WorldWideScience

Sample records for times suggested retail

  1. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  2. Manufacturer Suggested Retail Prices, Loss Aversion and Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabrizi, Simona; Lippert, Steffen; Puppe, Clemens; Rosenkranz, S.

    2016-01-01

    We study a model of vertical relations with imperfect retail competition in which a fraction of the consumers display reference-dependent demand with respect to the manufacturer’s suggested retail price. We demonstrate that in equilibrium the suggestion will either be undercut or complied with by

  3. Part-time labour in retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Thurik, Roy; Wijst, Nico

    1984-01-01

    textabstractRetailers have to deal with a fluctuating demand for labor. The use of part-time employees is one of their instruments to cope with these fluctuations. This article gives theoretical considerations regarding the use of part-time labor in the retail trade and empirical evidence regarding the influence of its use on labor productivity.

  4. Part-time labour in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); N. van der Wijst (Nico)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractRetailers have to deal with a fluctuating demand for labor. The use of part-time employees is one of their instruments to cope with these fluctuations. This article gives theoretical considerations regarding the use of part-time labor in the retail trade and empirical evidence regarding

  5. The time has come for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, D.O.; Achinger, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Retail wheeling, the transmission and distribution of electric power for end users, fosters competition and promotes the efficient use of resources. Access to electric-utility transmission and distribution systems would establish competitive electric markets by permitting retail customers to obtain the lowest cost for energy which would meet their specific needs. Among electric utilities and their customers, the idea of allowing market forces to attract supply and set prices is a current controversy. To counter the anticompetitive effects of recent mergers in the wholesale market, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has mandated open transmission access for wholesale customers. However, the FERC denied access to retail customers and qualifying facilities (QF) in both its Northeast Utilities (FERC case No. EC-90-1 90) and PacifiCorp (U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for D.C., 89-1333) decisions. Retail wheeling will benefit both consumers and producers. The ability of large customers to purchase power from the lowest cost sources and have it transmitted to their facilities, will save American industrial and commercial customers at least $15 billion annually. The Increased efficiency resulting from competition would also reduce residential electric bills. Through retail wheeling, independent power producers can market their capacity to a greater customer base, and traditional utilities will benefit from access to other utilities markets with the more efficient utilities prospering. Retail wheeling will, therefore, reward efficient utilities and encourage inefficient utilities to improve

  6. Institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying public policy responsibilities in a retail competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of retail competition in the US electric power industry places at risk various environmental and social programmes such as demand side management, low income programmes and renewable energy. This paper presents institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying these kinds of public policy responsibilities in a disintegrated industry. Suggestions include customer owned electricity franchises, electricity facility siting marketplaces, electric industry foresight councils, model systems programmes, integrated social services programmes, collaborative electric service programmes, ISO standards and portfolio standards. These recommendations would be funded by a national transmission charge, a state level distribution charge and franchise level sales taxes, to be paid by transmission organizations, distribution organizations and electricity consumers, respectively. (author)

  7. Real-time video analysis for retail stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ehtesham; Maurya, Avinash K.

    2015-03-01

    With the advancement in video processing technologies, we can capture subtle human responses in a retail store environment which play decisive role in the store management. In this paper, we present a novel surveillance video based analytic system for retail stores targeting localized and global traffic estimate. Development of an intelligent system for human traffic estimation in real-life poses a challenging problem because of the variation and noise involved. In this direction, we begin with a novel human tracking system by an intelligent combination of motion based and image level object detection. We demonstrate the initial evaluation of this approach on available standard dataset yielding promising result. Exact traffic estimate in a retail store require correct separation of customers from service providers. We present a role based human classification framework using Gaussian mixture model for this task. A novel feature descriptor named graded colour histogram is defined for object representation. Using, our role based human classification and tracking system, we have defined a novel computationally efficient framework for two types of analytics generation i.e., region specific people count and dwell-time estimation. This system has been extensively evaluated and tested on four hours of real-life video captured from a retail store.

  8. Wealth Transfers from Implementing Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01

    Adoption of real-time electricity pricing %u2014 retail prices that vary hourly to reflect changing wholesale prices %u2014 removes existing cross-subsidies to those customers that consume disproportionately more when wholesale prices are highest. If their losses are substantial, these customers are likely to oppose RTP initiatives unless there is a supplemental program to offset their loss. Using data on a random sample of 636 industrial and commercial customers in southern California, I sho...

  9. Influence of wholesale lamb marketing options and merchandising styles on retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Martin, A M; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1997-01-01

    Lamb carcasses (n = 94) from five packing plants, selected to vary in weight class and fat thickness, were used to determine retail yield and labor requirements of wholesale lamb fabrication. Carcasses were allotted randomly according to weight class to be fabricated as whole carcasses (n = 20), three-piece boxes (n = 22), or subprimals (n = 52). Processing times (seconds) were recorded and wholesale and retail weights (kilograms) were obtained to calculate retail yield. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in retail cuts or boneless or semi-boneless retail cuts. Retail yield for subprimal lamb legs decreased from 85.3 +/- .6% for bone-in to 68.0 +/- .7% for a completely boneless retail product. Correspondingly, processing times increased from 126.1 +/- 5.4 s to 542.0 +/- 19.2 s for bone-in and boneless legs, respectively. For all subprimals, retail yield percentage tended to decrease and total processing time increase as cuts were fabricated to boneless or semi-boneless end points compared with a bone-in end point. Percentage retail yield did not differ (P > .05) among whole carcass, three-piece box, and subprimal marketing methods. Total processing time was shorter for subprimals (P < .05) than for the other two marketing methods.

  10. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  11. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-821] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from...

  12. Real-Time Pricing Decision Making for Retailer-Wholesaler in Smart Grid Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeming Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time pricing DSM (demand side management is widely used to dynamically change or shift the electricity consumption in the smart grid. In this paper, a game decision making scheme is proposed in the smart grid with DSM. The interaction between two retailers and their wholesaler is modeled as a two-stage game model. Considering the competition between two retailers, two different game models are developed in terms of the different action order between retailers and their wholesaler. Through analyzing the equilibrium revenues of the retailers for different situations we find that although the wholesaler expects to decentralize certain management powers to the retailers, it has retained the right to change the rules of the game and frequently reneged on the promises. More specifically, the law should ensure that any change of the revenue-sharing formula must go through certain legal procedures. Imposing legal restrictions on the wholesaler’s discretionary policy suggests that the time-inconsistency problem is mitigated. Numerical simulation shows the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  13. Retail yield and fabrication times for veal as influenced by purchasing options and merchandising styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, M S; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1998-06-01

    Twenty-nine selected styles of subprimals or sections of veal were obtained from a commercial facility to assist in the development of a support program for retailers. They were fabricated into bone-in or boneless retail cuts and associated components by trained meat cutters. Each style selected (n = 6) was used to generate mean retail yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from wholesale and retail weights and processing times. Means and standard errors for veal ribs consisting of five different styles (n = 30) concluded that style #2, 7-rib 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm), had the lowest percentage of total retail yield (P < .05) owing to the greatest percentage of bone. Furthermore, rib style #2 required the longest total processing time (P < .05). Rib styles #3, 7-rib chop-ready, and #5, 6-rib chop ready, yielded the greatest percentage of total retail yield and also had the shortest total processing time (P < .05). Within veal loins, style #2, 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm) loin kidney fat in, had the greatest percentage fat (P < .05). Loin styles #2 and #3, 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm) loin special trimmed, generated more lean and fat trimmings and bone, resulting in lower percentage of total retail yields than loin style #1, 0 (0 cm) x 1 (2.5 cm) loin special trimmed (P < .05). Results indicated that bone-in subprimals and sections required more processing time if fabricated into a boneless end point. In addition, as the number of different retail cuts increased, processing times also increased.

  14. Subprimal purchasing and merchandising decisions for pork: relationship to retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1996-01-01

    Boxed pork was obtained to represent four different purchase specifications (different anatomical separation locations and[or] external fat trim levels) common in the pork industry to conduct a study of retail yields and labor requirements. Bone-in loins (n = 180), boneless loins (n = 94), and Boston butts (n = 148) were assigned randomly to fabrication styles within subprimals. When comparing cutting styles within subprimals, it was evident that cutting style affected percentage of retail yield and cutting time. When more bone-in cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 92.80 +/- .61 to 95.28 +/- .45%, and processing times ranged from 222.57 +/- 10.13 to 318.99 +/- 7.85 s, from the four suppliers. When more boneless cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 71.12 +/- 1.10 to 77.92 +/- .77% and processing times ranged from 453.49 +/- 8.95 to 631.09 +/- 15.04 s from the different loins. Comparing boneless to bone-in cuts from bone-in loins resulted in lower yields and required greater processing times. Significant variations in yields and times were found within cutting styles. These differences seemed to have been the result of variation in supplier fat trim level and anatomical separation (primarily scribe length).

  15. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of the Antidumping Duty... preliminary results of review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  16. "Socioeconomic inequalities in children's accessibility to food retailing: Examining the roles of mobility and time".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, Léa; Buliung, Ron; Wilson, Kathi; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-03-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity rates in Canada are at concerning levels, more apparently so for individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Accessibility to food establishments likely influences patterns of food consumption, a contributor to body weight. Previous work has found that households living in lower income neighbourhoods tend to have greater geographical accessibility to unhealthy food establishments and lower accessibility to healthy food stores. This study contributes to the literature on neighbourhood inequalities in accessibility to healthy foods by explicitly focusing on children, an understudied population, and by incorporating mobility and time into metrics of accessibility. Accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food retailing is measured within children's activity spaces using Road Network and Activity Location Buffering methods. Weekday vs. weekend accessibility to food establishments is then compared. The results suggest that children attending lower SES schools had almost two times the density of fast food establishments and marginally higher supermarket densities in their activity spaces. Children attending higher SES schools also had much larger activity spaces. All children had higher supermarket densities during weekdays than on weekend days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wealth Transfers Among Large Customers from Implementing Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of real-time electricity pricing — retail prices that vary hourly to reflect changing wholesale prices — removes existing cross-subsidies to those customers that consume disproportionately more when wholesale prices are highest. If their losses are substantial, these customers are likely to oppose RTP initiatives unless there is a supplemental program to offset their loss. Using data on a sample of 1142 large industrial and commercial customers in northern California, I show that RTP...

  18. PEMODELAN INTEGRASI NEARLY REAL TIME DATA WAREHOUSE DENGAN SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE UNTUK MENUNJANG SISTEM INFORMASI RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Dwi Jendra Sulastra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Updates the data in the data warehouse is not traditionally done every transaction. Retail information systems require the latest data and can be accessed from anywhere for business analysis needs. Therefore, in this study will be made data warehouse model that is able to produce the information near real time, and can be accessed from anywhere by end users application. Modeling design integration of nearly real time data warehouse (NRTDWH with a service oriented architecture (SOA to support the retail information system is done in two stages. In the first stage will be designed modeling NRTDWH using Change Data Capture (CDC based Transaction Log. In the second stage will be designed modeling NRTDWH integration with SOA-based web service. Tests conducted by a simulation test applications. Test applications used retail information systems, web-based web service client, desktop, and mobile. Results of this study were (1 ETL-based CDC captures changes to the source table and then store it in the database NRTDWH with the help of a scheduler; (2 Middleware web service makes 6 service based on data contained in the database NRTDWH, and each of these services accessible and implemented by the web service client.

  19. Optimal (R, Q) policy and pricing for two-echelon supply chain with lead time and retailer's service-level incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, M.; Naghavi, M. S.; Ghahghaei, A.

    2018-03-01

    Many studies focus on inventory systems to analyze different real-world situations. This paper considers a two-echelon supply chain that includes one warehouse and one retailer with stochastic demand and an up-to-level policy. The retailer's lead time includes the transportation time from the warehouse to the retailer that is unknown to the retailer. On the other hand, the warehouse is unaware of retailer's service level. The relationship between the retailer and the warehouse is modeled based on the Stackelberg game with incomplete information. Moreover, their relationship is presented when the warehouse and the retailer reveal their private information using the incentive strategies. The optimal inventory and pricing policies are obtained using an algorithm based on bi-level programming. Numerical examples, including sensitivity analysis of some key parameters, will compare the results between the Stackelberg models. The results show that information sharing is more beneficial to the warehouse rather than the retailer.

  20. 16 CFR 233.3 - Advertising retail prices which have been established or suggested by manufacturers (or other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturer; direct mail advertising; distribution of promotional material or price lists designed for display... deceptive practice. Consider the following example: (h) Manufacturer Roe, who makes Brand X pens and sells them throughout the United States, advertises his pen in a national magazine as having a “Suggested...

  1. Autolysis: a plausible finding suggestive of long ESD procedure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Yong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Chae, Yang-Seok

    2012-04-01

    Autolysis is the enzymatic digestion of cells by the action of its own enzymes, and it mostly occurs in dying or dead cells. It has previously been suggested that prolonged procedure time could lead to autolytic changes from the periphery of the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens. Recently, the authors have experienced a case of autolysis; due to the presence of ulcer, fibrosis, and frequent bleeding from the cut surface, it took 6 hours to complete the resection. More than halfway through the resection; bluish purple discoloration of the part of the dissected flap where the dissection was initiated was noticed. Histologic examination of this site showed diffuse distortion of epithelial lining and cellular architectures along with loss of cell components, compatible with autolysis. Because autolysis could theoretically pose a potential problem regarding the evaluation of resection margin, endoscopists and pathologists should communicate with each other for a reliable pathologic decision.

  2. Local Retailers Response to Retail Internationalisation:Malaysia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Poh Ling

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the entirety of grocery retail internationalisation, and the happening in the Malaysian Grocery Retail. The results of a field study suggest that local retailers were generally optimistic about the industry in the next ten years, and the examination on their strategic behaviour in the face of grocery retail internationalisation suggests that local retailers have learned and understood the need for modernised strategies in their strategic posture as well as their competitiv...

  3. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained as to the......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived...

  4. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  5. The State of Online Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Nabil; Rajan, Murli; Sebastianelli, Rose

    2003-01-01

    Benchmarks online retailing transactions against critical factors that impact online retailing. Findings suggest several areas that e-retailers should target for improvement, including the speed of home page loading, ability to translate into multiple languages, capabilities of search engines, security policies display, payment options, minimum…

  6. Retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time in a supply chain for deteriorating items with up-stream and down-stream trade credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Gour Chandra

    2015-09-01

    In practice, the supplier often offers the retailers a trade credit period and the retailer in turn provides a trade credit period to her/his customer to stimulate sales and reduce inventory. From the retailer's perspective, granting trade credit not only increases sales and revenue but also increases opportunity cost (i.e., the capital opportunity loss during credit period) and default risk (i.e., the percentage that the customer will not be able to pay off his/her debt obligations). Hence, how to determine credit period is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to increase retailer's profitability. Also, the selling items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, pharmaceuticals and volatile liquids deteriorate continuously due to evaporation, obsolescence and spoilage. In this paper, we propose an economic order quantity model for the retailer where (1) the supplier provides an up-stream trade credit and the retailer also offers a down-stream trade credit, (2) the retailer's down-stream trade credit to the buyer not only increases sales and revenue but also opportunity cost and default risk, and (3) the selling items are perishable. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the retailer's optimal replenishment decisions under the supply chain management. We then show that the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time not only exist but also are unique. We deduce some previously published results of other researchers as special cases. Finally, we use some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results.

  7. STUDY ON RETAIL BRAND AWARENESS IN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan Cristian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, together with other behavioural indicators (sympathy, trust, image, satisfaction or loyalty, is one of the main vectors that has an essential contribution to the outline of brand equity in general and to that of retail brand, in particular. The perception upon these indicators must be taken into consideration by production, service or retail companies in order to be able to identify their position on target markets, and in order to be able to create an adequate strategy that would help them reach the desired positioning. The aim of this paper is, on one hand, to reveal both the dimensions of brand awareness, and the relationship between these and consumers brand perception and, on the other hand, to offer a suitable instrument to measure awareness level of various retail chains. Questioning of almost 4.000 consumers indicates a significant awareness of the retailers that have been on the selected market for a longer period of time.

  8. The Street Vendors of Bangkok: Alternatives to Indoor Retailers at a Time of Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: During an economic crisis, consumers will use different techniques to make their money go as far as possible: More carefully comparing prices at point of sale locations, bringing out the coins they previously left unused in saving banks, switching to lower cost options and choosing to shop in less convenient locations in order to find discounts. One such option is to use street vendors rather than regular indoor retailers. Street vendors can provide cheaper goods because, i...

  9. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat, pig tongues and hearts at the retail level in the Czech Republic detected by real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Lorencova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis is the third most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union and Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species causing human infections. Pigs are assumed to be the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica with the presence of bacteria mainly in the tonsils and intestinal content. Undercooked pork and pork products have been suggested as the primary source of human yersiniosis. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in foodstuffs including pork products are very limited. A molecular based method (real time PCR targeting the ompF gene (detection of Yersinia genus and the ail gene (a chromosomally located virulence marker of Y. enterocolitica was used to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in minced meat and edible pork offal at the retail level in the Czech Republic. A total of 50 pig tongues, 50 pig hearts, and 93 samples of minced meat containing pork were purchased at nine retail outlets in Brno. High detection rates of Yersinia spp. were found in all types of samples (pig tongues, 80.0%; pig hearts, 40.0%; and minced meat, 55.9%. The highest prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was found in pig tongues (40.0%, followed by pig hearts (18.0% and minced meat samples (17.2%. Although from the point of view of food safety the merely molecular detection of DNA of the pathogenic bacteria could represent a false positive result, our results indicate the presence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in raw pork products at the retail level in the Czech Republic, which may pose a risk of consumer infection. Sufficient heat treatment and prevention of cross-contamination during preparation of food in the kitchen should be recommended.

