitative behavior obtained from computer work

  15. TiO(2)-assisted photocatalytic degradation of humic acids: effect of copper ions. (United States)

    Uyguner, C S; Bekbolet, M


    The present study investigated the removal efficiency of aqueous humic acid solutions by TiO(2) photocatalytic degradation in the presence of Cu(II) species. The pseudo-first-order kinetics revealed rate constants as 9.87 x 10(-3), 7.19 x 10(-3), 3.81 x 10(-3) min(-1) for Color(436), UV(254) and TOC, respectively. Comparatively, lower rate constants were attained with respect to photocatalytic degradation of humic acid. Considering the source-dependent diverse chemical and spectral characteristics of NOM, a particular interaction would be expected for humic acid with Cu(II) species (0.1 mg L(-1)). The presence of copper ions significantly altered the photocatalytic degradation kinetics of humic acids in relation to the concentration effects of humic acid as expressed by spectroscopic parameters and TOC. Batch equilibrium adsorption experiments revealed a distinct Langmuirian-type adsorptive behavior of humic acid onto TiO(2) both in terms of UV(254) and Color(436) and a C-type adsorption isotherm was attained for TOC. K(F) values displayed an inconsistent effect of Cu(II) species, while adsorption intensity factor 1/ncopper ions and humic molecular size fractions, spectroscopic techniques were also employed for the assessment of the adsorption as well as photocatalytic degradation efficiencies.

  16. Electrospun Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers and their in vitro biocompatibility: prospective matrix for satellite cell adhesion and cultivation. (United States)

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Van Ba, Hoa; Khil, Myung-Seob; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Hwang, I H


    We report the fabrication of novel Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers with the improved cellular response for potential tissue engineering applications. In this study, Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers were prepared by facile sol-gel electrospinning using titanium isopropoxide and iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate as precursors. The obtained electrospun nanofibers were vacuum dried at 80 °C and then calcined at 500 °C. The physicochemical characterization of the synthesized composite nanofibers was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern. To examine the in vitro cytotoxicity, satellite cells were treated with as-prepared Fe3O4/TiO2 and the viability of cells was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay at regular time intervals. The morphological features of unexposed satellite cells and exposed to Fe3O4/TiO2 composite were examined with a phase contrast microscope whereas the quantification of cell viability was carried out via confocal laser scanning microscopy. The morphology of the cells attached to hybrid matrix was observed by Bio-SEM. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the satellite cells could attach to the Fe3O4/TiO2 composite nanofibers after being cultured. We observed that Fe3O4-TiO2 composite nanofibers could support cell adhesion and growth. Results from this study therefore suggest that Fe3O4/TiO2 composite scaffold with small diameters (approximately 200 nm) can mimic the natural extracellular matrix well and provide possibilities for diverse applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests (United States)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie


    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  18. Anatase TiO2 nanocomposites for antimicrobial coatings. (United States)

    Fu, Guifen; Vary, Patricia S; Lin, Chhiu-Tsu


    A sol-gel chemistry approach was used to fabricate nanoparticles of TiO(2) in its anatase form. The particle size is shown to be sensitive to the use of HClO(4) or HNO(3) as acid catalyst. The gold-capped TiO(2) nanocomposites were processed by the reduction of gold on the surface of the TiO(2) nanoparticles via a chemical reduction or a photoreduction method. Different percentages of vanadium-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles, which extended the TiO(2) absorption wavelength from the ultraviolet to the visible region, were successfully prepared. The synthesized nanocomposites have a size of about 12-18 nm and an anatase phase as characterized by XRD, TEM, AFM, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The TiO(2) nanocomposite coatings have been applied on glass slide substrates. The antibacterial activity of TiO(2) nanocomposites was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively. Two types of bacteria, Escherichia coli (DH 5alpha) and Bacillus megaterium (QM B1551), were used during the experiments. Good inhibition results were observed and demonstrated visually. The quantitative examination of bacterial activity for E. coli was estimated by the survival ratio as calculated from the number of viable cells, which form colonies on the nutrient agar plates. The antimicrobial efficiency and inhibition mechanisms are illustrated and discussed.

  19. QCD spectral sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    The aim of the book is to give an introduction to the method of QCD Spectral Sum Rules and to review its developments. After some general introductory remarks, Chiral Symmetry, the Historical Developments of the Sum Rules and the necessary materials for perturbative QCD including the MS regularization and renormalization schemes are discussed. The book also gives a critical review and some improvements of the wide uses of the QSSR in Hadron Physics and QSSR beyond the Standard Hadron Phenomenology. The author has participated actively in this field since 1978 just before the expanding success

  20. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger


    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  1. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.


    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  2. Phase transformation and particle growth in nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 films analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Orendorz, A.; Brodyanski, A.; Lösch, J.; Bai, L. H.; Chen, Z. H.; Le, Y. K.; Ziegler, C.; Gnaser, H.


    Nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 films were prepared from colloidal suspensions using particles with a nominal size of 12 nm. Their structure was examined by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The as-prepared specimens exhibit exclusively features due to the anatase phase of TiO 2 (e.g., the Eg, B1g and A1g vibration modes in Raman spectroscopy and the characteristic diffraction peaks in XRD). Isochronal annealing of the films in air at temperatures of up to 1320 K effected clear structural changes, observed both in Raman and XRD: the crystallite size increases from ˜13 nm to ˜125 nm between 470 K and 1220 K, with the crystallites remaining in the anatase phase. A phase transition to the rutile phase of TiO 2 occurs gradually in the temperature range 1220-1320 K and the average crystallite size increases to ˜160 nm.

  3. Intelligent multi-spectral IR image segmentation (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Luong, Andrew; Heim, Stephen; Patel, Maharshi; Chen, Kang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Chow, Edward; Torres, Gilbert


    This article presents a neural network based multi-spectral image segmentation method. A neural network is trained on the selected features of both the objects and background in the longwave (LW) Infrared (IR) images. Multiple iterations of training are performed until the accuracy of the segmentation reaches satisfactory level. The segmentation boundary of the LW image is used to segment the midwave (MW) and shortwave (SW) IR images. A second neural network detects the local discontinuities and refines the accuracy of the local boundaries. This article compares the neural network based segmentation method to the Wavelet-threshold and Grab-Cut methods. Test results have shown increased accuracy and robustness of this segmentation scheme for multi-spectral IR images.

  4. Spectral functions from anisotropic lattice QCD (United States)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C.; Amato, A.; Evans, W.; Giudice, P.; Harris, T.; Kelly, A.; Kim, S. Y.; Lombardo, M. P.; Praki, K.; Ryan, S. M.; Skullerud, J.-I.


    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out lattice simulations of QCD for temperatures ranging from one third to twice the crossover temperature, investigating the transition region, as well as the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this contribution we concentrate on quarkonium correlators and spectral functions. We work in a fixed scale scheme and use anisotropic lattices which help achieving the desirable fine resolution in the temporal direction, thus facilitating the (ill posed) integral transform from imaginary time to frequency space. We contrast and compare results for the correlators obtained with different methods, and different temporal spacings. We observe robust features of the results, confirming the sequential dissociation scenario, but also quantitative differences indicating that the methods' systematic errors are not yet under full control. We briefly outline future steps towards accurate results for the spectral functions and their associated statistical and systematic errors.

  5. Nonparametric Collective Spectral Density Estimation and Clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi


    In this paper, we develop a method for the simultaneous estimation of spectral density functions (SDFs) for a collection of stationary time series that share some common features. Due to the similarities among the SDFs, the log-SDF can be represented using a common set of basis functions. The basis shared by the collection of the log-SDFs is estimated as a low-dimensional manifold of a large space spanned by a pre-specified rich basis. A collective estimation approach pools information and borrows strength across the SDFs to achieve better estimation efficiency. Also, each estimated spectral density has a concise representation using the coefficients of the basis expansion, and these coefficients can be used for visualization, clustering, and classification purposes. The Whittle pseudo-maximum likelihood approach is used to fit the model and an alternating blockwise Newton-type algorithm is developed for the computation. A web-based shiny App found at

  6. Spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Gomez, Julian


    This Research Note addresses several pivotal problems in spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis in connection with the analysis of the structure of the set of zeroes of a general class of nonlinear operators. It features the construction of an optimal algebraic/analytic invariant for calculating the Leray-Schauder degree, new methods for solving nonlinear equations in Banach spaces, and general properties of components of solutions sets presented with minimal use of topological tools. The author also gives several applications of the abstract theory to reaction diffusion equations and systems.The results presented cover a thirty-year period and include recent, unpublished findings of the author and his coworkers. Appealing to a broad audience, Spectral Theory and Nonlinear Functional Analysis contains many important contributions to linear algebra, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, and topology and opens the door for further advances.

  7. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) II: Spectral Homogeneity Among Hungaria Family Asteroids (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; MacLennan, Eric M.; Cartwright, Richard; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Lorenzi, Vania


    Spectral observations of asteroid family members provide valuable information regarding parent body interiors, the source regions of near-Earth asteroids, and the link between meteorites and their parent bodies. Hungaria family asteroids constitute the closest samples to the Earth from a collisional family (~1.94 AU), permitting observations of smaller fragments than accessible for Main Belt families. We have carried out a ground-based observational campaign - Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) - to record reflectance spectra of these preserved samples from the inner-most primordial asteroid belt. During HARTSS phase one (Lucas et al. [2017]. Icarus 291, 268-287) we found that ~80% of the background population is comprised of stony S-complex asteroids that exhibit considerable spectral and mineralogical diversity. In HARTSS phase two, we turn our attention to family members and hypothesize that the Hungaria collisional family is homogeneous. We test this hypothesis through taxonomic classification, albedo estimates, and spectral properties.During phase two of HARTSS we acquired near-infrared (NIR) spectra of 50 new Hungarias (19 family; 31 background) with SpeX/IRTF and NICS/TNG. We analyzed X-type family spectra for NIR color indices (0.85-J J-K), and a subtle ~0.9 µm absorption feature that may be attributed to Fe-poor orthopyroxene. Surviving fragments of an asteroid collisional family typically exhibit similar taxonomies, albedos, and spectral properties. Spectral analysis of X-type Hungaria family members and independently calculated WISE albedo determinations for 428 Hungaria asteroids is consistent with this scenario. Furthermore, ~1/4 of the background population exhibit similar spectral properties and albedos to family X-types.Spectral observations of 92 Hungaria region asteroids acquired during both phases of HARTSS uncover a compositionally heterogeneous background and spectral homogeneity down to ~2 km for collisional family

  8. The Effect of TiO2 Doped Photocatalytic Nano-Additives on the Hydration and Microstructure of Portland and High Alumina Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez-Nicolás


    Full Text Available Mortars with two different binders (Portland cement (PC and high alumina cement (HAC were modified upon the bulk incorporation of nano-structured photocatalytic additives (bare TiO2, and TiO2 doped with either iron (Fe-TiO2 or vanadium (V-TiO2. Plastic and hardened state properties of these mortars were assessed in order to study the influence of these nano-additives. Water demand was increased, slightly by bare TiO2 and Fe-TiO2, and strongly by V-TiO2, in agreement with the reduction of the particle size and the tendency to agglomerate. Isothermal calorimetry showed that hydration of the cementitious matrices was accelerated due to additional nucleation sites offered by the nano-additives. TiO2 and doped TiO2 did not show pozzolanic reactivity in the binding systems. Changes in the pore size distribution, mainly the filler effect of the nano-additives, accounted for the increase in compressive strengths measured for HAC mortars. A complex microstructure was seen in calcium aluminate cement mortars, strongly dependent on the curing conditions. Fe-TiO2 was found to be homogeneously distributed whereas the tendency of V-TiO2 to agglomerate was evidenced by elemental distribution maps. Water absorption capacity was not affected by the nano-additive incorporation in HAC mortars, which is a favourable feature for the application of these mortars.

  9. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.


    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  10. Reactivation and reuse of TiO2-SnS2composite catalyst for solar-driven water treatment. (United States)

    Kovacic, Marin; Kopcic, Nina; Kusic, Hrvoje; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric


    One of the most important features of photocatalytic materials intended to be used for water treatment is their long-term stability. The study is focused on the application of thermal and chemical treatments for the reactivation of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite photocatalyst, prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and immobilized on the glass support using titania/silica binder. Such a catalytic system was applied in solar-driven treatment, solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 , for the purification of water contaminated with diclofenac (DCF). The effectiveness of studied reactivation methods for retaining TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in consecutive cycles was evaluated on basis of DCF removal and conversion, and TOC removal and mineralization of organic content. Besides these water quality parameters, biodegradability changes in DCF aqueous solution treated by solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 process using simply reused (air-dried) and thermally and chemically reactivated composite photocatalyst through six consecutive cycles were monitored. It was established that both thermal and chemical reactivation retain TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in the second cycle of its reuse. However, both treatments caused the alteration in the TiO 2 -SnS 2 morphology due to the partial transformation of visible-active SnS 2 into non-active SnO 2 . Such alteration, repeated through consecutive reactivation and reuse, was reflected through gradual activity loss of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite in applied solar-driven water treatment.

  11. Theoretical and photo-electrochemical studies of surface plasmon induced visible light absorption of Ag loaded TiO2 nanotubes for water splitting (United States)

    Gross, P. A.; Javahiraly, N.; Geraldini Sabat, N.; Cottineau, T.; Savinova, E. R.; Keller, V.


    Vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-NTs), obtained by anodization in organic electrolyte, are decorated with 15 nm Ag nanoparticles prepared by a micro-wave assisted polyol synthesis. The Ag/TiO2 system is characterized by electronic microscopies in order to build a Finite Differential Time Domain (FDTD) model to simulate the interaction of light with the system. By combining UV-visible spectroscopy and FDTD simulations, the observed red shift in the surface plasmon resonance wavelength of the Ag nanoparticles, deposited on TiO2, is explained. The Ag/TiO2-NT system is used as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical water splitting setup and shows an increasing Incident Photon to Current Conversion Efficiency (IPCE) in the visible light domain with an increasing amount of deposited Ag. The spectral position of this activity enhancement coincides with the one expected from the FDTD calculations for the surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles deposited on TiO2.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Gulis


    Full Text Available Instruments for spectral filtration of images are an important element of the systems used in remote sensing, medical diagnostics, in-process measurements. The aim of this study is analysis of the functional features and characteristics of the proposed two image monochromator versions which are based on dispersive spectral filtering. The first is based on the use of a dispersive monochromator, where collimating and camera lenses form a telescopic system, the dispersive element of which is within the intermediate image plane. The second version is based on an imaging double monochromator with dispersion subtraction by back propagation. For the telescopic system version, the spectral and spatial resolutions are estimated, the latter being limited by aberrations and diffraction from the entrance slit. The device has been numerically simulated and prototyped. It is shown that for the spectral bandwidth 10 nm (visible spectral range, the aberration-limited spot size is from 10–20 μm at the image center to about 30 μm at the image periphery for the image size 23–27 mm. The monochromator with dispersion subtraction enables one to vary the spectral resolution (up to 1 nm and higher by changing the intermediate slit width. But the distinctive feature is a significant change in the selected central wavelength over the image field. The considered designs of dispersive image monochromators look very promising due to the particular advantages over the systems based on tunable filters as regards the spectral resolution, fast tuning, and the spectral contrast. The monochromator based on a telescopic system has a simple design and a rather large image field but it also has a limited light throughput due to small aperture size. The monochromator with dispersion subtraction has higher light throughput, can provide high spectral resolution when recording a full data cube in a series of measuring acts for different dispersive element positions. 

  13. PHROG: A Multimodal Feature for Place Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Bonardi


    Full Text Available Long-term place recognition in outdoor environments remains a challenge due to high appearance changes in the environment. The problem becomes even more difficult when the matching between two scenes has to be made with information coming from different visual sources, particularly with different spectral ranges. For instance, an infrared camera is helpful for night vision in combination with a visible camera. In this paper, we emphasize our work on testing usual feature point extractors under both constraints: repeatability across spectral ranges and long-term appearance. We develop a new feature extraction method dedicated to improve the repeatability across spectral ranges. We conduct an evaluation of feature robustness on long-term datasets coming from different imaging sources (optics, sensors size and spectral ranges with a Bag-of-Words approach. The tests we perform demonstrate that our method brings a significant improvement on the image retrieval issue in a visual place recognition context, particularly when there is a need to associate images from various spectral ranges such as infrared and visible: we have evaluated our approach using visible, Near InfraRed (NIR, Short Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR and Long Wavelength InfraRed (LWIR.

  14. Type II Supernova Spectral Diversity. I. Observations, Sample Characterization, and Spectral Line Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Claudia P.; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario


    , spectral, and environmental properties: velocities, pseudo-equivalent widths, decline rates, magnitudes, time durations, and environment metallicity. Our sample displays a large range in ejecta expansion velocities, from similar to 9600 to similar to 1500 km s(-1 )at 50 days post-explosion with a median H...... to progenitor radius) and progenitor metallicity between different SNe II. Around 60% of our sample shows an extra absorption component on the blue side of the H-alpha P-Cygni profile ("Cachito" feature) between 7 and 120 days since explosion. Studying the nature of Cachito, we conclude that these features...

  15. Spectral Automorphisms in Quantum Logics (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexandru; Caragheorgheopol, Dan


    In quantum mechanics, the Hilbert space formalism might be physically justified in terms of some axioms based on the orthomodular lattice (OML) mathematical structure (Piron in Foundations of Quantum Physics, Benjamin, Reading, 1976). We intend to investigate the extent to which some fundamental physical facts can be described in the more general framework of OMLs, without the support of Hilbert space-specific tools. We consider the study of lattice automorphisms properties as a “substitute” for Hilbert space techniques in investigating the spectral properties of observables. This is why we introduce the notion of spectral automorphism of an OML. Properties of spectral automorphisms and of their spectra are studied. We prove that the presence of nontrivial spectral automorphisms allow us to distinguish between classical and nonclassical theories. We also prove, for finite dimensional OMLs, that for every spectral automorphism there is a basis of invariant atoms. This is an analogue of the spectral theorem for unitary operators having purely point spectrum.

  16. TiO2/polymer nanocomposite based inks (United States)

    Loffredo, F.; Grimaldi, I. A.; De Girolamo Del Mauro, A.; Villani, F.; D'Amato, R.; Minarini, C.


    We report the development and characterization of dielectric inks based on dispersions of TiO2 in poly(ethylenimine)/ethanol solutions having physicochemical properties suitable to ink-jet printing process. In order to study the effect of polymer dispersant on the printability and stability of inks, we carried out dynamic light scattering analysis of different inks made with and without polymer. Moreover, we compare the curve of distribution of TiO2 particles size at different aging times. For TiO2polymerwe optimize the inkjet parameters (amplitude and duration of jetting impulse, jetting frequency, substrate velocity) to obtain thin lines based on TiO2/ poly(ethylenimine) nanocomposite on silicon substrate. Finally, the morphology of films was also investigated.

  17. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.


    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  18. A Black Hole Spectral Signature (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe


    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  19. Spectral Theory of Chemical Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Boatz, J. A; Hinde, R. J; Sheehy, J. A


    New theoretical methods are reported for obtaining the binding energies of molecules and other chemical aggregates employing the spectral eigenstates and related properties of their atomic constituents...

  20. Biologically-inspired data decorrelation for hyper-spectral imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghita Ovidiu


    Full Text Available Abstract Hyper-spectral data allows the construction of more robust statistical models to sample the material properties than the standard tri-chromatic color representation. However, because of the large dimensionality and complexity of the hyper-spectral data, the extraction of robust features (image descriptors is not a trivial issue. Thus, to facilitate efficient feature extraction, decorrelation techniques are commonly applied to reduce the dimensionality of the hyper-spectral data with the aim of generating compact and highly discriminative image descriptors. Current methodologies for data decorrelation such as principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, wavelet decomposition (WD, or band selection methods require complex and subjective training procedures and in addition the compressed spectral information is not directly related to the physical (spectral characteristics associated with the analyzed materials. The major objective of this article is to introduce and evaluate a new data decorrelation methodology using an approach that closely emulates the human vision. The proposed data decorrelation scheme has been employed to optimally minimize the amount of redundant information contained in the highly correlated hyper-spectral bands and has been comprehensively evaluated in the context of non-ferrous material classification

  1. Environmental remediation by an integrated microwave/UV illumination technique. 3. A microwave-powered plasma light source and photoreactor to degrade pollutants in aqueous dispersions of TiO2 illuminated by the emitted UV/visible radiation. (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Hidaka, Hisao; Serpone, Nick


    The characteristic features of a novel double-quartz cylindrical plasma photoreactor (DQCPP) were assessed by examining the photodegradation of rhodamine-B dye (RhB+) in aqueous TiO2 dispersions irradiated simultaneously by both microwave radiation and UV/visible radiation emitted from a microwave-powered (MW, 2.45 GHz) electrodeless mercury lamp. The features of the DQCPP lamp are given and discussed in terms of the experimental output UV energy in the wavelength ranges 210-300 and 310-400 nm for applied MW powers from 74 to 621 W. The DQCPP and a water-cooled DQCPP reactor absorbed more than 50% MW radiation (50-88 and 50-75%, respectively). The emitted light irradiance scaled sublinearly with applied MW power. Relative to the DQCPP lamp, loss of irradiance by the water-cooled DQCPP lamp was approximately 28-46% at 250 nm and approximately 41-58% at 360 nm in the range of MW power used. The smallest loss occurred at 178.9 W at which the degradation of RhB+ was subsequently examined by UV/visible spectroscopy and by total organic carbon analyses. Highly intense mercury lines were seen at 365, 404, 435, 546, and 579 nm (those below 365 nm were more than 10 times weaker). About 80% of the RhB+ solution was photomineralized after 60 min of irradiation of the aqueous RhB+/TiO2 dispersion with the DQCPP lamp; no UV/ visible spectral features of RhB+ were evident at wavelengths below 250 nm after 30 min. Possible effects of microwave radiation and temperature on the degradative process are described.

  2. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatil Amali Che Ramli


    Full Text Available This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC, TiO2/carbon (C, and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1. The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.

  3. Feature extraction of arc tracking phenomenon (United States)

    Attia, John Okyere


    This document outlines arc tracking signals -- both the data acquisition and signal processing. The objective is to obtain the salient features of the arc tracking phenomenon. As part of the signal processing, the power spectral density is obtained and used in a MATLAB program.

  4. Electrospun Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers and their in vitro biocompatibility: Prospective matrix for satellite cell adhesion and cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M. Shamshi; Van Ba, Hoa; Khil, Myung-Seob; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Hwang, I.H.


    We report the fabrication of novel Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 hybrid nanofibers with the improved cellular response for potential tissue engineering applications. In this study, Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 hybrid nanofibers were prepared by facile sol–gel electrospinning using titanium isopropoxide and iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate as precursors. The obtained electrospun nanofibers were vacuum dried at 80 °C and then calcined at 500 °C. The physicochemical characterization of the synthesized composite nanofibers was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern. To examine the in vitro cytotoxicity, satellite cells were treated with as-prepared Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 and the viability of cells was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay at regular time intervals. The morphological features of unexposed satellite cells and exposed to Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 composite were examined with a phase contrast microscope whereas the quantification of cell viability was carried out via confocal laser scanning microscopy. The morphology of the cells attached to hybrid matrix was observed by Bio-SEM. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the satellite cells could attach to the Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 composite nanofibers after being cultured. We observed that Fe 3 O 4 –TiO 2 composite nanofibers could support cell adhesion and growth. Results from this study therefore suggest that Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 composite scaffold with small diameters (approximately 200 nm) can mimic the natural extracellular matrix well and provide possibilities for diverse applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Highlights: ► We report fabrication of novel Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 hybrid nanofibers by facile electrospinning. ► The utilized satellite cells were isolated from native Korean Hanwoo cattle. ► Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 composite with small diameters (∼ 200 nm) can mimic the natural ECM well. ► Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2

  5. TiO2-ITO and TiO2-ZnO nanocomposites: application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessais B.


    Full Text Available One of the most promising ideas to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 is to couple this photocatalyst with other semiconductors. In this work, we report on the development of photo-catalytic properties of two types of composites based on TiO2 – ITO (Indium Tin Oxide and TiO2 – ZnO deposited on conventional ceramic substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The photo-catalytic test was carried out under UV light in order to reduce/oxidize a typical textile dye (Cibacron Yellow. The experiment was carried out in a bench scale reactor using a solution having a known initial dye concentration. After optimization, we found that both nanocomposites exhibit better photocatalytic activity compared to the standard photocatalyst P25 TiO2.

