WorldWideScience

Sample records for timing geographical location

  1. Geographic Location of a Computer Node Examining a Time-to-Location Algorithm and Multiple Autonomous System Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorgaard, Duane

    2004-01-01

    .... A time-to-location algorithm can successfully resolve a geographic location of a computer node using only latency information from known sites and mathematically calculating the Euclidean distance...

  2. Geographic Location of a Computer Node Examining a Time-to-Location Algorithm and Multiple Autonomous System Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorgaard, Duane

    2004-01-01

    To determine the location of a computer on the Internet without resorting to outside information or databases would greatly increase the security abilities of the US Air Force and the Department of Defense...

  3. Differences in occupational, transportation, domestic, and leisure-time physical activities: do geographical location and socio-cultural status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Alain P; Lariviere, Michel; Pong, Raymond; Snelling, Susan; Young, Nancy

    2012-02-01

    Researchers have recently expressed their concern for the health of Francophones and rural dwellers in Canada. Their levels of physical activity may explain part of the observed differences. However, little is known about the physical activity levels of these 2 groups. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of physical activity among a sample of Francophones and rural dwellers. The study also assessed the associations of various types of physical activity to measures of health status. A quota-based convenience sample of 256 adults from Northern Ontario was surveyed using the IPAQ and the SF-12. There were no significant differences in activity levels between language groups (P = .06) or geographical groups (P = .22) on the combined dependent variables based on MANOVA. Leisure-time physical activity scores were consistently associated to better physical component summary scores of the SF-12. Implications for practice include that leisure-time physical activities have been at the forefront of public health promotion, and our findings support this approach. Further, population specific interventions are indeed important, however, within this Canadian context when identifying target groups one must look beyond sociocultural status or geographical location.

  4. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance of...

  5. Location of radiotherapy centers: An exploratory geographic analysis for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotteels, C.; Peeters, D.; Coucke, P.A.; Thomas, I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. - The distance between the patient's home and a radiotherapy department may represent a hurdle for the patient and influence treatment choice. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers is in accordance with cancer incidence, taking also into account the cost of travelling to the radiotherapy department. The objective of this study is double; first, to map the current locations of radiotherapy centers across the country and second, to evaluate the observed spatial disparities with appropriate tools. Materials and methods. - A model of operational research (P-median) is used to suggest the optimal locations and allocations and to compare them with the current situation. This is an exploratory study with simple inputs. It helps to better understand the current geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers in Belgium as well as its possible limitations. Results-conclusion. - It appears that the current situation is on the average acceptable in terms of accessibility to the service and that the method presents huge potentialities for decision making so as to yield a spatial system that is both efficient and equitable. (authors)

  6. Location, Location, Location: Implications of Geographic Situation on Australian Student Performance in PISA 2000. ACER Research Monograph Number 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John; Underwood, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The primary focus of this report is to examine the effect that geographical location may have on the performance of students from schools from all parts of Australia who participated in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2000). Approximately 5,477 students from 231…

  7. Soil microbial communities: Influence of geographic location and hydrocarbon pollutants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance and relevance of the geographical origin of the soil sample and the hydrocarbons in determining the functional or species diversity within different bacterial communities was evaluated using the community level physiological profiles...

  8. New spatial clustering-based models for optimal urban facility location considering geographical obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Maryam; Shahrabi, Jamal

    2014-03-01

    The problems of facility location and the allocation of demand points to facilities are crucial research issues in spatial data analysis and urban planning. It is very important for an organization or governments to best locate its resources and facilities and efficiently manage resources to ensure that all demand points are covered and all the needs are met. Most of the recent studies, which focused on solving facility location problems by performing spatial clustering, have used the Euclidean distance between two points as the dissimilarity function. Natural obstacles, such as mountains and rivers, can have drastic impacts on the distance that needs to be traveled between two geographical locations. While calculating the distance between various supply chain entities (including facilities and demand points), it is necessary to take such obstacles into account to obtain better and more realistic results regarding location-allocation. In this article, new models were presented for location of urban facilities while considering geographical obstacles at the same time. In these models, three new distance functions were proposed. The first function was based on the analysis of shortest path in linear network, which was called SPD function. The other two functions, namely PD and P2D, were based on the algorithms that deal with robot geometry and route-based robot navigation in the presence of obstacles. The models were implemented in ArcGIS Desktop 9.2 software using the visual basic programming language. These models were evaluated using synthetic and real data sets. The overall performance was evaluated based on the sum of distance from demand points to their corresponding facilities. Because of the distance between the demand points and facilities becoming more realistic in the proposed functions, results indicated desired quality of the proposed models in terms of quality of allocating points to centers and logistic cost. Obtained results show promising

  9. Oil and Gas Field Locations, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_fields_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS layer consists of oil and gas field approximate center point locations (approximately 1,800). Oil and gas fields not assigned a center point by the DNR...

  10. Medical specialists' choice of location: the role of geographical attachment in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, I S; Førde, O H

    1992-01-01

    The relation between current place of work (area of the country) and factors that might possibly represent doctors geographical attachments was studied in a sample of 322 Norwegian medical specialists. Location of hospital residency, age and geographical origin of spouse were associated with current location. Geographical attachment seems to influence doctors' locational choices from start of medical school until the end of their residency. The probability that a doctor shall locate in peripheral areas may increase from less than 10% to more than 50% if the doctor has the residency training in the periphery. Hence, favoring entrance to medical schools of students from the underserved areas, and location of graduate and postgraduate medical training in the underserved areas, as far as it is feasible while still maintaining medical standards, is suggested by the study.

  11. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze geographic and demographic patterns related to forensic case recovery locations in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpan, Katharine E; Warren, Michael

    2017-12-01

    This paper highlights how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be utilized to analyze biases and patterns related to physical and cultural geography in Florida. Using case recovery locations from the C. Addison Pound Human Identification Laboratory (CAPHIL), results indicate that the majority of CAPHIL cases are recovered from urban areas with medium to low population density and low rates of crime. The results also suggest that more accurate record keeping methods would enhance the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Evolutionary Relationships between Endosymbiotic Green Algae of Paramecium bursaria Syngens Originating from Different Geographical Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagata, Patrycja; Greczek-Stachura, Magdalena; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria (Ehrenberg 1831), a freshwater ciliate, typically harbors hundreds of green algal symbionts inside the cell. The aim of present study was the molecular identification of newly analyzed P. bursaria symbionts. The second aspect of the present survey was testing a hypothesis whether endosymbionts prefer the specified syngen of the host, and the specified geographical distribution. Ten strains of endosymbionts isolated from strains of P. bursaria originating from different geographical locations were studied. We analyzed for the first time, both the fragment of plastid genome containing 3'rpl36-5' infA genes and a fragment of a nuclear gene encoding large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rDNA). The analysis of the LSU rDNA sequences showed the existence of 3 haplotypes and the haplotype diversity of 0.733, and 8 haplotypes for the 3'rpl36-5' infA gene fragment and haplotype diversity of 0.956. The endosymbionts isolated from P. bursaria strains were identified as Chlorella vulgaris, Ch. variabilis and Micractinium conductrix. There was no correlation between the syngen of P. bursaria and the species of endosymbiont.

  13. Cross-cultural similarities and differences in North Americans' geographic location judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alinda; Kerkman, Dennis D; Brown, Norman R; Stea, David; Cappello, Hector M

    2005-12-01

    We examined some potential causes of bias in geographic location estimates by comparing location estimates of North American cities made by Canadian, U.S., and Mexican university students. All three groups placed most Mexican cities near the equator, which implies that all three groups were influenced by shared beliefs about the locations of geographical regions relative to global reference points. However, the groups divided North America into different regions and differed in the relative accuracy of the estimates within them, which implies that there was an influence of culture-specific knowledge. The data support a category-based system of plausible reasoning, in which biases in judgments are multiply determined, and underscore the utility of the estimation paradigm as a tool in cross-cultural cognitive research.

  14. Application of geographical information systems for the optimal location of a commercial network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the optimization of the geographical location of a network of points of sale, so that each retailer can have access to a potential geographic market. In addition, the authors study the importance of the distance variable in the commercial viability of a point of sale and a network of points of sale, analysing if the best location for each point (local optimum is always the best location for the whole (global optimum. Design/methodology/approach - Location-allocation models are applied using p-median algorithms and spatial competition maximization to analyse the actual journeys of 64,740 car buyers in 1240 postal codes using a geographic information system (GIS and geomarketing techniques. Findings - The models show that the pursuit of individual objectives by each concessionaire over the collective provides poorer results for the whole network of points of sale when compared to coordinated competition. The solutions provided by the models considering geographic and marketing criteria permit a reduction in the length of journeys made by the buyers. GIS allows the optimal control of market demand coverage through the collaborative strategies of the supplying retailers, in this case, car dealerships. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the joint research of geography and marketing from a theoretical and practical point of view. The main contribution is the use of information on actual buyer journeys for the optimal location of a network of points of sale. This research also contributes to the analysis of the correlation between the optimum local and optimum global locations of a commercial network and is a pioneering work in the application of these models to the automotive sector in the territorial area of the study.

  15. Located actions in process algebra with timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by adapting the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg [Process Algebra with Timing, Springer, 2002, Chap. 4] to spatially located actions. This process algebra makes it possible to deal with the behaviour of systems with a

  16. A methodology for landfill location using geographic information systems: a Colombian regional case

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía; Franklin Andrés Mendoza Castañeda; Paula Alejandra Montoya Varela

    2012-01-01

    The regions’ economic growth and accelerated development have created high solid waste production rates; such waste is disposed of in many localities in places without any technical and/or environmental measures having been taken. This paper presents guidelines for locating landfills by combining geographic information systems (GIS) with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and simple additive weighting (SAW). The methodology so developed was applied to the regional case of Tame in the Arauca dep...

  17. A methodology for landfill location using geographic information systems: a Colombian regional case

    OpenAIRE

    Zafra Mejía, Carlos Alfonso; Mendoza Castañeda, Franklin Andrés; Montoya Varela, Paula Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The regions' economic growth and accelerated development have created high solid waste production rates; such waste is dis-posed of in many localities in places without any technical and/or environmental measures having been taken. This paper presents guidelines for locating landfills by combining geographic information systems (GIS) with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and simple additive weighting (SAW). The methodology so developed was applied to the regional case of Tame in the Arauca de...

  18. The Effect of Geographic Location on Circannual Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Plasma Concentrations in Horses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Tan, R H H; Perara, D I; Byrne, D P; Watts, S P; Wearn, J G

    2017-09-01

    Longitudinal evaluation of plasma endogenous ACTH concentration in clinically normal horses has not been investigated in the Southern Hemisphere. To longitudinally determine monthly upper reference limits for plasma ACTH in 2 disparate Australian geographic locations and to examine whether location affected the circannual rhythm of endogenous ACTH in the 2 groups of horses over a 12-month period. Clinically normal horses horses from Perth and ≤67 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville, than at the acrophase, ≤94 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Perth, ≤101 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville. Circannual rhythms of endogenous ACTH concentrations vary between geographic locations, this could be due to changes in photoperiod or other unknown factors, and upper reference limits should be determined for specific locations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Systematic data ingratiation of clinical trial recruitment locations for geographic-based query and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Chen, Weiheng; Wu, Min; Weng, Chunhua

    2017-12-01

    Prior studies of clinical trial planning indicate that it is crucial to search and screen recruitment sites before starting to enroll participants. However, currently there is no systematic method developed to support clinical investigators to search candidate recruitment sites according to their interested clinical trial factors. In this study, we aim at developing a new approach to integrating the location data of over one million heterogeneous recruitment sites that are stored in clinical trial documents. The integrated recruitment location data can be searched and visualized using a map-based information retrieval method. The method enables systematic search and analysis of recruitment sites across a large amount of clinical trials. The location data of more than 1.4 million recruitment sites of over 183,000 clinical trials was normalized and integrated using a geocoding method. The integrated data can be used to support geographic information retrieval of recruitment sites. Additionally, the information of over 6000 clinical trial target disease conditions and close to 4000 interventions was also integrated into the system and linked to the recruitment locations. Such data integration enabled the construction of a novel map-based query system. The system will allow clinical investigators to search and visualize candidate recruitment sites for clinical trials based on target conditions and interventions. The evaluation results showed that the coverage of the geographic location mapping for the 1.4 million recruitment sites was 99.8%. The evaluation of 200 randomly retrieved recruitment sites showed that the correctness of geographic information mapping was 96.5%. The recruitment intensities of the top 30 countries were also retrieved and analyzed. The data analysis results indicated that the recruitment intensity varied significantly across different countries and geographic areas. This study contributed a new data processing framework to extract and integrate

  20. Systematic data ingratiation of clinical trial recruitment locations for geographic-based query and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Chen, Weiheng; Wu, Min; Weng, Chunhua

    2018-01-01

    Background Prior studies of clinical trial planning indicate that it is crucial to search and screen recruitment sites before starting to enroll participants. However, currently there is no systematic method developed to support clinical investigators to search candidate recruitment sites according to their interested clinical trial factors. Objective In this study, we aim at developing a new approach to integrating the location data of over one million heterogeneous recruitment sites that are stored in clinical trial documents. The integrated recruitment location data can be searched and visualized using a map-based information retrieval method. The method enables systematic search and analysis of recruitment sites across a large amount of clinical trials. Methods The location data of more than 1.4 million recruitment sites of over 183,000 clinical trials was normalized and integrated using a geocoding method. The integrated data can be used to support geographic information retrieval of recruitment sites. Additionally, the information of over 6000 clinical trial target disease conditions and close to 4000 interventions was also integrated into the system and linked to the recruitment locations. Such data integration enabled the construction of a novel map-based query system. The system will allow clinical investigators to search and visualize candidate recruitment sites for clinical trials based on target conditions and interventions. Results The evaluation results showed that the coverage of the geographic location mapping for the 1.4 million recruitment sites was 99.8%. The evaluation of 200 randomly retrieved recruitment sites showed that the correctness of geographic information mapping was 96.5%. The recruitment intensities of the top 30 countries were also retrieved and analyzed. The data analysis results indicated that the recruitment intensity varied significantly across different countries and geographic areas. Conclusion This study contributed a new

  1. Automatic location of disruption times in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Vega, J.; Murari, A.

    2014-11-01

    The loss of stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas can induce critical events known as disruptions. Disruptions produce strong electromagnetic forces and thermal loads which can damage fundamental components of the devices. Determining the disruption time is extremely important for various disruption studies: theoretical models, physics-driven models, or disruption predictors. In JET, during the experimental campaigns with the JET-C (Carbon Fiber Composite) wall, a common criterion to determine the disruption time consisted of locating the time of the thermal quench. However, with the metallic ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), this criterion is usually not valid. Several thermal quenches may occur previous to the current quench but the temperature recovers. Therefore, a new criterion has to be defined. A possibility is to use the start of the current quench as disruption time. This work describes the implementation of an automatic data processing method to estimate the disruption time according to this new definition. This automatic determination allows both reducing human efforts to locate the disruption times and standardizing the estimates (with the benefit of being less vulnerable to human errors).

  2. Automatic location of disruption times in JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R; Vega, J; Murari, A

    2014-11-01

    The loss of stability and confinement in tokamak plasmas can induce critical events known as disruptions. Disruptions produce strong electromagnetic forces and thermal loads which can damage fundamental components of the devices. Determining the disruption time is extremely important for various disruption studies: theoretical models, physics-driven models, or disruption predictors. In JET, during the experimental campaigns with the JET-C (Carbon Fiber Composite) wall, a common criterion to determine the disruption time consisted of locating the time of the thermal quench. However, with the metallic ITER-like wall (JET-ILW), this criterion is usually not valid. Several thermal quenches may occur previous to the current quench but the temperature recovers. Therefore, a new criterion has to be defined. A possibility is to use the start of the current quench as disruption time. This work describes the implementation of an automatic data processing method to estimate the disruption time according to this new definition. This automatic determination allows both reducing human efforts to locate the disruption times and standardizing the estimates (with the benefit of being less vulnerable to human errors).

  3. Variation in Honey Bee Gut Microbial Diversity Affected by Ontogenetic Stage, Age and Geographic Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  4. Distinct patterns in human milk microbiota and fatty acid profiles across specific geographic locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding results in long term health benefits in the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases at both individual and population levels. Geographical location directly impacts the composition of breast milk including microbiota and lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location, i.e., Europe (Spain and Finland, Africa (South Africa and Asia (China, on breast milk microbiota and lipid composition in samples obtained from healthy mothers after the first month of lactation. Altogether, 80 women (20 from each country participated in the study, with equal number of women who delivered by vaginal or caesarean section from each country. Lipid composition particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between the countries, with the highest amount of n-6 PUFA (25.6% observed in the milk of Chinese women. Milk microbiota composition also differed significantly between the countries (p=0.002. Among vaginally delivered women, Spanish women had highest amount of Bacteroidetes whereas Chinese women had highest amount of Actinobacteria. Women who had had a caesarean section had higher amount of Proteobacteria as observed in the milk of the Spanish and South African women. Interestingly, the Spanish and South African women had significantly higher bacterial genes mapped to lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism (p<0.05. Association of the lipid profile with the microbiota revealed that monounsaturated fatty acids were negatively associated with Proteobacteria (r= -0.43, p<0.05, while Lactobacillus genus was associated with monounsaturated fatty acids (r= -0.23, p=0.04. These findings reveal that the milk microbiota and lipid composition exhibit differences based on geographical locations in addition to the differences observed due to the mode of delivery.

  5. Impact of Size and Geographic Location on the Financial Condition of Spanish Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto CABALEIRO CASAL

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the financial condition of Spanish municipalities is analyzed, due to its complex nature, through an integrated approach. In order to achieve that, the frameworks developed by the International City/County Management Association and the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants were taken as reference. Moreover, the authors used several indicators and a large sample of Spanish municipalities; the methodology used in the study objectifies the process of use of indicators. The study highlights the influence of population size and geographic location of local government on some dimensions of the financial condition of Spanish municipalities.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of a HYSOL Concentrated Solar Power Plant: Analyzing the Effect of Geographic Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Corona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating Solar Power (CSP technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting of a combined cycle configuration with a 100 MWe steam turbine and an 80 MWe gas-fed turbine with biomethane. Technological developments must be supported by the identification, quantification, and evaluation of the environmental impacts produced. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental performance of a CSP plant based on HYSOL technology using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology while considering different locations. The scenarios investigated include different geographic locations (Spain, Chile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mexico, and South Africa, an alternative modelling procedure for biomethane, and the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel. Results indicate that the geographic location has a significant influence on the environmental profile of the HYSOL CSP plant. The results obtained for the HYSOL configuration located in different countries presented significant differences (between 35% and 43%, depending on the category, especially in climate change and water stress categories. The differences are mainly attributable to the local availability of solar and water resources and composition of the national electricity mix. In addition, HYSOL technology performs significantly better when hybridizing with biomethane instead of natural gas. This evidence is particularly relevant in the climate change category, where biomethane hybridization emits 27.9–45.9 kg CO2 eq per MWh (depending on the biomethane modelling scenario and natural gas scenario emits 264 kg CO2 eq/MWh.

  7. Utilizing patient geographic information system data to plan telemedicine service locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Neelkamal; Dewalle, Joseph; Marsh, Ben

    2017-09-01

    To understand potential utilization of clinical services at a rural integrated health care system by generating optimal groups of telemedicine locations from electronic health record (EHR) data using geographic information systems (GISs). This retrospective study extracted nonidentifiable grouped data of patients over a 2-year period from the EHR, including geomasked locations. Spatially optimal groupings were created using available telemedicine sites by calculating patients' average travel distance (ATD) to the closest clinic site. A total of 4027 visits by 2049 unique patients were analyzed. The best travel distances for site groupings of 3, 4, 5, or 6 site locations were ranked based on increasing ATD. Each one-site increase in the number of available telemedicine sites decreased minimum ATD by about 8%. For a given group size, the best groupings were very similar in minimum travel distance. There were significant differences in predicted patient load imbalance between otherwise similar groupings. A majority of the best site groupings used the same small number of sites, and urban sites were heavily used. With EHR geospatial data at an individual patient level, we can model potential telemedicine sites for specialty access in a rural geographic area. Relatively few sites could serve most of the population. Direct access to patient GIS data from an EHR provides direct knowledge of the client base compared to methods that allocate aggregated data. Geospatial data and methods can assist health care location planning, generating data about load, load balance, and spatial accessibility. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Task and Progress of Iaeg-Sdgs Wggi in Monitoring Sdgs Through a `GEOGRAPHIC Location' Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, W.; Chen, J.; Zhang, H. P.; Xu, K.

    2018-04-01

    In September 2015, the 193 Member States of the United Nations (UN) unanimously adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), aiming to transform the world over the next 15 years (ESDN, 2016). To meet the ambitions and demands of the 2030 Agenda, it is necessary for the global indicator framework to adequately and systematically address the issue of alternative data sources and methodologies, including geospatial information and Earth observations in the context of geographic location (UN-GGIM, 2016). For this purpose, the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Goals Indicator (IAEG-SDGs) created the Working Group on Geospatial Information (IAEG-SDGs: WGGI) to give full play to the role of geospatial data in SDGs measurement and monitoring. The Working Group reviewed global indicators through a `geographic location' lens to pick out those which geospatial information can significantly support the production, and analyzed the methodological and measurements issues. This paper has discussed the progress in monitoring SDGs ever since the establishment of IAEG-SDGs: WGGI, as well as the existing problems, appropriate solutions and plans for the next stage of work.

  9. Time and Practice: Learning to Become a Geographer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    A goal of geography education is fostering geographic literacy for all and building significant expertise for some. How much time and practice do students need to become literate or expert in geography? There is not an answer to this question. Using two concepts from cognitive psychology--the ideas of ten thousand hours and deliberate…

  10. PLANNING OF SECONDARY SCHOOL LOCATION AT SUBCENTRE OF MEDAN SELAYANG SERVICE BASED ON GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATON SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansyur Hidayat Pasaribu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available his research aimed to solve the problem of requirement of facility and infrastructure of high school education year 2030 at 4 sub-districts in sub department of Medan Selayang. By knowing the number of junior high school student we can calculate requirement of middle school infrastructure needed. The need for secondary school building infrastructure at the Medan Selayang service sub-center in 2030 is calculated based on the number of population aged 0-4 years in 2016 as users of secondary education services in the planning year. The need for the number of new school units based on the maximum capacity of study groups available in each school in the study area, the lack of learning groups is met through new classroom addition programs and the addition of new school units. With the population of middle school age in 2030 in four districts amounting to 33,299, it is required to provide 1 unit of new school in Medan Baru sub-district, 1 unit of new school in Medan Selayang sub-district, 2 units of new school in Medan Tuntungan sub-district. The lack of study group in Medan Baru sub-district can be fulfilled by adding new classroom based on the availability of school land. Planning of school location in the addition of new school unit based on spatial analysis using geographic information system application. Method of research used is descriptive method quantitatively. Quantitative analysis done By using Geographic Information System. Analysis is done based on the factors that influence the selection of school location which consists of service coverage factors, distribution pattern factors, accessibility factors and land use factors. From the results of analysis based on spatial data found sowed that the area has not been served in the region Planning. This underserved area became a zone in the determination of secondary school location planning at the Medan Selayang service sub-center.

  11. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  12. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  13. Integrative real-time geographic visualization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokine, A.; Shankar, M.; Stovall, J.; Bhaduri, B.; King, T.; Fernandez, S.; Datar, N.; Omitaomu, O.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Several models forecast that climatic changes will increase the frequency of disastrous events like droughts, hurricanes, and snow storms. Responding to these events and also to power outages caused by system errors such as the 2003 North American blackout require an interconnect-wide real-time monitoring system for various energy resources. Such a system should be capable of providing situational awareness to its users in the government and energy utilities by dynamically visualizing the status of the elements of the energy grid infrastructure and supply chain in geographic contexts. We demonstrate an approach that relies on Google Earth and similar standard-based platforms as client-side geographic viewers with a data-dependent server component. The users of the system can view status information in spatial and temporal contexts. These data can be integrated with a wide range of geographic sources including all standard Google Earth layers and a large number of energy and environmental data feeds. In addition, we show a real-time spatio-temporal data sharing capability across the users of the system, novel methods for visualizing dynamic network data, and a fine-grain access to very large multi-resolution geographic datasets for faster delivery of the data. The system can be extended to integrate contingency analysis results and other grid models to assess recovery and repair scenarios in the case of major disruption. (author)

  14. Connecting streamlined subglacial bedforms with the geological/geographical environment in which they are located.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Tom; Möller, Per; Greenwood, Sarah; Spagnolo, Matteo; Åkesson, Maria; Fraser, Stephen; Hughs, Anna; Clark, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Much work has qualitatively shown that there appears to be a relationship between the morphology of streamlined subglacial bedforms (drumlinoids) and the geological/geographical environment in which said bedforms are located upon, particularly in terms of bedrock influence. However, the one quantitative study that has been carried out on this connectivity (Greenwood and Clark, 2010) found that there appears to be a connection between bedrock type and morphology only at a local scale. At a regional scale the most important geological factor seemed to be the properties of the substrate, usually till. In order to investigate these connections further, self-organising maps (SOM) are used to investigate the role of contextual geology/geography in drumlinoid morphology. The SOM method allows the statistical exploration of data that cannot normally be evaluated by traditional means; categorical data (e.g. bedrock type) can be used in the same analysis as continuous/vector data (e.g. drift depth). Here, three large morphological data sets from Sweden (20 041), Britain (36 104) and Ireland (13 454) are combined with bedrock type, drift depth, basal elevation and distance to esker to see if there are any relationships to be found between them. The results indicate that there are pervasive, statistically significant, and weak to very weak correlations between contextual geological/geographical factors and drumlinoid morphology. The most important contextual factor appears to be 'drift depth', followed by 'distance to esker'. Therefore, models of drumlinoid formation and any efforts to use such features for palaeo-ice reconstruction must take into account the geological and geographical environment in which they are situated. The logical extension of this is that models of ice-sheet growth and retreat must also take into account and be sensitive to the type of substratum present beneath the ice. Further research into the effect of drift properties on the flow of ice is needed.

  15. Predictors of disability-related attitudes: considering self-esteem, communication apprehension, contact, and geographic location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Tetteh, Dinah; Lee, Yen-I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes about persons with disability (PwD) strongly affect differently-abled persons' quality of life and position in society. Some research offers support for the ability of systematic, supported, longitudinal contact between different groups of individuals to improve attitudes. College campuses, in particular, offer a potentially useful arena in which to facilitate this type of contact. This study explored contextual factors (eg, geographic region, biological sex) and predictors of disability-related attitudes among a college student population to determine strategies for course-based intervention design (eg, as community-engaged or service-learning initiatives). Surveying participants from universities in two regions of the United States, we found that self-esteem, audience-based communication apprehension, and contact with PwD explain more than 50% of the variance in disability-related attitudes. Further, we found that geographic location affects both self-esteem and audience-based communication apprehension (communicating/interacting with PwD). We discuss the implications for community engagement and/or service learning and highlight the importance of partnerships among relevant community stakeholders, including university faculty, students, and staff.

  16. Impacts of geographical locations and sociocultural traits on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan Hoang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new results obtained from investigating the data from a 2015 Vietnamese entrepreneurs' survey, containing 3071 observations. Evidence from the estimations using multinomial logits was found to support relationships between several sociocultural factors and entrepreneurship-related performance or traits. Specifically, those relationships include: (a) Active participation in entrepreneurs' social networks and reported value of creativity; (b) CSR-willingness and reported entrepreneurs' perseverance; (c) Transforming of sociocultural values and entrepreneurs' decisiveness; and, (d) Lessons learned from others' failures and perceived chance of success. Using geographical locations as the control variate, evaluations of the baseline-category logits models indicate their varying effects on the outcomes when combined with the sociocultural factors that are found to be statistically significant. Empirical probabilities that give further detail about behavioral patterns are provided; and toward the end, the paper offers some conclusions with some striking insights and useful explanations on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship processes.

  17. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature.

  18. 1999 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1999_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  19. 1997 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sample Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1997_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis (BSA) program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office....

  20. 1998 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1998_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  1. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL SIGNAGE LOCATION SELECTION IN SCENIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  2. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  3. Rural specialists: The nature of their work and professional satisfaction by geographical location of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda; McGrail, Matthew; Russell, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    Systematically describe the characteristics of rural specialists, their work and job satisfaction by geographical location of work. Cross-sectional. Three thousand, four hundred and seventy-nine medical specialists participating in the 2014 Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey of doctors. Location of practice, whether metropolitan, large (>50 000 population) or small regional centres (Rural specialists had more on-call requirements and poorer professional development opportunities. However, satisfaction with work hours, remuneration, variety of work, level of responsibility, opportunities to use abilities and overall satisfaction did not differ. Specialists in general medicine and general surgery were significantly more likely to work rurally compared with anaesthetists, particularly in small regional centres, whereas a range of other relevant specialists had lower than the average rural distribution and paediatricians and endocrinologists were significantly less likely to work in large regional centres. Rural specialists are just as satisfied as metropolitan counterparts reporting equivalent variety and responsibility at work. Better support for on-call demands and access to professional development could attract more specialists to rural practice. Increased rural training opportunities and regional workforce planning is needed to develop and recruit relevant specialties. Specifically, targeted support is warranted for training and development of specialists in general medicine and general surgery and overseas-trained specialists, who provide essential services in smaller regional centres. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  4. Predictors of disability-related attitudes: considering self-esteem, communication apprehension, contact, and geographic location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magsamen-Conrad K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kate Magsamen-Conrad,1 Dinah Tetteh,2 Yen-I Lee3 1Department of Communication, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, 2Department of Communication, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR, 3Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Abstract: Individuals’ attitudes about persons with disability (PwD strongly affect differently-abled persons’ quality of life and position in society. Some research offers support for the ability of systematic, supported, longitudinal contact between different groups of individuals to improve attitudes. College campuses, in particular, offer a potentially useful arena in which to facilitate this type of contact. This study explored contextual factors (eg, geographic region, biological sex and predictors of disability-related attitudes among a college student population to determine strategies for course-based intervention design (eg, as community-engaged or service-learning initiatives. Surveying participants from universities in two regions of the United States, we found that self-esteem, audience-based communication apprehension, and contact with PwD explain more than 50% of the variance in disability-related attitudes. Further, we found that geographic location affects both self-esteem and audience-based communication apprehension (communicating/interacting with PwD. We discuss the implications for community engagement and/or service learning and highlight the importance of partnerships among relevant community stakeholders, including university faculty, students, and staff. Keywords: community engagement, service learning, intervention, regional culture, PwD, intergroup, quality of life, college students, community partnerships

  5. The influence of geographic location on population exposure to emissions from power plants throughout China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Levy, J.I.; Evans, J.S.; Hammitt, J.K. [Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States). School of Public Health

    2006-04-15

    This analysis seeks to evaluate the influence of emission source location on population exposure in China to fine particles and sulfur dioxide. We use the concept of intake fraction, defined as the fraction of material or its precursor released from a source that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population. We select 29 power-plant sites throughout China and estimate annual average intake fractions at each site, using identical source characteristics to isolate the influence of geographic location. In addition, we develop regression models to interpret the intake fraction values and allow for extrapolation to other sites. To model the concentration increase due to emissions from selected power plants, we used a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model, CALPUFF. Primary fine particles have the highest average intake fraction (1 x 10{sup -5}), followed by sulfur dioxide (5 x 10{sup -6}), sulfate from sulfur dioxide (4 x 10{sup -6}), and nitrate from nitrogen oxides (4 x 10{sup -6}). In the regression analysis, the independent variables are meteorological proxies (such as climate region and precipitation) and population at various distances from the source. We find that population terms can explain a substantial percentage of variability in the intake fraction for all pollutants, with a significant modifying influence of meteorological regime. Near-source population is more important for primary coarse particles while population at medium to long distance is more important for primary fine particles and secondary particles. A significant portion of intake fraction (especially for secondary particles and primary fine particles) occurs beyond 500 km of the source, emphasizing the need for detailed long-range dispersion modeling.

  6. A geographic information system for gas power plant location using analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavipoor, F. S.; Karimi, S.; Balist, J.; Khakian, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    This research recommends a geographic information system-based and multi-criteria evaluation for locating a gas power plant in Natanz City in Iran. The multi-criteria decision framework offers a hierarchy model to select a suitable place for a gas power plant. This framework includes analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy set theory and weighted linear combination. The analytic hierarchy process was applied to compare the importance of criteria among hierarchy elements classified by environmental group criteria. In the next step, the fuzzy logic was used to regulate the criteria through various fuzzy membership functions and fuzzy layers were formed by using fuzzy operators in the Arc-GIS environment. Subsequently, they were categorized into 6 classes using reclassify function. Then weighted linear combination was applied to combine the research layers. Finally, the two approaches were analyzed to find the most suitable place to set up a gas power plant. According to the results, the utilization of GAMMA fuzzy operator was shown to be suitable for this site selection.

  7. The influence of geographic location on population exposure to emissions from power plants throughout China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Zhou; Levy, J.I. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Evans, J.S.; Hammitt, J.K. [Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    This analysis seeks to evaluate the influence of emission source location on population exposure in China to fine particles and sulfur dioxide. We use the concept of intake fraction, defined as the fraction of material or its precursor released from a source that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population. We select 29 power-plant sites throughout China and estimate annual average intake fractions at each site, using identical source characteristics to isolate the influence of geographic location. In addition, we develop regression models to interpret the intake fraction values and allow for extrapolation to other sites. To model the concentration increase due to emissions from selected power plants, we used a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model, CALPUFF. Primary fine particles have the highest average intake fraction (1 x 10{sup -5}), followed by sulfur dioxide (5 x 10{sup -6}), sulfate from sulfur dioxide (4 x 10{sup -6}), and nitrate from nitrogen oxides (4 x 10{sup -6}). For all pollutants, the intake fractions span approximately an order of magnitude across sites. In the regression analysis, the independent variables are meteorological proxies (such as climate region and precipitation) and population at various distances from the source. We find that population terms can explain a substantial percentage of variability in the intake fraction for all pollutants (R{sup 2} between 0.86 and 0.95 across pollutants), with a significant modifying influence of meteorological regime. Near-source population is more important for primary coarse particles while population at medium to long distance is more important for primary fine particles and secondary particles. A significant portion of intake fraction (especially for secondary particles and primary fine particles) occurs beyond 500 km of the source, emphasizing the need for detailed long-range dispersion modeling. These findings demonstrate that intake fractions for power plants in China can be

  8. The influence of geographic location on population exposure to emissions from power plants throughout China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Zhou; Levy, J.I.; Evans, J.S.; Hammitt, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    This analysis seeks to evaluate the influence of emission source location on population exposure in China to fine particles and sulfur dioxide. We use the concept of intake fraction, defined as the fraction of material or its precursor released from a source that is eventually inhaled or ingested by a population. We select 29 power-plant sites throughout China and estimate annual average intake fractions at each site, using identical source characteristics to isolate the influence of geographic location. In addition, we develop regression models to interpret the intake fraction values and allow for extrapolation to other sites. To model the concentration increase due to emissions from selected power plants, we used a detailed long-range atmospheric dispersion model, CALPUFF. Primary fine particles have the highest average intake fraction (1 x 10 -5 ), followed by sulfur dioxide (5 x 10 -6 ), sulfate from sulfur dioxide (4 x 10 -6 ), and nitrate from nitrogen oxides (4 x 10 -6 ). For all pollutants, the intake fractions span approximately an order of magnitude across sites. In the regression analysis, the independent variables are meteorological proxies (such as climate region and precipitation) and population at various distances from the source. We find that population terms can explain a substantial percentage of variability in the intake fraction for all pollutants (R 2 between 0.86 and 0.95 across pollutants), with a significant modifying influence of meteorological regime. Near-source population is more important for primary coarse particles while population at medium to long distance is more important for primary fine particles and secondary particles. A significant portion of intake fraction (especially for secondary particles and primary fine particles) occurs beyond 500 km of the source, emphasizing the need for detailed long-range dispersion modeling. These findings demonstrate that intake fractions for power plants in China can be estimated with

  9. On the mixing time of geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mixing time of random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). We specifically study the mixing times of random walks on 2-dimensional GTGs near the connectivity threshold. We provide a set of criteria on the distribution of vertex weights that guarantees that the mixing time is {Theta}(n log n).

  10. Geographical location and age affects the incidence of parasitic infestations in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Paran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56 (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40 of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, Giardia lamblia (17.9%, Blastocystis hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (1.1% and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage

  11. Use of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR Method to Estimate the Effects of Location Attributes on the Residential Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faris Dziauddin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The use of GWR in this study is considered a better approach than other methods to examine the effect of locational attributes on residential property values. GWR has the capability to produce meaningful results in which different locational attributes have differential spatial effects across a geographical area on residential property values. This method has the ability to determine the factors on which premiums depend, and in turn it can assist the government in taxation matters.

  12. Effect of geographical location, year and cultivar on survival of Malus sp. dormant buds stored in vapors of liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody plant crop germplasm is often grown in different geographical locations with various climatic conditions. One of the methods of a secure back-up of tree crop is storing winter buds in liquid nitrogen. It was thought that dormant buds from colder climates would have a higher post storage surviv...

  13. Perceptions of clients on awareness and the geographical location of a South African university sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rukshana; Van Der Heever, Mariana M; Damons, Anneleen

    2017-09-27

    The Campus Health Service at Stellenbosch University has a sub-division, a sexual health clinic, which provides sexual health services. The clients of the sexual health clinic consist of staff members and students. This article reports on the perceptions of clients that relate to awareness and the geographical location of the clinic. The Campus Health Service at Stellenbosch University's main campus. A descriptive qualitative approach was applied utilising in-depth interviews. A sample of n = 15 was drawn through purposive sampling and data saturation was achieved with the sample. The following themes emerged from the data: location of the clinic, awareness of sexual health services and marketing and advertising. The findings of the study revealed that accessibility of the clinic is influenced by the geographical location of the clinic and that marketing and awareness of services require attention.

  14. Optimum aggregation of geographically distributed flexible resources in strategic smart-grid/microgrid locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    This study determines optimum aggregation areas for a given distribution network considering spatial distribution of loads and costs of aggregation. An elitist genetic algorithm combined with a hierarchical clustering and a Thevenin network reduction is implemented to compute strategic locations...... operational decisions by understanding during which time of the day will be in need of flexibility, from which specific area, and in which amount, but also enables the flexibilities stemming from small distributed resources to be traded in various power/energy markets. A combination of central and local...... aggregation scheme where a central aggregator enables market participation, while local aggregators materialize the accepted bids, is implemented to realize this concept. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing network performances with and without aggregation. For a given network...

  15. Locating food sovereignty: geographical and sectoral distance in the global food system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Robbins (Martha Jane)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper seeks to problematize the role of local food systems within the food sovereignty movement and as a counter to the logic of the global industrial food system. It answers the question of how food sovereignty, via its tenet of local food systems, addresses the geographical and

  16. Extending Geographic Weights of Evidence Models for Use in Location Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwalkar, Mukul Dinkar

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the use and modeling of spatio-temporal data for the purposes of providing applications for location based services. One of the major issues in dealing with spatio-temporal data for location based services is the availability and sparseness of such data. Other than the hardware costs associated with collecting movement…

  17. Sequence Variation in Toxoplasma gondii rop17 Gene among Strains from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Zhang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of T. gondii is a concern of many studies, due to the biological and epidemiological diversity of this parasite. The present study examined sequence variation in rhoptry protein 17 (ROP17 gene among T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical regions. The rop17 gene was amplified and sequenced from 10 T. gondii strains, and phylogenetic relationship among these T. gondii strains was reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP, neighbor-joining (NJ, and maximum likelihood (ML analyses. The partial rop17 gene sequences were 1375 bp in length and A+T contents varied from 49.45% to 50.11% among all examined T. gondii strains. Sequence analysis identified 33 variable nucleotide positions (2.1%, 16 of which were identified as transitions. Phylogeny reconstruction based on rop17 gene data revealed two major clusters which could readily distinguish Type I and Type II strains. Analyses of sequence variations in nucleotides and amino acids among these strains revealed high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous polymorphisms (>1, indicating that rop17 shows signs of positive selection. This study demonstrated the existence of slightly high sequence variability in the rop17 gene sequences among T. gondii strains from different hosts and geographical regions, suggesting that rop17 gene may represent a new genetic marker for population genetic studies of T. gondii isolates.

  18. Exploratory joint and separate tracking of geographically related time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasingam, Balakumar; Willett, Peter; Levchuk, Georgiy; Freeman, Jared

    2012-05-01

    Target tracking techniques have usually been applied to physical systems via radar, sonar or imaging modalities. But the same techniques - filtering, association, classification, track management - can be applied to nontraditional data such as one might find in other fields such as economics, business and national defense. In this paper we explore a particular data set. The measurements are time series collected at various sites; but other than that little is known about it. We shall refer to as the data as representing the Megawatt hour (MWH) output of various power plants located in Afghanistan. We pose such questions as: 1. Which power plants seem to have a common model? 2. Do any power plants change their models with time? 3. Can power plant behavior be predicted, and if so, how far to the future? 4. Are some of the power plants stochastically linked? That is, do we observed a lack of power demand at one power plant as implying a surfeit of demand elsewhere? The observations seem well modeled as hidden Markov. This HMM modeling is compared to other approaches; and tests are continued to other (albeit self-generated) data sets with similar characteristics. Keywords: Time-series analysis, hidden Markov models, statistical similarity, clustering weighted

  19. Time of arrival based location estimation for cooperative relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Çelebi, Hasari Burak

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cooperative relay network performing location estimation through time of arrival (TOA). We derive Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the location estimates using the relay network. The analysis is extended to obtain average CRLB considering the signal fluctuations in both relay and direct links. The effects of the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of the relay node on average CRLB are investigated. Simulation results show that the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of relay node affect the accuracy of TOA based location estimation. ©2010 IEEE.

  20. Time of arrival based location estimation for cooperative relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ç elebi, Hasari Burak; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a cooperative relay network performing location estimation through time of arrival (TOA). We derive Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the location estimates using the relay network. The analysis is extended to obtain average CRLB considering the signal fluctuations in both relay and direct links. The effects of the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of the relay node on average CRLB are investigated. Simulation results show that the channel fading of both relay and direct links and amplification factor and location of relay node affect the accuracy of TOA based location estimation. ©2010 IEEE.

  1. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Madungu, Tumwaka P; Emina, Jacques B O; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2011-04-25

    Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures.Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that produce foods, childhood malnutrition is

  2. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC: does geographic location matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzita Kikhela PD

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in

  3. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria.

  4. Propagation Characterization Based on Geographic Location Variation for 5G Small Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Jin Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments in next-generation wireless transmission technology and efficient frequency-use research are based on understanding the characteristics of the exact radio channel. With regard to developments in next-generation mobile communication systems, performance verification of the development system is essential, for which it is necessary to estimate the exact wireless-space channel. This paper presents results of the analysis of radio propagation characteristics based on location variation in outdoor environments for small-cell 5th generation (5G mobile systems. Changes due to variation in location were measured using a channel sounder in a microcell environment with a 0.5 km radius in Korea. In order to analyze the propagation characteristics, the best distribution model reflecting the characteristics of the locations was derived. A comparison between actual measurements and three-dimensional ray-tracing simulation results confirmed the validity of the measurement result.

  5. What influences national and foreign physicians' geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors' residence location in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo; de Sousa, Bruno; Conceição, Cláudia

    2012-07-02

    The debate over physicians' geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians' location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians' residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities' population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a) municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians' geographical distribution, and; (b) doctors' characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country's metropolitan areas. There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%), with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population's Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI) were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians' location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant, while municipalities' foreign population applying for residence

  6. What influences national and foreign physicians’ geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors’ residence location in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Giuliano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate over physicians’ geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians’ location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. Methods A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians’ residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities’ population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians’ geographical distribution, and; (b doctors’ characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country’s metropolitan areas. Results There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%, with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population’s Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians’ location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant

  7. MNEs as border-crossing multi-location enterprises : The role of discontinuities in geographic space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Mudambi, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the classic work of Dunning, MNE location has become the focus of a growing body of research in the field. In this paper we argue that international business (IB) research examining the spatial dimension has serious weaknesses, stemming from its traditional assumption of the country as

  8. It's the Local Economy, Stupid! Geographic Wealth Dispersion and Conflict Outbreak Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhaug, Halvard; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede; Holtermann, Helge; Ostby, Gudrun; Tollefsen, Andreas Foro

    2011-01-01

    Income varies considerably within countries and the locations where conflicts emerge are rarely typical or representative for states at large. Yet, most research on conflict has only examined national income averages and neglected spatial variation. The authors argue that civil conflicts are more likely to erupt in areas with low absolute income,…

  9. Solar cell options based on different geographical locations and wall inclination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Two major trends in the development of contemporary solar energy science and technology [1]: First, the combination of light and point, the second is the combination of solar energy and construction. A large number of houses at the top of the installation of solar water heaters and other primary solar energy utilization equipment can no longer meet the needs of the majority of users, people pay more attention to the ventilation and heating of housing and solar power supply and other integrated multi-purpose building construction. Under the condition of simplification, this model gives the options of laying suitable solar cells for houses with different geographical positions and different inclination angles according to the actual situation. Based on our model, firstly we calculate the wall radiation according to the model (WRCM) to get the light radiation of the wall of the house, and then according to the power generation model (PGM), we can calculate the output of several types of batteries in the selected range. Finally, through the economic benefits mode l (EBM), we get the economic benefits of each type of battery in different places, and then we can choose the most suitable battery type. At the end of the article, we take Datong, Shanxi Province as an example, and substitute the relevant data from online search into the model. Compared with the actual situation, we verify that the model has good applicability.

  10. Location Allocation of Health Care Centers Using Geographical Information System: region 11 of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Ahadnejad; Hosein Ghaderi; Mohammad Hadian; Payam Haghighatfard; Banafsheh Darvishi; Elham Haghighatfard; Bitasadat Zegordi; Arash Bordbar

    2015-01-01

     Background & Objective: Location allocation of healthcare centers facilitates the accessibility of health services and the lack of proper distribution of these centers leads to increasing problems of citizens' access to these centers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of healthcare centers in the region of the study and to determine deprived areas from this services. Materials & Methods: This research is a case study that has b...

  11. Obtaining location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity distributions for steady flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A steady, two-dimensional flow system is used to demonstrate the application of location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity curves in determining the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. The subsurface geologic and hydrologic evaluations needed to obtain the arrival results involve a sequence of four phases: system identification, new potential determination, flow systems kinematics, and contaminant transport analysis. Once these phases are completed, they are effectively summarized and easily used to evaluate environmental consequences through the arrival distributions

  12. A multi-factor GIS method to identify optimal geographic locations for electric vehicle (EV) charging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqin; Iman, Kory

    2018-05-01

    Fuel-based transportation is one of the major contributors to poor air quality in the United States. Electric Vehicle (EV) is potentially the cleanest transportation technology to our environment. This research developed a spatial suitability model to identify optimal geographic locations for installing EV charging stations for travelling public. The model takes into account a variety of positive and negative factors to identify prime locations for installing EV charging stations in Wasatch Front, Utah, where automobile emission causes severe air pollution due to atmospheric inversion condition near the valley floor. A walkable factor grid was created to store index scores from input factor layers to determine prime locations. 27 input factors including land use, demographics, employment centers etc. were analyzed. Each factor layer was analyzed to produce a summary statistic table to determine the site suitability. Potential locations that exhibit high EV charging usage were identified and scored. A hot spot map was created to demonstrate high, moderate, and low suitability areas for installing EV charging stations. A spatially well distributed EV charging system was then developed, aiming to reduce "range anxiety" from traveling public. This spatial methodology addresses the complex problem of locating and establishing a robust EV charging station infrastructure for decision makers to build a clean transportation infrastructure, and eventually improve environment pollution.