  10. Effects of retail style or food service style packaging type and storage time on sensory characteristics of bacon manufactured from commercially sourced pork bellies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Bohrer, B M; Holmer, S F; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-06-01

    Objectives were to characterize differences in pork bellies that were stored frozen for different durations prior to processing and characterize sensory properties of the bacon derived from those bellies when stored in either retail or food service style packaging. Bellies (n = 102) were collected from 4 different time periods, fresh bellies (never frozen) and bellies frozen for 2, 5, or 7 mo, and manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Food service bacon was packaged in oxygen-permeable polyvinyl lined boxes layered on wax-covered lined paper and blast frozen (-33 °C) for 45 or 90 d after slicing. Retail bacon was vacuum-packaged in retail packages and refrigerated (2 °C) in the dark for 60 or 120 d after slicing. At the end of respective storage times after slicing, bacon was analyzed for sensory attributes and lipid oxidation. Off-flavor and oxidized odor of bacon increased (P food service packaged bacon from frozen bellies, but was unchanged (P ≥ 0.07) with time in food service packaged bacon from fresh bellies. Lipid oxidation was also unchanged (P ≥ 0.21) over time in retail packaged bacon, with the exception of bellies frozen for 5 mo, which was increased from day 0 to day 90. Overall, off-flavor, oxidized odor, and lipid oxidation increased as storage time after processing increased. Freezing bellies before processing may exacerbate lipid oxidation as storage time after processing was extended. Bacon can be packaged and managed several different ways before it reaches the consumer. This research simulated food service (frozen) and retail packaged (refrigerated) bacon over a range of storage times after slicing. Off-flavor and oxidized odor increased as storage time after processing increased in both packaging types. Lipid oxidation increased as storage time after slicing increased to a greater extent in food service packaging. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. A restructuring agenda for developing competitive retail electric markets that is based on a low-cost, real-time, smart-kilowatt-hour meter adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasek, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes six agenda items that should expedite a politically smooth transition into a most efficient economically viable market-driven public power system. The agenda would introduce: the virtual marketplace for retail electric power, smart meters, smart meter readers, near-real-time load balancing and load apportionment, advanced supply and demand or commodity-style pricing, and reliability metering

  12. Retailer licensing and tobacco display compliance: are some retailers more likely to flout regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Rae; Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Walsberger, Scott; Tang, Anita; Chapman, Kathy; Egger, Sam

    2017-03-01

    To assess retailer compliance with a licensing scheme requiring tobacco retailers to list their business details with the government, to examine whether listed retailers are more likely to comply with a point-of-sale (POS) display ban and other in-store retailing laws and to explore variations in compliance between different retailer types and locations. An audit of 1739 retailers in New South Wales, Australia, was used to assess compliance with tobacco retailing legislation. Auditors actively searched for and audited unlisted retailers and all listed retailers in 122 metropolitan and regional postcodes. Multivariate generalised linear regression models were used to examine associations between compliance and retailer type, remoteness and demographic characteristics (socioeconomic level, proportion of population under 18 years and proportion born in Australia). One unlisted tobacco retailer was identified for every 12.6 listed tobacco retailers. Unlisted retailers were significantly more likely than listed retailers to breach in-store retailing laws (plaws was only 73.4%. Retailers in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had lower compliance than those in high socioeconomic areas. Some tobacco retailers did not list their business details with the government as required, even though there was no financial cost to do so. Unlisted retailers were more likely to violate in-store regulations. The results suggest licensing schemes can be useful for providing a list of retailers, thus facilitating enforcement, but require a system to search for, and respond to, unlisted/unlicensed retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem chemistry

  14. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  15. Just-in-Time Retail Distribution : A Systems Perspective on Cross-Docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Paul; Danhof, Hans W.; Wortmann, J.(Hans) C.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-docking is a just-in-time strategy for distribution logistics. It is aimed at reducing inventory levels and distribution lead times by creating a seamless flow of products from suppliers to customers. Prior supply chain literature has argued that creating such a seamless product flows requires

  16. Adolescence and the path to maturity in global retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, Bart; Ellickson, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses retail modernization in the developed and developing world using data from the grocery trade and internet retailing across a global set of nations. Retail modernization leads to more variety, lower prices, and more time savings for consumers relative to a traditional retailing

  17. Reconsidering Community-based Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Rebecca; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    One of the areas with great potential for economic, social and environmental benefit is community-based retailing. The concept of community based retailing can incorporate a number of different tenets. We suggest that it is retailing that is based close to the community it serves, usually within the town or village centre rather than out-of-town locations, and which is composed of a diverse range of small and medium sized business that are often independently or co-operatively owned. These co...

  18. Retail Consulting Class: Experiential Learning Platform to Develop Future Retail Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjoo; Polidan, Mary

    2018-01-01

    The retail industry is undergoing a significant transformation. Factors such as technological advancement and evolving consumer demands have forced companies to rethink their traditional approaches to retail. Retailers have since embraced data-driven strategies with real-time implementation to stay relevant in this complex, ever-changing industry.…

  19. Geospatial Analytics in Retail Site Selection and Sales Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Choo-Yee; Ho, Chiung Ching; Yee, Hui Jia; Matsah, Wan Razali

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that certain features from geography, demography, trade area, and environment can play a vital role in retail site selection, largely due to the impact they asserted on retail performance. Although the relevant features could be elicited by domain experts, determining the optimal feature set can be intractable and labor-intensive exercise. The challenges center around (1) how to determine features that are important to a particular retail business and (2) how to estimate retail sales performance given a new location? The challenges become apparent when the features vary across time. In this light, this study proposed a nonintervening approach by employing feature selection algorithms and subsequently sales prediction through similarity-based methods. The results of prediction were validated by domain experts. In this study, data sets from different sources were transformed and aggregated before an analytics data set that is ready for analysis purpose could be obtained. The data sets included data about feature location, population count, property type, education status, and monthly sales from 96 branches of a telecommunication company in Malaysia. The finding suggested that (1) optimal retail performance can only be achieved through fulfillment of specific location features together with the surrounding trade area characteristics and (2) similarity-based method can provide solution to retail sales prediction.

  20. Implementing a Real-Time Suggestion Service in a Library Discovery Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pennell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of an effort to improve user interactions with authority data in its online catalog, the UNC Chapel Hill Libraries have developed and implemented a system for providing real-time query suggestions from records found within its catalog. The system takes user input as it is typed to predict likely title, author, or subject matches in a manner functionally similar to the systems found on commercial websites such as google.com or amazon.com. This paper discusses the technologies, decisions and methodologies that went into the implementation of this feature, as well as analysis of its impact on user search behaviors.

  1. Retailers test Ontario market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-01-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete

  2. Retailers test Ontario market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-04-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete.

  3. An individual differences approach to the suggestibility of memory over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter; Nussbaum, Gregory; Loconto, Taylor; Syke, Richard; Warren, Casey; Muise, Christina

    2013-04-01

    We examined how certain personality traits might relate to the formation of suggestive memory over time. We hypothesised that compliance and trust relate to initial acceptance of misinformation as memory, whereas fantasy proneness might relate to integration of misinformation into memory after later intervals (relative to the time of exposure to misinformation). Participants watched an excerpt from a movie--the simulated eyewitness event. They next answered a recall test that included embedded misinformation about the movie. Participants then answered a yes/no recognition test. A week later, participants answered a second yes/no recognition test about the movie (each yes/no recognition test included different questions). Before both recognition tests, participants were warned about the misinformation shown during recall and were asked to base their answer on the movie excerpt only. After completing the second recognition test, participants answered questions from the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) and Creative Experiences Questionnaire (Merckelbach, Horselenberg, & Muris, 2001). While compliance correlated with misinformation effects immediately after exposure to misinformation, fantasy-prone personality accounted for more of the variability in false recognition rates than compliance after a 1-week interval.

  4. The strength and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck in salmon suggests a conserved mechanism in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonci N Wolff

    Full Text Available In most species mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is inherited maternally in an apparently clonal fashion, although how this is achieved remains uncertain. Population genetic studies show not only that individuals can harbor more than one type of mtDNA (heteroplasmy but that heteroplasmy is common and widespread across a diversity of taxa. Females harboring a mixture of mtDNAs may transmit varying proportions of each mtDNA type (haplotype to their offspring. However, mtDNA variants are also observed to segregate rapidly between generations despite the high mtDNA copy number in the oocyte, which suggests a genetic bottleneck acts during mtDNA transmission. Understanding the size and timing of this bottleneck is important for interpreting population genetic relationships and for predicting the inheritance of mtDNA based disease, but despite its importance the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Empirical studies, restricted to mice, have shown that the mtDNA bottleneck could act either at embryogenesis, oogenesis or both. To investigate whether the size and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck is conserved between distant vertebrates, we measured the genetic variance in mtDNA heteroplasmy at three developmental stages (female, ova and fry in chinook salmon and applied a new mathematical model to estimate the number of segregating units (N(e of the mitochondrial bottleneck between each stage. Using these data we estimate values for mtDNA Ne of 88.3 for oogenesis, and 80.3 for embryogenesis. Our results confirm the presence of a mitochondrial bottleneck in fish, and show that segregation of mtDNA variation is effectively complete by the end of oogenesis. Considering the extensive differences in reproductive physiology between fish and mammals, our results suggest the mechanism underlying the mtDNA bottleneck is conserved in these distant vertebrates both in terms of it magnitude and timing. This finding may lead to improvements in our understanding of

  5. Optimal Retail Price Model for Partial Consignment to Multiple Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the product pricing decision-making problem under a consignment stock policy in a two-level supply chain composed of one supplier and multiple retailers. The effects of the supplier’s wholesale prices and its partial inventory cost absorption of the retail prices of retailers with different market shares are investigated. In the partial product consignment model this paper proposes, the seller and the retailers each absorb part of the inventory costs. This model also provides general solutions for the complete product consignment and the traditional policy that adopts no product consignment. In other words, both the complete consignment and nonconsignment models are extensions of the proposed model (i.e., special cases. Research results indicated that the optimal retail price must be between 1/2 (50% and 2/3 (66.67% times the upper limit of the gross profit. This study also explored the results and influence of parameter variations on optimal retail price in the model.

  6. The Impact of Retail Formats on the Development of Food Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten Ćuzović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this paper is to analyse the development of retail formats and their impact on the development of food retailing, through empirical testing of the largest food retailers within the timeframe 2009-2014. Research Design & Methods: This paper shall, in addition to the review of literature on the development of retail formats, focus on the analysis of the Global Power of Retailing report 2011-2016. Statistical material consists of the available data on the ranking of the largest retail companies, viewed by sales volume, in the period from 2009 to 2014, published annually by the consulting firm, Deloitte Touche. Findings: The research results show the dominant share of food retailers in the total number of retailers in the list of Top 250 retailers. In addition, the results point to a different structure of food retail formats in the period from 2009 to 2014. The position of individual food retailers in the list of the most successful ones changes over time and standard multiple regression results show that this is due to the introduction of new retail formats. Implications & Recommendations: Continuing innovation in the field of retail formats is very important to food retailers. Decision makers need to pay special attention and focus on increasing the sales volume and better ranking of companies in the list of most successful ones, where one of the factors is the introduction of new retail formats. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of the FDI inflow into the group of both similar and different countries in terms of economy.

  7. Retail Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Price Model is a tool to estimate the average retail electricity prices - under both competitive and regulated market structures - using power sector projections and assumptions from the Energy Information Administration.

  8. A Latent Growth Model Suggests that Empathy of Medical Students Does Not Decline over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrício; Magalhães, Eunice; Costa, Manuel João

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is a relevant attribute in the context of patient care. However, a decline in empathy throughout medical education has been reported in North-American medical schools, particularly, in the transition to clinical training. The present study aims to longitudinally model empathy during medical school at three time points: at the entrance,…

  9. Economy system and operation of a selected retail chain

    OpenAIRE

    KALUSOVÁ, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the thesis Economy system and operation of a selected retail chain is to explore and analyze the sphere in which the retailer chain operates, and evaluate their financial situation. At the same time, the selected retail chain will compare with the selected sectoral competition. The first part of thesis covers the theoretical information about issues, in particular the definition of basic terms of trade and retail. The second part of thesis includes application theoretical knowledg...

  10. HOW RETAILING HAS CHANGED? WHAT MARKETING DID FOR THIS CHANGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica ERDEI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retailing is carried on by those business which sell goods to the final consumer. The obvious example is provided by the shops we all know and deal with. The retailing stage, therefore, is the one where goods reach the end of their journey from the manufacturer. This does not that in those instances there is not retailing. The manufacturer or wholesaler who sells direct to the consumer is acting as a retailer; he adds retailing to his other activities. What ever channel of distribution is used, the retailing function always exists. In the past almost all retailers confined their activities to retailing; they did not combine it with other activities. These we can call “traditional” retailers. The functions of the traditional retailer where/and are: they break bulk into saleable portions; they put the goods in a saleable condition; they make goods immediately available to consumers; they measure consumer preferences. But the times have changed! In the “new” retailing the retailer provides a long range of services to whom he sells and to those from whom he buys. We’ll have in mind in this paper the refrigeration engineering and the “artificial cold”, the creative services at the point of sale (POS, the POS marketing, the marketing activities a the point of promotion (POP, the international diversity. In recent years most retail businesses tend to grow, and the statistics proves this, as it is shown in the paper.

  11. The Effects of Application of Lean Concept in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean principles and techniques can be successfully applied in the retail sector. In the retail sector, lean approach improves operational flows. Lean retail encourages manufacturers to produce standard products in accordance with the created (placed orders from retailers pursuant to the demand of their consumers. Characteristics of the retail market are: strong competition, shorter product life cycle, longer product development time and high sensitivity of demand. In order to be more competitive and profitable today's retailers operate strategically oriented to lower prices and gain exemption from holding unnecessary stocks. Lean retail is an example of best practices of successful operational strategies which management need to accept - to maximize the operating efficiency of the retail process.

  12. Matters of Suggestibility, Memory and Time: Child Witnesses in Court and What Really Happened

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna F. Motzkau

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of an increasing awareness of child abuse over the last few decades, children have been admitted as court witnesses more frequently, yet there has been persistent wariness about the reliability of their testimony. Examining the interaction of legal rationales and paradigms of developmental psychology, it would appear that children are still frequently positioned as deficient and passive witnesses. Three tropes can be distinguished: 1. Children are positioned as unreliable containers of facts. 2. Children have proved to be irritable dispensers of information. 3. Children are volatile interactants. In this paper I will examine how the English legal system employs special measures that are designed to manage children's apparent deficiencies while guaranteeing the accuracy and admissibility of their evidence. My analysis unfolds around the specific case of video recorded evidence. Using courtroom observations and data from interviews with legal professionals, I will follow the trajectory of the video from its planning and recording by the police to its presentation in court. Inspired by the work of Isabelle STENGERS and Bruno LATOUR, and drawing on discourse analytical tools, I will show that the collision of the different time zones of veridicality creates circumstances under which the video itself can become an ambiguous agent and ultimately a fanciful witness. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701145

  13. Food Waste Avoidance Actions in Food Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulikovskaja, Viktorija; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Food waste occurs throughout the entire food supply chain, from production to consumption of food in households. Retailers are in a unique position to contribute to food waste avoidance, not only by minimizing the amount of waste in their distribution channels but also by influencing consumer...... attitudes and behaviors. This explorative study aims to identify which food waste avoidance actions are conducted by retailers in Denmark, to which extent, and how they vary across food categories and supermarket chain. Based on an analysis of secondary and empirical data collected via observations...... at retail stores, the authors identify 22 food waste avoidance actions in Danish retail. The results provide new insights into food waste avoidance in retail. Based on the findings, suggestions for further research directions are developed that should serve to identify the most efficient customer targeted...

  14. Sustainability in retailing – a summative content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Anne; Kellner, Julian; Lietke, Britta

    2012-01-01

    and industrial branches in the sustainability literature relevant to retail supply chains, and sustainability considerations in retail practice. Findings – Sustainability-related issues have been discussed for many years and the term sustainability has received increased attention in research since the mid-1990s....... In retail research, there seems to be a time lag of more than ten years in using the term sustainability compared to other fields in research and industry. However, some of these other research fields and industries have an impact on retail supply chains. At the same time, it seems that sustainability has...... and industries relevant to retail supply chains....

  15. Methodological Approaches to Locating Outlets of the Franchise Retail Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Methodical approaches to selecting strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets are presented. The main stages in the assessment of strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets have been determined and the evaluation criteria have been suggested. Since such selection requires consideration of a variety of indicators and directions of the assessment, the author proposes a scale of evaluation, which allows generalizing and organizing the research data and calculations of the previous stages of the analysis. The most important criteria and sequence of the selection of the potential franchisees for the franchise retail network have been identified, the technique for their evaluation has been proposed. The use of the suggested methodological approaches will allow the franchiser making sound decisions on the selection of potential target markets, minimizing expenditures of time and efforts on the selection of franchisees and hence optimizing the process of development of the franchise retail network, which will contribute to the formation of its structure.

  16. Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. Suggestions for leisure time activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter some examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet as well as suggestions for leisure time activities are presented. Used and recommended literature is included.

  17. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL genes from selective enrichments from animals and retail meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Velasco

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat. The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus, mecA (associated with methicillin resistance and PVL (virulence factor, and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68-0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement and 0.29-0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0-0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA

  18. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) Genes from Selective Enrichments from Animals and Retail Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Sherwood, Julie S.; Rojas-García, Pedro P.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a real-time PCR assay, with a conventional culture/PCR method, to detect S. aureus, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes in animals and retail meat, using a two-step selective enrichment protocol. A total of 234 samples were examined (77 animal nasal swabs, 112 retail raw meat, and 45 deli meat). The multiplex real-time PCR targeted the genes: nuc (identification of S. aureus), mecA (associated with methicillin resistance) and PVL (virulence factor), and the primary and secondary enrichment samples were assessed. The conventional culture/PCR method included the two-step selective enrichment, selective plating, biochemical testing, and multiplex PCR for confirmation. The conventional culture/PCR method recovered 95/234 positive S. aureus samples. Application of real-time PCR on samples following primary and secondary enrichment detected S. aureus in 111/234 and 120/234 samples respectively. For detection of S. aureus, the kappa statistic was 0.68–0.88 (from substantial to almost perfect agreement) and 0.29–0.77 (from fair to substantial agreement) for primary and secondary enrichments, using real-time PCR. For detection of mecA gene, the kappa statistic was 0–0.49 (from no agreement beyond that expected by chance to moderate agreement) for primary and secondary enrichment samples. Two pork samples were mecA gene positive by all methods. The real-time PCR assay detected the mecA gene in samples that were negative for S. aureus, but positive for Staphylococcus spp. The PVL gene was not detected in any sample by the conventional culture/PCR method or the real-time PCR assay. Among S. aureus isolated by conventional culture/PCR method, the sequence type ST398, and multi-drug resistant strains were found in animals and raw meat samples. The real-time PCR assay may be recommended as a rapid method for detection of S. aureus and the mecA gene, with further confirmation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using

  19. THE RETAIL CONCENTRATION AND CHANGES OF THE GROCERY RETAIL STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević, Blaženka; Knego, Nikola; Delić, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Concentration is one of several key processes that are taking place in retail markets of the European countries. Retail concentration process occurs in all EU countries and it’s manifested with the decreasing number of leading retailers with simultaneous increase in their market share. Undergoing process of retail market concentration is bringing new challenges to all market participants: suppliers, existing retailers and customers. In this paper we will discuss concentration in retail indust...

  20. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  1. Forecasting for the Small Retail Business: Operational Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    J. Holton Wilson; Robert H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Often small business owners/managers feel they have inadequate time for formal forecasting and/or that they lack the expertise to do so. Since forecasting is an important decision-aiding tool, managers in small retail establishments can benefit by implementing a simple forecasting process. Doing so will enable them to better anticipate the firms future level of sales and lead to more successful operations. We suggest the use of relatively simple quantitative methods that have proven to work w...

  2. Loyalty programs challenges in retail banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskienė, Neringa; Auruškevičienė, Viltė

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the challenges of loyalty programs in retail banks in Lithuania. Case study methodology was chosen to analyze the loyalty programs launched by various banks to show how banks are building the loyalty of individual customers and what challenges these banks face. The findings suggest that the majority of analyzed loyalty programs reward a repeat purchasing. Lithuanian retail banks launching loyalty programs for two customer segments - the potentially prof...

  3. Canadian ethanol retailers' directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This listing is a directory of all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listing includes the name and address of the retailer. Bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels are also included, but in a separate listing

  4. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  5. POLICIES OF RETAIL SECTOR OF INDIA AND OTHER SELECTED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Subhadip

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Before 1991, the retail sector was mainly unorganized and fragmented. The rapid growth of the organized retail sector has resulted in the decreasing sales of unorganized retail outlets. Along with that, the traditional unorganized retailers were lagging behind in the context of promotional strategies. This study intends to examine the government policies of different countries including India regarding the unorganized and organized retail sector. The present study examines whether the government provides a tight legal framework along with economic support to the small and unorganized retailers to sustain in this big fight. The study concludes that in the environment of intense competition, governments of different countries (including India had helped small as well as big domestic retail chains through formulating appropriate policies over time. The governments had helped domestic retail chains by providing capital support and/or formulating strict legislations to restrict entry of foreign retailers in their respective countries. In India, all the regulations regarding retail sector is still in state level and is being influenced by the existing political parties of different states. Thus, it varies across states and their impacts are also heterogeneous.