  6. Synthesis of green TiO2/ZnO/CdS hybrid nano-catalyst for efficient light harvesting using an elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquids method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondal, M.A.; Ilyas, A.M.; Fasasi, T.A.; Dastageer, M.A.; Seddigi, Z.S.; Qahtan, T.F.; Faiz, M.; Khattak, G.D.


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile strategy for synthesis of green catalyst (TiO 2 /ZnO/CdS) was developed. • Clean synthesis of green catalyst was done using pulsed laser ablation in liquids. • Synthesized composite size ranges between 10 and 40 nm confirmed by HRTEM studies. • Enhanced improvement was noticed in the carriers transport in the visible region. • Visible region absorption opens door to many applications for solar energy harvesting. - Abstract: The main limitation on the applications of TiO 2 as a photocatalyst is its large band gap (3.2 eV) which limits its absorption only to the ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum. To overcome this problem, a facile strategy for clean synthesis of a nanocomposite green catalyst of zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and cadmium sulphide (CdS) was developed using pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) technique for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The main aim of addition of ZnO is to reduce the electron–hole recombination in the TiO 2 while CdS is used to increase the light harvesting efficiency of TiO 2 in the visible spectral region. The absorption spectrum of the TiO 2 /ZnO/CdS composite obtained from the UV–vis spectrophotometer exhibits strong absorption in the visible region as compared to the pure TiO 2 whose absorption band lies around 380 nm which is in the UV-region. The morphology of the composite quantum dots was also investigated using high resolution TEM technique which shows that the synthesized composite size ranges between 10 and 40 nm. These nanocomposites have demosntarted noticible improvement in the carriers transport in the visible region which could enhance its efficiency for many applications in the visible region especially for energy harvesting using solar radiations.

  7. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong


    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...... exactly implies phase as well as group-velocity matching between the input soliton and tunneled soliton, namely a soliton phase matching condition. Examples in realistic photonic crystal fibers are also presented....

  8. Lithium insertion in nanostructured TiO(2)(B) architectures. (United States)

    Dylla, Anthony G; Henkelman, Graeme; Stevenson, Keith J


    Electric vehicles and grid storage devices have potentialto become feasible alternatives to current technology, but only if scientists can develop energy storage materials that offer high capacity and high rate capabilities. Chemists have studied anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) (bronze) in both bulk and nanostructured forms as potential Li-ion battery anodes. In most cases, the specific capacity and rate of lithiation and delithiation increases as the materials are nanostructured. Scientists have explained these enhancements in terms of higher surface areas, shorter Li(+) diffusion paths and different surface energies for nanostructured materials allowing for more facile lithiation and delithiation. Of the most studied polymorphs, nanostructured TiO2(B) has the highest capacity with promising high rate capabilities. TiO2(B) is able to accommodate 1 Li(+) per Ti, giving a capacity of 335 mAh/g for nanotubular and nanoparticulate TiO2(B). The TiO2(B) polymorph, discovered in 1980 by Marchand and co-workers, has been the focus of many recent studies regarding high power and high capacity anode materials with potential applications for electric vehicles and grid storage. This is due to the material's stability over multiple cycles, safer lithiation potential relative to graphite, reasonable capacity, high rate capability, nontoxicity, and low cost (Bruce, P. G.; Scrosati, B.; Tarascon, J.-M. Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.2008, 47, 2930-2946). One of the most interesting properties of TiO2(B) is that both bulk and nanostructured forms lithiate and delithiate through a surface redox or pseudocapacitive charging mechanism, giving rise to stable high rate charge/discharge capabilities in the case of nanostructured TiO2(B). When other polymorphs of TiO2 are nanostructured, they still mainly intercalate lithium through a bulk diffusion-controlled mechanism. TiO2(B) has a unique open crystal structure and low energy Li

  9. Order and correlations in genomic DNA sequences. The spectral approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobzin, Vasilii V; Chechetkin, Vladimir R


    The structural analysis of genomic DNA sequences is discussed in the framework of the spectral approach, which is sufficiently universal due to the reciprocal correspondence and mutual complementarity of Fourier transform length scales. The spectral characteristics of random sequences of the same nucleotide composition possess the property of self-averaging for relatively short sequences of length M≥100-300. Comparison with the characteristics of random sequences determines the statistical significance of the structural features observed. Apart from traditional applications to the search for hidden periodicities, spectral methods are also efficient in studying mutual correlations in DNA sequences. By combining spectra for structure factors and correlation functions, not only integral correlations can be estimated but also their origin identified. Using the structural spectral entropy approach, the regularity of a sequence can be quantitatively assessed. A brief introduction to the problem is also presented and other major methods of DNA sequence analysis described. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Classical diffusion, Anderson localization, and spectral statistics in billiard chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, T.; Doron, E.; Smilansky, U.


    We study spectral properties of quasi one-dimensional extended systems that show deterministic diffusion on the classical level and Anderson localization in the quantal description. Using semiclassical arguments, we relate to universal aspects of the spectral fluctuations to features of the set of classical periodic orbits, expressed in terms of probability to perform periodic motion, that are likewise universal. This allows to derive an analytical expression for the spectral form factor which reflects the diffusive nature of the corresponding classical dynamics. It defines a novel spectral universality class which covers the transition between GOE statistics in the limit of a small ratio of the system size to the localization length, corresponding to the metallic regime of disordered systems, to Poissonian level fluctuations in the opposite limit. Our semiclassical predictions are illustrated and confirmed by a numerical investigation of aperiodic chains of chaotic billiards. (authors)

  11. Three-level cobblestone-like TiO2 micro/nanocones for dual-responsive water/oil reversible wetting without fluorination (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Chuanzong; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Yachao; Wu, Sizhu; Hu, Yanlei; Zhu, Wulin; Li, Jiawen; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Zhijia; Wu, Dong; Yu, Liandong


    In this work, a kind of three-level cobblestone-like anatase TiO2 microcone array was fabricated on titanium sheets by femtosecond laser-induced self-assembly. This three level structure consisted of cobblestone-like features (15-25 μm in height and 20-35 μm in diameter), ˜460 nm ripple-like features, and smaller particles (10-500 nm). The formation of microcone arrays can be ascribed to the interaction of alternant laser beam ablation. TiO2 surfaces display dual-responsive water/oil reversible wetting via heat treatment and selective UV irradiation without fluorination. It is indicated that three-level scale surface roughness can amplify the wetting character of the Ti surface, and the mechanism for reversible switching between extreme wettabilities is caused by the conversion between Ti-OH and Ti-O. Moreover, the double-faced superhydrophobic and double-faced superhydrophilic Ti samples were constructed, which exhibited stable superhydrophobicity and underwater superoleophobicity in water-oil solution, respectively, even when strongly shaken. Finally, we present the hybrid-patterned TiO2 surface and realized reversible switching pattern wettability.

  12. A spectral algorithm for the seriation problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Boman, E.G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Hendrickson, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Given a set of objects and a correlation function f reflecting the desire for two items to be near each other, find all sequences {pi} of the items so that correlation preferences are preserved; that is if {pi}(i) < {pi}(j) < {pi}(k) then f(i,j) {ge} f(i,k) and f(j,k) {ge} f(i,k). This seriation problem has numerous applications, for instance, solving it yields a solution to the consecutive ones problem. We present a spectral algorithm for this problem that has a number of interesting features. Whereas most previous applications of spectral techniques provided bounds or heuristics, our result is an algorithm for a nontrivial combinatorial problem. Our analysis introduces powerful tools from matrix theory to the theoretical computer science community. Also, spectral methods are being applied as heuristics for a variety of sequencing problems and our result helps explain and justify these applications. Although the worst case running time for our approach is not competitive with that of existing methods for well posed problem instances, unlike combinatorial approaches our algorithm remains a credible heuristic for the important cases where there are errors in the data.

  13. Selected issues connected with determination of requirements of spectral properties of camouflage patterns (United States)

    Racek, František; Jobánek, Adam; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav


    Traditionally spectral reflectance of the material is measured and compared with permitted spectral reflectance boundaries. The boundaries are limited by upper and lower curve of spectral reflectance. The boundaries for unique color has to fulfil the operational requirements as a versatility of utilization through the all year seasons, day and weather condition on one hand and chromatic and spectral matching with background as well as the manufacturability on the other hand. The interval between the boundaries suffers with ambivalent feature. Camouflage pattern producer would be happy to see it much wider, but blending effect into its particular background could be better with narrower tolerance limits. From the point of view of long time user of camouflage pattern battledress, there seems to be another ambivalent feature. Width of the tolerance zone reflecting natural dispersion of spectral reflectance values allows the significant distortions of shape of the spectral curve inside the given boundaries.

  14. A general nonaqueous sol-gel route to g-C3N4-coupling photocatalysts: the case of Z-scheme g-C3N4/TiO2 with enhanced photodegradation toward RhB under visible-light


    Liu, Xu; Chen, Nan; Li, Yuxiu; Deng, Dongyang; Xing, Xinxin; Wang, Yude


    The g-C3N4-coupling TiO2 photocatalysts with controllable particle size as well as the interface contact were prepared by a general nonaqueous sol-gel method. The structural and morphological features of g-C3N4/TiO2 were investigated through the X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. It is found the TiO2 nanoparticles with a size of 7.3 ? 1.6?nm are uniformly anchored on the surface of the g-C3N...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  16. Selective aerobic oxidation mediated by TiO(2) photocatalysis. (United States)

    Lang, Xianjun; Ma, Wanhong; Chen, Chuncheng; Ji, Hongwei; Zhao, Jincai


    TiO2 is one of the most studied metal oxide photocatalysts and has unparal-leled efficiency and stability. This cheap, abundant, and non-toxic material has the potential to address future environmental and energy concerns. Understanding about the photoinduced interfacial redox events on TiO2 could have profound effect on the degradation of organic pollutants, splitting of H2O into H2 and O2, and selective redox organic transformations. Scientists traditionally accept that for a semiconductor photocatalyst such as TiO2 under the illumination of light with energy larger than its band gap, two photocarriers will be created to carry out their independent reduction and oxidation processes. However, our recent discoveries indicate that it is the concerted rather than independent effect of both photocarriers of valence band hole (hvb(+)) and conduction band electron (ecb(-)) that dictate the product formation during interfacial oxidation event mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. In this Account, we describe our recent findings on the selective oxidation of organic substrates with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. The transfer of O-atoms from O2 to the corresponding products dominates the selective oxidation of alcohols, amines, and alkanes mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. We ascribe this to the concerted effect of both hvb(+) and ecb(-) of TiO2 in contribution to the oxidation products. These findings imply that O2 plays a unique role in its transfer into the products rather than independent role of ecb(-) scavenger. More importantly, ecb(-) plays a crucial role to ensure the high selectivity for the oxygenation of organic substrates. We can also use the half reactions such as those of the conduction band electron of TiO2 for efficient oxidation reactions with O2. To this end, efficient selective oxidation of organic substrates such as alcohols, amines, and aromatic alkanes with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis under visible light irradiation has been achieved. In

  17. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B


    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the topological vertex formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV formula, and Mumford formula.

  18. Spectral imagery collection experiment (United States)

    Romano, Joao M.; Rosario, Dalton; Farley, Vincent; Sohr, Brian


    The Spectral and Polarimetric Imagery Collection Experiment (SPICE) is a collaborative effort between the US Army ARDEC and ARL for the collection of mid-wave and long-wave infrared imagery using hyperspectral, polarimetric, and broadband sensors. The objective of the program is to collect a comprehensive database of the different modalities over the course of 1 to 2 years to capture sensor performance over a wide variety of adverse weather conditions, diurnal, and seasonal changes inherent to Picatinny's northern New Jersey location. Using the Precision Armament Laboratory (PAL) tower at Picatinny Arsenal, the sensors will autonomously collect the desired data around the clock at different ranges where surrogate 2S3 Self-Propelled Howitzer targets are positioned at different viewing perspectives at 549 and 1280m from the sensor location. The collected database will allow for: 1) Understand of signature variability under the different weather conditions; 2) Development of robust algorithms; 3) Development of new sensors; 4) Evaluation of hyperspectral and polarimetric technologies; and 5) Evaluation of fusing the different sensor modalities. In this paper, we will present the SPICE data collection objectives, the ongoing effort, the sensors that are currently deployed, and how this work will assist researches on the development and evaluation of sensors, algorithms, and fusion applications.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Reddy, Vishnu; Corre, Lucille Le; Sykes, Mark V.; Prettyman, Thomas H. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell Road, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nathues, Andreas; Hoffmann, Martin; Schaefer, Michael [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Göttingen (Germany); Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A. [University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Carsenty, Uri; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Mottola, Stefano; Schröder, Stefan E. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin (Germany); Castillo-Rogez, Julie C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Schenk, Paul [Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Williams, David A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Smith, David E. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zuber, Maria T. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others


    Previous observations suggested that Ceres has active, but possibly sporadic, water outgassing as well as possibly varying spectral characteristics over a timescale of months. We used all available data of Ceres collected in the past three decades from the ground and the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as the newly acquired images by the Dawn  Framing Camera, to search for spectral and albedo variability on Ceres, on both a global scale and in local regions, particularly the bright spots inside the Occator crater, over timescales of a few months to decades. Our analysis has placed an upper limit on the possible temporal albedo variation on Ceres. Sporadic water vapor venting, or any possibly ongoing activity on Ceres, is not significant enough to change the albedo or the area of the bright features in the Occator crater by >15%, or the global albedo by >3% over the various timescales that we searched. Recently reported spectral slope variations can be explained by changing Sun–Ceres–Earth geometry. The active area on Ceres is less than 1 km{sup 2}, too small to cause global albedo and spectral variations detectable in our data. Impact ejecta due to impacting projectiles of tens of meters in size like those known to cause observable changes to the surface albedo on Asteroid Scheila cannot cause detectable albedo change on Ceres due to its relatively large size and strong gravity. The water vapor activity on Ceres is independent of Ceres’ heliocentric distance, ruling out the possibility of the comet-like sublimation process as a possible mechanism driving the activity.

  1. New insights into the origin of visible-light photocatalytic activity in Se-modified anatase TiO2 from screened coulomb hybrid DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab


    We report a systematic study on the optoelectronic properties of Se-modified anatase TiO2 investigated by DFT (including the perturbation theory approach DFPT) within the screened coulomb hybrid HSE06 formalism to guarantee accurate band gap and electronic excitation predictions. Various selenium species at substitutional sites for O or Ti, at interstitial sites, as well as at mixed substitutional/interstitial sites are studied. Among the explored structures, Ti(1-2x)O2Se2x (containing Se4+ species), TiO(2-x)Sex (containing Se2- species), and TiO(2-x)Se2x (containing Se2 2- species) reveal significant enhanced visible-light optical absorption spectra with new absorption features appearing at 500, 600, and 690 nm, respectively. Our calculated spectra are found to be in good agreement with those obtained in available experimental works. The band gap narrowing in these materials originates from incorporation of newly occupied electronic levels within 0.5-1.5 eV above the original valence band of TiO 2, leading to new narrowed band gaps of 2.5, 2.0, and 1.8 eV respectively. Our calculations also reveal suitable band positions of Ti (1-2x)O2Se2x and TiO(2-x)Se x for overall water splitting, whereas TiO(2-x)Se 2x shows an unsuitable valence band position for the oxygen evolution reaction. In contrast, the localized electronic character of the new occupied states on the Se 4p orbitals and only on the O 2p orbitals linked to the Se species makes the holes mobility limited in this material and the recombination rate of charge carriers greatly increased in the bulk. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Optimized feature subsets for epileptic seizure prediction studies. (United States)

    Direito, Bruno; Ventura, Francisco; Teixeira, César; Dourado, António


    The reduction of the number of EEG features to give as inputs to epilepsy seizure predictors is a needed step towards the development of a transportable device for real-time warning. This paper presents a comparative study of three feature selection methods, based on Support Vector Machines. Minimum-Redundancy Maximum-Relevance, Recursive Feature Elimination, Genetic Algorithms, show that, for three patients of the European Database on Epilepsy, the most important univariate features are related to spectral information and statistical moments.

  3. Hydrogenated TiO2 nanotube arrays for supercapacitors. (United States)

    Lu, Xihong; Wang, Gongming; Zhai, Teng; Yu, Minghao; Gan, Jiayong; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat


    We report a new and general strategy for improving the capacitive properties of TiO(2) materials for supercapacitors, involving the synthesis of hydrogenated TiO(2) nanotube arrays (NTAs). The hydrogenated TiO(2) (denoted as H-TiO(2)) were obtained by calcination of anodized TiO(2) NTAs in hydrogen atmosphere in a range of temperatures between 300 to 600 °C. The H-TiO(2) NTAs prepared at 400 °C yields the largest specific capacitance of 3.24 mF cm(-2) at a scan rate of 100 mV s(-1), which is 40 times higher than the capacitance obtained from air-annealed TiO(2) NTAs at the same conditions. Importantly, H-TiO(2) NTAs also show remarkable rate capability with 68% areal capacitance retained when the scan rate increase from 10 to 1000 mV s(-1), as well as outstanding long-term cycling stability with only 3.1% reduction of initial specific capacitance after 10,000 cycles. The prominent electrochemical capacitive properties of H-TiO(2) are attributed to the enhanced carrier density and increased density of hydroxyl group on TiO(2) surface, as a result of hydrogenation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that H-TiO(2) NTAs is a good scaffold to support MnO(2) nanoparticles. The capacitor electrodes made by electrochemical deposition of MnO(2) nanoparticles on H-TiO(2) NTAs achieve a remarkable specific capacitance of 912 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1) (based on the mass of MnO(2)). The ability to improve the capacitive properties of TiO(2) electrode materials should open up new opportunities for high-performance supercapacitors. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)


    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  5. Single particle analysis of TiO2in candy products using triple quadrupole ICP-MS. (United States)

    Candás-Zapico, S; Kutscher, D J; Montes-Bayón, M; Bettmer, J


    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) belongs to the materials that have gained great importance in many applications. In its particulate form (micro- or nanoparticles), it has entered a huge number of consumer products and food-grade TiO 2 , better known as E171 within the European Union, represents an important food additive. Thus, there is an increasing need for analytical methods able to detect and quantify such particles. In this regard, inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in particular single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS), has gained importance due to its simplicity and ease of use. Nevertheless, the number of applications for Ti nanoparticles is rather limited. In this study, we have applied the spICP-MS strategy by comparing different measuring modes available in triple quadrupole ICP-MS. First, single quadrupole mode using the collision/reaction cell system was selected for monitoring the isotope 47 Ti. Different cell gases like He, O 2 and NH 3 were tested under optimised conditions for its applicability in spICP-MS of standard suspensions of TiO 2 . The determined analytical figures of merit were compared to those obtained by triple quadrupole mode using the 47 Ti or 48 Ti reaction products using O 2 and NH 3 as reaction gases. This comparison demonstrated that the triple quadrupole mode (TQ mode) was superior in terms of sensitivity due to the more efficient removal of spectral interferences. Particle size detection limits down to 26nm were obtained using the best instrumental conditions for TiO 2 particles at a dwell time of 10ms. Finally, the different measuring modes were applied to the analysis of chewing gum samples after a simple extraction procedure using an ultrasonic bath. The obtained results showed a good agreement for the detected particle size range using the different TQ modes. The size range of TiO 2 particles was determined to be between approximately 30 and 200nm, whereas roughly 40% of the particles were smaller than 100nm. For the

  6. Rise and Fall of Tios-Tieion (United States)

    Aksoy, Erman; Yıldırım, Şahin


    The existence or endurance of the city is determined by social, economic, cultural, and technological factors. Therefore, transportation connections become physical signifiers of the relation between two spaces. Nevertheless, the potential for change in transportation is more dynamic when compared to other factors. Change in the infrastructure and systems of transportation become evident at the urban scale more rapidly. In addition to leading to the formation of new cities or to socio-cultural and economic development in the already-existent cities, this dynamic structure may also cause the decrease in economic power, and even the desertion of settlements. Furthermore, it functions as a leading, even determining, parameter in the formation of space, thereby in economic and social development. The fact that, throughout history, centres of communication and commerce were established at intersection, stopping and lodging points of transportation links and/or their development into residential areas attests to this interaction. In the commercial centres and life of the city, the effects of regional transportation networks and technologies surface relatively. By means of the analytical method, this study focuses on how, within the history of settlements, population increases due to the choice of location based on transportation and strategic significance, and how urban functions vary accordingly. As such, the interaction between urban development and transportation links for the Ancient City of Tios will be analysed, and the signifiers for urban development will be designated.

  7. Optimized nanostructured TiO2 photocatalysts (United States)

    Topcu, Selda; Jodhani, Gagan; Gouma, Pelagia


    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  8. Selection/extraction of spectral regions for autofluorescence spectra measured in the oral cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skurichina, M; Paclik, P; Duin, RPW; de Veld, D; Sterenborg, HJCM; Witjes, MJH; Roodenburg, JLN; Fred, A; Caelli, T; Duin, RPW; Campilho, A; DeRidder, D


    Recently a number of successful algorithms to select/extract discriminative spectral regions was introduced. These methods may be more beneficial than the standard feature selection/extraction methods for spectral classification. In this paper, on the example of autofluorescence spectra measured in

  9. A facile hydrothermal approach for construction of carbon coating on TiO2 nanoparticles. (United States)

    Olurode, Kehinde; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping


    Herein a facile hydrothermal approach is used to construct carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles employing dextrose as the source of carbon. The procedure is operated at a low temperature of 200 °C. Fourier infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the successful coating of carbon on TiO2 nanoparticles. The phase composition of TiO2 and carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction and the surface morphology was analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The existence of carbon coating on TiO2 nanoparticles was revealed by thermogravimetric analysis through different thermograms exhibited for TiO2 and carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles. The reported method offers a simple and efficient approach for production of carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. TiO2 and its composites as effective photocatalyst for glucose degradation processes (United States)

    Kukh, A. A.; Ivanenko, I. M.; Astrelin, I. M.


    Titanium-dioxide photocatalyst was impregnated onto the activated carbon using originally developed low-temperature sol-gel method to form a TiO2:AC composite material. 15% (mass.) solution Ti2(SO4)3 in sulphuric acid was used as a precursor for photocatalyst synthesis. The highly effective composite material was obtained through a combination of properties of titanium dioxide and activated carbon. Synthesized composites TiO2 with activated carbon demonstrate highly developed surface characteristics and exhibit significantly higher activity in comparison with samples of pure TiO2 synthesized the same way, existing analogues of pure TiO2 synthesized from TiCl3 and even industrial photocatalyst. This was testified by the degradation of 1% aqueous glucose solution using TiO2:AC, samples of pure TiO2 and commercial TiO2 AEROXIDE® TiO2 P25 produced by EVONIK Industries.