  13. Historical-Geographical Location of Lands Exploited by the Family of Christopher Columbus in the Port of San Juan (Huelva, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González Cruz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research presents as novelty the geographical location of certain places that were part of the process of gestation of the discovery of America In addition, it also confirms the linking of the portuguese Briolanja Muñiz —sister in law of Christopher Columbus— with the port of San Juan (Huelva, Spain, and at the same time, offers unpublished data on the boundaries of the estate where the family of the famous discoverer was seated while he managed and organized his first overseas trip.

  14. Response of microbial community and catabolic genes to simulated petroleum hydrocarbon spills in soils/sediments from different geographic locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Tang, J; Liu, X; Song, B; Zhen, M; Ashbolt, N J

    2017-10-01

    Study the response of microbial communities and selected petroleum hydrocarbon (PH)-degrading genes on simulated PH spills in soils/sediments from different geographic locations. A microcosm experiment was conducted by spiking mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) to soils/sediments collected from four different regions of China, including the Dagang Oilfield (DG), Sand of Bohai Sea (SS), Northeast China (NE) and Xiamen (XM). Changes in bacterial community and the abundance of PH-degrading genes (alkB, nah and phe) were analysed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and qPCR, respectively. Degradation of alkanes and PAHs in SS and NE materials were greater (P < 0·05) than those in DG and XM. Clay content was negatively correlated with the degradation of total alkanes by 112 days and PAHs by 56 days, while total organic carbon content was negatively correlated with initial degradation of total alkanes as well as PAHs. Abundances of alkB, nah and phe genes increased 10- to 100-fold and varied by soil type over the incubation period. DGGE fingerprints identified the dominance of α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria (Gram -ve) and Actinobacteria (Gram +ve) bacteria associated with degradation of PHs in the materials studied. The geographic divergence resulting from the heterogeneity of physicochemical properties of soils/sediments appeared to influence the abundance of metabolic genes and community structure of microbes capable of degrading PHs. When developing practical in-situ bioremediation approaches for PHs contamination of soils/sediment, appropriate microbial community structures and the abundance of PH-degrading genes appear to be influenced by geographic location. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Overcoming scepticism: Interacting influences of geographical location on perceived climate change adaptation measures to water resources in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bardaji, Isabel; Iglesias, Pedro; Granados, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Though many climate adaptation efforts attempt to be defined with the participation of local communities, these strategies may be ineffective because among citizens affected equally, a local risk perception rather than scientific understanding largely drives adaptation choices. Further, the geographical location may polarize climate risk perceptions, making some adaptation efforts ineffective among sceptics. This study examines how the local degradation of the environment and water resources relates to adaption choices and in turn, climate change risk perception among a range of citizens in the Tagus basin, Spain (n = 300). We find respondents of less degraded areas have individualistic responses, and are significantly less likely to accept adaptation strategies than respondents in water stressed communities. The interaction between climate knowledge and adaptation choices is positively related to acceptance of adaptation choices in both groups, and had a stronger positive relationship among individualists. There is no statistical difference in acceptance of adaptation between individualists and communitarians at high levels of knowledge (top decile). Thus, education efforts specific to climate change may counteract divisions based geographical location and environmental stress.

  16. Sequence Variation in Rhoptry Neck Protein 10 Gene among Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Donghui; Chen, Jia; Sun, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, as a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, can infect almost all the warm-blooded animals and humans, causing toxoplasmosis. Rhoptry neck proteins (RONs) play a key role in the invasion process of T. gondii and are potential vaccine candidate molecules against toxoplasmosis. The present study examined sequence variation in the rhoptry neck protein 10 (TgRON10) gene among 10 T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations from Lanzhou province during 2014, and compared with the corresponding sequences of strains ME49 and VEG obtained from the ToxoDB database, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, sequence analysis, and phylogenetic reconstruction by Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum parsimony (MP). Analysis of all the 12 TgRON10 genomic and cDNA sequences revealed 7 exons and 6 introns in the TgRON10 gDNA. The complete genomic sequence of the TgRON10 gene ranged from 4759 bp to 4763 bp, and sequence variation was 0-0.6% among the 12 T. gondii isolates, indicating a low sequence variation in TgRON10 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of TgRON10 sequences showed that the cluster of the 12 T. gondii isolates was not completely consistent with their respective genotypes. TgRON10 gene is not a suitable genetic marker for the differentiation of T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations, but may represent a potential vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis, worth further studies.

  17. Geographic Variations and Time Trends in Cancer Treatments in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jason C; Chang, Sheng-Mao; Lu, Christine Y

    2017-08-02

    Targeted therapies have become important treatment options for cancer care in many countries. This study aimed to examine recent trends in utilization of antineoplastic drugs, particularly the use of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer, by geographic region in Taiwan (northern, midwestern, southern, and eastern regions and the outer islands). This was a retrospective observational study of antineoplastic agents using 2009-2012 quarterly claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Yearly market shares by prescription volume and costs for targeted therapies among total antineoplastic agents by region were estimated. We used multivariate regression model and ANOVA to examine variations in utilization of targeted therapies between geographic regions and used ARIMA models to estimate longitudinal trends. Population-adjusted use and costs of antineoplastic drugs (including targeted therapies) were highest in the southern region of Taiwan and lowest in the outer islands. We found a 4-fold difference in use of antineoplastic drugs and a 49-fold difference in use of targeted therapies between regions if the outer islands were included. There were minimal differences in use of antineoplastic drugs between other regions with about a 2-fold difference in use of targeted therapies. Without considering the outer islands, the market share by prescription volume and costs of targeted therapies increased almost 2-fold (1.84-1.90) and 1.5-fold (1.26-1.61) respectively between 2009 and 2012. Furthermore, region was not significantly associated with use of antineoplastic agents or use of targeted therapies after adjusting for confounders. Region was associated with costs of antineoplastic agents but it was not associated with costs of targeted therapies after confounding adjustments. Use of antineoplastic drugs overall and use of targeted therapies for treatment of cancer varied somewhat between regions in Taiwan; use was notably low in the outer

  18. Ground and Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Time Tradeoffs Assessed with Geographic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Michael J; Ginsberg, Zac; Schleith, Daniel; Floccare, Douglas J; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Galvagno, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    We describe how geographic information systems (GIS) can be used to assess and compare estimated transport time for helicopter and ground emergency medical services. Recent research shows that while the odds of a trauma patient's survival increase with helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS), they may not increase to the extent necessary to make HEMS cost effective. This study offers an analytic tool to objectively quantify the patient travel time advantage that HEMS offers compared to ground emergency medical services (GEMS). Using helicopter dispatch data from the Maryland State Police from 2000-2011, we computed transport time estimates for HEMS and GEMS, compare these results to a reference transport time of 60 min, and use geospatial interpolation to extrapolate the total response times for each mode across the study region. Mapping the region's trauma incidents and modeling response times, our findings indicate the GIS framework for calculating transportation time tradeoffs is useful in identifying which areas can be better served by HEMS or GEMS. The use of GIS and the analytical methodology described in this study present a method to compare transportation by air and ground in the prehospital setting that accounts for how mode, distance, and road infrastructure impact total transport time. Whether used to generate regional maps in advance or applied real-time, the presented framework provides a tool to identify earlier incident locations that favor HEMS over GEMS transport modes.

  19. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (II) Phytochemical Profiles of Four Prime Maca Phenotypes Grown in Two Geographically-Distant Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Meissner, Henry; Mscisz, Alina; Piatkowska, Ewa; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Holderna-Kedzia, Elzbieta; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as "Yellow", "Purple", "Red" and "Black" were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (PMaca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly "large" class (13.3 g) with "small" size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a "small" class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (PMaca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (PMaca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant PMaca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products.

  20. Congestion Service Facilities Location Problem with Promise of Response Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many services, promise of specific response time is advertised as a commitment by the service providers for the customer satisfaction. Congestion on service facilities could delay the delivery of the services and hurts the overall satisfaction. In this paper, congestion service facilities location problem with promise of response time is studied, and a mixed integer nonlinear programming model is presented with budget constrained. The facilities are modeled as M/M/c queues. The decision variables of the model are the locations of the service facilities and the number of servers at each facility. The objective function is to maximize the demands served within specific response time promised by the service provider. To solve this problem, we propose an algorithm that combines greedy and genetic algorithms. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, a lot of computational experiments are tested. And the results demonstrate that response time has a significant impact on location decision.

  1. Intestinal microbiota profiles associated with low and high residual feed intake in chickens across two geographical locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina-Catherine Siegerstetter

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbe-host interactions can affect the feed efficiency (FE of chickens. As inconsistent findings for FE-associated bacterial taxa were reported across studies, the present objective was to identify whether bacterial profiles and predicted metabolic functions that were associated with residual feed intake (RFI and performance traits in female and male chickens were consistent across two different geographical locations. At six weeks of life, the microbiota in ileal, cecal and fecal samples of low (n = 34 and high (n = 35 RFI chickens were investigated by sequencing the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Location-associated differences in α-diversity and relative abundances of several phyla and genera were detected. RFI-associated bacterial abundances were found at the phylum and genus level, but differed among the three intestinal sites and between males and females. Correlation analysis confirmed that, of the taxonomically classifiable bacteria, Lactobacillus (5% relative abundance and two Lactobacillus crispatus-OTUs in feces were indicative for high RFI in females (P < 0.05. In males, Ruminococcus in cecal digesta (3.1% relative abundance and Dorea in feces (<0.1% relative abundance were best indicative for low RFI, whereas Acinetobacter in feces (<1.5% relative abundance related to high RFI (P < 0.05. Predicted metabolic functions in feces of males confirmed compositional relationships as functions related to amino acid, fatty acid and vitamin metabolism correlated with low RFI, whereas an increasing abundance of bacterial signaling and interaction (i.e. cellular antigens genes correlated with high RFI (P < 0.05. In conclusion, RFI-associated bacterial profiles could be identified across different geographical locations. Results indicated that consortia of low-abundance taxa in the ileum, ceca and feces may play a role for FE in chickens, whereby only bacterial FE-associations found in ileal and cecal digesta may serve as useful

  2. Applying geographic profiling used in the field of criminology for predicting the nest locations of bumble bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Ohno, Yukari; Inoue, Maki N; Ohno, Kazunori

    2010-07-21

    We tested whether geographic profiling (GP) can predict multiple nest locations of bumble bees. GP was originally developed in the field of criminology for predicting the area where an offender most likely resides on the basis of the actual crime sites and the predefined probability of crime interaction. The predefined probability of crime interaction in the GP model depends on the distance of a site from an offender's residence. We applied GP for predicting nest locations, assuming that foraging and nest sites were the crime sites and the offenders' residences, respectively. We identified the foraging and nest sites of the invasive species Bombus terrestris in 2004, 2005, and 2006. We fitted GP model coefficients to the field data of the foraging and nest sites, and used GP with the fitting coefficients. GP succeeded in predicting about 10-30% of actual nests. Sensitivity analysis showed that the predictability of the GP model mainly depended on the coefficient value of buffer zone, the distance at the mode of the foraging probability. GP will be able to predict the nest locations of bumble bees in other area by using the fitting coefficient values measured in this study. It will be possible to further improve the predictability of the GP model by considering food site preference and nest density. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and geographical information system for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... according to a given set of criteria. Measurements are taken in interval form, expressing the natural imprecision of common data, and the Fuzzy Weighted Overlap Dominance (FWOD) procedure is applied for aggregating and exploiting this kind of data, obtaining suitability degrees for every alternative....... The estimation of criteria weights, which is necessary for applying the FWOD procedure, is done by means of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), such that a combined AHP-FWOD methodology allows identifying the more suitable sites for building biogas plants. We show that the FWOD relevance-ranking procedure...

  4. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and Geographical Information System for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... according to a given set of criteria. Measurements are taken in interval form, expressing the natural imprecision of common data, and the Fuzzy Weighted Overlap Dominance (FWOD) procedure is applied for aggregating and exploiting this kind of data, obtaining suitability degrees for every alternative...... suitable sites for building biogas plants. We show that the FWOD relevance-ranking procedure can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support...

  5. Sequence Variation in Rhoptry Neck Protein 10 Gene among Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZHAO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii, as a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, can infect almost all the warm-blooded animals and humans, causing toxoplasmosis. Rhoptry neck proteins (RONs play a key role in the invasion process of T. gondii and are potential vaccine candidate molecules against toxoplasmosis.Methods: The present study examined sequence variation in the rhoptry neck protein 10 (TgRON10 gene among 10 T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations from Lanzhou province during 2014, and compared with the corresponding sequences of strains ME49 and VEG obtained from the ToxoDB database, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, sequence analysis, and phylogenetic reconstruction by Bayesian inference (BI and maximum parsimony (MP. Results: Analysis of all the 12 TgRON10 genomic and cDNA sequences revealed 7 exons and 6 introns in the TgRON10 gDNA. The complete genomic sequence of the TgRON10 gene ranged from 4759 bp to 4763 bp, and sequence variation was 0-0.6% among the 12 T. gondii isolates, indicating a low sequence variation in TgRON10 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of TgRON10 sequences showed that the cluster of the 12 T. gondii isolates was not completely consistent with their respective genotypes.Conclusion: TgRON10 gene is not a suitable genetic marker for the differentiation of T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations, but may represent a potential vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis, worth further studies.

  6. A paper based inkjet printed real time location tracking TAG

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Bilal, Rana Muhammad; Cheema, Hammad; Shamim, Atif

    2013-01-01

    substrates are discussed. The system enables location tracking through a user-friendly interface accessible through all internet enabled devices. Field tests show an update interval of 15 sec, stationary position error of 6.2m and real time tracking error

  7. DESIGN OF A REAL TIME REMOTE VEHICLE LOCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Emir DİRİK

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a low-cost, real-time vehicle location system is developed. The vehicle location system includes three main modules, i.e. positioning, wireless communication and digital map modules. The positioning module used in location systems computes position of the mobile vehicle. These vehicle location data are transmitted through a wireless communication system to host. The host has a capability to monitor a fleet of vehicles by analyzing data collected from wireless communication system. In this project, mobile vehicle location positions can be computed in a range of 10m position error and by using these position data, its possible to monitor the fleet of mobile vehicles on a digital map in the observation and control center. In this study, vehicle analog mobile radios are used to establish wireless communication system. Thus, there is no need to use satellite or GSM systems for communication and a low-cost and high-performance vehicle location system is realized.

  8. Application of geographic information systems to investigating associations between social status and burial location in medieval Trino Vercellese (Piedmont, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marissa C; Vercellotti, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Socioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested. This study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th-13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that greater growth outcomes are associated with privileged burials located inside the church by examining osteometric data (femoral bicondylar length [N = 74], maximum tibial length [N = 62], and the sum of the two measurements [N = 59]) in a geographic information system (GIS) of the cemetery. Getis-Ord G Hot Spot analysis identified significant (90% CI) spatial clustering of high osteometric values within the church, while low values clustered in areas of the cemetery farther from the church. These results, supported by the results of interpolation analyses, became more pronounced when z-scores were calculated to combine the male and female samples and the analyses were repeated. Overall, the findings corroborate the observation that the spatial distribution of osteometric data reflects socioeconomic status differences within the population. This research exemplifies the advantages of integrating bioarchaeology and spatial analysis to examine mortuary behavior and health outcomes in highly stratified societies where access to resources is demarcated in both life and in death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. LEXICOSTRATIGRAPHY: TRACING GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Ogirisi: a new journal of African studies vol 9 2012. 117 ... d. aguma/ekpe: a type of mask dance by a secret all-male ... secret society, such victims were sold to European slave buyers. ... words but due to the influence of Igbo, younger Koring.

  10. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Blanchard, Ian E; Doig, Christopher J; Ghali, William A

    2012-10-03

    Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7-8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based on US data may not be appropriate in a

  11. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D geographic information system (GIS. A wireless sensor network (WSN is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  12. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system. PMID:22319282

  13. Towards an accurate real-time locator of infrasonic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, V.; Blom, P.; Polozov, A.; Marcillo, O.; Arrowsmith, S.; Hofstetter, A.

    2017-11-01

    Infrasonic signals propagate from an atmospheric source via media with stochastic and fast space-varying conditions. Hence, their travel time, the amplitude at sensor recordings and even manifestation in the so-called "shadow zones" are random. Therefore, the traditional least-squares technique for locating infrasonic sources is often not effective, and the problem for the best solution must be formulated in probabilistic terms. Recently, a series of papers has been published about Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization (BISL) method based on the computation of the posterior probability density function (PPDF) of the source location, as a convolution of a priori probability distribution function (APDF) of the propagation model parameters with likelihood function (LF) of observations. The present study is devoted to the further development of BISL for higher accuracy and stability of the source location results and decreasing of computational load. We critically analyse previous algorithms and propose several new ones. First of all, we describe the general PPDF formulation and demonstrate that this relatively slow algorithm might be among the most accurate algorithms, provided the adequate APDF and LF are used. Then, we suggest using summation instead of integration in a general PPDF calculation for increased robustness, but this leads us to the 3D space-time optimization problem. Two different forms of APDF approximation are considered and applied for the PPDF calculation in our study. One of them is previously suggested, but not yet properly used is the so-called "celerity-range histograms" (CRHs). Another is the outcome from previous findings of linear mean travel time for the four first infrasonic phases in the overlapping consecutive distance ranges. This stochastic model is extended here to the regional distance of 1000 km, and the APDF introduced is the probabilistic form of the junction between this travel time model and range-dependent probability

  14. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jincai [Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Ibekwe, A. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Ibekwe@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Yang, Ching-Hong [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Crowley, David E. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P < 0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. - Highlights: • Geographic distance was the most significant factor affecting microbial composition. • Physical and chemical properties significantly impacted microbial communities. • Higher numbers of OTUs were observed in organic soils than in convention soils.

  15. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jincai; Ibekwe, A. Mark; Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P < 0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. - Highlights: • Geographic distance was the most significant factor affecting microbial composition. • Physical and chemical properties significantly impacted microbial communities. • Higher numbers of OTUs were observed in organic soils than in convention soils

  16. A novel approach to find and optimize bin locations and collection routes using a geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Seyed Mohammad Hassan; Danesh, Shahnaz; Karrabi, Seyed Mohsen; Shad, Rouzbeh

    2017-07-01

    One of the major challenges in big cities is planning and implementation of an optimized, integrated solid waste management system. This optimization is crucial if environmental problems are to be prevented and the expenses to be reduced. A solid waste management system consists of many stages including collection, transfer and disposal. In this research, an integrated model was proposed and used to optimize two functional elements of municipal solid waste management (storage and collection systems) in the Ahmadabad neighbourhood located in the City of Mashhad - Iran. The integrated model was performed by modelling and solving the location allocation problem and capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) through Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results showed that the current collection system is not efficient owing to its incompatibility with the existing urban structure and population distribution. Application of the proposed model could significantly improve the storage and collection system. Based on the results of minimizing facilities analyses, scenarios with 100, 150 and 180 m walking distance were considered to find optimal bin locations for Alamdasht, C-metri and Koohsangi. The total number of daily collection tours was reduced to seven as compared to the eight tours carried out in the current system (12.50% reduction). In addition, the total number of required crews was minimized and reduced by 41.70% (24 crews in the current collection system vs 14 in the system provided by the model). The total collection vehicle routing was also optimized such that the total travelled distances during night and day working shifts was cut back by 53%.

  17. Real-time bus location monitoring using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Y. M.; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of objects, such as a vehicles, mobile devices, and buildings that have electronic components, software, and network connectivity that enable them to collect data, run commands, and be controlled through the Internet. Controlling physical items from the Internet will increase efficiency and save time. The growing number of devices used by people increases the practicality of having IoT devices on the market. The IoT is also an opportunity to develop products that can save money and time and increase work efficiency. Initially, they need more efficiency for real-time bus location systems, especially in university campuses. This system can easily find the accurate locations of and distances between each bus stop and the estimated time to reach a new location. This system has been separated into two parts, which are the hardware and the software. The hardware parts are the Arduino Uno and the Global Positioning System (GPS), while Google Earth and GpsGate are the software parts. The GPS continuously takes input data from the satellite and stores the latitude and longitude values in the Arduino Uno. If we want to track the vehicle, we need to send the longitude and latitude as a message to the Google Earth software to convert these into maps for navigation. Once the Arduino Uno is activated, it takes the last received latitude and longitude positions' values from GpsGate and sends a message to Google Earth. Once the message has been sent to Google Earth, the current location will be shown, and navigation will be activated automatically. Then it will be broadcast using ManyCam, Google+ Hangouts, and YouTube, as well as Facebook, and appear to users. The additional features use Google Forms for determining problems faced by students, who can also take immediate action against the responsible department. Then after several successful simulations, the results will be shown in real time on a map.

  18. Real-time Geographic Information System (GIS) for Monitoring the Area of Potential Water Level Using Rule Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, Wirdah; Suryono; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro

    2018-02-01

    Management of water resources based on Geographic Information System can provide substantial benefits to water availability settings. Monitoring the potential water level is needed in the development sector, agriculture, energy and others. In this research is developed water resource information system using real-time Geographic Information System concept for monitoring the potential water level of web based area by applying rule based system method. GIS consists of hardware, software, and database. Based on the web-based GIS architecture, this study uses a set of computer that are connected to the network, run on the Apache web server and PHP programming language using MySQL database. The Ultrasound Wireless Sensor System is used as a water level data input. It also includes time and geographic location information. This GIS maps the five sensor locations. GIS is processed through a rule based system to determine the level of potential water level of the area. Water level monitoring information result can be displayed on thematic maps by overlaying more than one layer, and also generating information in the form of tables from the database, as well as graphs are based on the timing of events and the water level values.

  19. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  20. A paper based inkjet printed real time location tracking TAG

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, an inkjet printed, wearable, low-cost, light weight and miniaturized real time locating TAG on an ordinary photo-paper. The 29 grams, 9 cm×8 cm×0.5 cm TAG integrates a GPS/GSM module, a microcontroller with on-paper GPS and GSM antennas. A novel monopole antenna with an L shaped slit is introduced to achieve the required circular polarization for the GPS band. Issues related to integration of active components (e.g. BGA chip) on inkjet-printed paper substrates are discussed. The system enables location tracking through a user-friendly interface accessible through all internet enabled devices. Field tests show an update interval of 15 sec, stationary position error of 6.2m and real time tracking error of 4.7m which is 4 times better than the state-of-the-art. Due to the flexible nature of the paper substrate, the TAG can be designed for different shapes such as a wrist band for child tracking or a collar band for pet tracking applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Absolute GPS Time Event Generation and Capture for Remote Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRES Collaboration

    The HiRes experiment operates fixed location and portable lasers at remote desert locations to generate calibration events. One physics goal of HiRes is to search for unusual showers. These may appear similar to upward or horizontally pointing laser tracks used for atmospheric calibration. It is therefore necessary to remove all of these calibration events from the HiRes detector data stream in a physics blind manner. A robust and convenient "tagging" method is to generate the calibration events at precisely known times. To facilitate this tagging method we have developed the GPSY (Global Positioning System YAG) module. It uses a GPS receiver, an embedded processor and additional timing logic to generate laser triggers at arbitrary programmed times and frequencies with better than 100nS accuracy. The GPSY module has two trigger outputs (one microsecond resolution) to trigger the laser flash-lamp and Q-switch and one event capture input (25nS resolution). The GPSY module can be programmed either by a front panel menu based interface or by a host computer via an RS232 serial interface. The latter also allows for computer logging of generated and captured event times. Details of the design and the implementation of these devices will be presented. 1 Motivation Air Showers represent a small fraction, much less than a percent, of the total High Resolution Fly's Eye data sample. The bulk of the sample is calibration data. Most of this calibration data is generated by two types of systems that use lasers. One type sends light directly to the detectors via optical fibers to monitor detector gains (Girard 2001). The other sends a beam of light into the sky and the scattered light that reaches the detectors is used to monitor atmospheric effects (Wiencke 1998). It is important that these calibration events be cleanly separated from the rest of the sample both to provide a complete set of monitoring information, and more

  2. Effects of geographical location and land use on atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in the State of Connecticut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yuzhou; Yang, Xiusheng; Carley, Robert J.; Perkins, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    High ambient concentrations of tropospheric nitrogen and dry deposition flux were found in urban areas. - A network of eight monitoring stations was established to study the atmospheric nitrogen concentration and deposition in the State of Connecticut. The stations were classified into urban, rural, coastal and inland categories to represent the geographical location and land use characteristics surrounding the monitoring sites. Nitrogen species including nitrate, ammonium, nitric acid vapor and organic nitrogen in the air and precipitation were collected, analyzed and used to infer nitrogen concentrations and dry and wet deposition flux densities for the sampling period from 1997 through 1999, with independently collected meteorological data. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate the spatial variations of atmospheric concentration and deposition fluxes of total nitrogen in Connecticut. A slightly higher atmospheric concentration of total nitrogen was observed along the Connecticut coastline of Long Island Sound compared to inland areas, while the differences of nitrogen deposition fluxes were insignificant between coastal and inland sites. The land use characteristics surrounding the monitoring sites had profound effects on the atmospheric nitrogen concentration and dry deposition flux. The ambient nitrogen concentration over the four urban sites was averaged 38.9% higher than that over the rural sites, resulting a 58.0% higher dry deposition flux in these sites compared to their rural counterparts. The local industrial activities and traffic emissions of nitrogen at urban areas had significant effects on the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen concentration and dry deposition flux in the State. Wet and total deposition fluxes appeared to be invariant between the monitoring sites, except for high flux densities measured at Old Greenwich, a monitoring station near to and downwind of the New York and New Jersey industrial complexes

  3. Gender-related difference, geographical variation and time trend in dietary cadmium intake in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Shimbo, S.; Nakatsuka, H.; Koizumi, A.; Higashikawa, K.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N.; Ikeda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The present analysis was initiated to examine possible gender-dependency, geographic variation, and time-dependent changes in dietary intake of cadmium (Cd-F) among general populations in Cd-non-polluted areas in Japan. The role of rice as Cd-F source was also within the scope. Methods: Two databases on Cd and nutritional analyses were re-visited. Both databases were established through collection of 24-h food duplicate portion samples from residents in areas with no known Cd pollution, and contained information on Cd and energy contents in the duplicate portion, together with daily rice consumption, the gender, the age and the location of the residence of each sample donor. The first and the second databases were established through surveys in the years around 1980 on 564 cases and around 1995 on 702 cases, respectively. The two databases were combined for evaluation by multiple regression (MRA) and other analyses. Results: The analyses showed that men tended to take more Cd than women, more clearly so in the 1980 survey than in the 1995 survey. When Cd-F in the 1995 survey was compared with that in the 1980 survey, a substantial decrease was observed, e.g. by 30% (from 37.5 to 26.2 μg/day) in case of women. Cd-F values varied subject to the survey sites in a wide range (e.g. from 20 to 86 μg/day among women in the 1980 survey). In MRA with Cd-F as a dependent variable and survey sites and food intake factors (e.g. rice and energy intakes) as independent variables, the survey sites could explain more than 53% and 35% of total variation in Cd-F in the 1980 and 1995 surveys, respectively. Rice consumption was also influential to Cd-F in both surveys with partial correlation coefficients of 0.36 and 0.21, respectively, the influence being stronger in the 1980 survey than in the 1995 survey. A significant correlation was detected between the 1980 and 1995 survey results both in Cd-F and in rice consumption. Conclusion: Geographic and gender

  4. Location-routing Problem with Fuzzy time windows and Traffic time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Teimoori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The location-routing problem is a relatively new branch of logistics system. Its objective is to determine a suitable location for constructing distribution warehouses and proper transportation routing from warehouse to the customer. In this study, the location-routing problem is investigated with considering fuzzy servicing time window for each customer. Another important issue in this regard is the existence of congested times during the service time and distributing goods to the customer. This caused a delay in providing service for customer and imposed additional costs to distribution system. Thus we have provided a mathematical model for designing optimal distributing system. Since the vehicle location-routing problem is Np-hard, thus a solution method using genetic meta-heuristic algorithm was developed and the optimal sequence of servicing for the vehicle and optimal location for the warehouses were determined through an example.

  5. Locating AED Enabled Medical Drones to Enhance Cardiac Arrest Response Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Aaron; Wei, Ran; Mann, Clay

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) is prevalent in the United States. Each year between 180,000 and 400,000 people die due to cardiac arrest. The automated external defibrillator (AED) has greatly enhanced survival rates for OOHCA. However, one of the important components of successful cardiac arrest treatment is emergency medical services (EMS) response time (i.e., the time from EMS "wheels rolling" until arrival at the OOHCA scene). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have regularly been used for remote sensing and aerial imagery collection, but there are new opportunities to use drones for medical emergencies. The purpose of this study is to develop a geographic approach to the placement of a network of medical drones, equipped with an automated external defibrillator, designed to minimize travel time to victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our goal was to have one drone on scene within one minute for at least 90% of demand for AED shock therapy, while minimizing implementation costs. In our study, the current estimated travel times were evaluated in Salt Lake County using geographical information systems (GIS) and compared to the estimated travel times of a network of AED enabled medical drones. We employed a location model, the Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP), to determine the best configuration of drones to increase service coverage within one minute. We found that, using traditional vehicles, only 4.3% of the demand can be reached (travel time) within one minute utilizing current EMS agency locations, while 96.4% of demand can be reached within five minutes using current EMS vehicles and facility locations. Analyses show that using existing EMS stations to launch drones resulted in 80.1% of cardiac arrest demand being reached within one minute Allowing new sites to launch drones resulted in 90.3% of demand being reached within one minute. Finally, using existing EMS and new sites resulted in 90.3% of demand being reached while greatly reducing

  6. The subjective well-being of day labourers in South Africa: The role of income and geographical location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip F. Blaauw

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The informal economy in South Africa provides employment to large numbers of people who would otherwise have no opportunity to earn a living. Yet informal activities, such as day labouring, generate highly uncertain returns. Although it seems reasonable to conclude that day labourers would be dissatisfied with their lives, this is not necessarily the case as several factors contribute to people’s subjective well-being.   Aim: This study is in response to a call for more research on the subjective well-being of marginalised groups in South Africa’s informal labour market.   Setting: The day labour market in South Africa, whose members congregate at hiring sites hoping to be picked up by passers-by in need of temporary, casual workers.   Methods: Using Sen’s Capability Approach, the study builds on earlier research conducted on the general well-being of day labourers in South Africa, with specific focus on their subjective well-being and geographical location. The results from a countrywide survey of 3830 day labourers were used in a regression analysis to compare the subjective well-being among day labourers across the nine provinces of South Africa.   Results: There are statistically significant differences in the well-being of day labourers across the nine provinces. Economic variables play a role in both objective and subjective measures of well-being, while attitudinal and comparison variables are significant for the objective and subjective measures, respectively.   Conclusions: Although they have to operate in harsh conditions, day labourers in South Africa display agency by choosing to migrate to richer provinces in search of greater economic opportunity and reward. However, these potential gains are often negated by increased levels of competition and thus depressed wage levels. How to nurture marginalised groups’ abilities to exercise agency and take more control of their lives represents fertile ground for

  7. Nuclear event time histories and computed site transfer functions for locations in the Los Angeles region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.M.; Covington, P.A.; Park, R.B.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Perkins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosion recordings obtained at sites in the greater Los Angeles, Calif., region. The report includes ground velocity time histories, as well as, derived site transfer functions. These data have been collected as part of a study to evaluate the validity of using low-level ground motions to predict the frequency-dependent response of a site during an earthquake. For this study 19 nuclear events were recorded at 98 separate locations. Some of these sites have recorded more than one of the nuclear explosions, and, consequently, there are a total of 159, three-component station records. The location of all the recording sites are shown in figures 1–5, the station coordinates and abbreviations are given in table 1. The station addresses are listed in table 2, and the nuclear explosions that were recorded are listed in table 3. The recording sites were chosen on the basis of three criteria: (1) that the underlying geological conditions were representative of conditions over significant areas of the region, (2) that the site was the location of a strong-motion recording of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, or (3) that more complete geographical coverage was required in that location.

  8. Oscillation of Vortex Breakdown Location and Blowing Control of Time-Averaged Location

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this research is the control of leading-edge vortex breakdown location utilizing along-the-core blowing near the apex on the leeward surface of sharp-edged, slender, delta wings at high angles of attack...

  9. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  10. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  11. Phylogenetic heritability of geographic range size in haematophagous ectoparasites: time of divergence and variation among continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Boris R; Shenbrot, Georgy I; van der Mescht, Luther; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2018-04-12

    To understand existence, patterns and mechanisms behind phylogenetic heritability in the geographic range size (GRS) of parasites, we measured phylogenetic signal (PS) in the sizes of both regional (within a region) and continental (within a continent) geographic ranges of fleas in five regions. We asked whether (a) GRS is phylogenetically heritable and (b) the manifestation of PS varies between regions. We also asked whether geographic variation in PS reflects the effects of the environment's spatiotemporal stability (e.g. glaciation disrupting geographic ranges) or is associated with time since divergence (accumulation differences among species over time). Support for the former hypothesis would be indicated by stronger PS in southern than in northern regions, whereas support for the latter hypothesis would be shown by stronger PS in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the derived lineages than in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the basal lineages. We detected significant PS in both regional and continental GRSs of fleas from Canada and in continental GRS of fleas from Mongolia. No PS was found in the GRS of fleas from Australia and Southern Africa. Venezuelan fleas demonstrated significant PS in regional GRS only. Local Indicators of Phylogenetic Association detected significant local positive autocorrelations of GRS in some clades even in regions in which PS has not been detected across the entire phylogeny. This was mainly characteristic of younger taxa.

  12. An investigation by LA-ICP-MS of possum tooth enamel as a model for identifying childhood geographical locations of historical and archaeological human remains from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, N.E.; Balks, M.; Littler, R.; Manley-Harris, M.; Te Awekotuku, N.

    2012-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) has been used to analyse enamel from the teeth of brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in order to model a method for identifying the childhood geographical origin of human remains within New Zealand. The model application of the method is promising for establishing locations of historical and archaeological human remains, including preserved heads, upoko tuhi. (author). 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. The impact of travel time on geographic distribution of dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Takahiko; Eboshida, Akira; Takeuchi, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The geographic disparity of prevalence rates among dialysis patients is unclear. We evaluate the association between travel time to dialysis facilities and prevalence rates of dialysis patients living in 1,867 census areas of Hiroshima, Japan. Furthermore, we study the effects of geographic features (mainland or island) on the prevalence rates and assess if these effects modify the association between travel time and prevalence. The study subjects were all 7,374 people that were certified as the "renal disabled" by local governments in 2011. The travel time from each patient to the nearest available dialysis facility was calculated by incorporating both travel time and the capacity of all 98 facilities. The effect of travel time on the age- and sex-adjusted standard prevalence rate (SPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at each census area was evaluated in two-level Poisson regression models with 1,867 census areas (level 1) nested within 35 towns or cities (level 2). The results were adjusted for area-based parameters of socioeconomic status, urbanity, and land type. Furthermore, the SPR of dialysis patients was calculated in each specific subgroup of population for travel time, land type, and combination of land type and travel time. In the regression analysis, SPR decreased by 5.2% (95% CI: -7.9--2.3) per 10-min increase in travel time even after adjusting for potential confounders. The effect of travel time on prevalence was different in the mainland and island groups. There was no travel time-dependent SPR disparity on the islands. The SPR among remote residents (>30 min from facilities) in the mainland was lower (0.77, 95% CI: 0.71-0.85) than that of closer residents (≤ 30 min; 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97). The prevalence of dialysis patients was lower among remote residents. Geographic difficulties for commuting seem to decrease the prevalence rate.

  14. Architecture for Multi-Technology Real-Time Location Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Javier; Barral, Valentín; Escudero, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    The rising popularity of location-based services has prompted considerable research in the field of indoor location systems. Since there is no single technology to support these systems, it is necessary to consider the fusion of the information coming from heterogeneous sensors. This paper presents a software architecture designed for a hybrid location system where we can merge information from multiple sensor technologies. The architecture was designed to be used by different kinds of actors independently and with mutual transparency: hardware administrators, algorithm developers and user applications. The paper presents the architecture design, work-flow, case study examples and some results to show how different technologies can be exploited to obtain a good estimation of a target position. PMID:23435050

  15. Architecture for multi-technology real-time location systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Javier; Barral, Valentín; Escudero, Carlos J

    2013-02-07

    The rising popularity of location-based services has prompted considerable research in the field of indoor location systems. Since there is no single technology to support these systems, it is necessary to consider the fusion of the information coming from heterogeneous sensors. This paper presents a software architecture designed for a hybrid location system where we can merge information from multiple sensor technologies. The architecture was designed to be used by different kinds of actors independently and with mutual transparency: hardware administrators, algorithm developers and user applications. The paper presents the architecture design, work-flow, case study examples and some results to show how different technologies can be exploited to obtain a good estimation of a target position.

  16. Do consumers' preferences for improved provision of malaria treatment services differ by their socio-economic status and geographic location? A study in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasie Nnenna G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of utilization of malaria treatment services will depend on provision of treatment services that different population groups of consumers prefer and would want to use. Treatment of malaria in Nigeria is still problematic and this contributes to worsening burden of the disease in the country. Therefore this study explores the socio-economic and geographic differences in consumers' preferences for improved treatment of malaria in Southeast Nigeria and how the results can be used to improve the deployment of malaria treatment services. Methods This study was undertaken in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria in three rural and three urban areas. A total of 2,250 randomly selected householders were interviewed using a pre tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Preferences were elicited using both a rating scale and ranking of different treatment provision sources by the respondents. A socio-economic status (SES index was used to examine for SES differences, whilst urban-rural comparison was used to examine for geographic differences, in preferences. Results The most preferred source of provision of malaria treatment services was public hospitals (30.5%, training of mothers (19% and treatment in Primary healthcare centres (18.1%. Traditional healers (4.8% and patent medicine dealers (4.2% were the least preferred strategies for improving malaria treatment. Some of the preferences differed by SES and by a lesser extent, the geographic location of the respondents. Conclusion Preferences for provision of improved malaria treatment services were influenced by SES and by geographic location. There should be re-invigoration of public facilities for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, in addition to improving the financial and geographic accessibility of such facilities. Training of mothers should be encouraged but home management will not work if the quality of services of patent medicine dealers and pharmacy

  17. Web-Based Survey Application to Collect Contextually Relevant Geographic Data With Exposure Times: Application Development and Feasibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Karin; Rudolph, Jonathan; Latkin, Carl

    2018-01-01

    Background Although studies that characterize the risk environment by linking contextual factors with individual-level data have advanced infectious disease and substance use research, there are opportunities to refine how we define relevant neighborhood exposures; this can in turn reduce the potential for exposure misclassification. For example, for those who do not inject at home, injection risk behaviors may be more influenced by the environment where they inject than where they live. Similarly, among those who spend more time away from home, a measure that accounts for different neighborhood exposures by weighting each unique location proportional to the percentage of time spent there may be more correlated with health behaviors than one’s residential environment. Objective This study aimed to develop a Web-based application that interacts with Google Maps application program interfaces (APIs) to collect contextually relevant locations and the amount of time spent in each. Our analysis examined the extent of overlap across different location types and compared different approaches for classifying neighborhood exposure. Methods Between May 2014 and March 2017, 547 participants enrolled in a Baltimore HIV care and prevention study completed an interviewer-administered Web-based survey that collected information about where participants were recruited, worked, lived, socialized, injected drugs, and spent most of their time. For each location, participants gave an address or intersection which they confirmed using Google Map and Street views. Geographic coordinates (and hours spent in each location) were joined to neighborhood indicators by Community Statistical Area (CSA). We computed a weighted exposure based on the proportion of time spent in each unique location. We compared neighborhood exposures based on each of the different location types with one another and the weighted exposure using analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections to account for

  18. Where Do Freestanding Emergency Departments Choose to Locate? A National Inventory and Geographic Analysis in Three States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuur, Jeremiah D; Baker, Olesya; Freshman, Jaclyn; Wilson, Michael; Cutler, David M

    2017-04-01

    We determine the number and location of freestanding emergency departments (EDs) across the United States and determine the population characteristics of areas where freestanding EDs are located. We conducted a systematic inventory of US freestanding EDs. For the 3 states with the highest number of freestanding EDs, we linked demographic, insurance, and health services data, using the 5-digit ZIP code corresponding to the freestanding ED's location. To create a comparison nonfreestanding ED group, we matched 187 freestanding EDs to 1,048 nonfreestanding ED ZIP codes on land and population within state. We compared differences in demographic, insurance, and health services factors between matched ZIP codes with and without freestanding EDs, using univariate regressions with weights. We identified 360 freestanding EDs located in 30 states; 54.2% of freestanding EDs were hospital satellites, 36.6% were independent, and 9.2% were not classifiable. The 3 states with the highest number of freestanding EDs accounted for 66% of all freestanding EDs: Texas (181), Ohio (34), and Colorado (24). Across all 3 states, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes that had higher incomes and a lower proportion of the population with Medicaid. In Texas and Ohio, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes with a higher proportion of the population with private insurance. In Texas, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes that had fewer Hispanics, had a greater number of hospital-based EDs and physician offices, and had more physician visits and medical spending per year than ZIP codes without a freestanding ED. In Ohio, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes with fewer hospital-based EDs. In Texas, Ohio, and Colorado, freestanding EDs were located in areas with a better payer mix. The location of freestanding EDs in relation to other health care facilities and use and spending on health care varied between states. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians

  19. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  20. AE source location by neural networks with arrival time profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlada, Milan; Blaháček, Michal; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2009), s. 4-4 ISSN 1213-3825. [NDT in PROGRESS. 12.11.2009-14.11.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1518; GA ČR GA106/07/1393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission * source location * artificial neural networks Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics www.cndt.cz

  1. Incorporating waiting time in competitive location models: Formulations and heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Francisco; Serra, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a metaheuristic to solve a new version of the Maximum Capture Problem. In the original MCP, market capture is obtained by lower traveling distances or lower traveling time, in this new version not only the traveling time but also the waiting time will affect the market share. This problem is hard to solve using standard optimization techniques. Metaheuristics are shown to offer accurate results within acceptable computing times.

  2. Using geographical information systems (GIS to examine sanitary implications of rubbish dump locations at human activity centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenos Koku Ankrah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate health risks that refuse dump locations have on people. The global positioning systems (GPS were used to take location coordinates of 28 rubbish dump centers and human activity centers (clinics, restaurants, markets etc spread across a university campus in Ghana. The ArcGIS software was used to plot the coordinates and draw a buffer of 50 meters around the rubbish dump locations (RDL to show the closeness between the dump sites and the human activity centers (HAC, and the sanitary implications of the closeness. More than 90% of the HACs fell within the 50 meters buffer zone of the rubbish dump sites. The findings indicated that some sensitive HACs like food joints, laundries etc. were less than 15 meters from rubbish dump sites. The findings confirmed that the location of rubbish dump sites pose serious threat to the health of the human community in the university. The findings of this study can be used to make evidence- based decisions about possible relocation of rubbish dump containers in the university. This study is also an initiative to set the tone for more detailed research work on the health implications of rubbish disposal management on Ghanaians.

  3. On the geographical distribution of induced time-varying crustal magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thebault, E.; Hemant, K.; Hulot, G.

    2009-01-01

    A long standing question in geomagnetism is whether the time variation of the induced crustal field is a detectable quantity and, if so, at which spatial wavelengths. We tackle this problem with the help of a forward modeling approach using a vertically integrated susceptibility (VIS) grid...... of the Earth's crust. For spherical harmonic degrees 15-90, we estimate the root mean square of the crustal magnetic field secular variation to amount 0.06-0.12 nT/yr at the terrestrial surface between epochs 1960-2002.5. The geographical distribution of the signal shows absolute values reaching 0.65-1.30 n...

  4. Mechanism of injury and microbiological flora of the geographical location are essential for the prognosis in soldiers with serious warfare injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Mik; Rose-Larsen, Katrine; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    patients survived to discharge and two patients died. DISCUSSION: Explosion was the most frequent cause of injury in all cases and caused damage to several organ systems. Infections after combat injuries are a major problem because of the different microbiological profile. CONCLUSION: The use of explosives...... has been and remains a substantial part of warfare, and this review has showed us that the knowledge of the mechanism of injury is indeed essential, and that intelligence on the microbiological flora of the geographical location of the conflict is essential. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  5. Time-Series Analysis of Continuously Monitored Blood Glucose: The Impacts of Geographic and Daily Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean T. Doherty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with environmental, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. However, the actual impacts of these factors on blood glucose (BG variation throughout the day have remained relatively unexplored. Continuous blood glucose monitors combined with human activity tracking technologies afford new opportunities for exploration in a naturalistic setting. Data from a study of 40 patients with diabetes is utilized in this paper, including continuously monitored BG, food/medicine intake, and patient activity/location tracked using global positioning systems over a 4-day period. Standard linear regression and more disaggregated time-series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA are used to explore patient BG variation throughout the day and over space. The ARIMA models revealed a wide variety of BG correlating factors related to specific activity types, locations (especially those far from home, and travel modes, although the impacts were highly personal. Traditional variables related to food intake and medications were less often significant. Overall, the time-series analysis revealed considerable patient-by-patient variation in the effects of geographic and daily lifestyle factors. We would suggest that maps of BG spatial variation or an interactive messaging system could provide new tools to engage patients and highlight potential risk factors.

  6. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  7. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  8. The Usage of Geographical Information System in the Selection of Floating Cages Location for Aquaculture at Prigi Bay, Trenggalek Regency, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armono, H. D.; Mahaputra, B. G.; Zikra, M.

    2018-03-01

    Floating cages is one of the methods of fish farming (aqua culture) that can be developed at rivers, lakes or seas. To determine a proper location for floating cages, there are some requirements that need to be fulfilled to maintain sustainibility of floating cages. Those requirements are the quality of the environment. This paper will discuss the selection of best location for aquaculture activities using Weighted Overlay method in the Geographical Information System, based on the the concentration of chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperature presented by Aqua MODIS Level 1b satellite images. The satellite data will be associated with the measured field data on March and October 2016. The study take place on Prigi Bay, at Trenggalek Regency, East Java. Based on spatial analysis in the Geographical Information System, the Prigi bay generally suitable for aquaculture activities using floating net cages. The result of Weighted Overlay combinations in both periods showed a mean score of 2.18 of 3 where 8.33 km2 (23.13% of the water area) considered as "very suitable" and 27.67 km2 (76.87% of water area) considered "suitable".