  6. The Evolution and Future of Retailing and Retailing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Dhruv; Motyka, Scott; Levy, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The pace of retail evolution has increased dramatically, with the spread of the Internet and as consumers have become more empowered by mobile phones and smart devices. This article outlines significant retail innovations that reveal how retailers and retailing have evolved in the past several decades. In the same spirit, the authors discuss how…

  7. Gender Segregation in the Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of occupational gender segregation in the retail industry, with a particular focus on part time working. The empirical data was gathered through a series of 59 interviews, and a small survey of employees, with store level managers in three UK retail organisations. The paper illustrates the extent of occupational gender segregation and considers the impact of such stereotyping on the gender pay gap, training and career development.\\ud \\ud Occupational gender ...

  8. Retail Price Levels and Concentrations of Wholesalers, Retailers and Hypermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Marcus; Friberg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines retail grocery price levels with a very large (unbalanced) panel of stores that operate in well-defined local markets. We explain price variation across grocery retailers by the concentration of wholesalers and retailers, and the market share of hypermarkets (and control for a number of store and region specific factors). Our most important result is that concentration at the wholesale level is an important determinant of retail prices. The price effect of retail concentra...

  9. Executing the Perfect Retail Brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Rygaard Jonas, Louise

    The alignment of employees around the corporate brand has emerged as a major area of study in corporate and service branding literature generally and in the retail branding literature in particular. Corporate brand scholars are focused on achieving coherence in brand expressions. Traditionally fo...... and management levels in the organisation. It is argued that responsibility for brand expressions should be more decentralised.......The alignment of employees around the corporate brand has emerged as a major area of study in corporate and service branding literature generally and in the retail branding literature in particular. Corporate brand scholars are focused on achieving coherence in brand expressions. Traditionally...... focus has been on using corporate communication to align employees around the corporate brand to achieve this. Through in-depth, longitudinal, ethnographic research this paper suggests that coherence can only be achieved by understanding the complex interplay of identities between occupational groups...

  10. The analysis of food products retailing in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapaić Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Author is analyzing a share of food products in the structural profile of retail trade in European Union by presenting areas of retailing in which food, beverages, and tobacco products are predominant. The main task of retailing is to overcome gaps in time and space between production and consumption, in order to meet the needs of consumers. This main task of retailing becomes more difficult considering the fact that the European Union consists of demanding consumers that expect all products, especially food, to be served to them at the most accessible places, in most suitable time, and with prices that coincide with the worth of products. In the structure of retail trade of the European Union, food products can be found in sector of non-specialised in-store retailing (hypermarkets, supermarkets, Cash&Carry stores as well as in sector of specialised in-store food retailing (butcher shops, bakeries, fish markets, etc.. Restructure of retailing, internationalization, and concentration of total retail trade network are only some of the basic trends in contemporary retail sale of food products in the European Union, that are being explored in this text.

  11. The prospects for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.H.; Center, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is an outline of a presentation on retail wheeling of electric power. The topics discussed are development of increased wholesale transmission access, government regulatory policies on wholesale transmission, examples of past and present retail transmission access agreements, examples of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission jurisdiction over retail wheeling, and state policies on retail wheeling

  12. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    , whereas hedonic value reflects the potential entertainment and emotional worth associated with the shopping trip. Recognising this duality, in addition to enabling customers to satisfy utilitarian needs related to product-acquisition, grocery retailers increasingly try to offer customers pleasurable...... shopping experiences, even to entertain them. Because there is evidence suggesting even satisfied customers sometimes switch brands and retailers due to boredom, it is important for retailers to continuously engage consumers and stir interest in a given store. Satisfying customers again and again...

  13. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  14. The Danish Retail Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...... in terms of consumption patterns and demographic changes as well as some specific consumer tendencies with a special emphasis on sustainability issues. E-commerce is taken up as a special theme, both profiling the consumer side and the retailer side. This part is exemplified with books and groceries...

  15. Shortening the length of stay and mechanical ventilation time by using positive suggestions via MP3 players for ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Szilágyi, Adrienn; Diószeghy, Csaba; Fritúz, Gábor; Gál, János; Varga, Katalin

    2014-03-01

    Long stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and prolonged ventilation are deleterious for subsequent quality of life and surcharge financial capacity. We have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of using suggestive communication on recovery time during intensive care. The aim of our present study was to prove the same effects with standardized positive suggestive message delivered by an MP3 player. Patients ventilated in ICU were randomized into a control group receiving standard ICU treatment and two groups with a standardized pre-recorded material delivered via headphones: a suggestive message about safety, self-control, and recovery for the study group and a relaxing music for the music group. Groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and mortality, but the SAPS II scores were higher in the study group than that in the controls (57.8 ± 23.6 vs. 30.1 ± 15.5 and 33.7 ± 17.4). Our post-hoc analysis results showed that the length of ICU stay (134.2 ± 73.3 vs. 314.2 ± 178.4 h) and the time spent on ventilator (85.2 ± 34.9 vs. 232.0 ± 165.6 h) were significantly shorter in the study group compared to the unified control. The advantage of the structured positive suggestive message was proven against both music and control groups.

  16. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail-tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change.

  17. Food Safety Practices Linked with Proper Refrigerator Temperatures in Retail Delis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura G; Hoover, Edward Rickamer; Faw, Brenda V; Hedeen, Nicole K; Nicholas, David; Wong, Melissa R; Shepherd, Craig; Gallagher, Daniel L; Kause, Janell R

    2018-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) causes the third highest number of foodborne illness deaths annually. L. monocytogenes contamination of sliced deli meats at the retail level is a significant contributing factor to L. monocytogenes illness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) conducted a study to learn more about retail delis' practices concerning L. monocytogenes growth and cross-contamination prevention. This article presents data from this study on the frequency with which retail deli refrigerator temperatures exceed 41°F, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended maximum temperature for ready-to-eat food requiring time and temperature control for safety (TCS) (such as retail deli meat). This provision was designed to control bacterial growth in TCS foods. This article also presents data on deli and staff characteristics related to the frequency with which retail delis refrigerator temperatures exceed 41°F. Data from observations of 445 refrigerators in 245 delis showed that in 17.1% of delis, at least one refrigerator was >41°F. We also found that refrigeration temperatures reported in this study were lower than those reported in a related 2007 study. Delis with more than one refrigerator, that lacked refrigerator temperature recording, and had a manager who had never been food safety certified had greater odds of having a refrigerator temperature >41°F. The data from this study suggest that retail temperature control is improving over time. They also identify a food safety gap: some delis have refrigerator temperatures that exceed 41°F. We also found that two food safety interventions were related to better refrigerated storage practices: kitchen manager certification and recording refrigerated storage temperatures. Regulatory food safety programs and the retail industry may wish to consider encouraging or requiring kitchen manager certification and recording refrigerated

  18. The role of emotions in time to presentation for symptoms suggestive of cancer: a systematic literature review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasooriya-Smeekens, Chantal; Walter, Fiona M; Scott, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Emotions may be important in patients' decisions to seek medical help for symptoms suggestive of cancer. The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine quantitative literature on the influence of emotion on patients' help-seeking for symptoms suggestive of cancer. The objectives were to identify the following: (a) which types of emotions influence help-seeking behaviour, (b) whether these form a barrier or trigger for seeking medical help and (c) how the role of emotions varies between different cancers and populations. We searched four electronic databases and conducted a narrative synthesis. Inclusion criteria were studies that reported primary, quantitative research that examined any emotion specific to symptom appraisal or help-seeking for symptoms suggestive of cancer. Thirty-three papers were included. The studies were heterogeneous in their methods and quality, and very few had emotion as the main focus of the research. Studies reported a limited range of emotions, mainly related to fear and worry. The impact of emotions appears mixed, sometimes acting as a barrier to consultation whilst at other times being a trigger or being unrelated to time to presentation. It is plausible that different emotions play different roles at different times prior to presentation. This systematic review provides some quantitative evidence for the role of emotions in help-seeking behaviour. However, it also highlighted widespread methodological, definition and design issues among the existing literature. The conflicting results around the role of emotions on time to presentation may be due to the lack of definition of each specific emotion. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Retail Spending Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...

  20. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  1. Ethics in retail business

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRUŠKA, Leoš

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current state of ethics in retail establishments and to find suitable solutions to improve the situation. In literary part I described the important concepts of business ethics, moral, ethics, social responsibility. I also dealt with business ethics and implementation of codes of conduct, which I explained in more detail in the practical part. In the practical part, I examined the ethical codes of retail companies and for better illustrative there is a ...

  2. The retail market : a consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girvan, J.

    2002-01-01

    A consumer's perspective of the Ontario open retail electricity market was presented. The author, who believes the retail market in Ontario is flawed, presents some key decisions that were made regarding open competition, that may have been done differently or which have helped the market move forward. It was noted that the 1996 report by the Macdonald Committee clearly recommended that retail competition should be phased in only after the wholesale market was in place. That report also cautioned about the risks of proceeding with an open retail market without being properly prepared. The Ontario government rejected the recommendations of the Macdonald Committee and chose to open both wholesale and retail markets at the same time. Another important decision by the Ontario Energy Board was to determine that Standard Supply Service customers would be billed on the basis of a spot price pass-through model. It was noted that the lack of understanding by consumers regarding the new market and the absence of a comprehensive education campaign gave retailers an opportunity to deceive some customers. Allowing retailing prior to the introduction of unbundled bills has also led to the current state of customer confusion. Although the government has now made communication efforts, it is believed that these efforts must be greater in assuring that local distribution companies are providing what is necessary to understand the new billing format. The government has introduced Bill 58, a new legislation that includes a Customer Bill of Rights. Although this is a good initiative, it does not help the thousands of people who were misled and locked into long-term contracts. It was recommended that immediate action must be taken in the retail sector to maintain customer confidence

  3. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may

  4. Retail and Real Estate: The Changing Landscape of Care Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    By its nature, retail medicine is founded in real estate. That retail medicine has expanded so dramatically in a relatively short period of time has taken people by surprise. This rapid growth of integrating healthcare services into retail real estate begs the question of whether real estate will eventually take on the importance in healthcare delivery that it has in retail. This article advances the view that it will. In the end, what retail and healthcare have in common is that they both reflect the attributes of demanding consumers as part of an experience-based economy, where products and services are sought based on how they fit with their lifestyles and how they make them feel (Pine and Gilmore 1998). Changing the selection process for healthcare services to be more like retail is already expanding how and where healthcare services are delivered.

  5. Standardizing the Term "Strategy" in Retail and Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Strategy is a key concept in retail and business education. Yet, this important term has evolved to include many definitions, which can create confusion in the classroom environment. This paper proposes a standardized use of the term "strategy" in retail and business classrooms. It suggests a focused definition of strategy as "the…

  6. Retail Therapy: In the News and in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonggeun; Marcketti, Sara B.

    2017-01-01

    Retail therapy is suggested as a way for consumers to achieve happiness from the negative emotional state of modern life (Kang & Johnson, 2010). The practice of retail therapy has been referred to as "compensatory consumption" because it occurs "when an individual feels a need, lack, or desire which they cannot satisfy with a…

  7. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  8. Matching times of leading and following suggest cooperation through direct reciprocity during V-formation flight in ibis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkl, Bernhard; Portugal, Steven J; Unsöld, Markus; Usherwood, James R; Wilson, Alan M; Fritz, Johannes

    2015-02-17

    One conspicuous feature of several larger bird species is their annual migration in V-shaped or echelon formation. When birds are flying in these formations, energy savings can be achieved by using the aerodynamic up-wash produced by the preceding bird. As the leading bird in a formation cannot profit from this up-wash, a social dilemma arises around the question of who is going to fly in front? To investigate how this dilemma is solved, we studied the flight behavior of a flock of juvenile Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) during a human-guided autumn migration. We could show that the amount of time a bird is leading a formation is strongly correlated with the time it can itself profit from flying in the wake of another bird. On the dyadic level, birds match the time they spend in the wake of each other by frequent pairwise switches of the leading position. Taken together, these results suggest that bald ibis cooperate by directly taking turns in leading a formation. On the proximate level, we propose that it is mainly the high number of iterations and the immediacy of reciprocation opportunities that favor direct reciprocation. Finally, we found evidence that the animals' propensity to reciprocate in leading has a substantial influence on the size and cohesion of the flight formations.

  9. A Services Marketing Perspective on E-Retailing: Implications for E-Retailers and Directions for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Mark B.; Galbraith, R. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Applying a body of theory and empirical research in the study of customer loyalty drivers in the services sector, this paper sets out a number of marketing and Web site design implications for e-retailers. It then suggests several means by which e-retailers can manage customer perceptions to increase sales and develop greater customer loyalty.…

  10. Retail innovation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Commerce, as an important industry of any national economy, is a socially important complex of activities, which has to correspond to the general level of development and civilization of the community it serves. Considering this, the essential priorities commercial activity will turn to are represented by the increased power that consumers get through better informing, the assurance of a better connection between retail and innovation, more equitable and sustainable commercial relationships along the purchase chain, the improvement of retail services accessibility, the creation of a better work environment through the better correlation between employers’ needs and employers’ competences. Retail is permanently adapting to the changing market conditions, remaining a high competitive sector. Modern buyer is hurried, more mobile, better informed; more concerned about health, environment, comfort and aesthetics issues, more demanding in terms of quality and level of customization. Population migration, urbanization, and ageing, its absolute decrease, the average households size reduction, are all demographic trends to which retail must provide an appropriate answer. Retail businesses operating costs tend to increase, while buyers are warier under the impact of the global financial crisis, which will put additional pressure on profit margins.

  11. Strategy of image management in retail shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soče Kraljević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A sound positioning in consumers’ mind, along with strong promotion support, brought many retail shops to the top. This is mostly thanks to the image created in the consumers’ mind. A retail shop’s image may but need not conform to reality. Image often looks like a cliché. It overstates certain elements of the shop while simply omitting others. That is exactly why image is of great importance and often crucial to consumer behavior. This paper aims at determining the impact of image on customer behavior in the course of decision making about shopping and choosing a particular retail shop. Image is a significant factor of success of every company, hence also of a retail shops. It is a relatively strong value and a component of creating competitive advantage. But if we do not pay sufficient attention to image, it can become counterproductive. Instead to, like an additional value helps creating and maintaining the advantage in competition and realization of business aims, transforms into a limiting factor. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the elements of image that are of greatest importance to customers. Research has shown that customers choose the retail shop first and after that products and brands within this shop. When it comes to the supermarket, as a kind of retail shop, research has shown that two out of three shopping decisions are made by the customer on the spot, that is, without previous planning. That practically means that we can influence customers with different sales techniques. The paper suggests different strategies of image management for supermarkets and conventional shops. For supermarkets it is the “widest assortment” strategy, while for conventional shops the strategy is that of a “selected group of products“. Improvements to research methods will enable getting more information about customer behavior, while pressures of increased competition in the business environment will force retailers to get

  12. Nitrogen isotopes suggest a change in nitrogen dynamics between the Late Pleistocene and modern time in Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaffe, Fred J.; Zazula, Grant

    2018-01-01

    A magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene terrestrial megafauna fossils is contained in ice-rich loess deposits of Alaska and Yukon, collectively eastern Beringia. The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone collagen from these fossils are routinely used to determine paleodiet and reconstruct the paleoecosystem. This approach requires consideration of changes in C- and N-isotope dynamics over time and their effects on the terrestrial vegetation isotopic baseline. To test for such changes between the Late Pleistocene and modern time, we compared δ13C and δ15N for vegetation and bone collagen and structural carbonate of some modern, Yukon, arctic ground squirrels with vegetation and bones from Late Pleistocene fossil arctic ground squirrel nests preserved in Yukon loess deposits. The isotopic discrimination between arctic ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet was measured using modern samples, as were isotopic changes during plant decomposition; Over-wintering decomposition of typical vegetation following senescence resulted in a minor change (~0–1 ‰) in δ13C of modern Yukon grasses. A major change (~2–10 ‰) in δ15N was measured for decomposing Yukon grasses thinly covered by loess. As expected, the collagen-diet C-isotope discrimination measured for modern samples confirms that modern vegetation δ13C is a suitable proxy for the Late Pleistocene vegetation in Yukon Territory, after correction for the Suess effect. The N-isotope composition of vegetation from the fossil arctic ground squirrel nests, however, is determined to be ~2.8 ‰ higher than modern grasslands in the region, after correction for decomposition effects. This result suggests a change in N dynamics in this region between the Late Pleistocene and modern time. PMID:29447202

  13. Restructuring and the retail residential market for power in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleit, Andrew N.; Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    In January 2010 electricity retail residential rate caps expired in a large part of Pennsylvania, allowing consumers to shop for electricity in the retail market. In this paper we employ customer-level data from the relevant territory to analyze what residential customer and community characteristics impacted the decision of whether or not to switch to an alternative electricity provider, and when to make the switch. Results show that customers with higher usage levels (especially around the time of the program's introduction), electric heating, and those living in more urban and more educated communities with lower unemployment rates and higher median household incomes were both more likely to switch, and more likely to do so faster. Lower switching rates and a slower switching response was observed from customers with more variable month to month usage (perhaps this made them unsure of future benefits from switching), those on alternative residential electricity rates (time-of-day and thermal storage programs), and those new to the relevant area (perhaps due to lack of information about the residential choice program). Critics of retail electricity competition have suggested that it disadvantages poor and elderly ratepayers. Our results do not support this contention. Customers living in communities with higher poverty rates were actually more likely to switch (and do so faster) than middle-income consumers. Communities with higher shares of senior population were not found to have lower switching rates from younger communities. - Highlights: ► We analyze introduction of retail competition in Pennsylvania's electricity sector. ► We evaluate what characteristics influence consumers to switch electric providers. ► Higher usage and electric heat influence customers to switch and to do so faster. ► More variable usage and being new to service area deter switching. ► High poverty rates induce switching; older communities no less likely to switch.

  14. Innovations in retail business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorescu, A.; Frambach, R.T.; Singh, J.; Rangaswamy, A.; Bridges, C.

    2011-01-01

    A retail business model articulates how a retailer creates value for its customers and appropriates value from the markets. Innovations in business models are increasingly critical for building sustainable advantage in a marketplace defined by unrelenting change, escalating customer expectations,

  15. Innovations and czech retail business

    OpenAIRE

    Pecho, Maroš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe current trends in global retail, the current state of retail in Czech Republic and possible need of bringing innovation to the outburst of Millennials generation economic activity. Introduction is devoted to theoretical description of retail and its meaning. As part of the thesis, there is a significant part containing relations within the worldwide retail and also its current trends and development. Furthermore, part of the thesis is devoted to the devel...

  16. Organized Retailing of Horticultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Thomas, Sujo

    2012-01-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and changing consumption patterns, more and more retailers are trying to put their best efforts to discover new avenues of success when it comes to the sales of horticultural commodities. There are several Indian companies as well as foreign companies who have been focusing all their energies to succeed in the organized retail sector of Indian horticulture commodities. The Indian retail industry is worth $470 million and organized retail stands at $26 million which...

  17. Retail design : A new discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has the aim to address Retail Design as a new research and education discipline that because of its multidisciplinarity asks for a holistic approach. Although retailing as commerce is timeless, Retail Design is one of the most challenging new fields of design, embracing both design

  18. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  19. Retail Trade. Industry Training Monograph No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's retailing sector is the largest single industry of employment, with more than 1.2 million workers. It is characterized by high levels of part-time and casual employment; a young work force, including many young people still in full-time education; and employment widely distributed geographically. Over the past 10 years, employment has…

  20. Retailer brand architectures: Consumer perceptions of five Danish food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    In this paper we adapt the concept of brand architecture to food retailing. We present initial findings of a study investigating how consumer perceive and evaluate the brand architectures of five different Danish food retailers. Our findings show that consumers perceive differences in the brand...... architecture of food retailers and that it is an important factor in relation to evaluations of food retailers. We also find that consumers have considerable difficulties distinguishing between retailer brands and manufacturer brands, which has potentially disconcerting implications for branded food...