  11. Online feature selection with streaming features. (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan


    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  12. Protecting of Marble Stone Facades of Historic Buildings Using Multifunctional TiO2 Nanocoatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aldoasri


    efficacy of the treatments was evaluated through capillary water absorption, and colorimetric measurements, performed to evaluate the optical appearance. Results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles are good candidates for coating applications on historic stone surfaces, where self-cleaning photo-induced effects are well evident; they enhanced the durability of stone surfaces toward UV aging, improved resistance to relative humidity (RH/temperature and abrasion affect, reduced accumulation of dirt on stone surfaces when left in open air for 6 months, and did not alter the original features.

  13. Structural characterisation of sprayed TiO2 films for extremely thin absorber layer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.D.; Lane, D.W.; Painter, J.D.; Chapman, A.


    We have examined in detail the structural features of TiO 2 films fabricated by spray pyrolysis. The spray solution was produced from the dissolution of Ti powder in a hydrogen peroxide and ammonium hydroxide solution. The resulting peroxo-polytitanic acid solution was diluted in water and sprayed onto heated substrates through an air-atomizing nozzle. Each sample was characterised principally by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of spray solution composition and rate has been studied and a brief comparison to films produced by an alternative route ('doctor blade') provided. The films were shown to consist of almost single phase anatase and to be porous. It has been demonstrated that the growth process was uniform although the degree of preferred orientation could be controlled through the concentration of the spray solution. The lattice parameters are both shown to increase slightly with concentration and volume of solution deposited. Semi-quantitative microstructural analyses showed that the crystallites formed are consistently larger than those formed by the doctor blade process although they contain significantly more microstrain. Further, it is demonstrated that thin window layers of copper indium disulfide, also formed by spray pyrolysis, have a conformal relationship with the TiO 2

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition for Coating of High Aspect Ratio TiO2 Nanotube Layers (United States)


    We present an optimized approach for the deposition of Al2O3 (as a model secondary material) coating into high aspect ratio (≈180) anodic TiO2 nanotube layers using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. In order to study the influence of the diffusion of the Al2O3 precursors on the resulting coating thickness, ALD processes with different exposure times (i.e., 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 s) of the trimethylaluminum (TMA) precursor were performed. Uniform coating of the nanotube interiors was achieved with longer exposure times (5 and 10 s), as verified by detailed scanning electron microscopy analysis. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements were used to monitor the deposition process and its particular features due to the tube diameter gradient. Finally, theoretical calculations were performed to calculate the minimum precursor exposure time to attain uniform coating. Theoretical values on the diffusion regime matched with the experimental results and helped to obtain valuable information for further optimization of ALD coating processes. The presented approach provides a straightforward solution toward the development of many novel devices, based on a high surface area interface between TiO2 nanotubes and a secondary material (such as Al2O3). PMID:27643411

  15. Time effects on the stability of the induced defects in TiO2 nanoparticles doped by different nitrogen sources (United States)

    Spadavecchia, F.; Ardizzone, S.; Cappelletti, G.; Oliva, C.; Cappelli, S.


    N-doped TiO2 samples are claimed to be the most promising among the so-called second-generation photocatalysts, but their success in photocatalysis is still under debate. In this study, N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals are obtained by a simple, quick, and effortless procedure, starting from titanium alkoxide as the precursor for the sol-gel route, with the N source being either inorganic (NH3) or organic (triethylamine, urea). Structural, morphological, and optical characterizations are compared with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data to give an integrated picture of such materials. No literature data on the "aging" features in the dry state of the fresh calcined samples on the EPR and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) measurements are reported. Our N-doped TiO2 powders show different stabilities of paramagnetic and optical signals. The photocatalytic activity is tested, toward the degradation of ethanol in aqueous media, under both visible and UV irradiation, in this latter case resembling the same trend of the paramagnetic species decay.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of uniform TiO2 nanotube arrays by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here the blue shift of absorption maximum with higher band energy of TiO2 nanotubes compared with that of the bulk. Degussa TiO2 can be attributed to the quantum-size effect. (Takagahara and Takeda 1992). The powder XRD was used to investigate the phase of. TiO2 nanotubes. The X-ray pattern of the TiO2 nanotube.

  17. Spectral effects in FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.


    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) is an accelerator-based source of high energy neutrons to be constructed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. It will be unique in featuring a sufficiently high flux to permit testing of fusion reactor materials at damage rates as high, or higher, than will be experienced in a commercial device. The neutron spectra in FMIT are different from those in a fusion device utilizing the D-T reaction; in particular, they include higher energy neutrons than produced in the D-T reaction. As a result, questions have been raised regarding possible difficulties in applying materials data obtained in FMIT. It is to those concerns that this note is addressed

  18. Specific features of depth distribution profiles of implanted cobalt ions in rutile TiO(2)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Achkeev, A. A.; Khaibullin, R. I.; Tagirov, L.R.; Macková, Anna; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Cherkashin, N.


    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2011), s. 543-553 ISSN 1063-7834 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ROOM-TEMPERATURE FERROMAGNETISM * SEMICONDUCTORS * OXIDE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.711, year: 2011

  19. Fate of pristine TiO2 nanoparticles and aged paint-containing TiO2 nanoparticles in lettuce crop after foliar exposure. (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Trcera, Nicolas; Sorieul, Stéphanie; Cécillon, Lauric; Ouerdane, Laurent; Legros, Samuel; Sarret, Géraldine


    Engineered TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are present in a large variety of consumer products, and are produced in largest amount. The building industry is a major sector using TiO2-NPs, especially in paints. The fate of NPs after their release in the environment is still largely unknown, and their possible transfer in plants and subsequent impacts have not been studied in detail. The foliar transfer pathway is even less understood than the root pathway. In this study, lettuces were exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs and aged paint leachate containing TiO2-NPs and microparticles (TiO2-MPs). Internalization and in situ speciation of Ti were investigated by a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Not only TiO2-NPs pristine and from aged paints, but also TiO2-MPs were internalized in lettuce leaves, and observed in all types of tissues. No change in speciation was noticed, but an organic coating of TiO2-NPs is likely. Phytotoxicity markers were tested for plants exposed to pristine TiO2-NPs. No acute phytotoxicity was observed; variations were only observed in glutathione and phytochelatin levels but remained low as compared to typical values. These results obtained on the foliar uptake mechanisms of nano- and microparticles are important in the perspective of risk assessment of atmospheric contaminations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectral Unmixing With Multiple Dictionaries (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy E.; Gillis, Nicolas


    Spectral unmixing aims at recovering the spectral signatures of materials, called endmembers, mixed in a hyperspectral or multispectral image, along with their abundances. A typical assumption is that the image contains one pure pixel per endmember, in which case spectral unmixing reduces to identifying these pixels. Many fully automated methods have been proposed in recent years, but little work has been done to allow users to select areas where pure pixels are present manually or using a segmentation algorithm. Additionally, in a non-blind approach, several spectral libraries may be available rather than a single one, with a fixed number (or an upper or lower bound) of endmembers to chose from each. In this paper, we propose a multiple-dictionary constrained low-rank matrix approximation model that address these two problems. We propose an algorithm to compute this model, dubbed M2PALS, and its performance is discussed on both synthetic and real hyperspectral images.

  1. Special topics in spectral distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.


    We discuss two problems which relate to the foundations of the subject, and a third about asymptotic properties of spectral distributions. We give also a brief list of topics which should be further explored

  2. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine


    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  3. Enhanced Bonding of Silver Nanoparticles on Oxidized TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Ørbæk; Salazar, Estephania Lira; Galliker, Patrick


    The nucleation and growth of silver nanoclusters on TiO2(110) surfaces with on-top O adatoms (oxidized TiO2), surface O vacancies and H adatoms (reduced TiO2) have been studied. From the interplay of scanning tunneling microscopy/photoelectron spectroscopy experiments and density functional theor...

  4. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng


    Full Text Available The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films prepared by TiO2 nanorods exhibited larger surface roughness than those prepared by the commercial TiO2 particles. It was found that a pure anatase phase of TiO2 nanorods can be obtained from the hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with TiO2 nanorods exhibited a higher solar efficiency than those fabricated with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles directly. Further, triple-layer structures of TiO2 thin films with different particle sizes were investigated to improve the solar efficiency.

  5. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition. (United States)


    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  6. Spectral dimensionality reduction for HMMs


    Foster, Dean P.; Rodu, Jordan; Ungar, Lyle H.


    Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) can be accurately approximated using co-occurrence frequencies of pairs and triples of observations by using a fast spectral method in contrast to the usual slow methods like EM or Gibbs sampling. We provide a new spectral method which significantly reduces the number of model parameters that need to be estimated, and generates a sample complexity that does not depend on the size of the observation vocabulary. We present an elementary proof giving bounds on the rel...

  7. Compressive spectroscopy by spectral modulation (United States)

    Oiknine, Yaniv; August, Isaac; Stern, Adrian


    We review two compressive spectroscopy techniques based on modulation in the spectral domain that we have recently proposed. Both techniques achieve a compression ratio of approximately 10:1, however each with a different sensing mechanism. The first technique uses a liquid crystal cell as a tunable filter to modulate the spectral signal, and the second technique uses a Fabry-Perot etalon as a resonator. We overview the specific properties of each of the techniques.

  8. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available the ingredients for this chocolate cake? Debba (CSIR) Spectral Unmixing LQM 2009 3 / 22 Background and Research Question Ingredients Quantity unsweetened chocolate unsweetened cocoa powder boiling water flour baking powder baking soda salt unsalted... butter white sugar eggs pure vanilla extract milk Table: Chocolate cake ingredients Debba (CSIR) Spectral Unmixing LQM 2009 4 / 22 Background and Research Question Ingredients Quantity unsweetened chocolate 120 grams unsweetened cocoa powder 28...

  9. Evolving spectral transformations for multitemporal information extraction using evolutionary computation (United States)

    Momm, Henrique; Easson, Greg


    Remote sensing plays an important role in assessing temporal changes in land features. The challenge often resides in the conversion of large quantities of raw data into actionable information in a timely and cost-effective fashion. To address this issue, research was undertaken to develop an innovative methodology integrating biologically-inspired algorithms with standard image classification algorithms to improve information extraction from multitemporal imagery. Genetic programming was used as the optimization engine to evolve feature-specific candidate solutions in the form of nonlinear mathematical expressions of the image spectral channels (spectral indices). The temporal generalization capability of the proposed system was evaluated by addressing the task of building rooftop identification from a set of images acquired at different dates in a cross-validation approach. The proposed system generates robust solutions (kappa values > 0.75 for stage 1 and > 0.4 for stage 2) despite the statistical differences between the scenes caused by land use and land cover changes coupled with variable environmental conditions, and the lack of radiometric calibration between images. Based on our results, the use of nonlinear spectral indices enhanced the spectral differences between features improving the clustering capability of standard classifiers and providing an alternative solution for multitemporal information extraction.

  10. Change Detection Analysis With Spectral Thermal Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrens, Richard


    ... (LWIR) region. This study used analysis techniques of differencing, histograms, and principal components analysis to detect spectral changes and investigate the utility of spectral change detection...

  11. TiO2 supported gold nanoparticles: An efficient photocatalyst for oxidation of alcohol to aldehyde and ketone in presence of visible light irradiation (United States)

    Gogoi, Nibedita; Borah, Geetika; Gogoi, Pradip K.; Chetia, Tridip Ranjan


    An efficient heterogeneous photocatalyst composed of Au nanoparticle supported on TiO2 (anatase) is prepared by sol-gel method. This prepared nanocomposite showed good catalytic activity in the oxidation of various alcohols to aldehyde and ketone under irradiation of visible light. Various spectroscopic techniques including UV-Visible absorption spectral studies and photoluminescence study are employed to characterize the catalyst. It was also characterized by XRD, TEM, BET, XPS and ICP-AES analysis. In contrast to air and H2O2, use of TBHP as oxidant gave good yield. The reaction conditions with respect to solvent and amount of catalyst are optimized.

  12. Spectral Doppler ultrasound of peripheral arteries: a pictorial review. (United States)

    Nuffer, Zachary; Rupasov, Andrey; Bekal, Neel; Murtha, Jacqueline; Bhatt, Shweta

    This article reviews the pathophysiology and sonographic findings of peripheral arterial lesions, with emphasis on the spectral Doppler waveforms encountered in each. It discusses the characteristic features of the Doppler spectra in obstructive conditions, including thromboembolism, atherosclerotic disease, bypass graft occlusion, dissection, trauma, and compartment syndrome, as well as non-obstructive conditions, including hyperemia, pseudoaneurysm, and arteriovenous fistula. Familiarity with the commonly-encountered spectral waveforms in the setting of these lesions is necessary for timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Shear spectral sum rule in a nonconformal gravity dual (United States)

    Springer, Todd; Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Lee, Su Houng


    A sum rule which relates a stress-energy tensor correlator to thermodynamic functions is examined within the context of a simple nonconformal gravity dual. Such a sum rule was previously derived using AdS/CFT for conformal N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, but we show that it does not generalize to the nonconformal theory under consideration. We provide a generalized sum rule and numerically verify its validity. A useful by-product of the calculation is the computation of the spectral density in a strongly coupled nonconformal theory. Qualitative features of the spectral densities and implications for lattice measurements of transport coefficients are discussed.

  14. Prosodic boundary tone classification with voice quality features. (United States)

    Han, Ran; Choi, Jeung-Yoon


    Voice quality features such as harmonic structure and spectral tilt are investigated in classifying vocalic segments into one of five boundary tones in the tones and break indices system. Static and nonstatic features are examined, and performance is compared with features related to duration, pitch, and amplitude, along with adjacent segment characteristics. From statistical tests, voice quality features are found to be significant for classifying prosodic boundary tones, and especially for distinguishing low-tone boundaries. Classification results using features selected from Kruskal-Wallis tests, Akaike information criterion values, and from sequential forward search show that using voice quality features leads to lower balanced error rates.

  15. On the Use of Memory Models in Audio Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer


    Audio feature estimation is potentially improved by including higher- level models. One such model is the Short Term Memory (STM) model. A new paradigm of audio feature estimation is obtained by adding the influence of notes in the STM. These notes are identified when the perceptual spectral flux......, and an initial experiment with sensory dissonance has been undertaken with good results....

  16. Surface studies of nitrogen implanted TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzill, Matthias; Morales, Erie H.; Diebold, Ulrike


    Rutile TiO 2 (1 1 0) single crystals have been doped by nitrogen-ion implantation. The change in the valence band and in the core level peak shapes are characterized by photoemission spectroscopy. Surface morphologies are characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy. N-dopants are observed to be in a 3- charge state and to substitute for O-anions in the TiO 2 lattice for N-concentrations up to ∼5% of the anions. The higher valency of the N-dopants compared to the host O-anions is proposed to be compensated by the formation of O-vacancies and/or Ti-interstitials. Two chemically shifted components arise in the Ti-2p core level upon N-doping. These components, shifted by 0.9 eV and 2.1 eV, are assigned to Ti-bound to N-ligands and possibly due to O-vacancies in the lattice. The Ti-3d band gap state observed in UPS is initially suppressed upon room temperature N-implantation and recovers a similar intensity as for undoped TiO 2 samples upon annealing. This indicates that electrons left behind upon creation of O-vacancies are filling the N-2p level rather than Ti-3d states. The filled N-2p state is found at the top of the TiO 2 valence band and is believed to be responsible for the band gap narrowing of N-doped TiO 2 that shifts the photoactivity of TiO 2 into the visible spectrum

  17. Mars analog minerals' spectral reflectance characteristics under Martian surface conditions (United States)

    Poitras, J. T.; Cloutis, E. A.; Salvatore, M. R.; Mertzman, S. A.; Applin, D. M.; Mann, P.


    We investigated the spectral reflectance properties of minerals under a simulated Martian environment. Twenty-eight different hydrated or hydroxylated phases of carbonates, sulfates, and silica minerals were selected based on past detection on Mars through spectral remote sensing data. Samples were ground and dry sieved to Mars, only losing adsorbed H2O while maintaining their diagnostic spectral features. Sulfates were less stable, often with shifts in the band position of the SO, Fe, and OH absorption features. Silicas displayed spectral shifts related to SiOH and hydration state of the mineral surface, while diagnostic bands for quartz were stable. Previous detection of carbonate minerals based on 2.3-2.5 μm and 3.4-3.9 μm features appears to be consistent with our results. Sulfate mineral detection is more questionable since there can be shifts in band position related to SO4. The loss of the 0.43 μm Fe3+ band in many of the sulfates indicate that there are fewer potential candidates for Fe3+ sulfates to permanently exist on the Martian surface based on this band. The gypsum sample changed phase to basanite during desiccation as demonstrated by both reflectance and XRD. Silica on Mars has been detected using band depth ratio at 1.91 and 1.96 μm and band minimum position of the 1.4 μm feature, and the properties are also used to determine their age. This technique continues to be useful for positive silica identifications, however, silica age appears to be less consistent with our laboratory data. These results will be useful in spectral libraries for characterizing Martian remote sensed data.

  18. Semiconductor Laser Multi-Spectral Sensing and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Q. Le


    Full Text Available Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO. These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers.

  19. Synthesis of calcium-phosphorous doped TiO2 nanotubes by anodization and reverse polarization: A promising strategy for an efficient biofunctional implant surface (United States)

    Alves, Sofia A.; Patel, Sweetu B.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Filho, Paulo N.; Celis, Jean-Pierre; Rocha, Luís A.; Shokuhfar, Tolou


    The modification of surface features such as nano-morphology/topography and chemistry have been employed in the attempt to design titanium oxide surfaces able to overcome the current dental implants failures. The main goal of this study is the synthesis of bone-like structured titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes enriched with Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorous (P) able to enhance osteoblastic cell functions and, simultaneously, display an improved corrosion behavior. To achieve the main goal, TiO2 nanotubes were synthetized and doped with Ca and P by means of a novel methodology which relied, firstly, on the synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes by anodization of titanium in an organic electrolyte followed by reverse polarization and/or anodization, in an aqueous electrolyte. Results show that hydrophilic bone-like structured TiO2 nanotubes were successfully synthesized presenting a highly ordered nano-morphology characterized by non-uniform diameters. The chemical analysis of such nanotubes confirmed the presence of CaCO3, Ca3(PO4)2, CaHPO4 and CaO compounds. The nanotube surfaces submitted to reverse polarization, presented an improved cell adhesion and proliferation compared to smooth titanium. Furthermore, these surfaces displayed a significantly lower passive current in artificial saliva, and so, potential to minimize their bio-degradation through corrosion processes. This study addresses a very simple and promising multidisciplinary approach bringing new insights for the development of novel methodologies to improve the outcome of osseointegrated implants.

  20. Accuracy in mineral identification: image spectral and spatial resolutions and mineral spectral properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pompilio


    Full Text Available Problems related to airborne hyperspectral image data are reviewed and the requirements for data analysis applied to mineralogical (rocks and soils interpretation are discussed. The variability of mineral spectral features, including absorption position, shape and depth is considered and interpreted as due to chemical composition, grain size effects and mineral association. It is also shown how this variability can be related to well defined geologic processes. The influence of sensor noise and diffuse atmospheric radiance in classification accuracy is also analyzed.

  1. Photocatalytic effects for the TiO2-coated phosphor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung-Sik


    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. → The photobleaching of an MB aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. → The ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor composite showed much higher photocatalytic reactivity. → The light emitted from the phosphors contributed to the photo-generation. - Abstract: This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. A TiO 2 thin film was deposited on CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Nd 3+ phosphor particles by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and its photocatalytic reaction was investigated by the photobleaching of an aqueous solution of methylene-blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. To clarify the mechanism of the TiO 2 -phosphorescent materials, two different samples of TiO 2 -coated phosphor and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor particles were prepared. The photocatalytic mechanisms of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor powders were different from those of the pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor. The absorbance in a solution of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor decreased much faster than that of pure TiO 2 under visible irradiation. In addition, the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor showed moderately higher photocatalytic degradation of MB solution than the TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor did. The TiO 2 -coated phosphorescent materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS).

  2. Study on the use of TiO2 passivation layer to reduce recombination losses in dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander bin Samsudin, Adel; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Nayan, Nafarizal; Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Shariffuddin, Sharifah Amira Amir; Omar, Salwa


    A lot of research on various aspects of dye solar cells (DSC) has been carried out in order to improve efficiency. This paper analyzes the utilization of TiO 2 passivation layers of different thicknesses by improving the electron transport properties. Four different thicknesses of passivation layers namely 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm were deposited onto the working electrode using r.f sputtering. The electrodes were assembled into TiO 2 based DSC with active area of 1 cm 2 . The solar performance was investigated using 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight from solar simulator. The kinetics of the solar cells was investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and the spectral response was measured using Incident Photon to Electron Conversion (IPCE) measurement system. The highest efficiency was found for DSC with 20 nm passivation layer. DSCs with the passivation layer have open circuit voltage, V OC increased by 57 mV, their current density, J SC increased by 0.774 mA cm −2 compared to the one without the passivation layer. The quantum efficiency of the 20 nm passivation layer is the highest, peaking at the wavelength of 534 nm, resulting in the highest performance. All DSCs with the passivation layer recorded higher ratio of R BR /R T where R T is the diffusion resistance of the TiO 2 particles in the mesoscopic layer and R BR is the recombination resistance of the electron to the electrolyte. This implies that the recombination of the electrolyte I − 3 /3I − couple at the substrate/electrolyte interface has been effectively reduced resulting in an enhanced efficiency.

  3. Spectral region identification versus individual channel selection in supervised dimensionality reduction of hyperspectral image data (United States)

    Aria, S. Enayat Hosseini; Menenti, Massimo; Gorte, Ben G. H.


    Hyperspectral images may be applied to classify objects in a scene. The redundancy in hyperspectral data implies that fewer spectral features might be sufficient for discriminating the objects captured in a scene. The availability of labeled classes of several areas in a scene paves the way for a supervised dimensionality reduction, i.e., using a discrimination measure between the classes in a scene to select spectral features. We show that averaging adjacent spectral channels and using wider spectral regions yield a better class separability than the selection of individual channels from the original hyperspectral dataset. We used a method named spectral region splitting (SRS), which creates a new feature space by averaging neighboring channels. In addition to the common benefits of channel selection methods, the algorithm constructs wider spectral regions when it is useful. Using different class separability measures over various datasets resulted in a better discrimination between the classes than the best-selected channels using the same measure. The reason is that the wider spectral regions led to a reduction in intraclass distances and an improvement in class discrimination. The overall classification accuracy of two hyperspectral scenes gave an increase of about two-percent when using the spectral regions determined by applying SRS.

  4. Spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral data with mutual information based segmented stacked autoencoder approach (United States)

    Paul, Subir; Nagesh Kumar, D.


    Hyperspectral (HS) data comprises of continuous spectral responses of hundreds of narrow spectral bands with very fine spectral resolution or bandwidth, which offer feature identification and classification with high accuracy. In the present study, Mutual Information (MI) based Segmented Stacked Autoencoder (S-SAE) approach for spectral-spatial classification of the HS data is proposed to reduce the complexity and computational time compared to Stacked Autoencoder (SAE) based feature extraction. A non-parametric dependency measure (MI) based spectral segmentation is proposed instead of linear and parametric dependency measure to take care of both linear and nonlinear inter-band dependency for spectral segmentation of the HS bands. Then morphological profiles are created corresponding to segmented spectral features to assimilate the spatial information in the spectral-spatial classification approach. Two non-parametric classifiers, Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Gaussian kernel and Random Forest (RF) are used for classification of the three most popularly used HS datasets. Results of the numerical experiments carried out in this study have shown that SVM with a Gaussian kernel is providing better results for the Pavia University and Botswana datasets whereas RF is performing better for Indian Pines dataset. The experiments performed with the proposed methodology provide encouraging results compared to numerous existing approaches.