  9. Evaluation of location and number of aid post for sustainable humanitarian relief using agent based modeling (ABM) and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Fauzi; Sopha, Bertha Maya

    2017-12-01

    One of the crucial phases in disaster management is the response phase or the emergency response phase. It requires a sustainable system and a well-integrated management system. Any errors in the system on this phase will impact on significant increase of the victims number as well as material damage caused. Policies related to the location of aid posts are important decisions. The facts show that there are many failures in the process of providing assistance to the refugees due to lack of preparation and determination of facilities and aid post location. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the number and location of aid posts on Merapi eruption in 2010. This study uses an integration between Agent Based Modeling (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) about evaluation of the number and location of the aid post using some scenarios. The ABM approach aims to describe the agents behaviour (refugees and volunteers) in the event of a disaster with their respective characteristics. While the spatial data, GIS useful to describe real condition of the Sleman regency road. Based on the simulation result, it shows alternative scenarios that combine DERU UGM post, Maguwoharjo Stadium, Tagana Post and Pakem Main Post has better result in handling and distributing aid to evacuation barrack compared to initial scenario. Alternative scenarios indicates the unmet demands are less than the initial scenario.

  10. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  11. A Comprehensive Real-Time Traffic Map for Geographic Routing in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Fu Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs have attracted a lot of attention during the last decade. VANETs can not only improve driving safety, but also convenience, and support most future Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. Due to the highly dynamic network topology of VANETs, many geographic routing protocols have been proposed and use real-time traffic information as an important metric to select a reliable forwarding path. However, most of the existing works do not describe how to gather real-time traffic. They either assume this information is already available, or can query an existing traffic center. Few studies have noticed this issue but the proposed solutions only consider a small region. In this paper, we propose a Comprehensive Real-Time Traffic Map (CRT Map to collect wide-ranging real-time traffic information with low overhead. In the design of a CRT Map, the concept of Crowdsensing is adopted. Vehicles cooperatively gather traffic information and share it with each other to construct an overview of the whole road network traffic. In addition, we design a CRT Map Based Routing (CBR, which takes into account the connectivity of consecutive roads in routing decisions. Simulation results show that the CBR can achieve a lower end-to-end delay and a higher packet delivery ratio.

  12. Markov chain analysis of the rainfall patterns of five geographical locations in the south eastern coast of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshach Tettey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study develops an objective rainfall pattern assessment through Markov chain analysis using daily rainfall data from 1980 to 2010, a period of 30 years, for five cities or towns along the south eastern coastal belt of Ghana; Cape Coast, Accra, Akuse, Akatsi and Keta. Transition matrices were computed for each town and each month using the conditional probability of rain or no rain on a particular day given that it rained or did not rain on the previous day. The steady state transition matrices and the steady state probability vectors were also computed for each town and each month. It was found that, the rainy or dry season pattern observed using the monthly steady state rainfall vectors tended to reflect the monthly rainfall time series trajectory. Overall, the probability of rain on any day was low to average: Keta 0.227, Akuse 0.382, Accra 0.467, Cape Coast, 0.50 and Akatsi 0.50. In particular, for Accra, the rainy season was observed to be in the months of May to June and September to October. We also determined that the probability of rainfall generally tended to increase from east to west along the south eastern coast of Ghana.

  13. Outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB-18 in different geographic locations for evaluating its growth and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Cristiane Santos; da Silva Uebel, Lívia; Costa, Samantha Serra; Miranda, Andréa Lobo; de Morais, Etiele Greque; de Morais, Michele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Nunes, Itaciara Larroza; de Souza Ferreira, Ederlan; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated whether outdoor cultivation of Spirulina sp. in different geographical locations affected its growth and biomass quality, with respect to the chemical composition, volatile compound and heavy metal content, and thermal stability. The positive effect of solar radiation and temperature on biomass productivity in Spirulina sp. cultivated in the northeast was directly related to its improved nutritional characteristics, which occurred with an increase in protein, phycocyanin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (mainly γ-linolenic) content. The biomass produced in Northeast and South Brazil showed high thermal stability and had volatile compounds that could be used as biomarkers of Spirulina, and their parameters were within the limits of internationally recognized standards for food additives; hence, they have been considered safe foods. However, the growth of crops in south Brazil occurred at lower rates due to low temperatures and luminous intensities, indicative of the robustness of microalgae in relation to these parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 8381 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Impromptu Notice of Time & Location Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Time & Location Change The National Science Board's Committee on Program and Plans, pursuant to NSF... MATTER: No change. STATUS: No change. ORIGINAL LOCATION: Room 1295 or 1235, National Science Foundation, 4201Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230. NEW LOCATION: Room 1295. Public overflow room for the open session...

  15. Travel Times for Screening Mammography: Impact of Geographic Expansion by a Large Academic Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Liang, Yu; Duszak, Richard; Recht, Michael P

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of off-campus facility expansion by a large academic health system on patient travel times for screening mammography. Screening mammograms performed from 2013 to 2015 and associated patient demographics were identified using the NYU Langone Medical Center Enterprise Data Warehouse. During this time, the system's number of mammography facilities increased from 6 to 19, reflecting expansion beyond Manhattan throughout the New York metropolitan region. Geocoding software was used to estimate driving times from patients' homes to imaging facilities. For 147,566 screening mammograms, the mean estimated patient travel time was 19.9 ± 15.2 minutes. With facility expansion, travel times declined significantly (P travel times between such subgroups. However, travel times to pre-expansion facilities remained stable (initial: 26.8 ± 18.9 minutes, final: 26.7 ± 18.6 minutes). Among women undergoing mammography before and after expansion, travel times were shorter for the postexpansion mammogram in only 6.3%, but this rate varied significantly (all P travel burden and reduce travel time variation among sociodemographic populations. Nonetheless, existing patients strongly tend to return to established facilities despite potentially shorter travel time locations, suggesting strong site loyalty. Variation in travel times likely relates to various factors other than facility proximity. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. LPTA: Location Predictive and Time Adaptive Data Gathering Scheme with Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper exploits sink mobility to prolong the lifetime of sensor networks while maintaining the data transmission delay relatively low. A location predictive and time adaptive data gathering scheme is proposed. In this paper, we introduce a sink location prediction principle based on loose time synchronization and deduce the time-location formulas of the mobile sink. According to local clocks and the time-location formulas of the mobile sink, nodes in the network are able to calculate the current location of the mobile sink accurately and route data packets timely toward the mobile sink by multihop relay. Considering that data packets generating from different areas may be different greatly, an adaptive dwelling time adjustment method is also proposed to balance energy consumption among nodes in the network. Simulation results show that our data gathering scheme enables data routing with less data transmission time delay and balance energy consumption among nodes.

  17. LPTA: location predictive and time adaptive data gathering scheme with mobile sink for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuan; Wang, Yao; Han, Guangjie; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    This paper exploits sink mobility to prolong the lifetime of sensor networks while maintaining the data transmission delay relatively low. A location predictive and time adaptive data gathering scheme is proposed. In this paper, we introduce a sink location prediction principle based on loose time synchronization and deduce the time-location formulas of the mobile sink. According to local clocks and the time-location formulas of the mobile sink, nodes in the network are able to calculate the current location of the mobile sink accurately and route data packets timely toward the mobile sink by multihop relay. Considering that data packets generating from different areas may be different greatly, an adaptive dwelling time adjustment method is also proposed to balance energy consumption among nodes in the network. Simulation results show that our data gathering scheme enables data routing with less data transmission time delay and balance energy consumption among nodes.

  18. High-resolution and super stacking of time-reversal mirrors in locating seismic sources

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Weiping; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.; Zhan, Ge; Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot

    2011-01-01

    Time reversal mirrors can be used to backpropagate and refocus incident wavefields to their actual source location, with the subsequent benefits of imaging with high-resolution and super-stacking properties. These benefits of time reversal mirrors

  19. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of geographic location and prolonged conflict from a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Mandungu, Tumwaka P; Mbela, Kisumbula; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Kalambayi, Banza B; Kayembe, Kalambayi P; Emina, Jacques B O

    2014-03-20

    The child mortality rate is a good indicator of development. High levels of infectious diseases and high child mortality make the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) one of the most challenging environments for health development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recent conflicts in the eastern part of the country and bad governance have compounded the problem. This study aimed to examine province-level geographic variation in under-five mortality (U5M), accounting for individual- and household-level risk factors including environmental factors such as conflict. Our analysis used the nationally representative cross-sectional household sample of 8,992 children under five in the 2007 DRC Demographic and Health Survey. In the survey year, 1,005 deaths among this group were observed. Information on U5M was aggregated to the 11 provinces, and a Bayesian geo-additive discrete-time survival mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) at the province level, accounting for observable and unobservable risk factors. The overall U5MR was 159 per 1,000 live births. Significant associations with risk of U5M were found for conflict area of the DRC, and the lowest in the conflict area of North Kivu. This study reveals clear geographic patterns in rates of U5M in the DRC and shows the potential role of individual child, household and environmental factors, which are unexplained by the ongoing conflict. The displacement of mothers to safer areas may explain the lower U5MR observed at the epicentre of the conflict in North Kivu, compared with rates in conflict-free areas. Overall, the U5M maps point to a lack of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal of reducing U5M by half by 2015.

  20. The Russian Accusative and Locative and Their Relation to Time and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Elena; Durst-Andersen, Per

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyzes the uses of the Russian accusative and locative in which they are directly opposed to one another. It is demonstrated that in spatial contexts the accusative denotes change of contact, whereas the locative denotes permanent contact. This is a manifestation of the crucial...... as location or a set of elements. This means that the accusative is alone in expressing time in its own right, where the speaker makes contact with a time line. In addition, the semantic contribution of the prepositions v ‘in’ and na ‘on’ to the accusative and locative cases is shown....

  1. Location-Dependent Query Processing Under Soft Real-Time Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoubir Mammeri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices and applications achieved an increasing development. In database field, this development required methods to consider new query types like location-dependent queries (i.e. the query results depend on the query issuer location. Although several researches addressed problems related to location-dependent query processing, a few works considered timing requirements that may be associated with queries (i.e., the query results must be delivered to mobile clients on time. The main objective of this paper is to propose a solution for location-dependent query processing under soft real-time constraints. Hence, we propose methods to take into account client location-dependency and to maximize the percentage of queries respecting their deadlines. We validate our proposal by implementing a prototype based on Oracle DBMS. Performance evaluation results show that the proposed solution optimizes the percentage of queries meeting their deadlines and the communication cost.

  2. Geographical location as critical factor in design and planning for international projects; La localizacion geografica como factor critico en el diseno y planificacion de proyectos internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matranga, Mariana; Rawson, Carola; Pandolfi, Juan Martin; Guamantica, Diego; Eberle, Juan Manuel; Mastandrea, Martin [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The success of an international project is closely linked to the knowledge of the scene where the steps of construction, installation and operation will take place. In that sense, early consideration of geographic factors, socio-economic and environmental impact has proven to be determinant for the successful development of the phases of design, construction, transportation, assembly and operation. In the case of the Planta de Tratamiento de Gas Sabalo, taking into account the above factors not only enabled the efficient development of the various phases of the project, but also complete stages of assembly and start-up in twenty weeks. The Planta de Tratamiento de Gas Sabalo is located in the Chaco, region in the Bolivian jungle, and has a capacity of 13.4 MMSCMD gas specification, which makes the plant increased capacity in Bolivia and one of the highest capacity in South America. Companies in Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador and Argentina were involved in the project, the latter in charge of its design, construction and management. Based on the experience of the project Sabalo, this article presents a series of lines especially applicable to international projects.

  3. Risk assessment of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments on Hainan Island: A full-scale set of 474 geographical locations covering the entire island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Lin, Ze-Feng; Wen, Jia-Sheng; Wei, Yan-Sha; Gan, Hua-Yang; He, Hai-Jun; Lin, Jin-Qin; Xia, Zhen; Chen, Bi-Shuang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Tan, Cha-Sheng; Cai, Hua-Yang

    2017-12-15

    Hainan Island is the second largest island and one of the most famous tourist destinations in China, but sediment contamination by trace metals in coastal areas is a major issue. However, full-scale risk assessments of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments are lacking. In this study, coastal surface sediments from 474 geographical locations covering almost the entire island were collected to identify risk-related variables. Controlling factors and possible sources of trace metals were identified, and the toxicity effects were carefully evaluated. Our results suggest that trace-metal pollution in coastal sediments, which was mainly caused by Pb, Zn and Cu emissions, has primarily resulted from industrial sewage and shipping activities and has threatened the offshore ecosystem of Hainan Island and warrants extensive consideration. This is the first study that has systematically investigated trace metal-polluted coastal sediments throughout the entirety of Hainan Island and provides solid evidence for sustainable marine management in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Terrestrial service environments for selected geographic locations. Final report. [1965--1974 data; to define solar array environment to aid in encapsulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1976-06-24

    This report contains results obtained from analyses of climatic, precipitation, air pollution, and other environmental data for the years 1965 to 1974 at nine widely different geographic locations in the United States (Albuquerque, N.M.; Bismarck, N.D.; Boston, Mass.; Brownsville, TX.; Cleveland, OH; Fairbanks, AK; Los Angeles, CA; Miami, FL; and Phoenix, AZ). In addition to descriptive and diurnal statistics for 24 individual climatic variables, ''environmental cell'' statistics were computed to obtain the frequencies, durations, and transitions for the simultaneous occurrence of various combinations of environmental variables. Results are presented for the simultaneous occurrence of specific levels of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and insolation, in addition to representative results obtained for other combinations of variables. The results characterize the environmental conditions to which terrestrial solar arrays would be exposed over a 20-year lifetime, and serve to identify environmental factors and levels that can be used in testing candidate encapsulation materials and systems for such terrestrial exposures. An innovative methodology was applied to obtain these results for combinations of environmental variables. Because of its generality and demonstrated feasibility, it is concluded that the methodology also has broad applications to other testing programs.

  5. Three explanations for biodiversity hotspots: small range size, geographical overlap and time for species accumulation. An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lyn G; Hardy, Nate B; Crisp, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    To understand the generation and maintenance of biodiversity hotspots, we tested three major hypotheses: rates of diversification, ecological limits to diversity, and time for species accumulation. Using dated molecular phylogenies, measures of species' range size and geographical clade overlap, niche modelling, and lineages-through-time plots of Australian Fabaceae, we compared the southwest Australia Floristic Region (SWAFR; a global biodiversity hotspot) with a latitudinally equivalent non-hotspot, southeast Australia (SEA). Ranges of species (real and simulated) were smaller in the SWAFR than in SEA. Geographical overlap of clades was significantly greater for Daviesia in the SWAFR than in SEA, but the inverse for Bossiaea. Lineage diversification rates over the past 10 Myr did not differ between the SWAFR and SEA in either genus. Interaction of multiple factors probably explains the differences in measured diversity between the two regions. Steeper climatic gradients in the SWAFR probably explain the smaller geographical ranges of both genera there. Greater geographical overlap of clades in the SWAFR, combined with a longer time in the region, can explain why Daviesia is far more species-rich there than in SEA. Our results indicate that the time for speciation and ecological limits hypotheses, in concert, can explain the differences in biodiversity. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Key Technologies and Applications of Satellite and Sensor Web-coupled Real-time Dynamic Web Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Nengcheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The geo-spatial information service has failed to reflect the live status of spot and meet the needs of integrated monitoring and real-time information for a long time. To tackle the problems in observation sharing and integrated management of space-borne, air-borne, and ground-based platforms and efficient service of spatio-temporal information, an observation sharing model was proposed. The key technologies in real-time dynamic geographical information system (GIS including maximum spatio-temporal coverage-based optimal layout of earth-observation sensor Web, task-driven and feedback-based control, real-time access of streaming observations, dynamic simulation, warning and decision support were detailed. An real-time dynamic Web geographical information system (WebGIS named GeoSensor and its applications in sensing and management of spatio-temporal information of Yangtze River basin including navigation, flood prevention, and power generation were also introduced.

  7. Trends in oral anti-osteoporosis drug prescription in the United Kingdom between 1990 and 2012: Variation by age, sex, geographic location and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, R Y; Wyers, C E; Teesselink, E; Geusens, P P M M; van den Bergh, J P W; de Vries, F; Cooper, C; Harvey, N C; van Staa, T P

    2017-01-01

    Given the expected increase in the number of patients with osteoporosis and fragility fractures it is important to have concise information on trends in prescription rates of anti-osteoporosis drugs (AOD). We undertook a retrospective observational study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in the UK between 1990 and 2012 in subjects 50years or older, stratified by age, sex, geographic region and ethnicity. Yearly prescription incidence rates of any AOD and of each specific AOD were calculated as the number of patients first prescribed these AODs per 10,000person-years (py). In women, yearly rates of first prescription of any AOD increased from 1990 to 2006 (from 2.3 to 169.7 per 10,000py), followed by a plateau and a 12% decrease in the last three years. In men, a less steep increase from 1990 to 2007 (from 1.4 to 45.3 per 10,000py) was followed by a plateau from 2008 onwards. Yearly rates of first prescription of any AOD increased up to the age of 85-89years (248.9 per 10,000py in women and 119.3 in men). There were marked differences between ethnic groups and regions. Bisphosphonates were the most frequently prescribed AODs: etidronate till 2000, and then subsequently alendronate. We have demonstrated marked secular changes in rates of anti-osteoporosis drug prescription over the last two decades. The plateau (and decrease amongst women) in rates in recent years, set against an ever ageing population, is worrying, suggesting that the well-documented care gap in osteoporosis treatment persists. The differences in prescription rates by geographic location and ethnicity raise intriguing questions in relation to underlying fracture rates, provision of care and health behaviour. We studied the prescription incidence of anti-osteoporosis drugs (AOD) from 1990 to 2012 in the UK CPRD. Overall AOD prescription incidence showed a strong increase from 1990 to 2006, followed by a plateau in both sexes and a decrease amongst women in the last three years

  8. Temporal and locational flexibility of work, working-time fit, and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possenriede, D.S.; Plantenga, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the effects of arrangements that provide temporal and locational flexibility of work (TLF), namely flexi-time, telehomework, and part-time work, on employees' satisfaction with the fit between working time and private life and their overall job satisfaction. TLF arrangements

  9. Near-real time 3D probabilistic earthquakes locations at Mt. Etna volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Mostaccio, A.; Patane', D.; Tuve', T.

    2012-04-01

    Automatic procedure for locating earthquake in quasi-real time must provide a good estimation of earthquakes location within a few seconds after the event is first detected and is strongly needed for seismic warning system. The reliability of an automatic location algorithm is influenced by several factors such as errors in picking seismic phases, network geometry, and velocity model uncertainties. On Mt. Etna, the seismic network is managed by INGV and the quasi-real time earthquakes locations are performed by using an automatic-picking algorithm based on short-term-average to long-term-average ratios (STA/LTA) calculated from an approximate squared envelope function of the seismogram, which furnish a list of P-wave arrival times, and the location algorithm Hypoellipse, with a 1D velocity model. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the performances of a different automatic procedure to improve the quasi-real time earthquakes locations. In fact, as the automatic data processing may be affected by outliers (wrong picks), the use of a traditional earthquake location techniques based on a least-square misfit function (L2-norm) often yield unstable and unreliable solutions. Moreover, on Mt. Etna, the 1D model is often unable to represent the complex structure of the volcano (in particular the strong lateral heterogeneities), whereas the increasing accuracy in the 3D velocity models at Mt. Etna during recent years allows their use today in routine earthquake locations. Therefore, we selected, as reference locations, all the events occurred on Mt. Etna in the last year (2011) which was automatically detected and located by means of the Hypoellipse code. By using this dataset (more than 300 events), we applied a nonlinear probabilistic earthquake location algorithm using the Equal Differential Time (EDT) likelihood function, (Font et al., 2004; Lomax, 2005) which is much more robust in the presence of outliers in the data. Successively, by using a probabilistic

  10. How urban African American young adolescents spend their time: time budgets for locations, activities, and companionship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R W; Richards, M H; Sims, B; Dworkin, J

    2001-08-01

    The time budgets of a population of youth provide important information about their daily experience and socialization. This study reports data on the time budgets of a sample of 253 urban African American poor to working- and middle-class 5th-8th graders in Chicago. These youth were found to spend less time in school than other postindustrial adolescent populations, but spent no less time doing homework than White suburban U.S. young adolescents. They spent large quantities of time at home and with their families--at rates comparable to rates for young adolescents in a society with collectivist values like India. Unlike with other populations, early adolescence was not associated with major age changes in time allocations. Amount of time in schoolwork did not differ by grade, and amount of time with family did not show the decline with age that has been found for European American suburban adolescents.

  11. Location, location, location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities.

  12. Real-time beam tracing for control of the deposition location of electron cyclotron waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, M., E-mail: matthias.reich@ipp.mpg.de; Bilato, R.; Mszanowski, U.; Poli, E.; Rapson, C.; Stober, J.; Volpe, F.; Zille, R.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We successfully integrated a real-time EC beam tracing code at ASDEX Upgrade. • The calculation of EC beam deposition location is fast enough for control purposes. • The accuracy of the deposition location calculation exceeds equivalent measurements. • The implementation method is by design portable to larger fusion devices. - Abstract: Plasma control techniques that use electron cyclotron (EC) resonance heating and current drive such as control of neoclassical tearing modes require accurate control of the deposition location of EC beams. ASDEX Upgrade has successfully implemented a real-time version of the beam-tracing code TORBEAM into its real-time diagnostic system to act as a globally available module that calculates current deposition location and its sensitivity from other real-time diagnostic measurements for all its moveable EC wave launchers. Based on a highly (100×) accelerated version of TORBEAM, the software implementation as a diagnostic process uses parallelization and achieves cycle times of 15–20 ms for determining the radial deposition location of 12 beams in the plasma. This cycle time includes data input–output overhead arising from the use of available real-time signals. The system is by design portable to other machines such as ITER.

  13. In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian women. Part I: variability with age and geographical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, L; Flament, F; Wagle, A; Agrawal, D

    2018-02-01

    India is a large country (a subcontinent) of about 3.3 million km 2 that covers large ranges in latitude and longitude. The last Indian census counted about 1.21 billion of inhabitants of many origins, creating a vast human diversity and skin types, the variability of which having been previously established. The present study aimed at deepening this knowledge through a set of biophysical measurements to describe, along the skin ageing process, the specificities of various Indian subjects living in different geographical locations. A total of 1204 women, aged 18-84 years, of all socio-economic status, were recruited in four Indian cities (Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi). Measurements of face skin colour properties, elastic properties, sebum production, skin pores and microrelief roughness were performed. With regard skin colour, this study indicates, with age, a darkening of very low amplitude that leads to an increased skin colour heterogeneity. In all subjects, at all ages, the ocular region (dark circles) presents a much darker pigmentation than the cheeks, creating a contrast that appears constant at all ages. In addition to an increased skin colour heterogeneity, a progressive alteration of the skin surface relief, increased sizes of skin pores, a loss of skin elasticity and a drop in sebum production, post-menopause, are observed. This study confirms, in Indian women, some skin ageing measurements found on women from other ethnic groups (i.e. sebum, firmness, wrinkles and pores size) and also identifies some Indian specificities: a high and constant contrast between the ocular region and the cheek colour, associated to a very slow darkening effect along the lifespan. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. REINVENTING THE GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION IN TIMES OF CRISIS: ICT IN THE UNIVERSITY CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Peinado Rodríguez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCTION: The objective of this work is to carry out a reflection on the changes that we have been forced to address from the teaching of the social sciences, and in particular, in the course “Didactics of Social Sciences: geographical space and its didactic treatment”, a subject which is greatly enriched with school trips and educational itineraries for which we lack economic funding, although new technologies are erected in an indispensable resource to offset, at least in part, these deficiencies. We propose to use ICT resources to bring the environment into the classroom, natural and virtual, to have their space in the process of teaching and learning in geographical discipline.

  15. The effect of locational factors on task and time allocation in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Schwanen, T.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of locational factors on task and time allocation on the household level. It is hypothesized that, if time constraints are less binding as a result of living in an urban area or owning more cars, spouses engage more often and longer in out-of-home activities and

  16. Locating the source of diffusion in complex networks by time-reversal backward spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhesi; Cao, Shinan; Wang, Wen-Xu; Di, Zengru; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Locating the source that triggers a dynamical process is a fundamental but challenging problem in complex networks, ranging from epidemic spreading in society and on the Internet to cancer metastasis in the human body. An accurate localization of the source is inherently limited by our ability to simultaneously access the information of all nodes in a large-scale complex network. This thus raises two critical questions: how do we locate the source from incomplete information and can we achieve full localization of sources at any possible location from a given set of observable nodes. Here we develop a time-reversal backward spreading algorithm to locate the source of a diffusion-like process efficiently and propose a general locatability condition. We test the algorithm by employing epidemic spreading and consensus dynamics as typical dynamical processes and apply it to the H1N1 pandemic in China. We find that the sources can be precisely located in arbitrary networks insofar as the locatability condition is assured. Our tools greatly improve our ability to locate the source of diffusion in complex networks based on limited accessibility of nodal information. Moreover, they have implications for controlling a variety of dynamical processes taking place on complex networks, such as inhibiting epidemics, slowing the spread of rumors, pollution control, and environmental protection.

  17. Radioactive contamination in Norwegian fish and seafood 1960-2013: time trends and geographical trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Svaeren, Ingrid; Liebig, Penny Lee [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Brungot, Anne Lene; Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Barents Sea in 2012). However, time trends and geographical trends are clearly evident in the datasets. For example, the impact of fallout from the Chernobyl accident could be observed, particularly in samples collected in coastal areas and the Kattegat/Skagerrak and the North Sea. In recent decades there has been a slow decrease in the activity concentrations of most anthropogenic radionuclides in fish and seafood as a result of decreasing discharges from European reprocessing plants for spent nuclear fuel and the reduced impact of fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In the case of {sup 99}Tc however, activity concentrations in seawater and certain biota increased to peak values around 2000 as a result of increased discharges from Sellafield (UK) in the 1990's. In open sea areas, the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish and seafood have been highest in the Skagerrak and the North Sea due to the proximity to the reprocessing plants at Sellafield and Cap la Hague (France) and outflowing Chernobyl-contaminated seawater from the Baltic Sea. Activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish and seafood collected in fjords in mid-Norway are up to an order of magnitude higher than in the open sea areas due to terrestrial run-off from Chernobyl fallout in Norway. (authors)

  18. U.S. Navigated Waterway Mile Marker Locations from USCOE source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [river_mile_markers_USACE_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset representing 10,044 sequential mile positions of navigable inland waterways and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. These data were developed as...

  19. Adolescent behavior and achievement, social capital, and the timing of geographic mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between geographic mobility and adolescent academic achievement and behavior problems. Specifically, it addresses how the effects of moving differ by age and how social capital moderates the impact of moving on children (aged 6 to 15). Children's behavior problems and academic achievement test scores were compared across four survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006) and matched to data from their mothers' reports from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The findings indicate that the negative behavioral effects of geographic mobility on adolescents are most pronounced for individuals relocating to a new city, county, or state as opposed to those moving locally (i.e., within the same city). Furthermore, as suggested by a life-course perspective, the negative effects of moving on behavior problems decrease as children get older. The results also show that several social capital factors moderate the effects of moving on behavior but not achievement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the timing and location of shallow rainfall-induced landslides using a model for transient, unsaturated infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.

    2010-01-01

    Shallow rainfall-induced landslides commonly occur under conditions of transient infiltration into initially unsaturated soils. In an effort to predict the timing and location of such landslides, we developed a model of the infiltration process using a two-layer system that consists of an unsaturated zone above a saturated zone and implemented this model in a geographic information system (GIS) framework. The model links analytical solutions for transient, unsaturated, vertical infiltration above the water table to pressure-diffusion solutions for pressure changes below the water table. The solutions are coupled through a transient water table that rises as water accumulates at the base of the unsaturated zone. This scheme, though limited to simplified soil-water characteristics and moist initial conditions, greatly improves computational efficiency over numerical models in spatially distributed modeling applications. Pore pressures computed by these coupled models are subsequently used in one-dimensional slope-stability computations to estimate the timing and locations of slope failures. Applied over a digital landscape near Seattle, Washington, for an hourly rainfall history known to trigger shallow landslides, the model computes a factor of safety for each grid cell at any time during a rainstorm. The unsaturated layer attenuates and delays the rainfall-induced pore-pressure response of the model at depth, consistent with observations at an instrumented hillside near Edmonds, Washington. This attenuation results in realistic estimates of timing for the onset of slope instability (7 h earlier than observed landslides, on average). By considering the spatial distribution of physical properties, the model predicts the primary source areas of landslides.

  1. Real-time locating systems (RTLS) in healthcare: a condensed primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Berry, Geoff

    2012-06-28

    Real-time locating systems (RTLS, also known as real-time location systems) have become an important component of many existing ubiquitous location aware systems. While GPS (global positioning system) has been quite successful as an outdoor real-time locating solution, it fails to repeat this success indoors. A number of RTLS technologies have been used to solve indoor tracking problems. The ability to accurately track the location of assets and individuals indoors has many applications in healthcare. This paper provides a condensed primer of RTLS in healthcare, briefly covering the many options and technologies that are involved, as well as the various possible applications of RTLS in healthcare facilities and their potential benefits, including capital expenditure reduction and workflow and patient throughput improvements. The key to a successful RTLS deployment lies in picking the right RTLS option(s) and solution(s) for the application(s) or problem(s) at hand. Where this application-technology match has not been carefully thought of, any technology will be doomed to failure or to achieving less than optimal results.

  2. Effect of Timing and Location of Hotspot on Super Knock during Pre-ignition

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-28

    Pre-ignition in SI engine is a critical issue that needs addressing as it may lead to super knock event. It is widely accepted that pre-ignition event emanates from hot spot(s) that can be anywhere inside the combustion chamber. The location and timing of hotspot is expected to influence the knock intensity from a pre-ignition event. In this study, we study the effect of location and timing of hot spot inside the combustion chamber using numerical simulations. The simulation is performed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE™. We simulate 3-D engine geometry coupled with chemistry, turbulence and moving structures (valves, piston). G-equation model for flame tracking coupled with multi-zone model is utilized to capture auto-ignition (knock) and solve gas phase kinetics. A parametric study on the effect of hot spot timing and location inside the combustion chamber is performed. The hot spot timing considered are -180 CAD, -90 CAD and -30 CAD and the locations of the hot spots are in the center and two edges of the piston surfaces. Simulation results for normal combustion cycle are validated against the experimental data. The simulation results show great sensitivity to the hot spot timing, and the influence of local temperature gradient is noted to be significant. In case of early hot spot timing of -180 CAD, the pre-ignition event did not lead to super knock. Nevertheless, at late hot spot timing, super knock was realized. On the other hand, the effect of hot spot location on pre-ignition event depends on the geometry of the combustion chamber.

  3. Accuracy Improvement of Real-Time Location Tracking for Construction Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsoo Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been conducted on the real-time locating system (RTLS for tracking construction components, including workers, equipment, and materials, in order to improve construction performance (e.g., productivity improvement or accident prevention. In order to prevent safety accidents and make more sustainable construction job sites, the higher accuracy of RTLS is required. To improve the accuracy of RTLS in construction projects, this paper presents a RTLS using radio frequency identification (RFID. For this goal, this paper develops a location tracking error mitigation algorithm and presents the concept of using assistant tags. The applicability and effectiveness of the developed RTLS are tested under eight different construction environments and the test results confirm the system’s strong potential for improving the accuracy of real-time location tracking in construction projects, thus enhancing construction performance.

  4. The Multi-Location Transshipment Problem with Positive Replenishment Lead Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Gong (Yeming); E. Yucesan

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTransshipments, monitored movements of material at the same echelon of a supply chain, represent an effective pooling mechanism. With a single exception, research on transshipments overlooks replenishment lead times. The only approach for two-location inventory systems with

  5. High-resolution and super stacking of time-reversal mirrors in locating seismic sources

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Weiping

    2011-07-08

    Time reversal mirrors can be used to backpropagate and refocus incident wavefields to their actual source location, with the subsequent benefits of imaging with high-resolution and super-stacking properties. These benefits of time reversal mirrors have been previously verified with computer simulations and laboratory experiments but not with exploration-scale seismic data. We now demonstrate the high-resolution and the super-stacking properties in locating seismic sources with field seismic data that include multiple scattering. Tests on both synthetic data and field data show that a time reversal mirror has the potential to exceed the Rayleigh resolution limit by factors of 4 or more. Results also show that a time reversal mirror has a significant resilience to strong Gaussian noise and that accurate imaging of source locations from passive seismic data can be accomplished with traces having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 0.001. Synthetic tests also demonstrate that time reversal mirrors can sometimes enhance the signal by a factor proportional to the square root of the product of the number of traces, denoted as N and the number of events in the traces. This enhancement property is denoted as super-stacking and greatly exceeds the classical signal-to-noise enhancement factor of. High-resolution and super-stacking are properties also enjoyed by seismic interferometry and reverse-time migration with the exact velocity model. © 2011 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  6. Travel-time source-specific station correction improves location accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Alessandra; Materni, Valerio; Chiappini, Stefano; Carluccio, Roberto; Console, Rodolfo; Chiappini, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Accurate earthquake locations are crucial for investigating seismogenic processes, as well as for applications like verifying compliance to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Earthquake location accuracy is related to the degree of knowledge about the 3-D structure of seismic wave velocity in the Earth. It is well known that modeling errors of calculated travel times may have the effect of shifting the computed epicenters far from the real locations by a distance even larger than the size of the statistical error ellipses, regardless of the accuracy in picking seismic phase arrivals. The consequences of large mislocations of seismic events in the context of the CTBT verification is particularly critical in order to trigger a possible On Site Inspection (OSI). In fact, the Treaty establishes that an OSI area cannot be larger than 1000 km2, and its larger linear dimension cannot be larger than 50 km. Moreover, depth accuracy is crucial for the application of the depth event screening criterion. In the present study, we develop a method of source-specific travel times corrections based on a set of well located events recorded by dense national seismic networks in seismically active regions. The applications concern seismic sequences recorded in Japan, Iran and Italy. We show that mislocations of the order of 10-20 km affecting the epicenters, as well as larger mislocations in hypocentral depths, calculated from a global seismic network and using the standard IASPEI91 travel times can be effectively removed by applying source-specific station corrections.

  7. The epidemiology of mortality after fracture in England : variation by age, sex, time, geographic location, and ethnicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, C; van Staa, Indira; Cooper, C; Harvey, N C; de Vries, F

    One-year mortality following a fracture was greater for men compared to women, varied markedly between regions in England with the lowest rates in the London region, and was higher among black women compared to white women. The excess in mortality did not change during the study period.

  8. pySeismicFMM: Python based Travel Time Calculation in Regular 2D and 3D Grids in Cartesian and Geographic Coordinates using Fast Marching Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde-Piorko, M.; Polkowski, M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic wave travel time calculation is the most common numerical operation in seismology. The most efficient is travel time calculation in 1D velocity model - for given source, receiver depths and angular distance time is calculated within fraction of a second. Unfortunately, in most cases 1D is not enough to encounter differentiating local and regional structures. Whenever possible travel time through 3D velocity model has to be calculated. It can be achieved using ray calculation or time propagation in space. While single ray path calculation is quick it is complicated to find the ray path that connects source with the receiver. Time propagation in space using Fast Marching Method seems more efficient in most cases, especially when there are multiple receivers. In this presentation final release of a Python module pySeismicFMM is presented - simple and very efficient tool for calculating travel time from sources to receivers. Calculation requires regular 2D or 3D velocity grid either in Cartesian or geographic coordinates. On desktop class computer calculation speed is 200k grid cells per second. Calculation has to be performed once for every source location and provides travel time to all receivers. pySeismicFMM is free and open source. Development of this tool is a part of authors PhD thesis. Source code of pySeismicFMM will be published before Fall Meeting. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  9. Time-Location Patterns of a Population Living in an Air Pollution Hotspot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X.M.; Fan, Z.T.; Strickland, P.O.; Wu, X.M.; Fan, Z.T.; Strickland, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the time-location pattern of 107 residents living in air pollution hotspots, the Waterfront South and Cope wood/Davis Streets communities in Camden, NJ. Most residents in the two communities are minority and impoverished individuals. Results showed that employment status played the fundamental role in determining time-location patterns of this study population, and the variations of time-location pattern by season and by day-type were partially attributed to employment status. Compared to the National Human Activity Pattern Survey, the Camden cohort spent significantly more time outdoors (3.8 hours versus 1.8 hours) and less time indoors (19.4 hours versus 20.9 hours) than the general US population, indicating a higher risk of exposure to ambient air pollution for the Camden cohort. The findings of the study are important for understanding exposure routes and sources for the socio economically disadvantaged subgroup and ultimately help develop effective strategies to reduce community exposure to ambient air pollution in hotspots

  10. Solving a Location, Allocation, and Capacity Planning Problem with Dynamic Demand and Response Time Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ka Yuk Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.

  11. The International Time Service of the National Geographic Institute (IGNA Laboratory) Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, D.; Cimbaro, S.

    2014-06-01

    The "International Time Service" (Servicio Internacional de la Hora, SIH) at the Instituto Geográfico National Argentino (IGNA, formerly Instituto Geográfico Militar Argentino, IGMA), has contributed to the maintenance of the international time scale since its creation in 1931. In 2010 the IGNA started a process of upgrading its time laboratory with the objective of improving its contribution to the computation of the international reference time scales at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM).

  12. The Chthonomonas calidirosea Genome Is Highly Conserved across Geographic Locations and Distinct Chemical and Microbial Environments in New Zealand's Taupō Volcanic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin C; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F; Huttenhower, Curtis; McDonald, Ian R; Morgan, Xochitl C

    2016-06-15

    Chthonomonas calidirosea T49(T) is a low-abundance, carbohydrate-scavenging, and thermophilic soil bacterium with a seemingly disorganized genome. We hypothesized that the C. calidirosea genome would be highly responsive to local selection pressure, resulting in the divergence of its genomic content, genome organization, and carbohydrate utilization phenotype across environments. We tested this hypothesis by sequencing the genomes of four C. calidirosea isolates obtained from four separate geothermal fields in the Taupō Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. For each isolation site, we measured physicochemical attributes and defined the associated microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Despite their ecological and geographical isolation, the genome sequences showed low divergence (maximum, 1.17%). Isolate-specific variations included single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction-modification systems, and mobile elements but few major deletions and no major rearrangements. The 50-fold variation in C. calidirosea relative abundance among the four sites correlated with site environmental characteristics but not with differences in genomic content. Conversely, the carbohydrate utilization profiles of the C. calidirosea isolates corresponded to the inferred isolate phylogenies, which only partially paralleled the geographical relationships among the sample sites. Genomic sequence conservation does not entirely parallel geographic distance, suggesting that stochastic dispersal and localized extinction, which allow for rapid population homogenization with little restriction by geographical barriers, are possible mechanisms of C. calidirosea distribution. This dispersal and extinction mechanism is likely not limited to C. calidirosea but may shape the populations and genomes of many other low-abundance free-living taxa. This study compares the genomic sequence variations and metabolisms of four strains of Chthonomonas calidirosea, a rare thermophilic bacterium from

  13. Multiple Charging Station Location-Routing Problem with Time Window of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-ying

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the electric vehicle (EV multiple charging station location-routing problem with time window to optimize the routing plan of capacitated EVs and the strategy of charging stations. In particular, the strategy of charging stations includes both infrastructure-type selection and station location decisions. The problem accounts for two critical constraints in logistic practice: the vehicle loading capacity and the customer time windows. A hybrid heuristic that incorporates an adaptive variable neighborhood search (AVNS with the tabu search algorithm for intensification was developed to address the problem. The specialized neighborhood structures and the selection methods of charging station used in the shaking step of AVNS were proposed. In contrast to the commercial solver CPLEX, experimental results on small-scale test instances demonstrate that the algorithm can find nearly optimal solutions on small-scale instances. The results on large-scale instances also show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  14. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Karen M.; Haldeman, Kristin; Lehnig, Chris; Munayco, Cesar V.; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Yagui, Mart?n; Morrison, Amy C.; Lin, Chii-Dean; Scott, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model devel...

  15. Feasibility of real-time location systems in monitoring recovery after major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Robert D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Clark, Clancy J

    2017-12-01

    Early mobilization after major abdominal surgery decreases postoperative complications and length of stay, and has become a key component of enhanced recovery pathways. However, objective measures of patient movement after surgery are limited. Real-time location systems (RTLS), typically used for asset tracking, provide a novel approach to monitoring in-hospital patient activity. The current study investigates the feasibility of using RTLS to objectively track postoperative patient mobilization. The real-time location system employs a meshed network of infrared and RFID sensors and detectors that sample device locations every 3 s resulting in over 1 million data points per day. RTLS tracking was evaluated systematically in three phases: (1) sensitivity and specificity of the tracking device using simulated patient scenarios, (2) retrospective passive movement analysis of patient-linked equipment, and (3) prospective observational analysis of a patient-attached tracking device. RTLS tracking detected a simulated movement out of a room with sensitivity of 91% and specificity 100%. Specificity decreased to 75% if time out of room was less than 3 min. All RTLS-tagged patient-linked equipment was identified for 18 patients, but measurable patient movement associated with equipment was detected for only 2 patients (11%) with 1-8 out-of-room walks per day. Ten patients were prospectively monitored using RTLS badges following major abdominal surgery. Patient movement was recorded using patient diaries, direct observation, and an accelerometer. Sensitivity and specificity of RTLS patient tracking were both 100% in detecting out-of-room ambulation and correlated well with direct observation and patient-reported ambulation. Real-time location systems are a novel technology capable of objectively and accurately monitoring patient movement and provide an innovative approach to promoting early mobilization after surgery.

  16. How to detect the location and time of a covert chemical attack a Bayesian approach

    OpenAIRE

    See, Mei Eng Elaine.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited In this thesis, we develop a Bayesian updating model that estimates the location and time of a chemical attack using inputs from chemical sensors and Atmospheric Threat and Dispersion (ATD) models. In bridging the critical gap between raw sensor data and threat evaluation and prediction, the model will help authorities perform better hazard prediction and damage control. The model is evaluated with respect to settings representing real-wo...

  17. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  18. Sodium/water reaction detection confirmation and location with time domain beam former

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, C.

    1997-01-01

    The CEA studied the validity of a time beamforming method for the detection and location of Sodium/water reaction in steam generators of breeder reactors. In the context of the RCM, we apply this method on recorded data during a water injection in Sodium in ASB loop, artificially mixed with PFR background. Despite the severity of experiment conditions (the signal to noise ratio is between -6 and -24 dB). We show that the employed method completed with a low frequency pass band filter allows us to locate the injection with a precision of 30% of the diameter of the loop. Using the method in the course of time allows us to coarsely locate the start time and the duration of the leak. The good functioning of the method is however perturbed by uncertainty about the wave celebrity in the sodium about wave propagation in waves guides that are mounted with the sensors and in the structure of the loop. (author). 1 ref., 8 figs

  19. Smothering in UK free-range flocks. Part 1: incidence, location, timing and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J; Rayner, A C; Gill, R; Willings, T H; Bright, A

    2014-07-05

    Smothering in poultry is an economic and welfare-related concern. This study presents the first results from a questionnaire addressing the incidence, location, timing and management of smothering of free-range farm managers from two commercial egg companies (representing 35 per cent of the UK free-range egg supply). Overall, nearly 60 per cent of farm mangers experienced smothering in their last flock, with an average of 25.5 birds lost per incidence, although per cent mortality due to smothering was low (x̄=1.6 per cent). The majority of farm managers also reported that over 50 per cent of all their flocks placed had been affected by smothering. The location and timing of smothering (excluding smothering in nest boxes) tended to be unpredictable and varied between farms. Blocking off corners/nest boxes and walking birds more frequently were identified as popular smothering reduction measures, although there was a wide variety of reduction measures reported overall. The motivation to implement reduction measures was related to a farm manager's previous experience of smothering. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a representative industry estimate on the incidence, location, timing and management of smothering. The results suggest that smothering is a common problem, unpredictable between flocks with no clear, effective reduction strategies. A follow-up study will investigate the correlations among smothering, disease and other welfare problems and may shed further light on management solutions. British Veterinary Association.

  20. The influence of geographical location, host maturity and sex on intestinal helminth communities of the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus from the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, K L; Hanson-Dorr, K C; Dorr, B S; Yarrow, G K; Johnson, R J

    2017-09-01

    Here the intestinal helminth infracommunities of 218 double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from 11 locations in Alabama, Minnesota, Mississippi and Vermont are documented. Trematode infections were present in 98% of hosts; 65% of cormorants carried cestode infections, 4% were infected with acanthocephalans and 66% had nematode intestinal parasites. Parasite infracommunities of hosts collected on wintering grounds had higher richness and diversity than did birds collected on breeding grounds. Differences in parasite richness and diversity between male and female P. auritus were also detected, but not between immature and mature bird hosts. Parasite intensity did not differ by sex, maturity, or between breeding and wintering season. The most common parasite was Drepanocephalus auritus (spathans), which is recognized as a disease agent that negatively impacts the catfish aquaculture industry in the US. Echinochasmus sp. in double-crested cormorants is documented for the first time in the United States. We suggest that the differences observed among parasite infracommunities could be associated with the foraging distances travelled by P. auritus during breeding and wintering seasons, which is limited by allocation of parental care during the breeding season.

  1. Timing and locations of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Farmer

    Full Text Available Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features. We quantified the size of spawning areas used by reef fish across many years and identified several multispecies spawning locations. We quantitatively identified cues for peak spawning and generated predictive maps for Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus, White Grunt (Haemulon plumierii, Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus, Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens, Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata, and Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax. For example, Red Snapper peak spawning was predicted in 24.7-29.0°C water prior to the new moon at locations with high curvature in the 24-30 m depth range off northeast Florida during June and July. External validation using scientific and fishery-dependent data collections strongly supported the predictive utility of our models. We identified locations where reconfiguration or expansion of existing marine protected areas would protect spawning reef fish. We recommend increased sampling off southern Florida (south of 27° N, during winter months, and in high-relief, high current habitats to improve our understanding of timing and location of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States.

  2. Predicting the Location and Time of Mobile Phone Users by Using Sequential Pattern Mining Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Mert; Keles, Ilkcan; Toroslu, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, using cell phone log data to model human mobility patterns became an active research area. This problem is a challenging data mining problem due to huge size and non-uniformity of the log data, which introduces several granularity levels for the specification of temporal...... and spatial dimensions. This paper focuses on the prediction of the location of the next activity of the mobile phone users. There are several versions of this problem. In this work, we have concentrated on the following three problems: predicting the location and the time of the next user activity...... the success of these methods with real data obtained from one of the largest mobile phone operators in Turkey. Our results are very encouraging, since we were able to obtain quite high accuracy results under small prediction sets....