  1. Challenges and opportunities in ‘last mile’ logistics for on-line food retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Hvolby, Hans Henrik; Turner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Conventional approaches to logistics for food retail continue to be challenged by the rapid growth of on-line food retail. At the same time, ‘last mile’ logistics optimization for on-line retail also face challenges as changing consumer expectations, habits and purchasing patterns intersect with

  2. Netherlands EWCO CAR on Working conditions in the retail sector – National contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.; Kwantes, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Netherlands Working Condition Survey (NWCS), this report exaines working conditions in the retail sector in the Netherlands. It concludes that the retail sector is a sector in which many young employees work. These employees often work part-time and have a temporary contract. The retail

  3. Retail firewood can transport live tree pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, W R; Hardin, J G; Goodrich, B A; Cleaver, C M

    2012-10-01

    Untreated firewood can harbor destructive insects and pathogens and transport them to uninfested areas. In a national survey of retail locations selling firewood in 18 states, over half (52%) of the firewood was from sources out of the purchase state and 50% showed evidence of insect infestation. In a three state survey of southern Rocky Mountain retailers, the most common retailer types carrying firewood were grocery stores and department or big box stores followed by gas stations or convenience stores. In 2007-2009, we purchased 419 firewood bundles from retailers in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming and caged the firewood to quantify insect emergence. Live insects emerged from 47% of firewood bundles over 18 mo of rearing time. Approximately 11 insects emerged on average from each infested bundle (1-520 per bundle). Pine, fir, and mixed-conifer bundles yielded the greatest number of insects. Beetles (Coleoptera) were prominent and made up the majority of individuals (3-60 individuals in each of 24 families). Most Coleoptera were bark and ambrosia beetles (subfamily Scolytinae) while wood borers (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Siricidae) occurred in lower numbers. Firewood with evidence of previous or current insect infestation was more likely to have insects emerge than firewood without such evidence. The risk of moving live native or nonindigenous insects in untreated firewood is high because insects emerged up to 558 d from purchase date. Retail firewood should be heat treated in a manner to eliminate insects that is uniformly accepted across North America.

  4. Effective Retail Sales Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canei, Robert A.

    The manual is a 12-hour program for adults who are working or preparing to work as retail salespeople. It can also be used as a summarization manual for high school students. The manual consists of five sessions which take the individual from the human aspect of sales to the related sales technique. The sessions are entitled: employee and customer…

  5. Optimizing retail assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Heerde, H.J.; Rooderkerk, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKU sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the

  6. Optimizing Retail Assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number. of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKIT sales can be cannibalized by other SKUs in the

  7. Management Training in Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veness, C. Rosina

    Intended for prospective members of the new Distributive Industrial Training Board in Great Britain, this training guide concentrates on managerial functions in retailing; the selection of trainees; the planning of in-company and external training programs; scheduling and continuity of training; roles of training personnel; and the use of various…

  8. Product mix retail strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sales of appropriate merchandise is essential for performance of every retail enterprise. The way that products are displayed within retail sales object will be in so much important as the merchandise is considered a pad of the perceived image of that outlet. Thus, assorted products speak to their consumers as far as to what they [the consumers] can expect, and they signal off a number of marketing messages as well. Merchandising is the key element in attracting the consumers and in encouraging of repeated purchases. The question then could be: products or services?, yet the retailer's future will depend on his ability to develop the best sale offers. The selection of appropriate merchandise, and that would be the one [merchandise] that is in accordance with outlet's image, requires careful planning which, again, needs to be related with the direction the seller is following. Managing of the product assortments' dimensions emerges from the retailer's strategic planning, therefore, the decisions made on the inclusion of novel products as well as about deleting of the old stock are deemed (to be strategic.

  9. Modelling Retail Floorspace Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Kooiman

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis research note presents a "switching regime" model to investigate the impact of environmental factors on floorspace productivity of individual retail stores. The model includes independent supply and demand functions, which are incorporated within a sales maximizing framework. Unlike

  10. Optimizing retail assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Rooderkerk (Robert); H.J. van Heerde (Harald); T.H.A. Bijmolt (Tammo)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Retailers face the problem of finding the assortment that maximizes category profit. This is a challenging task because the number of potential assortments is very large when there are many stock-keeping units (SKUs) to choose from. Moreover, SKU sales can be

  11. Fecal Contamination on Produce from Wholesale and Retail Food Markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angela R; Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Unicomb, Leanne; Boehm, Alexandria B; Luby, Stephen; Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J

    2018-01-01

    Fresh produce items can become contaminated with enteric pathogens along the supply chain at the preharvest (e.g., irrigation water, soil, fertilizer) or postharvest (e.g., vendor handling or consumer handling) stages. This study assesses the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli , enterococci (ENT), and Bacteriodales on surfaces of carrots, eggplants, red amaranth leaves, and tomatoes obtained from both a wholesale market (recently harvested) and neighborhood retail markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We detected E. coli in 100% of carrot and red amaranth rinses, 92% of eggplant rinses, and 46% of tomato rinses. Using a molecular microbial source tracking assay, we found that 32% of produce samples were positive for ruminant fecal contamination. Fecal indicator bacteria were more likely to be detected on produce collected in retail markets compared with that in the wholesale market; retail market produce were 1.25 times more likely to have E. coli detected ( P = 0.03) and 1.24 times more likely to have ENT detected ( P = 0.03) as compared with wholesale market produce. Bacteriodales was detected in higher concentrations in retail market produce samples compared with wholesale market produce samples (0.40 log 10 gene copies per 100 cm 2 higher, P = 0.03). Our results suggest that ruminant and general fecal contamination of produce in markets in Dhaka is common, and suggest that unsanitary conditions in markets are an important source of produce fecal contamination postharvest.

  12. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  13. Informization Implementation for Chinese Retailers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; LI Yan; QIAN Yu; CHEN Jianfeng; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    Retailing is an important component of every country's economic system. The current status and developments in the informization of Chinese retail industry were investigated by using questionnaires and interviews to survey 139 retailers throughout China. The investigation shows that Chinese retailers are in the initial informization stage, and can be classified into different types with corresponding informization characteristics. In addition, the survey identified the key problems faced by retailers in the initial stage. Developments in the information technology field were analyzed to identify the key technologies that Chinese retailers should focus on during the informization process. The investigation also shows that the retailers have not arrived at a consensus about information technology adoption, and thus hesitate to use new information technologies, such as the radio frequency identification.

  14. The mobility of food retailers: How proximity to SNAP authorized food retailers changed in Atlanta during the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jerry; Bagwell-Adams, Grace; Shannon, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun; Wei, Yangjiaxin

    2018-07-01

    Retailer mobility, defined as the shifting geographic patterns of retail locations over time, is a significant but understudied factor shaping neighborhood food environments. Our research addresses this gap by analyzing changes in proximity to SNAP authorized chain retailers in the Atlanta urban area using yearly data from 2008 to 2013. We identify six demographically similar geographic clusters of census tracts in our study area based on race and economic variables. We use these clusters in exploratory data analysis to identify how proximity to the twenty largest retail food chains changed during this period. We then use fixed effects models to assess how changing store proximity is associated with race, income, participation in SNAP, and population density. Our results show clear differences in geographic distribution between store categories, but also notable variation within each category. Increasing SNAP enrollment predicted decreased distances to almost all small retailers but increased distances to many large retailers. Our chain-focused analysis underscores the responsiveness of small retailers to changes in neighborhood SNAP participation and the value of tracking chain expansion and contraction in markets across time. Better understanding of retailer mobility and the forces that drive it can be a productive avenue for future research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumer preferences for retailer brand architectures: Results from a conjoint study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Esbjerg, Lars; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2006-01-01

    , with dominantly manufacturer brands, with quality of retailer brands at the same level as manufacturer brands, and with good visibility of retailer brands. Research limitations/implications: The results are based on the evaluation of hypothetical stores, and many additional factors affect store choice in the real...... world. Practical implications: Results suggest that we may be heading towards a polarized retail market, mainly divided between discount concepts and high quality retailer brand concepts. Originality/value: The paper is innovative in isolating the effect of dimensions of retailer brand architecture...

  16. Population genomic scans suggest novel genes underlie convergent flowering time evolution in the introduced range of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie A; Stinchcombe, John R

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology is whether the evolution of convergent phenotypes results from selection on the same heritable genetic components. Using whole-genome sequencing and genome scans, we tested whether the evolution of parallel longitudinal flowering time clines in the native and introduced ranges of Arabidopsis thaliana has a similar genetic basis. We found that common variants of large effect on flowering time in the native range do not appear to have been under recent strong selection in the introduced range. We identified a set of 38 new candidate genes that are putatively linked to the evolution of flowering time. A high degree of conditional neutrality of flowering time variants between the native and introduced range may preclude parallel evolution at the level of genes. Overall, neither gene pleiotropy nor available standing genetic variation appears to have restricted the evolution of flowering time to high-frequency variants from the native range or to known flowering time pathway genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation outlined the values of wholesale and retail marketing of natural gas to offer choice to all Canadians. The initial wholesale market dealt with physical bilaterals, financial bilaterals and transmission rights, while the mature wholesale market deals with futures contracts, reserve markets, dispatchable loads, swaps, trades and emissions trading. Wholesale prices include debt reduction charges, transmission charges transformation charges, ancillary charges, and independent market operator (IMO) fees. Retail rates offered by local distribution companies (LDC) include distribution charges, adjustments to SSS, and distribution losses. The role of marketers is to provide consumers with what they want, which is annual fixed rates with aggregation and load profiling as well as billing and procurement services

  18. Rivalry of domestic and foreign retailers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Dunković

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign retailers are gaining progressively more of the Croatian retail market share. This paper is an analysis of the retail structure in the Republic of Croatia (sector G – 52, with respect to the origin of trading companies (domestic and foreign retailers, to their size (small, medium and large companies and to sub-sectors within a sector G – 52. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of causes underlying the foreign retailers’ expansion regarding their business success. The paper includes an analysis of the structure of household consumption in the Republic of Croatia as an important condition for the development of the retail structure. The analysis involves the indicators of domestic and foreign retailers’ business success: the turnover per one trading company and the turnover per one employee of the trading company. The comparison of these indicators for domestic and foreign retailers lead to certain differences (foreign retailers are slightly more productive than the domestic retailers and to the evaluation of the differences caused by the size of the company. Since a correlation of the size of the structure of domestic and foreign trading companies in certain sub-sectors within sector G –52 must not exist, the conclusion suggests itself in the form of a need to investigate other features of the retail structure. The research is related to the year 2001. Nevertheless, the research presented in the paper points at an inadequate adaptability of domestic retailers to the structure of demand in the Republic of Croatia as the cause of the insufficient trading success.

  19. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.

    2001-01-01

    ECNG Inc. is a full service provider of independent and objective energy advice and management services to industrial, commercial and institutional end-users of all forms of energy. ECNG manages 10 per cent of the Ontario gas market and expects a 10 per cent share of electricity (14 TWh). ECNG has a balanced portfolio with expertise in both petroleum and electricity sectors. The company has also dealt extensively with retailers, marketers, wholesalers and suppliers on issues regarding deregulation

  20. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  1. Vliv reklamy na retail

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the connection of two aspects: retail and advertising and to provide general overviews. To foreshadow expected changes in the consumer's behaviour and establish how important the role advertisement constitutes. Research is also focused on direct influence of advertisement on customers. This thesis is composed of both a theoretical and a practical part. The first two chapters of the theoretical part represent a description of basic information about advertising an...

  2. Analysis of a production/inventory system with multiple retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Noblesse, Ann; Boute, Robert; Lambrecht, Marc; Van Houdt, B.

    2014-01-01

    We study a production/inventory system with one manufacturing plant and multiple retailers. Production lead times at the plant are stochastic and endogenously determined by the orders placed by the different retailers. Assuming stochastic (phase-type distributed) production and setup times, we make use of matrix analytic techniques to develop a queuing model that is capable to compute the distribution of the time orders spend in the production facility, depending on the retailer’s lot s...

  3. Is Time a creation of Life in response to Gravity? : This hypothesis suggests new ways for looking at extraterrestrial life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    From his personal experience during a space flight (Challenger 1985) onward, the author has been struck repeatedly by the remarkable influence of Earth's environment on life, in particular by its most inevitable elements: time and gravity. Our life might be peculiar to the local Earth conditions,

  4. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally

    2009-08-06

    It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK.We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones) into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens).The most deprived quintile (of areas) had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived) had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p retailer was within quintile 3 while the furthest distance was within quintile 1, and this was also statistically significant (Chi-square p types of food retailers, and access to amenities depended upon the type of food retailer studied and whether proximity or density was measured. Overall the findings suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within the City of Glasgow did not necessarily have fewer food retail outlets.

  5. Retail competition in electricity markets. Expectations, outcomes and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In 'Retail competition in electricity markets' (Energy Policy, 37(2), February 2009, Pages 377-386) it is argued by Defeuilly that the introduction of retail competition into electricity markets gave rise to great expectations that it failed to meet, and that this was primarily the fault of Austrian economic thinking. The main purpose of this note is to explain why both of these propositions are incorrect. A few further comments challenge his subsequent suggestion that the competitive process in electricity is so constrained by the limitations of consumer decision-making and electricity technology as to cast doubt on the policy of opening the retail market to competition

  6. Canada's directory of ethanol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a directory listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer by province from west to east. Appendices providing a list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels was also included, as well as a list of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers

  7. The economics of gasoline retailing : petroleum distribution and retailing issues in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleit, A.N. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2005-03-31

    Some of the controversies surrounding gasoline retailing prices in the United States were discussed with specific reference to zone pricing and non-price vertical restraints. Integrated refiners use a variety of often conflicting distribution methods to transport gasoline to consumers. The use of different retail provisions allows refiners to offer retail outlets to as many markets as possible, and these provisions have been the subject of antitrust scrutiny. Issues concerning refinery growth and capacity were reviewed along with brand management and federal standards. Various types of branded retail outlets were also discussed, along with company operated outlets and franchised dealer outlets. Issues concerning hypermarkets were examined and legal relationships between franchisers and franchisees in the petroleum industry were reviewed in relation to zone pricing. The motivation for non-price vertical restraints was considered, with reference to antitrust and anticompetitive behavior. It was suggested that the best way to analyze the gasoline sector is to examine the extent of margins in the sector. It was concluded that distribution channels help refiners market gasoline. Interactions between distribution channels can create competitive tensions in terms of brand free-riding and brand network operations. The use of price zones and non-price vertical restraints allow integrated refiners to offer retail distribution outlets across as many markets as possible. Antitrust scrutiny has not resulted in successful litigation as the refiners' actions are not expected to afflict consumers. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The economics of gasoline retailing : petroleum distribution and retailing issues in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleit, A.N. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2005-03-31

    Some of the controversies surrounding gasoline retailing prices in the United States were discussed with specific reference to zone pricing and non-price vertical restraints. Integrated refiners use a variety of often conflicting distribution methods to transport gasoline to consumers. The use of different retail provisions allows refiners to offer retail outlets to as many markets as possible, and these provisions have been the subject of antitrust scrutiny. Issues concerning refinery growth and capacity were reviewed along with brand management and federal standards. Various types of branded retail outlets were also discussed, along with company operated outlets and franchised dealer outlets. Issues concerning hypermarkets were examined and legal relationships between franchisers and franchisees in the petroleum industry were reviewed in relation to zone pricing. The motivation for non-price vertical restraints was considered, with reference to antitrust and anticompetitive behavior. It was suggested that the best way to analyze the gasoline sector is to examine the extent of margins in the sector. It was concluded that distribution channels help refiners market gasoline. Interactions between distribution channels can create competitive tensions in terms of brand free-riding and brand network operations. The use of price zones and non-price vertical restraints allow integrated refiners to offer retail distribution outlets across as many markets as possible. Antitrust scrutiny has not resulted in successful litigation as the refiners' actions are not expected to afflict consumers. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The economics of gasoline retailing : petroleum distribution and retailing issues in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleit, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the controversies surrounding gasoline retailing prices in the United States were discussed with specific reference to zone pricing and non-price vertical restraints. Integrated refiners use a variety of often conflicting distribution methods to transport gasoline to consumers. The use of different retail provisions allows refiners to offer retail outlets to as many markets as possible, and these provisions have been the subject of antitrust scrutiny. Issues concerning refinery growth and capacity were reviewed along with brand management and federal standards. Various types of branded retail outlets were also discussed, along with company operated outlets and franchised dealer outlets. Issues concerning hypermarkets were examined and legal relationships between franchisers and franchisees in the petroleum industry were reviewed in relation to zone pricing. The motivation for non-price vertical restraints was considered, with reference to antitrust and anticompetitive behavior. It was suggested that the best way to analyze the gasoline sector is to examine the extent of margins in the sector. It was concluded that distribution channels help refiners market gasoline. Interactions between distribution channels can create competitive tensions in terms of brand free-riding and brand network operations. The use of price zones and non-price vertical restraints allow integrated refiners to offer retail distribution outlets across as many markets as possible. Antitrust scrutiny has not resulted in successful litigation as the refiners' actions are not expected to afflict consumers. 33 refs., 3 figs

  10. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  11. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  12. The retailing of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T; Wong, J

    1984-01-01

    A number of striking parallels between recent developments in health care marketing and changes in the retailing industry exist. The authors have compared retailing paradigms to the area on health care marketing so strategists in hospitals and other health care institutions can gain insight from these parallels. Many of the same economic, demographic, technological and lifestyle forces may be at work in both the health care and retail markets. While the services or products offered in health care are radically different from those of conventional retail markets, the manner in which the products and services are positioned, priced or distributed is surprisingly similar.

  13. Percentage Retail Mark-Ups

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas von Ungern-Sternberg

    1999-01-01

    A common assumption in the literature on the double marginalization problem is that the retailer can set his mark-up only in the second stage of the game after the producer has moved. To the extent that the sequence of moves is designed to reflect the relative bargaining power of the two parties it is just as plausible to let the retailer move first. Furthermore, retailers frequently calculate their selling prices by adding a percentage mark-up to their wholesale prices. This allows a retaile...

  14. Honolulu Retail Monitoring Price Data Collection (2007-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains a time series of consumer-level prices for a sample of retail markets in Honolulu between 2007-2011. Data include weekly prices for fish...

  15. The impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ligthelm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector forms a critical element of a community’s economic and social welfare. It provides people with choices and services. These choices were until recently very limited in township areas. The pre-1994 retail landscape was dominated by small, often informal businesses offering basic household necessities to relatively low income earners. This has resulted in township residents’ preference to shop outside townships, known as ‘outshopping’. Rapid income growth of township residents since 1994 resulted in a substantial increase in consumer expenditure in these areas, known as ‘in-bound shopping’. This lucrative emerging market forms the last retail frontier in South Africa and is being explored by national retailers, especially supermarket chains. This article is aimed at establishing the impact of shopping mall development in townships on the traditional small township retailers including spaza/tuck shops. The net balance sheet on the impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers clearly suggests a decline in the township retailers’ market share. A change in small business model towards, inter alia, effective customer service with a small dedicated assortment of merchandise, satisfaction of emergency needs, selling in small units and extension of credit facilities may result in the survival of some small township retailers (albeit often at a smaller turnover.