  5. On the Certain Topological Indices of Titania Nanotube TiO2[m, n (United States)

    Javaid, M.; Liu, Jia-Bao; Rehman, M. A.; Wang, Shaohui


    A numeric quantity that characterises the whole structure of a molecular graph is called the topological index that predicts the physical features, chemical reactivities, and boiling activities of the involved chemical compound in the molecular graph. In this article, we give new mathematical expressions for the multiple Zagreb indices, the generalised Zagreb index, the fourth version of atom-bond connectivity (ABC4) index, and the fifth version of geometric-arithmetic (GA5) index of TiO2[m, n]. In addition, we compute the latest developed topological index called by Sanskruti index. At the end, a comparison is also included to estimate the efficiency of the computed indices. Our results extended some known conclusions.

  6. A Real-Time Infrared Ultra-Spectral Signature Classification Method via Spatial Pyramid Matching. (United States)

    Mei, Xiaoguang; Ma, Yong; Li, Chang; Fan, Fan; Huang, Jun; Ma, Jiayi


    The state-of-the-art ultra-spectral sensor technology brings new hope for high precision applications due to its high spectral resolution. However, it also comes with new challenges, such as the high data dimension and noise problems. In this paper, we propose a real-time method for infrared ultra-spectral signature classification via spatial pyramid matching (SPM), which includes two aspects. First, we introduce an infrared ultra-spectral signature similarity measure method via SPM, which is the foundation of the matching-based classification method. Second, we propose the classification method with reference spectral libraries, which utilizes the SPM-based similarity for the real-time infrared ultra-spectral signature classification with robustness performance. Specifically, instead of matching with each spectrum in the spectral library, our method is based on feature matching, which includes a feature library-generating phase. We calculate the SPM-based similarity between the feature of the spectrum and that of each spectrum of the reference feature library, then take the class index of the corresponding spectrum having the maximum similarity as the final result. Experimental comparisons on two publicly-available datasets demonstrate that the proposed method effectively improves the real-time classification performance and robustness to noise.

  7. Comparison study on photocatalytic oxidation of pharmaceuticals by TiO2-Fe and TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers. (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Wang, Huiyao; Jiang, Wenbin; Mkaouar, Ahmed Radhi; Xu, Pei


    Incorporating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) or Fe 3+ ions in TiO 2 photocatalyst could enhance photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants in aqueous solutions. This study characterized the photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 -Fe and TiO 2 -rGO nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers synthesized by polymer assisted hydrothermal deposition method. The photocatalysts presented a mixture phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO 2 -rGO and TiO 2 -Fe nanocomposites. Doping Fe into TiO 2 particles (2.40eV) could reduce more band gap energy than incorporating rGO (2.85eV), thereby enhancing utilization efficiency of visible light. Incorporating Fe and rGO in TiO 2 decreased significantly the intensity of TiO 2 photoluminescence signals and enhanced the separation rate of photo-induced charge carriers. Photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanocomposites was measured by the degradation of three pharmaceuticals under UV and visible light irradiation, including carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfamethoxazole. TiO 2 -rGO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of pharmaceuticals under UV irradiation, while TiO 2 -Fe demonstrated more suitable for visible light oxidation. The results suggested that the enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 -rGO could be attributed to reduced recombination rate of photoexcited electrons-hole pairs, but for TiO 2 -Fe nanocomposite, narrower band gap would contribute to increased photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthier, G.; Ferrer, F.J.; Figueras, A.; Gyoergy, E.


    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were grown on (001) SiO 2 substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 10 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the irradiations of pressed powder targets composed by both anatase and rutile phase TiO 2 . The experiments were performed in a controlled reactive atmosphere consisting of oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen gases. The obtained thin film crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, while their chemical composition as well as chemical bonding states between the elements were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An interrelation was found between nitrogen concentration, crystalline structure, bonding states between the elements, and the formation of titanium oxinitride compounds. Moreover, as a result of the nitrogen incorporation in the films a continuous red-shift of the optical absorption edge accompanied by absorption in the visible spectral range between 400 and 500 nm wavelength was observed.

  9. Optical properties of nanostructured TiO2 thin films and their application as antireflection coatings on infrared detectors. (United States)

    Jayasinghe, R C; Perera, A G U; Zhu, H; Zhao, Y


    Oblique-angle deposited titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanorods have attracted much attention as good antireflection (AR) coating material due to their low n profile. Therefore, it is necessary to better understand the optical properties of these nanorods. TiO(2) nanorods grown on glass and Si substrates were characterized in the visible (0.4-0.8 μm) and infrared (2-12 μm) regions to extract their complex n profiles empirically. Application of these nanorods in multilayer AR coatings on infrared detectors is also discussed. Optimization of graded index profile of these AR coatings in the broad infrared region (2-12 μm) even at oblique angles of incidence is discussed. The effective coupling between the incoming light and multiple nanorod layers for reducing the reflection is obtained by optimizing the effect from Fabry-Perot oscillations. An optimized five-layer AR coating on GaN shows the reflectance less than 3.3% for normal incidence and 10.5% at 60° across the whole 2-8 μm spectral range.

  10. Pengaruh Penggunaan Fotokatalis TiO2/Resin, TiO2/Zeolit Dan TiO2/Karbon Aktif dalam Proses Fotoreduksi Ion Hg(II dengan Metode SODIS (Solar Desinfection Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyid Ridho


    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan proses pembuatan fotokatalis TiO2/resin, TiO2/zeolit dan TiO2/karbon aktif yang selanjutnya dikarakterisasi dengan XRD dan Energi Band Gap (Eg. Karakterisasi XRD bertujuan untuk mengetahui telah terbentuknya fotokatalis. Sedangkan karaktererisasi Energi Band Gap (Eg bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat celah energi pada masing-masing fotokatalis dimana semakin tinggi harga Energi Band Gap maka efektivitas fotoreduksi akan semakin tinggi. Hasil dari karakterisasi XRD menunjukkan bahwa fotokatalis TiO2-resin, TiO2-zeolit, dan TiO2/karbon aktif telah terbentuk, sedangkan hasil energi band gap untuk TiO2/zeolit sebesar 3,608 eV, TiO2/resin sebesar 3,38 eV, sedangkan TiO2/karbon aktif adalah 3,48 eV. Didasarkan pada harga Eg tersebut diharapkan aktivitas fotokatalis TiO2/zeolit lebih tinggi daripada fotokatalis yang lain. Pengujian aktivitas fotokatalis dilakukan dengan mereaksikan 50 mg masing-masing fotokatalis untuk mereduksi 50 mL larutan Hg (II 5 ppm yang disinari oleh sinar matahari sebagai sumber cahaya dengan variasi waktu penyinaran (1,2,3,4,5 dan 6 jam. Dari hasil penyinaran menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi waktu penyinaran semakin tinggi % Hg tereduksi, dalam penelitian ini efektivitas fotokatalis terbaik adalah TiO2/zeolit dengan efektivitas fotoreduksi pada penyinaran 6 jam sebesar 98,5%. Pada tahap ini juga dipelajari pengaruh konsentrasi Ion Hg (II (0; 2,5; 5; 10; 20; dan 25 dengan waktu penyinaran 6 jam. Data yang diperoleh menunjukkan semakin tinggi konsentrasi awal ion Hg, semakin rendah efektivitas fotoreduksinya.

  11. Influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio of Fourier transform infra-red spectra on identification of high explosive substances (United States)

    Banas, Krzysztof; Banas, Agnieszka M.; Heussler, Sascha P.; Breese, Mark B. H.


    In the contemporary spectroscopy there is a trend to record spectra with the highest possible spectral resolution. This is clearly justified if the spectral features in the spectrum are very narrow (for example infra-red spectra of gas samples). However there is a plethora of samples (in the liquid and especially in the solid form) where there is a natural spectral peak broadening due to collisions and proximity predominately. Additionally there is a number of portable devices (spectrometers) with inherently restricted spectral resolution, spectral range or both, which are extremely useful in some field applications (archaeology, agriculture, food industry, cultural heritage, forensic science). In this paper the investigation of the influence of spectral resolution, spectral range and signal-to-noise ratio on the identification of high explosive substances by applying multivariate statistical methods on the Fourier transform infra-red spectral data sets is studied. All mathematical procedures on spectral data for dimension reduction, clustering and validation were implemented within R open source environment.

  12. Speech recognition using articulatory and excitation source features

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa


    This book discusses the contribution of articulatory and excitation source information in discriminating sound units. The authors focus on excitation source component of speech -- and the dynamics of various articulators during speech production -- for enhancement of speech recognition (SR) performance. Speech recognition is analyzed for read, extempore, and conversation modes of speech. Five groups of articulatory features (AFs) are explored for speech recognition, in addition to conventional spectral features. Each chapter provides the motivation for exploring the specific feature for SR task, discusses the methods to extract those features, and finally suggests appropriate models to capture the sound unit specific knowledge from the proposed features. The authors close by discussing various combinations of spectral, articulatory and source features, and the desired models to enhance the performance of SR systems.

  13. Feature Selection for Ridge Regression with Provable Guarantees. (United States)

    Paul, Saurabh; Drineas, Petros


    We introduce single-set spectral sparsification as a deterministic sampling-based feature selection technique for regularized least-squares classification, which is the classification analog to ridge regression. The method is unsupervised and gives worst-case guarantees of the generalization power of the classification function after feature selection with respect to the classification function obtained using all features. We also introduce leverage-score sampling as an unsupervised randomized feature selection method for ridge regression. We provide risk bounds for both single-set spectral sparsification and leverage-score sampling on ridge regression in the fixed design setting and show that the risk in the sampled space is comparable to the risk in the full-feature space. We perform experiments on synthetic and real-world data sets; a subset of TechTC-300 data sets, to support our theory. Experimental results indicate that the proposed methods perform better than the existing feature selection methods.

  14. High pressure structural phase transitions of TiO2 nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quan-Jun; Liu Bing-Bing


    Recently, the high pressure study on the TiO 2 nanomaterials has attracted considerable attention due to the typical crystal structure and the fascinating properties of TiO 2 with nanoscale sizes. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress in the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials. We discuss the size effects and morphology effects on the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials with different particle sizes, morphologies, and microstructures. Several typical pressure-induced structural phase transitions in TiO 2 nanomaterials are presented, including size-dependent phase transition selectivity in nanoparticles, morphology-tuned phase transition in nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials, and pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) and polyamorphism in ultrafine nanoparticles and TiO 2 -B nanoribbons. Various TiO 2 nanostructural materials with high pressure structures are prepared successfully by high pressure treatment of the corresponding crystal nanomaterials, such as amorphous TiO 2 nanoribbons, α -PbO 2 -type TiO 2 nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials. These studies suggest that the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials depend on the nanosize, morphology, interface energy, and microstructure. The diversity of high pressure behaviors of TiO 2 nanomaterials provides a new insight into the properties of nanomaterials, and paves a way for preparing new nanomaterials with novel high pressure structures and properties for various applications. (topical review)

  15. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.


    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  16. Solar Spectral Irradiance and Climate (United States)

    Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.; Cahalan, R.


    Spectrally resolved solar irradiance is recognized as being increasingly important to improving our understanding of the manner in which the Sun influences climate. There is strong empirical evidence linking total solar irradiance to surface temperature trends - even though the Sun has likely made only a small contribution to the last half-century's global temperature anomaly - but the amplitudes cannot be explained by direct solar heating alone. The wavelength and height dependence of solar radiation deposition, for example, ozone absorption in the stratosphere, absorption in the ocean mixed layer, and water vapor absorption in the lower troposphere, contribute to the "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms that have been proposed as possible amplifiers of the solar signal. New observations and models of solar spectral irradiance are needed to study these processes and to quantify their impacts on climate. Some of the most recent observations of solar spectral variability from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared have revealed some unexpected behavior that was not anticipated prior to their measurement, based on an understanding from model reconstructions. The atmospheric response to the observed spectral variability, as quantified in climate model simulations, have revealed similarly surprising and in some cases, conflicting results. This talk will provide an overview on the state of our understanding of the spectrally resolved solar irradiance, its variability over many time scales, potential climate impacts, and finally, a discussion on what is required for improving our understanding of Sun-climate connections, including a look forward to future observations.

  17. Longwave thermal infrared spectral variability in individual rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balick, Lee K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gillespie, Alan [UN. WASHINGTON; French, Andrew [USDA-ARS; Danilina, Iryna [UN. WASHINGTON


    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6-11.6 {micro}m) with a spatial resolution less than 4 mm was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra within individual rocks. The rocks were obtained commercially, were on the order of 20 cm in size and were selected to have distinct spectral features: they include alabaster (gypsum), soapstone (steatite with talc), obsidian (volcanic glass), norite (plagioclase and orthopyroxene), and 'jasper' (silica with iron oxides). The advantages of using an imaging spectrometer to spectrally characterize these rocks are apparent. Large spectral variations were observed within individual rocks that may be attributed to roughness, surface geometry, and compositional variation. Non-imaging spectrometers would normally miss these variations as would small samples used in laboratory measurements, spatially averaged spectra can miss the optimum spectra for identification materials and spatially localized components of the rock can be obscured.

  18. Spectral classifying base on color of live corals and dead corals covered with algae (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Barille, Laurent; Akbar, A. S. M.; Sawayama, Shuhei; Fitrah, Muh. Nur; Prasyad, Hermansyah


    Pigments in the host tissues of corals can make a significant contribution to their spectral signature and can affect their apparent color as perceived by a human observer. The aim of this study is classifying the spectral reflectance of corals base on different color. It is expected that they can be used as references in discriminating between live corals, dead coral covered with algae Spectral reflectance data was collected in three small islands, Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia by using a hyperspectral radiometer underwater. First and second derivative analysis resolved the wavelength locations of dominant features contributing to reflectance in corals and support the distinct differences in spectra among colour existed. Spectral derivative analysis was used to determine the specific wavelength regions ideal for remote identification of substrate type. The analysis results shown that yellow, green, brown and violet live corals are spectrally separable from each other, but they are similar with dead coral covered with algae spectral.

  19. Study on spectral calibration of an ultraviolet Fourier transform imaging spectrometer with high precision (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Li, Yasheng; Bai, Xueqiong; Deng, Chengyang


    In this paper, we reported the laboratory spectral calibration of an ultraviolet (UV) Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (FTIS). A short overview of the designed UV-FTIS, which feature with a Cassegrain objective, an Offner relay optics system and a spatial-and-temporal modulation Michelson structure, is given. The experimental setup of spectral calibration is described, including details of the light source and integrating sphere. A high pressure mercury lamp was used to acquire reference spectrum. We calculated the all optical path difference (OPD) to achieve spectral response of every wavelength sample and divided the position of reference peak to subpixel to increase the precision of spectral calibration. The spectrum of spectral calibration show two weakly responded peaks, which was validated by reference spectrum of fiber optic spectrometer. The deviation of wavelength calibration is low to establish a best spectrometer resolution. The results of spectral calibration can meet the requirements of the UV-FTIS application.

  20. Mercury's Pyroclastic Deposits and their spectral variability (United States)

    Besse, Sebastien; Doressoundiram, Alain


    Observations of the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have shown that volcanism is a very important process that has shaped the surface of the planet, in particular in its early history.In this study, we use the full range of the MASCS spectrometer (300-1400nm) to characterize the spectral properties of the pyroclastic deposits. Analysis of deposits within the Caloris Basin, and on other location of Mercury's surface (e.g., Hesiod, Rachmaninoff, etc.) show two main results: 1) Spectral variability is significant in the UV and VIS range between the deposits themselves, and also with respect to the rest of the planet and other features like hollows, 2) Deposits exhibit a radial variability similar to those found with the lunar pyroclastic deposits of floor fractured craters.These results are put in context with the latest analysis of other instruments of the MESSENGER spacecraft, in particular the visible observations from the imager MDIS, and the elemental composition given by the X-Ray spectrometer. Although all together, the results do not allow pointing to compositional variability of the deposits for certain, information on the formation mechanisms, the weathering and the age formation can be extrapolated from the radial variability and the elemental composition.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sahil; Wettlaufer, John S. [Program in Applied Mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Sordo, Fabio Del [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)


    Owing to technological advances, the number of exoplanets discovered has risen dramatically in the last few years. However, when trying to observe Earth analogs, it is often difficult to test the veracity of detection. We have developed a new approach to the analysis of exoplanetary spectral observations based on temporal multifractality, which identifies timescales that characterize planetary orbital motion around the host star and those that arise from stellar features such as spots. Without fitting stellar models to spectral data, we show how the planetary signal can be robustly detected from noisy data using noise amplitude as a source of information. For observation of transiting planets, combining this method with simple geometry allows us to relate the timescales obtained to primary and secondary eclipse of the exoplanets. Making use of data obtained with ground-based and space-based observations we have tested our approach on HD 189733b. Moreover, we have investigated the use of this technique in measuring planetary orbital motion via Doppler shift detection. Finally, we have analyzed synthetic spectra obtained using the SOAP 2.0 tool, which simulates a stellar spectrum and the influence of the presence of a planet or a spot on that spectrum over one orbital period. We have demonstrated that, so long as the signal-to-noise-ratio ≥ 75, our approach reconstructs the planetary orbital period, as well as the rotation period of a spot on the stellar surface.

  2. Study of TiO2 nanotubes as an implant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazan, Roshasnorlyza; Sreekantan, Srimala; Mydin, Rabiatul Basria S. M. N.; Mat, Ishak; Abdullah, Yusof


    Vertically aligned TiO 2 nanotubes have become the primary candidates for implant materials that can provide direct control of cell behaviors. In this work, 65 nm inner diameters of TiO 2 nanotubes were successfully prepared by anodization method. The interaction of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) in term of cell adhesion and cell morphology on bare titanium and TiO 2 nanotubes is reported. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis proved interaction of BMSC on TiO 2 nanotubes structure was better than flat titanium (Ti) surface. Also, significant cell adhesion on TiO 2 nanotubes surface during in vitro study revealed that BMSC prone to attach on TiO 2 nanotubes. From the result, it can be conclude that TiO 2 nanotubes are biocompatible to biological environment and become a new generation for advanced implant materials

  3. Photocatalytic decouloration of malachite green dye by application of TiO2 nanotubes. (United States)

    Prado, Alexandre G S; Costa, Leonardo L


    The nanotubes of titania were synthesized in a hydrothermal system and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, FT-Raman, and surface charge density by surface area analyzer. These nanomaterials were applied to photocatalyse malachite green dye degradation. Photodegradation capacity of TiO(2) nanotubes was compared to TiO(2) anatase photoactivity. Malachite dye was completely degraded in 75 and 105 min of reaction photocatalysed by TiO(2) nanotubes and TiO(2) anatase, respectively. Catalysts displayed high photodegradation activity at pH 4. TiO(2) nanotubes were easily recycled whereas the reuse of TiO(2) anatase was not effective. Nanotubes maintained 80% of their activity after 10 catalytic cycles and TiO(2) anatase presented only 8% of its activity after 10 cycles.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic efficacy of hetropolyacid pillared TiO2 nanocomposites. (United States)

    Nivea, R; Gunasekaran, V; Kannan, R; Sakthivel, T; Govindan, K


    The removal of dye from industrial effluents is prime important, photo-catalysis is a finest method to combat dye from effluents. This study concerns about the investigation of photocatalytic activity of TiO2-HPAs (Hetropolyacids) nanocomposite namely TiO2-Phosphomolybdic nanocomposite [TiO2-HMA] and TiO2-Phosphotungstic nanocomposite [TiO2-HWA] which were prepared by Sol-gel method and the same were characterized by using XRD, SEM-EDAX. The photocatalytic activity of prepared photo-catalysts were evaluated and compared by the degradation of Methylene Blue dye in water solution under UV irradiation. In that TiO2-HMA nanocomposite showed superior photocatalytic activity than TiO2-HWA.

  5. Composition of Surface Adsorbed Layer of TiO2 Stored in Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharenko V.S.


    Full Text Available The processes of dark, UV, and visible light promoted desorption of surface species were investigated for three different TiO2 samples: TiO2 prepared by dispersion of the titania single crystal, TiO2 prepared by combustion of a pyrotechnic mixture in air, and commercial TiO2 P25. The composition of the adsorbed layer was identified in the dark and under UV and visible light irradiation. The composition of desorption products showed the dependence of the adsorption layer state on the TiO2 nature. Methane photodesorption was detected only for the commercial TiO2 P25. Possible reasons for methane emission include the capturing of complete molecules during the TiO2 production process and photocatalytic hydrogenation of CO2 under UV-light.

  6. Click polymerization and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles to one-dimensional nanochains (United States)

    Xia, Ru; Ruan, Zheng; Zhang, Yujiao; Zhu, Hui; Cao, Ming; Chen, Peng; Miao, Jibin; Qian, Jiasheng


    In this paper, one-dimensional TiO2 nanochains were prepared by polymerization of azide-alkyne click reactions. As a first step, the TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were esterified with 2-bromopropionic bromide, grafted by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene, followed by azidation (TiO2sbnd PSsbnd N3). Second, another part of the TiO2 NPs were modified by propargyl bromide (TiO2sbnd Ctbnd CH). By azide-alkyne click reactions between the azide and alkyne-terminated TiO2 NPs, one-dimensional TiO2 nanochains linked by polystyrene (PS) was successfully synthesized. The chemical structure of the product was characterized using FTIR, TGA and TEM.

  7. Study of TiO2 nanotubes as an implant application (United States)

    Hazan, Roshasnorlyza; Sreekantan, Srimala; Mydin, Rabiatul Basria S. M. N.; Abdullah, Yusof; Mat, Ishak


    Vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes have become the primary candidates for implant materials that can provide direct control of cell behaviors. In this work, 65 nm inner diameters of TiO2 nanotubes were successfully prepared by anodization method. The interaction of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) in term of cell adhesion and cell morphology on bare titanium and TiO2 nanotubes is reported. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis proved interaction of BMSC on TiO2 nanotubes structure was better than flat titanium (Ti) surface. Also, significant cell adhesion on TiO2 nanotubes surface during in vitro study revealed that BMSC prone to attach on TiO2 nanotubes. From the result, it can be conclude that TiO2 nanotubes are biocompatible to biological environment and become a new generation for advanced implant materials.

  8. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FT–IR, UV-Vis-NIR, XRD, SEM and TEM techniques were used to characterize the PANI/TiO2 core-shell nanocomposite. Photocatalytic activity of PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite was investigated under both UV and visible light irradiations and compared with unmodified TiO2 nanoparticles. Results indicated deposition of PANI ...

  9. Stability of Anthocyanin Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical (PEC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly porous dye sensitized TiO2 thin film solar cells have been prepared by the sol gel process. Sensitization was achieved by use of anthocyanin pigment extracted from delphinidin purple and cyanidin 3-5 diglucose (C35D). Sensitization was also studied on ruthenium complex RuL* sensitization dye. Dye sensitized ...

  10. Depolarization temperature and piezoelectric properties of TiO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics; depolarization temperature; perovskite structure; piezoelectric properties. 1. Introduction. Increasing interest concerning the environmental pro- blems of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3(PZT)-based ceramics has led to the demand of lead-free ferroelectric ceramics in electronic applications (Shieh et al 2007).