  3. Acoustic emission source location in plates using wavelet analysis and cross time frequency spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapour, A; Davoodi, S; Ghareaghaji, M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the theories of wavelet transform and cross-time frequency spectrum (CTFS) are used to locate AE source with frequency-varying wave velocity in plate-type structures. A rectangular array of four sensors is installed on the plate. When an impact is generated by an artificial AE source such as Hsu-Nielsen method of pencil lead breaking (PLB) at any position of the plate, the AE signals will be detected by four sensors at different times. By wavelet packet decomposition, a packet of signals with frequency range of 0.125-0.25MHz is selected. The CTFS is calculated by the short-time Fourier transform of the cross-correlation between considered packets captured by AE sensors. The time delay is calculated when the CTFS reaches the maximum value and the corresponding frequency is extracted per this maximum value. The resulting frequency is used to calculate the group velocity of wave velocity in combination with dispersive curve. The resulted locating error shows the high precision of proposed algorithm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sewon; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-06-22

    Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT) was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  5. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewon Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  6. Study of Real Time Location System For Worker in Containment Building at Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y.; Kim, G. S. [Samchang Enterprise Company, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. S. [Ulsan Univ., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Workers are required special management to minimize radiation exposure in nuclear power plant. Especially, there are many limitation in their activities at containment building in nuclear power plant. Test personnel shall administer the workers by tracing the location of them inside containment building in nuclear power plant. They may be exposed to the unnecessary radiation due to a complex and high radiation area in the building. Test personnel needs to manage efficiently for worker's safety and work hours at containment building. Therefore, it is critical for the test personnel to notice the risk to the workers by identifying the location when the workers are facing the dangerous situation on the high area. In this paper, we introduce requirements and design method to develop the one and two dimensional RTLS(Real Time Locating System) by using CSS(Chirp Spread Spectrum) which enables precise location measurement and robust data communication even indoor environment with serious electromagnetic interference caused by complicated structure such as the inside of containment building in the nuclear power plant. In the algorithm to compute the distance, it is suggested to use SDS-TWR(Symmetrical Double-Sided Two-Way Ranging) to solve the issue of indirect routes, and develop the power circuit with 10mW of designing gain for output power to meet the KCC standard in order to increase the raging distance, in addition, communication between Anchor and distance measuring computer shall be designed to increase energy using time of Tags(nodes) by using CAN(Controller Area Network) communication.

  7. Bus Travel Time Deviation Analysis Using Automatic Vehicle Location Data and Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influences of causes of unreliability and bus schedule recovery phenomenon on microscopic segment-level travel time variance, this study adopts Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to specify, estimate, and measure the theoretical proposed models. The SEM model establishes and verifies hypotheses for interrelationships among travel time deviations, departure delays, segment lengths, dwell times, and number of traffic signals and access connections. The finally accepted model demonstrates excellent fitness. Most of the hypotheses are supported by the sample dataset from bus Automatic Vehicle Location system. The SEM model confirms the bus schedule recovery phenomenon. The departure delays at bus terminals and upstream travel time deviations indeed have negative impacts on travel time fluctuation of buses en route. Meanwhile, the segment length directly and negatively impacts travel time variability and inversely positively contributes to the schedule recovery process; this exogenous variable also indirectly and positively influences travel times through the existence of signalized intersections and access connections. This study offers a rational approach to analyzing travel time deviation feature. The SEM model structure and estimation results facilitate the understanding of bus service performance characteristics and provide several implications for bus service planning, management, and operation.

  8. Geographic prediction of tuberculosis clusters in Fukuoka, Japan, using the space-time scan statistic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisuke Onozuka; Akihito Hagihara [Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Information Science

    2007-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has reemerged as a global public health epidemic in recent years. Although evaluating local disease clusters leads to effective prevention and control of TB, there are few, if any, spatiotemporal comparisons for epidemic diseases. TB cases among residents in Fukuoka Prefecture between 1999 and 2004 (n = 9,119) were geocoded at the census tract level (n = 109) based on residence at the time of diagnosis. The spatial and space-time scan statistics were then used to identify clusters of census tracts with elevated proportions of TB cases. In the purely spatial analyses, the most likely clusters were in the Chikuho coal mining area (in 1999, 2002, 2003, 2004), the Kita-Kyushu industrial area (in 2000), and the Fukuoka urban area (in 2001). In the space-time analysis, the most likely cluster was the Kita-Kyushu industrial area (in 2000). The north part of Fukuoka Prefecture was the most likely to have a cluster with a significantly high occurrence of TB. The spatial and space-time scan statistics are effective ways of describing circular disease clusters. Since, in reality, infectious diseases might form other cluster types, the effectiveness of the method may be limited under actual practice. The sophistication of the analytical methodology, however, is a topic for future study. 48 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Geographic prediction of tuberculosis clusters in Fukuoka, Japan, using the space-time scan statistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onozuka Daisuke

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB has reemerged as a global public health epidemic in recent years. Although evaluating local disease clusters leads to effective prevention and control of TB, there are few, if any, spatiotemporal comparisons for epidemic diseases. Methods TB cases among residents in Fukuoka Prefecture between 1999 and 2004 (n = 9,119 were geocoded at the census tract level (n = 109 based on residence at the time of diagnosis. The spatial and space-time scan statistics were then used to identify clusters of census tracts with elevated proportions of TB cases. Results In the purely spatial analyses, the most likely clusters were in the Chikuho coal mining area (in 1999, 2002, 2003, 2004, the Kita-Kyushu industrial area (in 2000, and the Fukuoka urban area (in 2001. In the space-time analysis, the most likely cluster was the Kita-Kyushu industrial area (in 2000. The north part of Fukuoka Prefecture was the most likely to have a cluster with a significantly high occurrence of TB. Conclusion The spatial and space-time scan statistics are effective ways of describing circular disease clusters. Since, in reality, infectious diseases might form other cluster types, the effectiveness of the method may be limited under actual practice. The sophistication of the analytical methodology, however, is a topic for future study.

  10. Phylogenetic fields through time: temporal dynamics of geographical co-occurrence and phylogenetic structure within species ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Fabricio; Carotenuto, Francesco; Raia, Pasquale; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F

    2016-04-05

    Species co-occur with different sets of other species across their geographical distribution, which can be either closely or distantly related. Such co-occurrence patterns and their phylogenetic structure within individual species ranges represent what we call the species phylogenetic fields (PFs). These PFs allow investigation of the role of historical processes--speciation, extinction and dispersal--in shaping species co-occurrence patterns, in both extinct and extant species. Here, we investigate PFs of large mammalian species during the last 3 Myr, and how these correlate with trends in diversification rates. Using the fossil record, we evaluate species' distributional and co-occurrence patterns along with their phylogenetic structure. We apply a novel Bayesian framework on fossil occurrences to estimate diversification rates through time. Our findings highlight the effect of evolutionary processes and past climatic changes on species' distributions and co-occurrences. From the Late Pliocene to the Recent, mammal species seem to have responded in an individualistic manner to climate changes and diversification dynamics, co-occurring with different sets of species from different lineages across their geographical ranges. These findings stress the difficulty of forecasting potential effects of future climate changes on biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Negotiating on location, timing, duration, and participant in agent-mediated joint activity-travel scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiye; Ronald, Nicole; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J. P.

    2013-10-01

    Agent-based simulation has become an important modeling approach in activity-travel analysis. Social activities account for a large amount of travel and have an important effect on activity-travel scheduling. Participants in joint activities usually have various options regarding location, participants, and timing and take different approaches to make their decisions. In this context, joint activity participation requires negotiation among agents involved, so that conflicts among the agents can be addressed. Existing mechanisms do not fully provide a solution when utility functions of agents are nonlinear and non-monotonic. Considering activity-travel scheduling in time and space as an application, we propose a novel negotiation approach, which takes into account these properties, such as continuous and discrete issues, and nonlinear and non-monotonic utility functions, by defining a concession strategy and a search mechanism. The results of experiments show that agents having these properties can negotiate efficiently. Furthermore, the negotiation procedure affects individuals’ choices of location, timing, duration, and participants.

  12. A Time-constrained Network Voronoi Construction and Accessibility Analysis in Location-based Service Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Ai, T.

    2014-11-01

    Accessibility analysis usually requires special models of spatial location analysis based on some geometric constructions, such as Voronoi diagram (abbreviated to VD). There are many achievements in classic Voronoi model research, however suffering from the following limitations for location-based services (LBS) applications. (1) It is difficult to objectively reflect the actual service areas of facilities by using traditional planar VDs, because human activities in LBS are usually constrained only to the network portion of the planar space. (2) Although some researchers have adopted network distance to construct VDs, their approaches are used in a static environment, where unrealistic measures of shortest path distance based on assumptions about constant travel speeds through the network were often used. (3) Due to the computational complexity of the shortest-path distance calculating, previous researches tend to be very time consuming, especially for large datasets and if multiple runs are required. To solve the above problems, a novel algorithm is developed in this paper. We apply network-based quadrat system and 1-D sequential expansion to find the corresponding subnetwork for each focus. The idea is inspired by the natural phenomenon that water flow extends along certain linear channels until meets others or arrives at the end of route. In order to accommodate the changes in traffic conditions, the length of network-quadrat is set upon the traffic condition of the corresponding street. The method has the advantage over Dijkstra's algorithm in that the time cost is avoided, and replaced with a linear time operation.

  13. The multi-depot electric vehicle location routing problem with time windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Multi-Depot Electric Vehicle Location Routing Problem with Time Windows (MDVLRP is addressed. This problem is an extension of the MDVLRP, where electric vehicles are used instead of internal combustion engine vehicles. The recent development of this model is explained by the advantages of this technology, such as the diminution of carbon dioxide emissions, and the support that they can provide to the design of the logistic and energy-support structure of electric vehicle fleets. There are many models that extend the classical VRP model to take electric vehicles into consideration, but the multi-depot case for location-routing models has not been worked out yet. Moreover, we consider the availability of two energy supply technologies: the “Plug-in” Conventional Charge technology, and Battery Swapping Stations; options in which the recharging time is a function of the amount of energy to charge and a fixed time, respectively. Three models are proposed: one for each of the technologies mentioned above, and another in which both options are taken in consideration. The models were solved for small scale instances using C++ and Cplex 12.5. The results show that the models can be used to design logistic and energy-support structures, and compare the performance of the different options of energy supply, as well as measure the impact of these decisions on the overall distance traveled or other optimization objectives that could be worked on in the future.

  14. An Interactive Real-Time Locating System Based on Bluetooth Low-Energy Beacon Network †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, You-Wei; Lin, Chi-Yi

    2018-05-21

    The ubiquity of Bluetooth-enabled smartphones and peripherals has brought tremendous convenience to our daily life. In recent years, Bluetooth beacons have also been gaining popularity in implementing a variety of innovative location-based services such as self-guided systems in exhibition centers. However, the broadcast-based beacon technology can only provide unidirectional communication. In case smartphone users would like to respond to the beacon messages, they have to rely on their own mobile Internet connections to send the information back to the backend system. Nevertheless, mobile Internet services may not be always available or too costly. In this work, we develop a real-time locating system based only on the Bluetooth low energy (BLE) technology to support interactive communications by combining the broadcast and mesh topology options to extend the applicability of beacon solutions. Specifically, we turn the smartphone into a beacon device and augment the beacon devices with the capability of forming a mesh network. The implementation result shows that our beacon devices can detect the presence of specific users at specific locations, and then the presence state can be sent to the application server via the relay of beacon devices. Moreover, the application server can send personalized location-based messages to the users, again via the relay of beacon devices. With the capability of relaying messages between the beacon devices, it would be convenient for developers to implement a variety of interactive applications such as tracking VIP customers at the airport, or tracking an elder with Alzheimer’s disease in the neighborhood.

  15. An Interactive Real-Time Locating System Based on Bluetooth Low-Energy Beacon Network †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of Bluetooth-enabled smartphones and peripherals has brought tremendous convenience to our daily life. In recent years, Bluetooth beacons have also been gaining popularity in implementing a variety of innovative location-based services such as self-guided systems in exhibition centers. However, the broadcast-based beacon technology can only provide unidirectional communication. In case smartphone users would like to respond to the beacon messages, they have to rely on their own mobile Internet connections to send the information back to the backend system. Nevertheless, mobile Internet services may not be always available or too costly. In this work, we develop a real-time locating system based only on the Bluetooth low energy (BLE technology to support interactive communications by combining the broadcast and mesh topology options to extend the applicability of beacon solutions. Specifically, we turn the smartphone into a beacon device and augment the beacon devices with the capability of forming a mesh network. The implementation result shows that our beacon devices can detect the presence of specific users at specific locations, and then the presence state can be sent to the application server via the relay of beacon devices. Moreover, the application server can send personalized location-based messages to the users, again via the relay of beacon devices. With the capability of relaying messages between the beacon devices, it would be convenient for developers to implement a variety of interactive applications such as tracking VIP customers at the airport, or tracking an elder with Alzheimer’s disease in the neighborhood.

  16. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    Full Text Available The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI product based on turning points (TPs, which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost

  17. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen M; Haldeman, Kristin; Lehnig, Chris; Munayco, Cesar V; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Yagui, Martín; Morrison, Amy C; Lin, Chii-Dean; Scott, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model development is an empirical perspective clarifying how weather impacts transmission in diverse ecological settings. We sought to determine if location, timing, and potential-intensity of transmission are systematically defined by weather. We developed a high-resolution empirical profile of the local weather-disease connection across Peru, a country with considerable ecological diversity. Applying 2-dimensional weather-space that pairs temperature versus humidity, we mapped local transmission-potential in weather-space by week during 1994-2012. A binary classification-tree was developed to test whether weather data could classify 1828 Peruvian districts as positive/negative for transmission and into ranks of transmission-potential with respect to observed disease. We show that transmission-potential is regulated by temperature-humidity coupling, enabling epidemics in a limited area of weather-space. Duration within a specific temperature range defines transmission-potential that is amplified exponentially in higher humidity. Dengue-positive districts were identified by mean temperature >22°C for 7+ weeks and minimum temperature >14°C for 33+ weeks annually with 95% sensitivity and specificity. In elevated-risk locations, seasonal peak-incidence occurred when mean temperature was 26-29°C, coincident with humidity at its local maximum; highest incidence when humidity >80%. We profile transmission-potential in weather-space for temperature-humidity ranging 0-38°C and 5-100% at 1°C x 2

  18. Weather Regulates Location, Timing, and Intensity of Dengue Virus Transmission between Humans and Mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Campbell

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most aggressively expanding mosquito-transmitted viruses. The human burden approaches 400 million infections annually. Complex transmission dynamics pose challenges for predicting location, timing, and magnitude of risk; thus, models are needed to guide prevention strategies and policy development locally and globally. Weather regulates transmission-potential via its effects on vector dynamics. An important gap in understanding risk and roadblock in model development is an empirical perspective clarifying how weather impacts transmission in diverse ecological settings. We sought to determine if location, timing, and potential-intensity of transmission are systematically defined by weather.We developed a high-resolution empirical profile of the local weather-disease connection across Peru, a country with considerable ecological diversity. Applying 2-dimensional weather-space that pairs temperature versus humidity, we mapped local transmission-potential in weather-space by week during 1994-2012. A binary classification-tree was developed to test whether weather data could classify 1828 Peruvian districts as positive/negative for transmission and into ranks of transmission-potential with respect to observed disease. We show that transmission-potential is regulated by temperature-humidity coupling, enabling epidemics in a limited area of weather-space. Duration within a specific temperature range defines transmission-potential that is amplified exponentially in higher humidity. Dengue-positive districts were identified by mean temperature >22°C for 7+ weeks and minimum temperature >14°C for 33+ weeks annually with 95% sensitivity and specificity. In elevated-risk locations, seasonal peak-incidence occurred when mean temperature was 26-29°C, coincident with humidity at its local maximum; highest incidence when humidity >80%. We profile transmission-potential in weather-space for temperature-humidity ranging 0-38°C and 5

  19. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  20. Effects of nest density, location, and timing on breeding success of Caspian Terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolos, Michelle; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Anderson, Scott K.; Collis, K.

    2006-01-01

    One of the proposed benefits of colonial nesting in birds is the protection afforded against avian predators. This advantage may be counter-balanced by the negative effects of intraspecific aggression on breeding success. Effects of nest density, nest location within the colony, and timing of nest initiation on productivity of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) were investigated on Crescent Island in the mid-Columbia River, Washington, USA. In the absence of intense nest predation at the Crescent Island tern colony, it was hypothesized that nest density would be negatively associated with productivity. A rangefinder was used to determine spatial distribution of Caspian Tern nests, and these data used to calculate nest characteristics (nest density, nearest neighbor distance, and distance to colony edge) for a randomly-selected subset of nests monitored for nest chronology and productivity. Productivity did not differ between nests in high- and low-density areas of the colony, and was positively associated with earlier nest initiation. Early nests were more productive, were located in areas of higher nest density, and were further from the colony edge than late nests. The strong effect of timing may have been attributable to seasonal declines in prey resources for terns at this site. Our results suggest that Caspian Terns nesting at the highest densities observed in this study did not incur immediate reproductive costs, despite increased potential for encounters between chicks and aggressive conspecific adults.

  1. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-11-30

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015.

  2. Trial of real-time locating and messaging system with Bluetooth low energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, Naoya; Mamorita, Noritaka; Isonaka, Risa; Kawakami, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Akihiro

    2016-09-14

    Hospital real-time location systems (RTLS) are increasing efficiency and reducing operational costs, but room access tags are necessary. We developed three iPhone 5 applications for an RTLS and communications using Bluetooth low energy (BLE). The applications were: Peripheral device tags, Central beacons, and a Monitor. A Peripheral communicated with a Central using BLE. The Central communicated with a Monitor using sockets on TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) via a WLAN (wireless local area network). To determine a BLE threshold level for the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), relationships between signal strength and distance were measured in our laboratory and on the terrace. The BLE RSSI threshold was set at -70 dB, about 10 m. While an individual with a Peripheral moved around in a concrete building, the Peripheral was captured in a few 10-sec units at about 10 m from a Central. The Central and Monitor showed and saved the approach events, location, and Peripheral's nickname sequentially in real time. Remote Centrals also interactively communicate with Peripherals by intermediating through Monitors that found the nickname in the event database. Trial applications using BLE on iPhones worked well for patient tracking, and messaging in indoor environments.

  3. Measuring Chemotherapy Appointment Duration and Variation Using Real-Time Location Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barysauskas, Constance M; Hudgins, Gina; Gill, Katie Kupferberg; Camuso, Kristen M; Bagley, Janet; Rozanski, Sheila; Kadish, Sarah

    Clinical schedules drive resource utilization, cost, and patient wait time. Accurate appointment duration allocation ensures appropriate staffing ratios to daily caseloads and maximizes scarce resources. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) infusion appointment duration is adjusted by regimen using a consensus method of experts including pharmacists, nurses, and administrators. Using real-time location system (RTLS), we examined the accuracy of observed appointment duration compared with the scheduled duration. Appointment duration was calculated using RTLS at DFCI between August 1, 2013, and September 30, 2013. Duration was defined as the total time a patient occupied an infusion chair. The top 10 administered infusion regimens were investigated (n = 805). Median observed appointment durations were statistically different than the scheduled durations. Appointment durations were shorter than scheduled 98% (C), 95% (I), and 75% (F) of the time and longer than scheduled 77% (A) and 76% (G) of the time. Fifty-six percent of the longer than scheduled (A) appointments were at least 30 minute longer. RTLS provides reliable and unbiased data to improve schedule accuracy. Replacing consensus with system-based data may improve clinic flow, relieve staff stress, and increase patient satisfaction. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate factors that impact variation in appointment duration.

  4. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  5. Smartphone-Based Real-Time Indoor Location Tracking With 1-m Precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Po-Chou; Krause, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring the activities of daily living of the elderly at home is widely recognized as useful for the detection of new or deteriorating health conditions. However, the accuracy of existing indoor location tracking systems remains unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was, therefore, to develop a localization system that can identify a patient's real-time location in a home environment with maximum estimation error of 2 m at a 95% confidence level. A proof-of-concept system based on a sensor fusion approach was built with considerations for lower cost, reduced intrusiveness, and higher mobility, deployability, and portability. This involved the development of both a step detector using the accelerometer and compass of an iPhone 5, and a radio-based localization subsystem using a Kalman filter and received signal strength indication to tackle issues that had been identified as limiting accuracy. The results of our experiments were promising with an average estimation error of 0.47 m. We are confident that with the proposed future work, our design can be adapted to a home-like environment with a more robust localization solution.

  6. Time reversal optical tomography locates fluorescent targets in a turbid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Gayen, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    A fluorescence optical tomography approach that extends time reversal optical tomography (TROT) to locate fluorescent targets embedded in a turbid medium is introduced. It uses a multi-source illumination and multi-detector signal acquisition scheme, along with TR matrix formalism, and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) to construct pseudo-image of the targets. The samples consisted of a single or two small tubes filled with water solution of Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye as targets embedded in a 250 mm × 250 mm × 60 mm rectangular cell filled with Intralipid-20% suspension as the scattering medium. The ICG concentration was 1μM, and the Intralipid-20% concentration was adjusted to provide ~ 1-mm transport length for both excitation wavelength of 790 nm and fluorescence wavelength around 825 nm. The data matrix was constructed using the diffusely transmitted fluorescence signals for all scan positions, and the TR matrix was constructed by multiplying data matrix with its transpose. A pseudo spectrum was calculated using the signal subspace of the TR matrix. Tomographic images were generated using the pseudo spectrum. The peaks in the pseudo images provided locations of the target(s) with sub-millimeter accuracy. Concurrent transmission TROT measurements corroborated fluorescence-TROT findings. The results demonstrate that TROT is a fast approach that can be used to obtain accurate three-dimensional position information of fluorescence targets embedded deep inside a highly scattering medium, such as, a contrast-enhanced tumor in a human breast.

  7. A Future Vertex Locator with Precise Timing for the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Mitreska, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high precision measurements of matter-antimatter asymmetries and searches for rare and forbidden decays, with the aim of discovering new and unexpected particles and forces. In 2030 the LHC beam intensity will increase by a factor of 50 compared to current operations. This means increased samples of the particles we need to study, but it also presents experimental challenges. In particular, with current technology it becomes impossible to differentiate the many (>50) separate proton-proton collisions which occur for each bunch crossing. A Monte Carlo simulation was developed to model the operation of a silicon pixel vertex detector surrounding the collision region at LHCb, under the conditions expected after 2030, after the second upgrade of the Vertex Locator (VELO). The main goal was studying the effect of adding '4D' detectors which save high-precision timing information, in addition to the usual three spatial coordinates, as charged particles pass through them. W...

  8. Evaluation of real-time location systems in their hospital contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A; Monahan, Torin

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess real-time location systems (RTLS) that have been implemented in U.S. hospitals. We examined the type of uses to which RTLS have been put, the degree of functionality of the various technologies and software, and the organizational effects of implementing RTLS. The project was a 3-year qualitative study of 23 U.S. hospitals that had implemented RTLS for the purpose of tracking assets, personnel, and/or patients. We observed the systems in use and conducted 80 semi-structured interviews with hospital personnel and vendors. In order to protect the confidentiality of the hospitals and vendors in our sample, we conducted an aggregate analysis of our findings rather than providing evaluations of specific technologies or hospital case studies. The most important findings from our research were (1) substandard functionality of most real-time location systems in use and (2) serious obstacles to effective deployment of the systems due to the material and organizational constraints of the hospitals themselves. We found that the current best use of RTLS is for asset tracking, but importantly it requires whole-hospital deployment as well as centralized control of the system, preferably by materials management or biomedical engineering departments. There are serious technological, material, and organizational barriers to the implementation of RTLS, and these barriers need to be overcome if hospitals are to maximize the potential benefits of these systems. In addition to considering the available technological options, hospitals must assess their unique environments, including the myriad material and organizational constraints that will affect the success of RTLS implementation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Who is using snus? - Time trends, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of snus users in the ageing Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Margareta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of smoking in Sweden has decreased in recent decades, and is now among the lowest in the world. During the same period, the use of Swedish moist oral snuff, a smokeless tobacco called snus, has increased. Few studies have evaluated time trends of the socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of snus users in Sweden. This paper contributes to filling that gap. Methods This study utilized the Linnaeus Database, which links national registers with comprehensive individual data on socioeconomic status (SES to health data from a large ongoing health survey, the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP. The VIP targets the entire middle-aged population of Västerbotten county at ages 40, 50 and 60 years with yearly cross-sectional surveys including self-reported data on tobacco habits. Time trends of snus use among 92,563 VIP-participants across different areas of residence and smoking groups were investigated graphically. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the associations between SES and geographical variables and current use versus non-use of snus. Results Overall, in parallel to decreasing smoking, the increasing trend of snus use in this middle-aged population continues, particularly in 40-year-olds. In both genders, the highest prevalence of snus use was observed among previous smokers. The prevalence of snus use also increased over time among smokers, and was consistently higher compared to those who had never smoked. Among males - both those who had never smoked and previous smokers - low education (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.06-1.40 and OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.14-1.43, living alone (OR 1.16, 95%CI 1.07-1.27 and OR 1.13, 95%ci 1.04-1.23, low income and living in rural areas was associated with using snus, while this was not seen among male current smokers. Among women, living alone was associated with using snus irrespective of smoking habits. Among female smokers, the OR for snus use increased with higher

  10. Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, T; Hanson, L; Falkmer, T

    2006-01-15

    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating.

  11. Real-Time Tracking of Neighborhood Surroundings and Mood in Urban Drug Misusers: Application of a New Method to Study Behavior in Its Geographical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H.; Tyburski, Matthew; Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Karran A.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Lin, Jia-Ling; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Maladaptive behaviors may be more fully understood and efficiently prevented by ambulatory tools that assess people’s ongoing experience in the context of their environment. Methods To demonstrate new field-deployable methods for assessing mood and behavior as a function of neighborhood surroundings (Geographical Momentary Assessment; GMA), we collected time-stamped GPS data and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) ratings of mood, stress, and drug craving over 16 weeks at randomly prompted times during the waking hours of opioid-dependent polydrug users receiving methadone maintenance. Locations of EMA entries and participants’ travel tracks were calculated for the 12 hours before each EMA entry were mapped. Associations between subjective ratings and objective environmental ratings were evaluated at the whole neighborhood and 12-hour track levels. Results Participants (N=27) were compliant with GMA data collection; 3,711 randomly prompted EMA entries were matched to specific locations. At the neighborhood level, physical disorder was negatively correlated with negative mood, stress, and heroin and cocaine craving (ps <.0001 to .0335); drug activity was negatively correlated with stress, heroin and cocaine craving (ps .0009 to .0134). Similar relationships were found for the environments around respondents’ tracks in the 12 hours preceding EMA entries. Conclusions The results support the feasibility of GMA. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and participants’ reports were counterintuitive and counter-hypothesized, and challenge some assumptions about how ostensibly stressful environments are associated with lived experience and how such environments ultimately impair health. GMA methodology may have applications for development of individual- or neighborhood-level interventions. PMID:24332365

  12. Performances of different global positioning system devices for time-location tracking in air pollution epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Liu, Zhen; Houston, Douglas; Jaimes, Guillermo; McConnell, Rob

    2010-11-23

    People's time-location patterns are important in air pollution exposure assessment because pollution levels may vary considerably by location. A growing number of studies are using global positioning systems (GPS) to track people's time-location patterns. Many portable GPS units that archive location are commercially available at a cost that makes their use feasible for epidemiological studies. We evaluated the performance of five portable GPS data loggers and two GPS cell phones by examining positional accuracy in typical locations (indoor, outdoor, in-vehicle) and factors that influence satellite reception (building material, building type), acquisition time (cold and warm start), battery life, and adequacy of memory for data storage. We examined stationary locations (eg, indoor, outdoor) and mobile environments (eg, walking, traveling by vehicle or bus) and compared GPS locations to highly-resolved US Geological Survey (USGS) and Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangle (DOQQ) maps. The battery life of our tested instruments ranged from acquisition of location time after startup ranged from a few seconds to >20 minutes and varied significantly by building structure type and by cold or warm start. No GPS device was found to have consistently superior performance with regard to spatial accuracy and signal loss. At fixed outdoor locations, 65%-95% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices. At fixed indoor locations, 50%-80% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices except one. Most of the GPS devices performed well during commuting on a freeway, with >80% of points within 10-m of the DOQQ route, but the performance was significantly impacted by surrounding structures on surface streets in highly urbanized areas. All the tested GPS devices had limitations, but we identified several devices which showed promising performance for tracking subjects' time location patterns in

  13. Time-lapse electrical surveys to locate infiltration zones in weathered hard rock tropical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubda, M.; Descloitres, M.; Yalo, N.; Ribolzi, O.; Vouillamoz, J. M.; Boukari, M.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.

    2017-07-01

    In West Africa, infiltration and groundwater recharge processes in hard rock areas are depending on climatic, surface and subsurface conditions, and are poorly documented. Part of the reason is that identification, location and monitoring of these processes is still a challenge. Here, we explore the potential for time-lapse electrical surveys to bring additional information on these processes for two different climate situations: a semi-arid Sahelian site (north of Burkina and a humid Sudanian site (north of Benin), respectively focusing on indirect (localized) and direct (diffuse) recharge processes. The methodology is based on surveys in dry season and rainy season on typical pond or gully using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and frequency electromagnetic (FEM) apparent conductivity mapping. The results show that in the Sahelian zone an indirect recharge occurs as expected, but infiltration doesn't takes place at the center of the pond to the aquifer, but occurs laterally in the banks. In Sudanian zone, the ERT survey shows a direct recharge process as expected, but also a complicated behavior of groundwater dilution, as well as the role of hardpans for fast infiltration. These processes are ascertained by groundwater monitoring in adjacent observing wells. At last, FEM time lapse mapping is found to be difficult to quantitatively interpreted due to the non-uniqueness of the model, clearly evidenced comparing FEM result to auger holes monitoring. Finally, we found that time-lapse ERT can be an efficient way to track infiltration processes across ponds and gullies in both climatic conditions, the Sahelian setting providing results easier to interpret, due to significant resistivity contrasts between dry and rain seasons. Both methods can be used for efficient implementation of punctual sensors for complementary studies. However, FEM time-lapse mapping remains difficult to practice without external information that renders this method less attractive for

  14. Location Isn't Everything: Timing of Spawning Aggregations Optimizes Larval Replenishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J Donahue

    Full Text Available Many species of reef fishes form large spawning aggregations that are highly predictable in space and time. Prior research has suggested that aggregating fish derive fitness benefits not just from mating at high density but, also, from oceanographic features of the spatial locations where aggregations occur. Using a probabilistic biophysical model of larval dispersal coupled to a fine resolution hydrodynamic model of the Florida Straits, we develop a stochastic landscape of larval fitness. Tracking virtual larvae from release to settlement and incorporating changes in larval behavior through ontogeny, we found that larval success was sensitive to the timing of spawning. Indeed, propagules released during the observed spawning period had higher larval success rates than those released outside the observed spawning period. In contrast, larval success rates were relatively insensitive to the spatial position of the release site. In addition, minimum (rather than mean larval survival was maximized during the observed spawning period, indicating a reproductive strategy that minimizes the probability of recruitment failure. Given this landscape of larval fitness, we take an inverse optimization approach to define a biological objective function that reflects a tradeoff between the mean and variance of larval success in a temporally variable environment. Using this objective function, we suggest that the length of the spawning period can provide insight into the tradeoff between reproductive risk and reward.

  15. Time course influences transfer of visual perceptual learning across spatial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, S J; Kennard, C; Bridge, H

    2017-06-01

    Visual perceptual learning describes the improvement of visual perception with repeated practice. Previous research has established that the learning effects of perceptual training may be transferable to untrained stimulus attributes such as spatial location under certain circumstances. However, the mechanisms involved in transfer have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of altering training time course on the transferability of learning effects. Participants were trained on a motion direction discrimination task or a sinusoidal grating orientation discrimination task in a single visual hemifield. The 4000 training trials were either condensed into one day, or spread evenly across five training days. When participants were trained over a five-day period, there was transfer of learning to both the untrained visual hemifield and the untrained task. In contrast, when the same amount of training was condensed into a single day, participants did not show any transfer of learning. Thus, learning time course may influence the transferability of perceptual learning effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of laser induced plasma ignition timing and location on Diesel spray combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, José V.; García-Oliver, José M.; García, Antonio; Pinotti, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser plasma ignition is applied to a direct injection Diesel spray, compared with auto-ignition. • Critical local fuel/air ratio for LIP provoked ignition is obtained. • The LIP system is able to stabilize Diesel combustion compared to auto-ignition cases. • Varying LIP position along spray axis directly affects Ignition-delay. • Premixed combustion is reduced both by varying position and delay of the LIP ignition system. - Abstract: An experimental study about the influence of the local conditions at the ignition location on combustion development of a direct injection spray is carried out in an optical engine. A laser induced plasma ignition system has been used to force the spray ignition, allowing comparison of combustion’s evolution and stability with the case of conventional autoignition on the Diesel fuel in terms of ignition delay, rate of heat release, spray penetration and soot location evolution. The local equivalence ratio variation along the spray axis during the injection process was determined with a 1D spray model, previously calibrated and validated. Upper equivalence ratios limits for the ignition event of a direct injected Diesel spray, both in terms of ignition success possibilities and stability of the phenomena, could been determined thanks to application of the laser plasma ignition system. In all laser plasma induced ignition cases, heat release was found to be higher than for the autoignition reference cases, and it was found to be linked to a decrease of ignition delay, with the premixed peak in the rate of heat release curve progressively disappearing as the ignition delay time gets shorter. Ignition delay has been analyzed as a function of the laser position, too. It was found that ignition delay increases for plasma positions closer to the nozzle, indicating that the amount of energy introduced by the laser induced plasma is not the only parameter affecting combustion initiation, but local equivalence ratio

  17. A Poisson Cluster Stochastic Rainfall Generator That Accounts for the Interannual Variability of Rainfall Statistics: Validation at Various Geographic Locations across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for a Poisson cluster stochastic rainfall generator was validated in its ability to reproduce important rainfall and watershed response characteristics at 104 locations in the United States. The suggested novel approach, The Hybrid Model (THM, as compared to the traditional Poisson cluster rainfall modeling approaches, has an additional capability to account for the interannual variability of rainfall statistics. THM and a traditional approach of Poisson cluster rainfall model (modified Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model were compared in their ability to reproduce the characteristics of extreme rainfall and watershed response variables such as runoff and peak flow. The results of the comparison indicate that THM generally outperforms the traditional approach in reproducing the distributions of peak rainfall, peak flow, and runoff volume. In addition, THM significantly outperformed the traditional approach in reproducing extreme rainfall by 2.3% to 66% and extreme flow values by 32% to 71%.

  18. Real-Time Location-Based Rendering of Urban Underground Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concealment and complex spatial relationships of urban underground pipelines present challenges in managing them. Recently, augmented reality (AR has been a hot topic around the world, because it can enhance our perception of reality by overlaying information about the environment and its objects onto the real world. Using AR, underground pipelines can be displayed accurately, intuitively, and in real time. We analyzed the characteristics of AR and their application in underground pipeline management. We mainly focused on the AR pipeline rendering procedure based on the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS and simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM technology. First, in aiming to improve the spatial accuracy of pipeline rendering, we used differential corrections received from the Ground-Based Augmentation System to compute the precise coordinates of users in real time, which helped us accurately retrieve and draw pipelines near the users, and by scene recognition the accuracy can be further improved. Second, in terms of pipeline rendering, we used Visual-Inertial Odometry (VIO to track the rendered objects and made some improvements to visual effects, which can provide steady dynamic tracking of pipelines even in relatively markerless environments and outdoors. Finally, we used the occlusion method based on real-time 3D reconstruction to realistically express the immersion effect of underground pipelines. We compared our methods to the existing methods and concluded that the method proposed in this research improves the spatial accuracy of pipeline rendering and the portability of the equipment. Moreover, the updating of our rendering procedure corresponded with the moving of the user’s location, thus we achieved a dynamic rendering of pipelines in the real environment.

  19. Turismo e cinema a Verona: dal mito di Giulietta e Romeo riflessioni geografiche su vecchie e nuove location cinematografiche / Tourism and cinema in Verona: geographical considerations about old and new cinematographic locations from Romeo and Juliet myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Pappalardo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo analizza, in chiave geografica, le dinamiche che legano il turismo e il cinema a Verona, città meta consolidata di turismo urbano. Consapevoli che il mito di Giulietta e Romeo svolga un ruolo considerevole all’interno delle motivazioni che inducono il turista a soggiornare nella città veneta, risulta utile soffermarsi sulla funzione svolta dai film, di “antica” e recente realizzazione, nella conoscenza dei luoghi. In virtù delle sempre mutevoli richieste dei visitatori, pare interessante riflettere se sia “conveniente” per Verona, non tanto e non solo economicamente ma, soprattutto, in una logica di sostenibilità, continuare a proporre al turista il cliché della città degli innamorati o se non si debba, al contrario, pensare a nuove esperienze emozionali attraverso la promozione di itinerari le cui tappe non siano solo il balcone di Giulietta, la casa di Romeo, la tomba di Giulietta ma luoghi decisamente più veri quali le piazze storiche della città, i negozi tipici, i centri culturali. The paper analyzes, in geographical key, the dynamics that bind tourism and film in Verona, the city consolidated urban tourism destination. Aware that the myth of Romeo and Juliet plays a considerable role in the reasons for the tourist to stay in the Venetian city, it is useful to focus on the role played by "old" and recently shot films in the knowledge of the places. By virtue of the ever-changing demands of visitors, it seems interesting to consider whether it is “convenient” for Verona, not so much and not only economically but, above all, in a logic of sustainability, to continue to offer to the tourist the cliché of the city of lovers or if it is better to hink of new emotional experiences through the promotion of itineraries whose stages are not just Juliet's balcony, the house of Romeo, Juliet's tomb but places much more real as the historical squares of the city, the local shops and the cultural centers.

  20. A Real-time Generalization and Multi-scale Visualization Method for POI Data in Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Min

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mobile and Web technologies, there has been an increasing number of map-based mushups which display different kinds of POI data in volunteered geographic information. Due to the lack of suitable mechanisms for multi-scale visualization, the display of the POI data often result in the icon clustering problem with icons touching and overlapping each other. This paper introduces a multi-scale visualization method for urban facility POI data by combing the classic methods of generalization and on-line environment. Firstly, we organize the POI data into hierarchical structure by preprocessing in the server-side; the POI features then will be obtained based on the display scale in the client-side and the displacement operation will be executed to resolve the local icon conflicts. Experiments show that this approach can not only achieve the requirements of real-time online, but also can get better multi-scale representation of POI data.

  1. A national analysis of dental waiting lists and point-in-time geographic access to subsidised dental care: can geographic access be improved by offering public dental care through private dental clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudko, Yevgeni; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Australia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world, with a population concentrated on or around coastal areas. Up to 33% of the Australian population are likely to have untreated dental decay, while people with inadequate dentition (fewer than 21 teeth) account for up to 34% of Australian adults. Historically, inadequate access to public dental care has resulted in long waiting lists, received much media coverage and been the subject of a new federal and state initiative. The objective of this research was to gauge the potential for reducing the national dental waiting list through geographical advantage, which could arise from subcontracting the delivery of subsidised dental care to the existing network of private dental clinics across Australia. Eligible population data were collected from the Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Waiting list data from across Australia were collected from publicly available sources and confirmed through direct communication with each individual state or territory dental health body. Quantum geographic information system software was used to map distribution of the eligible population across Australia by statistical area, and to plot locations of government and private dental clinics. Catchment areas of 5 km for metropolitan clinics and 5 km and 50 km for rural clinics were defined. The number of people on the waiting list and those eligible for subsidised dental care covered by each of the catchment areas was calculated. Percentage of the eligible population and those on the waiting list that could benefit from the potential improvement in geographic access was ascertained for metropolitan and rural residents. Fifty three percent of people on the waiting list resided within metropolitan areas. Rural and remote residents made up 47% of the population waiting to receive care. The utilisation of both government and private dental clinics for the delivery of subsidised dental care to the eligible population

  2. Integrating Geographical Information Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Modelling Optimum Sites for Locating Water Reservoirs. A Case Study of the Debub District in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney G. Tsiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model water reservoir site selection for a real world application in the administrative district of Debub, Eritrea. This is a region were scarcity of water is a fundamental problem. Erratic rainfall, drought and unfavourable hydro-geological characteristics exacerbates the region’s water supply. Consequently, the population of Debub is facing severe water shortages and building reservoirs has been promoted as a possible solution to meet the future demand of water supply. This was the most powerful motivation to identify candidate sites for locating water reservoirs. A number of conflicting qualitative and quantitative criteria exist for evaluating alternative sites. Decisions regarding criteria are often accompanied by ambiguities and vagueness. This makes fuzzy logic a more natural approach to this kind of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA problems. This paper proposes a combined two-stage MCDA methodology. The first stage involved utilizing the most simplistic type of data aggregation techniques known as Boolean Intersection or logical AND to identify areas restricted by environmental and hydrological constraints and therefore excluded from further study. The second stage involved integrating fuzzy logic with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to identify optimum and back-up candidate water reservoir sites in the area designated for further study.

  3. Wireless Sensor Networks and Real-Time Locating Systems to Fight against Maritime Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of military and civil applications where Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and Multi-Agent Systems (MASs can be used for providing context-awareness for troops and special corps. On the one hand, WSNs comprise an ideal technology to develop Real-Time Locating Systems (RTLSs aimed at indoor environments, where existing global navigation satellite systems do not work properly. On the other hand, agent-based architectures allow building autonomous and robust systems that are capable of working on highly dynamic scenarios. This paper presents two piracy scenarios where the n-Core platform can be applied. n-Core is a hardware and software platform intended for developing and deploying easily and quickly a wide variety of WSNs applications based on the ZigBee standard. In the first scenario a RTLS is deployed to support boarding and rescue operations. In the second scenario a multi-agent system is proposed to detect the unloading of illegal traffic of merchandise at ports.

  4. Locations and time histories of five 1979 gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laros, J.G.; Evans, W.D.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the locations and time histories of five γ-ray bursts that occurred between 1979 March 7 and March 31. The error box for GB 790325 has a typical dimension of approx.15. The other localizations, while not precise enough for thorough optical examination, contribute to distribution studies and allow radio and X-ray observations, catalog searches, and other archival work. A search through selected catalogs did reveal one object, the star FY Aql (cataloged as a Mira-type variable but probably a dwarf nova) inside one of the γ-ray burst boxes. Given the parameters of this particular search, the probability of at least one chance association is 0.03. Both recent and archival optical examinations of some of the error boxes were carried out, and no indications of any actual physical associations were seen. One event, GB 790331, had an interesting spectral behavior, in that the leading edges of the two main peaks within the burst had harder spectra than the remainder of the event

  5. Beyond Supermarkets: Food Outlet Location Selection in Four U.S. Cities Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Guilkey, David K; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-03-01

    Understanding what influences where food outlets locate is important for mitigating disparities in access to healthy food outlets. However, few studies have examined how neighborhood characteristics influence the neighborhood food environment over time, and whether these relationships differ by neighborhood-level income. Neighborhood-level data from four U.S. cities (Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; Oakland, CA) from 1986, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 were used with two-step econometric models to estimate longitudinal associations between neighborhood-level characteristics (z-scores) and the log-transformed count/km 2 (density) of food outlets within real estate-derived neighborhoods. Associations were examined with lagged neighborhood-level sociodemographics and lagged density of food outlets, with interaction terms for neighborhood-level income. Data were analyzed in 2016. Neighborhood-level income at earlier years was negatively associated with the current density of convenience stores (β= -0.27, 95% CI= -0.16, -0.38, prestaurant density in low-income neighborhoods (10th percentile of income: β= -0.17, 95% CI= -0.34, -0.002, p=0.05), and the density of smaller grocery stores across all income levels (β= -0.27, 95% CI= -0.45, -0.09, p=0.003). There was a lack of policy-relevant associations between the pre-existing food environment and the current density of food outlet types, including supermarkets. Socioeconomically disadvantaged and minority populations may attract "unhealthy" food outlets over time. To support equal access to healthy food outlets, the availability of "less healthy" food outlets types may be relatively more important than the potential lack of supermarkets or full-service restaurants. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brechas salariales por etnia y ubicación geográfica en Santiago de Cali || Wage Gap by Geographic Location and Ethnicity in Cali (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora, Jhon James

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estima la brecha salarial entre afrodescendientes y blancos en la ciudad de Cali a partir de datos de la encuesta de empleo y calidad de vida de 2013. Con el fin de considerar los efectos de la ubicación geográfica, se incluyeron efectos fijos por conglomerado de comuna en la ecuación de participación laboral; esto implica que en el proceso de censura también influye la localización espacial. Nuestros resultados muestran que, al incluir variables como las migraciones y la percepción de discriminación en la ecuación de selección para los afrodescendientes, la brecha salarial es de un 42%, de los que el 9% está asociado a características explicadas por diferencias en capital humano y el 33% está asociado a discriminación laboral. || In this article we estimate the wage gap between white people and Afro-American people in Cali by using data from the survey of employment and quality of life of 2013. The estimation is weighted by the number of individuals that recognize themselves as Afro-American as a measure of statistical correction given the disaggregation of the data, and our approach lets us including the spatial location in the censure process. Our results show that including variables such as migrations and discrimination perception in the participation equation for Afro-Americans, the wage gap is about 43%, where 9% is associated to explained characteristics by differences in human capital and 33% remains associated with labour discrimination.

  7. The Use of Planisphere to Locate Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ping-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Planisphere is a simple and useful tool in locating constellations of the night sky at a specific time, date and geographic location. However it does not show the planet positions because planets are not fixed on the celestial sphere. It is known that the planet orbital planes are nearly coplanar and close to the ecliptic plane. By making…

  8. Geographical Tatoos

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in) Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I loo...

  9. Comparison of global positioning system (GPS) tracking and parent-report diaries to characterize children's time-location patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgethun, Kai; Yost, Michael G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Nyerges, Timothy L; Fenske, Richard A

    2007-03-01

    Respondent error, low resolution, and study participant burden are known limitations of diary timelines used in exposure studies such as the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS). Recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have produced tracking devices sufficiently portable, functional and affordable to utilize in exposure assessment science. In this study, a differentially corrected GPS (dGPS) tracking device was compared to the NHEXAS diary timeline. The study also explored how GPS can be used to evaluate and improve such diary timelines by determining which location categories and which respondents are least likely to record "correct" time-location responses. A total of 31 children ages 3-5 years old wore a dGPS device for all waking hours on a weekend day while their parents completed the NHEXAS diary timeline to document the child's time-location pattern. Parents misclassified child time-location approximately 48% of the time using the NHEXAS timeline in comparison to dGPS. Overall concordance between methods was marginal (kappa=0.33-0.35). The dGPS device found that on average, children spent 76% of the 24-h study period in the home. The diary underestimated time the child spent in the home by 17%, while overestimating time spent inside other locations, outside at home, outside in other locations, and time spent in transit. Diary data for time spent outside at home and time in transit had the lowest response concordance with dGPS. The diaries of stay-at-home mothers and mothers working unskilled labor jobs had lower concordance with dGPS than did those of the other participants. The ability of dGPS tracking to collect continuous rather than categorical (ordinal) data was also demonstrated. It is concluded that automated GPS tracking measurements can improve the quality and collection efficiency of time-location data in exposure assessment studies, albeit for small cohorts.