  16. Growth In SNAP Retailers Was Associated With Increased Client Enrollment In Georgia During The Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jerry; Shannon, Sarah; Adams, Grace Bagwell; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-11-01

    Policies to improve food accessibility in underserved areas often use direct financial incentives to attract new food retailers. Our analysis of data on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in Georgia before and after the Great Recession suggests that increased program enrollment improves access to food for SNAP beneficiaries by acting as an indirect subsidy to retailers. We divided food stores into four categories: large, midsize, small, and specialty retailers. Between 2008 and 2011 the number of SNAP enrollees increased by 87 percent, and between 2007 and 2014 the number of SNAP retailers in Georgia increased by 82 percent, primarily because of growth in the number of authorized small retailers. Inside metropolitan Atlanta, changes in the numbers of SNAP enrollees and authorized retailers were positively and significantly associated for small retailers. For the areas outside of metropolitan Atlanta, the association between changes in numbers of enrollees and authorized retailers was strongest for small retailers; more modest associations were also seen for large and specialty retailers. Policy makers should consider how retailers' sensitivity to and reliance on SNAP funding can be leveraged to improve not only food availability, but also access to healthy foods. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Methodological Approaches to Locating Outlets of the Franchise Retail Network

    OpenAIRE

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-01-01

    Methodical approaches to selecting strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets are presented. The main stages in the assessment of strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets have been determined and the evaluation criteria have been suggested. Since such selection requires consideration of a variety of indicators and directions of the assessment, the author proposes a scale of evaluation, which ...

  18. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilby, M.

    2001-01-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs

  19. Electricity marketing and retailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilby, M. [Canadian Meter Services, Toronto ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Canadian Metering Services provides metrology expertise to power producers and has more than 40 years experience in the industry. The company is privately and nationally accredited in Canada and is an expert in data communications. This power point presentation focused on issues regarding prices and price stability. Graphs were included with the presentation which depicted the profiles of winners and losers in electricity marketing and retailing. The presentation also discussed the benefits of a market surveillance panel, AMV, and MDMA and how to go about choosing them. tabs., figs.

  20. Retail Shopping Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    categories. An association between the frequency of a brand's appearance on lists and the amount of money spent on advertising the brand could not be found. A strong link between brands, prices and store names is revealed. Price in the majority of cases refers to brands rather than to product categories......The paper addresses consumers' shopping lists. The current study is based on a survey of 871 lists collected at retail grocery stores. Most items on shopping lists appear on the product category level rather than the brand level. The importance of the brand level varies considerably across product...

  1. Strategi Periklanan pada Bisnis Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veny Ari Sejati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the benefits of advertising strategy of Poundland. The method used is a qualitative approach because its ability to produce an in-depth description to obtain an authentic understanding of the experience of the people concerned. The study found that Poundland conducted intensive advertising by utilizing important moments such as Halloween, Christmas, Mother Day, etc using Internet media, social media, and e-mail sent 1-2 times per week. Poundland also employs other media such as word of mouth spread among students. Catalog is also used as the print media to reach the consumers. Poundland uses communication technology and take advantage of important moments for advertising strategy. This description can be a reference for retail businesses in Indonesia to pay attention to important events in Indonesia such as national moments and utilizing non-traditional communication technologies as an advertising strategy.

  2. Periodic Pricing of Seasonal Products in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel R. Bitran; Susana V. Mondschein

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies intertemporal pricing policies when selling seasonal products in retail stores. We first present a continuous time model where a seller faces a stochastic arrival of customers with different valuations of the product. For this model, we characterize the optimal pricing policies as functions of time and inventory. We use this model as a benchmark against which we compare more realistic models that consider periodic pricing reviews. We show that the structure of the optimal p...

  3. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio; Correlje, Aad F.; Blanca Palacios, M.

    2009-01-01

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power

  4. Competition, regulation, and pricing behaviour in the Spanish retail gasoline market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin-Pilart, Ignacio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Correlje, Aad F. [Section Economics of Infrastructures, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Clingendael International Energy Programme (Netherlands); Blanca Palacios, M. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The restructuring of the Spanish oil industry produced a highly concentrated oligopoly in the retail gasoline market. In June 1990, the Spanish government introduced a system of ceiling price regulation in order to ensure that 'liberalization' was accompanied by adequate consumer protection. By 1998, prices were left to the 'free' market. This paper examines the pricing behaviour of the retail gasoline market using multivariate error correction models over the period January 1993 (abolishment of the state monopoly)-December 2004. The results suggest that gasoline retail prices respond symmetrically to increases as well as to decreases in the spot price of gasoline both over the period of price regulation (January 1993-September 1998) and over the period of free market (October 1998-December 2004). However, once the ceiling price regulation was abolished, cooperation emerged between the government and the major operators, Repsol-YPF and Cepsa-Elf, to control the inflation rate. This resulted in a slower rate of adjustment of gasoline retail prices when gasoline spot prices went up, as compared with the European pattern. Finally, the Spanish retail margin was by the end of our timing period of analysis, as in the starting years after the abolishment of the state monopoly, above the European average. This pattern confirms our political economic hypothesis, which suggests that the Spanish government and the oil companies were working together in reducing the inflation, in periods of rising oil and gasoline prices. It is also inferred that explaining the pricing pattern in energy markets may require different hypothesis than the classical perspective, involving just firms taking advantage of market power. (author)

  5. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed.

  6. Retail fuel price adjustment in Germany: A threshold cointegration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asane-Otoo, Emmanuel; Schneider, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Consumers in Germany often complain that retail fuel prices usually adjust quickly to crude oil price increases than decreases and characterize this pricing pattern as market power exploitation. In this paper, we use both weekly national and daily city-specific (Berlin, Hamburg, Munich and Cologne) data to investigate the extent to which retail fuel prices in Germany adjust to changes in the international crude oil price. At the national level with weekly prices, we find positive asymmetries for both gasoline and diesel within the period 2003–2007, reflecting that retail prices react more swiftly to crude oil price increases than decreases. In contrast, for 2009–2013, we observe symmetric adjustment and negative asymmetry for retail diesel and gasoline prices, respectively. The city level analysis supports our findings in the latter time period. Thus, regulatory measures aimed at the retail fuel market over recent years seem to have been effective, and, contrary to consumers' perception, we find no evidence for excessive market power or collusion. - Highlights: • The paper examines the adjustment of German retail fuel (gasoline and diesel) prices to international crude oil price changes. • An error correction model with threshold cointegration is used to investigate the price dynamics. • The findings generally point to a competitive retail fuel pricing, notwithstanding the oligopolistic market structure

  7. An analysis of strategic price setting in retail gasoline markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguiberry, Florencia

    This dissertation studies price-setting behavior in the retail gasoline industry. The main questions addressed are: How important is a retail station's brand and proximity to competitors when retail stations set price? How do retailers adjust their pricing when they cater to consumers who are less aware of competing options or have less discretion over where they purchase gasoline? These questions are explored in two separate analyses using a unique datasets containing retail pricing behavior of stations in California and in 24 different metropolitan areas. The evidence suggests that brand and location generate local market power for gasoline stations. After controlling for market and station characteristics, the analysis finds a spread of 11 cents per gallon between the highest and the lowest priced retail gasoline brands. The analysis also indicates that when the nearest competitor is located over 2 miles away as opposed to next door, consumers will pay an additional 1 cent per gallon of gasoline. In order to quantify the significance of local market power, data for stations located near major airport rental car locations are utilized. The presumption here is that rental car users are less aware or less sensitive to fueling options near the rental car return location and are to some extent "captured consumers". Retailers located near rental car locations have incentives to adjust their pricing strategies to exploit this. The analysis of pricing near rental car locations indicates that retailers charge prices that are 4 cent per gallon higher than other stations in the same metropolitan area. This analysis is of interest to regulators who are concerned with issues of consolidation, market power, and pricing in the retail gasoline industry. This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the empirical analysis.

  8. "People over profits": retailers who voluntarily ended tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer's decision. Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store's image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers' values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers to end tobacco sales.

  9. What is smart for retailing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, Eleonora; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    While the last decade has seen increasing interest in the smart city phenomenon from both scholars and practitioners, little attention has been paid to what extent retailing might be considered as part of smart cities, with benefits for all the actors involved in the process. In fact, retailing is

  10. COMPLEX PROMOTIONSIN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yusupova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex promotions used by retailers introduce to the consumers several rules that must be satisfied in order to get some benefits and usually refer to multiple products (e.g. “buy two, get one free”. Rules of complex promotions can be quite sophisticated and complicated themselves. Since diversity of complex promotions limited only by marketers’ imagination we can observe broad variety of promotions’ rules and representa¬tions of those rules in retailers’ commercials. Such diversification makes no good for fellow scientist who’s trying to sort all type of promotions into the neatly organized classification. Although we can simple add every single set of rules offered by retailers as a separate form of sales promotion it seems not to be the best way of dealing with such a problem. The better way is to realize that mechanisms underlying that variety of promotions are basically the same, namely changes in demand or quantity demanded. Those two concepts alone provide powerful insight into classification of complex promotions and allow us to comprehend the variety of promotions offered by marketers nowadays.

  11. Access to food retail outlets in County Durham, UK: a pragmatic cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; Wright, Tim

    2015-02-26

    Strong links exist between deprivation, obesity, and dietary quality. Increasing interest has focussed on the concept of access to food and so-called food deserts, defined by a policy working group of the UK Low Income Project Team in 1995 as "areas of relative exclusion where people experience physical and economic barriers to accessing healthy food". We aimed to establish the accessibility of food retail outlets in County Durham, a county in north-east England, UK, considering physical access, affordability, and food range and quality. In a pragmatic cross-sectional study in County Durham, we used information from town surveys and food business databases to locate and identify food retail outlets. The prevalence of deprivation, obesity, retail outlets, takeaway outlets, and ratio of retail to takeaway outlets was mapped, to establish local food access, and any associations with deprivation and obesity. The times taken to travel from residences to supermarkets using private car and public transport were also measured. 400 members of the community participated in eight focus groups and commissioned on-street surveys. Focus group transcripts were reviewed alongside the on-street survey responses to identify key issues. Most residents shopped at least weekly for food (n=368, 92%), used a supermarket for their main food shop (372, 93%), travelled for up to 15 min (340, 85%), and used a car for transport (188, 47%). Many survey respondents indicated high levels of satisfaction with food retail outlets (average rating 8·7 out of 10 for agreement with the statement "Overall I am satisfied with the shop where I do my main food shopping"), although financial constraints and transport inconvenience were identified as barriers. Difficulties with food shopping were more widely described in focus groups, and many individuals felt that local shopping provision had declined, with an emergent excess of takeaway outlets. Food retail access was reduced for the disabled, full-time

  12. Are retailers' preferences for seafood attributes predictive for consumers wants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Polancoa, José; Mueller Loose, Simone; Luna, Ladislao

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture production has grown considerably in the southern countries of Europe during the last two decades. This increase in supply has not been matched by an equivalent rise in consumer demand, resulting in price decay. For farmed seabream (Sparus aurata) this paper examines which attributes...... choice and to test for differences in attribute preferences between retailers and consumers. Results indicate that both consumers and retailers agree in their marginal willingness to pay for wild over farmed seabream. However, they differ in the extent to which the disutility from farmed production can...... be offset by the declaration of domestic origin, sustainability certifications, and presence of health benefits or safety claims. Results suggest an asymmetry between retailer and consumer preferences that might explain why seabream differentiated by claims still struggles to find the desired retail...

  13. Vendor Managed Inventory:Retail Industry Perspective of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Madjlesi Taklimi, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) radically changes a traditional inventory management. Under the typical business model, the buyer or retailer is in total control of the timing and volume of the order, in order placing and managing the inventory plan. Whereas VMI is a supply chain initiative where the supplier is responsible for all decisions regarding inventories at the retailers, i.e. under VMI program the supplier is authorized to manage inventories of agreed-upon stock-keepin...

  14. Retailer adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Myers, Allison E; D'Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-04-04

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act's provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers' adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, "light" cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions.

  15. Retail food environments research in Canada: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Olstad, Dana L; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Black, Jennifer L; Mah, Catherine L

    2016-06-09

    The field of retail food environments research is relatively new in Canada. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of retail food environments research conducted before July 2015 in Canada. Specifically, this review describes research foci and key findings, identifies knowledge gaps and suggests future directions for research. A search of published literature concerning Canadian investigations of retail food environment settings (food stores, restaurants) was conducted in July 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsychInfo and ERIC. Studies published in English that reported qualitative or quantitative data on any aspect of the retail food environment were included, as were conceptual papers and commentaries. Eighty-eight studies were included in this review and suggest that the field of retail food environments research is rapidly expanding in Canada. While only 1 paper was published before 2005, 66 papers were published between 2010 and 2015. Canadian food environments research typically assessed either the socio-economic patterning of food environments (n = 28) or associations between retail food environments and diet, anthropometric or health outcomes (n = 33). Other papers profiled methodological research, qualitative studies, intervention research and critical commentaries (n = 27). Key gaps in the current literature include measurement inconsistency among studies and a lack of longitudinal and intervention studies. Retail food environments are a growing topic of research, policy and program development in Canada. Consistent methods (where appropriate), longitudinal and intervention research, and close partnerships between researchers and key stakeholders would greatly advance the field of retail food environments research in Canada.

  16. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... currency with retail customers, subject to the requirements enumerated in the OCC's retail forex rule. The... shall prescribe \\5\\ (a retail forex rule). A transaction described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes... associations are depository institutions. See 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(1). \\3\\ For purposes of the retail forex rules...

  17. Increase of retail competition and its impact in the industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Motta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the industries were stronger than retailers,  due  to  its strong  brands  and  multinational  range, while  retailers  were small national companies. A research made with ten executives from the industries showed that in recent years this situation has changed. Pressured for the retailers, now stronger, the industries are having fall in its results.  In order to improve this situation, industries reviewed the marketing mix, customizing it to retailers needs. Products and prices were developed for each channel and trade marketing investments increased its values. Organizational structure was adapted to this approach, and industries implemented trade marketing.

  18. Do New Lottery Games Stimulate Retail Activity? Evidence from West Virginia Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Skidmore, Mark; Serkan Tosun, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of lottery sales and the introduction of new lottery games on the retail activity using panel data on all West Virginia counties over the 1987-2001 period. We find that the introduction of video lottery spurred retail activity in those counties that have been granted the authority to offer video lottery. Empirical analysis also suggests that there is a positive relationship between lottery sales and retail activity, and that generally the introduction of ne...

  19. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  20. TENDENCIES OF INTERNATIONALIZATION IN RETAILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies took advantage of internationalization as early as in the seventies and eighties of the last century, whereas retail companies have used these chances not before the last few years in order to improve access to resources, to increase sales and to extend activities to external markets. Once a retail company has decided to penetrate a foreign market they must be aware of the unfamiliar working of external environment that they cannot control. Even the world’s leading retailers make mistakes when approaching markets they do not understand properly.

  1. UK retail marketing survey 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  2. Retailer buying: A paradigmatic critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The paradigmatic anchoring of research determines for the researcher the nature of reality, what can be known about it and how it can be known. Previous research on retail buying has been anchored in post-positivism. A number of shortcomings resulting from this anchoring are identified which, taken...... together, are interpreted to have let to neglecting the notion of meaning in existing research. It is argued that taking a constructivist perspective can help overcome the limitations of previous research and contribute to the development of an understanding of retailer buying as meaningful action.retailer...

  3. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF CATALOGUE RETAILING

    OpenAIRE

    Heri Bezic; Katija Vojvodic; Zrinka Gjanovic

    2012-01-01

    Today`s retail environment is characterised by new, store and non-store, retailing formats, a wide range of new products, the use of new information and communication technologies and, consequently, the changing customer behaviour. Catalogue retailing is a non-store retail format that has a long history in North America and Europe. Previous research revealed that the primary shopping motives related to catalogue retailing were convenience oriented. Other motives included recreational orientat...

  4. « Retail Brand Equity: A PLS Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Jara

    2009-01-01

    In large retail stores, France is characterized by market saturation and even a decline of several retail concepts such as variety stores, or even supermarkets and hypermarkets (Cliquet, 2000). This situation leads to a fierce competition and raises questions which affect marketing strategies of French retail companies. Given the legal context, the French retailers can increase sales through retail brands which appear to be henceforth among the most effective marketing tools. Indeed, product ...

  5. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettendorf, L. [Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van der Geest, S. [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuper, G. [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-04-15

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find strong evidence for amount asymmetry. However, there is a faster reaction to upward changes in spot prices than to downward changes in spot prices. This implies timing or pattern asymmetry. This asymmetry starts three days after the change in the spot price and lasts for four days.

  6. A longitudinal study of externally visible cigarette advertising on retail storefronts in Massachusetts before and after the Master Settlement Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebucki, Carolyn C; Diskin, K

    2002-06-01

    To assess the effect of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) on the amount of cigarette advertisements visible from outside of over-the-counter tobacco retailers, for five specific premium brands and an "all other" category, for five types of establishments, and in three areas (windows/doors, building/other detached areas, and sidewalks); to assess the relation of total exterior retail cigarette advertising to illegal sales to youth. Observations were conducted on the number of cigarette advertisements visible from outside tobacco retail establishments in a paired convenience sample (n = 556) in Massachusetts before and after the MSA. Archival databases containing information on merchant compliance with age related sales laws during the time period were used to assess the relation of total cigarette advertising with sales to underage youth. Paired sample t tests assessed planned comparisons pre- to post-MSA; Spearman's rho tested associations for dichotomous variables. Significant post-ban increases were observed in the prevalence of exterior cigarette advertising on gas (petrol) stations and gas mini/marts (gasoline retailers) buildings, windows, and doors. Significant declines were observed on windows of liquor stores. Winston advertising declined overall, while advertisements of the "all other" brand category increased. Correlations between advertising and illegal sales, while modest, were significant. These pre- to post-MSA increases suggest the tobacco industry may be shifting expenditures selectively from billboard advertising to retailer exteriors more favoured by youth. Greater amount of cigarette advertising visible from outside over-the-counter tobacco retailers is associated with greater cigarette sales to minors.

  7. Design of Technical Support System for Retail Company Based on Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the retail side of the market in China, the sale of electricity companies as a new source of power retail, they participate in the electricity market business. National and local governments subsequently introduced the corresponding policies and rules, the technical support system becomes one of the necessary conditions for the access of the retail company. Retail electricity companies have started the system construction, but has not yet formed a standardized, complete architecture. This paper analyzes the business and data interaction requirements of retail electricity companies, and then designs the functional architecture based on basic application, advanced application and value-added application, and the technical architecture based on “cloud”. On this basis, the paper discusses the selection of private cloud, public cloud and mixed cloud model, and the rationalization suggestion of system construction. Which can provide reference for the construction of the technical support system of the domestic retail enterprises.

  8. Coastal Contacts’ Business Development in the North American Online Retail Eyeglass Market

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    The following paper is an analysis of Coastal Contacts Inc. and the North American retail eyeglass industry. Coastal Contacts is an online retailer of contact lenses and prescription eyeglasses. At the time of writing the company has recently entered the eyeglasses market. This industry has an underdeveloped online retail channel. The reason the channel has not developed as quickly as other products such as contact lenses is because eyeglasses are a more complicated purchase. As more purchase...

  9. Challenges and Opportunities in ‘Last Mile’ Logistics for On-Line Food Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Trienekens , Jacques; Hvolby , Hans-Henrik; Turner , Paul

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Production Management in Food Supply Chains; International audience; Conventional approaches to logistics for food retail continue to be challenged by the rapid growth of on-line food retail. At the same time, ‘last mile’ logistics optimization for on-line retail also face challenges as changing consumer expectations, habits and purchasing patterns intersect with the increasing density of urban environments. Numerous considerations are already in play around servicing of last mile log...

  10. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  11. Retail Visual Assistant Digital Artefact

    OpenAIRE

    Knott, Neville

    2013-01-01

    Window display, store layout and visual merchandising are defined as the ability to attract and sell to the consumer silently. One of the biggest challenges facing small retail businesses in towns and villages around the globe is how to compete against large multinationals in the visual layout and presentation of their merchandise and shops. One of the key advantages that large retail units have over small ones is professionally merchandised stock incorporated into a strategic spatial layout....