  11. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , but it suffers from dissolution and photocatalytic degradation of the dyes (Min et al 2007). Conducting polymers with extended π-conjugated electron system and good environmental stability act as stable photo-sensitizer to sensitize TiO2 by ...

  12. Protein Corona Prevents TiO2 Phototoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Garvas

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles have generally low toxicity in the in vitro systems although some toxicity is expected to originate in the TiO2-associated photo-generated radical production, which can however be modulated by the radical trapping ability of the serum proteins. To explore the role of serum proteins in the phototoxicity of the TiO2 nanoparticles we measure viability of the exposed cells depending on the nanoparticle and serum protein concentrations.Fluorescence and spin trapping EPR spectroscopy reveal that the ratio between the nanoparticle and protein concentrations determines the amount of the nanoparticles' surface which is not covered by the serum proteins and is proportional to the amount of photo-induced radicals. Phototoxicity thus becomes substantial only at the protein concentration being too low to completely coat the nanotubes' surface.These results imply that TiO2 nanoparticles should be applied with ligands such as proteins when phototoxic effects are not desired - for example in cosmetics industry. On the other hand, the nanoparticles should be used in serum free medium or any other ligand free medium, when phototoxic effects are desired - as for efficient photodynamic cancer therapy.

  13. Impedance spectroscopy studies of surface engineered TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Dielectric analysis of nanometre range size ceramic particles like TiO2 is very important in the understanding of the performance and design of their polymer nanocomposites for energy storage and other applications. In recent times, impedance spectroscopy is shown to be a very powerful tool to investigate the.

  14. Impedance spectroscopy studies of surface engineered TiO 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric analysis of nanometre range size ceramic particles like TiO2 is very important in the understanding of the performance and design of their polymer nanocomposites for energy storage and other applications. In recent times, impedance spectroscopy is shown to be a very powerful tool to investigate the dielectric ...

  15. Sulphur doped nanoparticles of TiO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szatmáry, Lórant; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Šubrt, Jan; Bezdička, Petr; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Bastl, Zdeněk; Brezová, V.; Korenko, M.


    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-28 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : photocatalyst * S-doped TiO2 * Thiourea Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  16. High-pressure polymorphs of anatase TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlt, T.; Bermejo, M.; Blanco, M. A.


    The equation of state of anatase TiO2 has been determined experimentally-using polycrystalline as well as single-crystal material-and compared with theoretical calculations using the ab initio perturbed ion model. The results are highly consistent, the zero-pressure bulk modulus being 179(2) GPa ...

  17. Low temperature electroreflectance of TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, K.; Krusemeyer, H.J.


    Franz-Keldysh type electroreflectance finestructure has been observed on single crystals of TiO2 between 3.0 and 3.7 eV at LNT. Critical points have been designated to two sets of oscillations which are dependent on the direction of polarization of the light and of the applied field.

  18. Supercritical Flow Synthesis of TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter


    A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus has been constructed in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis. TiO2 is a well-known mater...

  19. Spectral element simulation of ultrafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Barker, Vincent A.; Hassager, Ole


    A spectral element method for simulating stationary 2-D ultrafiltration is presented. The mathematical model is comprised of the Navier-Stokes equations for the velocity field of the fluid and a transport equation for the concentration of the solute. In addition to the presence of the velocity...... vector in the transport equation, the system is coupled by the dependency of the fluid viscosity on the solute concentration and by a concentration-dependent boundary condition for the Navier-Stokes equations at the membrane surface. The spectral element discretization yields a nonlinear algebraic system....... The performance of the spectral element code when applied to several ultrafiltration problems is reported. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Spectrally Compatible Iterative Water Filling (United States)

    Verlinden, Jan; Bogaert, Etienne Vanden; Bostoen, Tom; Zanier, Francesca; Luise, Marco; Cendrillon, Raphael; Moonen, Marc


    Until now static spectrum management has ensured that DSL lines in the same cable are spectrally compatible under worst-case crosstalk conditions. Recently dynamic spectrum management (DSM) has been proposed aiming at an increased capacity utilization by adaptation of the transmit spectra of DSL lines to the actual crosstalk interference. In this paper, a new DSM method for downstream ADSL is derived from the well-known iterative water-filling (IWF) algorithm. The amount of boosting of this new DSM method is limited, such that it is spectrally compatible with ADSL. Hence it is referred to as spectrally compatible iterative water filling (SC-IWF). This paper focuses on the performance gains of SC-IWF. This method is an autonomous DSM method (DSM level 1) and it will be investigated together with two other DSM level-1 algorithms, under various noise conditions, namely, iterative water-filling algorithm, and flat power back-off (flat PBO).

  1. Spectrally Compatible Iterative Water Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cendrillon Raphael


    Full Text Available Until now static spectrum management has ensured that DSL lines in the same cable are spectrally compatible under worst-case crosstalk conditions. Recently dynamic spectrum management (DSM has been proposed aiming at an increased capacity utilization by adaptation of the transmit spectra of DSL lines to the actual crosstalk interference. In this paper, a new DSM method for downstream ADSL is derived from the well-known iterative water-filling (IWF algorithm. The amount of boosting of this new DSM method is limited, such that it is spectrally compatible with ADSL. Hence it is referred to as spectrally compatible iterative water filling (SC-IWF. This paper focuses on the performance gains of SC-IWF. This method is an autonomous DSM method (DSM level 1 and it will be investigated together with two other DSM level-1 algorithms, under various noise conditions, namely, iterative water-filling algorithm, and flat power back-off (flat PBO.

  2. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle


    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  3. Spectral scheme for spacetime physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seriu, Masafumi


    Based on the spectral representation of spatial geometry, we construct an analysis scheme for spacetime physics and cosmology, which enables us to compare two or more universes with each other. In this scheme the spectral distance plays a central role, which is the measure of closeness between two geometries defined in terms of the spectra. We apply this scheme for analyzing the averaging problem in cosmology; we explicitly investigate the time evolution of the spectra, distance between two nearby spatial geometries, simulating the relation between the real Universe and its model. We then formulate the criteria for a model to be a suitable one

  4. Spectral ellipsometry of nanodiamond composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebov, S.G.; Ivanov-Omskij, V.I.; Gordeev, S.K.; Garriga, M.; Alonso, I.A.


    Methods of spectral ellipsometry were applied for analysis of optical properties of nanodiamond based composite in spectral region 1.4-5 eV. The nanocomposite was synthesized by molding of ultradispersed nanodiamond powder in the course of heterogeneous chemical reaction of decomposition of methane, forming pyrocarbon interconnecting nanodiamond grains. The energy of σ + π plasmon of pyrocarbon component of nanodiamond composite was restored which proves to be ∼ 24 eV; using this value, an estimation was done of pyrocarbon matrix density, which occurs to be 2 g/cm 3 [ru

  5. Anti-reflecting and passivating coatings for silicon solar cells on a basis of SO2 and TiO2 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurbaev, T.I.; Nikulin, V.Eh.; Shorin, V.F.; Topanov, B.G.; Dikhanbaev, K.K.


    An analysis of influence of passivating layer on performance of anti-reflection coating of solar cells is carried out. The introduction of passivating SiO 2 layer between a frontal surface of the solar cell and TiO 2 +SiO 2 anti-reflection coating increase total reflection. If a thickness of a passivating layer no more than 20 Angstrom an increase of reflection does not exceed 0.5 %. However, for effective passivation the thickness of the passivating layer has to be within 100-1000 Angstrom region, thus the interference contribution of the passivating layer becomes essential and the AC is necessary to calculate as triple system SiO 2 -TiO 2 -SiO 2 . Such the three layers system ensuring average coefficient of reflection less of 3.5 % in a range 0.4-1.1 μm if the thickness of passivating SiO 2 layer no more 200 Angstrom. For solar cells with passivating SiO 2 layer thickness of 100 Angstrom and protective glass of non-interference thickness the single layer AC from TiO 2 allows to receive average value of reflection coefficient for a spectral range 0.4-1.1 μm no more than 9.5 %. The introduction of two additional layers SiO 2 and TiO 2 allows to reduce this value on 2.0-3.0 %. The comparison of calculation and experimental results is given. (author)

  6. Capacitive contribution to Li-storage in TiO2 (B) and TiO2 (anatase)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lásková, Barbora; Zukalová, Markéta; Zukal, Arnošt; Bouša, Milan; Kavan, Ladislav


    Roč. 246, JAN 2014 (2014), s. 103-109 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0814; GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanium dioxide * TiO2 (B) * Li-insertion Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 6.217, year: 2014

  7. CONNJUR Workflow Builder: a software integration environment for spectral reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenwick, Matthew; Weatherby, Gerard; Vyas, Jay; Sesanker, Colbert [UConn Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States); Martyn, Timothy O. [Rensselaer at Hartford, Department of Engineering and Science (United States); Ellis, Heidi J. C. [Western New England College, Department of Computer Science and Information Technology (United States); Gryk, Michael R., E-mail: [UConn Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States)


    CONNJUR Workflow Builder (WB) is an open-source software integration environment that leverages existing spectral reconstruction tools to create a synergistic, coherent platform for converting biomolecular NMR data from the time domain to the frequency domain. WB provides data integration of primary data and metadata using a relational database, and includes a library of pre-built workflows for processing time domain data. WB simplifies maximum entropy reconstruction, facilitating the processing of non-uniformly sampled time domain data. As will be shown in the paper, the unique features of WB provide it with novel abilities to enhance the quality, accuracy, and fidelity of the spectral reconstruction process. WB also provides features which promote collaboration, education, parameterization, and non-uniform data sets along with processing integrated with the Rowland NMR Toolkit (RNMRTK) and NMRPipe software packages. WB is available free of charge in perpetuity, dual-licensed under the MIT and GPL open source licenses.

  8. CONNJUR Workflow Builder: a software integration environment for spectral reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, Matthew; Weatherby, Gerard; Vyas, Jay; Sesanker, Colbert; Martyn, Timothy O.; Ellis, Heidi J. C.; Gryk, Michael R.


    CONNJUR Workflow Builder (WB) is an open-source software integration environment that leverages existing spectral reconstruction tools to create a synergistic, coherent platform for converting biomolecular NMR data from the time domain to the frequency domain. WB provides data integration of primary data and metadata using a relational database, and includes a library of pre-built workflows for processing time domain data. WB simplifies maximum entropy reconstruction, facilitating the processing of non-uniformly sampled time domain data. As will be shown in the paper, the unique features of WB provide it with novel abilities to enhance the quality, accuracy, and fidelity of the spectral reconstruction process. WB also provides features which promote collaboration, education, parameterization, and non-uniform data sets along with processing integrated with the Rowland NMR Toolkit (RNMRTK) and NMRPipe software packages. WB is available free of charge in perpetuity, dual-licensed under the MIT and GPL open source licenses

  9. Phase coherence and Rabi frequency induced ultranarrow spectral line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bibhas Kumar; Panchadhyayee, Pradipta; Mahapatra, Prasanta Kumar


    A scheme is proposed to achieve ultranarrow spectral line in the fluorescence spectrum of a lifetime broadened multilevel phase-coherent atom. It is shown that for weak-field coupling, ultranarrow spectral feature in the fluorescence spectrum can be generated by controlling the values of the Rabi frequencies involved in the coherent mechanism of the system. For fixed values of the Rabi frequencies in the weak-field limit, ultranarrow feature appears in the spectrum through the adjustment of the relative phase of the coherent fields. The results highlight that, larger the values of the decay rates associated with the field-driven channels, more pronounced is the phenomenon of narrowing in the spectrum.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The illuminated current-voltage characteristics of thin film a-Si:H. p-i-n solar cells were measured for the visible and near infrared spectral regions. The fill factor, the conversion efficiency, the open circuit Voltage and the short circuit current were compared to the parameters of crystalline silicon pit-junction.

  11. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Information is carried in changes of a signal. The paper starts with revis- iting Dudley's concept of the carrier nature of speech. It points to its close connection to modulation spectra of speech and argues against short-term spectral envelopes as dominant carriers of the linguistic information in speech. The history of ...

  12. Optical Spectral Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... It is well established that blazars show flux variations in the complete electromagnetic (EM) spectrum on all possible time scales ranging from a few tens of minutes to several years. Here, we report the review of optical flux and spectral variability properties of different classes of blazars on IDV and STV ...

  13. Spectral problems for operator matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bátkai, A.; Binding, P.; Dijksma, A.; Hryniv, R.; Langer, H.


    We study spectral properties of 2 × 2 block operator matrices whose entries are unbounded operators between Banach spaces and with domains consisting of vectors satisfying certain relations between their components. We investigate closability in the product space, essential spectra and generation of

  14. Spectral Methods for Numerical Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandclément Philippe


    Full Text Available Equations arising in general relativity are usually too complicated to be solved analytically and one must rely on numerical methods to solve sets of coupled partial differential equations. Among the possible choices, this paper focuses on a class called spectral methods in which, typically, the various functions are expanded in sets of orthogonal polynomials or functions. First, a theoretical introduction of spectral expansion is given with a particular emphasis on the fast convergence of the spectral approximation. We then present different approaches to solving partial differential equations, first limiting ourselves to the one-dimensional case, with one or more domains. Generalization to more dimensions is then discussed. In particular, the case of time evolutions is carefully studied and the stability of such evolutions investigated. We then present results obtained by various groups in the field of general relativity by means of spectral methods. Work, which does not involve explicit time-evolutions, is discussed, going from rapidly-rotating strange stars to the computation of black-hole–binary initial data. Finally, the evolution of various systems of astrophysical interest are presented, from supernovae core collapse to black-hole–binary mergers.

  15. Functional Analysis-Spectral Theoryl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Functional Analysis - Spectral Theory1. Cherian Varughese. Book Review Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 91-92 ... Author Affiliations. Cherian Varughese1. Indian Statistical Institute, 8th Mile, Mysore Road, Bangalore 560 059, India.

  16. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin


    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS -1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  17. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automatic recognition of speech (ASR). Instead, likely for historical reasons, envelopes of power spectrum were adopted as main carrier of linguistic information in ASR. However, the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes are not straightforward. Consequently, this asks for ...

  18. Spectral representation of Gaussian semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas


    The aim of the present paper is to characterize the spectral representation of Gaussian semimartingales. That is, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel K for X t =∫ K t (s) dN s to be a semimartingale. Here, N denotes an independently scattered Gaussian random measure...

  19. International Conference on Spectral and High-Order Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, Ney; Hesthaven, Jan


    This book features a selection of high-quality papers chosen from the best presentations at the International Conference on Spectral and High-Order Methods (2016), offering an overview of the depth and breadth of the activities within this important research area. The carefully reviewed papers provide a snapshot of the state of the art, while the extensive bibliography helps initiate new research directions.

  20. Photoelectrocatalytic removal of color from water using TiO2 and TiO2/Cu2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feleke Zewge


    Full Text Available This work describes, photoelectrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by using methyl orange (an azo dye as a model compound. The TiO2 thin film and TiO2/Cu2O composite electrodes were used as semiconductor photo electrodes. Photo catalysis by UV light corresponding to the light intensity range of the solar light was employed with the aim of using renewable and pollution-free energy. Result showed that the rate of removal of color was enhanced when potential bias of 1.5 V was applied. The degradation rate was also increased either in acidic (pH 2 or alkaline (pH 10 conditions. The application of a positive potential higher than the flat-band potential on the TiO2 electrode decreases the rapid charge recombination process, and enhanced the degradation of organic compound. When the TiO2/Cu2O thin film electrode was used, more efficient electron and hole separation was observed in the composite system under very low potential. It is considered that the photo-generated holes migrate towards the interface while the electrons migrate towards TiO2 and then to the back contact transparent fluorine doped tin-oxide-coated glass (TCO, making the behavior of the composite film analogous to that of an n-type semiconductor. In all cases, the kinetics of the photo catalytic oxidation of methyl orange followed a pseudo first order model and the apparent rate constant may depend on several factors such as, the nature and concentration of the organic compound, radiant flux, the solution pH and the presence of other organic substances.

  1. Assessing FRET using Spectral Techniques (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas J.; Britain, Andrea L.; Cichon, Lauren K.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Rich, Thomas C.


    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques have proven invaluable for probing the complex nature of protein–protein interactions, protein folding, and intracellular signaling events. These techniques have traditionally been implemented with the use of one or more fluorescence band-pass filters, either as fluorescence microscopy filter cubes, or as dichroic mirrors and band-pass filters in flow cytometry. In addition, new approaches for measuring FRET, such as fluorescence lifetime and acceptor photobleaching, have been developed. Hyperspectral techniques for imaging and flow cytometry have also shown to be promising for performing FRET measurements. In this study, we have compared traditional (filter-based) FRET approaches to three spectral-based approaches: the ratio of acceptor-to-donor peak emission, linear spectral unmixing, and linear spectral unmixing with a correction for direct acceptor excitation. All methods are estimates of FRET efficiency, except for one-filter set and three-filter set FRET indices, which are included for consistency with prior literature. In the first part of this study, spectrofluorimetric data were collected from a CFP–Epac–YFP FRET probe that has been used for intracellular cAMP measurements. All comparisons were performed using the same spectrofluorimetric datasets as input data, to provide a relevant comparison. Linear spectral unmixing resulted in measurements with the lowest coefficient of variation (0.10) as well as accurate fits using the Hill equation. FRET efficiency methods produced coefficients of variation of less than 0.20, while FRET indices produced coefficients of variation greater than 8.00. These results demonstrate that spectral FRET measurements provide improved response over standard, filter-based measurements. Using spectral approaches, single-cell measurements were conducted through hyperspectral confocal microscopy, linear unmixing, and cell segmentation with quantitative image analysis

  2. Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA): Software for Exploratory Analysis of High-Resolution Spectral Reflectance Data on Plant Breeding. (United States)

    Lobos, Gustavo A; Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos


    This article describes public, free software that provides efficient exploratory analysis of high-resolution spectral reflectance data. Spectral reflectance data can suffer from problems such as poor signal to noise ratios in various wavebands or invalid measurements due to changes in incoming solar radiation or operator fatigue leading to poor orientation of sensors. Thus, exploratory data analysis is essential to identify appropriate data for further analyses. This software overcomes the problem that analysis tools such as Excel are cumbersome to use for the high number of wavelengths and samples typically acquired in these studies. The software, Spectral Knowledge (SK-UTALCA), was initially developed for plant breeding, but it is also suitable for other studies such as precision agriculture, crop protection, ecophysiology plant nutrition, and soil fertility. Various spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) are often used to relate crop characteristics to spectral data and the software is loaded with 255 SRIs which can be applied quickly to the data. This article describes the architecture and functions of SK-UTALCA and the features of the data that led to the development of each of its modules.

  3. Fourier spectral of PalmCode as descriptor for palmprint recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruan, Qiuqi; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Mu, Meiru

    Study on automatic person recognition by palmprint is currently a hot topic. In this paper, we propose a novel palmprint recognition method by transforming the typical palmprint phase code feature into its Fourier frequency domain. The resulting real-valued Fourier spectral features are further

  4. Epileptic seizure prediction based on a bivariate spectral power methodology. (United States)

    Bandarabadi, Mojtaba; Teixeira, Cesar A; Direito, Bruno; Dourado, Antonio


    The spectral power of 5 frequently considered frequency bands (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Theta and Delta) for 6 EEG channels is computed and then all the possible pairwise combinations among the 30 features set, are used to create a 435 dimensional feature space. Two new feature selection methods are introduced to choose the best candidate features among those and to reduce the dimensionality of this feature space. The selected features are then fed to Support Vector Machines (SVMs) that classify the cerebral state in preictal and non-preictal classes. The outputs of the SVM are regularized using a method that accounts for the classification dynamics of the preictal class, also known as "Firing Power" method. The results obtained using our feature selection approaches are compared with the ones obtained using minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) feature selection method. The results in a group of 12 patients of the EPILEPSIAE database, containing 46 seizures and 787 hours multichannel recording for out-of-sample data, indicate the efficiency of the bivariate approach as well as the two new feature selection methods. The best results presented sensitivity of 76.09% (35 of 46 seizures predicted) and a false prediction rate of 0.15(-1).

  5. Optical properties and structure of the TiN–nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buha, J.


    Highlights: • Excessive N doping of TiO 2 produces TiN–N-doped TiO 2 nanocomposite. • Metal TiN-semiconductor TiO 2 interfaces may aid separation of photogenerated charge carriers. • Excessive N doping adds high density of new electronic states at the top of TiO 2 valence band. - Abstract: As one of the most versatile photocatalysts, TiO 2 is suitable for numerous environmental and energy-related applications, however its efficiency is limited by its wide band gap. Doping with anions such as nitrogen has been successful in extending the TiO 2 solar absorption into the visible spectrum, although the exact nature and optimal level of N doping are still debated. Present study shows that excessive and mostly substitutional N doping can result in an in situ formation of nanocomposite structure consisting of TiN nano-crystals embedded in the N-doped anatase TiO 2 , in addition to effectively doping TiO 2 by adding electronic states at the valence band edge thereby narrowing its band gap, as reported before. The metal-semiconductor interfaces in the thin film induce local band bending in the N-doped TiO 2 phase and this may assist in separating the photogenerated charge carriers. The possible interplay between the two phases is discussed. Very low levels of N doping were found not to have any impact on the band gap of TiO 2

  6. Photocatalytic Decolorization Study of Methyl Orange by TiO2–Chitosan Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Fajriati


    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange (MO by TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite has been studied. This study was started by synthesizing TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites using sol-gel method with various concentrations of Titanium(IV isopropoxide (TTIP as the TiO2 precursor. The structure, surface morphology, thermal and optical property of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and diffuse reflectance ultra violet (DRUV spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange as a model pollutant. The results indicate that the particle size of TiO2 increases with increasing ofthe concentration of TTIP, in which TiO2 with smallest particle size exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic decolorization was obtained at 5 h of contact time, initial concentration of MO at 20 ppm and at solution pH of 4. Using these conditions, over 90% of MO was able to be decolorized using 0.02 g of TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. The TiO2-chitosan nanocomposite could be reused, which meant that the TiO2-chitosan nanocomposites can be developed as an effective and economical photocatalyst to decolorize or treat dye in wastewater.

  7. DFT study on the interaction of TiO2 (001) surface with HCHO molecules (United States)

    Wu, Guofei; Zhao, Cuihua; Guo, Changqing; Chen, Jianhua; Zhang, Yibing; Li, Yuqiong


    The interactions of formaldehyde (HCHO) molecule with TiO2 (001) surface were studied using density functional theory calculations. HCHO molecules are dissociated by the cleavage of Csbnd H bonds after adsorption on TiO2 surface. The strong interactions between HCHO melecules and TiO2 surface are largely attributed to the bonding of hydrogen of HCHO and oxygen of TiO2 surface, which is mainly from the hybridization of the H 1s, O 2p and O 2s. The newly formed Hsbnd O bonds cause the structure changes of TiO2 surface, and lead to the cleavage of Osbnd Ti bond of TiO2 surface. The Csbnd O bond that the dissociated remains of HCHO and newly formed Hsbnd O bond can be oxidized to form carbon dioxide and water in subsequent action by oxygen from the atomosphere. The charges transfer from HCHO to TiO2 surface, and the sum amount of the charges transferred from four HCHO molecules to TiO2 surface is bigger than that from one HCHO molecule to TiO2 surface due to the combined interaction of four HCHO molecules with TiO2 surface.