  10. Time trends for prostate cancer mortality in Brazil and its geographic regions: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sonia Faria Mendes; de Souza, Mirian Carvalho; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2017-10-01

    In the 1980s, an increase in mortality rates for prostate cancer was observed in North America and developed European countries. In the 1990s, however, mortality rates decreased for these countries, an outcome related to early detection of the disease. Conversely, an upward trend in mortality rates was observed in Brazil. This study describe the trends in mortality for prostate cancer in Brazil and geographic regions (North, Northeast, South, Southeast, and Central-West) between 1980 until 2014 and analyze the influence of age, period, and cohort effects on mortality rates. This time-series study used data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and population data from Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The effects on mortality rates were examined using age-period-cohort (APC) models. Crude and standardized mortality rates showed an upward trend for Brazil and its regions more than 2-fold the last 30 years. Age effects showed an increased risk of death in all regions. Period effects showed a higher risk of death in the finals periods for the North and Northeast. Cohort effects showed risk of death was higher for younger than older generations in Brazil and regions, mainly Northeast (RR Adjusted =3.12, 95% CI 1.29-1.41; RR Adjusted =0.28, 95% CI 0.26-0.30, respectively). The increase in prostate cancer mortality rates in Brazil and its regions was mainly due to population aging. The differences in mortality rates and APC effects between regions are related to demographic differences and access of health services across the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Negotiating on location, timing, duration, and participant in agent-mediated joint activity-travel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Huiye; Ronald, N.A.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Agent-based simulation has become an important modeling approach in activity-travel analysis. Social activities account for a large amount of travel and have an important effect on activity-travel scheduling. Participants in joint activities usually have various options regarding location,

  12. Effect of Timing and Location of Hotspot on Super Knock during Pre-ignition

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.; Dibble, Robert W.; Im, Hong G.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-ignition in SI engine is a critical issue that needs addressing as it may lead to super knock event. It is widely accepted that pre-ignition event emanates from hot spot(s) that can be anywhere inside the combustion chamber. The location

  13. Influence of time pressure in a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Verleger, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of strategy for a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task by varying time pressure in 11 Ss (mean age 28 yrs). Besides reaction time (RT) and accuracy, we measured response force and derived two measures from the event-related EEG potential to form

  14. The effect of location, mobility and socio-demographic factors on task and time allocation of households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Schwanen, T.; Timmermans, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of location factors in task and time allocation at the household level. It is hypothesized that, if time constraints are less binding as a result of living in an urban area or owning more cars, spouses engage more often and longer in out-of-home activities and

  15. Time variation of the effect of geographical factors on spatial distribution of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moliba Bankanza, Jacques Celestin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, 1-2 (2011), s. 51-70 ISSN 0324-6329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : multivariate regression * precipitation models * summer precipitation * geographic influence * environmental variables * temporal variability * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2011 http://owww.met.hu/download.php?id=2&vol=115&no=1-2&a=4

  16. An analysis of Emergency Medical Services demand: Time of day, day of the week, and location in the city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Gorkem; Ataman, Mustafa Gokalp; Akay, Serhat; Sofuoglu, Turhan; Sofuoglu, Zeynep

    2017-06-01

    Effective planning of Emergency Medical Services (EMS), which is highly dependent on the analysis of past data trends, is important in reducing response time. Thus, we aimed to analyze demand for these services based on time and location trends to inform planning for an effective EMS. Data for this retrospective study were obtained from the Izmir EMS 112 system. All calls reaching these services during first six months of 2013 were descriptively analyzed, based on time and location trends as a heat-map form. The analyses showed that demand for EMS varied within different time periods of day, and according to day of the week. For the night period, demand was higher at the weekend compared to weekdays, whereas for daytime hours, demand was higher during the week. For weekdays, a statistically significant relation was observed between the call distribution of morning and evening periods. It was also observed that the percentage of demand changed according to location. Among 30 locations, the five most frequent destinations for ambulances, which are also correlated with high population densities, accounted for 55.66% of the total. The results of this study shed valuable light on the areas of call center planning and optimal ambulance locations of Izmir, which can also be served as an archetype for other cities.

  17. A new analytical method for the classification of time-location data obtained from the global positioning system (GPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Kiyoung; Yang, Wonho; Yu, Seung Do

    2012-08-01

    Although the global positioning system (GPS) has been suggested as an alternative way to determine time-location patterns, its use has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new analytical method of classifying time-location data obtained by GPS. A field technician carried a GPS device while simulating various scripted activities and recorded all movements by the second in an activity diary. The GPS device recorded geological data once every 15 s. The daily monitoring was repeated 18 times. The time-location data obtained by the GPS were compared with the activity diary to determine selection criteria for the classification of the GPS data. The GPS data were classified into four microenvironments (residential indoors, other indoors, transit, and walking outdoors); the selection criteria used were used number of satellites (used-NSAT), speed, and distance from residence. The GPS data were classified as indoors when the used-NSAT was below 9. Data classified as indoors were further classified as residential indoors when the distance from the residence was less than 40 m; otherwise, they were classified as other indoors. Data classified as outdoors were further classified as being in transit when the speed exceeded 2.5 m s(-1); otherwise, they were classified as walking outdoors. The average simple percentage agreement between the time-location classifications and the activity diary was 84.3 ± 12.4%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.71. The average differences between the time diary and the GPS results were 1.6 ± 2.3 h for the time spent in residential indoors, 0.9 ± 1.7 h for the time spent in other indoors, 0.4 ± 0.4 h for the time spent in transit, and 0.8 ± 0.5 h for the time spent walking outdoors. This method can be used to determine time-activity patterns in exposure-science studies.

  18. Application of near real-time radial semblance to locate the shallow magmatic conduit at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P.; Whilldin, D.; Chouet, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radial Semblance is applied to broadband seismic network data to provide source locations of Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic energy in near real time. With an efficient algorithm and adequate network coverage, accurate source locations of VLP energy are derived to quickly locate the shallow magmatic conduit system at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. During a restart in magma flow following a brief pause in the current eruption, the shallow magmatic conduit is pressurized, resulting in elastic radiation from various parts of the conduit system. A steeply dipping distribution of VLP hypocenters outlines a region extending from sea level to about 550 m elevation below and just east of the Halemaumau Pit Crater. The distinct hypocenters suggest the shallow plumbing system beneath Halemaumau consists of a complex plexus of sills and dikes. An unconstrained location for a section of the conduit is also observed beneath the region between Kilauea Caldera and Kilauea Iki Crater.

  19. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  20. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  1. Screening of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with focus on location and harvesting times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesil Celiktas, O.; Girgin, G.; Orhan, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Bedir, E.; Vardar Sukan, F.

    2007-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) harvested from different locations of Turkey at four different times of the year were analyzed by HPLC, and their radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities were studied by various assays. The amounts of carnosol,

  2. Impact of Twitter intensity, time, and location on message lapse of bluebird's pursuit of fleas in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da'ar, Omar B; Yunus, Faisel; Md Hossain, Nassif; Househ, Mowafa

    The recent outbreak of bubonic plague in Madagascar reminds us of the continuing public health challenges posed by such deadly diseases in various parts of the world years after their eradication. This study examines the role of Twitter in public health disease surveillance with special focus on how Twitter intensity, time, and location issues explain Twitter plague message delay. We retrospectively analyzed the Twitter feeds of the 2014 bubonic plague outbreak in Madagascar. The analyses are based on the plague-related data available in the public domain between November 19th and 27th 2014. The data were compiled in March 2015. We calculated the time differential between the tweets and retweets, and analyzed various characteristics of the Tweets including Twitter intensity of the users. A total of 6873 Twitter users were included in the study, of which 52% tweeted plague-related information during the morning hours (before mid-day), and 87% of the tweets came from the west of the epicenter of the plague. More importantly, while session of tweet lease and relative location had effect on message lapse, absolute location did not. Additionally, we found no evidence of differential effect of location on message lapse based on relative location i.e. tweets from west or east nor number of following. However, there is evidence that more intense Twitter use appears to have significant effect on message lapse such that as the number of tweets became more intense, time differential between the tweets and retweets increased while higher number of retweets diminished message lapse. This study affirms that Twitter can play an important role in ongoing disease surveillance and the timely dissemination of information during public health emergencies independent of the time and space restrictions. Further ways should be explored to embed social media channels in routine public health practice. Copyright © 2017 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by

  3. Impacts of Reverberation Time, Absorption Location and Background Noise on Listening Conditions in Multi Source Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saher, Konca; Rindel, Jens Holger; Nijs, Lau

    2005-01-01

    index (STI) needs to be improved. The impact of the reverberation time (RT), the distribution of the absorptive materials and the introduction of a screen on STI are discussed briefly .However, these objective parameters have to be assessed through subjective judgement. Auralizations of the multi source...

  4. Optimization of time and location dependent spent nuclear fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, V.

    1977-01-01

    A linear spent fuel storage model is developed to identify cost-effective spent nuclear fuel storage strategies. The purpose of this model is to provide guidelines for the implementation of the optimal time-dependent spent fuel storage capacity expansion in view of the current economic and regulatory environment which has resulted in phase-out of the closed nuclear fuel cycle. Management alternatives of the spent fuel storage backlog, which is created by mismatch between spent fuel generation rate and spent fuel disposition capability, are represented by aggregate decision variables which describe the time dependent on-reactor-site and off-site spent fuel storage capacity additions, and the amount of spent fuel transferred to off-site storage facilities. Principal constraints of the model assure determination of cost optimal spent fuel storage expansion strategies, while spent fuel storage requirements are met at all times. A detailed physical and economic analysis of the essential components of the spent fuel storage problem, which precedes the model development, assures its realism. The effects of technological limitations on the on-site spent fuel storage expansion and timing of reinitiation of the spent fuel reprocessing on optimal spent fuel storage capacity expansion are investigated. The principal results of the study indicate that (a) expansion of storage capacity beyond that of currently planned facilities is necessary, and (b) economics of the post-reactor fuel cycle is extremely sensitive to the timing of reinitiation of spent fuel reprocessing. Postponement of reprocessing beyond mid-1982 may result in net negative economic liability of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

  5. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  6. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  7. SGA Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The SGA locations...

  8. Using the time domain reflectometer to check for a locate a fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramphal, M.; Sadok, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is one of the most useful tools for finding cable faults (opens, shorts, bad cable splices). The TDR is connected to the end of the line and shows the distance to the fault. It uses a low voltage signal that will not damage the line or interfere with nearby lines. The TDR sends a pulse or energy down the cable under test; when the pulse encounters the end of the cable or any cable fault, a portion of the pulse energy is reflected. The elapsed time of the reflected pulse is and indication of the distance to the fault. The shape of the reflected pulse uniquely identifies the type of cable fault. (author)

  9. The time course of location-avoidance learning in fear of spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinck, Mike; Koene, Marieke; Telli, Sibel; Moerman-van den Brink, Wiltine; Verhoeven, Barbara; Becker, Eni S

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to study the time course of avoidance learning in spider fearfuls (SFs) under controlled experimental conditions. To achieve this, we employed an immersive virtual environment (IVE): While walking freely through a virtual art museum to search for specific paintings, the participants were exposed to virtual spiders. Unbeknown to the participants, only two of four museum rooms contained spiders, allowing for avoidance learning. Indeed, the more SF the participants were, the faster they learned to avoid the rooms that contained spiders (Experiment. 1), and within the first six trials, high fearfuls already developed a preference for starting their search task in rooms without spiders (Experiment 2). These results illustrate the time course of avoidance learning in SFs, and they speak to the usefulness of IVEs in fundamental anxiety research.

  10. The Response Time of the Magnetopause Reconnection Location to Changes in the Solar Wind: MMS Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, K. J.; Burch, J. L.; Ergun, R.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gomez, R. G.; Grimes, E. W.; Lewis, W. S.; Mauk, B.; Petrinec, S. M.; Pollock, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause is the mechanism by which magnetic fields in different regions change topology to create open magnetic field lines that allow energy, mass, and momentum to flow into the magnetosphere. It is the primary science goal of the recently launched MMS mission to unlock the mechanism of magnetic reconnection with a novel suite of plasma and field instruments. This study investigates several magnetopause crossings in the vicinity of the X-line on 19 September 2015 and compares the observed X-line location with predictions from the Maximum Magnetic Shear model. Rotations of the interplanetary magnetic field OMF) during the magnetopause crossings together with the close proximity of the four MMS satellites are used to determine the response time of the reconnection X-line location to changes in the IMF. The reconnection location exhibits a continuous motion during slow changes in the IMF but a delayed response to sudden changes in the IMF.

  11. Accuration of Time Series and Spatial Interpolation Method for Prediction of Precipitation Distribution on the Geographical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2018-01-01

    The Spatial Plan of the Province of Central Java 2009-2029 identifies that most regencies or cities in Central Java Province are very vulnerable to landslide disaster. The data are also supported by other data from Indonesian Disaster Risk Index (In Indonesia called Indeks Risiko Bencana Indonesia) 2013 that suggest that some areas in Central Java Province exhibit a high risk of natural disasters. This research aims to develop an application architecture and analysis methodology in GIS to predict and to map rainfall distribution. We propose our GIS architectural application of “Multiplatform Architectural Spatiotemporal” and data analysis methods of “Triple Exponential Smoothing” and “Spatial Interpolation” as our significant scientific contribution. This research consists of 2 (two) parts, namely attribute data prediction using TES method and spatial data prediction using Inverse Distance Weight (IDW) method. We conduct our research in 19 subdistricts in the Boyolali Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Our main research data is the biweekly rainfall data in 2000-2016 Climatology, Meteorology, and Geophysics Agency (In Indonesia called Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika) of Central Java Province and Laboratory of Plant Disease Observations Region V Surakarta, Central Java. The application architecture and analytical methodology of “Multiplatform Architectural Spatiotemporal” and spatial data analysis methodology of “Triple Exponential Smoothing” and “Spatial Interpolation” can be developed as a GIS application framework of rainfall distribution for various applied fields. The comparison between the TES and IDW methods show that relative to time series prediction, spatial interpolation exhibit values that are approaching actual. Spatial interpolation is closer to actual data because computed values are the rainfall data of the nearest location or the neighbour of sample values. However, the IDW’s main weakness is that some

  12. Do the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus vary by location? A spatial analysis of health insurance claims in Northeastern Germany using kernel density estimation and geographically weighted regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kauhl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of general practitioners (GPs in Germany still relies mainly on the ratio of inhabitants to GPs at relatively large scales and barely accounts for an increased prevalence of chronic diseases among the elderly and socially underprivileged populations. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is one of the major cost-intensive diseases with high rates of potentially preventable complications. Provision of healthcare and access to preventive measures is necessary to reduce the burden of T2DM. However, current studies on the spatial variation of T2DM in Germany are mostly based on survey data, which do not only underestimate the true prevalence of T2DM, but are also only available on large spatial scales. The aim of this study is therefore to analyse the spatial distribution of T2DM at fine geographic scales and to assess location-specific risk factors based on data of the AOK health insurance. Methods To display the spatial heterogeneity of T2DM, a bivariate, adaptive kernel density estimation (KDE was applied. The spatial scan statistic (SaTScan was used to detect areas of high risk. Global and local spatial regression models were then constructed to analyze socio-demographic risk factors of T2DM. Results T2DM is especially concentrated in rural areas surrounding Berlin. The risk factors for T2DM consist of proportions of 65–79 year olds, 80 + year olds, unemployment rate among the 55–65 year olds, proportion of employees covered by mandatory social security insurance, mean income tax, and proportion of non-married couples. However, the strength of the association between T2DM and the examined socio-demographic variables displayed strong regional variations. Conclusion The prevalence of T2DM varies at the very local level. Analyzing point data on T2DM of northeastern Germany’s largest health insurance provider thus allows very detailed, location-specific knowledge about increased medical needs. Risk factors

  13. Does the Location of Bruch's Membrane Opening Change Over Time? Longitudinal Analysis Using San Diego Automated Layer Segmentation Algorithm (SALSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Medeiros, Felipe A; Hammel, Naama; Yang, Zhiyong; Weinreb, Robert N; Zangwill, Linda M

    2016-02-01

    We determined if the Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) location changes over time in healthy eyes and eyes with progressing glaucoma, and validated an automated segmentation algorithm for identifying the BMO in Cirrus high-definition coherence tomography (HD-OCT) images. We followed 95 eyes (35 progressing glaucoma and 60 healthy) for an average of 3.7 ± 1.1 years. A stable group of 50 eyes had repeated tests over a short period. In each B-scan of the stable group, the BMO points were delineated manually and automatically to assess the reproducibility of both segmentation methods. Moreover, the BMO location variation over time was assessed longitudinally on the aligned images in 3D space point by point in x, y, and z directions. Mean visual field mean deviation at baseline of the progressing glaucoma group was -7.7 dB. Mixed-effects models revealed small nonsignificant changes in BMO location over time for all directions in healthy eyes (the smallest P value was 0.39) and in the progressing glaucoma eyes (the smallest P value was 0.30). In the stable group, the overall intervisit-intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were 98.4% and 2.1%, respectively, for the manual segmentation and 98.1% and 1.9%, respectively, for the automated algorithm. Bruch's membrane opening location was stable in normal and progressing glaucoma eyes with follow-up between 3 and 4 years indicating that it can be used as reference point in monitoring glaucoma progression. The BMO location estimation with Cirrus HD-OCT using manual and automated segmentation showed excellent reproducibility.

  14. Distribution Locational Real-Time Pricing Based Smart Building Control and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jun; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    This paper proposes an real-virtual parallel computing scheme for smart building operations aiming at augmenting overall social welfare. The University of Denver's campus power grid and Ritchie fitness center is used for demonstrating the proposed approach. An artificial virtual system is built in parallel to the real physical system to evaluate the overall social cost of the building operation based on the social science based working productivity model, numerical experiment based building energy consumption model and the power system based real-time pricing mechanism. Through interactive feedback exchanged between the real and virtual system, enlarged social welfare, including monetary cost reduction and energy saving, as well as working productivity improvements, can be achieved.

  15. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  16. Short-term visual memory for location in depth: A U-shaped function of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2017-10-01

    Short-term visual memory was studied by displaying arrays of four or five numerals, each numeral in its own depth plane, followed after various delays by an arrow cue shown in one of the depth planes. Subjects reported the numeral at the depth cued by the arrow. Accuracy fell with increasing cue delay for the first 500 ms or so, and then recovered almost fully. This dipping pattern contrasts with the usual iconic decay observed for memory traces. The dip occurred with or without a verbal or color-shape retention load on working memory. In contrast, accuracy did not change with delay when a tonal cue replaced the arrow cue. We hypothesized that information concerning the depths of the numerals decays over time in sensory memory, but that cued recall is aided later on by transfer to a visual memory specialized for depth. This transfer is sufficiently rapid with a tonal cue to compensate for the sensory decay, but it is slowed by the need to tag the arrow cue's depth relative to the depths of the numerals, exposing a dip when sensation has decayed and transfer is not yet complete. A model with a fixed rate of sensory decay and varied transfer rates across individuals captures the dip as well as the cue modality effect.

  17. The effect of court location and available time on the tactical shot selection of elite squash players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučković, Goran; James, Nic; Hughes, Mike; Murray, Stafford; Sporiš, Goran; Perš, Janez

    2013-01-01

    No previous research in squash has considered the time between shots or the proximity of the ball to a wall, which are two important variables that influence shot outcomes. The aim of this paper was to analyse shot types to determine the extent to which they are played in different court areas and a more detailed analysis to determine whether the time available had an influence on the shot selected. Ten elite matches, contested by fifteen of the world's top right handed squash players (age 27 ± 3.2, height 1.81 ± 0.06 m, weight 76.3 ± 3.7 kg), at the men's World Team Championships were processed using the SAGIT/Squash tracking system with shot information manually added to the system. Results suggested that shot responses were dependent upon court location and the time between shots. When these factors were considered repeatable performance existed to the extent that one of two shots was typically played when there was limited time to play the shot (tactics affect shot selections. Key pointsPrevious research has suggested that a playing strategy, elements decided in advance of the match, may be evident for elite players by examining court location and preceding shot type, however these parameters alone are unlikely to be sufficient predictors.At present there is no known analysis in squash, or indeed in any of the racket sports, that has quantified the time available to respond to different shot types. An understanding of the time interval between shots and the movement characteristics of the player responding to different shots according to the court positions might facilitate a better understanding of the dynamics that determine shot selection.Some elements of a general playing strategy were evident e.g. predominately hitting to the back left of the court, but tactical differences in shot selection were also evident on the basis of court location and time available to play a shot.

  18. Difference between ejection times measured at two different peripheral locations as a novel marker of vascular stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Obata

    Full Text Available Pulse wave velocity (PWV has been recommended as an arterial damage assessment tool and a surrogate of arterial stiffness. However, the current technology does not allow to measure PWV both continuously and in real-time. We reported previously that peripherally measured ejection time (ET overestimates ET measured centrally. This difference in ET is associated with the inherent vascular properties of the vessel. In the current study we examined ETs derived from plethysmography simultaneously at different peripheral locations and examined the influence of the underlying arterial properties on ET prolongation by changing the subject's position. We calculated the ET difference between two peripheral locations (ΔET and its corresponding PWV for the same heartbeat. The ΔET increased with a corresponding decrease in PWV. The difference between ΔET in the supine and standing (which we call ET index was higher in young subjects with low mean arterial pressure and low PWV. These results suggest that the difference in ET between two peripheral locations in the supine vs standing positions represents the underlying vascular properties. We propose ΔET in the supine position as a potential novel real-time continuous and non-invasive parameter of vascular properties, and the ET index as a potential non-invasive parameter of vascular reactivity.

  19. Ecuadorian youth, social and geographic mobility and higher education in Spain and Ecuador. Unequal educational trajectories in times of crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vega Solís

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyze the inequalities that emerge from and are reproduced in Ecuadorian’s higher education trajectories in the context of economic crises. We focus on the strategies that these youth and their families employ for social mobility as well as the role of public policy in these processes. We examine the trajectories of three groups: sons and daughters of the 2000 migration wave from Ecuador to Spain who study at universities in Spain, those who have returned to Ecuador for their studies, and Ecuadorians who move to Spain in order to carry out postgraduate studies, some of them funded by scholarships from the Ecuadorian government. The research project employed a qualitative methodology based on interviews, focus groups and a survey with Ecuadorians in Spain who took the entrance exam for admittance into Ecuador’s public university system. Our findings highlight the varied forms of capitals that these diverse students employ, as well as the social and economic constraints that they encounter. In a period of economic crisis in Spain, the first group of students must often downgrade their expectations in order to continue their studies. Their experience contrasts starkly with Ecuadorians undertaking postgraduate studies in Spain, whose heterogenous trajectories are upwardly and geographically mobile. The case of the return university students to Ecuador shows us that education is inserted into a broader strategy that depends on transnational networks shaped over more than a decade of Ecuador-Spain migration.

  20. The effect of tumor location and respiratory function on tumor movement estimated by real-time tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimaru, Rikiya; Shirato, Hiroki; Fujino, Masaharu; Suzuki, Keishiro; Yamazaki, Kouichi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of tumor location and pulmonary function on the motion of fiducial markers near lung tumors were evaluated to deduce simple guidelines for determining the internal margin in radiotherapy without fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Pooled data collected by a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system on 42 markers in 39 patients were analyzed. The pulmonary functions of all patients were assessed before radiotherapy. Using chest X-ray film, the position of the marker was expressed relative to the geometry of the unilateral lung. Posterior location meant the area of the posterior half of the lung in a lateral chest X-ray film, and caudal location meant the caudal half of the chest X-ray film; these categories were determined by measuring the distance between the marker and anatomic landmarks, including the apex, costophrenic angle, midline of spinal canal, lateral, anterior, and posterior boundary of the lung. Results: Before the radiotherapy, 18 patients had obstructive respiratory dysfunction (ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity [FEV 1.0 /FVC] 1.0 /FVC and %VC were 97.0% and 66.5%, respectively. Median tumor movements in the x (left-right), y (anteroposterior), and z (craniocaudal) directions were 1.1 mm, 2.3 mm, and 5.4 mm, respectively. There was no significant correlation between respiratory function and magnitude of marker movement in any direction. Median marker movement in the z direction was 2.6 mm for the cranial location and 11.8 mm for the caudal location, respectively (p < 0.001). Median movement in the z direction was 11.8 mm for posterior location and 3.4 mm for anterior location, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Simple measurement of the relative location on plain chest X-ray film was related, but respiratory function test was not related, to the craniocaudal amplitude of the motion of the fiducial marker near lung tumors

  1. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  2. KMTNet Time-series Photometry of the Doubly Eclipsing Binary Stars Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Park, Jang-Ho; Kim, Hyoun-Woo; Lee, Dong-Joo; Kim, Dong-Jin; Han, Cheongho

    2018-05-01

    We report the results of photometric observations for doubly eclipsing binaries OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674 and OGLE-LMC-ECL-22159, both of which are composed of two pairs (designated A&B) of a detached eclipsing binary located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The light curves were obtained by high-cadence time-series photometry using the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network 1.6 m telescopes located at three southern sites (CTIO, SAAO, and SSO) between 2016 September and 2017 January. The orbital periods were determined to be 1.433 and 1.387 days for components A and B of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674, respectively, and 2.988 and 3.408 days for OGLE-LMC-ECL-22159A and B, respectively. Our light curve solutions indicate that the significant changes in the eclipse depths of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674A and B were caused by variations in their inclination angles. The eclipse timing diagrams of the A and B components of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674 and OGLE-LMC-ECL-22159 were analyzed using 28, 44, 28, and 26 new times of minimum light, respectively. The apsidal motion period of OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674B was estimated by detailed analysis of eclipse timings for the first time. The detached eclipsing binary OGLE-LMC-ECL-15674B shows a fast apsidal period of 21.5 ± 0.1 years.

  3. Absolute locations of the North Korean nuclear tests based on differential seismic travel times and InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S. C.; Ford, S. R.; Mellors, R. J.; Ichinose, G.

    2017-12-01

    We use constraints on the location of the January 6, 2016 DPRK announced nuclear test (2016_01) and differential travel times for Pn, Pg, and teleseismic P-waves to estimate the absolute locations of the 6 announced DPRK nuclear tests, as well as other nearby events. Absolute location constraints are based on the fit of commercial InSAR-derived ground displacement and predictions of elastic displacement from an isotropic source including topographic effects. Results show that the announced tests in January and September of 2016 are under the crest of highest local topography (Mt. Mantap), while the 2009 and 2013 events are south of the topographic crest at a similar contour in local topography. The first announced test in 2006 was located near the crest of a separate topographic high approximately 2.75 km east of the 2016_01 test. The September 3, 2017 event is approximately between the two 2016 tests, under the crest of the mountain ridge. Constraints from seismic data put the events within 1 km of the surface and depths may be inferred, with caution, by differencing the elevation of tunnel entrances and the topographic surface and accounting for the rise in a tunnel elevation from the entrance to facilitate drainage. Depths for the 2006_10, 2009_05, 2013_02, 2016_01, 2016_09, and 2017_09 tests are estimated to be 500 m, 530 m, 530 m, 740 m, 750 m, and 750 m, respectively. Other nearby events are considerably lower in magnitude, resulting in location estimates that are not as well constrained as the announced nuclear tests. Analysis of all events provides a bulletin of events that may occur in the future. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Location-dependent communications using quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaney, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to unconditionally verify the location of a communication receiver would lead to a wide range of new security paradigms. However, it is known that unconditional location verification in classical communication systems is impossible. In this work we show how unconditional location verification can be achieved with the use of quantum communication channels. Our verification remains unconditional irrespective of the number of receivers, computational capacity, or any other physical resource held by an adversary. Quantum location verification represents an application of quantum entanglement that delivers a feat not possible in the classical-only channel. It gives us the ability to deliver real-time communications viable only at specified geographical coordinates.

  5. Improvement of IDC/CTBTO Event Locations in Latin America and the Caribbean Using a Regional Seismic Travel Time Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, J. W.; Guendel, F.

    2013-05-01

    The International Data Centre is a vital element of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification mechanism. The fundamental mission of the International Data Centre (IDC) is to collect, process, and analyze monitoring data and to present results as event bulletins to Member States. For the IDC and in particular for waveform technologies, a key measure of the quality of its products is the accuracy by which every detected event is located. Accurate event location is crucial for purposes of an On Site Inspection (OSI), which would confirm the conduct of a nuclear test. Thus it is important for the IDC monitoring and data analysis to adopt new processing algorithms that improve the accuracy of event location. Among them the development of new algorithms to compute regional seismic travel times through 3-dimensional models have greatly increased IDC's location precision, the reduction of computational time, allowing forward and inverse modeling of large data sets. One of these algorithms has been the Regional Seismic Travel Time model (RSTT) of Myers et al., (2011). The RSTT model is nominally a global model; however, it currently covers only North America and Eurasia in sufficient detail. It is the intention CTBTO's Provisional Technical Secretariat and the IDC to extend the RSTT model to other regions of the earth, e.g. Latin America-Caribbean, Africa and Asia. This is particularly important for the IDC location procedure, as there are regions of the earth for which crustal models are not well constrained. For this purpose IDC has launched a RSTT initiative. In May 2012, a technical meeting was held in Vienna under the auspices of the CTBTO. The purpose of this meeting was to invite National Data Centre experts as well as network operators from Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin and North America to discuss the context under which a project to extend the RSTT model would be implemented. A total of 41 participants from 32 Member States

  6. Geographical Inequalities in Surgical Treatment for Localized Female Breast Cancer, Queensland, Australia 1997–2011: Improvements over Time but Inequalities Remain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Baade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of breast conserving surgery (BCS for early stage breast cancer varies by where women live. We investigate whether these geographical patterns have changed over time using population-based data linkage between cancer registry records and hospital inpatient episodes. The study cohort consisted of 11,631 women aged 20 years and over diagnosed with a single primary invasive localised breast cancer between 1997 and 2011 in Queensland, Australia who underwent either BCS (n = 9223, 79% or mastectomy (n = 2408, 21%. After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical factors, compared to women living in very high accessibility areas, women in high (Odds Ratio (OR 0.58 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.49, 0.69, low (OR 0.47 (0.41, 0.54 and very low (OR 0.44 (0.34, 0.56 accessibility areas had lower odds of having BCS, while  the odds for women from middle (OR 0.81 (0.69, 0.94 and most disadvantaged (OR 0.87 (0.71, 0.98 areas was significantly lower than women living in affluent areas. The association between accessibility and the type of surgery reduced over time (interaction p = 0.028 but not for area disadvantage (interaction p = 0.209. In making informed decisions about surgical treatment, it is crucial that any geographical-related barriers to implementing their preferred treatment are minimised.

  7. The effect of pressurized magma chamber growth on melt migration and pre-caldera vent locations through time at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of eruptions at long-lived volcanic centers provides a window into the co-evolution of crustal magma transport, tectonic stresses, and unsteady magma generation at depth. Mount Mazama in the Oregon Cascades has seen variable activity over the last 400 ky, including the 50 km3 climactic eruption at ca. 7.7 ka that produced Crater Lake caldera. The physical mechanisms responsible for the assembly of silicic magma reservoirs that are the precursors to caldera-forming eruptions are poorly understood. Here we argue that the spatial and temporal distribution of geographically clustered volcanic vents near Mazama reflects the development of a centralized magma chamber that fed the climactic eruption. Time-averaged eruption rates at Mount Mazama imply an order of magnitude increase in deep magma influx prior to the caldera-forming event, suggesting that unsteady mantle melting triggered a chamber growth episode that culminated in caldera formation. We model magma chamber–dike interactions over ∼50 ky preceding the climactic eruption to fit the observed distribution of surface eruptive vents in space and time, as well as petrologically estimated deep influx rates. Best fitting models predict an expanding zone of dike capture caused by a growing, oblate spheroidal magma chamber with 10–30 MPa of overpressure. This growing zone of chamber influence causes closest approaching regional mafic vent locations as well as more compositionally evolved Mazama eruptions to migrate away from the climactic eruptive center, returning as observed to the center after the chamber drains during the caldera-forming eruption.

  8. Analysis of lightning fault detection, location and protection on short and long transmission lines using Real Time Digital Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Andre Luiz Pereira de [Siemens Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: andreluiz.oliveira@siemens.com

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of lightning fault detection, location and protection using numeric distance relays applied in high voltage transmission lines, more specifically in the 500 kV transmission lines of CEMIG (Brazilian Energy Utility) between the Vespasiano 2 - Neves 1 (short line - 23.9 km) and Vespasiano 2 - Mesquita (long line - 148.6 km) substations. The analysis was based on the simulations results of numeric distance protective relays on power transmission lines, realized in September 02 to 06, 2002, at Siemens AG's facilities (Erlangen - Germany), using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS{sup TM}). Several lightning faults simulations were accomplished, in several conditions of the electrical power system where the protective relays would be installed. The results are presented not only with the times of lightning faults elimination, but also all the functionality of a protection system, including the correct detection, location and other advantages that these modern protection devices make possible to the power system. (author)

  9. New Ways of Working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration.

  10. New ways of working: does flexibility in time and location of work change work behavior and affect business outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Merle M; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Schelvis, Roos; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the changing modern economy some new factors have been addressed that are of importance for productivity and economic growth, such as human skills, workplace organization, information and communication technologies (ICT) and knowledge sharing. An increasing number of companies and organizations are implementing measures to better address these factors, often referred to as 'the New Ways of Working (NWW)'. This consists of a large variety of measures that enable flexibility in the time and location of work. Expectations of these measures are often high, such as a reduction in operating costs and an increase of productivity. However, scientific proof is still lacking, and it is worth asking whether al these implementations actually cause a change in work behavior and effect business outcomes positively. This article describes a case study of three departments (total of 73 employees) that changed from a traditional way of working towards a new way of working. Questionnaires and a new developed objective measurement system called 'work@task' were used to measure changes in work behavior (i.e. increased variation in work location, work times and a change towards NWW management style) and the effect on business objectives such as knowledge sharing, employees satisfaction, and collaboration.

  11. Real-time determination of magnetic island location for neoclassical tearing mode control in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y S; Welander, A S

    2006-01-01

    Accurate measurement of island location is crucial for efficient suppression of the neoclassical tearing mode by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). In the control system on DIII-D the contour of the resonant q-surface is measured in real time based on real-time magnetohydrodynamic reconstructions, EFITs, that include motional Stark effect measurements of pitch angle in the analysis. A new method for determination of the radial position of the q-surface using a 40 channel electron cyclotron emission radiometer has been developed. This method analyses localized temperature fluctuations caused by motion of the island and can be used by the plasma control system as a complementary measurement of the radial position of the q-surface contour for faster and more accurate alignment of the ECCD

  12. REAL-TIME NAVIGATION SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN THE SCOPE OF 3D GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR MULTI STOREY CAR PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yenigun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, a large increase in the number of vehicles in traffic with population growth and economic development are observed. This increase brings with it many problems. One of these problems is the parking problem as a result of the need to park the vehicle. Impractical and inadequate parking areas have a negative impact on drivers. To minimize these drawbacks, car parking is intended to develop a system to come to the aid of users. This system is planned to be developed which can be applied to indoor and multi-storey parking structure. Considered in this study, in the garage, drivers are intended to be directed as soon as possible in place of the convenient parking. However, the amount of fuel spent looking for parking tool that are caused by air and noise pollution, and to search for a parking lot when looking for a place to park the lost time, the resulting stress is minimized, it is expected that.

  13. Real-Time Navigation System Implementation Within the Scope of 3d Geographic Information Systems for Multi Storey CAR Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, B.; Karas, I. R.; Demiral, E.

    2016-10-01

    Today, a large increase in the number of vehicles in traffic with population growth and economic development are observed. This increase brings with it many problems. One of these problems is the parking problem as a result of the need to park the vehicle. Impractical and inadequate parking areas have a negative impact on drivers. To minimize these drawbacks, car parking is intended to develop a system to come to the aid of users. This system is planned to be developed which can be applied to indoor and multi-storey parking structure. Considered in this study, in the garage, drivers are intended to be directed as soon as possible in place of the convenient parking. However, the amount of fuel spent looking for parking tool that are caused by air and noise pollution, and to search for a parking lot when looking for a place to park the lost time, the resulting stress is minimized, it is expected that.

  14. Phylogeography, genetic structure and population divergence time of cheetahs in Africa and Asia: evidence for long-term geographic isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charruau, P; Fernandes, C; Orozco-terWengel, P; Peters, J; Hunter, L; Ziaie, H; Jourabchian, A; Jowkar, H; Schaller, G; Ostrowski, S; Vercammen, P; Grange, T; Schlötterer, C; Kotze, A; Geigl, E-M; Walzer, C; Burger, P A

    2011-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been described as a species with low levels of genetic variation. This has been suggested to be the consequence of a demographic bottleneck 10 000–12 000 years ago (ya) and also led to the assumption that only small genetic differences exist between the described subspecies. However, analysing mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites in cheetah samples from most of the historic range of the species we found relatively deep phylogeographic breaks between some of the investigated populations, and most of the methods assessed divergence time estimates predating the postulated bottleneck. Mitochondrial DNA monophyly and overall levels of genetic differentiation support the distinctiveness of Northern-East African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii). Moreover, combining archaeozoological and contemporary samples, we show that Asiatic cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) are unambiguously separated from African subspecies. Divergence time estimates from mitochondrial and nuclear data place the split between Asiatic and Southern African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) at 32 000–67 000 ya using an average mammalian microsatellite mutation rate and at 4700–44 000 ya employing human microsatellite mutation rates. Cheetahs are vulnerable to extinction globally and critically endangered in their Asiatic range, where the last 70–110 individuals survive only in Iran. We demonstrate that these extant Iranian cheetahs are an autochthonous monophyletic population and the last representatives of the Asiatic subspecies A. j. venaticus. We advocate that conservation strategies should consider the uncovered independent evolutionary histories of Asiatic and African cheetahs, as well as among some African subspecies. This would facilitate the dual conservation priorities of maintaining locally adapted ecotypes and genetic diversity. PMID:21214655

  15. Influence of container size, location, and time of day on oviposition patterns of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, L C; Ponlawat, A; Edman, J D; Scott, T W; Vermeylen, F

    2008-06-01

    We conducted a study to determine the effect of container size and location on oviposition site selection by Ae. aegypti in large outdoor field enclosures (10 x 10 x 4 m high). There was a strong positive relationship between increasing container diameter, container volume, and water surface area with egg numbers over both high (rainy, July) and low (cool-dry, January) dengue transmission seasons. Location of containers (indoors versus immediately outdoors and underneath houses) did not influence the number of eggs deposited for containers 5-32 cm in diameter in either season. No trends based on container color (black, brown, or grey) were observed. A slight trend with a greater numbers of eggs laid outdoors in the largest containers (42 cm diameter) during the dry season was observed. Three separate models were run using the mixed model procedure in SAS for each container attribute. Controlling for season, time, and date, the most important container attribute predicting total egg numbers was container volume (total capacity) explaining 88% of the variation, followed by water surface area (85%), and container diameter opening (83%). Oviposition peaked in the afternoon at 1600 hrs and 2000 hrs in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Few eggs were laid overnight (2000 hrs-0600 hrs). Our results indicate that physical attributes of oviposition sites, such as size, light-dark contrasts, and specular reflectance from water surfaces, play a significant role in oviposition site selection.

  16. Palaeomagnetic Constrains on the Timing and the Geographical Distribution of Tectonic Rotations in the Betic Chain, Southern Spain. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osete, M. L.; Villalain, J. J.; Pavon-Carrasco, F. J.; Palencia, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Betic Cordillera is the northern branch of the Betic-Rifean orogen, the westernmost segment of the Mediterranean Alpine orogenic system. Several palaeomagnetic studies have enhanced the important role that block rotations about vertical axes have played in the tectonic evolution of the region. In this work we present a review of published palaeomagnetic data. According with the rotational deformation, the Betics are divided into the central-western area and the eastern Betics. A sequence of rotations for the two regions is also proposed. In central and western Subbetics almost constant clockwise rotations of about 60 are documented in Jurassic limestones. The existence of a pervasive remagnetization of Jurassic limestones, which was coeval with the folding of the studied units and dated as post-Palaeogene, constrains the timing of tectonic rotations in western Subbetics. New palaeomagnetic data from Neogene sedimentary sequences in central Betics indicate that palaeomagnetic clockwise rotations continued after late Miocene. A similar pattern of 40 CW rotations occurred after 20-17 Ma was obtained from the study of the Ronda-Malaga peridotites (western Internal Betics). In eastern Subbetics a more heterogeneous pattern, including very high CW rotations has been observed. But recent rotational deformation in the Internal part of eastern Betics is CCW and related to the left-lateral strike-slip fault systems. Proposed kinematics models for the Betics are discussed under the light of the present available palaeomagnetic information.

  17. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  18. Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-time-of-flight mass spectrometric methodology for geographical origin verification of coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risticevic, Sanja; Carasek, Eduardo; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Increasing consumer awareness of food safety issues requires the development of highly sophisticated techniques for the authentication of food commodities. The food products targeted for falsification are either products of high commercial value or those produced in large quantities. For this reason, the present investigation is directed towards the characterization of coffee samples according to the geographical origin. The conducted research involves the development of a rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) method that is utilized for the verification of geographical origin traceability of coffee samples. As opposed to the utilization of traditional univariate optimization methods, the current study employs the application of multivariate experimental designs to the optimization of extraction-influencing parameters. Hence, the two-level full factorial first-order design aided in the identification of two influential variables: extraction time and sample temperature. The optimum set of conditions for the two variables was 12 min and 55 deg. C, respectively, as directed by utilization of Doehlert matrix and response surface methodology. The high-throughput automated SPME procedure was completed by implementing a single divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) 50/30 μm metal fiber with excellent durability properties ensuring the completion of overall sequence of coffee samples. The utilization of high-speed TOFMS instrument ensured the completion of one GC-MS run of a complex coffee sample in 7.9 min and the complete list of benefits provided by ChromaTOF software including fully automated background subtraction, baseline correction, peak find and mass spectral deconvolution algorithms was exploited during the data evaluation procedure. The combination of the retention index (RI) system using C 8 -C 40 alkanes and the mass spectral library search was utilized for the

  19. Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-time-of-flight mass spectrometric methodology for geographical origin verification of coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risticevic, Sanja [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Carasek, Eduardo [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Trindade, Florianopolis, 88040-900, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Pawliszyn, Janusz [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: janusz@uwaterloo.ca

    2008-06-09

    Increasing consumer awareness of food safety issues requires the development of highly sophisticated techniques for the authentication of food commodities. The food products targeted for falsification are either products of high commercial value or those produced in large quantities. For this reason, the present investigation is directed towards the characterization of coffee samples according to the geographical origin. The conducted research involves the development of a rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) method that is utilized for the verification of geographical origin traceability of coffee samples. As opposed to the utilization of traditional univariate optimization methods, the current study employs the application of multivariate experimental designs to the optimization of extraction-influencing parameters. Hence, the two-level full factorial first-order design aided in the identification of two influential variables: extraction time and sample temperature. The optimum set of conditions for the two variables was 12 min and 55 deg. C, respectively, as directed by utilization of Doehlert matrix and response surface methodology. The high-throughput automated SPME procedure was completed by implementing a single divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) 50/30 {mu}m metal fiber with excellent durability properties ensuring the completion of overall sequence of coffee samples. The utilization of high-speed TOFMS instrument ensured the completion of one GC-MS run of a complex coffee sample in 7.9 min and the complete list of benefits provided by ChromaTOF software including fully automated background subtraction, baseline correction, peak find and mass spectral deconvolution algorithms was exploited during the data evaluation procedure. The combination of the retention index (RI) system using C{sub 8}-C{sub 40} alkanes and the mass spectral library search was

  20. Contact tracing with a real-time location system: A case study of increasing relative effectiveness in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmich, Thomas R; Clements, Casey M; El-Sherif, Nibras; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Nestler, David M; Boggust, Andy; Ernste, Vickie K; Marisamy, Gomathi; Koenig, Kyle R; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2017-12-01

    Contact tracing is the systematic method of identifying individuals potentially exposed to infectious diseases. Electronic medical record (EMR) use for contact tracing is time-consuming and may miss exposed individuals. Real-time location systems (RTLSs) may improve contact identification. Therefore, the relative effectiveness of these 2 contact tracing methodologies were evaluated. During a pertussis outbreak in the United States, a retrospective case study was conducted between June 14 and August 31, 2016, to identify the contacts of confirmed pertussis cases, using EMR and RTLS data in the emergency department of a tertiary care medical center. Descriptive statistics and a paired t test (α = 0.05) were performed to compare contacts identified by EMR versus RTLS, as was correlation between pertussis patient length of stay and the number of potential contacts. Nine cases of pertussis presented to the emergency department during the identified time period. RTLS doubled the potential exposure list (P < .01). Length of stay had significant positive correlation with contacts identified by RTLS (ρ = 0.79; P = .01) but not with EMR (ρ = 0.43; P = .25). RTLS doubled the potential pertussis exposures beyond EMR-based contact identification. Thus, RTLS may be a valuable addition to the practice of contact tracing and infectious disease monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of families of varieties according to the time of harvest at two locations in the central region of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Jorge

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Were evaluated 46 varieties at two locations in the central region of the country in two types of soil, plant cane between 13 and 19 months during the months of November 2010 to May 2011 in the variables t cane / ha,% pol t cane / ha. Three stages were established harvest; cultivars were grouped into families according to their sugar behavior, defining moments of harvest and groups of families of varieties in each harvest period. One Discriminant Factorial Analysis was performed, the qualitative variable used in the first case being the so-called time and the second group of the cultivars. Obtained results allowed the discriminant group the harvest time and the families of varieties for each harvest period with higher percentages of good classification to 75%. The Complete Model confirmed the existence of genotype - environment interaction and quantified a high contribution of the environment, mostly attributed to the towns and the experimental error for cane and pol t / ha, while for the sugar content was the time of harvest. The Reduced Model offered that for t cane / ha Moment in one and three, the variance of genotype - environment interaction was higher than ambient

  2. Influence of hang time and location on bacterial contamination of intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency and critical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumin, Julien; Olp, Nichole M; Magnusson, Karissa D; Butler, Amy L; Daniels, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of fluid and ports in intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU). Experimental model. Ninety intravenous fluid bags of lactated balanced-electrolytes solution (1 L) hung in a university hospital. Bags were hung in 2 different locations in the ER (sink and bins) and one location in the ICU (sink) for 11 days. Bags were punctured 3 times daily with a sterile needle to simulate clinical use. Injection ports were swabbed and 50 mL of fluid were collected in duplicates on days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Aerobic bacterial cultures were performed on the fluid and injection port. Contamination was defined as bacterial growth of a similar phenotype across 2 consecutive times. Increase in the fluid contamination rate from day 0 was tested using an exact binomial test. Port contamination rate between locations was tested using Fisher's exact test. Combined bacterial growth on injection ports reached a mean (95% confidence interval) of 8.1 (0.005-16.2) cfu/port on day 10. The combined port contamination was 3.3%, 11.1%, 17.8%, and 31.1% on days 0, 2, 4, and 7, respectively. Port contamination was similar between ER and ICU. However, port contamination was higher in the sink versus the bins area (38.3% vs 16.7%, P = 0.032). No fluid bag was contaminated at days 0 and 2. The contamination rate of fluid bag was 1.1% and 4.4% on days 4 and 7, respectively. All bags with contaminated fluid were in the ER (6.7%, 95% exact binomial confidence interval 1.9-16.2%). Injection port contamination reached 31.1% on day 7. Contamination was more likely when the bags were hung next to a sink. In our model of bag puncture, fluid contamination occurred between days 2 and 4. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  3. Time-location patterns of a diverse population of older adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Adar, Sara D; Stukovsky, Karen H; Avol, Ed; Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Nunn, Cathy; Mancera-Cuevas, Karen; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    The primary aim of this analysis was to present and describe questionnaire data characterizing time-location patterns of an older, multiethnic population from six American cities. We evaluated the consistency of results from repeated administration of this questionnaire and between this questionnaire and other questionnaires collected from participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Participants reported spending most of their time inside their homes (average: 121 h/week or 72%). More than 50% of the participants reported spending no time in several of the location options, including at home outdoors, at work/volunteer/school locations indoors or outdoors, or in "other" locations outdoors. We observed consistency between self-reported time-location patterns from repeated administration of the time-location questionnaire and compared with other survey instruments. Comparisons with national cohorts demonstrated the differences in time-location patterns in the MESA Air cohort due to differences in demographics, but the data showed similar trends in patterns by age, gender, season, and employment status. This study was the first to explicitly examine the time-location patterns in an older, multiethnic population and the first to add data on Chinese participants. These data can be used to inform future epidemiological research of MESA Air and other studies that include diverse populations.