  12. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  13. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  14. Towards a Healthy High Street: Identifying Skill Needs in Small Independent Retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, John; Parker, Cathy; Harris, John

    2002-01-01

    Secondary analysis of data from a study of skill needs in the British independent retail sector suggests there is justification for focusing on higher-level training in three areas: building and sustaining competitive advantage, e-commerce, and retail operations. These areas are the core modules in a distance learning initiative that resulted from…

  15. A Model for Web-based Information Systems in E-Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Head, Milena M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of Web-based information systems (WIS) by electronic retailers to attract and retain consumers and deliver business functions and strategy. Presents an abstract model for WIS design in electronic retailing; discusses customers, business determinants, and business interface; and suggests future research. (Author/LRW)

  16. ETHICAL EVALUATIONS OF RETAILERS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON FOOD AND CLOTHING RETAILERS IN KAYSERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurtoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in retailing sector bring about some ethical problems. Retailing is a faceto-face marketing activity by its nature. Thus, ethical problems in retailing directly affect consumers and consumer reactions turn directly to retailers. Therefore, defining and solving the ethical problems in retailing is an important issue for retailers. The main purpose of this study is to identify the food and clothing retailers’ perspective about ethical purchase decision making process and their evaluations on this subject. Beside this, identifying the differences of these evaluations in terms of the demographic characteristics of retailers is another objective of this study. Findings show that retailers generally approve ethical behaviors and disapprove unethical behaviors. In addition, evaluations of retailers differ in terms of some demographic characteristics. Results of the study also show that retailers are sensitive about unethical actions and behaviors and they believe that all the retailers must act according to ethical principles.

  17. Who stops selling? A systematic analysis of ex-tobacco retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feletto, Eleonora; Burton, Suzan; Williams, Kelly; Fry, Rae; Sutton, Clare; Bagus, Lachlan; Egger, Sam

    2016-03-09

    There is evidence that wide distribution of cigarettes contributes to smoking, and multiple commentators have called for a review of tobacco retailing. This study analyses retailers who stop selling cigarettes, why they do so, and discusses the implications for tobacco control. An audit of tobacco retailers in the Australian state of NSW was used to identify retailers who had stopped selling tobacco, and they were then compared with current retailers to determine how many, and what types of outlets stop selling tobacco. Attempts were made to contact and interview all former tobacco retailers identified in three audited regions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 ex-tobacco retailers, or 31% of the subset of ex-tobacco retailers. Low-volume outlet types were over-represented as a proportion of retailers exiting the market, and some had resumed selling within 18 months of the audit. Low profits were often cited as a contributor to stopping; however, in all but one case, the decision to stop selling was also influenced by a significant change in business circumstances-either legislative or other business changes. Few retailers stop selling tobacco while continuing in the same business, and those who stop disproportionately represent retailer types with low sales volume. The results suggest that legislative changes provide a window where retailers could be prompted to exit the market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  19. The Fight Against Diabetes in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Rulfová, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis is focused on retail whose offer of merchandise could help reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus type 2. This type of diabetes mellitus is becoming a severe health and social problem these days. Some sources speak about epidemic of the 21st century. The dissertation suggests marketing mix for a sale of 3 products of proper diet in the specifically selected shop COOP Dvůr Králové n. L., cooperative. As the basis for the marketing mix, a SWOT analysis and comparison of ...

  20. College-Level Education in Retailing: A Comparison of Perceptions of Retail Employment Executives and Retail Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Sue Stringer

    The tremendous changes in methods of operation experienced in the retailing field in recent years, have brought about changes in the nature and extent of formal education required of potential retail executives. The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain the relative value of various elements of college retailing programs in the…

  1. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  2. Retail Market Structure Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is analyzing the trends and development in the retailing sector in Central Europe, namely in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. These markets serve about 63 million inhabitants. The retail industry in Central Europe has changed dramatically in the last two decades, and has become a model for successful transformation of emerging markets. The retail market is highly concentrated and dominated by Western European retail chains. International retail chains are using all formats of modern distribution. This article is focusing on the development of hypermarkets, supermarkets and discount stores. Due to the international retail chains, Central European countries benefit from a dense network of modern shopping places; the intense competition of highly productive retailers contributes to the lower level of inflation rate because of the so-called Wal-Mart Effect. The constant pressure on prices influences the marketing strategies of both retailers and suppliers.

  3. Retail applications of signature verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  4. Hedging strategies in energy markets: the case of electricity retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroumand, Raphael Homayoun; Goutte, Stephane; Porcher, Simon; Porcher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As market intermediaries, electricity retailers buy electricity from the wholesale market or self-generate for re(sale) on the retail market. Electricity retailers are uncertain about how much electricity their residential customers will use at any time of the day until they actually turn switches on. While demand uncertainty is a common feature of all commodity markets, retailers generally rely on storage to manage demand uncertainty. On electricity markets, retailers are exposed to joint quantity and price risk on an hourly basis given the physical singularity of electricity as a commodity. In the literature on electricity markets, few articles deals on intra-day hedging portfolios to manage joint price and quantity risk whereas electricity markets are hourly markets. The contributions of the article are twofold. First, we define through a VaR and CVaR model optimal portfolios for specific hours (3 a.m., 6 a.m.,...,12 p.m.) based on electricity market data from 2001 to 2011 for the French market. We prove that the optimal hedging strategy differs depending on the cluster hour. Secondly, we demonstrate the significantly superior efficiency of intra-day hedging portfolios over daily (therefore weekly and yearly) portfolios. Over a decade (2001-2011), our results clearly show that the losses of an optimal daily portfolio are at least nine times higher than the losses of optimal intra-day portfolios. (authors)

  5. THE AGGREGATE IMPACT OF ONLINE RETAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Tran

    2014-01-01

    To study the impact of online retail on aggregate welfare, I use a spatial model to calculate a new measure of store level retail productivity and each store's equilibrium response to increased competitive pressure from online retailers. The model is estimated on confidential store-level data spanning the universe of US retail stores, detailed local-level demographic data and shortest-route data between locations. From counterfactual exercises mimicking improvements in shipping and increased ...

  6. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors......), with the discussion of the stakeholders’ roles and their interrelation in delivering energy flexibility with the influential factors to the actual implementation of energy flexible operation of their buildings. Based on a literature analysis, the results cover stakeholders’ types and roles, perceptions (drivers......, barriers, and benefits), energy management activities and technology adoptions, and the stakeholders’ interaction for the energy flexibility in retail buildings....

  7. Customer Experience Management in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaladevi B

    2009-01-01

    Survival of fittest & fastest is the mantra of today’s business game. To compete successfully in this business era, the retailer must focus on the customer’s buying experience. To manage a customer’s experience, retailers should understand what “customer experience” actually means. Customer Experience Management is a strategy that focuses the operations and processes of a business around the needs of the individual customer. It represents a strategy that results in a win–win value exchange be...

  8. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  9. Innovation in Hospital Revenues: Developing Retail Sales Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward W; Marvel, Jon; Wright, Matthew K

    Hospitals are facing increasing cost pressures due to cutbacks by Medicare, Medicaid, and managed-care organizations. There are also rising concerns that public policy may exacerbate the problem. In lieu of these concerns, nascent innovative ways of generating increased revenues are beginning to appear. In particular, a few hospitals have adopted retail sales practices to generate significant nonmedical services revenues. The hospital retail sales opportunity has been compared with that of the airport industry where nearly 50% of revenues are generated by sales of retail products as opposed to aeronautical-related transactions. This initial investigation included a qualitative interview of a health care retail sales expert and a pilot survey of 100 hospital senior executives to gauge the current state of this phenomenon. The industry expert suggested that only 2% of US hospitals have pursued this initiative in a meaningful way. Of the 44 survey responses, only 9 institutions were engaged in e-commerce or retail sales activities. Questions remain as to why this opportunity remains unrealized, and additional research is proposed.

  10. Retailing Laboratory: Delivering Skills through Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Valdez, Ana Dolores; Valdez Cervantes, Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    Building from a theoretical foundation of active learning, this article describes how using a retail laboratory in an educational curriculum can benefit both students and strategic partners. Students work alongside strategic partners, and the retail laboratory enables them to probe and design novel retailing strategies, such as launching new…

  11. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyer...

  12. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an agreement, contract, or...)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat all such futures and options and all... codified at 7 U.S.C. 2(c)(2)(E)). In this preamble, citations to the retail forex statutory provisions will...

  13. 76 FR 41375 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... regulatory agency shall prescribe \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an... of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78f(a)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat... the retail forex statutory provisions are to the sections in which the provisions will be codified in...

  14. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an agreement, contract, or...)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat all such futures and options and all... codified at 7 U.S.C. 2(c)(2)(E)). In this preamble, citations to the retail forex statutory provisions will...

  15. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... a retail forex business, provided that the broker-dealer complies with the Securities Exchange Act...) of which the broker-dealer is a member insofar as they are applicable to retail forex transactions... Exchange Act, to permit a registered broker or dealer (``broker-dealer'') to engage in retail forex...

  16. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  17. Application of social media tools by retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alarcon-del-Amo, M.d.C.; Lorenzo-Romero, C.; Constantinides, Efthymios; Eldon, Y.L.; Loh, S.; Evans, C.; Lorenzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter explores the factors influencing the adoption process and the degree of engagement of the social media as part of the online marketing strategy by Spanish retailers. A retail industry survey identifies four different segments of retailers depending on the level of implementation of

  18. Retailer brand architecture and consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Which assortment of products and services should retailers offer consumers? Which foods can be deleted from the present assortment? Which brands do retailers have to have in their assortment to satisfy consumer demands? These are a few of the questions food retailers continuously strive to answer...

  19. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

    2010-01-01

    Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

  20. Metrics for assessing retailers based on consumer perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimin Anastasii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests a new look at trading platforms, which is called “metrics.” Metrics are a way to look at the point of sale in a large part from the buyer’s side. The buyer enters the store and make buying decision based on those factors that the seller often does not consider, or considers in part, because “does not see” them, since he is not a buyer. The article proposes the classification of retailers, metrics and a methodology for their determination, presents the results of an audit of retailers in St. Petersburg on the proposed methodology.

  1. actors of Success and Failure for International Retailers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florance Feldmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article provides an understanding of international retailers’ successes and failures when expanding in the Polish market. Accordingly, the objectives of this article were to define and identify what are the critical factors of success and failures of international retailers’ strategies while expanding in the Polish market according to the retailers themselves. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theory on internationalization compared to how internationalization is experienced and conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: Twenty cases were studied among which were found four successful retailers and two who had failed. Coding of categories highlighted five critical success factors and five critical failure factors. Pricing strategy, necessity of adapting operations to local market, learning by doing, e-commerce and early entry timing appeared as factors of success or at least as “facilitating factors.” Choosing the inappropriate entry method, underestimating competition, developing the retail network and retail environment at a slow pace and not giving enough means of abnegation led to failures in Poland. Originality: This article contributes to filling two main gaps identified in the literature review. Many different theoretical approaches exist but no conclusive framework has emerged. Besides, most concepts were developed and tested on western European countries and nothing proved adequate to the specific retail landscape of eastern Europeans countries such as Poland.

  2. Who gains from hourly time-of-use retail prices on electricity? An analysis of consumption profiles for categories of Danish electricity customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.; Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    include a systematic component in the hourly variation, we show that customers with different consumption profiles experience different average cost of their electricity consumption when billed according to hourly time-of-use prices. Thus, some categories of customers stand to gain from time......Studies of the aggregated hourly electricity load in geographical areas typically show a systematic variation over the day, the week, and seasons. With hourly metering of individual customers, data for individual consumption profiles have become available. Looking into these data we show...... that consumption profiles for specific categories of customers are equally systematic but quite distinct for different categories of customers. That is, different categories of customers contribute quite differently to the aggregated load profile. Coupling consumption profiles with hourly market prices which also...

  3. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  4. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  5. Developing organization structure of retail enterprises (on the example of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr L. Bobkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research is to prove repetitiveness of changes in the organization structure of commercial enterprises. With regard to the goals of the research, such scientifically well-known paired notions as vertical and horizontal; high and flat; mechanical and organic can be considered as two basic types of organizational structures. The authors’ hypothesis is that these two types of structures – consequent and parallel – replace each other dialectically, and change qualitatively in the process of enterprises growth, but, at the same time, they maintain their constitutive properties at each level of organizations development.The retail sector was chosen as the object of analysis, since the generalized organizational structure in it is characterized by separate sales outlets, which makes it possible to conduct statistical processing of data. In this context, enterprises of similar size (in terms of number of employees and sales volume and having similar (consequent or parallel organizational structures can make groups that form the aggregate of commercial organizations. Cluster analysis is a generally accepted method of defining groups joining objects that are homogeneous with respect to certain criteria. Cluster analysis is the means of exploratory analysis, meant for natural clustering of the initial data set into groups. The IBM SPSS Statistics software was used for defining clusters.The analysis was conducted according to the data of the Czech Republic retail enterprises. The economy of this Central-European country was chosen, because, on the one hand, it is a part of the common market of the United Europe, and, on the other hand, it preserves its national currency. The research data were obtained from the database of Albertina Gold Edition of Bisnode Česká republika, a.s., including enterprises of all the sectors. 1695 retail organizations of all sizes were chosen from the total trade organizations for the research.As a result

  6. Research on the leverage effect of the retail chains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of market economy in China and the rising incomes of people, the level of consumption is continuously upgrading. Meanwhile, the chain retailing industry which is closely linked to people’s daily life is developing rapidly. All these factors lead to the transformation of economic structure of China. Since the foreign retail enterprises, like Walmart, Carrefour, and Metro, entering into China, the local chain retailing industry in China is facing more severe pressure due to the competition. In this situation, this paper will compare and analyze the differences between local retail chains and foreign retailing enterprises using the financial and operating leverage indicators. This paper will also put forward some feasible suggestions.

  7. Retail Services and Pricing Decisions in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zheng Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and social responsibilities have led many manufacturers to used products recovery. Meanwhile, many manufacturers nowadays sell products via indirect retailer channels and direct Internet channels. This paper models a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain to improve the sustainability of products. We apply the two-stage optimization technique and the Nash game to examine the impacts of the retail services and the degree of customer loyalty to the retail channel on the pricing of players in a centralized and a decentralized dual-channel supply chain. Our results show that the retail services have a great impact on the manufacturer and the retailer’s pricing strategies. We also compare the differences of pricing strategies between a centralized and a decentralized dual-channel supply chain and suggest the optimal retail services and pricing decisions for the players in the supply chain.

  8. Staff Scheduling within the Retail Business in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedgaard, Jesper; Mortensen, Kim H.; Larsen, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Staff Scheduling within the retail business deals with the assignment of employees such as shop assistants to work tasks so that the right number of employees are available at any given times and the total staff costs are minimized. In this paper the retail staff scheduling problem is formulated...... as a Mixed Integer Problem. The retail staff scheduling problem is solved using the metaheuristic {\\$\\backslash\\$it Simulated Annealing}. The heuristic is implemented by modifying the original MIP model. Some of the constraints defined in the MIP are relaxed, entered into the objective function and weighted...... according to their relative importance. The problem is then formulated as minimizing the overall constraint violation. A thorough parameter test has been applied to the developed heuristics. The developed system has successfully been implemented in a number of shops and stores in Denmark....

  9. COULD BE ONLINE GROCERIES AN ALTERNATIVE FOR ROMANIAN FOOD RETAIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The new technologies, competition, consumer convenience and the lack of time for shopping are some factors that have encouraged the Romanian online retail food market. On the food market identifying the viable direction of development and business continuity represents a major concern for economic operators. For a new business online commerce is the most affordable and the fastest way to enter the market. The domestic online retail food market is estimated to reach 6 million euros in 2014. Studies carried out by specialized companies have identified the Romanian consumers' appetite for food shopping on the Internet. Although Romania is only at the beginning in online food market as compared to its European neighbours, experiments in other domestic sectors demonstrate the possibility of surprises in this domain. The article proposes a short analysis of the Romanian online food retail market, tendencies and opportunities in this new domain for local commerce.

  10. Retailing residential electricity : A concept that makes sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.

    2003-07-01

    A heated debate centres around the deregulation of the electricity industry and the retailing of residential electricity. An assessment of the current situation in the industry was provided in this paper to provide a basis for discussion. The experience gained both in Alberta and Texas in residential retail was examined. The main issue of concern is whether residential customers will benefit from deregulation of the electricity sector. The Retail Energy Deregulation (RED) Index provides a benchmark for those jurisdictions considering the residential options. Deregulation has not led to significant benefits to residential customers in most jurisdictions. The electricity industry will always require a central dispatch/market process that will have to designed, governed, regulated, modified regularly. The benefits to residential consumers are not expected for a very long time. Standard market design is an issue that will require attention. refs., 7 figs

  11. Workshop: Rethinking the profession and education of retail design

    OpenAIRE

    Quartier, Katelijn; Claes, Stephanie; Vanrie, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We strongly believe retail design is becoming a discipline in its own right. Today, the growth of digital technology asks for new ways of retailing. The intertwining of retail and society makes it challenging for retailers to stay relevant in relation to the consumers changing habits. Fitch believed that ‘shopping is the purpose of life’ (Fitch, 2012). His belief shifted the way all stakeholders in retail thought about what retail and retail design should be about. By rec...

  12. Retail availability and marketing of electronic cigarettes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; White, Christine M; Czoli, Christine D; Martin, Christina L; Magennis, Paul; Shiplo, Samantha

    2015-10-09

    Canada is among an increasing number of countries with restrictions on the sale of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In Canada, e-cigarettes containing nicotine have not been approved for sale; however, e-cigarettes that do not contain nicotine and do not make health claims can be sold. To date, there is little empirical evidence assessing the retail availability and marketing of e-cigarettes in countries such as Canada. Audits were conducted at 59 brick-and-mortar retail outlets (grocery stores, convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops) in four cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal and Halifax) in August-October 2014. In addition, a total of 21 e-cigarette manufacturer/retailer websites were audited, and inquiries were made as to whether the companies sold nicotine-containing products. Overall, 76% of the retail outlets sold e-cigarette products. Of convenience stores, grocery stores and tobacconist shops with e-cigarettes for sale, the vast majority (94%) sold nicotine-free products only; in contrast, all the vape shops sold at least one nicotine-containing e-cigarette product. Front counter displays were the most common form of in-store promotions and were present in virtually all convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops. Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes were available for purchase at approximately half (52%) of the online e-cigarette retailers surveyed. E-cigarettes with and without nicotine are widely available and marketed at a variety of retail outlets in Canada. "Illegal" sales of nicotinecontaining e-cigarettes were predominantly found at vape shops and online outlets, suggesting limited compliance with existing regulations.

  13. FDI in Indian retail – and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Chandrasekhar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The health of a nation is gauged not only by the quantum of FDI it attracts but also the trend it follows. In turn this is dependent on the economic policies formulated and practiced and the willingness of all concerned to engage with global economic practices. Since the early 1990’s when the government embarked on a policy of liberalization it has been observed that FDI inflows showed a steady increase until the last couple of years when in fact there has been a de-growth particularly 2010 over 2009 by almost 30%. On the other hand China has attracted FDI more than 4 times the quantum of India during the same period. Investors will look to invest in ‘opportunities’ as they see bearing the most attractive returns within a given frame work considering both the ‘home’ as well as ‘host’ country. Facts and figures very clearly indicate the positive impact even in India for certain sectors when FDI has been embraced. On the other hand, India most urgently requires gathering as much as investment as is possible to keep the momentum of growth going and one such opportunity is the organizing of our retail segment which would support development endeavor in a big way. The issue of embracing partial FDI in retail has seen some level of procrastination which requires more urgent and serious attention. Can India afford to lose this opportunity? This paper attempts to study the implications for this investment as also providing some suggestions.