  8. A thick hierarchical rutile TiO2 nanomaterial with multilayered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shengli; Xie, Guoqiang; Yang, Xianjin; Cui, Zhenduo


    Highlights: ► We synthesized a new rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure. ► The nano architecture structure consist of nanorods and nanoflower arrays. ► The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). ► The TiO 2 nanomaterials present a multilayer structure. - Abstract: In the present paper, we synthesized a new type of rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial with a hierarchical nanostructure using a novel method, which combined dealloying process with chemical synthesis. The structure characters were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial is thick in size (several 10 μm). The hierarchical structure of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial consists of large quantities nanorods and nanoflower arrays. The nanoflowers consist of serveral nanopetals with diameter of 100–200 nm. The cross section of TiO 2 nanomaterials presents a multilayer structure with the layer thickness of about 3–5 μm. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has high specific surface area. The formation mechanism of the rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial was discussed according to the experimental results. The rutile TiO 2 nanomaterial has potential applications in catalysis, photocatalysis and solar cells

  9. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose


    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  10. Photocatalytic degradation properties of V-doped TiO2to automobile exhaust. (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Shen, Dongya; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Ruiling


    To improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) used as raw materials for purifying automobile exhaust (AE), the vanadium (V)-doped TiO 2 samples were prepared. The photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, respectively. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of V-doped TiO 2 to AE was higher than that of pure TiO 2 , and the optimal V dopant content of TiO 2 was 1.0% under UV light irradiation. The degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to NOx and HC were higher than those to CO 2 and CO in AE because of the reversible reaction between CO 2 and CO. In addition, it was found that the photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO 2 to each component in AE were also increased under visible light irradiation. The V-doped TiO 2 also showed higher degradation efficiencies to NOx and HC than those to CO 2 and CO under visible light irradiation. The V doped TiO 2 presented higher photocatalytic activity to CO 2 than that to CO, but the reversible reaction between CO and CO 2 was not found under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactions of pure and V-doped TiO 2 samples to each component in AE followed the first order kinetic pathway under the two light irradiations. It is concluded that the V doping is a feasible method to improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of TiO 2 to AE for air purification, developing a sustainable environmental purification technology based on TiO 2 materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The structure of H2TiO3-a short discussion on "Lithium recovery from salt lake brine by H2TiO3". (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Long; Wang, Fei; Cao, Shu-Yao; Gao, Dan-Peng; Hui, Huai-Bing; Guo, Ying-Yan; Wang, Dao-Yi


    A short discussion on the structure of H2TiO3 presented in the article entitled Lithium recovery from salt lake brine by H2TiO3 (R. Chitrakar, Y. Makita, K. Ooi and A. Sonoda, Dalton Trans., 2014, 43, 8933) is presented. In our opinion, it is not correct to identify the phase of H2TiO3 as monoclinic. The XRD pattern of H2TiO3 differs substantially from that of Li2TiO3. XRD pattern simulation shows that the peak (1[combining macron]33) and the peak (2[combining macron]06) cannot be fully collapsed or substantially decrease in intensity by substitution of Li(+) with H(+) if H2TiO3 shares a similar space group and lattice parameters with Li2TiO3. A direct verification of a similar structure by N. V. Tarakina and co-workers may aid the confirmation of the structure. The layered double hydroxide type with the 3R1 sequence of oxygen layers is more reasonable for H2TiO3 and can be described as a stacking of charge-neutral metal oxyhydroxide slabs [(OH)2OTi2O(OH)2].

  12. Effect of crystallinity and morphology of TiO2 nano-structures on TiO2:P3HT hybrid photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroomandnia, A.; Kasaeian, A.B.; Nikfarjam, A. et al.


    A comparative study has been made of hybrid solar cells based on poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and different nano-structures of TiO 2 . Electrospinning, which is a low cost production method for large area nanofibrous films, was employed to fabricate TiO 2 nanofibers and spin coating method was employed to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells based on P3HT and TiO 2 nanostructures. The performance of the hybrid solar cells was analyzed for four density levels of the TiO 2 nanostructure. It was found that higher densities of TiO 2 leads to more interface area and generates excitons, so that the power conversion efficiency increases to 0.13. TiO 2 nanoparticles with power conversion efficiency of 0.15 showed better performance than TiO 2 nanofibers because of greater interface area. Also the crystallinity effect of the TiO 2 nanostructure on solar cell performance was investigated. Moreover, an improved photovoltaic performance was achieved after the interface modification, and the highest conversion efficiency was obtained from the N719 modified device at 241 nm, short-circuit photocurrent (J sc ) of 3.88 mA cm -2 , open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.09 V and fill factor of 0.16; so that an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 0.35% was obtained. (author)

  13. Hybrid matrices of TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers with silicone for high water flux photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Alm, Martin; Thomsen, Peter


    TiO2 and TiO2–Ag nanofibers were produced by electrospinning technique and surface coated on silicone elastomer (diameter: 10.0 mm; thickness: 2.0 mm) by dipcoating method. These coated hybrid nanoporous matrices were characterized by various morphological and physicochemical techniques (like SEM...

  14. Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching characteristics in TiO2/BaTiO3/TiO2 multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, W. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Yue; Lin, S. P.; Luo, J. M.; Wang, B.; Li, Z. X.


    Nanoscale multilayer structure TiO 2 /BaTiO 3 /TiO 2 has been fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate by chemical solution deposition method. Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching (BRS) characteristics have been observed in Pt/TiO 2 /BaTiO 3 /TiO 2 /Pt cells. Analysis of the current-voltage relationship demonstrates that the space-charge-limited current conduction controlled by the localized oxygen vacancies should be important to the resistive switching behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that oxygen vacancies in TiO 2 play a crucial role in the resistive switching phenomenon and the introduced TiO 2 /BaTiO 3 interfaces result in the high uniformity of bipolar resistive switching characteristics

  15. Analytical exploration of a TiO2 nanofluid along a rotating disk with homogeneous-heterogeneous chemical reactions and non-uniform heat source/sink (United States)

    Das, Kalidas; Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Kumar Kundu, Prabir


    Comparative flow features of two different nanofluids containing TiO2 nanoparticles along a rotating disk near a stagnation point are theoretically addressed here. The primary fluids are presumed as ethylene glycol and water. The influences of non-uniform heat absorption/generation with homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions have been integrated to modify the energy and concentration profiles. By virtue of similarity conversions, the leading partial differential system has been standardized into non-linear ODEs and then cracked analytically by NDM and numerically by RK-4 based shooting practice. Impressions of emerging parameters on the flow regime have been reported by tables and graphs coupled with required discussions. One of our results predicts that, with the augmentation of TiO2 nanoparticles concentration, the rate of heat transport for ethylene glycol nanofluid becomes 30-36% higher compared to that of a water nanofluid.

  16. Line by Line Spectral Parameters in the 4ν_3 Spectral Region of Methane (United States)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; O'Brien, J. J.; Shaji, S.; Spickler, P. T.; Houck, C. P.; Coakley, J. A.; Dolph, J.; Rankin, K.


    The near infrared bands of methane were first observed in the outer planets and Titan where atmospheric ray paths are long. The spectrum is complex, and long absorption paths in the laboratory are difficult to cool to outer solar system temperatures. At room temperature, many significant spectral lines appear per Doppler width. The band models generally used in the 890 nm spectral region of methane do not provide transmissions that are multiplicative, so scattering and inhomogeneous atmospheres cannot be properly treated using this approach. The intracavity laser spectrometer at the University of Missouri-St. Louis was used to obtain low temperature (99-161K), low pressure (0.12-7.13 Torr), long path (3.14-5.65 km) and high resolution ( 0.01 cm-1 HWHM) spectra of methane covering the entire 890nm feature (10925-11500 cm-1), the deepest band in the CCD spectral region. At these temperatures the Doppler width is 0.01 cm-1 and the spectral lines originating from levels higher than J"=11 and excited vibrational states are not visible. The result is a dense, but manageable spectrum from which over 11,200 line positions, intensities and lower state energies are derived on a line by line basis by the College of William and Mary multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting program Simulations of the methane spectrum for outer planet atmospheres using our positions, intensities and lower state energies reveal a surprising amount of spectral structure at high resolution. This structure carries a great deal of atmospheric information Support for the work at William and Mary was provided by NASA through grant NNX08AF06G. Support for the work at UM-St. Louis provided by NASA through grant NAG5-12013, from NSF through grant CHE-0213356 and by the University of Missouri Research Board. Partial support at Bridgewater College was provided by its Martin Science Research Institute and from an AAS Small Research Grant. D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. M. Devi, M. A. H. Smith, and

  17. Synthesis of the lithium metatitanate, Li2TiO3, by the modified combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S.; Pfeiffer, H.


    A modified combustion method to obtain Li 2 TiO 3 it was used, a compound to be used in fusion reactors like tritium generator material. To obtain Li 2 TiO 3 were proven different molar ratios of lithium hydroxide (LiOH), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and urea (CO(NH 2 ) 2 ), as well as different heating temperatures (550, 650 and 750 C). The characterization of the products it was carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermal gravimetric analysis. The sample prepared with a molar ratio Li: Ti: urea = 2.75: 1: 3 was the one that presented as only product the Li 2 TiO 3 . The particle size and the morphology found in the Li 2 TiO 3 , showed similar particle size and morphology to the TiO 2 used as precursor. (Author)

  18. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.


    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  19. Ammonia Sensing Behaviors of TiO2-PANI/PA6 Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang


    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide-polyaniline/polyamide 6 (TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of PA6 nanofibers and a sputtering-deposition process with a high purity titanium sputtering target. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers and PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were fabricated for ammonia gas sensing. The ammonia sensing behaviors of the sensors were examined at room temperature. All the results indicated that the ammonia sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers was superior to that of PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers had good selectivity to ammonia. It was also found that the content of TiO2 had a great influence on both the morphology and the sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers.

  20. Reflectance spectroscopy from TiO2 particles embedded in polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Johansen, Villads Egede


    This paper presents the results of a physical simulation carried out using TiO2-Polyurethane composite coating on bright aluminium surface to understand the light scattering effect for designing white surfaces. Polyurethane matrix is selected due to the matching refractive index (1.7) with Al2O3...... layer on anodized aluminium surfaces. Three different TiO2 particle distributions were dispersed in polyurethane and spin coated onto high gloss and caustic etched aluminium substrates. Reflectance spectra of TiO2-polyurethane films of various concentrations were analysed using an integrating sphere....... The results show that the TiO2-polyurethane coatings have a high diffuse reflectance as a result of multiple scattering from TiO2 particles. Diffuse reflectance spectra of TiO2 containing films vary weakly with particle concentration and reach a steady state value at a concentration of 0.75 wt.%. Using...

  1. Combined experimental and theoretical study of visible light active P doped TiO2 photocatalyst (United States)

    Ramin Gul, Sahar; Khan, Matiullah; Wu, Bo; Yi, Zeng


    Using the hydrothermal method, a P-doped TiO2 nano-catalyst is prepared for widening the application spectrum of TiO2. The synthesized samples are investigated using XRD, TEM, and UV-visible absorption spectra. A P-doped TiO2 system is simulated and calculations for geometrical structure, electronic and optical properties are performed based on density functional theory. Comparison of the electronic band structure of anatase TiO2 before and after doping verified that doping tuned the band structure. XRD patterns revealed that pure anatase phase is the only phase in case of pure and doped samples. TEM observations reveal spherical morphology. The P doped TiO2 experimentally as well as theoretically responded to visible light confirming the band structure findings. Photocatalytic activity of the doped samples drastically improved compared to bare TiO2.

  2. Electrical conductivity characteristic of TiO2 nanowires from hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Amat, Noor Faridah; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Rajan, Jose


    One dimensional nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) were synthesized via hydrothermal method by mixing TiO 2 as precursor in aqueous solution of NaOH as solvent. Then, heat and washing treatment was applied. Thus obtained wires had diameter ∼15 nm. TiO 2 nanowires will be used as a network in solar cell such dye-sensitized solar cell in order to improve the performance of electron movement in the device. To improve the performance of electron movement, the characteristics of TiO 2 nanowires have been analyses using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis, x-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis and brunauer emmett teller (BET) analysis. Finally, electrical conductivity of TiO 2 nanowires was determined by measuring the resistance of the TiO 2 nanowires paste on microscope glass.

  3. Effect of TiO2 pigment gradation on the properties of thermal insulation coatings (United States)

    Shen, Lu-wei; Zhang, Ya-mei; Zhang, Pei-gen; Shi, Jin-jie; Sun, Zheng-ming


    This study was designed to evaluate the thermal performance and mechanical properties of coatings with different gradations of TiO2 pigments. The solar reflectance, cooling performance, wash resistance, and film adhesion strength of the coatings were investigated. The influence of TiO2 powder gradation on the final properties of the coatings was studed. The solar reflectance and the thermal insulation were observed to increase with increasing content of nanosized TiO2. The mechanical properties of the coatings, such as their wash resistance and film adhesion strength, were observed to increase with increased incorporation of nanosized TiO2. Such improvements in the properties of the coatings were attributed to the greater specific surface area and lower thermal conductivity of nanosized TiO2 particles compared to normal TiO2 particles.

  4. Tree species mapping in tropical forests using multi-temporal imaging spectroscopy: Wavelength adaptive spectral mixture analysis (United States)

    Somers, B.; Asner, G. P.


    The use of imaging spectroscopy for florisic mapping of forests is complicated by the spectral similarity among co-existing species. Here we evaluated an alternative spectral unmixing strategy combining a time series of EO-1 Hyperion images and an automated feature selection in Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA). The temporal analysis provided a way to incorporate species phenology while feature selection indicated the best phenological time and best spectral feature set to optimize the separability between tree species. Instead of using the same set of spectral bands throughout the image which is the standard approach in MESMA, our modified Wavelength Adaptive Spectral Mixture Analysis (WASMA) approach allowed the spectral subsets to vary on a per pixel basis. As such we were able to optimize the spectral separability between the tree species present in each pixel. The potential of the new approach for floristic mapping of tree species in Hawaiian rainforests was quantitatively assessed using both simulated and actual hyperspectral image time-series. With a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.65, WASMA provided a more accurate tree species map compared to conventional MESMA (Kappa = 0.54; p-value < 0.05. The flexible or adaptive use of band sets in WASMA provides an interesting avenue to address spectral similarities in complex vegetation canopies.

  5. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan


    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  6. Application of TIO2 as A sorbent for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamroni, H.; Las, T.; Kamarz, H.


    The sorption properties of the neodymium has been studied by using TiO 2 sorbent. The experiment was carried out by batch methods to investigate the kinetic sorption, effect of pH and effect of NaNO 3 concentration in the solution. Neodymium uses for a model of trivalent actinide treated by TiO 2 which was known as materials having high thermal and radiation stabilities as well as potentially used for immobilization of waste with cement or vitrification. the results show that the optimum of kinetic sorption was obtained after one day experiment to reach the equilibrium in sorption on pH 4, and the increasing of NaNO 3 concentrations will increase the sorption of neodymium in solution (author)

  7. Photocorrosion Mechanism of TiO2-Coated Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Didden


    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition was used to coat CdS photoanodes with 7 nm thick TiO2 films to protect them from photocorrosion during photoelectrochemical water splitting. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the TiO2 coating does not provide full protection against photocorrosion. The degradation of the film initiates from small pinholes and shows oscillatory behavior that can be explained by an Avrami-type model for photocorrosion that is halfway between 2D and 3D etching. XPS analysis of corroded films indicates that a thin layer of CdS remains present on the surface of the corroded photoanode that is more resilient towards photocorrosion.

  8. Enhanced bonding between TiO2-Graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naknikham, Usuma; Buffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Since an increasing number of emerging pollutants has been found in wastewater and natural water systems [1], many researchers are developing new synergy-effective methods for their abatement [2]. In this context, we fabricate titanium dioxide-graphene oxide (TiO2-GO) heterostructures...... the same performances under sunlight and with complex real water systems. Hence, this research aims to study the photocatalystic property on GO-TiO2 composites with aqueous solutions of selected emerging pollutants under visible light. The samples were synthesized via the in-situ sol-gel nucleation...... as photocatalysts, which can efficiently react with organic species under solar light and can enhance the adsorption of water pollutants [3]. Many studies have shown that TiO2-GO heterostructures can quickly mineralize organic dyes in solution under UV-light. However, it is not clear if these materials can provide...

  9. Biomarkers and Biological Spectral Imaging (United States)


    karyotyping (SKY) in hematological neoplasia [4259-13] B. S. Preiss, R. K. Pedersen, G. B. Kerndrup, Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark) 60 Structure of...astronomy and airborne monitoring to forensic and biomedical sciences or industrial qualit\\ and process monitoring. There is growing need for a sensitive...SPIE Vol. 4259 55 Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) in Hematologic Neoplasia. Birgitte S. Preiss*a, Rikke K. Pedersena, Gitte B. Kerndrupa aInstitute of

  10. Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, John P


    Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.

  11. Spectral Clustering of Hermean craters hollows (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pajola, Maurizio; Cremonese, Gabriele; Carli, Cristian; Marzo, Giuseppe; Roush, Ted


    The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS, Hawkins et al., 2007) onboard NASA MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, provided high-resolution images of "hollows", i.e. shallow, irregular, rimless, flat-floored depressions with bright interiors and halos, often found on crater walls, rims, floors and central peaks (Blewett et al., 2011, 2013). The formation mechanism of these features was suggested to be related to the depletion of subsurface volatiles (Blewett et al., 2011, Vaughan et al., 2012). To understand the hollows' mineralogical composition, which can provide new insights on Mercury's surface characterization, we applied a spectral clustering method to different craters where hollows are present. We chose, as first test case, the 20 km wide Dominici crater due to previous multiple spectral detection (Vilas et al., 2016). We used the MDIS WAC dataset covering Dominici crater with a scale of 935 m/pixel through eight filters, ranging from 0.433 to 0.996 μm. First, the images have been photometrically corrected using the Hapke parameters (Hapke et al., 2002) derived in Domingue et al. (2015). We then applied a statistical clustering over the entire dataset based on a K-means partitioning algorithm (Marzo et al., 2006). This approach was developed and evaluated by Marzo et al. (2006, 2008, 2009) and makes use of the Calinski and Harabasz criterion (Calinski, T., Harabasz, J., 1974) to identify the intrinsically natural number of clusters, making the process unsupervised. The natural number of ten clusters was identified and spectrally separates the Dominici surrounding terrains from its interior, as well as the two hollows from their edges. The units located on the brightest part of the south wall/rim of Dominici crater clearly present a wide absorption band between 0.558 and 0.828 μm. Hollows surrounding terrains typically present a red slope in the VNIR with a possible weak absorption band centered at 0.748

  12. Feature Selection by Reordering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.


    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 1738-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : feature selection * data reduction * ordering of features Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  14. Optical Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles Dressed on MWCNT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.K.; Shahidan Radiman; Akrajas Ali Umar; Mohammad Hafizuddin Jumali


    Optical properties of TiO 2 nanoparticles dressed on the surface of Multi walled CNT (MWCNT) have been investigated. The samples were prepared using modified microwave method and characterized using TEM, XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy. A clear interface between MWCNT and TiO 2 indicated strong attachment between these two nano structures. Significant change in absorption spectra proved the absorption wavelength and energy gap of TiO 2 nano structures can be controlled via dressing of MWCNT. (author)

  15. Effects of Ni doping on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ni-doped TiO2 thin films can be used as photocatalyst for the photodegradation of methyl orange dye. It was found that, organic dye undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of non-uniformly Ni-doped TiO2 thin films when compared to uniformly doped films and pure TiO2 films under visible light. The photocatalytic ...

  16. Use of co-spray pyrolysis for synthesizing nitrogen-doped TiO2 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline TiO2 is well known as the most promising photocatalyst. Despite many years after discovery, seeking of efficient method to prepare TiO2 doped with nitrogen still attracts a lot of attention. In this paper, we present the result of using co-spray pyrolysis to synthesize nitrogen-doped TiO2 films ...

  17. TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposite as high performace photocatalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Popelková, Daniela; Vláčil, P.


    Roč. 115, č. 51 (2011), s. 25209-25218 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FI-IM3/061; GA MPO FI-IM5/239 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : titanium-dioxide * visible- light * doped TiO2 * degradation * graphene * oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.805, year: 2011

  18. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion. The aqueous solutions of MeO were used as model pollutant for investigation of the photocatalytic activity of samples. 0·01 g of pristine TiO2 or PANI/TiO2 photocatalysts was added to 50 ml of MeO aqueous solution (10 mg·L. −1) under magnetic stirring. The solid concentration in final sus- pension was 200 mg·L. −1.

  19. Photocatalytic Water Treatment on TiO2 Thin Layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Spáčilová, L.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena


    Roč. 57, č. 25 (2016), s. 11631-11638 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos Island, 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : water purification * endocrine disruptor * photocatalytic * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  20. HYMOSS signal processing for pushbroom spectral imaging (United States)

    Ludwig, David E.


    The objective of the Pushbroom Spectral Imaging Program was to develop on-focal plane electronics which compensate for detector array non-uniformities. The approach taken was to implement a simple two point calibration algorithm on focal plane which allows for offset and linear gain correction. The key on focal plane features which made this technique feasible was the use of a high quality transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and an analog-to-digital converter for each detector channel. Gain compensation is accomplished by varying the feedback capacitance of the integrate and dump TIA. Offset correction is performed by storing offsets in a special on focal plane offset register and digitally subtracting the offsets from the readout data during the multiplexing operation. A custom integrated circuit was designed, fabricated, and tested on this program which proved that nonuniformity compensated, analog-to-digital converting circuits may be used to read out infrared detectors. Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) successfully demonstrated the following innovative on-focal-plane functions that allow for correction of detector non-uniformities. Most of the circuit functions demonstrated on this program are finding their way onto future IC's because of their impact on reduced downstream processing, increased focal plane performance, simplified focal plane control, reduced number of dewar connections, as well as the noise immunity of a digital interface dewar. The potential commercial applications for this integrated circuit are primarily in imaging systems. These imaging systems may be used for: security monitoring systems, manufacturing process monitoring, robotics, and for spectral imaging when used in analytical instrumentation.

  1. The Featurization of Journalism


    Steensen, Steen


    Feature journalism has developed from being an insignificant supplement to news journalism to a family of genres that today dominates newspapers. The present article explores the growing importance of feature journalism and attempts to understand its social function, how it has changed and why it has become so important. Based on an analysis of influential textbooks on feature journalism, the paper argues that feature journalism has traditionally been dominated by a literary d...

  2. Space-Weathered Anorthosite as Spectral D-Type Material on the Martian Satellites (United States)

    Yamamoto, S.; Watanabe, S.; Matsunaga, T.


    Spectral D-type asteroids are characterized by dark, red-sloped, and featureless spectra at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and are thought to be composed of rocks rich in organic compounds. The Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos, spectrally resemble D-type asteroids, suggesting that they are captured D-type asteroids from outside the Martian system. Here we show that the spectral features of lunar space-weathered anorthosite are consistent with D-type spectra, including those of Phobos and Deimos. This can also explain the distinct spectral features on Phobos, the red and blue units, as arising from different degrees of space weathering. Thus, D-type spectra of the Martian satellites can be explained by space-weathered anorthosite, indicating that D-type spectra do not necessarily support the existence of organic compounds, which would be strong evidence for the capture scenario.