  4. Real-Time Location Systems for Asset Management in Nursing Homes: An Explorative Study of Ethical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Hoof

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time location systems (RTLS can be implemented in aged care for monitoring persons with wandering behaviour and asset management. RTLS can help retrieve personal items and assistive technologies that when lost or misplaced may have serious financial, economic and practical implications. Various ethical questions arise during the design and implementation phases of RTLS. This study investigates the perspectives of various stakeholders on ethical questions regarding the use of RTLS for asset management in nursing homes. Three focus group sessions were conducted concerning the needs and wishes of (1 care professionals; (2 residents and their relatives; and (3 researchers and representatives of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. The sessions were transcribed and analysed through a process of open, axial and selective coding. Ethical perspectives concerned the design of the system, the possibilities and functionalities of tracking, monitoring in general and the user-friendliness of the system. In addition, ethical concerns were expressed about security and responsibilities. The ethical perspectives differed per focus group. Aspects of privacy, the benefit of reduced search times, trust, responsibility, security and well-being were raised. The main focus of the carers and residents was on a reduced burden and privacy, whereas the SMEs stressed the potential for improving products and services.

  5. Location Intelligence Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.

    2015-01-01

    Location Intelligence (LI) means using the spatial dimension of information as a key to support business processes. This spatial dimension has to be defined by geographic coordinates. Storing these spatial objects in a database allows for attaching a 'meaning' to them, like 'current position', 'border', 'building' or 'room'. Now the coordinates represent real-world objects, which can be relevant for the measurement, documentation, control or optimization of (parameters of) business processes aiming at different business objectives. But LI can only be applied, if the locations can be determined with an accuracy (in space and time) appropriate for the business process in consideration. Therefore the first step in any development of a LI solution is the analysis of the business process itself regarding its requirements for spatial and time resolution and accuracy. The next step is the detailed analysis of the surrounding conditions of the process: Does the process happen indoor and/or outdoor? Are there moving objects? If yes, how fast are they? How does the relevant environment look like? Is technical infrastructure available? Is the process restricted by regulations? As a result, a proper Location Detection Technology (LDT) has to be chosen in order to get reliable and accurate positions of the relevant objects. At the highly challenging conditions of the business processes IAEA inspectors are working with, the chosen LDTs have to deliver reliable positioning on ''room-level'' accuracy, even if there is no location enabling infrastructure in place, the objects (people) mostly are indoors and have to work under strong regulations. The presentation will give insights into innovative LI solutions based on technologies of different LDT providers. Pros and cons of combinations of different LDT (like multi- GNSS, IMU, camera, and human interaction based positioning) will be discussed from the

  6. Using a modified time-reverse imaging technique to locate low-frequency earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault near Cholame, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Tobias; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to locate low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) within tectonic tremor episodes based on time-reverse imaging techniques. The modified time-reverse imaging technique presented here is the first method that locates individual LFEs within tremor episodes within 5 km uncertainty without relying on high-amplitude P-wave arrivals and that produces similar hypocentral locations to methods that locate events by stacking hundreds of LFEs without having to assume event co-location. In contrast to classic time-reverse imaging algorithms, we implement a modification to the method that searches for phase coherence over a short time period rather than identifying the maximum amplitude of a superpositioned wavefield. The method is independent of amplitude and can help constrain event origin time. The method uses individual LFE origin times, but does not rely on a priori information on LFE templates and families.We apply the method to locate 34 individual LFEs within tremor episodes that occur between 2010 and 2011 on the San Andreas Fault, near Cholame, California. Individual LFE location accuracies range from 2.6 to 5 km horizontally and 4.8 km vertically. Other methods that have been able to locate individual LFEs with accuracy of less than 5 km have mainly used large-amplitude events where a P-phase arrival can be identified. The method described here has the potential to locate a larger number of individual low-amplitude events with only the S-phase arrival. Location accuracy is controlled by the velocity model resolution and the wavelength of the dominant energy of the signal. Location results are also dependent on the number of stations used and are negligibly correlated with other factors such as the maximum gap in azimuthal coverage, source–station distance and signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Radiofrequency ablation assisted by real-time virtual sonography for hepatocellular carcinoma inconspicuous under sonography and high-risk locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Han Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is an effective and real-time targeting modality for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs. However, mistargeting may occur when the target tumor is confused with cirrhotic nodules or because of the poor conspicuity of the index tumor under ultrasonography (US. Real-time virtual sonography (RVS can provide the same reconstruction computed tomography images as US images. The aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of RVS-assisted RFA for HCCs that are inconspicuous or conspicuous under US. A total of 21 patients with 28 HCC tumors—divided into US inconspicuous and high-risk subgroup (3 tumors in 3 patients, US inconspicuous and nonhigh-risk subgroup (5 tumors in 4 patients, US conspicuous and high-risk subgroup (16 tumors in 14 patients, and US conspicuous and nonhigh-risk subgroup (4 tumors in 3 patients—underwent RVS-assisted RFA between May 2012 and June 2014 in our institution. The mean diameter of the nodules was 2.0 ± 1.1 cm. The results showed that the complete ablation rate is 87.5% (7/8 in the US undetectable group and 75% (15/20 in the US detectable group. A comparison between six tumors with incomplete ablation and 22 tumors with complete ablation showed higher alpha-fetoprotein level (mean, 1912 ng/mL vs. 112 ng/mL and larger tumor size (mean diameter, 26 mm vs. 16 mm in the incomplete ablation nodules (both p < 0.05. In conclusion, RVS-assisted RFA is useful for tumors that are difficult to detect under conventional US and may also be useful for tumors in high-risk locations because it may prevent complication induced by mistargeting.

  8. Prediction of landslide activation at locations in Beskidy Mountains using standard and real-time monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents landslide monitoring methods used for prediction of landslide activity at locations in the Carpathian Mountains (SE Poland). Different types of monitoring methods included standard and real-time early warning measurement with use of hourly data transfer to the Internet were used. Project financed from the EU funds was carried out for the purpose of public road reconstruction. Landslides with low displacement rates (varying from few mm to over 5cm/year) had size of 0.4-2.2mln m3. Flysch layers involved in mass movements represented mixture of clayey soils and sandstones of high moisture content and plasticity. Core sampling and GPR scanning were used for recognition of landslide size and depths. Laboratory research included index, IL oedometer, triaxial and direct shear laboratory tests. GPS-RTK mapping was employed for actualization of landslide morphology. Instrumentation consisted of standard inclinometers, piezometers and pore pressure transducers. Measurements were carried 2006-2011, every month. In May 2010 the first in Poland real-time monitoring system was installed at landslide complex over the Szymark-Bystra public road. It included in-place uniaxial sensors and 3D continuous inclinometers installed to the depths of 12-16m with tilt sensors every 0.5m. Vibrating wire pore pressure and groundwater level transducers together with automatic meteorological station analyzed groundwater and weather conditions. Obtained monitoring and field investigations data provided parameters for LEM and FEM slope stability analysis. They enabled prediction and control of landslide behaviour before, during and after stabilization or partly stabilization works. In May 2010 after the maximum precipitation (100mm/3hours) the rates of observed displacements accelerated to over 11cm in a few days and damaged few standard inclinometer installations. However permanent control of the road area was possible by continuous inclinometer installations. Comprehensive

  9. GeoTravel: Harvesting Ambient Geographic Footprints from GPS Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Li Ching; Goh, Ong Sing

    2014-01-01

    This study is about harvesting point of interest from GPS trajectories. Trajectories are the paths that moving objects move by follow through space in a function of time while GPS trajectories generally are point-sequences with geographic coordinates, time stamp, speed and heading. User can get information from GPS enable device. For example, user can acquire present location, search the information around them and design driving routes to a destination and thus design travel itineraries. By ...

  10. The Right Place at the Right Time: Medical Oncology Outpatients' Perceptions of Location of End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Amy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Zdenkowski, Nicholas; Douglas, Charles; Hall, Alix; Walsh, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Background: Helping people achieve their preferred location of care is an important indicator of quality end-of-life (EOL) care. Using a sample of Australian medical oncology outpatients, this study examined (1) their preferred location of EOL care; (2) their perceived benefits and worries of receiving care in that location; (3) the percentage who had discussed preferences with their doctor and/or support person; and (4) whether they wanted their doctor to ask them where they wanted to die. Methods: Adults with a confirmed diagnosis of cancer were approached between September 2015 and January 2016 in the waiting room of an Australian oncology outpatient clinic. Consenting participants completed a home-based pen-and-paper survey indicating preferred location of care, perceived benefits and worries of that location, whether they had discussed preferences with their doctors, and whether they were willing to be asked about their preferences. Results: A total of 203 patients returned the survey (47% of those eligible). Less than half preferred to be cared for at home (47%), 34% preferred a hospice/palliative care unit, and 19% preferred the hospital. Common benefits and worries associated with locations included perceived burden on others, familiarity of environment, availability of expert medical care, symptom management, and likelihood of having wishes respected. More patients had discussed preferences with their support persons (41%) than doctors (7%). Most wanted a doctor to ask them about preferred location of care (87%) and thought it was important to die in the location of their choice (93%). Conclusions: Patients were willing to have clinicians to ask them where they wanted to die, although few had discussed their preferences with doctors. Although home was the most preferred location for many patients, the overall variation suggests that clinicians should adopt a systematic approach to eliciting patient preferences. Copyright © 2018 by the National

  11. Integrating data from multiple time-location measurement methods for use in exposure assessment: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Davey, Mark E; Vedal, Sverre; Burke, Gregory L; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-11-01

    Tools to assess time-location patterns related to environmental exposures have expanded from reliance on time-location diaries (TLDs) and questionnaires to use of geospatial location devices such as data-logging Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution obtained typical time-location patterns via questionnaire for 6424 adults in six US cities. At a later time (mean 4.6 years after questionnaire), a subset (n=128) participated in high-resolution data collection for specific 2-week periods resulting in concurrent GPS and detailed TLD data, which were aggregated to estimate time spent in various microenvironments. During these 2-week periods, participants were observed to spend the most time at home indoors (mean of 78%) and a small proportion of time in-vehicle (mean of 4%). Similar overall patterns were reported by these participants on the prior questionnaire (mean home indoors: 75%; mean in-vehicle: 4%). However, individual micro-environmental time estimates measured over specific 2-week periods were not highly correlated with an individual's questionnaire report of typical behavior (Spearman's ρ of 0.43 for home indoors and 0.39 for in-vehicle). Although questionnaire data about typical time-location patterns can inform interpretation of long-term epidemiological analyses and risk assessment, they may not reliably represent an individual's short-term experience.

  12. VT School Locations - K-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) FacilitiesSchools_PTSCHOOL is designed to provide point locations of every Vermont School along with the established school ID (PSID) for...

  13. The influence of the Bible geographic objects peculiarities on the concept of the spatiotemporal geoinformation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsebarth, A.; Moscicka, A.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the infl uence of the Bible geographic object peculiarities on the spatiotemporal geoinformation system of the Bible events. In the proposed concept of this system the special attention was concentrated to the Bible geographic objects and interrelations between the names of these objects and their location in the geospace. In the Bible, both in the Old and New Testament, there are hundreds of geographical names, but the selection of these names from the Bible text is not so easy. The same names are applied for the persons and geographic objects. The next problem which arises is the classification of the geographical object, because in several cases the same name is used for the towns, mountains, hills, valleys etc. Also very serious problem is related to the time-changes of the names. The interrelation between the object name and its location is also complicated. The geographic object of this same name is located in various places which should be properly correlated with the Bible text. Above mentioned peculiarities of Bible geographic objects infl uenced the concept of the proposed system which consists of three databases: reference, geographic object, and subject/thematic. The crucial component of this system is proper architecture of the geographic object database. In the paper very detailed description of this database is presented. The interrelation between the databases allows to the Bible readers to connect the Bible text with the geography of the terrain on which the Bible events occurred and additionally to have access to the other geographical and historical information related to the geographic objects.

  14. Factors influencing time-location patterns and their impact on estimates of exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Williams, Kayleen; Hirsch, Jana A; Adar, Sara D; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    We assessed time-location patterns and the role of individual- and residential-level characteristics on these patterns within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) cohort and also investigated the impact of individual-level time-location patterns on individual-level estimates of exposure to outdoor air pollution. Reported time-location patterns varied significantly by demographic factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, education, and employment status. On average, Chinese participants reported spending significantly more time indoors and less time outdoors and in transit than White, Black, or Hispanic participants. Using a tiered linear regression approach, we predicted time indoors at home and total time indoors. Our model, developed using forward-selection procedures, explained 43% of the variability in time spent indoors at home, and incorporated demographic, health, lifestyle, and built environment factors. Time-weighted air pollution predictions calculated using recommended time indoors from USEPA overestimated exposures as compared with predictions made with MESA Air participant-specific information. These data fill an important gap in the literature by describing the impact of individual and residential characteristics on time-location patterns and by demonstrating the impact of population-specific data on exposure estimates.

  15. The Geographical Aspect of Flexibility in Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    , the reason for this is that flexibility is a multidimensional commodity. It can be associated with a unit or a system, a time-frame and a time-horizon of measuring it, its power magnitude and ramp rate, its energy shifting capability, its location and several other features. In this paper, the locational...... aggregation taking into account the distribution grid's radial structure. By aggregating the flexibility in this manner, different geographical points for offering it are defined. Through an illustrative market scenario, it is demonstrated how utilities might profit from their local flexibility by assisting...

  16. Dinosaurs reveal the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Ciara; Meade, Andrew; Venditti, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Dinosaurs dominated terrestrial ecosystems across the globe for over 100 million years and provide a classic example of an evolutionary radiation. However, little is known about how these animals radiated geographically to become globally distributed. Here, we use a biogeographical model to reconstruct the dinosaurs' ancestral locations, revealing the spatial mechanisms that underpinned this 170-million-year-long radiation. We find that dinosaurs spread rapidly initially, followed by a significant continuous and gradual reduction in their speed of movement towards the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (66 million years ago). This suggests that the predominant mode of dinosaur speciation changed through time with speciation originally largely driven by geographical isolation-when dinosaurs speciated more, they moved further. This was gradually replaced by increasing levels of sympatric speciation (species taking advantage of ecological opportunities within their existing environment) as terrestrial space became a limiting factor. Our results uncover the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

  17. Time, location and weather dependence of radiation of Cs-origin in Fukushima prefecture due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The data on air dose rates of Cs-origin acquired at 155 points in central and eastern Fukushima prefecture by the central and local governments during the period of June 10th through December 5th (the summer and the fall) in 2011 are analyzed to investigate their temporal as well as locational variations. The average air dose rate in the region had declined at a remarkably swift pace with the half-life of 1.4 years, showing the importance of weathering effects. The average reduction rate was twice as large as that due to radioactive decay of Cs. Owing to the strong weathering effects, the reduction rate tends to sensitively depend on the season; the average reduction rate in the summer was twice as large as that in the fall. Several locations with extreme behaviors were introduced and analyzed. It is also found that extensive areas in Fukushima were still being weakly contaminated. The possible sources of this secondary contamination may include forests, farmlands and roads from where radio-aerosols were resuspended and transported presumably via wind, rainwater etc. As the wind effects are extensive, and sensitive to geographical features, detailed work will be needed to predict future dose rates with reasonable precision. (author)

  18. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  19. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  20. A Virtual Object-Location Task for Children: Gender and Videogame Experience Influence Navigation; Age Impacts Memory and Completion Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Andres, David; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena; Juan, M-Carmen; Perez-Hernandez, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The use of virtual reality-based tasks for studying memory has increased considerably. Most of the studies that have looked at child population factors that influence performance on such tasks have been focused on cognitive variables. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of non-cognitive skills. In the present paper, we tested 52 typically-developing children aged 5-12 years in a virtual object-location task. The task assessed their spatial short-term memory for the location of three objects in a virtual city. The virtual task environment was presented using a 3D application consisting of a 120″ stereoscopic screen and a gamepad interface. Measures of learning and displacement indicators in the virtual environment, 3D perception, satisfaction, and usability were obtained. We assessed the children's videogame experience, their visuospatial span, their ability to build blocks, and emotional and behavioral outcomes. The results indicate that learning improved with age. Significant effects on the speed of navigation were found favoring boys and those more experienced with videogames. Visuospatial skills correlated mainly with ability to recall object positions, but the correlation was weak. Longer paths were related with higher scores of withdrawal behavior, attention problems, and a lower visuospatial span. Aggressiveness and experience with the device used for interaction were related with faster navigation. However, the correlations indicated only weak associations among these variables.

  1. A Virtual Object-Location Task for Children: Gender and Videogame Experience Influence Navigation; Age Impacts Memory and Completion Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Andres, David; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena; Juan, M.-Carmen; Perez-Hernandez, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The use of virtual reality-based tasks for studying memory has increased considerably. Most of the studies that have looked at child population factors that influence performance on such tasks have been focused on cognitive variables. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of non-cognitive skills. In the present paper, we tested 52 typically-developing children aged 5–12 years in a virtual object-location task. The task assessed their spatial short-term memory for the location of three objects in a virtual city. The virtual task environment was presented using a 3D application consisting of a 120″ stereoscopic screen and a gamepad interface. Measures of learning and displacement indicators in the virtual environment, 3D perception, satisfaction, and usability were obtained. We assessed the children’s videogame experience, their visuospatial span, their ability to build blocks, and emotional and behavioral outcomes. The results indicate that learning improved with age. Significant effects on the speed of navigation were found favoring boys and those more experienced with videogames. Visuospatial skills correlated mainly with ability to recall object positions, but the correlation was weak. Longer paths were related with higher scores of withdrawal behavior, attention problems, and a lower visuospatial span. Aggressiveness and experience with the device used for interaction were related with faster navigation. However, the correlations indicated only weak associations among these variables. PMID:29674988

  2. A Virtual Object-Location Task for Children: Gender and Videogame Experience Influence Navigation; Age Impacts Memory and Completion Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodriguez-Andres

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of virtual reality-based tasks for studying memory has increased considerably. Most of the studies that have looked at child population factors that influence performance on such tasks have been focused on cognitive variables. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of non-cognitive skills. In the present paper, we tested 52 typically-developing children aged 5–12 years in a virtual object-location task. The task assessed their spatial short-term memory for the location of three objects in a virtual city. The virtual task environment was presented using a 3D application consisting of a 120″ stereoscopic screen and a gamepad interface. Measures of learning and displacement indicators in the virtual environment, 3D perception, satisfaction, and usability were obtained. We assessed the children’s videogame experience, their visuospatial span, their ability to build blocks, and emotional and behavioral outcomes. The results indicate that learning improved with age. Significant effects on the speed of navigation were found favoring boys and those more experienced with videogames. Visuospatial skills correlated mainly with ability to recall object positions, but the correlation was weak. Longer paths were related with higher scores of withdrawal behavior, attention problems, and a lower visuospatial span. Aggressiveness and experience with the device used for interaction were related with faster navigation. However, the correlations indicated only weak associations among these variables.

  3. An application of time-frequency signal analysis technique to estimate the location of an impact source on a plate type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Jeong Han; Choi, Young Chul; Kim, Chan Joong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    It has been reviewed whether it would be suitable that the application of the time-frequency signal analysis techniques to estimate the location of the impact source in plate structure. The STFT(Short Time Fourier Transform), WVD(Wigner-Ville distribution) and CWT(Continuous Wavelet Transform) methods are introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of those methods are described by using a simulated signal component. The essential of the above proposed techniques is to separate the traveling waves in both time and frequency domains using the dispersion characteristics of the structural waves. These time-frequency methods are expected to be more useful than the conventional time domain analyses for the impact localization problem on a plate type structure. Also it has been concluded that the smoothed WVD can give more reliable means than the other methodologies for the location estimation in a noisy environment

  4. Improving Teacher-Student Contact in a Campus through a Location-Based Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vítor Manuel; Ramos, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new mobile micro-broadcast (or near-me) Location-Based Service designed to promote face-to-face communication among users located within a given geographical area such as a University campus. Because the communication services provided are time dependent, the application decides whom to contact based on the geographic…

  5. Modeling identifies optimal fall planting times and irrigation requirements for canola and camelina at locations across California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In California, Brassica oilseeds may be viable crops for growers to diversify their cool-season crop options, helping them adapt to projected climate change and irrigation water shortages. Field trials have found germination and establishment problems in some late-planted canola, but not camelina at the same locations. We used computer modeling to analyze fall seedbed conditions to better understand this phenomenon. We found seedbeds may be too dry, too cold, or both, to support germination of canola during late fall. Based on seedbed temperatures only, canola should be sown no later than the last week of November in the Central Valley. Camelina has broader temperature and moisture windows for germination and can be sown from October to December with less risk, but yields of camelina are lower than canola yields. In areas without irrigation, growers could plant canola opportunistically when seedbed conditions are favorable and use camelina as a fallback option.

  6. Knowing where is different from knowing what: Distinct response time profiles and accuracy effects for target location, orientation, and color probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, Syaheed B; Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt

    2017-11-01

    When a location is cued, targets appearing at that location are detected more quickly. When a target feature is cued, targets bearing that feature are detected more quickly. These attentional cueing effects are only superficially similar. More detailed analyses find distinct temporal and accuracy profiles for the two different types of cues. This pattern parallels work with probability manipulations, where both feature and spatial probability are known to affect detection accuracy and reaction times. However, little has been done by way of comparing these effects. Are probability manipulations on space and features distinct? In a series of five experiments, we systematically varied spatial probability and feature probability along two dimensions (orientation or color). In addition, we decomposed response times into initiation and movement components. Targets appearing at the probable location were reported more quickly and more accurately regardless of whether the report was based on orientation or color. On the other hand, when either color probability or orientation probability was manipulated, response time and accuracy improvements were specific for that probable feature dimension. Decomposition of the response time benefits demonstrated that spatial probability only affected initiation times, whereas manipulations of feature probability affected both initiation and movement times. As detection was made more difficult, the two effects further diverged, with spatial probability disproportionally affecting initiation times and feature probability disproportionately affecting accuracy. In conclusion, all manipulations of probability, whether spatial or featural, affect detection. However, only feature probability affects perceptual precision, and precision effects are specific to the probable attribute.

  7. Locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Wilken, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Not only is locative media one of the fastest growing areas in digital technology, but questions of location and location-awareness are increasingly central to our contemporary engagements with online and mobile media, and indeed media and culture generally. This volume is a comprehensive account of the various location-based technologies, services, applications, and cultures, as media, with an aim to identify, inventory, explore, and critique their cultural, economic, political, social, and policy dimensions internationally. In particular, the collection is organized around the perception that the growth of locative media gives rise to a number of crucial questions concerning the areas of culture, economy, and policy.

  8. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  9. Ventricular repolarization time, location of pacing stimulus and current pulse amplitude conspire to determine arrhythmogenicity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speerschneider, T; Grubb, Søren Jahn; Olesen, S P

    2017-01-01

    ) were measured in isolated hearts using floating microelectrodes. RESULTS: Proarrhythmia in WT and KChIP2(-/-) was not sensitive to changes in refractory periods. Action potentials were longer in KChIP2(-/-) hearts compared to WT hearts. Isolated WT hearts had large apico-basal dispersion...... of repolarization time, whereas hearts from KChIP2(-/-) mice had large left-to-right ventricular dispersion of repolarization time. Pacing from the right ventricle in KChIP2(-/-) mice in vivo revealed significant lower current pulse amplitudes needed to induce arrhythmias in these mice. CONCLUSION: Large...

  10. A Real-Time Location-Based Services System Using WiFi Fingerprinting Algorithm for Safety Risk Assessment of Workers in Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of a real-time tunnel location-based services (LBS system to provide workers’ safety protection and various services in concrete dam site. In this study, received signal strength- (RSS- based location using fingerprinting algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN risk assessment is employed for position analysis. This tunnel LBS system achieves an online, real-time, intelligent tracking identification feature, and the on-site running system has many functions such as worker emergency call, track history, and location query. Based on ANN with a strong nonlinear mapping, and large-scale parallel processing capabilities, proposed LBS system is effective to evaluate the risk management on worker safety. The field implementation shows that the proposed location algorithm is reliable and accurate (3 to 5 meters enough for providing real-time positioning service. The proposed LBS system is demonstrated and firstly applied to the second largest hydropower project in the world, to track workers on tunnel site and assure their safety. The results show that the system is simple and easily deployed.

  11. Location-assured, multifactor authentication on smartphones via LTE communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    With the added security provided by LTE, geographical location has become an important factor for authentication to enhance the security of remote client authentication during mCommerce applications using Smartphones. Tight combination of geographical location with classic authentication factors like PINs/Biometrics in a real-time, remote verification scheme over the LTE layer connection assures the authenticator about the client itself (via PIN/biometric) as well as the client's current location, thus defines the important aspects of "who", "when", and "where" of the authentication attempt without eaves dropping or man on the middle attacks. To securely integrate location as an authentication factor into the remote authentication scheme, client's location must be verified independently, i.e. the authenticator should not solely rely on the location determined on and reported by the client's Smartphone. The latest wireless data communication technology for mobile phones (4G LTE, Long-Term Evolution), recently being rolled out in various networks, can be employed to enhance this location-factor requirement of independent location verification. LTE's Control Plane LBS provisions, when integrated with user-based authentication and independent source of localisation factors ensures secure efficient, continuous location tracking of the Smartphone. This feature can be performed during normal operation of the LTE-based communication between client and network operator resulting in the authenticator being able to verify the client's claimed location more securely and accurately. Trials and experiments show that such algorithm implementation is viable for nowadays Smartphone-based banking via LTE communication.

  12. ''The ambipolar diffusion time scale and the location of star formation in magnetic interstellar clouds'': Setting the record straight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouschovias, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    The point of a recent (1983) paper by Scott is that a previous paper (1979) by Mouschovias has concluded ''erroneously'' that star formation takes place off center in a cloud because of the use of an ''improver'' definition of a time scale for ambipolar diffusion. No such conclusion, Scott claims, follows from a ''proper'' definition, such as the ''traditional'' one by Spitzer. (i) Scott misrepresents the reasoning that led to the conclusion in the paper which he criticized. (ii) He is also wrong: both the ''traditional'' and the ''improper'' definitions vary similarly with radius, and both can have an off-center minimum; the spatial variation of the degree of ionization is the determining factor: not the specific value of the time scale at the origin, as Scott claims

  13. Location, location, location: Extracting location value from house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Jens; Schulz, Rainer; Wersing, Martin; Werwatz, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The price for a single-family house depends both on the characteristics of the building and on its location. We propose a novel semiparametric method to extract location values from house prices. After splitting house prices into building and land components, location values are estimated with adaptive weight smoothing. The adaptive estimator requires neither strong smoothness assumptions nor local symmetry. We apply the method to house transactions from Berlin, Germany. The estimated surface...

  14. Timing-based location estimation for OFDM signals with applications in LTE, WLAN and Wimax Timing-based location estimation for OFDM signals with applications in LTE, WLAN and Wimax Timing-based location estimation for OFDM signals with applications in LTE, WLAN and Wimax

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez Leria, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Projecte realitzat en el marc d'un programa de mobilitat amb la Tampere University of Technology (Tampereen Teknillinen Yliopisto) [ANGLÈS] Literature study of various preamble-based and non-preamble-based timing synchronization algorithms in OFDM - Implementation (in Matlab) of the following preamble-based algorithms: Schmidl, Minn, Park, Kim, Ren and Kang. Implementation (in Matlab) of Correlation-Based Timing Synchronization and MUltiple SIgnal Classification estimators. Comparison of v...

  15. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  16. An Improved Genetic Algorithm to Optimize Spatial Locations for Double-Wishbone Type Suspension System with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By taking account of double-wishbone independent suspension with two unequal-length arms, the coordinate values of articulated geometry are based on structural limitations and constraint equations of alignment parameters. The sensitivities of front wheel alignment parameters are analyzed using the space analytic geometry method with insight module in ADAMS® software. The multiobjective optimization functions are designed to calculate the coordinate values of hardpoints with front suspension since the effect of time delay due to wheelbase can be easily obtained by vehicle speed. The K&C characteristics have been investigated using GA solutions in the simulation environment. The camber angle decreases from 1.152° to 1.05° and toe-in angle reduces from 1.036° to 0.944°. The simulation results demonstrate that the suggested optimization method is able to satisfy the suspension motion to enhance ride comfort. Experimental results, obtained by K&C test bench, also indicate that the optimized suspension can track the desired trajectory while keeping the vehicle performance in various road conditions.

  17. Spine formation pattern of adult-born neurons is differentially modulated by the induction timing and location of hippocampal plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Ohkawa

    Full Text Available In the adult hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG, newly born neurons are functionally integrated into existing circuits and play important roles in hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it remains unclear how neural plasticity regulates the integration pattern of new neurons into preexisting circuits. Because dendritic spines are major postsynaptic sites for excitatory inputs, spines of new neurons were visualized by retrovirus-mediated labeling to evaluate integration. Long-term potentiation (LTP was induced at 12, 16, or 21 days postinfection (dpi, at which time new neurons have no, few, or many spines, respectively. The spine expression patterns were investigated at one or two weeks after LTP induction. Induction at 12 dpi increased later spinogenesis, although the new neurons at 12 dpi didn't respond to the stimulus for LTP induction. Induction at 21 dpi transiently mediated spine enlargement. Surprisingly, LTP induction at 16 dpi reduced the spine density of new neurons. All LTP-mediated changes specifically appeared within the LTP-induced layer. Therefore, neural plasticity differentially regulates the integration of new neurons into the activated circuit, dependent on their developmental stage. Consequently, new neurons at different developmental stages may play distinct roles in processing the acquired information by modulating the connectivity of activated circuits via their integration.

  18. An Airlift Hub-and-Spoke Location-Routing Model with Time Windows: Case Study of the CONUS-to-Korea Airlift Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    a point of embarkation to a point of debarkation. This study develops an alternative hub-and-spoke combined location-routing integer linear...programming prototype model, and uses this model to determine what advantages a hub-and-spoke system offers, and in which scenarios it is better-suited than the...extension on the following works: the hierarchical model of Perl and Daskin (1983), time windows features of Chan (1991), combining subtour-breaking and range

  19. How does the interaction of presumed timing, location and extent of the underlying brain lesion relate to upper limb function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailleux, Lisa; Klingels, Katrijn; Fiori, Simona; Simon-Martinez, Cristina; Demaerel, Philippe; Locus, Marlies; Fosseprez, Eva; Boyd, Roslyn N; Guzzetta, Andrea; Ortibus, Els; Feys, Hilde

    2017-09-01

    Upper limb (UL) function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) vary largely depending on presumed timing, location and extent of brain lesions. These factors might exhibit a complex interaction and the combined prognostic value warrants further investigation. This study aimed to map lesion location and extent and assessed whether these differ according to presumed lesion timing and to determine the impact of structural brain damage on UL function within different lesion timing groups. Seventy-three children with unilateral CP (mean age 10 years 2 months) were classified according to lesion timing: malformations (N = 2), periventricular white matter (PWM, N = 42) and cortical and deep grey matter (CDGM, N = 29) lesions. Neuroanatomical damage was scored using a semi-quantitative MRI scale. UL function was assessed at body function and activity level. CDGM lesions were more pronounced compared to PWM lesions (p = 0.0003). Neuroanatomical scores were correlated with a higher degree to UL function in the CDGM group (r s  = -0.39 to r s  = -0.84) compared to the PWM group (r rb  = -0.42 to r s  = -0.61). Regression analysis found lesion location and extent to explain 75% and 65% (p < 0.02) respectively, of the variance in AHA performance in the CDGM group, but only 24% and 12% (p < 0.03) in the PWM group. In the CDGM group, lesion location and extent seems to impact more on UL function compared to the PWM group. In children with PWM lesions, other factors like corticospinal tract (re)organization and structural connectivity may play an additional role. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitigation of the ground reflection effect in real-time locating systems based on wireless sensor networks by using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    de Paz Santana, Juan F.; Tapia Martínez, Dante I.; Alonso Rincón, Ricardo S.; Pinzón, Cristian; Bajo Pérez, Javier; Corchado Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become much more relevant in recent years, mainly because they can be used in a wide diversity of applications. Real-time locating systems (RTLSs) are one of the most promising applications based on WSNs and represent a currently growing market. Specifically, WSNs are an ideal alternative to develop RTLSs aimed at indoor environments where existing global navigation satellite systems, such as the global positioning system, do not work correctly due to the ...

  1. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  2. Extending the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS for longitudinal historical databases to include geographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Hedefalk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS is a standardised database structure for longitudinal historical databases. Such a common structure facilitates data sharing and comparative research. In this study, we propose an extended version of IDS, named IDS-Geo, that also includes geographic data. The geographic data that will be stored in IDS-Geo are primarily buildings and/or property units, and the purpose of these geographic data is mainly to link individuals to places in space. When we want to assign such detailed spatial locations to individuals (in times before there were any detailed house addresses available, we often have to create tailored geographic datasets. In those cases, there are benefits of storing geographic data in the same structure as the demographic data. Moreover, we propose the export of data from IDS-Geo using an eXtensible Markup Language (XML Schema. IDS-Geo is implemented in a case study using historical property units, for the period 1804 to 1913, stored in a geographically extended version of the Scanian Economic Demographic Database (SEDD. To fit into the IDS-Geo data structure, we included an object lifeline representation of all of the property units (based on the snapshot time representation of single historical maps and poll-tax registers. The case study verifies that the IDS-Geo model is capable of handling geographic data that can be linked to demographic data.

  3. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  4. GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time-location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: model evaluation in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Long, Thomas C; Schultz, Bradley D; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E; Isaacs, Kristin K; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M; Devlin, Robert B; Batterman, Stuart A; Buckley, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time-location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies.

  5. Geographically Locating an Internet Node Using Network Latency Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turnbaugh, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    .... The difficulties include accurate latency measure, network address translation (NAT) masking, service blocking, disparate physical configuration, dissimilar network hardware, and inaccurate and limited measuring tools...

  6. HTLV-I/II prevalence in different geographic locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrielink, Hans; Reesink, Henk W.

    2004-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I (HTLV-I) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-II is a closely related virus, and this infection is not clearly associated with clinical disease, although

  7. The effects of climatic conditions and geographical locations on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit flavor compounds were extracted by using ultrasound (US) water bath apparatus and eluted by n-pentane, diethyl ether (1:2) solvent and then analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Fifty-one fruit compounds and fifty fruit compounds ...

  8. The economic-geographical and environmental polarization as a factor of new functional relations between areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinčić Miroljub A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical clustering, in the way of economic-geographical polarization represents regular and positive process of development of human society. These processes are characterized by stressed intensity, together with relatively short time dimension at the territory of Serbia. Extreme recent ecological polarization is the main consequence of this type of recomposition of economic-geographical elements in the territory of Serbia. At the one hand, anthropogenic or socio-economic areas (locations, axis and crossroads of development are formed, together with the numerous ecological problems as developing barriers, while at the other hand are territories of economic-geographical stagnation also with satisfying quality of basic natural resources and environmental condition. These differences generates and permanently increases their spatial, resource and ecological interdependence.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS (GVCS) FOR MONITORING REMOTE VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COLEMAN, P.; DUNCAN, M.; DURFEE, R.C.; GOELTZ, R; HARRISON, G.; HODGSON, M.E.; KOOK, M.; MCCLAIN, S.

    1998-03-30

    The purpose of this project is to integrate a variety of geographic information systems capabilities and telecommunication technologies for potential use in geographic network and visualization applications. The specific technical goals of the project were to design, develop, and simulate the components of an audio/visual geographic communications system to aid future real-time monitoring, mapping and managing of transport vehicles. The system components of this feasibility study are collectively referred to as a Geographic Visualization and Communications System (GVCS). State-of-the-art techniques will be used and developed to allow both the vehicle operator and network manager to monitor the location and surrounding environment of a transport vehicle during shipment.

  10. The effect of handover location on trauma theatre start time: An estimated cost saving of £131 000 per year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Sam; Ali, Adam; Majid, Kiran; Joseph, Roshan; Huber, Chris; Babu, Victor

    2018-02-08

    The National Health Service was estimated to be in £2.45 billion deficit in 2015 to 2016. Trauma theatre utilization and efficiency has never been so important as it is estimated to cost £15/minute. Structured questionnaires were given to 23 members of staff at our Trust who are actively involved in the organization or delivery of orthopaedic trauma lists at least once per week. This was used to identify key factors that may improve theatre efficiency. Following focus group evaluation, the location of the preoperative theatre meeting was changed, with all staff involved being required to attend this. Our primary outcome measure was mean theatre start time (time of arrival in the anaesthetic room) during the 1 month immediately preceding the change and the month following the change. Theatre start time was improved on average 24 minutes (1 month premeeting and postmeeting change). This equates to a saving of £360 per day, or £131 040 per year. Changing the trauma meeting location to a venue adjacent to the trauma theatre can improve theatre start times, theatre efficiency, and therefore result in significant cost savings. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Solving a bi-objective mathematical model for location-routing problem with time windows in multi-echelon reverse logistics using metaheuristic procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezavati, V. R.; Beigi, M.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade, the stringent pressures from environmental and social requirements have spurred an interest in designing a reverse logistics (RL) network. The success of a logistics system may depend on the decisions of the facilities locations and vehicle routings. The location-routing problem (LRP) simultaneously locates the facilities and designs the travel routes for vehicles among established facilities and existing demand points. In this paper, the location-routing problem with time window (LRPTW) and homogeneous fleet type and designing a multi-echelon, and capacitated reverse logistics network, are considered which may arise in many real-life situations in logistics management. Our proposed RL network consists of hybrid collection/inspection centers, recovery centers and disposal centers. Here, we present a new bi-objective mathematical programming (BOMP) for LRPTW in reverse logistic. Since this type of problem is NP-hard, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is proposed to obtain the Pareto frontier for the given problem. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm. Also, the present work is an effort to effectively implement the ɛ-constraint method in GAMS software for producing the Pareto-optimal solutions in a BOMP. The results of the proposed algorithm have been compared with the ɛ-constraint method. The computational results show that the ɛ-constraint method is able to solve small-size instances to optimality within reasonable computing times, and for medium-to-large-sized problems, the proposed NSGA-II works better than the ɛ-constraint.

  12. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...... of flexibility in calculating genetic linkage and displaying linkage group. Among other features, this software enables user to identify linkage groups with output visualized graphically. The program calculates interference and coefficient of coincidence with elevated accuracy in sample datasets. AVAILABILITY...

  13. Estimation of the time of death of decomposed or skeletonized bodies found outdoors in cold season in Sapporo city, located in the northern district of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Kotaro; Terazawa, Koichi

    2008-03-01

    In Sapporo city, located in the northern district of Japan, it is very difficult to estimate the time of death of decomposed or skeletonized bodies found outdoors in cold season (November-April) because postmortem changes are markedly retarded in the season compared with warm season (May-October), and the bodies are often damaged and skeletonized by carnivorous animals such as wild dogs and foxes. However, they cannot damage the brain in the cranium. The brain is mainly damaged by fly larvae. In Sapporo city, we can estimate that the time of death of a cadaver found outdoors in the cold season is in the beginning of November or before if fly larvae hatched in autumn exist on the cadaver, and that the time of death is in the beginning of November or after if fly larvae hatched in autumn do not exist and most of the brain remains in the cranium.

  14. Improved location of regional earthquakes by reduction of azimuthal bias in S-P travel time differences observed at Gauribidanur array, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, Y.S.; Roy, Falguni; Unnikrishnan, E.

    2008-02-01

    The observed S-P time differences, T ( S-P) , at Gauribidanur array (GBA), India, from a large number of regional earthquakes covering a wide azimuth range showed significant bias in comparison to S-P time differences that are available in the standard travel time tables of Jeffreys-Bullen and IASP91. The bias is found larger particularly for the signals that originate from shallow earthquakes in the upper mantle distance range of 12 deg (S-P) at GBA using Jeffreys-Bullen tables falls short of the standard epicentral distance, Δ s , computed from the USGS reported locations, on an average by 128 km, 121 km and 72 km respectively for NE, SE and NW regions. In contrast to these, for the earthquakes from North of GBA whose signals traversed purely continental paths in the azimuth range of - 35 deg (S-P) bias for the mixed oceanic-continental paths may be attributed to the oceanic crystal structure at the source and upper mantle path effects between GBA and these source locations. (author)

  15. Carry-over effects of winter location contribute to variation in timing of nest initiation and clutch size in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Jason L.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed carry-over effects from winter location on timing of nest initiation and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using observations of individually marked brant breeding at the Tutakoke River colony in Alaska, and wintering along a latitudinal gradient at three areas on the Pacific coast of Baja California: northernmost Bahia San Quintin (BSQ), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and southernmost Laguna San Ignacio (LSI). Black Brant initiated nests according to a north—south trend in winter location, although year was a stronger predictor of initiation date than was wintering site. Female Black Brant that wintered at BSQ initiated nests 2.2 days earlier than females from LSI. Conversely, Black Brant showed only a weak south—north trend in clutch size; individuals from LSI laid slightly larger clutches than individuals from BSQ, probably because a smaller proportion of only high-quality females from the southernmost wintering area in Baja California were able to attain the nutritional condition necessary to breed. These results indicate that winter location can influence individual reproductive performance and, potentially, limit population growth of southern segments of the wintering Black Brant population.

  16. Web cache location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffey Brian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress placed on network infrastructure by the popularity of the World Wide Web may be partially relieved by keeping multiple copies of Web documents at geographically dispersed locations. In particular, use of proxy caches and replication provide a means of storing information 'nearer to end users'. This paper concentrates on the locational aspects of Web caching giving both an overview, from an operational research point of view, of existing research and putting forward avenues for possible further research. This area of research is in its infancy and the emphasis will be on themes and trends rather than on algorithm construction. Finally, Web caching problems are briefly related to referral systems more generally.

  17. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  18. The "neuro-mapping locator" software. A real-time intraoperative objective paraesthesia mapping tool to evaluate paraesthesia coverage of the painful zone in patients undergoing spinal cord stimulation lead implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetarni, F; Rigoard, P

    2015-03-01

    Conventional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) generates paraesthesia, as the efficacy of this technique is based on the relationship between the paraesthesia provided by SCS on the painful zone and an analgesic effect on the stimulated zone. Although this basic postulate is based on clinical evidence, it is clear that this relationship has never been formally demonstrated by scientific studies. There is a need for objective evaluation tools ("transducers") to transpose electrical signals to clinical effects and to guide therapeutic choices. We have developed a software at Poitiers University hospital allowing real-time objective mapping of the paraesthesia generated by SCS lead placement and programming during the implantation procedure itself, on a touch screen interface. The purpose of this article is to describe this intraoperative mapping software, in terms of its concept and technical aspects. The Neuro-Mapping Locator (NML) software is dedicated to patients with failed back surgery syndrome, candidates for SCS lead implantation, to actively participate in the implantation procedure. Real-time geographical localization of the paraesthesia generated by percutaneous or multicolumn surgical SCS lead implanted under awake anaesthesia allows intraoperative lead programming and possibly lead positioning to be modified with the patient's cooperation. Software updates should enable us to refine objectives related to the use of this tool and minimize observational biases. The ultimate goals of NML software should not be limited to optimize one specific device implantation in a patient but also allow to compare instantaneously various stimulation strategies, by characterizing new technical parameters as "coverage efficacy" and "device specificity" on selected subgroups of patients. Another longer-term objective would be to organize these predictive factors into computer science ontologies, which could constitute robust and helpful data for device selection and programming

  19. A physical model study of the travel times and conversion point locations of P-SV converted waves in vertical transversely isotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration seismology, subsurface medium commonly exhibits anisotropy, characterized by a vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) model. Due to the need of exploring small reservoirs in complex structures, the seismic exploration is extended to deal with anisotropic media. The P-S converted wave seismic exploration is a relatively inexpensive, broadly applicable, and effective way to obtain the S-wave information of the medium. In anisotropic traveltime analysis, the moveout curve of horizontal P-SV event can help to determine the ratio of the P- and SV-wave vertical velocities, the normal moveout (NMO) velocity of SV-waves, and the anisotropy parameters. The P-SV conversion point (CP) location is of great importance to P-SV data binning, NMO corrections and common conversion point (CCP) stacking, and the anisotropy has a more significant effect on the conversion point location than on the moveout. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical non-hyperbolic moveout and CP equations for the P-SV waves reflected from a VTI layer by numerical calculations and physical modeling. We are also interested in visualizing the variations of the conversion point locations from a designed VTI medium. In traveltime analysis, the theoretical moveout curve is accurate up to offsets about one and a half times the reflector depth (x/z=1.5). However, the moveout curve computed by Fermat's principle fits well to the physical data. The CP locations of P-SV waves are similar to those calculated by Fermat's principle and theoretical CP equation, which are verified by the physical modeling.

  20. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location. [65 FR 30003, May 10, 2000] ...

  1. Uso combinado de sistemas de informações geográficas para transportes e programação linear inteira mista em problemas de localização de instalações Combining geographic information systems for transportation and mixed integer linear programming in location-allocation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Maria Santana Mapa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar a qualidade das soluções para o problema de localização-alocação de instalações geradas por um SIG-T (Sistema de Informação Geográfica para Transportes, obtidas após a utilização combinada das rotinas Localização de Facilidades e Problema do Transporte, quando comparadas com as soluções ótimas obtidas a partir de modelo matemático exato baseado em Programação Linear Inteira Mista (PLIM, desenvolvido externamente ao SIG. Os modelos foram aplicados a três simulações: a primeira propõe a abertura de fábricas e alocação de clientes no Estado de São Paulo; a segunda envolve um atacadista e um estudo de localização de centros de distribuição e alocação dos clientes varejistas; a terceira localiza creches em um contexto urbano, alocando a demanda. Os resultados mostraram que, quando se considera a capacidade das instalações, o modelo otimizante PLIM chegou a apresentar, em um dos cenários simulados, resultados até 37% melhores do que o SIG, além de propor locais diferentes para abertura de novas instalações. Quando não se considera a capacidade, o modelo SIG se mostrou tão eficiente quanto o modelo exato PLIM, chegando exatamente às mesmas soluções.This study aims to evaluate the quality of the solutions for facility location-allocation problems generated by a GIS-T (Geographic Information System for Transportation software. These solutions were obtained from combining the Facility Location and Transportation Problem routines, when compared with the optimal solutions, which were obtained using the exact mathematical model based on the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP developed externally to the GIS. The models were applied to three simulations: the first one proposes set up businesses and customers' allocation in the state of São Paulo; the second involves a wholesaler and an investigation of distribution center location and retailers' allocation; and the third one

  2. VT School Locations - Post-Secondary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) FacilitiesSchools_PTSCHOOL is designed to provide point locations of every Vermont School along with the established school ID (PSID) for...