  14. Developing global competitiveness by assessing organized retail productivity using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrotra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to find out (using Regression, Data Envelopment Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis how efficiently some of the top organized India retail companies have been performing relative to each other over the years and thereby to identify factors that help increase the efficiency of a retail company. The study was conducted based on the analysis of data downloaded from Prowess database for five Indian retail companies for the time period 2000-2007. The paper is deemed to be helpful to enable Indian retail companies gain a competitive advantage in the face of increased competition being faced in the emerging organized retail sector in India. The findings brought forth Advertising and Marketing expenses as the significant performance determining factors to be paid attention to.

  15. Consumer Information in the food service industry vs. food retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Rogge, C.B.E.; Becker, Tilman C.

    2008-01-01

    In order to define consumer expectations over a traceability and information system for the entire food supply chain, the information behaviour of consumers in the food service industry has been subject to an analysis for the first time. In comparison to consumers in retailing, significant differences appear in information seeking behaviour as well as in the information desired.

  16. In-season retail sales forecasting using survival models

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retail sales forecasting, survival analysis, time series analysis, Holt's smoothing .... where fx(t) is the probability density function of the future lifetime, Tx, of a .... Adjustments were made to the shape of the smoothed mortality rates in light of new.

  17. Subprimal purchasing and merchandising decisions for pork: relationship to retail value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Walter, J P; Dockerty, T R; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1996-01-01

    To assess retail value and profitability, cutting test data were obtained in a simulated retail cutting room for boxed pork subprimals, bone-in loins (n = 180), boneless loins (n = 94), Boston butts (n = 148), fresh hams (n = 28), and boneless hams (n = 23). Processing times (seconds) and retail weights (kilograms) were used to determine relative value. Cutting style affected (P < .05) value differential (US$/subprimal) for bone-in and boneless loins. When cutting styles within subprimals were pooled, value differential was affected (P < .05) by purchasing specification for bone-in loins, boneless loins, Boston butts, and inside fresh hams. Processing bone-in loins to a boneless end point produced a greater (P < .05) value differential and percentage of gross margin than a bone-in retail end point. Bone-in loins fabricated to a boneless retail end point produced a greater (P < .05) value differential and percentage of gross margin than boneless loins fabricated to the same end point. The increase in retail value can be attributed to the increased number and weight of retail cuts produced from bone-in loins. The thick, boneless loin cutting style produced a greater (P < .05) value differential and percentage of gross margin as a result of a lower (P < .05) cost of fabrication and increased value of retail cuts than the thin, boneless cutting style. In general, boneless pork cutting methods were more profitable than bone-in cutting methods regardless of subprimal.

  18. The reasonable timing of the adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma according to the surgical intent: suggestion based on progression patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Oh, Dong Ryul; Bae, Duk Soo

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to identify and suggest the reasonable timing of adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma according to the surgical intent and patterns of progression. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 50 carcinosarcoma patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2010. Among these 50 patients, 32 underwent curative surgery and 13 underwent maximal tumor debulking surgery. The remaining five patients underwent biopsy only. Twenty-six patients received chemotherapy, and 15 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 17.3 months. Curative resection (p < 0.001) and stage (p < 0.001) were statistically significant factors affecting survival. During follow-up, 30 patients showed progression. Among these, eight patients (16.0%) had loco-regional progression only. The patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy did not show loco-regional progression, and radiotherapy was a significant negative risk factor for loco-regional progression (p = 0.01). The time to loco-regional progression was much earlier for non-curative than curative resection (range, 0.7 to 7.6 months vs. 7.5 to 39.0 months). Adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinosarcoma might be related to a low loco-regional progression rate. Radiotherapy should be considered in non-curatively resected patients as soon as possible.

  19. The Effect of Private Brands on Business Performance in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the length of time many new retail features were developed, as a part of the total value chain (from manufacturer to customer. One such feature is: the development of private brands (private-label merchandise, private-label brands, store brands, house brands, own brands. Because of economic importance, both in theory and in practice, more complex stress was put on its research from various perspectives: the individual countries and regions - geographic, retail companies and formats (types of stores, product categories, as well as from the perspective of the perception of customers / consumers. In the context of it, special empirical emphasis was placed on the effects of private brands on business performance in retail, in particular, on cost, gross margin, profit, in other words, on profit indicators, such as: rate of profits from sales, profit rate of assets and the rate of profit of the share capital. Having such starting point, this paper attempts to, as thoroughly as it can, primarily empirically, investigate the impact of the development of private brands in the retail business performance. Using the latest available relevant data gathered from various scientific and professional sources, including well-known agencies that primarily conduct empirical analysis of private brands in some countries, companies and retail formats and product categories. The results should serve as a reliable basis for creating the most efficient strategy for managing the development of private brands in order to improve business performance in retail. This is especially true of the so-called "emerging market" private brands, as it is the case with Serbia.

  20. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangam, A.

    2015-06-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers etc. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancelation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancelations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also he offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item has allowed paying on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  1. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangam, A.

    2014-02-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, and attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancellation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancellations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item is allowed to pay on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than from the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples, and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  2. Exploring sales data during a healthy corner store intervention in Toronto: the Food Retail Environments Shaping Health (FRESH) project

    OpenAIRE

    Leia M. Minaker; Meghan Lynch; Brian E. Cook; Catherine L. Mah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Population health interventions in the retail food environment, such as corner store interventions, aim to influence the kind of cues consumers receive so that they are more often directed toward healthier options. Research that addresses financial aspects of retail interventions, particularly using outcome measures such as store sales that are central to retail decision making, is limited. This study explored store sales over time and across product categories during a healthy ...

  3. Perlindungan Hukum Hak Kekayaan Intelektual (Hki) Dalam Waralaba Retail Mini Market Di Yogyakarta Mini Market Di Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Hariyanto Hariyanto, S.H., M.KN

    2009-01-01

    The Law Protection Intellectual Property Right in Mini Market Retail Franchise in YogyakartaFranchise business is more happening in Indonesia. This fast development indicates an interesting investment which on the same time helps the business subjects in starting their own business with a low risk. The franchise business which commonly stable is retail business. One of retail business which serves the main needs and daily needs is mini market Alfamart and Indomaret.This research aims to ident...

  4. The factors of retail brand positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the basic characteristics of a retail process as a function of the development of a successful brand. The retail network is continuously progressing, developing its abilities, successfully adjusting to its environment, and which is the most important it is persistently following wishes and needs of its consumers, and is satisfying them through high-quality offers. The retail network is relatively a new business structure, which has a great potential for competitive advantage. Once, prestigious partners to retailers, which have represented successful brands, they are often perceived to be stripped of rank and to come back at the level of common suppliers. Also, the suppliers' brands have no longer the position as they had, their status has decreased and their former power is gone, as a more superior, compared to the retailers. The inertia, enjoying 'the old glory', thinking in the manner of the same well-established formula as well as the inability to adjust themselves to the changes occurring among consumers have led the majority of the brands to be stuck in the past. The companies have to stop this increasing phenomenon, if they do not want to face in the near future, even more dramatic and more harmful consequences. Since the main aim of the research, performed in this work, was to determine the importance of retail brand positioning, the retail environment was analyzed, with special emphases on the consumer role in retail, and factors of successful retail activities. As a special aspect of successful retail, the environment of retail place was determined and within this, the effects of the retail places' atmosphere. For setting the retail strategy framework, the following basic entities are observed: product, price, exclusivity, quick response, information technology, price strategy, logistics and competitiveness. .

  5. Retail Trade in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Joachim

    The study presented in this paper is part of the European project: New Forms of Employment and Working Time in the Service Economy/NESY. The overall objective of the project is to analyse the emergence and the effects of new forms of employment, work organisation and working time patterns in the ...

  6. SATISFACTION OF RETAIL INVESTORS ON THE STRUCTURAL EFFICIENCY OF THE MARKET: EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamunur Rashid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfied investors are a necessary element of the stock market. They help to finance rapid expansion in developing countries. This study explores the components of market structure that contribute to the satisfaction level of retail investors. Around 300 retail investors from 25 randomly selected brokerage houses registered with the Dhaka Stock Exchange, Bangladesh were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Analyses reveal that most investors were young and inexperienced but educated, with shortages of skills and income. The investors put the strongest emphasis on effective investment analysis, followed by ease of the transaction process, effective information management and timely risk management. The trading experience of these investors was used as a moderating variable to investigate the impact of demographic variables and found to be insignificant. The study suggests the importance of effective regulation, disclosure requirements to ensure a supply of quality information, investor education and technology driven trading in brokerage houses for overall investor satisfaction.

  7. Retail competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defeuilley, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions

  8. Retail competition in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defeuilley, Christophe [LARSEN and EDF R and D, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2009-02-15

    The introduction of competition into retail electricity supply gave rise to great expectations. However, to date, its performance has proven less than stellar, owing primarily to the theoretical concepts underpinning this reform, which draw heavily on the Austrian school. Neither consumers' decision processes nor this sector's technical paradigm were adequately accounted for, leading to an uncorrect estimation of the expected impact of opening to competition. Short- and medium-term prospects for the evolution of retail markets must be reconsidered from the perspective of greater stability: not a generalization of competition, but rather a persistent segmentation between active and inactive clients; not a large and rapid diffusion of radical innovations in commercialisation, with the potential for undermining the incumbents' positions. (author)

  9. Can retail banking clients' attrition be managed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaliotis Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rurrο_e of all banks across the universe is to satisfy their clients' necessities. One of the predominant impacts of the last few years' financial crisis in Europe was the way in which customers interact with their banks. The theory of 'main bank' is not any more the case as clients' trust toward banks fades away together with their loyalty. Nowadays, it is necessary for banks to segment their clientele data base, and target the most profitable clients. The retention strategy of each financial institution becomes more and more important as the value of each retained customer is disproportional to the cost of acquiring a new one. The main findings of the subject retail banking clients' retention policy analysis prove that clients of different lifetime value have different propensity to defect. At the same time, the ability of a bank to retain a potential defector does not depend directly on satisfying the defection reason. Many of the various bank counter offers which do not directly satisfy the reason that a client refers to as the 'defection' one, are enough in order to retain a client. Equally important to the identification of clients' behavioural patterns is the use of the subject findings on behalf of the retail oriented banks in order to predict accurately the cost of future defection, as well as, to incorporate one more measurable parameter in their credit risk scorecards i.e. the intention to increase credit exposure.

  10. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  11. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  12. Shopper marketing strategy in food retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogetić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading role of retailers in food industry marketing channels significantly contributes to shopper marketing affirmation. Shopper marketing is a new marketing paradigm which focuses on the shopper and point-of-sale. Results of thorough literature review on shopper marketing have been presented in this paper. In addition, research methodology includes surveying 1000 shoppers in food retail stores in Belgrade area. The paper considers and analyzes the characteristics of urban food retail market shoppers, and based on the findings of the conducted research concludes that adaptation of shopper marketing strategies is necessary. Significant research finding is that shoppers' perceptions in food retail market require a profiled approach to retail store strategy adjustments, which includes shopper marketing programs and activities. The paper opens a number of questions regarding possible approaches to shopper marketing by crisscrossing the variables of retail formats, sex, and shoppers' income categories.

  13. The brand architecture of grocery retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how the brand architecture of grocery retailers set material and symbolic boundaries for consumer choice, thus limiting consumer sovereignty. The article first discusses previous work on store atmospherics, servicescapes and brand architecture. It is argued that work based...... on these concepts has taken an internal management perspective on how retailers can manipulate aspects of the retail setting to serve their own interests. Then, we develop an alternative conceptualisation of retailer brand architecture that takes into account that consumers (and other constituents) are active co......- constructors of material and symbolic aspects of retail settings. It is discussed how consumers participate in constructing retailer brand architecture and how this concept differs from previous research. Implications for both research and practice are discussed....

  14. MARKETING OBJECTIVES AMONG RURAL FOOD RETAILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Stegelin, Forrest E.

    1996-01-01

    Food retailers representing four retailer types (family operated grocery stores, produce markets, meat/egg/dairy markets, and convenience stores) in rural Georgia communities were surveyed as to their marketing objectives. Qualitative marketing objectives were ranked by the marketers as to marketing intentions, and by customers as to marketing expectations. More definitive and quantitative marketing objectives were also ranked by the food retailers as to the priority of implementation in thei...

  15. Retail Tactical Planning: An Aligned Process?

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyer , Heidi; Dukovska-Popovska , Iskra; Kiil , Kasper; Kaipia , Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Part 9: Quality in Production Management; International audience; This paper addresses tactical planning in retailing through a case study approach in one grocery retailing company. The issues are how tactical planning is conducted and how the different plans are connected. The study complements earlier retail planning studies by showing the sequence of planning phases and by studying the fragmented plans as a process. The master category planning is important and sets borders for the other p...

  16. GENDER ASPECTS OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN RETAIL

    OpenAIRE

    DEPUTATOVA ELENA YURYEVNA

    2016-01-01

    Situation in Russian retail demonstrates a highly competitive structure. Irrespective of segmentation ways, many retailers have still been using common ways of marketing communications and the search of loyal customers remains an elusive target for many companies. The problem is that a great variety of retailers have similar offers both to men and women, ignoring the fact it should be different. The article deals with differences of men and women consumer behavior aspects in choosing shops, t...

  17. Supply Chain Management in Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Plazibat; Sladana Brajevic

    2009-01-01

    Companies attempt to change their ways of doing business to find out new approaches to customers. Internationalization and consolidation of retailing turned traditional retail industry upside down. Fast and efficient operational models and new technologies constantly challenge retailers. The term supply chain management (SCM) is relatively new in the literature, appearing first in 1982. Supply chain is a set of institutions that moves goods from the point of production to the point of consump...

  18. Retail payments and the real economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and the real economy. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995-2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates the overall economy, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macroeconomic impact. Retail payme...

  19. New Trends in Logistics as Retail Support

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda Renko; Dejan Ficko; Kristina Petljak

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Informatisation, internationalisation and globalisation have dramatically changed retail sector; speeding up the retail processes, creating new sale formats, fastening the increase of income etc. During the last decade, logistics influenced the development of retailing by cutting down costs and increasing the service quality level. The main purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of market trends that affected logistics and directly caused changes in Croatian retailin...

  20. The Value for the Consumer in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cavalcante Chamie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shopping is not just a rational act, but also emotional, involving desire and pleasure. Therefore, retailers need to invest in actions, which create customer value, making the purchase an engaging time. The article’s objective is to understand what the shoppers, the role played by a person during the shopping process, value during the purchasing experience. The research used the meanend chains theory and the laddering technique to identify the formative value elements in a toy store. As a result, it contacted that to create value, the store should offer stimuli to assist children education, a magical and playful atmosphere, a variety that can awaken the child's desire, and foster a sense of a good purchase and the maximization of resources such as time and money. This research increases understanding, from the customer's perspective, of what is valued in a holistic shopping experience.

  1. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard

    2008-05-27

    two hours advance notice and over 1,900 MW can be dispatched on less than thirty minutes notice. These legacy DR programs are increasingly used by utilities for economic in addition to reliability purposes, with over two-thirds (68percent) of these programs callable based on market conditions. - Approximately 60percent of DLC programs and 30percent of interruptible rate programs called ten or more DR events in 2006. Despite the high frequency of DR events, customer complaints remained low. The use of economic criteria to trigger DR events and the flexibility to trigger a large number of events suggests that DR resources can help improve the efficiency of MISO wholesale markets. - Most legacy DR programs offered a reservation payment ($/kW) for participation; incentive payment levels averaged about $5/kW-month for interruptible rate tariffs and $6/kW-month for DLC programs. Few programs offered incentive payments that were explicitly linked to actual load reductions during events and at least 27 DR programs do not have penalties for non-performance. - Measurement and verification (M&V) protocols to estimate load impacts vary significantly across MISO states. Almost half of the DR programs have not been evaluated in recent times and thus performance data for DR events is not available. For many DLC programs, M&V protocols may need to be enhancedin order to allow participation in MISO's proposed EDR schedule. System operators and planners will need to develop more accurate estimates of the load reduced capability and actual performance.

  2. Potentials of RFID Application in Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foscht, Thomas; Kotzab, Herbert; Maloles III, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    The willingness of retailers to adopt RFID systems, as well as finding optimal RFID applications has yet not been investigated. This paper examines the issues associated with the RFID adoption based on the results of a conjoint analysis. The conjoint measurement looked at the trade-off decisions...... among different possible set-ups of RFID applications in retailing companies. Considerable willingness to adopt, but low diffusion and a structure of preferences with respect to RFID features was shown throughout the examined retailing companies. Furthermore, differences were shown among different types...... of retailers in their preferences for RFID system features and clusters were implied....

  3. Retail video analytics: an overview and survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Jonathan; Fan, Quanfu; Gabbur, Prasad; Haas, Norman; Pankanti, Sharath; Trinh, Hoang

    2013-03-01

    Today retail video analytics has gone beyond the traditional domain of security and loss prevention by providing retailers insightful business intelligence such as store traffic statistics and queue data. Such information allows for enhanced customer experience, optimized store performance, reduced operational costs, and ultimately higher profitability. This paper gives an overview of various camera-based applications in retail as well as the state-ofthe- art computer vision techniques behind them. It also presents some of the promising technical directions for exploration in retail video analytics.

  4. Implementation of Integrated Retail Module (IRM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perrin, Richard A; Bona, Richard E; Brekhus, Dennis A; Padilla, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    ...) systems for achieving reduced military clothing inventories though automated systems providing asset visibility at the wholesale retail and manufacturing levels and balanced flow replenishment...

  5. Consumer loyalty in retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.

  6. The food retail environment and area deprivation in Glasgow City, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macintyre Sally

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has previously been suggested that deprived neighbourhoods within modern cities have poor access to general amenities, for example, fewer food retail outlets. Here we examine the distribution of food retailers by deprivation in the City of Glasgow, UK. We obtained a list of 934 food retailers in Glasgow, UK, in 2007, and mapped these at address level. We categorised small areas (data zones into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Income sub-domain score. We computed mean number of retailers per 1000 residents per data zone, and mean network distance to nearest outlet from data zone centroid, for all retailers combined and for each of seven categories of retailer separately (i.e. bakers, butchers, fruit and vegetable sellers, fishmongers, convenience stores, supermarkets and delicatessens. The most deprived quintile (of areas had the greatest mean number of total food retailers per 1000 residents while quintile 1 (least deprived had the least, and this difference was statistically significant (Chi-square p

  7. The Circular Economy and the Leading European Retailers: A Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the circular economy is gaining momentum in political and business thinking about the transition to a more sustainable future. EuroCommerce and the European Retail Round Table, for example, have argued that leading retailers are keen to play a leading role in shaping the circular economy within Europe. This exploratory research note outlines the characteristic features of the concept of the circular economy, provides some illustrations of how Europe’s leading retailers are publicly addressing circular economy approaches and offers some general reflections on the application of the concept within the retail sector of the economy. The findings reveal that almost 50% of the leading European retailers signalled a commitment to the circular economy and to the principles underpinning it and a number of them looked to evidence their commitment within their retail operations. That said the authors suggest that If Europe’s leading retailers’ public commitments to a more circular economy are to become a reality then they will not only need to effect a radical change in their current business models and that this will need to be accompanied by radical changes in consumers consumption behaviour. More contentiously, there must be concerns that the leading European retailers might effectively capture the concept of the circular economy to justify continuing economic growth.