  3. Improvement of light harvesting and device performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using rod-like nanocrystal TiO2 overlay coating on TiO2 nanoparticle working electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Gao, Mei; Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Weidong; Lin, Tong


    Novel TiO 2 single crystalline nanorods were synthesized by electrospinning and hydrothermal treatment. The role of the TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode in improvement of light harvesting and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was examined. Although the TiO 2 nanorods had lower dye loading than TiO 2 nanoparticle, they showed higher light utilization behaviour. Electron transfer in TiO 2 nanorods received less resistance than that in TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregation. By just applying a thin layer of TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle working electrode, the DSSC device light harvesting ability and energy conversion efficiency were improved significantly. The thickness of the nanorod layer in the working electrode played an important role in determining the photovoltaic property of DSSCs. An energy conversion efficiency as high as 6.6% was found on a DSSC device with the working electrode consisting of a 12 μm think TiO 2 nanoparticle layer covered with 3 μm thick TiO 2 nanorods. The results obtained from this study may benefit further design of highly efficient DSSCs. - Highlights: • Single crystalline TiO 2 nanorods were prepared for DSSC application. • TiO 2 nanorods show effective light scattering performance. • TiO 2 nanorods have higher electron transfer efficiency than TiO 2 nanoparticles. • TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode improve DSSC efficiency

  4. Calibration with near-continuous spectral measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Rasmussen, Michael; Madsen, Henrik


    In chemometrics traditional calibration in case of spectral measurements express a quantity of interest (e.g. a concentration) as a linear combination of the spectral measurements at a number of wavelengths. Often the spectral measurements are performed at a large number of wavelengths and in thi...... by an example in which the octane number of gasoline is related to near infrared spectral measurements. The performance is found to be much better that for the traditional calibration methods....

  5. Amoxicillin photodegradation by nanocrystalline TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević K D.


    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline TiO2, synthesized by sol-gel route and characterized by XRPD, BET and SEM measurements, was applied in the photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin, using an Osram Ultra-Vitalux® lamp as the light source. Amoxicillin is a semi-synthetic penicillin type antibiotic active against a wide range of grampositive and a limited range of gram-negative organisms. The continuous release of antibiotics and their persistence in the environment may result in serious irreversible effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Heterogeneous catalysis, which uses catalysts like TiO2, is a promising route for the degradation of organic pollutants including antibiotics. The effects of initial concentration of catalyst, initial salt concentration (NaCl and Na2SO4, ethanol and pH on the photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin were studied. The mineralization of amoxicillin was analyzed by ion chromatography as well as by total organic analysis. The catalytic properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 were compared to Evonik P25 catalyst.

  6. Intersection of Feature Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for the construction of the intersection of two feature models. The feature models are allowed to have "requires" and "excludes" constraints, and should be parent-compatible. The algorithm is applied to the problem of combining feature models from stakeholders

  7. Merging Feature Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Galvao, I.; Noppen, J.A.R.


    In this paper, we consider the problem of merging feature models which consist of trees with "requires" and "excludes" constraints. For any two such feature models which are parent-compatible, their merge is defined to be the smallest parent-compatible feature model which has all products of the

  8. Development of Jet Noise Power Spectral Laws (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James


    High-quality jet noise spectral data measured at the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at NASA Glenn is used to develop jet noise scaling laws. A FORTRAN algorithm was written that provides detailed spectral prediction of component jet noise at user-specified conditions. The model generates quick estimates of the jet mixing noise and the broadband shock-associated noise (BBSN) in single-stream, axis-symmetric jets within a wide range of nozzle operating conditions. Shock noise is emitted when supersonic jets exit a nozzle at imperfectly expanded conditions. A successful scaling of the BBSN allows for this noise component to be predicted in both convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles. Configurations considered in this study consisted of convergent and convergent- divergent nozzles. Velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise were evaluated as a function of observer angle and jet temperature. Similar intensity laws were developed for the broadband shock-associated noise in supersonic jets. A computer program called sJet was developed that provides a quick estimate of component noise in single-stream jets at a wide range of operating conditions. A number of features have been incorporated into the data bank and subsequent scaling in order to improve jet noise predictions. Measurements have been converted to a lossless format. Set points have been carefully selected to minimize the instability-related noise at small aft angles. Regression parameters have been scrutinized for error bounds at each angle. Screech-related amplification noise has been kept to a minimum to ensure that the velocity exponents for the jet mixing noise remain free of amplifications. A shock-noise-intensity scaling has been developed independent of the nozzle design point. The computer program provides detailed narrow-band spectral predictions for component noise (mixing noise and shock associated noise), as well as the total noise. Although the methodology is confined to single

  9. The Ultraviolet Spectral Morphology of a Sample of B Supergiants in the Small Magellanic Cloud (United States)

    McNeil, R. C.; Borchers, A. L.; Sonneborn, G.; Fahey, R. P.


    A study of the ultraviolet spectra of a sample of B supergiants in the Small Magellanic Cloud is being undertaken as a means of addressing some questions about the nature and evolution of massive stars. All spectra are new or archival low-dispersion SWP spectra (1200International Ultraviolet Explorer. As a first step in this study, the ultraviolet spectral morphology of approximately 50 program stars is being examined for consistency with their published spectral classifications. Analysis includes a tabulation of ultraviolet spectral features, evaluation of their variation with spectral type and luminosity class, and comparison with IUE spectral sequences of standard stars. The data analysis was performed at the IUE Data Analysis Center at Goddard Space Flight Center. Partial support of this work by NASA and Northern Kentucky University through the Joint Ventures (JOVE) program, and support of the Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics at GSFC, is gratefully acknowledged.

  10. Improving the representation of clouds, radiation, and precipitation using spectral nudging in the Weather Research and Forecasting model (United States)

    Spectral nudging – a scale-selective interior constraint technique – is commonly used in regional climate models to maintain consistency with large-scale forcing while permitting mesoscale features to develop in the downscaled simulations. Several studies have demonst...

  11. Flow-Regulated Growth of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) Nanotubes in Microfluidics. (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Chen, Xinye; Wang, Zihao; Custer, David; Wan, Jiandi


    Electrochemical anodization of titanium (Ti) in a static, bulk condition is used widely to fabricate self-organized TiO 2 nanotube arrays. Such bulk approaches, however, require extended anodization times to obtain long TiO 2 nanotubes and produce only vertically aligned nanotubes. To date, it remains challenging to develop effective strategies to grow long TiO 2 nanotubes in a short period of time, and to control the nanotube orientation. Here, it is shown that the anodic growth of TiO 2 nanotubes is significantly enhanced (≈16-20 times faster) under flow conditions in microfluidics. Flow not only controls the diameter, length, and crystal orientations of TiO 2 nanotubes, but also regulates the spatial distribution of nanotubes inside microfluidic devices. Strikingly, when a Ti thin film is deposited on silicon substrates and anodized in microfluidics, both vertically and horizontally aligned (relative to the bottom substrate) TiO 2 nanotubes can be produced. The results demonstrate previously unidentified roles of flow in the regulation of growth of TiO 2 nanotubes, and provide powerful approaches to effectively grow long, oriented TiO 2 nanotubes, and construct hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays on silicon-based materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A facile hydrothermal approach for construction of carbon coating on TiO2 nanoparticles


    Olurode, Kehinde; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiphing


    Herein a facile hydrothermal approach is used to construct carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles employing dextrose as the source of carbon. The procedure is operated at a low temperature of 200 °C. Fourier infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the successful coating of carbon on TiO2 nanoparticles. The phase composition of TiO2 and carbon coated TiO2 nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction and the surface morphology was analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The existe...

  13. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun


    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the

  14. Synthesis of Nd3+doped TiO2 nanoparticles and Its Optical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi S.


    Full Text Available Pure and Rare earth ion doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by Sol-gel method. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence emission spectra. From the UV-visible measurement, the absorption edge of Nd3+-TiO2 was shifted to a higher wavelength side with decreasing band gap. Photoluminescence emission studies reveal the energy transfer mechanism of Nd3+ doped TiO2 nanoparticles explain.

  15. The effects of nanostructures on the mechanical and tribological properties of TiO2 nanotubes (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoungchin; Park, Jeongwon


    TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization on Ti substrates with a diameter variation of 30–100 nm, and the structure of the nanotubes were studied using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed the structure changes from the anatase phase to the rutile phase of TiO2 at a diameter below 50 nm. The tribological behaviors of TiO2 nanotubes were investigated with different diameters. The effectiveness of the rutile phase and the diameter size enhanced the frictional performance of TiO2 nanotubes.

  16. Copper modified TiO2 catalysts: application to nitrobenzenes degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Shui


    Full Text Available Copper doped TiO2 by the method of sol-gel preparation was conducted to stimulate the TiO2 visible light response and enhance the performance of photocatalytic degradation. By XRD, SEM and EDS analysis, molar ratio of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 1.0% Cu doped TiO2 presented smaller grain sizes (20-50 nm than German P25 TiO2 (50-100 nm. Especially, 1.5% Cu doped TiO2 presented the highest and finest degree of crystallinity from XRD peak. Its reunion phenomenon was the weakest among all Cu doped TiO2. Combined with Cu doping structure, micro stress changes as well as the performance of the degradation of nitrobenzenes (NBs, the optimum mol ratio of Cu doped TiO2 was 1.5%. With 1.5% Cu doped TiO2 for 180 min UV light degradation of NBs, the removal efficiency was 60.02%, two times higher than that of Germany P25 TiO2. The reaction of NBs photocatalytic degradation by CuxTi(1-xO2 followed first order kinetics. Synthetically, SEM, ESD and performances of NBs degradation confirmed that the optimal formula of CuxTi(1-xO2 for degradation of NBs was Cu0.0183Ti0.9817O2.

  17. A comparative study of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in premixed and diffusion flames (United States)

    Ma, Hsiao-Kang; Yang, Hsiung-An


    Previous studies have been shown that synthesis of titania (TiO2) crystalline phase purity could be effectively controlled by the oxygen concentration through titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) via premixed flame from a Bunsen burner. In this study, a modified Hencken burner was used to synthesize smaller TiO2 nanoparticles via short diffusion flames. The frequency of collisions among particles would decrease and reduce TiO2 nanoparticle size in a short diffusion flame height. The crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. The characteristic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized from a modified Hencken burner were compared with the results from a Bunsen burner and commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25). The results showed that the average particle size of 6.63 nm from BET method was produced by a modified Hencken burner which was smaller than the TiO2 in a Bunsen burner and commercial TiO2. Moreover, the rutile content of TiO2 nanoparticles increased as the particle collecting height increased. Also, the size of TiO2 nanoparticles was highly dependent on the TTIP loading and the collecting height in the flame.

  18. TiO2 micro-devices fabricated by laser direct writing (United States)

    Wang, Yongsheng; Miao, Junjie; Tian, Ye; Guo, Chuanfei; Zhang, Jianming; Ren, Tianling; Liu, Qian


    Constructing micro/nanostructures based on TiO2 has attracted increasing attention due to the excellent properties of TiO2. In this study, we report a simple method to directly fabricate TiO2 micro-devices, including Fresnel lens, gear structures and suspended beams only by laser direct writing and selective-etching processing. This route shows great potential in fabricating TiO2 structures for micro-electro-mechanical systems, diffractive optical elements and bio-applications, owing to its maskless process, low cost, and flexible dry/wet alternative etching treatment.

  19. Calibrating spectral images using penalized likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Glasbey, C.


    A new method is presented for automatic correction of distortions and for spectral calibration (which band corresponds to which wavelength) of spectral images recorded by means of a spectrograph. The method consists of recording a bar-like pattern with an illumination source with spectral bands

  20. Spectral properties of generalized eigenparameter dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jost function, spectrum, the spectral singularities, and the properties of the principal vectors corresponding to the spectral singularities of L, if. ∞Σn=1 n(∣1 - an∣ + ∣bnl) < ∞. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 34L05, 34L40, 39A70, 47A10, 47A75. Key words: Discrete equations, eigenparameter, spectral analysis, ...

  1. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin layers for the processing of memristive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porro, Samuele; Conti, Daniele; Guastella, Salvatore; Ricciardi, Carlo; Jasmin, Alladin; Pirri, Candido F.; Bejtka, Katarzyna; Perrone, Denis; Chiolerio, Alessandro


    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) represents one of the most fundamental techniques capable of satisfying the strict technological requirements imposed by the rapidly evolving electronic components industry. The actual scaling trend is rapidly leading to the fabrication of nanoscaled devices able to overcome limits of the present microelectronic technology, of which the memristor is one of the principal candidates. Since their development in 2008, TiO 2 thin film memristors have been identified as the future technology for resistive random access memories because of their numerous advantages in producing dense, low power-consuming, three-dimensional memory stacks. The typical features of ALD, such as self-limiting and conformal deposition without line-of-sight requirements, are strong assets for fabricating these nanosized devices. This work focuses on the realization of memristors based on low-temperature ALD TiO 2 thin films. In this process, the oxide layer was directly grown on a polymeric photoresist, thus simplifying the fabrication procedure with a direct liftoff patterning instead of a complex dry etching process. The TiO 2 thin films deposited in a temperature range of 120–230 °C were characterized via Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical current–voltage measurements taken in voltage sweep mode were employed to confirm the existence of resistive switching behaviors typical of memristors. These measurements showed that these low-temperature devices exhibit an ON/OFF ratio comparable to that of a high-temperature memristor, thus exhibiting similar performances with respect to memory applications

  2. Synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 (anatase) and TiO2(B) in ionic liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mansfeldová, Věra; Lásková, Barbora; Krýsová, Hana; Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav


    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 85-90 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA MŠk 7E09117 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) NMP-229036 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TiO2(B) * ionic liquid * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  3. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Geopolymers for Nitric Oxide Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Strini


    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental overview for the development of photocatalytic materials based on geopolymer binders as catalyst support matrices. Particularly, geopolymer matrices obtained from different solid precursors (fly ash and metakaolin, composite systems (siloxane-hybrid, foamed hybrid, and curing temperatures (room temperature and 60 °C were investigated for the same photocatalyst content (i.e., 3% TiO2 by weight of paste. The geopolymer matrices were previously designed for different applications, ranging from insulating (foam to structural materials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated as NO degradation in air, and the results were compared with an ordinary Portland cement reference. The studied matrices demonstrated highly variable photocatalytic performance depending on both matrix constituents and the curing temperature, with promising activity revealed by the geopolymers based on fly ash and metakaolin. Furthermore, microstructural features and titania dispersion in the matrices were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS analyses. Particularly, EDS analyses of sample sections indicated segregation effects of titania in the surface layer, with consequent enhancement or depletion of the catalyst concentration in the active sample region, suggesting non-negligible transport phenomena during the curing process. The described results demonstrated that geopolymer binders can be interesting catalyst support matrices for the development of photocatalytic materials and indicated a large potential for the exploitation of their peculiar features.

  4. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Geopolymers for Nitric Oxide Degradation (United States)

    Strini, Alberto; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Messina, Francesco; Schiavi, Luca; Corsaro, Davide; Cioffi, Raffaele


    This study presents an experimental overview for the development of photocatalytic materials based on geopolymer binders as catalyst support matrices. Particularly, geopolymer matrices obtained from different solid precursors (fly ash and metakaolin), composite systems (siloxane-hybrid, foamed hybrid), and curing temperatures (room temperature and 60 °C) were investigated for the same photocatalyst content (i.e., 3% TiO2 by weight of paste). The geopolymer matrices were previously designed for different applications, ranging from insulating (foam) to structural materials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated as NO degradation in air, and the results were compared with an ordinary Portland cement reference. The studied matrices demonstrated highly variable photocatalytic performance depending on both matrix constituents and the curing temperature, with promising activity revealed by the geopolymers based on fly ash and metakaolin. Furthermore, microstructural features and titania dispersion in the matrices were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analyses. Particularly, EDS analyses of sample sections indicated segregation effects of titania in the surface layer, with consequent enhancement or depletion of the catalyst concentration in the active sample region, suggesting non-negligible transport phenomena during the curing process. The described results demonstrated that geopolymer binders can be interesting catalyst support matrices for the development of photocatalytic materials and indicated a large potential for the exploitation of their peculiar features. PMID:28773634

  5. Spectral characteristics preserving image fusion based on Fourier domain filtering (United States)

    Ehlers, Manfred


    Data fusion methods are usually classified into three levels: pixel level (ikonic), feature level (symbolic) and knowledge or decision level. Here, we will focus on the development of ikonic techniques for image fusion. Image transforms such as the Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) or Principal Component (PC) transform are widely used to fuse panchromatic images of high spatial resolution with multispectral images of lower resolution. These techniques create multispectral images of higher spatial resolution but usually at the cost that these transforms do not preserve the original color or spectral characteristics of the input image data. In this study, a new method for image fusion will be presented that is based on filtering in the Fourier domain. This method preserves the spectral characteristics of the lower resolution mul-tispectral images. Examples are presented for SPOT and Ikonos panchromatic images fused with Landsat TM and Iko-nos multispectral data. Comparison with existing fusion techniques such as IHS, PC or Brovey transform prove the su-periority of the new method. While in principle based on the IHS transform (which usually only works for three bands), the method is extended to any arbitrary number of spectral bands. Using this approach, this method can be applied to sharpen hyperspectral images without changing their spectral behavior.

  6. Advances in Spectral-Spatial Classification of Hyperspectral Images (United States)

    Fauvel, Mathieu; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Tilton, James C.


    Recent advances in spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images are presented in this paper. Several techniques are investigated for combining both spatial and spectral information. Spatial information is extracted at the object (set of pixels) level rather than at the conventional pixel level. Mathematical morphology is first used to derive the morphological profile of the image, which includes characteristics about the size, orientation, and contrast of the spatial structures present in the image. Then, the morphological neighborhood is defined and used to derive additional features for classification. Classification is performed with support vector machines (SVMs) using the available spectral information and the extracted spatial information. Spatial postprocessing is next investigated to build more homogeneous and spatially consistent thematic maps. To that end, three presegmentation techniques are applied to define regions that are used to regularize the preliminary pixel-wise thematic map. Finally, a multiple-classifier (MC) system is defined to produce relevant markers that are exploited to segment the hyperspectral image with the minimum spanning forest algorithm. Experimental results conducted on three real hyperspectral images with different spatial and spectral resolutions and corresponding to various contexts are presented. They highlight the importance of spectral–spatial strategies for the accurate classification of hyperspectral images and validate the proposed methods.

  7. Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation (United States)

    Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.


    Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.

  8. Miniaturized spectral imaging for environment surveillance based on UAV platform (United States)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Yunhao; Wang, Tianhe; Zhao, Anna; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong


    Spectral imaging is a technique which enables the ability of detecting the target by un-contact measurement with both imaging and spectral feature in every pixel inside the image. In this way, spectral imaging device is able to collect more detailed information than traditional RGB camera and hence classify the objects into a more precise category. Environment surveillance is a vital step in the environment protection in the terms of advance warning, pollution area measurement, pollution identification, emergency response and response effectiveness evaluation. In this case, a measurement with a large surveillance area and the capacity of recognizing the target object will be preferred in this application especially for the country with large land area such as China. In this paper, a solution based on the miniaturized spectral imaging system is proposed and the practical experiment has been performed. The result shows that the proposed system is able to be installed in a small UAV and work in an altitude up to 1.7 km.

  9. Relative spectral absorption of solar radiation by water vapor and cloud droplets (United States)

    Davies, R.; Ridgway, W. L.


    A moderate (20/cm) spectral resolution model which accounts for both the highly variable spectral transmission of solar radiation through water vapor within and above cloud, as well as the more slowly varying features of absorption and anisotropic multiple scattering by the cloud droplets, is presented. Results from this model as applied to the case of a typical 1 km thick stratus cloud in a standard atmosphere, with cloud top altitude of 2 km and overhead sun, are discussed, showing the relative importance of water vapor above the cloud, water vapor within the cloud, and cloud droplets on the spectral absorption of solar radiation.

  10. Spectrally resolved eclipse maps of the accretion disk in UX Ursae Majoris (United States)

    Rutten, Rene G. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Horne, Keith; Kuulkers, E.; Van Paradijs, J.


    An effort is made to observationally constrain accretion disks on the basis of light curves from the eclipsing cataclysmic variable UX Ursae Majoris, reconstructing the spectral energy distribution across the face of an accretion disk. The spectral resolution obtained suffices to reveal not only the radial dependence of absorption and emission line features within the disk, but also the spectral details of the bright spot that is formed where the accretion stream from the secondary star collides with the disk. The importance of such constraints for theoretical models is noted.

  11. Surface characteristics and electronic structure of photocatalytic reactions on TiO II and doped TiO II nanoparticles (United States)

    Österlund, L.; Mattsson, A.


    A molecular approach to understand the photocatalytic degradation of small organic molecules adsorbed from the gas phase on anatase, rutile and doped TiO II nanoparticles is presented. Using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry the rate determining steps for the photocatalytic degradation of formic acid, acetone and propane are unraveled. Key intermediates are identified and correlated to structural properties of the TiO II nanoparticles. Specifically, stable bridging bidentate carboxylate (R-CO II) and (bi)carbonate species forms preferentially on rutile particles, and are proposed to inhibit the total photodegradation efficiency. In particular, the concentration of R-CO II is found to decrease with increasing size of the anatase particles, and may at least partly explain why Degussa P25 is a good photocatalyst. Means to avoid R-CO II site-blocking is discussed. Improved solar light efficiencies are difficulty to achieve in cation doped TiO II despite higher visible light absorption and stronger adsorbate-surface interactions.

  12. Spectral multitude and spectral dynamics reflect changing conjugation length in single molecules of oligophenylenevinylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki


    Single-molecule study of phenylenevinylene oligomers revealed distinct spectral forms due to different conjugation lengths which are determined by torsional defects. Large spectral jumps between different spectral forms were ascribed to torsional flips of a single phenylene ring. These spectral changes reflect the dynamic nature of electron delocalization in oligophenylenevinylenes and enable estimation of the phenylene torsional barriers. © 2012 The Owner Societies.

  13. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Hema A


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  14. Evaluation of EEG Features in Decoding Individual Finger Movements from One Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Xiao


    Full Text Available With the advancements in modern signal processing techniques, the field of brain-computer interface (BCI is progressing fast towards noninvasiveness. One challenge still impeding these developments is the limited number of features, especially movement-related features, available to generate control signals for noninvasive BCIs. A few recent studies investigated several movement-related features, such as spectral features in electrocorticography (ECoG data obtained through a spectral principal component analysis (PCA and direct use of EEG temporal data, and demonstrated the decoding of individual fingers. The present paper evaluated multiple movement-related features under the same task, that is, discriminating individual fingers from one hand using noninvasive EEG. The present results demonstrate the existence of a broadband feature in EEG to discriminate individual fingers, which has only been identified previously in ECoG. It further shows that multiple spectral features obtained from the spectral PCA yield an average decoding accuracy of 45.2%, which is significantly higher than the guess level (P<0.05 and other features investigated (P<0.05, including EEG spectral power changes in alpha and beta bands and EEG temporal data. The decoding of individual fingers using noninvasive EEG is promising to improve number of features for control, which can facilitate the development of noninvasive BCI applications with rich complexity.

  15. Hyperspectral Features of Oil-Polluted Sea Ice and the Response to the Contamination Area Fraction. (United States)

    Liu, Bingxin; Li, Ying; Liu, Chengyu; Xie, Feng; Muller, Jan-Peter


    Researchers have studied oil spills in open waters using remote sensors, but few have focused on extracting reflectance features of oil pollution on sea ice. An experiment was conducted on natural sea ice in Bohai Bay, China, to obtain the spectral reflectance of oil-contaminated sea ice. The spectral absorption index (SAI), spectral peak height (SPH), and wavelet detail coefficient (DWT d5) were calculated using stepwise multiple linear regression. The reflectances of some false targets were measured and analysed. The simulated false targets were sediment, iron ore fines, coal dust, and the melt pool. The measured reflectances were resampled using five common sensors (GF-2, Landsat8-OLI, Sentinel3-OLCI, MODIS, and AVIRIS). Some significant spectral features could discriminate between oil-polluted and clean sea ice. The indices correlated well with the oil area fractions. All of the adjusted R ² values exceeded 0.9. The SPH model1, based on spectral features at 507-670 and 1627-1746 nm, displayed the best fitting. The resampled data indicated that these multi-spectral and hyper-spectral sensors could be used to detect crude oil on the sea ice if the effect of noise and spatial resolution are neglected. The spectral features and their identified changes may provide reference on sensor design and band selection.