  3. VT Locations of State of Vermont Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains the locations of buildings/facilities owned and/or leased by the State of Vermont. Data was obtained from Buildings and...

  4. Narrow Artificial Intelligence with Machine Learning for Real-Time Estimation of a Mobile Agent’s Location Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Beaulac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to use a supervised machine learning technique to track the location of a mobile agent in real time. Hidden Markov Models are used to build artificial intelligence that estimates the unknown position of a mobile target moving in a defined environment. This narrow artificial intelligence performs two distinct tasks. First, it provides real-time estimation of the mobile agent’s position using the forward algorithm. Second, it uses the Baum–Welch algorithm as a statistical learning tool to gain knowledge of the mobile target. Finally, an experimental environment is proposed, namely, a video game that we use to test our artificial intelligence. We present statistical and graphical results to illustrate the efficiency of our method.

  5. Groundwater quality mapping using geographic information system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the corporation area of Gulbarga City located in the northern part of Karnataka State, India, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) technique. GIS, a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground ...

  6. Route Network Construction with Location-Direction-Enabled Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideyuki; Sagara, Shota; Ohmori, Tadashi; Shintani, Takahiko

    2018-05-01

    We propose a method for constructing a geometric graph for generating routes that summarize a geographical area and also have visual continuity by using a set of location-direction-enabled photographs. A location- direction-enabled photograph is a photograph that has information about the location (position of the camera at the time of shooting) and the direction (direction of the camera at the time of shooting). Each nodes of the graph corresponds to a location-direction-enabled photograph. The location of each node is the location of the corresponding photograph, and a route on the graph corresponds to a route in the geographic area and a sequence of photographs. The proposed graph is constructed to represent characteristic spots and paths linking the spots, and it is assumed to be a kind of a spatial summarization of the area with the photographs. Therefore, we call the routes on the graph as spatial summary route. Each route on the proposed graph also has a visual continuity, which means that we can understand the spatial relationship among the continuous photographs on the route such as moving forward, backward, turning right, etc. In this study, when the changes in the shooting position and shooting direction satisfied a given threshold, the route was defined to have visual continuity. By presenting the photographs in order along the generated route, information can be presented sequentially, while maintaining visual continuity to a great extent.

  7. Improvement in the workflow efficiency of treating non-emergency outpatients by using a WLAN-based real-time location system in a level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübig, Timo; Suero, Eduardo; Zeckey, Christian; Min, William; Janzen, Laura; Citak, Musa; Krettek, Christian; Hüfner, Tobias; Gaulke, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Patient localization can improve workflow in outpatient settings, which might lead to lower costs. The existing wireless local area network (WLAN) architecture in many hospitals opens up the possibility of adopting real-time patient tracking systems for capturing and processing position data; once captured, these data can be linked with clinical patient data. To analyze the effect of a WLAN-based real-time patient localization system for tracking outpatients in our level I trauma center. Outpatients from April to August 2009 were included in the study, which was performed in two different stages. In phase I, patient tracking was performed with the real-time location system, but acquired data were not displayed to the personnel. In phase II tracking, the acquired data were automatically collected and displayed. Total treatment time was the primary outcome parameter. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple linear regression, with the significance level set at 0.05. Covariates included sex, age, type of encounter, prioritization, treatment team, number of residents, and radiographic imaging. 1045 patients were included in our study (540 in phase I and 505 in phase 2). An overall improvement of efficiency, as determined by a significantly decreased total treatment time (23.7%) from phase I to phase II, was noted. Additionally, significantly lower treatment times were noted for phase II patients even when other factors were considered (increased numbers of residents, the addition of imaging diagnostics, and comparison among various localization zones). WLAN-based real-time patient localization systems can reduce process inefficiencies associated with manual patient identification and tracking.

  8. Increased fluoroquinolone resistance with time in Escherichia coli from >17,000 patients at a large county hospital as a function of culture site, age, sex, and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamill Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli infections are common and often treated with fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance is of worldwide importance and is monitored by national and international surveillance networks. In this study, we analyzed the effects of time, culture site, and patient age, sex, and location on fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli clinical isolates. Methods To understand how patient factors and time influenced fluoroquinolone resistance and to determine how well data from surveillance networks predict trends at Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston, TX, we used Perl to parse and MySQL to house data from antibiograms (n ≅ 21,000 for E. coli isolated between 1999 to 2004 using Chi Square, Bonferroni, and Multiple Linear Regression methods. Results Fluoroquinolone resistance (i increased with time; (ii exceeded national averages by 2- to 4-fold; (iii was higher in males than females, largely because of urinary isolates from male outpatients; (iv increased with patient age; (v was 3% in pediatric patients; (vi was higher in hospitalized patients than outpatients; (vii was higher in sputum samples, particularly from inpatients, than all other culture sites, including blood and urine, regardless of patient location; and (viii was lowest in genital isolates than all other culture sites. Additionally, the data suggest that, with regard to susceptibility or resistance by the Dade Behring MicroScan system, a single fluoroquinolone suffices as a "surrogate marker" for all of the fluoroquinolone tested. Conclusion Large surveillance programs often did not predict E. coli fluoroquinolone resistance trends at a large, urban hospital with a largely indigent, ethnically diverse patient population or its affiliated community clinics.

  9. Application of Synthetic Storm Technique for Diurnal and Seasonal Variation of Slant Path Ka-Band Rain Attenuation Time Series over a Subtropical Location in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Ojo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As technology advances and more demands are on satellite services, rain-induced attenuation still creates one of the most damaging effects of the atmosphere on the quality of radio communication signals, especially those operating above 10 GHz. System designers therefore require statistical information on rain-induced attenuation over the coverage area in order to determine the appropriate transmitter and receiver characteristics to be adopted. This paper presents results on the time-varying rain characterization and diurnal variation of slant path rain attenuation in the Ka-band frequency simulated with synthetic storm techniques over a subtropical location in South Africa using 10-year rain rate time-series data. The analysis is based on the CDF of one-minute rain rate; time-series seasonal variation of rain rate observed over four time intervals: 00:00–06:00, 06:00–12:00, 12:00–18:00, and 18:00–24:00; diurnal fades margin; and diurnal variation of rain attenuation. Comparison was also made between the synthesized values and measured attenuation data. The predicted statistics are in good agreement with those obtained from the propagation beacon measurement in the area. The overall results will be needed for an acceptable planning that can effectively reduce the fade margin to a very low value for an optimum data communication over this area.

  10. Surveying and Mapping Geographical Information from the Perspective of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÜ Guonian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It briefly reviewed the history of geographic information content development since the existence of geographic information system. It pointed out that the current definition of geographic information is always the extension from the "spatial+ attributes" basic mapping framework of geographic information. It is increasingly difficult to adapt to the analysis and application of spatial-temporal big data. From the perspective of geography research subject and content, it summarized systematically that the content and extension of the "geographic information" that geography needs. It put forward that a six-element expression model of geographic information, including spatial location, semantic description, attribute characteristics, geometric form, evolution process, and objects relationship.Under the guidance of the laws of geography, for geographical phenomenon of spatial distribution, temporal pattern and evolution process, the interaction mechanism of the integrated expression, system analysis and efficient management, it designed that a unified GIS data model which is expressed by six basic elements, a new GIS data structure driven by geographical rules and interaction, and key technologies of unstructured spatio-temporal data organization and storage. It provided that a theoretical basis and technical support for the shift from the surveying and mapping geographic information to the scientific geographic information, and it can help improving the organization, management, analysis and expression ability of the GIS of the geographical laws such as geographical pattern, evolution process, and interaction between elements.

  11. A RFID specific participatory design approach to support design and implementation of real-time location systems in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, A C P; Wauben, L S G L; de Korne, D F; Overvelde, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

    2015-01-01

    Information technology, such as real-time location (RTL) systems using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) may contribute to overcome patient safety issues and high costs in healthcare. The aim of this work is to study if a RFID specific Participatory Design (PD) approach supports the design and the implementation of RTL systems in the Operating Room (OR). A RFID specific PD approach was used to design and implement two RFID based modules. The Device Module monitors the safety status of OR devices and the Patient Module tracks the patients' locations during their hospital stay. The PD principles 'multidisciplinary team', 'participation users (active involvement)' and 'early adopters' were used to include users from the RFID company, the university and the hospital. The design and implementation process consisted of two 'structured cycles' ('iterations'). The effectiveness of this approach was assessed by the acceptance in terms of level of use, continuity of the project and purchase. The Device Module included eight strategic and twelve tactical actions and the Patient Module included six strategic and twelve tactical actions. Both modules are now used on a daily basis and are purchased by the hospitals for continued use. The RFID specific PD approach was effective in guiding and supporting the design and implementation process of RFID technology in the OR. The multidisciplinary teams and their active participation provided insights in the social and the organizational context of the hospitals making it possible to better fit the technology to the hospitals' (future) needs.

  12. Contrasting geographic patterns of genetic differentiation in body size and development time with reproductive isolation in Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan R. Bracewell; Michael E. Pfrender; Karen E. Mock; Barbara J. Bentz

    2013-01-01

    Body size and development time are two critical phenotypic traits that can be highly adaptive in insects. Recent population genetic analyses and crossing experiments with the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) have described substantial levels of neutral molecular genetic differentiation, genetic differences in phenotypic traits, and reproductive...

  13. An empirical comparison of respondent-driven sampling, time location sampling, and snowball sampling for behavioral surveillance in men who have sex with men, Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia R F S; Gondim, Rogerio C; Werneck, Guilherme L; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Pontes, Marta Kerr; Johnston, Lisa G; Sabin, Keith; McFarland, Willi

    2008-07-01

    Obtaining samples of populations at risk for HIV challenges surveillance, prevention planning, and evaluation. Methods used include snowball sampling, time location sampling (TLS), and respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons to assess their relative advantages. We compared snowball, TLS, and RDS surveys of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Forteleza, Brazil, with a focus on the socio-economic status (SES) and risk behaviors of the samples to each other, to known AIDS cases and to the general population. RDS produced a sample with wider inclusion of lower SES than snowball sampling or TLS-a finding of health significance given the majority of AIDS cases reported among MSM in the state were low SES. RDS also achieved the sample size faster and at lower cost. For reasons of inclusion and cost-efficiency, RDS is the sampling methodology of choice for HIV surveillance of MSM in Fortaleza.

  14. High spatial resolution decade-time scale land cover change at multiple locations in the Beringian Arctic (1948–2000s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, D H; Johnson, D R; Tweedie, C E; Andresen, C

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of time series imagery from satellite and aircraft platforms is useful for detecting land cover change at plot to regional scales. In this study, we created multi-temporal high spatial resolution land cover maps for seven locations in the Beringian Arctic and assessed the change in land cover over time. Land cover classifications were site specific and mostly aligned with a soil moisture gradient. Time series varied between 60 and 21 years. Four of the five landscapes studied in Alaska underwent an expansion of drier land cover classes while the two landscapes studies in Chukotka, Russia showed an expansion of wetter land cover types. While a range of land cover types was present across the landscapes studied, the extent of shrubs (in Chukotka) and open water (in Alaska) increased in all landscapes where these land cover types were present. The results support trends documented for regional change in NDVI (a measure of vegetation greenness and productivity) as well as a host of other long term, experimental and modeling studies. Using historic change trends for each land cover type at each landscape, we use a simple probabilistic vegetation model to establish hypotheses of future change trajectories for different land cover types at each of the landscapes investigated. This study is a contribution to the International Polar Year Back to the Future project (IPY-BTF). (letter)

  15. An Adaptive Tabu Search Heuristic for the Location Routing Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows with a Theater Distribution Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burks, Jr, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    .... The location routing problem (LRP) is an extension of the vehicle routing problem where the solution identifies the optimal location of the depots and provides the vehicle schedules and distribution routes...

  16. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  17. 47 CFR 22.911 - Cellular geographic service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cellular Geographic Service Area (CGSA) of a cellular system is the geographic area considered by the FCC... application for modification of the CGSA using FCC Form 601, a depiction of what the carrier believes the CGSA... location and the locus of points where the predicted or measured median field strength finally drops to 32...

  18. Geographic information systems: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Conte, Annamaria; Freier, Jerome E; Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The recent exponential growth of the science and technology of geographic information systems (GIS) has made a tremendous contribution to epidemiological analysis and has led to the development of new powerful tools for the surveillance of animal diseases. GIS, spatial analysis and remote sensing provide valuable methods to collect and manage information for epidemiological surveys. Spatial patterns and trends of disease can be correlated with climatic and environmental information, thus contributing to a better understanding of the links between disease processes and explanatory spatial variables. Until recently, these tools were underexploited in the field of veterinary public health, due to the prohibitive cost of hardware and the complexity of GIS software that required a high level of expertise. The revolutionary developments in computer performance of the last decade have not only reduced the costs of equipment but have made available easy-to-use Web-based software which in turn have meant that GIS are more widely accessible by veterinary services at all levels. At the same time, the increased awareness of the possibilities offered by these tools has created new opportunities for decision-makers to enhance their planning, analysis and monitoring capabilities. These technologies offer a new way of sharing and accessing spatial and non-spatial data across groups and institutions. The series of papers included in this compilation aim to: - define the state of the art in the use of GIS in veterinary activities - identify priority needs in the development of new GIS tools at the international level for the surveillance of animal diseases and zoonoses - define practical proposals for their implementation. The topics addressed are presented in the following order in this book: - importance of GIS for the monitoring of animal diseases and zoonoses - GIS application in surveillance activities - spatial analysis in veterinary epidemiology - data collection and remote

  19. A 2.4-GHz ISM RF and UWB hybrid RFID real-time locating system for industrial enterprise Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chuanying; Zou, Zhuo; Zhou, Qin; Mao, Jia; Chen, Qiang; Tenhunen, Hannu; Zheng, Lirong; Xu, Lida

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a 2.4-GHz radio frequency (RF) and ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) hybrid real-time locating system (RTLS) for industrial enterprise Internet of Things (IoT). It employs asymmetric wireless link, that is, UWB radio is utilised for accurate positioning up to 10 cm in critical sites, whereas 2.4-GHz RF is used for tag control and coarse positioning in non-critical sites. The specified communication protocol and the adaptive tag synchronisation rate ensure reliable and deterministic access with a scalable system capacity and avoid unpredictable latency and additional energy consumption of retransmissions due to collisions. The tag, consisting of a commercial 2.4-GHz transceiver and a customised application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) UWB transmitter (Tx), is able to achieve up to 3 years' battery life at 1600 tags per position update second with 1000 mAh battery in one cluster. The time difference of arrival (TDoA)-based positioning experiment at UWB radio is performed on the designed software-defined radio (SDR) platform.

  20. Effects of cyanoacrylate fuming, time after recovery, and location of biological material on the recovery and analysis of DNA from post-blast pipe bomb fragments*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille, Todd W; Cromartie, Carter; Farr, Matthew

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of time, cyanoacrylate fuming, and location of the biological material on DNA analysis of post-blast pipe bomb fragments. Multiple aliquots of a cell suspension (prepared by soaking buccal swabs in water) were deposited on components of the devices prior to assembly. The pipe bombs were then deflagrated and the fragments recovered. Fragments from half of the devices were cyanoacrylate fumed. The cell spots on the fragments were swabbed and polymerase chain reaction/short tandem repeat analysis was performed 1 week and 3 months after deflagration. A significant decrease in the amount of DNA recovered was observed between samples collected and analyzed within 1 week compared with the samples collected and analyzed 3 months after deflagration. Cyanoacrylate fuming did not have a measurable effect on the success of the DNA analysis at either time point. Greater quantities of DNA were recovered from the pipe nipples than the end caps. Undeflagrated controls showed that the majority (>95%) of the DNA deposited on the devices was not recovered at a week or 3 months.

  1. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  2. ROMANIA: GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Beniamin Benea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to bring to the reader’s attention the importance of understanding the role education plays in creating a good geopolitical position for a state which has a good geographical position, and which is well endowed in natural resources. The case of Romania is the main focus of the paper. There is presented a peculiar strange situation of a country (Romania which is very well located from geographical point of view but which is incapable to exploit its natural endowments and special location. One reason for this situation is the fact that most people living in present Romania belong to a category named in this paper ‘individuals’. Individuals are not aware of their country’s geography and history, let alone its possible future development possibilities. They do not know the role their country could play, and living in an atomized society, they choose emigration as the easiest way to escape harsh social and economic environment. Contrary to this attitude is that of a citizen, a man conscious about his country’s potential, and which is dedicated to work hardly together with his fellows in order to promote national interests in a peaceful manner. Even there was found remnants of an ancient city close to present day Romanian territory – proves of well endowed environment – moral and psychological factors have contributed after 1990 in an crucial manner to push Romania from its civilization path back to the archaic spirit, from active urban spirit to rural mentality. In such a situation it is not uncommon for a nation to lose its means for projecting power, which could promote the value and the importance of a geographical position – transportation; rural mentality has nothing to do with modern transportation as they are technical tools with geopolitical essence for controlling space. It is a well known fact that transportation and geopolitics are closely interrelated. Furthermore, social dissolution in post communist

  3. Integration of real-time operational data in geographical information for power and gas business; Integrando em tempo real os dados operacionais aos sistemas geo referenciados do negocio gas e energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, Fernando Jose de Carvalho; Carvalho, Ronaldo Jose Seixas de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Strategical Management of Data and Information of the Gas e Energia, has as its being reason, the provision of right information, in the right place and in the right time, based on the correct sources, adding strategic value to Business. The SCADA systems (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), give to the Thermoelectrical Plant Operators and Electrical Transporting Operators the integration with the operational stations, measurement and energy delivery. The Geographical Information Systems - GIS, give the maps visualization with geopolitics aspects, gas pipeline infrastructure and satellite images. The Historical Data systems, have as its requirements the interface between many SCADA systems by means of accompaniment of historical data, real time data of the common variables of the process (outflow, pressure, temperature, egg.) and KPI's visualization - typical performance indicators of energy systems (non-availability, generation efficiency and distribution, egg.). Based on the business systemic vision, the Real-Time Enterprise Architecture - Real Time data integration and Performance Indicators based on the GIS software platform was developed in the Gas e Energia enterprise scenario. The present action has, as its focus, the dynamic visualization in real-time of the integrated data to the GIS infrastructure of the Gas Pipelines and Thermoelectrical Plants, guaranteeing the integrity, the audit trail of the information and a pro active vision for the Management of the Gas e Energia Business. (author)

  4. Integration of real-time operational data in geographical information for power and gas business; Integrando em tempo real os dados operacionais aos sistemas geo referenciados do negocio gas e energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, Fernando Jose de Carvalho; Carvalho, Ronaldo Jose Seixas de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Strategical Management of Data and Information of the Gas e Energia, has as its being reason, the provision of right information, in the right place and in the right time, based on the correct sources, adding strategic value to Business. The SCADA systems (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), give to the Thermoelectrical Plant Operators and Electrical Transporting Operators the integration with the operational stations, measurement and energy delivery. The Geographical Information Systems - GIS, give the maps visualization with geopolitics aspects, gas pipeline infrastructure and satellite images. The Historical Data systems, have as its requirements the interface between many SCADA systems by means of accompaniment of historical data, real time data of the common variables of the process (outflow, pressure, temperature, egg.) and KPI's visualization - typical performance indicators of energy systems (non-availability, generation efficiency and distribution, egg.). Based on the business systemic vision, the Real-Time Enterprise Architecture - Real Time data integration and Performance Indicators based on the GIS software platform was developed in the Gas e Energia enterprise scenario. The present action has, as its focus, the dynamic visualization in real-time of the integrated data to the GIS infrastructure of the Gas Pipelines and Thermoelectrical Plants, guaranteeing the integrity, the audit trail of the information and a pro active vision for the Management of the Gas e Energia Business. (author)

  5. Characterising an intense PM pollution episode in March 2015 in France from multi-site approach and near real time data: Climatology, variabilities, geographical origins and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, J.-E.; Amodeo, T.; Meleux, F.; Bessagnet, B.; Menut, L.; Grenier, D.; Pellan, Y.; Ockler, A.; Rocq, B.; Gros, V.; Sciare, J.; Favez, O.

    2017-04-01

    During March 2015, a severe and large-scale particulate matter (PM) pollution episode occurred in France. Measurements in near real-time of the major chemical composition at four different urban background sites across the country (Paris, Creil, Metz and Lyon) allowed the investigation of spatiotemporal variabilities during this episode. A climatology approach showed that all sites experienced clear unusual rain shortage, a pattern that is also found on a longer timescale, highlighting the role of synoptic conditions over Wester-Europe. This episode is characterized by a strong predominance of secondary pollution, and more particularly of ammonium nitrate, which accounted for more than 50% of submicron aerosols at all sites during the most intense period of the episode. Pollution advection is illustrated by similar variabilities in Paris and Creil (distant of around 100 km), as well as trajectory analyses applied on nitrate and sulphate. Local sources, especially wood burning, are however found to contribute to local/regional sub-episodes, notably in Metz. Finally, simulated concentrations from Chemistry-Transport model CHIMERE were compared to observed ones. Results highlighted different patterns depending on the chemical components and the measuring site, reinforcing the need of such exercises over other pollution episodes and sites.

  6. Time-resolved measurements of black carbon light absorption enhancement in urban and near-urban locations of southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Chan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study a photoacoustic spectrometer (PA, a laser-induced incandescence instrument system (LII and an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were operated in parallel for in-situ measurements of black carbon (BC light absorption enhancement. Results of a thermodenuder experiment using ambient particles in Toronto are presented first to show that LII measurements of BC are not influenced by the presence of non-refractory material thus providing true atmospheric BC mass concentrations. In contrast, the PA response is enhanced when the non-refractory material is internally mixed with the BC particles. Through concurrent measurements using the LII and PA the specific absorption cross-section (SAC can be quantified with high time resolution (1 min. Comparisons of ambient PA and LII measurements from four different locations (suburban Toronto; a street canyon with diesel bus traffic in Ottawa; adjacent to a commuter highway in Ottawa and; regional background air in and around Windsor, Ontario, show that different impacts from emission sources and/or atmospheric processes result in different particle light absorption enhancements and hence variations in the SAC. The diversity of measurements obtained, including those with the thermodenuder, demonstrated that it is possible to identify measurements where the presence of externally-mixed non-refractory particles obscures direct observation of the effect of coating material on the SAC, thus allowing this effect to be measured with more confidence. Depending upon the time and location of measurement (urban, rural, close to and within a lake breeze frontal zone, 30 min average SAC varies between 9 ± 2 and 43 ± 4 m2 g−1. Causes of this variation, which were determined through the use of meteorological and gaseous measurements (CO, SO2, O3, include the particle emission source, airmass source region, the degree of atmospheric processing. Observations from this study

  7. Probabilistic Flood Mapping using Volunteered Geographical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  8. Research Plan to Determine Timing, Location, Magnitude and Cause of Mortality for Wild and Hatchery Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts Above Lower Granite Dam. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lower Granite Migration Study Steering Committee

    1993-10-01

    From 1966 to 1968, Raymond estimated an average survival rate of 89% for yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrating from trap sites on the Salmon River to Ice Harbor Dam, which was then the uppermost dam on the Snake River. During the 1970s, the estimated survival rate declined as the proportion of hatchery fish increased and additional dams were constructed. Recent survival indices for yearling chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin indicate that substantial mortalities are occurring en route to Lower Granite Dam, now the uppermost dam on the Snake River. Detection rates for wild and hatchery PIT-tagged smolts at Lower Granite Dam have been much lower than expected. However, for wild fish, there is considerable uncertainty whether overwinter mortality or smolt loss during migration is the primary cause for low survival. Efforts to rebuild these populations will have a better chance of success after the causes of mortality are identified and addressed. Information on the migrational characteristics and survival of wild fish are especially needed. The goal of this initial planning phase is to develop a research plan to outline potential investigations that will determine the timing, location, magnitude, and cause of smolt mortality above Lower Granite Dam.

  9. A study of the utility of heat collectors in reducing the response time of automatic fire sprinklers located in production modules of Building 707

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanley, J.H. Jr.; Budnick, E.K. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Several of the ten production Modules in Building 707 at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant recently underwent an alteration which can adversely affect the performance of the installed automatic fire sprinkler systems. The Modules have an approximate floor to ceiling height of 17.5 ft. The alterations involved removing the drop ceilings in the Modules which had been at a height of 12 ft above the floor. The sprinkler systems were originally installed with the sprinkler heads located below the drop ceiling in accordance with the nationally recognized NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Automatic Sprinkler Systems. The ceiling removal affects the sprinkler's response time and also violates NFPA 13. The scope of this study included evaluation of the feasibility of utilizing heat collectors to reduce the delays in sprinkler response created by the removal of the drop ceilings. The study also includes evaluation of substituting quick response sprinklers for the standard sprinklers currently in place, in combination with a heat collector

  10. Locating S-wave sources for the SPE-5 explosion using time reversal methods and a close-in, 1000 sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S. C.; Pitarka, A.; Mellors, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is producing new data to study the generation of seismic waves from explosive sources. Preliminary results show that far-field S-waves are generated both within the non-elastic volume surrounding explosive sources and by P- to S-wave scattering. The relative contribution of non-elastic phenomenology and elastic-wave scattering to far-field S-waves has been debated for decades, and numerical simulations based on the SPE experiments are addressing this question. The match between observed and simulated data degrades with event-station distance and with increasing time in each seismogram. This suggests that a more accurate model of subsurface elastic properties could result in better agreement between observed and simulated seismograms. A detailed model of subsurface structure has been developed using geologic maps and the extensive database of borehole logs, but uncertainty in structural details remains high. The large N instrument deployment during the SPE-5 experiment offers an opportunity to use time-reversal techniques to back project the wave field into the subsurface to locate significant sources of scattered energy. The large N deployment was nominally 1000, 5 Hz sensors (500 Z and 500 3C geophones) deployed in a roughly rectangular array to the south and east of the SPE-5 shot. Sensor spacing was nominally 50 meters in the interior portion of the array and 100 meters in the outer region, with two dense lines at 25 m spacing. The array covers the major geologic boundary between the Yucca Flat basin and the granitic Climax Stock in which the SPE experiments have been conducted. Improved mapping of subsurface scatterers is expected to result in better agreement between simulated and observed seismograms and aid in our understanding of S-wave generation from explosions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS development. Real-time kinematic (RTK positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10–20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services to about 3–5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform. Its real-time positioning performance was validated by BeiDou Navigation Satellite System/Global Positioning System (BDS/GPS combined RTK positioning under the conditions of a static and kinematic (the velocity of the rover was 50–80 km/h mode in a real urban environment with a SAMSUNG Galaxy A7 smartphone. The results show that the fixed-rates of ambiguity resolution (the proportion of epochs of ambiguities fixed for BDS/GPS combined RTK in the static and kinematic tests were about 97% and 90%, respectively, and the average positioning accuracies (RMS were better than 0.15 m (horizontal and 0.25 m (vertical for the static test, and 0.30 m (horizontal and 0.45 m (vertical for the kinematic test.

  12. Smart Device-Supported BDS/GNSS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning for Sub-Meter-Level Accuracy in Urban Location-Based Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Li, Zishen; Zhao, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Zhiyu; Yuan, Hong

    2016-12-21

    Using mobile smart devices to provide urban location-based services (LBS) with sub-meter-level accuracy (around 0.5 m) is a major application field for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) development. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning, which is a widely used GNSS-based positioning approach, can improve the accuracy from about 10-20 m (achieved by the standard positioning services) to about 3-5 cm based on the geodetic receivers. In using the smart devices to achieve positioning with sub-meter-level accuracy, a feasible solution of combining the low-cost GNSS module and the smart device is proposed in this work and a user-side GNSS RTK positioning software was developed from scratch based on the Android platform. Its real-time positioning performance was validated by BeiDou Navigation Satellite System/Global Positioning System (BDS/GPS) combined RTK positioning under the conditions of a static and kinematic (the velocity of the rover was 50-80 km/h) mode in a real urban environment with a SAMSUNG Galaxy A7 smartphone. The results show that the fixed-rates of ambiguity resolution (the proportion of epochs of ambiguities fixed) for BDS/GPS combined RTK in the static and kinematic tests were about 97% and 90%, respectively, and the average positioning accuracies (RMS) were better than 0.15 m (horizontal) and 0.25 m (vertical) for the static test, and 0.30 m (horizontal) and 0.45 m (vertical) for the kinematic test.

  13. The location and nature of general anesthetic binding sites on the active conformation of firefly luciferase; a time resolved photolabeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananthaperumal Shanmugasundararaj

    Full Text Available Firefly luciferase is one of the few soluble proteins that is acted upon by a wide variety of general anesthetics and alcohols; they inhibit the ATP-driven production of light. We have used time-resolved photolabeling to locate the binding sites of alcohols during the initial light output, some 200 ms after adding ATP. The photolabel 3-azioctanol inhibited the initial light output with an IC50 of 200 µM, close to its general anesthetic potency. Photoincorporation of [(3H]3-azioctanol into luciferase was saturable but weak. It was enhanced 200 ms after adding ATP but was negligible minutes later. Sequencing of tryptic digests by HPLC-MSMS revealed a similar conformation-dependence for photoincorporation of 3-azioctanol into Glu-313, a residue that lines the bottom of a deep cleft (vestibule whose outer end binds luciferin. An aromatic diazirine analog of benzyl alcohol with broader side chain reactivity reported two sites. First, it photolabeled two residues in the vestibule, Ser-286 and Ile-288, both of which are implicated with Glu-313 in the conformation change accompanying activation. Second, it photolabeled two residues that contact luciferin, Ser-316 and Ser-349. Thus, time resolved photolabeling supports two mechanisms of action. First, an allosteric one, in which anesthetics bind in the vestibule displacing water molecules that are thought to be involved in light output. Second, a competitive one, in which anesthetics bind isosterically with luciferin. This work provides structural evidence that supports the competitive and allosteric actions previously characterized by kinetic studies.

  14. The Effects of Vent Location, Event Scale, and Time Forecasts on Pyroclastic Density Current Hazard Maps at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bevilacqua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new method for producing long-term hazard maps for pyroclastic density currents (PDC originating at Campi Flegrei caldera. Such method is based on a doubly stochastic approach and is able to combine the uncertainty assessments on the spatial location of the volcanic vent, the size of the flow and the expected time of such an event. The results are obtained by using a Monte Carlo approach and adopting a simplified invasion model based on the box model integral approximation. Temporal assessments are modeled through a Cox-type process including self-excitement effects, based on the eruptive record of the last 15 kyr. Mean and percentile maps of PDC invasion probability are produced, exploring their sensitivity to some sources of uncertainty and to the effects of the dependence between PDC scales and the caldera sector where they originated. Conditional maps representative of PDC originating inside limited zones of the caldera, or of PDC with a limited range of scales are also produced. Finally, the effect of assuming different time windows for the hazard estimates is explored, also including the potential occurrence of a sequence of multiple events. Assuming that the last eruption of Monte Nuovo (A.D. 1538 marked the beginning of a new epoch of activity similar to the previous ones, results of the statistical analysis indicate a mean probability of PDC invasion above 5% in the next 50 years on almost the entire caldera (with a probability peak of ~25% in the central part of the caldera. In contrast, probability values reduce by a factor of about 3 if the entire eruptive record is considered over the last 15 kyr, i.e., including both eruptive epochs and quiescent periods.

  15. Geographic profiling survey : a preliminary examination of geographic profilers' views and experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emeno, Karla; Bennell, Craig; Snook, Brent; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender?s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure

  16. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)] [ERATO Aihara Complexity Modelling Project, JST, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8505 (Japan); Kim, Beom Jun, E-mail: beomjun@skku.ed [BK21 Physics Research Division and Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Computational Biology, School of Computer Science and Communication, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-12

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  17. Comparison of immunization strategies in geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spread and immunizations in geographically embedded scale-free (SF) and Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks are numerically investigated. We make a realistic assumption that it takes time which we call the detection time, for a vertex to be identified as infected, and implement two different immunization strategies: one is based on connection neighbors (CN) of the infected vertex with the exact information of the network structure utilized and the other is based on spatial neighbors (SN) with only geographical distances taken into account. We find that the decrease of the detection time is crucial for a successful immunization in general. Simulation results show that for both SF networks and WS networks, the SN strategy always performs better than the CN strategy, especially for more heterogeneous SF networks at long detection time. The observation is verified by checking the number of the infected nodes being immunized. We found that in geographical space, the distance preferences in the network construction process and the geographically decaying infection rate are key factors that make the SN immunization strategy outperforms the CN strategy. It indicates that even in the absence of the full knowledge of network connectivity we can still stop the epidemic spread efficiently only by using geographical information as in the SN strategy, which may have potential applications for preventing the real epidemic spread.

  18. Globalization in history : a geographical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Crafts, N. F. R.; Venables, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that a geographical perspectie is fundamental to understanding comparative economic development in the context of globalization. Central to this view is the role of agglomeration in productivity performance; size and location matter. The tools of the new economic geography are used to illuminate important epidsodes when the relative position of major eeconmies radically changed; the rise of the United States at the beginning and of East Asia at the end of the twentieth centu...

  19. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  20. Aqueous Transport Code Revisions Using Geographic Information Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    2003-01-01

    STREAM II, developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for execution on a personal computer, is an emergency response code that predicts downstream pollutant concentrations for releases from the SRS area to the Savannah River for emergency response management decision making. The STREAM II code consists of pre-processor, calculation, and post-processor modules. The pre-processor module provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting the initial release data. The GUI passes the user specified data to the calculation module that calculates the pollutant concentrations at downstream locations and the transport times. The calculation module of the STREAM II adopts the transport module of the WASP5 code. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency water quality analysis program that simulates pollutant transport and fate through surface water using a finite difference method to solve the transport equation. The calculated downstream pollutant concentrations and travel times a re passed to the post-processor for display on the computer screen in graphical and tabular forms. To minimize the user's effort in the emergency situation, the required input parameters are limited to the time and date of release, type of release, location of release, amount and duration of release, and the calculation units. The user, however, could only select one of the seventeen predetermined locations. Hence, STREAM II could not be used for situations in which release locations differ from the seventeen predetermined locations. To eliminate this limitation, STREAM II has been revised to allow users to select the release location anywhere along the specified SRS main streams or the Savannah River by mouse-selection from a map displayed on the computer monitor. The required modifications to STREAM II using geographic information systems (GIS) software is discussed in this paper

  1. Louisiana Marinas and Boat Launches, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [marinas_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The dataset defines the location and supplemental information for marinas and boat launches in southern Louisiana. The boat launch database includes public and...

  2. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  3. Underway composition & location, meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the Bay of Fundy and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-06-18 to 2015-07-24 (NCEI Accession 0130005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130005 contains raw underway composition & location, meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the...

  4. Location-Based Services, Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Goodchild, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    In December, 2001 the Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science (CSISS; http://csiss.org) and the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS; http://www.ucgis.org) held a specialist meeting to explore location-based services, and their implications and significance for the social sciences and for geographic information science. There are a number of reasons for believing that LBS will have significant impact on the social sciences, stemming from three basic arguments...

  5. An Airlift Hub-and-Spoke Location-Routing Model with Time Windows: Case Study of the CONUS-to-Korea Airlift Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, David

    1998-01-01

    .... This study develops an alternative hub-and-spoke combined location-routing integer linear programming prototype model, and uses this model to determine what advantages a hub-and-spoke system offers...

  6. An Adaptive Tabu Search Heuristic for the Location Routing Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows with a Theater Distribution Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    including approximations of delivery costs. The solution of a sub-problem provides input for another sub-problem. Perl (1983) and Perl and Daskin (1985...developed in this section represents a modification and combination of both the three-layer location routing formulation of Perl and Daskin (1985) and the...1985) LRP formulation to create the LPDPTW. 4.2.1 Generalization of the LRP Perl and Daskin (1985) utilize a fixed charge location problem as the

  7. The final TimeWarp: using form and content to support player experience and presence when designing location-aware mobile augmented reality games

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Lisa; Wetzel, Richard; McCall, Roderick; Oppermann, Leif; Broll, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Designing Augmented Reality location aware games requires an understanding of how form and content issues impact on presence. A study of 60 players was conducted using questionnaires, video analysis and interviews. The results indicate that content including: moral dilemmas, strong narratives, using real locations effectively and applying simple physical behavior within virtual characters to improve embodiment have a positive impact on player experience. The results are presented in ...

  8. Co-location of space geodetic techniques carried out at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell using a closure in time and a multi-technique reference target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodet, J.; Schreiber, K. U.; Eckl, J.; Plötz, C.; Mähler, S.; Schüler, T.; Klügel, T.; Riepl, S.

    2018-01-01

    The quality of the links between the different space geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS) is still one of the major limiting factors for the realization of a unique global terrestrial reference frame that is accurate enough to allow the monitoring of the Earth system, i.e., of processes like sea level change, postglacial rebound and silent earthquakes. According to the specifications of the global geodetic observing system of the International Association of Geodesy, such a reference frame should be accurate to 1 mm over decades, with rates of change stable at the level of 0.1 mm/year. The deficiencies arise from inaccurate or incomplete local ties at many fundamental sites as well as from systematic instrumental biases in the individual space geodetic techniques. Frequently repeated surveys, the continuous monitoring of antenna heights and the geometrical mount stability (Lösler et al. in J Geod 90:467-486, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-016-0887-8) have not provided evidence for insufficient antenna stability. Therefore, we have investigated variations in the respective system delays caused by electronic circuits, which is not adequately captured by the calibration process, either because of subtle differences in the circuitry between geodetic measurement and calibration, high temporal variability or because of lacking resolving bandwidth. The measured system delay variations in the electric chain of both VLBI- and SLR systems reach the order of 100 ps, which is equivalent to 3 cm of path length. Most of this variability is usually removed by the calibrations but by far not all. This paper focuses on the development of new technologies and procedures for co-located geodetic instrumentation in order to identify and remove systematic measurement biases within and between the individual measurement techniques. A closed-loop optical time and frequency distribution system and a common inter-technique reference target provide the possibility to remove

  9. Geographic variations and temporal trends of Salmonella-associated hospitalization in the U.S. elderly, 1991-2004: a time series analysis of the impact of HACCP regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Kenneth K H; Webb, Patrick; Russell, Robert M; Naumova, Elena N

    2009-12-03

    About 1.4 million Salmonella infections, a common food-borne illness, occur in the U.S. annually; the elderly (aged 65 or above) are most susceptible. In 1997, the USDA introduced the Pathogen Reduction and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Systems (PR/HACCP) which demands regular Salmonella testing in various establishments processing meat products, such as broiler chickens. Impact evaluations of PR/HACCP on hospitalizations related to Salmonella are lacking. Hospitalization records of the U.S. elderly in 1991-2004 were obtained from the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services. Harmonic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the long-term trends of Salmonella-related hospitalizations in pre- and post-HACCP periods. Seasonal characteristics of the outcome in the nine Census divisions of the contiguous U.S. were also derived and contrasted. Predicted rates decreased in most divisions after 1997, except South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South Central. These three divisions also demonstrated higher overall hospitalization rates, pronounced seasonal patterns, and consistent times to peak at about 32nd to 34th week of the year. The impact of HACCP was geographically different. South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South Central divisions should be targeted in further Salmonella preventive programs. Further research is needed to identify the best program type and timing of implementation.

  10. Geographical patterns of cholera in Mexico, 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto, R J; Martinez-Piedra, R

    2000-08-01

    The seventh cholera pandemic has been ongoing in Mexico since 1991 and threatens to become endemic. This paper aims to determine the geographical pattern of cholera in Mexico to define areas at high risk of endemic cholera. Ecologic research was conducted based upon the cartography of disease incidence. The 32 Mexican states were grouped into five strata according to the value of the 1991-1996 cumulative incidence rate of cholera. Rate ratios were computed for strata of states classified by geographical situation, urbanization, and poverty level. Cholera incidence was 2.47 times higher in coastal states than in the interior (95% CI : 2.42-2.52). The disease was negatively associated with urbanization. Incidence in the least urbanized stratum was four times as high as in the most urban stratum (95% CI : 3.9-4.12). The poorest stratum showed the most remarkable incidence, i.e. 5.9 times higher than the rate in the least poor stratum (95% CI : 5.73-6.04). This ecologic research suggests that high poverty level, low urbanization, and southern location are the most important predictors of endemic cholera in Mexican states. It is hypothesized that the natural environment of the coastal plains in southern states may also play a significant role in cholera incidence. Poor communities residing in the southern, predominantly rural, coastal states should be prioritized when it comes to investing in safe water supply facilities, adequate excreta disposal systems and cholera surveillance.

  11. China's Mission in Surveying, Mapping and Geographic Information during Global Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Xue, C.; Chen, X.

    2018-04-01

    In the new era, it is proposed that China should be transformed from a participant and a cooperator into a designer, an impeller and a leader, continue taking an effect of responsible great power, increase public product supply, perfect a global governance system and contribute to China's wisdom and China's schemes during global governance, thus surveying and mapping geographic information takes on great mission. On the one hand, we have to timely grasp global geographic information data resources to provide an important scientific data support for China's wisdom and China's schemes. On the other hand, we have to provide surveying and mapping geographic information infrastructure construction and public products for developing countries, support location services within a global territorial scope, and realize the smoothness of talent flow, material flow and information flow between China and countries in the world. Meanwhile, external assistance and international communication and cooperation of surveying and mapping geographic information are also enhanced, and popularization and application of a geographic information technology in underdeveloped countries and regions are promoted.

  12. Using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A true Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer mapping system with spatial analysis ability and cartographic accuracy that will offer many different projections. GIS has evolved to become an everyday tool for a wide range of users including oil companies, worldwide. Other systems are designed to allow oil and gas companies to keep their upstream data in the same format. Among these are the Public Petroleum Data Model developed by Gulf Canada, Digitech and Applied Terravision Systems of Calgary, the system developed and marketed by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation in the United States, and the Mercury projects by IBM. These have been developed in an effort to define an industry standard. The advantages and disadvantages of open and closed systems were discussed. Factors to consider when choosing a GIS system such as overall performance, area of use and query complexity, were reviewed. 3 figs

  13. Study of geographical trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pine needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, José Manuel; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-10-01

    In this work, pine needles were used as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) markers to study the PAHs distribution over several geographical locations in Portugal and over time. Four pine needle sampling campaigns (winter, spring, summer and autumn 2007) were carried out in 29 sites, covering the major urban centres, some industrial points, smaller cities, rural areas and remote locations. Needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. trees were collected from 2005 and 2006 shoots, corresponding to one up to three years of exposure. Spatial trends of the incidence of PAHs indicate an increase from the remote to the urban and industrial sites. The mean values for the sum of 16 PAHs ranged from 96 ± 30 ng g -1 (dry weight) for remote sites to 866 ± 304 ng g -1 (dw) for industrial sites for P. pinaster needles and from 188 ± 117 ng g -1 (dw) for rural sites to 337 ± 153 ng g -1 (dw) for urban sites for P. pinea. Geographic information system tools and principal component analysis revealed that the contamination patterns of PAHs are somehow related to several socio-geographic parameters of the sampling sites. The geographical trend for the PAHs is similar between seasons in terms of PAH levels, but some diverse behaviour is found on the separation of lighter and heavier PAHs. Differences between P. pinaster and P. pinea needles are stronger in terms of PAH uptake loads than in the site type fingerprints.

  14. The Earth's revolution, Moon phase, Syzygy astronomy events, their effect in disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the ``Magnetic Storm Double Time Method'' for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I. W.

    2003-04-01

    An increasing number of geomagnetic observation stations were established and operated in China since 1966 to the 1980s (and until present), effectively covering a large area of the nation. Close relativity between magnetic storms and earthquakes, as well as close relativity between the regional differences of magnetic disturbance recorded by these stations and the epicenter location of earthquakes, was discovered and observed by Tie-zheng Zhang during1966 - 1969. On such basis during 1969/1970, Zhang developed the “Magnetic Storm Double Time Method” for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of EQs. By this method,.Zhang successfully predicted the Yunnan Tonghai Ms7.7 EQ Jan. 5, 1970 (occurrence date only), the Bohai ML5.2 EQ, Feb. 12, 1970 and other EQs, including the Haicheng Ms7.3 EQ Feb. 4, 1975, and the Tangshan Ms7.8 EQ July 28, 1976. On the basis of this method, Z.P. Shen developed the “Geomagnetic Deflection Angle Double Time Method” in 1970, and later developed the “Magnetic Storm - Moon Phase Double Time Method” in 1990s. With this method, Shen is able to predict the occurrence dates of most of the strongest EQs Ms37.5 on the Earth since 1991. Zhang also discovered that strong EQs often correspond with a number of sets of magnetic storms. Z.Q. Ren discovered close relativity exists between Syzygy astronomy events and such sets of magnetic storm as well as the occurrence dates of strong EQs. Computerized calculation of historical magnetic storm and EQ data proves the effectiveness of this method. Over 3,000 days of geomagnetic isoline images are computer processed by the Author from over 400,000 geomagnetic field data obtained by Zhang from over 100 geomagnetic observation stations during 1966 - 1984. Clear relativity is shown between the Earth’s revolution, Moon phases, Syzygy astronomy events related to the Earth, and their disturbance effect on the Earth’s geomagnetic field and the occurrence of EQs.

  15. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  16. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  17. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... of food origin products in Tanzania that have potential for GI certification. The hypothesis was that there are origin products in Tanzania whose unique characteristics are linked to the area of production. Geographical indications can be useful policy instruments contributing to food security...... the diversity of supply of natural and unique quality products and so contribute to enhanced food security....

  18. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  19. Structured prediction for urban scene semantic segmentation with geographic contex

    OpenAIRE

    Volpi Michele; Ferrari Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    In this work we address the problem of semantic segmentation of urban remote sensing images into land cover maps. We propose to tackle this task by learning the geographic context of classes and use it to favor or discourage certain spatial configuration of label assignments. For this reason, we learn from training data two spatial priors enforcing different key aspects of the geographical space: local co-occurrence and relative location of land cover classes. We propose to embed these geogra...

  20. Different Factors of Llap as a Geographic Region

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , S. Halimi; , F. Humolli

    2011-01-01

    In this work attempts were made to express in the best possible manner the factors which differentiate the Llap as geographic region. The Llap Region is located in the north-east of Kosovo. Within the ethnic geography, the Llap area is having peripheric position, but within the Balkan Penninsula it is having a central position, while along Llap goes the Highway which connects Kosovo and Serbia. The Llap region has important natural conditions; such as very good geographic position, running an...

  1. Geographic information systems : challenges to effective data sharing : statement of Linda D. Koontz, Director, Information management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-10

    Geographic information systems (GIS) manipulate, analyze, and graphically present an array of information associated with geographic locations, have been invaluable to all levels of government. The federal government has long been attempting to devel...

  2. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  3. GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) Model to Estimate Time-Location of Individuals for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments: Model Evaluation in Central North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure...