  16. [Spectral analysis in nanometer material science]. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Sun, Shi-gang


    Spectral analysis is an important means in studies of nanometer scale systems, and is essential for deep understanding the structure and properties of nanometer materials. This paper reviews the recent progresses made in studies of nanometer materials using spectral analysis methods such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, positron annihilation and photoacoustic spectroscopy. The principle, characteristics and applications of most frequently employed spectral methods are introduced briefly and illustrated with typical examples. Future perspectives of spectral analysis in nanometer field are discussed. New directions of establishing spectral analysis methods at nanometer scale resolution and developing new spectroscopy technology in nanometer material studies are also emphasized.

  17. Semiclassical Theory of Spectral Rigidity (United States)

    Berry, M. V.


    The spectral rigidity Δ(L) of a set of quantal energy levels is the mean square deviation of the spectral staircase from the straight line that best fits it over a range of L mean level spacings. In the semiclassical limit (hslash-> 0), formulae are obtained giving Δ(L) as a sum over classical periodic orbits. When L ~= Lmax, where Lmax ~ hslash-(N-1) for a system of N freedoms, Δ(L) is shown to display the following universal behaviour as a result of properties of very long classical orbits: if the system is classically integrable (all periodic orbits filling tori), Δ(L) = 1/15L (as in an uncorrelated (Poisson) eigenvalue sequence); if the system is classically chaotic (all periodic orbits isolated and unstable) and has no symmetry, Δ(L) = ln L/2π^2 + D if 1 ~= L ~= Lmax (as in the gaussian unitary ensemble of random-matrix theory); if the system is chaotic and has time-reversal symmetry, Δ(L) = ln L/π^2 + E if 1 ~= L ~= Lmax (as in the gaussian orthogonal ensemble). When L >> Lmax, Δ(L) saturates non-universally at a value, determined by short classical orbits, of order hslash-(N-1) for integrable systems and ln (hslash-1) for chaotic systems. These results are obtained by using the periodic-orbit expansion for the spectral density, together with classical sum rules for the intensities of long orbits and a semiclassical sum rule restricting the manner in which their contributions interfere. For two examples Δ(L) is studied in detail: the rectangular billiard (integrable), and the Riemann zeta function (assuming its zeros to be the eigenvalues of an unknown quantum system whose unknown classical limit is chaotic).

  18. Effect of TiO2 additive on the sintering of nuclear fuel (U,Pu)O2. Contribution of surface diffusion to plutonium distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremier, Stephane


    This thesis has as objective the study of the effect of TiO 2 additive on the development of MOX fuel microstructure during sintering in reducing atmosphere. To understand better the mechanisms governing the evolution of microstructure, the behavior of UO 2 in the presence of TiO 2 has been established and the influence of the PuO 2 distribution in the initial state of the material was taken into account. The chapter II is devoted to the bibliographic study of the transport mechanisms responsible of the sintering in the ceramics UO 2 and UO 2 -PuO 2 . The results concerning the influence of TiO 2 upon density, grain size and homogenization are discussed. The following chapter describes the characteristics of initial powder, the procedures and installations of heat treatment, as well as the techniques of characterization used. Then the sintering features of UO 2 alone or in the presence of TiO 2 are presented. It appears that in the last case the surface diffusion becomes sufficient fast so that the distribution of the additive occurs naturally during a slow temperature increase. The fifth chapter treats the effect of UO 2 -PuO 2 preparation upon the initial microstructure of the materials and the role played by the PuO 2 grains in sintering. The potentiality of surface diffusion as a means of PuO 2 spreading in the UO 2 is evaluated and correlated with the reduced capacity of sintering the UO 2 ceramics containing PuO 2 . The last chapter deals with the influence of TiO 2 on the development of microstructure in UO 2 -PuO 2 ceramics. While at temperatures below 1500 deg.C the TiO 2 additive affects the surface diffusion and so the plutonium distribution, at values T≥ 1600 deg.C the additive gives rise to a dissolution-reprecipitation process taking place in a intergranular liquid phase appeared between UO 2 , PuO 2 and titanium oxide. Thus the objective is the optimizing the temperature conditions, the oxygen potential as sintering gas and the additive

  19. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A


    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  20. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance by Surface Modification of TiO2 Nanorods with Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) (United States)

    Fadillah, G.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.


    Modification of TiO2 nanorods through the addition of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) for enhancement of efficiency of solar cells has been studied. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorods was conducted through two major stages of mechanochemical and hydrothermal refluxing at a temperature of 120 °C for 24 hours on various concentration of NaOH. Material characterizations were performed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourrier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Mechanochemical treatment by ball milling showed that the TiO2 phase changed from anatase into brookite and it decreased of TiO2 crystals size. Morphology transformation of TiO2 to form TiO2 nanorods was showed by rod-shaped from TEM micrographs which are characteristic of the nanorods. FTIR spectra confirmed that amine group of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) were successfully grafted onto the TiO2 nanorods surface. Sensitization of TiO2 used Ruthenium complexes N3 (N3=cis-bis(isothiocyanato) bis(2,2‧-bipyridyl-4,4‧-dicarboxylato ruthenium (II)) were able to increase the uptake of TiO2 material to the visible region due to the absorption of visible light by N3 complex-APTMS. Sensitized TiO2 nanorods were prepared for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSCs) photoanode. The maximum results of the DSSCs (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell) performance was showed that TiO2 material modified by 10 % (v/v) APTMS capable increase efficiency of DSSCs.

  1. Feature extraction applied to agricultural crops as seen by LANDSAT (United States)

    Kauth, R. J.; Lambeck, P. F.; Richardson, W.; Thomas, G. S.; Pentland, A. P. (Principal Investigator)


    The physical interpretation of the spectral-temporal structure of LANDSAT data can be conveniently described in terms of a graphic descriptive model called the Tassled Cap. This model has been a source of development not only in crop-related feature extraction, but also for data screening and for haze effects correction. Following its qualitative description and an indication of its applications, the model is used to analyze several feature extraction algorithms.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of fluorine doped TiO2 nanoflakes synthesized using solid state reaction method. (United States)

    Umadevi, M; Parimaladevi, R; Sangari, M


    Fluorine doped TiO2 were synthesized by solid state reaction method. Optical and structural properties of fluorine doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The prepared fluorine doped TiO2 was smaller in size with respect to pure TiO2 and it is tetragonal in crystalline structure. Nanoflakes like structure of pure and fluorine doped TiO2 was confirmed from SEM image. Fluorine doped TiO2 shows smaller band gap, high strain and dislocation density when compared to pure TiO2. It also has higher photocatalytic activity with respect to pure TiO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectral fluctuations and zeta functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, N.L.; Schmit, C.; Voros, A.


    The study theoretically and numerically the role of the fluctuations of eigenvalue spectra {μ/sub n} in a particular analytical continuation process applied to the (generalized) zeta function Z(s) = Σ/sub n/μ/sub n//sup -s/ for s large and positive. A particularly interesting example is the spectrum of the Laplacian on a triangular domain which tessellates a compact surface of constant negative curvature (of genus two). The authors indeed find that the fluctuations restrict the abscissa of convergence, and also affect the rate of convergence. This then initiates a new approach to the exploration of spectral fluctuations through the convergence of analytical continuation processes

  4. M3 spectral analysis of lunar swirls and the link between optical maturation and surface hydroxyl formation at magnetic anomalies (United States)

    Kramer, G.Y.; Besse, S.; Dhingra, D.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Clark, Roger N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J. W.; Taylor, L.A.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; McCord, T.B.


    We examined the lunar swirls using data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). The improved spectral and spatial resolution of M3 over previous spectral imaging data facilitates distinction of subtle spectral differences, and provides new information about the nature of these enigmatic features. We characterized spectral features of the swirls, interswirl regions (dark lanes), and surrounding terrain for each of three focus regions: Reiner Gamma, Gerasimovich, and Mare Ingenii. We used Principle Component Analysis to identify spectrally distinct surfaces at each focus region, and characterize the spectral features that distinguish them. We compared spectra from small, recent impact craters with the mature soils into which they penetrated to examine differences in maturation trends on- and off-swirl. Fresh, on-swirl crater spectra are higher albedo, exhibit a wider range in albedos and have well-preserved mafic absorption features compared with fresh off-swirl craters. Albedoand mafic absorptions are still evident in undisturbed, on-swirl surface soils, suggesting the maturation process is retarded. The spectral continuum is more concave compared with off-swirl spectra; a result of the limited spectral reddening being mostly constrained to wavelengths less than ∼1500 nm. Off-swirl spectra show very little reddening or change in continuum shape across the entire M3 spectral range. Off-swirl spectra are dark, have attenuated absorption features, and the narrow range in off-swirl albedos suggests off-swirl regions mature rapidly. Spectral parameter maps depicting the relative OH surface abundance for each of our three swirl focus regions were created using the depth of the hydroxyl absorption feature at 2.82 μm. For each of the studied regions, the 2.82 μm absorption feature is significantly weaker on-swirl than off-swirl, indicating the swirls are depleted in OH relative to their surroundings. The spectral characteristics of the swirls and adjacent terrains

  5. [Road Extraction in Remote Sensing Images Based on Spectral and Edge Analysis]. (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-zhi; Luo, Li-qun; Guo, Zhou; Yue, Jun; Yu, Xue-ying; Liu, Hui; Wei, Jing


    Roads are typically man-made objects in urban areas. Road extraction from high-resolution images has important applications for urban planning and transportation development. However, due to the confusion of spectral characteristic, it is difficult to distinguish roads from other objects by merely using traditional classification methods that mainly depend on spectral information. Edge is an important feature for the identification of linear objects (e. g. , roads). The distribution patterns of edges vary greatly among different objects. It is crucial to merge edge statistical information into spectral ones. In this study, a new method that combines spectral information and edge statistical features has been proposed. First, edge detection is conducted by using self-adaptive mean-shift algorithm on the panchromatic band, which can greatly reduce pseudo-edges and noise effects. Then, edge statistical features are obtained from the edge statistical model, which measures the length and angle distribution of edges. Finally, by integrating the spectral and edge statistical features, SVM algorithm is used to classify the image and roads are ultimately extracted. A series of experiments are conducted and the results show that the overall accuracy of proposed method is 93% comparing with only 78% overall accuracy of the traditional. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient and valuable for road extraction, especially on high-resolution images.

  6. Sol-gel preparation of self-cleaning SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer antireflective coating for solar glass (United States)

    Lin, Wensheng; Zheng, Jiaxian; Yan, Lianghong; Zhang, Xinxiang


    Self-cleaning SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer antireflective (AR) coating is prepared by sol-gel process. SiO2 sol is prepared by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and ammonia as catalyst, while TiO2 sol was prepared by using tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT) as precursor and hydrochloric acid as catalyst. The effect of TiO2 content on refractive index, abrasion-resistance and photo-catalytic activity of SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films or powders is systematically investigated. It is found that the refractive index of SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films increases gradually from 1.18 to 1.53 as the weight ratio of TiO2 to SiO2 increased from 0 to 1.0. The SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin film and powder possesses good abrasion-resistance and photo-catalytic activity, respectively, as the weight ratio of TiO2 to SiO2 is 0.4. The degradation degree of Rhodamine B by SiO2-TiO2 hybrid powder is 88.3%. Finally, SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer AR coating with high transmittance, abrasion-resistance and self-cleaning property is realized.

  7. Constructing superhydrophobic WO3@TiO2 nanoflake surface beyond amorphous alloy against electrochemical corrosion on iron steel (United States)

    Yu, S. Q.; Ling, Y. H.; Wang, R. G.; Zhang, J.; Qin, F.; Zhang, Z. J.


    To eliminate harmful localized corrosion, a new approach by constructing superhydrophobic WO3@TiO2 hierarchical nanoflake surface beyond FeW amorphous alloy formed on stainless steel was proposed. Facile dealloying and liquid deposition was employed at low temperature to form a nanostructured layer composing inner WO3 nanoflakes coated with TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) layer. After further deposition of PFDS on nanoflakes, the contact angle reached 162° while the corrosion potential showed a negative shift of 230 mV under illumination, resulting in high corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The tradeoff between superhydrophobic surface and photo-electro response was investigated. It was found that this surface feature makes 316 SS be immune to localized corrosion and a pronounced photo-induced process of electron storage/release as well as the stability of the functional layer were detected with or without illumination, and the mechanism behind this may be related to the increase of surface potential due to water repellence and the delayed cathodic protection of semiconducting coating derived mainly from the valence state changes of WO3. This study demonstrates a simple and low-cost electrochemical approach for protection of steel and novel means to produce superhydrophobic surface and cathodic protection with controllable electron storage/release on engineering scale.

  8. Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of A Nanosized Sulfated TiO2 Filler and of Nanocomposite Nafion Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Allodi


    Full Text Available A large number of nano-sized oxides have been studied in the literature as fillers for polymeric membranes, such as Nafion®. Superacidic sulfated oxides have been proposed and characterized. Once incorporated into polymer matrices, their beneficial effect on peculiar membrane properties has been demonstrated. The alteration of physical-chemical properties of composite membranes has roots in the intermolecular interaction between the inorganic filler surface groups and the polymer chains. In the attempt to tackle this fundamental issue, here we discuss, by a multi-technique approach, the properties of a nanosized sulfated titania material as a candidate filler for Nafion membranes. The results of a systematic study carried out by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, Raman and infrared spectroscopies are presented and discussed to get novel insights about the structural features, molecular properties, and morphological characteristics of sulphated TiO2 nanopowders and composite Nafion membranes containing different amount of sulfated TiO2 nanoparticles (2%, 5%, 7% w/w.

  9. Fabrication of high refractive index TiO2 films using electron beam evaporator for all dielectric metasurfaces (United States)

    Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Salman Ahmed, Qazi; Akram, Mahreen; Abbas, Naseem; Khalid, Ayesha; Khalil, Arslan; Luqman Khalid, Muhammad; Mudassar Mehar, Muhammad; Riaz, Kashif; Qasim Mehmood, Muhammad


    Flat optics suffer meager efficiency due to plasmonic losses at visible wavelengths. This issue has been addressed in this study by the substitution of dielectric materials. For this purpose, optical parameters (real and imaginary parts of refractive index) and surface roughness of TiO2 films were optimized, which are pre-requisite for the development of highly efficient dielectric metasurface devices. Electron beam evaporator was employed to deposit various ultrathin TiO2 films with subwavelength thickness. These deposited films were further processed via annealing at various temperatures to achieve the appropriate optical parameters. SEM analysis confirmed the absence of craters, cracks and rugged type features, whereas, AFM analysis revealed the smoothness of deposited films with least roughness. High refractive index above 2.2 with minimum absorption coefficient in the visible region was studied through ellipsometry analysis. FTIR spectroscopy showed transmission over 90% from the deposited thin film on glass substrate. The results of this study would have significant implications for material processing at nanoscale and dielectric metasurface fabrication which would in turn eliminate the requirement of costly and sophisticated setups for such fabrications.

  10. Electronic structure and optical spectra of catechol on TiO2 nanoparticles from real time TD-DFT simulations. (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Armas, R; San-Miguel, M A; Oviedo, J; Márquez, A; Sanz, J F


    The electronic structure and the optical response of free catechol, [Ti(cat)(3)](2-) complex, and catechol bound to TiO(2) nanoclusters have been analysed using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) performing calculations both in real time and frequency domains. Both approaches lead to similar results providing the basis sets and functionals are similar. For all cases, the simulated spectra agree well with the experimental ones. For the adsorption systems, the spectra show a band at 4.7 eV associated to intramolecular catechol π→π* transitions, and low energy bands corresponding to transitions from catechol to the cluster with a tail that is red-shifted when the coupling between the dye and the cluster is more effective. Thus, dissociative adsorption modes provide longer tails than the molecular mode. Although the bidentate complex is more stable than the monodentate, the energy difference between both is smaller when the cluster size increases. Small cluster models reproduce the main features of the optical response, however, the (TiO(2))(15) cluster constitutes the minimal size to provide a complete picture. In this case, the conventional TD-DFT (frequency domain) calculations are highly demanding computationally, while real time TD-DFT is more efficient and the calculations become affordable.

  11. Synergetic Enhancement of the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 with Visible Light by Sensitization Using a Novel Push-Pull Zinc Phthalocyanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luna-Flores


    Full Text Available A new one-pot synthesis of a novel A3B-type asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine (AZnPc was developed. The phthalocyanine complex was characterized unambiguously and used to prepare a TiO2 hybrid photocatalyst to enhance its photocatalytic activity in the visible range. Different compositions of the phthalocyanine dye were tested in order to find the optimum amount of sensitizer to get the highest activity during the photocatalytic tests. The hybrid photocatalyst was characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (DRS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and its photocatalytic activity was compared with that of the individual components considering the effects of sensitization on their efficiency to degrade Rhodamine B as a model reaction. A synergic improvement of the photocatalytic activity for the hybrid system was explained in terms of an improved electron injection from the photo-activated phthalocyanine to the TiO2. Considering the structural features of the phthalocyanine sensitizer and their effect on aggregation, some mechanistic aspects of its binding to TiO2 are suggested to account for the photocatalytic activity enhancement. Finally, the inhibitory effect on the sprouting of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica was evaluated in order to test the toxicity of the water effluent obtained after the photodegradation process. According to our growth inhibition assays, it was found that the Rh-B degradation by-products do not lead to an acute toxicity.

  12. Multilayer Photonic Crystal for Spectral Narrowing of Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfang LIU


    Full Text Available Multilayer colloidal crystal has been prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition of silica microspheres on a glass slide. Each layer is a slab consisting of a fcc close-packed colloidal arrays. By properly choosing the sizes of spheres, the whole spectral feature of multilayer colloidal crystal can be tuned. Here, we engineered a multilayer superlattice structure with an effective passband between two stop bands. This gives a strong narrowing effect on emission spectrum. With the stop bands at the shortwave and longwave edges of emission spectrum, the passband in the central wavelength region can be regarded as a strong decrease of suppression effect and enhancement of a narrow wavelength region of emission. The spectral narrowing modification effect of suitably engineered colloidal crystals shows up their importance in potential application as optical filters and lasing devices.DOI:

  13. Topological vertex, string amplitudes and spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, M.E.X.; Rosa, T.O. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n, CEP 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Luna, R.M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina, Parana (Brazil)


    We discuss the homological aspects of the connection between quantum string generating function and the formal power series associated to the dimensions of chains and homologies of suitable Lie algebras. Our analysis can be considered as a new straightforward application of the machinery of modular forms and spectral functions (with values in the congruence subgroup of SL(2,Z)) to the partition functions of Lagrangian branes, refined vertex and open string partition functions, represented by means of formal power series that encode Lie algebra properties. The common feature in our examples lies in the modular properties of the characters of certain representations of the pertinent affine Lie algebras and in the role of Selberg-type spectral functions of a hyperbolic three-geometry associated with q-series in the computation of the string amplitudes. (orig.)

  14. Automated computation of autonomous spectral submanifolds for nonlinear modal analysis (United States)

    Ponsioen, Sten; Pedergnana, Tiemo; Haller, George


    We discuss an automated computational methodology for computing two-dimensional spectral submanifolds (SSMs) in autonomous nonlinear mechanical systems of arbitrary degrees of freedom. In our algorithm, SSMs, the smoothest nonlinear continuations of modal subspaces of the linearized system, are constructed up to arbitrary orders of accuracy, using the parameterization method. An advantage of this approach is that the construction of the SSMs does not break down when the SSM folds over its underlying spectral subspace. A further advantage is an automated a posteriori error estimation feature that enables a systematic increase in the orders of the SSM computation until the required accuracy is reached. We find that the present algorithm provides a major speed-up, relative to numerical continuation methods, in the computation of backbone curves, especially in higher-dimensional problems. We illustrate the accuracy and speed of the automated SSM algorithm on lower- and higher-dimensional mechanical systems.

  15. Spectral theory of non-commutative harmonic oscillators an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Parmeggiani, Alberto


    This volume describes the spectral theory of the Weyl quantization of systems of polynomials in phase-space variables, modelled after the harmonic oscillator. The main technique used is pseudodifferential calculus, including global and semiclassical variants. The main results concern the meromorphic continuation of the spectral zeta function associated with the spectrum, and the localization (and the multiplicity) of the eigenvalues of such systems, described in terms of “classical” invariants (such as the periods of the periodic trajectories of the bicharacteristic flow associated with the eiganvalues of the symbol). The book utilizes techniques that are very powerful and flexible and presents an approach that could also be used for a variety of other problems. It also features expositions on different results throughout the literature.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Rasia, E., E-mail: [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico of Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34121 Trieste (Italy)


    The Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multi-scale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel-weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm performance has been tested against mock observations of galaxy clusters obtained by simulating the Planck High Frequency Instrument and by pointing at a few characteristic positions in the sky. These tests suggest that Planck should easily allow us to detect filaments in the cluster peripheries and detect large-scale shocks in colliding galaxy clusters that feature favorable geometry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Han


    Full Text Available Current hyperspectral remote sensing imagery spatial-spectral classification methods mainly consider concatenating the spectral information vectors and spatial information vectors together. However, the combined spatial-spectral information vectors may cause information loss and concatenation deficiency for the classification task. To efficiently represent the spatial-spectral feature information around the central pixel within a neighbourhood window, the unsupervised convolutional sparse auto-encoder (UCSAE with window-in-window selection strategy is proposed in this paper. Window-in-window selection strategy selects the sub-window spatial-spectral information for the spatial-spectral feature learning and extraction with the sparse auto-encoder (SAE. Convolution mechanism is applied after the SAE feature extraction stage with the SAE features upon the larger outer window. The UCSAE algorithm was validated by two common hyperspectral imagery (HSI datasets – Pavia University dataset and the Kennedy Space Centre (KSC dataset, which shows an improvement over the traditional hyperspectral spatial-spectral classification methods.

  18. Titan's Ammonia Feature (United States)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.


    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  19. Spectral dimensionality reduction based on intergrated bispectrum phase for hyperspectral image analysis (United States)

    Saipullah, Khairul Muzzammil; Kim, Deok-Hwan


    In this paper, we propose a method to reduce spectral dimension based on the phase of integrated bispectrum. Because of the excellent and robust information extracted from the bispectrum, the proposed method can achieve high spectral classification accuracy even with low dimensional feature. The classification accuracy of bispectrum with one dimensional feature is 98.8%, whereas those of principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) are 41.2% and 63.9%, respectively. The unsupervised segmentation accuracy of bispectrum is also 20% and 40% greater than those of PCA and ICA, respectively.

  20. Electrospun polystyrene fibres on TiO2 nanostructured film to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    layer on SS substrates. This protective bilayer is fabricated from a dip-coated TiO2 layer and an electrospun polystyrene (PS) microfibres. Contact angle (CA) measurements indicate that the produced bilayer has superhydrophobic properties (CA ∼ 148. ◦). 2. Experimental details. 2.1 Synthesis and coating of TiO2 colloidal ...