  4. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  5. A model of sexually and physically victimized women's process of attaining effective formal help over time: the role of social location, context, and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Adams, Adrienne; Bybee, Deborah; Campbell, Rebecca; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Sullivan, Cris

    2012-09-01

    As empirical evidence has demonstrated the pervasiveness of sexual assault and intimate partner violence in the lives of women, and the links to poor mental health outcomes, attention has turned to examining how women seek and access formal help. We present a conceptual model that addresses prior limitations and makes three key contributions: It foregrounds the influence of social location and multiple contextual factors; emphasizes the importance of the attainment of effective formal help that meets women's needs and leads to positive mental health outcomes; and highlights the role of interventions in facilitating help attainment. We conclude with research and practice implications.

  6. Bogoch Replikins Pandemic Prevention: Increase of Strain-Specific Influenza Genomic Replikin Counts, Having Predicted Outbreaks and their Location Seven Times Consecutively, Up to Two Years in Advance, Provides Time for Prevention of Pandemics

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Bogoch; Elenore S. Bogoch

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that the increased concentration of a new class of virus genomic peptides, Replikins, precedes and predicts virus outbreaks. We now find that the area in the genome of the highest concentration of Replikins, and the country in which this peak exists in scout viruses, have permitted in the past five years seven consecutive accurate predictions of the geographic localization of coming outbreaks, including those now realized in Mexico for H1N1, and in Cambodia for H5N1...

  7. Wage Inequality and the Location of Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farid; Jinkins, David

    agglomeration and congestion forces. The model bridges the gap between the spatial inequality literature which abstracts from geography, and the economic geography literature which abstracts from inequality. We find that geographical location explains 9.2% of observed variation in wage inequality across...

  8. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  9. Distribución geográfica y evolución temporal de la mortalidad evitable en Cataluña (1986-2001 Geographical distribution and time trends in avoidable mortality in Catalonia, Spain (1986-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arán Barés

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la evolución temporal y la distribución geográfica por sectores sanitarios de la mortalidad evitable en Cataluña. Material y métodos: Se analizó la mortalidad evitable según la clasificación utilizada en el Departamento de Salud de Cataluña por sectores sanitarios durante el período 1986-2001 y se agruparon las causas en tratables o prevenibles. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por el método directo e indirecto y la razón de mortalidad comparativa para el grupo de tratables y prevenibles y para los 46 sectores sanitarios. También se calculó el promedio de cambio anual ajustado por edad mediante la regresión de Poisson de la mortalidad evitable y general. Resultados: El total de defunciones evitables fue 61.261 (el 7,3% de la mortalidad general. 10.623 (17,34% se clasificaron como tratables y 50.638 (82,65% como prevenibles. El promedio de cambio anual para las causas evitables fue del -2,43% (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, -2,60 a -2,26, superior al -1,57% (IC del 95%, -1,61 a -1,52 de la mortalidad general. Las tasas fueron más elevadas para las causas prevenibles que para las tratables, aunque en ambos grupos se apreció un descenso de la mortalidad. El sector sanitario del Segrià destaca por presentar sobremortalidad en los 2 períodos y en los 2 grupos de causas. Cuatro sectores sanitarios presentan un aumento significativo de la mortalidad por causas prevenibles, pero ninguno por causas tratables. Conclusiones: En Cataluña, durante el período 1986-2001 se produce un descenso de la mortalidad evitable, mayor que el de la mortalidad general. La distribución geográfica muestra una gran dispersión, aunque se identifican claramente zonas en las que es necesaria la intervención preventiva.Objectives: To analyze time trends and geographical variation in avoidable mortality by health areas in Catalonia. Material and methods: Avoidable mortality was analyzed according to the

  10. Optimum location of external markers using feature selection algorithms for real-time tumor tracking in external-beam radiotherapy: a virtual phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankali, Saber; Torshabi, Ahmad Esmaili; Miandoab, Payam Samadi; Baghizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-08

    In external-beam radiotherapy, using external markers is one of the most reliable tools to predict tumor position, in clinical applications. The main challenge in this approach is tumor motion tracking with highest accuracy that depends heavily on external markers location, and this issue is the objective of this study. Four commercially available feature selection algorithms entitled 1) Correlation-based Feature Selection, 2) Classifier, 3) Principal Components, and 4) Relief were proposed to find optimum location of external markers in combination with two "Genetic" and "Ranker" searching procedures. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using four-dimensional extended cardiac-torso anthropomorphic phantom. Six tumors in lung, three tumors in liver, and 49 points on the thorax surface were taken into account to simulate internal and external motions, respectively. The root mean square error of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as prediction model was considered as metric for quantitatively evaluating the performance of proposed feature selection algorithms. To do this, the thorax surface region was divided into nine smaller segments and predefined tumors motion was predicted by ANFIS using external motion data of given markers at each small segment, separately. Our comparative results showed that all feature selection algorithms can reasonably select specific external markers from those segments where the root mean square error of the ANFIS model is minimum. Moreover, the performance accuracy of proposed feature selection algorithms was compared, separately. For this, each tumor motion was predicted using motion data of those external markers selected by each feature selection algorithm. Duncan statistical test, followed by F-test, on final results reflected that all proposed feature selection algorithms have the same performance accuracy for lung tumors. But for liver tumors, a correlation-based feature selection algorithm, in

  11. Optimum location of external markers using feature selection algorithms for real‐time tumor tracking in external‐beam radiotherapy: a virtual phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankali, Saber; Miandoab, Payam Samadi; Baghizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In external‐beam radiotherapy, using external markers is one of the most reliable tools to predict tumor position, in clinical applications. The main challenge in this approach is tumor motion tracking with highest accuracy that depends heavily on external markers location, and this issue is the objective of this study. Four commercially available feature selection algorithms entitled 1) Correlation‐based Feature Selection, 2) Classifier, 3) Principal Components, and 4) Relief were proposed to find optimum location of external markers in combination with two “Genetic” and “Ranker” searching procedures. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using four‐dimensional extended cardiac‐torso anthropomorphic phantom. Six tumors in lung, three tumors in liver, and 49 points on the thorax surface were taken into account to simulate internal and external motions, respectively. The root mean square error of an adaptive neuro‐fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as prediction model was considered as metric for quantitatively evaluating the performance of proposed feature selection algorithms. To do this, the thorax surface region was divided into nine smaller segments and predefined tumors motion was predicted by ANFIS using external motion data of given markers at each small segment, separately. Our comparative results showed that all feature selection algorithms can reasonably select specific external markers from those segments where the root mean square error of the ANFIS model is minimum. Moreover, the performance accuracy of proposed feature selection algorithms was compared, separately. For this, each tumor motion was predicted using motion data of those external markers selected by each feature selection algorithm. Duncan statistical test, followed by F‐test, on final results reflected that all proposed feature selection algorithms have the same performance accuracy for lung tumors. But for liver tumors, a correlation‐based feature

  12. Ontology for cell-based geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Huang, Lina; Lu, Xinhai

    2009-10-01

    Inter-operability is a key notion in geographic information science (GIS) for the sharing of geographic information (GI). That requires a seamless translation among different information sources. Ontology is enrolled in GI discovery to settle the semantic conflicts for its natural language appearance and logical hierarchy structure, which are considered to be able to provide better context for both human understanding and machine cognition in describing the location and relationships in the geographic world. However, for the current, most studies on field ontology are deduced from philosophical theme and not applicable for the raster expression in GIS-which is a kind of field-like phenomenon but does not physically coincide to the general concept of philosophical field (mostly comes from the physics concepts). That's why we specifically discuss the cell-based GI ontology in this paper. The discussion starts at the investigation of the physical characteristics of cell-based raster GI. Then, a unified cell-based GI ontology framework for the recognition of the raster objects is introduced, from which a conceptual interface for the connection of the human epistemology and the computer world so called "endurant-occurrant window" is developed for the better raster GI discovery and sharing.

  13. Location based Network Optimizations for Mobile Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen

    selection in Wi-Fi networks and predictive handover optimization in heterogeneous wireless networks. The investigations in this work have indicated that location based network optimizations are beneficial compared to typical link measurement based approaches. Especially the knowledge of geographical...

  14. Disparities in Geographic Accessibility of National Cancer Institute Cancer Centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqing; Fu, Cong; Onega, Tracy; Shi, Xun; Wang, Fahui

    2017-11-11

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Centers form the backbone of the cancer care system in the United States since their inception in the early 1970s. Most studies on their geographic accessibility used primitive measures, and did not examine the disparities across urbanicity or demographic groups. This research uses an advanced accessibility method, termed "2-step floating catchment area (2SFCA)" and implemented in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to capture the degree of geographic access to NCI Cancer Centers by accounting for competition intensity for the services and travel time between residents and the facilities. The results indicate that urban advantage is pronounced as the average accessibility is highest in large central metro areas, declines to large fringe metro, medium metro, small metro, micropolitan and noncore rural areas. Population under the poverty line are disproportionally concentrated in lower accessibility areas. However, on average Non-Hispanic White have the lowest geographic accessibility, followed by Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Black and Asian, and the differences are statistically significant. The "reversed racial disadvantage" in NCI Cancer Center accessibility seems counterintuitive but is consistent with an influential prior study; and it is in contrast to the common observation of co-location of concentration of minority groups and people under the poverty line.

  15. Characteristics of the socio-geographical factors in the Drina-Velika Morava strategic direction zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Radivoj Inđić

    2013-06-01

    settlements: compact type (including cities and villages in the plains of Mačva, Posavina, Morava scattered type (including villages in the mountainous regions – Tara, Zlatibor and Maljen, Povlen and mixed type (spa, mining and tourist resorts. It should be noticed that almost all the towns on the line are located along the most important communication lines, in major river valleys, at mountain foothills, namely in the geographic space naturally suitable for combat operations. Characteristics of Communication Networks The communications network on the strategic direction is not developed well and does not provide for a high tempo of well–equipped agressor attacks. Through this strategic geographic space there are two longitudinal directions (Bačka–Kosovo and Bačka–Crnagora and two transverse (Šumadija– Timok and Zapadnamorava–Nišava communication nodes.. The communication networks in the geographic direction enable successful maneuvers and regrouping of forces in the front and rear, successful execution of combat operations, timely and successful execution of mobilization and evacuation. In the geographic strategic direction, the river and canal traffic does not follow the natural and geographic conditions, so it is of no special significance to the military aspect. The general characteristics of air traffic in the strategic direction is an unfavourable territorial distribution of airports (in the southeast direction.   Characteristics of the economy The consideration of the economy in this strategic direction is done through the consideration of the military geographic characteristics of natural–economic potential and military geographic characteristics of technical–economic and technological potentials. The natural economic resources are viewed through: agricultural land, energy resources and mining potential. Much of the farmland is located in the Semberija–Šumadija operating direction (Mačva, Pocerina, Šumadija that gravitates towards the

  16. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  17. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  18. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  19. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  20. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  1. Department of Geograph

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-18

    Nov 18, 2016 ... which were obtained from Forestry Management Evaluation and Coordination Unit and were entered and use to develop a flood risk information system. ... end of the study, maps of flood vulnerable areas in the river basin ... from storing and managing hydrological ... at one time an arm of the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Geographic variation in resource use by specialist versus generalist butterflyfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.; Cole, Andrew J.; Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.

    2011-01-01

    Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may

  3. Geographic variation in resource use by specialist versus generalist butterflyfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.

    2011-11-14

    Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may

  4. Compositional Imprints in Density–Distance–Time: A Rocky Composition for Close-in Low-mass Exoplanets from the Location of the Valley of Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Mordasini, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    We use an end-to-end model of planet formation, thermodynamic evolution, and atmospheric escape to investigate how the statistical imprints of evaporation depend on the bulk composition of planetary cores (rocky versus icy). We find that the population-wide imprints like the location of the “evaporation valley” in the distance–radius plane and the corresponding bimodal radius distribution clearly differ depending on the bulk composition of the cores. Comparison with the observed position of the valley suggests that close-in low-mass Kepler planets have a predominantly Earth-like rocky composition. Combined with the excess of period ratios outside of MMR, this suggests that low-mass Kepler planets formed inside of the water iceline but were still undergoing orbital migration. The core radius becomes visible for planets losing all primordial H/He. For planets in this “triangle of evaporation” in the distance–radius plane, the degeneracy in composition is reduced. In the observed planetary mass–mean density diagram, we identify a trend to more volatile-rich compositions with an increasing radius (R/R ⊕ ≲ 1.6 rocky; 1.6–3.0 ices, and/or H/He ≳3: H/He). The mass–density diagram contains important information about formation and evolution. Its characteristic broken V-shape reveals the transitions from solid planets to low-mass core-dominated planets with H/He and finally to gas-dominated giants. Evaporation causes the density and orbital distance to be anticorrelated for low-mass planets in contrast to giants, where closer-in planets are less dense, likely due to inflation. The temporal evolution of the statistical properties reported here will be of interest for the PLATO 2.0 mission, which will observe the temporal dimension.

  5. On the need for a time- and location-dependent estimation of the NDSI threshold value for reducing existing uncertainties in snow cover maps at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härer, Stefan; Bernhardt, Matthias; Siebers, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of current snow cover extent is essential for characterizing energy and moisture fluxes at the Earth's surface. The snow-covered area (SCA) is often estimated by using optical satellite information in combination with the normalized-difference snow index (NDSI). The NDSI thereby uses a threshold for the definition if a satellite pixel is assumed to be snow covered or snow free. The spatiotemporal representativeness of the standard threshold of 0.4 is however questionable at the local scale. Here, we use local snow cover maps derived from ground-based photography to continuously calibrate the NDSI threshold values (NDSIthr) of Landsat satellite images at two European mountain sites of the period from 2010 to 2015. The Research Catchment Zugspitzplatt (RCZ, Germany) and Vernagtferner area (VF, Austria) are both located within a single Landsat scene. Nevertheless, the long-term analysis of the NDSIthr demonstrated that the NDSIthr at these sites are not correlated (r = 0.17) and different than the standard threshold of 0.4. For further comparison, a dynamic and locally optimized NDSI threshold was used as well as another locally optimized literature threshold value (0.7). It was shown that large uncertainties in the prediction of the SCA of up to 24.1 % exist in satellite snow cover maps in cases where the standard threshold of 0.4 is used, but a newly developed calibrated quadratic polynomial model which accounts for seasonal threshold dynamics can reduce this error. The model minimizes the SCA uncertainties at the calibration site VF by 50 % in the evaluation period and was also able to improve the results at RCZ in a significant way. Additionally, a scaling experiment shows that the positive effect of a locally adapted threshold diminishes using a pixel size of 500 m or larger, underlining the general applicability of the standard threshold at larger scales.

  6. SOLID WASTE: PRESENCE AND THREATIN GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesley Maria Tavares do Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trajectory of the solid waste in different historical periods, configuring them as a constructive element of geographical space. The intention to bring the theme from the timeline perspective, is marked out in the conviction of the inseparability of the categories of space and time and its importance in understanding a geographical phenomenon. The methodological support of this research relied on the documentary type of research involving literature, consultation of secondary sources such as books, academic journals, dissertations and theses on the subject. The results presented and discussed in this paper indicated that the production of waste is adjacent to historical time, reflects societies and techniques that generated them, and is a permanent part of the dialectical process of spatial formation.

  7. Sites for locations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Huerta, M.; Lopez, A.

    2014-10-01

    A restriction on sites of nuclear energy is the history of seismic activity, in its magnitude (Richter) and intensity (Mercalli). This article delimits the areas of greatest magnitude and national seismic intensity, with restrictions of ground acceleration; the supplement areas with a low magnitude of seismic activity are shown. Potential sites for the location of these sites are introduced into a geographic information system. The set of geo-referenced data contains the location of the active volcanic manifestations; the historical record of earthquake epicenters, magnitudes and intensities; major geological faults; surface hydrology and water bodies; location of population density; protected areas; contour lines; the rock type or geology. The geographic information system allows entering normative criteria and environmental restrictions that correlate with geo-referenced data described above, forms both probable and exclusion areas for the installation of nuclear sites. (Author)

  8. Seismic and Infrasound Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Begnaud, Michael L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-19

    This presentation includes slides on Signal Propagation Through the Earth/Atmosphere Varies at Different Scales; 3D Seismic Models: RSTT; Ray Coverage (Pn); Source-Specific Station Corrections (SSSCs); RSTT Conclusions; SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) Global 3D Earth Model for Travel Time; Comparison of IDC SSSCs to RSTT Predictions; SALSA3D; Validation and Model Comparison; DSS Lines in the Siberian Platform; DSS Line CRA-4 Comparison; Travel Time Δak135; Travel Time Prediction Uncertainty; SALSA3D Conclusions; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Location; How does BISL work?; BISL: Application to the 2013 DPRK Test; and BISL: Ongoing Research.

  9. FRS (Facility Registration System) Sites, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2007) [facility_registration_system_sites_LA_EPA_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset contains locations of Facility Registry System (FRS) sites which were pulled from a centrally managed database that identifies facilities, sites or...

  10. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  11. A comparison of monthly precipitation point estimates at 6 locations in Iran using integration of soft computing methods and GARCH time series model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2017-11-01

    Precipitation plays an important role in determining the climate of a region. Precise estimation of precipitation is required to manage and plan water resources, as well as other related applications such as hydrology, climatology, meteorology and agriculture. Time series of hydrologic variables such as precipitation are composed of deterministic and stochastic parts. Despite this fact, the stochastic part of the precipitation data is not usually considered in modeling of precipitation process. As an innovation, the present study introduces three new hybrid models by integrating soft computing methods including multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), Bayesian networks (BN) and gene expression programming (GEP) with a time series model, namely generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) for modeling of the monthly precipitation. For this purpose, the deterministic (obtained by soft computing methods) and stochastic (obtained by GARCH time series model) parts are combined with each other. To carry out this research, monthly precipitation data of Babolsar, Bandar Anzali, Gorgan, Ramsar, Tehran and Urmia stations with different climates in Iran were used during the period of 1965-2014. Root mean square error (RMSE), relative root mean square error (RRMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and determination coefficient (R2) were employed to evaluate the performance of conventional/single MARS, BN and GEP, as well as the proposed MARS-GARCH, BN-GARCH and GEP-GARCH hybrid models. It was found that the proposed novel models are more precise than single MARS, BN and GEP models. Overall, MARS-GARCH and BN-GARCH models yielded better accuracy than GEP-GARCH. The results of the present study confirmed the suitability of proposed methodology for precise modeling of precipitation.

  12. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  13. Stability of referential signalling across time and locations: testing alarm calls of Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen in urban and rural Australia and in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Kaplan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In many avian species, vocal repertoire expands and changes throughout life as new syllables are added and sounds adapted to neighbours and circumstances. Referential signals, on the other hand, demand stability and lack of variation so that their meaning can be understood by conspecifics at all times. It is not known how stable such signals may be when the context is changed entirely but the point of reference remains unchanged. We investigated these questions in a rare case of forced translocation of an avian species, the Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen, from Australia to the remote Fijian island of Taveuni decades ago. By using playbacks of vocalisations to 45 magpie groups in Australia, we first established that magpies use functionally referential signals in their alarm call repertoire signalling aerial danger (measured as looking up in response to a specific alarm call even though the speakers were on the ground. With these results in hand, we then used the same playbacks to magpie groups on the island of Taveuni. Our results showed that the meaning of one specific call (eagle alarm call is stable and maintained even in populations that have been isolated from Australian conspecifics over many (at least 10 generations. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a stability of a referential signal has been shown in the natural habitat.

  14. Study on Dissemination Patterns in Location-Aware Gossiping Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Nobuharu; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki

    We study the properties of information dissemination over location-aware gossiping networks leveraging location-based real-time communication applications. Gossiping is a promising method for quickly disseminating messages in a large-scale system, but in its application to information dissemination for location-aware applications, it is important to consider the network topology and patterns of spatial dissemination over the network in order to achieve effective delivery of messages to potentially interested users. To this end, we propose a continuous-space network model extended from Kleinberg's small-world model applicable to actual location-based applications. Analytical and simulation-based study shows that the proposed network achieves high dissemination efficiency resulting from geographically neutral dissemination patterns as well as selective dissemination to proximate users. We have designed a highly scalable location management method capable of promptly updating the network topology in response to node movement and have implemented a distributed simulator to perform dynamic target pursuit experiments as one example of applications that are the most sensitive to message forwarding delay. The experimental results show that the proposed network surpasses other types of networks in pursuit efficiency and achieves the desirable dissemination patterns.

  15. Modeling future power plant location patterns. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagles, T.W.; Cohon, J.L.; ReVelle, C.

    1979-04-01

    The locations of future energy facilities must be specified to assess the potential environmental impact of those facilities. A computer model was developed to generate probable locations for the energy facilities needed to meet postulated future energy requirements. The model is designed to cover a very large geographical region. The regional demand for baseload electric generating capacity associated with a postulated demand growth rate over any desired time horizon is specified by the user as an input to the model. The model uses linear programming to select the most probable locations within the region, based on physical and political factors. The linear program is multi-objective, with four objective functions based on transmission, coal supply, population proximity, and water supply considerations. Minimizing each objective function leads to a distinct set of locations. The user can select the objective function or weighted combination of objective functions most appropriate to his interest. Users with disparate interests can use the model to see the locational changes which result from varying weighting of the objective functions. The model has been implemented in a six-state mid-Atlantic region. The year 2000 was chosen as the study year, and a test scenario postulating 2.25% growth in baseload generating capacity between 1977 and 2000 was chosen. The scenario stipulatedthat this capacity be 50% nuclear and 50% coal-fired. Initial utility reaction indicates the objective based on transmission costs is most important for such a large-scale analysis

  16. Geographical influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To model the influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein dairy herds on pasture in South Africa, the maximum entropy (Maxent) modelling technique was used in a novel approach to model and map optimal milk-producing areas. Geographical locations of farms with top milk-producing Holstein herds on pasture ...

  17. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lyndon

    could be used as waste transfer stations in relation to location of landfill sites using Geographic. Information ... Coast, bounded to the east by the Ga East Municipal Assembly, to the west by the .... Solid Waste and the Hierarchy in Solid Waste.

  18. Towards mapping land use patterns from volunteered geographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530349; Bakillah, M.; Hagenauer, J.; Zipf, A.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of applications have been launched to gather geo-located information from the public. This article introduces an approach toward generating land-use patterns from volunteered geographic information (VGI) without applying remote-sensing techniques and/or engaging official data. Hence,

  19. Book reviews: Miroslav N. Jovanovic – Evolutionary Economic Geography. Location of Production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca G. Popescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The book tries to answer the problem of locating production of a company in the geographic space analyzing what determines productivity differences between regions using the theory of evolutionary economic geography. Evolutionary economics studies “the origin, change, direction and speed in the spatial distribution and organization of as well as production and consumption in a certain period of time.” The studied problem is relevant in order to know not only what will be the future location of jobs, their quality and quantity but also where will take place the maximization of profits, the collection of taxes, the public spending, etc.

  20. Location-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rear, Andrea E; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2018-02-01

    This study explores location-based prospective memory. People often have to remember to do things when in a particular location, such as buying tissues the next time they are in the supermarket. For event cognition theory, location is important for structuring events. However, because event cognition has not been used to examine prospective memory, the question remains of how multiple events will influence prospective memory performance. In our experiments, people delivered messages from store to store in a virtual shopping mall as an ongoing task. The prospective tasks were to do certain activities in certain stores. For Experiment 1, each trial involved one prospective memory task to be done in a single location at one of three delays. The virtual environment and location cues were effective for prospective memory, and performance was unaffected by delay. For Experiment 2, each trial involved two prospective memory tasks, given in either one or two instruction locations, and to be done in either one or two store locations. There was improved performance when people received instructions from two locations and did both tasks in one location relative to other combinations. This demonstrates that location-based event structure influences how well people perform on prospective memory tasks.

  1. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-12-01

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Analytical Method for the Validation of Three Polyphenols as a Marker Compound for the Standardization of Solidago virgaurea subsp. gigantea Extracts and Antiadipogenesis of Harvesting Time and Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid (PC, chlorogenic acid (CA, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K-O-R, isolated from the Solidago virgaurea subsp. gigantea (SV extract, were quickly and efficiently separated using HPLC. Our chromatographic method was found to effectively separate PC, CA, and K-O-R at retention times of 5.36, 8.22, and 17.04 min, respectively. Linearity of PC, CA, and K-O-R was found to be in the range of 4.85–485.00, 47.5–1900.00, and 8.50–850.00 μg/ml. Recoveries ranged between 101.32 and 103.30%, 95.82 and 100.25%, and 96.18 and 99.37%, for PC, CA, and K-O-R, respectively. The antiadipogenesis activity of SV extracts collected from five different months and from seven different regions was evaluated using an Oil Red O staining assay in 3T3-L1 cells. Extract from SV collected in April from the Ulleung Island produced over 106.89% inhibition of adipogenesis without cytotoxicity at 50 μg/ml. This extract had a high amount of PC and K-O-R. The developed HPLC method was found to be fast, accurate, precise, and reproducible and could be applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of three bioactive compounds in SV extracts. The SV extract collected in April from Ulleung Island can be used as a functional food ingredient preventing obesity.

  3. Onderzoek Location Based Marketing: Mobile = location = effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Huhn, A.E.; Khan, V.J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoekers van de NHTV (Internationaa Hoger Onderwijs Breda, Radboud Universiteit, DVJ Insights en Popai Benelux lieten consumenten in een virtuele supermarkt advertenties via de smartphone ontvangen wanneer men langs het geadverteerde product liep. De uitkomsten laten zien dat 'location based

  4. Inferring the Origin Locations of Tweets with Quantitative Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedhorsky, Reid; Culotta, Aron; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2014-01-01

    Social Internet content plays an increasingly critical role in many domains, including public health, disaster management, and politics. However, its utility is limited by missing geographic information; for example, fewer than 1.6% of Twitter messages ( tweets ) contain a geotag. We propose a scalable, content-based approach to estimate the location of tweets using a novel yet simple variant of gaussian mixture models. Further, because real-world applications depend on quantified uncertainty for such estimates, we propose novel metrics of accuracy, precision, and calibration, and we evaluate our approach accordingly. Experiments on 13 million global, comprehensively multi-lingual tweets show that our approach yields reliable, well-calibrated results competitive with previous computationally intensive methods. We also show that a relatively small number of training data are required for good estimates (roughly 30,000 tweets) and models are quite time-invariant (effective on tweets many weeks newer than the training set). Finally, we show that toponyms and languages with small geographic footprint provide the most useful location signals.

  5. A simulation-based Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA model to evaluate wind plants locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sameie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world is getting overpopulated and over polluted the human being is seeking to utilize new sources of energy that are cleaner, cheaper, and more accessible. Wind is one of these clean energy sources that is accessible everywhere on the planet earth. This source of energy cannot be stored for later use; therefore, environmental circumstances and geographical location of wind plants are crucial matters. This study proposes a model to decide on the optimum location for a wind farm among the demand area. To tackle the uncertainty related to the geographical position of the nominated location such as wind speed; altitude; mean temperature; and humidity; a simulation method is applied on the problem. Other factors such as the time that a plant is out of service and demand fluctuations also have been considered in the simulation phase. Moreover, a probability distribution function is calculated for the turbine power. Then Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA performs the selection between all the nominated locations for wind farm. The proposed model takes into account several important elements of the problems. Elements such as land cost; average power received from the wind blowing; demand point population etc. are considered at the same time to select the optimum location of wind plants. Finally, the model is applied on a real case in order to demonstrate its reliability and applicability.

  6. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  7. Geographic mobility advances careers: study of the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) program for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marsha R; Morahan, Page S; Dannels, Sharon A; McDade, Sharon A

    2013-11-01

    To explore whether geographic mobility is associated with career advancement of women in U.S. medical schools who are entering mid- to executive-level positions. Using an existing dataset of 351 participants in academic medicine who attended the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women (1996-2005) (adjusted to 345 participants in some analyses because data on initial faculty rank were missing), the authors conducted a quantitative study in 2009 to determine whether geographic mobility was associated with administrative promotion for those who relocated geographically (from employer while attending ELAM to employer at last job of record). Twenty-four percent of women (83/345) relocated geographically (movers) after attending ELAM. Moving had a positive association with career advancement (P = .001); odds for promotion were 168% higher for movers than for stayers [odds ratio Exp(β) = 2.684]. Movers attained higher administrative positions (P = .003), and more movers (60%) were promoted at the most recent job compared with stayers (40%) (P = .0001). Few movers changed city size; 70% already resided in large or urban cities where most medical schools are located. Age was not a barrier to mobility. Career advancement was not related to research reputation (National Institutes of Health grant award ranking) of participants' schools (either at time of attending ELAM or post-ELAM). Similar to findings outside academic medicine, 24% of women classified as geographic "movers" among midcareer faculty in medical schools attained career advantages. Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors underlying women's relocation decisions require additional study.

  8. Developing a workflow to identify inconsistencies in volunteered geographic information: a phenological case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality

  9. Developing a Workflow to Identify Inconsistencies in Volunteered Geographic Information: A Phenological Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Rosemartin, Alyssa; Gerst, Katharine L; Weltzin, Jake F

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in online information communication and mobile location-aware technologies have led to the production of large volumes of volunteered geographic information. Widespread, large-scale efforts by volunteers to collect data can inform and drive scientific advances in diverse fields, including ecology and climatology. Traditional workflows to check the quality of such volunteered information can be costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. However, identifying factors that can influence data quality, such as inconsistency, is crucial when these data are used in modeling and decision-making frameworks. Recently developed workflows use simple statistical approaches that assume that the majority of the information is consistent. However, this assumption is not generalizable, and ignores underlying geographic and environmental contextual variability that may explain apparent inconsistencies. Here we describe an automated workflow to check inconsistency based on the availability of contextual environmental information for sampling locations. The workflow consists of three steps: (1) dimensionality reduction to facilitate further analysis and interpretation of results, (2) model-based clustering to group observations according to their contextual conditions, and (3) identification of inconsistent observations within each cluster. The workflow was applied to volunteered observations of flowering in common and cloned lilac plants (Syringa vulgaris and Syringa x chinensis) in the United States for the period 1980 to 2013. About 97% of the observations for both common and cloned lilacs were flagged as consistent, indicating that volunteers provided reliable information for this case study. Relative to the original dataset, the exclusion of inconsistent observations changed the apparent rate of change in lilac bloom dates by two days per decade, indicating the importance of inconsistency checking as a key step in data quality

  10. Towards a theoretical determination of the geographical probability distribution of meteoroid impacts on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Sucerquia, Mario

    2018-06-01

    Tunguska and Chelyabinsk impact events occurred inside a geographical area of only 3.4 per cent of the Earth's surface. Although two events hardly constitute a statistically significant demonstration of a geographical pattern of impacts, their spatial coincidence is at least tantalizing. To understand if this concurrence reflects an underlying geographical and/or temporal pattern, we must aim at predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of meteoroid impacts on Earth. For this purpose we designed, implemented, and tested a novel numerical technique, the `Gravitational Ray Tracing' (GRT) designed to compute the relative impact probability (RIP) on the surface of any planet. GRT is inspired by the so-called ray-casting techniques used to render realistic images of complex 3D scenes. In this paper we describe the method and the results of testing it at the time of large impact events. Our findings suggest a non-trivial pattern of impact probabilities at any given time on the Earth. Locations at 60-90° from the apex are more prone to impacts, especially at midnight. Counterintuitively, sites close to apex direction have the lowest RIP, while in the antapex RIP are slightly larger than average. We present here preliminary maps of RIP at the time of Tunguska and Chelyabinsk events and found no evidence of a spatial or temporal pattern, suggesting that their coincidence was fortuitous. We apply the GRT method to compute theoretical RIP at the location and time of 394 large fireballs. Although the predicted spatio-temporal impact distribution matches marginally the observed events, we successfully predict their impact speed distribution.

  11. Querns and mills during Roman times at the northern frontier of the Roman Empire (Belgium, Northern France, Southern Netherlands, Western Germany: Unraveling geological and geographical provenances, a multidisciplinary research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibrecht Reniere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a multi-disciplinary provenance study of querns and millstones during the Roman period (1st-4th century CE in the northern part of the Roman Empire (provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania Inferior. Comparative petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis allowed an international team of archaeologists and geologists to identify the different raw materials used for the manufacturing of querns and millstones. As a result, (litho- stratigraphic assignments as well as geological-geographical provenances are suggested or corroborated for the broad spectrum of these natural geo-materials. We give evidence for the exploitation of at least seven different rock types. They include sedimentary rocks (fine- to coarse-grained quartzitic and arkosic sandstones, conglomerates, limestones and volcanic rocks (vesicular lavas derived from different geological strata in the following geological-geographical settings: the volcanic Eifel area (Pleistocene lava, the Ardennes Massif (Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks and the Paris and Northern Sea Basin (Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Furthermore we show that a large diversity existed within different productions (different types of hand-mills and mechanical powered mills and distribution patterns. This paper provides new data which will lead to new insights into the socio-economics of the local “Gallo-Roman” communities and into their networks within the northern Roman Empire.

  12. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  13. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  14. Nielsen PrimeLocation Web/Desktop: Assessing and GIS Mapping Market Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Nielsen PrimeLocation Web and Desktop Software Licensed for Internal Use only: Pop-Facts Demographics Database, Geographic Mapping Data Layers, Geo-Coding locations.

  15. An evaluation of the accuracy of modeled and computed streamflow time-series data for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and at a location upstream from Sardis, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Between July 2013 and June 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) made 10 streamflow measurements on the Ohio River about 1.5 miles (mi) downstream from the Hannibal Lock and Dam (near Hannibal, Ohio) and 11 streamflow measurements near the USGS Sardis gage (station number 03114306) located approximately 2.4 mi upstream from Sardis, Ohio. The measurement results were used to assess the accuracy of modeled or computed instantaneous streamflow time series created and supplied by the USGS, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and National Weather Service (NWS) for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and (or) at the USGS streamgage. Hydraulic or hydrologic models were used to create the modeled time series; index-velocity methods or gate-opening ratings coupled with hydropower operation data were used to create the computed time series. The time step of the various instantaneous streamflow time series ranged from 15 minutes to 24 hours (once-daily values at 12:00 Coordinated Universal Time [UTC]). The 15-minute time-series data, computed by the USGS for the Sardis gage, also were downsampled to 1-hour and 24-hour time steps to permit more direct comparisons with other streamflow time series.

  16. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  17. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  18. Development of the OCRWM transportation geographic information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, M. III; McGuinn, E.J.; Osborne, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for disposing of the nation's high-level radioactive waste. Current plans call for OCRWM to ship commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 77 individual reactor sites to a central facility for disposal. The Transportation Geographic Information System (TGIS) is a valuable tool in planning for the SNF shipments and communicating with the public regarding the shipments. The TGIS consists of a geographic information system (GIS) combined with a set of databases that provide data on specific geographic areas, transportation networks, and point locations. Planning activities may include analyzing possible routing options or criteria, highlighting route-specific attributes such as the location of culturally sensitive areas, providing route-specific data such as accident statistics, determining the affected population density along a route to support risk assessment activities, or providing emergency response information such as responder locations and hospitals along the proposed routes. The TGIS is a useful communication tool in helping to address the public's concern over how the shipments will be managed, particularly in the area of route selection by providing graphic portrayals of potential routes in their true geographic contexts

  19. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  20. Geographically weighted regression model on poverty indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, I.; Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Muslich

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we applied geographically weighted regression (GWR) for analyzing the poverty in Central Java. We consider Gaussian Kernel as weighted function. The GWR uses the diagonal matrix resulted from calculating kernel Gaussian function as a weighted function in the regression model. The kernel weights is used to handle spatial effects on the data so that a model can be obtained for each location. The purpose of this paper is to model of poverty percentage data in Central Java province using GWR with Gaussian kernel weighted function and to determine the influencing factors in each regency/city in Central Java province. Based on the research, we obtained geographically weighted regression model with Gaussian kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. We found that percentage of population working as farmers, population growth rate, percentage of households with regular sanitation, and BPJS beneficiaries are the variables that affect the percentage of poverty in Central Java province. In this research, we found the determination coefficient R2 are 68.64%. There are two categories of district which are influenced by different of significance factors.

  1. [Differentiation of geographic biovariants of smallpox virus by PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkin, I V; Babkina, I N

    2010-01-01

    Comparative analysis of amino acid and nucleotides sequences of ORFs located in extended segments of the terminal variable regions in variola virus genome detected a promising locus for viral genotyping according to the geographic origin. This is ORF O1L of VARV. The primers were calculated for synthesis of this ORF fragment by PCR, which makes it possible to distinguish South America-Western Africa genotype from other VARV strains. Subsequent RFLP analysis reliably differentiated Asian strains from African strains (except Western Africa isolates). This method has been tested using 16 VARV strains from various geographic regions. The developed approach is simple, fast and reliable.

  2. Geographic segmentation of users and its use in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Blaž

    2015-01-01

    In modern web advertising the goal is not only deliver an ad to a broad number of customers, but to target particular customers who are more likely to be interested in content. If the user location is known, we can estimate click on ad based on previous visitors. The company Zemanta recognized the need for geographic audience segmentation, and they have invited students to solve their challenge. The goal was geographic segmentation of web pages visitors based on the ZIP code they come from a...

  3. A geographical analysis of the Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders; Bohlin, Folke; Hektor, Bo; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2000-01-01

    The geographical variation in Swedish wood fuel market characteristics for the district heating sector has been studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and cross-sectional Tobit analysis. The results indicate that local availability and competition for wood fuels influence the wood fuel consumption at inland heating plants. The factors affecting the decision to use wood fuel at heating plants close to seaports, however, were not captured by the model, suggesting that coastal location reduces dependency on the local wood fuel market. The effects of changes in local wood fuel availability on wood fuel use by an inland heating plant are presented and discussed

  4. Analysis of 14C and 13C in teeth provides precise birth dating and clues to geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Spalding, K L

    2011-06-15

    The identification of human bodies in situations when there are no clues as to the person's identity from circumstantial data, poses a difficult problem to the investigators. The determination of age and sex of the body can be crucial in order to limit the search to individuals that are a possible match. We analyzed the proportion of bomb pulse derived carbon-14 ((14)C) incorporated in the enamel of teeth from individuals from different geographical locations. The 'bomb pulse' refers to a significant increase in (14)C levels in the atmosphere caused by above ground test detonations of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963). By comparing (14)C levels in enamel with (14)C atmospheric levels systematically recorded over time, high precision birth dating of modern biological material is possible. Above ground nuclear bomb testing was largely restricted to a couple of locations in the northern hemisphere, producing differences in atmospheric (14)C levels at various geographical regions, particularly in the early phase. Therefore, we examined the precision of (14)C birth dating of enamel as a function of time of formation and geographical location. We also investigated the use of the stable isotope (13)C as an indicator of geographical origin of an individual. Dental enamel was isolated from 95 teeth extracted from 84 individuals to study the precision of the (14)C method along the bomb spike. For teeth formed before 1955 (N=17), all but one tooth showed negative Δ(14)C values. Analysis of enamel from teeth formed during the rising part of the bomb-spike (1955-1963, N=12) and after the peak (>1963, N=66) resulted in an average absolute date of birth estimation error of 1.9±1.4 and 1.3±1.0 years, respectively. Geographical location of an individual had no adverse effect on the precision of year of birth estimation using radiocarbon dating. In 46 teeth, measurement of (13)C was also performed. Scandinavian teeth showed a substantially greater depression in

  5. Location | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  6. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  7. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  8. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen

    1992-01-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  9. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises

  10. Influenza vaccination coverage estimates in the fee-for service Medicare beneficiary population 2006 - 2016: Using population-based administrative data to support a geographic based near real-time tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Angela K; Warnock, Rob; Brereton, Stephaeno; McKean, Stephen; Wernecke, Michael; Chu, Steve; Kelman, Jeffrey A

    2018-04-11

    Older adults are at great risk of developing serious complications from seasonal influenza. We explore vaccination coverage estimates in the Medicare population through the use of administrative claims data and describe a tool designed to help shape outreach efforts and inform strategies to help raise influenza vaccination rates. This interactive mapping tool uses claims data to compare vaccination levels between geographic (i.e., state, county, zip code) and demographic (i.e., race, age) groups at different points in a season. Trends can also be compared across seasons. Utilization of this tool can assist key actors interested in prevention - medical groups, health plans, hospitals, and state and local public health authorities - in supporting strategies for reaching pools of unvaccinated beneficiaries where general national population estimates of coverage are less informative. Implementing evidence-based tools can be used to address persistent racial and ethnic disparities and prevent a substantial number of influenza cases and hospitalizations.

  11. Louisiana Heliports, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [heliports_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 154 Louisiana heliports. The attributes include name, city, state, county (sic), county code (unknown...

  12. Louisiana Airports, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997)[airports_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 20 Louisiana airports. The attributes include name, address, city, county (sic), state, phone,...

  13. US Coast Guard Stations in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USCG [coast_guard_stations_USCG_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of eight US Coast Guard stations in Louisiana. The attributes include name, address, latitude (NAD27),...

  14. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom (city),...

  15. Oyster leases in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1997) [oyster_leases_USACE_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set indicates the locations of oyster leases in Louisiana. The lease areas should be polygons, however, the source data has very poor topology including...

  16. Seabird Nesting Colonies in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LSU (1997) [seabirds_LSU_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for seabird nesting colonies derived from GPS locations in the field. The attributes of the habitat points are based upon visual assessment...

  17. Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997 – 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C.; Grau, Lauretta E.; Carver, H. Wayne; Kinzly, Mark; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths (“overdoses”) in CT over an 11-year period. Methods We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. Results Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. Conclusions The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts. PMID:21131140

  18. Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Grau, Lauretta E; Carver, H Wayne; Kinzly, Mark; Heimer, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths ("overdoses") in CT over an 11-year period. We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Urethroplasty: a geographic disparity in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Frank N; Salmon, Scott A; Smith, Aaron C; Santucci, Richard A

    2012-06-01

    Urethroplasty is the gold standard for urethral strictures but its geographic prevalence throughout the United States is unknown. We analyzed where and how often urethroplasty was being performed in the United States compared to other treatment modalities for urethral stricture. De-identified case logs from the American Board of Urology were collected from certifying/recertifying urologists from 2004 to 2009. Results were categorized by ZIP codes to determine the geographic distribution. Case logs from 3,877 urologists (2,533 recertifying and 1,344 certifying) were reviewed including 1,836 urethroplasties, 13,080 urethrotomies and 19,564 urethral dilations. The proportion of urethroplasty varied widely among states (range 0% to 17%). The ratio of urethroplasty-to-urethrotomy/dilation also varied widely from state to state, but overall 1 urethroplasty was performed for every 17 urethrotomies or dilations performed. Certifying urologists were 3 times as likely to perform urethroplasty as recertifying urologists (12% vs 4%, respectively, pUrethroplasties were performed more commonly in states with residency programs (mean 5% vs 3%). Some states reported no urethroplasties during the observation period (Vermont, North Dakota, South Dakota, Maine and West Virginia). To our knowledge this is the first report on the geographic distribution of urethroplasty for urethral stricture disease. There are large variations in the rates of urethroplasty performed throughout the United States, indicating a disparity of care, especially for those regions in which few or no urethroplasties were reported. This disparity may decrease with time as younger certifying urologists are performing 3 times as many urethroplasties as older recertifying urologists. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  1. Virtual Globe Games for Geographic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Ahlqvist

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual, online maps and globes allow for volunteered geographic information to capitalize on users as sensors and generate unprecedented access to information resources and services. These new "Web 2.0" applications will probably dominate development and use of virtual globes and maps in the near future. We present an experimental platform that integrates an existing virtual globe interface with added functionality as follows; an interactive layer on top of the existing map that support real time creation and manipulation of spatial interaction objects. These objects, together with the existing information delivered through the virtual globe, form a game board that can be used for educational purposes.

  2. Enhancing Location-Related Hydrogeological Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kmoch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the corpus of three geoscientific journals to investigate if there are enough locational references in research articles to apply a geographical search method, such as the example of New Zealand. Based on all available abstracts and all freely available papers of the “New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics”, the “New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research”, and the “Journal of Hydrology, New Zealand”, we searched title, abstracts, and full texts for place name occurrences that match records from the official Land Information New Zealand (LINZ gazetteer. We generated ISO standard compliant metadata records for each article including the spatial references and made them available in a public catalogue service. This catalogue can be queried for articles based on authors, titles, keywords, topics, and spatial reference. We visualize the results in a map to show which area the research articles are about, and how much and how densely geographic space is described through these geoscientific research articles by mapping mentioned place names by their geographic locations. We outlined the methodology and technical framework for the geo-referencing of the journal articles and the platform design for this knowledge inventory. The results indicate that the use of well-crafted abstracts for journal articles with carefully chosen place names of relevance for the article provides a guideline for geographically referencing unstructured information like journal articles and reports in order to make such resources discoverable through geographical queries. Lastly, this approach can actively support integrated holistic assessment of water resources and support decision making.

  3. Database Aspects of Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    in the databases underlying high-quality services. Several integrated representations - which capture different aspects of the same infrastructure - are needed. Further, all other content that can be related to geographical space must be integrated with the infrastructure representations. The chapter describes...... the general concepts underlying one approach to data modeling for location-based services. The chapter also covers techniques that are needed to keep a database for location-based services up to date with the reality it models. As part of this, caching is touched upon briefly. The notion of linear referencing......Adopting a data management perspective on location-based services, this chapter explores central challenges to data management posed by location-based services. Because service users typically travel in, and are constrained to, transportation infrastructures, such structures must be represented...

  4. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  5. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skog Lars

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  6. Open Location Management in Automated Warehousing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yugang; Koster, René

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA warehouse needs to have sufficient open locations to be able to store incoming shipments of various sizes. In combination with ongoing load retrievals open locations gradually spread over the storage area. Unfavorable positions of open locations negatively impact the average load retrieval times. This paper presents a new method to manage these open locations such that the average system travel time for processing a block of storage and retrieval jobs in an automated warehousing...

  7. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...... that illustrate an alternative location-performative paradigm: Meredith Warner's Lost/Found knitting series and Etter and Schecht's Melodious Walkabout. In both examples, the artist's hand becomes the intermediary between alien and location. Thus, by exploring how wayfinding can be a poetically situated...... performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site...

  8. Internet Geo-Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    INTERNET GEO-LOCATION DUKE UNIVERSITY DECEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...REPORT TYPE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) MAY 2014 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTERNET GEO-LOCATION 5a. CONTRACT...of SpeedTest servers that are used by end users to measure the speed of their Internet connection. The servers log the IP address and the location

  9. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  10. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  11. The Importance of Geographical Indications in Regional Tourism Development: The Case of Çanakkale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefik Okan Mercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many products unique to Turkey, the origins of which are recognized with the name of region. Turkey, its geographical location and climatic zone having three different soil structure and cultural heritage and human capital due to a rich variety of geographical product has the potential. Features of geographical environment revealed  this product wealth, this product also requires the protection of geographical indications through. In this study, in Çanakkale who have registered geographical indication products, to examine the importance of the development of regional tourism and how these products can be assessed on a tourism product relevant institutions/organizations are intended to be of the opinion. According to the findings, the general opinion of Canakkale geographical indication products are properly and effectively with the regional tourism promotion and marketing work done in the development of a tool is that it will undertake the task. 

  12. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  20. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...