  8. Innovative Positioning as a Marketing Tool of Retailers on the Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the paper is to develop the theory of retail business positioning as a part of marketing innovation-based strategy. It is proposed that innovative retail formats and business models should be included in it. Research Design & Methods: The critical literature review on the existing dimensions of business positioning as well as the new, suggested dimensions is made. General trends in food retailers’ positioning in Poland and the positioning strategy development of Carrefour are analysed in the form of examples and a short case study. They are based on the secondary sources like academic papers, retail magazines and companies’ web sites. Findings: On the fragmented food markets retailers position themselves by introducing format innovations and stressing low price. Then they have to reposition themselves by attributes other than price. Big mass merchandisers are now segmenters. Implications & Recommendations: In Poland the tendencies for buying natural, Fair Trade, diabetics, organic or functional products, as well as the focus on the elderly segment are opportunities for retailers. Yet, trading up creates new opportunities for discounters. Contribution & Value Added: The paper contributes to the theory of retail positioning by linking elements of the marketing and the entrepreneurship approaches. It also develops knowledge about the Polish retail food market.

  9. How German Online Retailers Price Foods: An Empirical Analysis for Chocolate Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Fedoseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of online grocery retailing, little is known about price dispersion across online providers, the relation between online and offline prices as well as the frequency of price adjustments. We employ means of descriptive and inductive statistics as well as panel econometrics to address these issues for German online food retailers. Daily online prices for twelve chocolate products charged by eight pure online and multichannel retailers and collected over three months are investigated. Information economics suggests that a maturing online market will call forth more price homogeneity online due to lower search costs by consumers as well as more flexible prices due to lower costs of price adjustments by retailers. Our results suggest, however, that neither homogenous prices nor frequent price adjustments do occur on the German online chocolate market.

  10. Enabling smart retail settings via mobile augmented reality shopping apps

    OpenAIRE

    Dacko, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Retail settings are being challenged to become smarter and provide greater value to both consumers and retailers. An increasingly recognised approach having potential for enabling smart retail is mobile augmented reality (MAR) apps. In this research, we seek to describe and discover how, why and to what extent MAR apps contribute to smart retail settings by creating additional value to customers as well as benefiting retailers. In particular, by adopting a retail customer experience perspecti...

  11. Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, Osman

    This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost

  12. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Twitter Sentiment Analysis Applied to Finance: A Case Study in the Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Th\\'arsis Tuani Pinto Souza; Olga Kolchyna; Philip C. Treleaven; Tomaso Aste

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a financial analysis over Twitter sentiment analytics extracted from listed retail brands. We investigate whether there is statistically-significant information between the Twitter sentiment and volume, and stock returns and volatility. Traditional newswires are also considered as a proxy for the market sentiment for comparative purpose. The results suggest that social media is indeed a valuable source in the analysis of the financial dynamics in the retail sector even whe...

  14. Did the expiration of retail price caps affect prices in the restructured Texas electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Linhong; Zarnikau, Jay

    2009-01-01

    On January 1, 2007, the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) market became the first restructured market in the US to completely remove caps on the prices which could be charged to residential energy consumers by the retailers associated with the traditional or incumbent utility service providers. Our analysis suggests that the expiration of the price-to-beat (PTB) price caps may have led to a reduction in the average prices charged by competitive retail electric providers (REPs). (author)

  15. FUTURE MODERN RETAIL SOLUTIONS AND SHOPPER EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica JELEV

    2018-03-01

    As competition grows, brand manager imagination needs to work, and sales growth solutions need to focus on customer focus attention. It is a difficult task if all brands offer discounts in the malls they are in, and the announcement of differentiation is put to the attention of specialists who offer solutions for fun of any kind for the clients. The article aims to present the evolution of world trade in recent years and the various ways of diversion invented by retailers to keep customers in store chains longer time for them to buy more. The conclusion of this article will focus on the idea of future trade based on modern technology inside stores, which will lead to profound changes in customer buying behavior.

  16. The chilled storage life and retail display performance of vacuum and carbon dioxide packed hot deboned beef striploins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R G; Penney, N; Gilbert, K V; Moorhead, S M; Scott, S M

    1996-04-01

    Two cooling regimes that complied with the New Zealand meat hygiene requirement that hot deboned meat be chilled to +7 °C or less within 24 hr of leaving the slaughter floor were evaluated for the production of chilled table meats. Electrically stimulated hot deboned bull beef half striploins were either vacuum or carbon dioxide packed before being cooled in accordance with either Regime 1 (cool at +5 °C for 24 hr, transfer to chiller operating at -1.0 ± 0.5 °C) or Regime 2 (cool at +5 °C for 24 hr, hold at 5 °C for 6 days, transfer to chiller operating at -1.0 ± 0.5 °C). Striploins were removed from -1.0 °C storage 8, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after slaughter and subjected to microbiological, tenderness, sensory and retail display performance evaluations. Both Regimes 1 and 2 produced meat of acceptable mean tenderness, 8 kgF (MIRINZ Tenderometer) in either vacuum or carbon dioxide packs within 28 and 8 days of slaughter, respectively. However, 70 days after slaughter the first signs of over-ageing became apparent. Steaks from Regimes 1 and 2 maintained acceptable visual appearance during retail display at 5 °C for 48 hr and 24 hr, respectively. After these times, the product was judged by the panel to be unacceptable because of its dull dark lean tissue and grey to green discoloration of the fat. Poor colour stability during retail display was mirrored by deterioration of sensory attributes, particularly aroma which is indicative of incipient spoilage. While carbon dioxide packaging in combination with Regime 1 offered an initial microbiological advantage over vacuum packaging, this advantage was not, however, carried over into retail display. Poor colour and sensory stability during retail display suggest that chilled table cuts derived from hot deboned bull beef are more suited to the Hotel-Restaurant-Institutional (HRI) trade than supermarket retailing. To serve the HRI, vacuum packed hot deboned bull beef primal cuts processed by Regime 1

  17. Ethanol research with representatives of provincial/territorial governments and ethanol retailers : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This paper provided the results of a survey conducted to obtain feedback from retailers and provincial and territorial governments concerning the promotion of ethanol use. A key objective of the research was to determine whether local and provincial governments and retailers are interested in cooperating with the federal government in promoting ethanol use. Thirteen government representatives were interviewed as well as 11 retailers. Results of the study suggested that approaches to collaboration with the diverse stakeholders involved in the promotion of ethanol will require a tailored approach. The needs and interests of jurisdictions and provinces varied widely. Outlets selling ethanol-blended gasoline were concentrated in Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Retailers who embraced the alternative fuel tended to be well-established in the ethanol market, and did not require assistance from the Government of Canada. Retailers who were reluctant to embrace ethanol stated that they were only likely to enter the market when required to do so by law. Many stakeholders felt that consumers entertained common misperceptions concerning ethanol, and that consumers were unsure of the effect of ethanol on their vehicles. Many retailers had taken steps to communicate with consumers about the relative benefits of ethanol-blended gasoline. Results indicated that the federal government can assist provinces and retailers by providing promotional tools such as flyers, pamphlets and brochures. Interest among retailers in collaborating with the government was only moderate. It was recommended that retailers be provided with accurate information on ethanol. It was concluded that strategies should be developed by the federal government to increase public awareness of ethanol use.

  18. Manufacturer and retailer brands in food retail assortments: Notes from a shopping trip across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    and perform a variety of activities and services, which provide added value in the eyes of consumers (Burt 2000). In this connection, branding is becoming increasingly important, as food retailers develop their own brands within and across product categories. Many retailers are attempting to cultivate...... an overall brand identity in order to protect and identify their market offering (Burt & Sparks 2002). The assortment of products food retailers offer typically includes manufacturer brands, re-tailer brands and generic or unbranded products. In recent years, increasing competition in food retailing has made...... retailers is discussed. Then, the findings from a shopping trip across Europe are presented. Finally, a discussion of the findings is provided and it is briefly considered how the findings of this study were used as input for a study of consumer perceptions of the brand architectures of food retailers...

  19. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the

  20. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  1. Understanding retail gasoline pricing : An empirical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruzikas, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    Retail gasoline markets offer an abundance of price data at the daily and, more recently, hourly level. Firms in this industry use sophisticated price strategies. Moreover, there have been a number of important recent market developments. All this makes retail gasoline a promising industry to study

  2. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  3. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... accounting. The regulations restate and clarify the computation of ending inventory values under the retail... method of accounting for inventories must clearly reflect income. Section 1.471-2(c) provides that the...-retail ratio, or cost complement. The numerator of the cost complement is the value of beginning...

  4. 76 FR 41676 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... with persons who are not ``eligible contract participants'' (commonly referred to as ``retail forex... temporary Rule 15b12-1T to allow a registered broker-dealer to engage in a retail forex business until July... forex transactions. DATES: Effective Date: Rule 15b12-1T is effective on July 15, 2011 and will remain...

  5. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... \\5\\ (a retail foreign exchange (forex) rule). Transactions described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I...'s retail forex rule must treat similarly all such futures and options and all agreements, contracts... forex rules must prescribe appropriate requirements with respect to disclosure, recordkeeping, capital...

  6. 47 CFR 301.6 - Retailer participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... responsible for checking consumer or household eligibility but shall report to NTIA suspicious patterns of customer behavior. (4) Use commercially reasonable methods to order and manage inventory to meet customer... requires the retailers to self certify that they: (A) Have been engaged in the consumer electronics retail...

  7. Documentation of the Retail Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Price Model (RPM) provides a first‐order estimate of average retail electricity prices using information from the EPA Base Case v.5.13 Base Case or other scenarios for each of the 64 Integrated Planing Model (IPM) regions.

  8. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  9. Social media: a new frontier for retailers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Lorenzo Romero, Carlota; Gomez Boria, Miguel A.; Swoboda, B.; Morschett, D; Rudolph, T.; Schnedlitz, P.; Schramm-Klein, H

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades the retailing industry is finding itself in a state of constant evolution and transformation. Globalization, mergers and acquisitions, and technological developments have drastically changed the retailing landscape. The explosive growth of the Internet has been one of the

  10. Labour costs and queueing theory in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); A.R. Thurik (Roy); C.A. Bout

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper approximation results for the M/G/s queueing model are used to derive an empirically verified shop type dependent non-homogeneous relation between labour volume and sales in retail trade. Moreover, we formulate the retailer's labour management as a formal minimization

  11. Developing Strategic Planning for the Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Retailers need a strategic plan that will enable them to adapt to changing trends and work with new ideas. Questions retailers should ask to shape the strategic plan and generic strategies--overall cost leadership, differentiation, and marketing to a particular group or offering a special service--are discussed. (SR)

  12. Innovation in Downstream Fashion Retail Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    While product marketers and brand owners struggle to make new products, manufacturing processes and inbound logistics, innovation taking place in retail networks is often overlooked. Networks in retailing are comprised by varieties of single- and multi-brand stores, chains and departments stores...

  13. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  14. Competition in the retail gasoline industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jedidiah

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation examines competition in the retail gasoline industry. The first chapter highlights the importance of gasoline in modern society, introduces my work, and places it in the context of the existing academic literature. The second chapter details the institutional structure and profitability of the industry. The vast majority of retail gasoline stations are not directly owned and operated by major oil companies. Instead, most stations are set up under other contractual relationships: lessee-dealer, open-dealer, jobber-owned-and-operated, and independent. Gasoline retailers make relatively low profits, as is the case in many other retail industries, and are substantially less profitable than major oil companies. Gas stations also make less money when retail prices are climbing than when they are falling. As prices rise, total station profits are near zero or negative. When retail prices are constant or falling, retailers can make positive profits. The third chapter describes the entry of big-box stores into the retail gasoline industry over the last decade. The growth of such large retailers, in all markets, has led to a great deal of controversy as smaller competitors with long-term ties to the local community have become less common. I estimate the price impact that big-box stores have on traditional gasoline retailers using cross-sectional data in two geographically diverse cities. I also examine changes in pricing following the entry of The Home Depot into a local retail gasoline market. The results show that big-box stores place statistically and economically significant downward pressure on the prices of nearby gas stations, offering a measure of the impact of the entry of a big-box store. Chapter 4 examines the nature of price competition in markets where some competing retailers sell the same brand. The price effect of having more retailers selling the same brand is theoretically unclear. High brand diversity could give individual retailers

  15. The retail market : competition choice and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation includes a brief overview of the corporate structure of Veridian Corporation and discusses the concept of customer choice and competition regarding the electric power industry in Ontario. Pricing and price stability was also discussed with reference to the outlook of electricity retailing. The Veridian holding company employs a total of 149 employees within its corporate structure which includes Veridian Energy Inc., Veridian Connections Inc. (a local electric distribution company), and Firstsource Inc. (an energy retailing business). Veridian operates in the Ontario cities of Pickering, Ajax, Clarington, and Belleville. The author notes that true customer choice occurs when customers have accurate price information before they buy a product, or when they have choice regarding who they buy the product from. Likewise, true competition occurs when there are multiple suppliers, when there is sufficient supply, and when prices are determined by demand. Although the electricity market in Ontario was opened to competition on May 1, 2002, customers do not really have a choice, nor does true competition exist. The author suggests that the Pickering generating station must be brought back on-line, as well as an investment climate that will attract new investors in power generation to Ontario. It was noted that government intervention is not helpful in stimulating investment in the power system. Pricing and price stability was discussed with reference to current trends in the import/export balance. The volatility in prices is expected to get worse in the near future, which is particularly detrimental to large power users who are seeking the assurance of a fixed price so that they could predict their production costs. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. The retail market : competition choice and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation includes a brief overview of the corporate structure of Veridian Corporation and discusses the concept of customer choice and competition regarding the electric power industry in Ontario. Pricing and price stability was also discussed with reference to the outlook of electricity retailing. The Veridian holding company employs a total of 149 employees within its corporate structure which includes Veridian Energy Inc., Veridian Connections Inc. (a local electric distribution company), and Firstsource Inc. (an energy retailing business). Veridian operates in the Ontario cities of Pickering, Ajax, Clarington, and Belleville. The author notes that true customer choice occurs when customers have accurate price information before they buy a product, or when they have choice regarding who they buy the product from. Likewise, true competition occurs when there are multiple suppliers, when there is sufficient supply, and when prices are determined by demand. Although the electricity market in Ontario was opened to competition on May 1, 2002, customers do not really have a choice, nor does true competition exist. The author suggests that the Pickering generating station must be brought back on-line, as well as an investment climate that will attract new investors in power generation to Ontario. It was noted that government intervention is not helpful in stimulating investment in the power system. Pricing and price stability was discussed with reference to current trends in the import/export balance. The volatility in prices is expected to get worse in the near future, which is particularly detrimental to large power users who are seeking the assurance of a fixed price so that they could predict their production costs. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. ICT in the retail in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Hes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides agricultural primary production, the food industry and all other branches of the economy /services/ it is the information and communication technology used in retail that is one of the factors that markedly influence food retail. Therefore it is necessary to analyse the effect of electronic tran­sa­ctions that are used by food retail to attract and acquire other target groups of the consumers purchasing food. Though globally the retail companies (for ex. in Great Britain invest in this technology heavily in order to increase their competitiveness on the market the food e-business in the Czech Republic has been more or less stagnating, though the recent years have been showing slight increase of interest in this form of shopping. This article identifies both the positive and the negative reasons of this situation. The technological level of computer network and its high accessibility proven by the fact that the vast majority of consumers can use internet for purchasing any kind of goods incl. food can be considered the positive reason. On the other hand the poor offer of food presented on the internet by retailers who – for fear of low demand for other kinds of food – focus mainly on be­ve­rages and dry food can be considered one of the negatives. The weakest point here is the timely delivery of goods in unchanged quality. Despite these facts the purchasing of food via internet can still serve well for busy or handicapped customers with limited mobility.

  18. Research and Development Costs in Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and development expenses are crucial business performance factors for all enterprises, including trading companies. The size and structure of these expenses depend largely on the nature of a company’s activities. Due to such importance and specificity, the research focus of this article is on R&D expenses in trading companies with particular emphasis on retail companies. Their share in the sales revenue of trading companies is increasingly important and determined by many factors, such as innovation, size, location, product categories, and others. Due to varying intensity of influence of these and other factors, research and development expenses in commercial companies differ among countries, trade types (wholesale, retail, wholesale and retail, retail formats (store types and product categories. Understanding the factors of these differences is important for efficient management of research and development costs in trade, particularly retail companies. They are the focus of research in this work.

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility and UK Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a preliminary examination of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR commitments and agendas being addressed and reported by the UK‟s leading retailers. The paper begins with a short discussion of the characteristics and origins of CSR and of the current structure of retailing in the UK. This is followed by an illustrative examination of the CSR issues publicly reported by the UK‟s top ten country of origin retailers and the paper draws its empirical material from the CSR reports posted on the World Wide Web by these retailers. The findings reveal that the UK‟s top ten retailers are addressing and reporting on four sets of CSR themes namely those relating to the environment; the marketplace; the workplace and the community. The paper concludes with a discussion of a number of general issues relating to these themes.

  20. Retail Executives’ Professional Learning Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aquino Lucena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research question that is addressed in this article is the following: what do the executives from small retailing firms learn in their work environment? The theoretical framework of the study is based on texts from the field of learning. This is a qualitative investigation. Ten interviews with clothing retail executives were carried out. Later, these interviews were transcribed and analyzed. In the data analysis stage, two categories were established in response to the research question. Regarding the first, respondents perceived difficulties (problems in their work environments and obtained specific information and knowledge in order to deal with these situations. So as to overcome different professional difficulties, respondents learned about colors and types of fabric and about certain manufacturing process aspects referring to the clothing sold by their companies. They also declared to have learned about their companies’ suppliers and about certain issues referring to sales, and to the accounting and the financial management of their companies. The second category refers to a change in some of the respondents’ habits. This learning content refers to predispositions to respond and/ or act in situations at their work environments. Respondents reported having changed the way they related to other people. They emphasized that they had learned how to interact with the employees at their stores and how to carry out supervision. Differently from other studies, we found that the retailers’ learning (individual learning affected their companies’ learning (organizational learning through changes in certain aspects of the analyzed companies’ organizational structures.

  1. Mapping the Customer Experience Management Strategies for Customer Loyalty in Retail Hypermarket Jabodetabek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Marcellinus Logahan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, competition in the global market has become increasingly difficult and and at the same time products and services provided by retail companies tend to be similar. So in such circumstances, customers expect not only satisfied with the products and services, but also the pursuit of the perfect shopping experience during the shopping process. The purpose of this study was to devise a customer experience management strategy at a hypermarket retailer Carrefour, Hypermart, Giant, and Lotte Mart. Both overall and per hypermarket retail chains that have the same character. The method used is Factor Analysis, Multi Dimension Scaling (MDS. The object of research is the hypermarket retail customers in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi to sample 360 people. The results of MDS mapping CEM variable per retail hypermarket retail hypermarket seen no one who is in the first quadrant in which the dimensions 1 and 2 positive namely Gianthypermarket retail. Tthere are three retail hypermarket located in quadrant 2 wherein the dimensions of 1 positive and 2 negative dimension namely retail Carrefour, Hypermart and Lotte Mart. In MDS can be classified Group 1 are the outlets; Group 1 are GPS (Giant Plaza Semanggi, CLB (Carrefour Lebak Bulus, CPH (Carrefour Permata Hijau and HPV (Hypermart Pejaten Village which leads to a positive value. While other outlets in group 2 are CCB (Carrefour Cibinong Bogor, GBT (Giant BSD Tangerang, GMD (Giant Margo city Depok, HPB (Hypermart Pondok Gede Bekasi, HJT (Hypermart JACC Thamrin, LRP (Lotte Mart Ratu Plaza, LKG (Lotte Mart Kelapa Gading, LF (Lotte Mart Fatmawati have in common in the lower quadrant (negative.

  2. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  3. Fashion retail innovation: about context, antecedents and outcome in technological change projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Fashion retail is recognised for its strong capabilities in product innovation, while also having the potential to improve the governance of technology-based process innovation. This chapter proposes a model perspective in management of technology and innovation, including special requirements...... of fashion retailing. In particular, this chapter discusses the context of fashion retailing understood as product and brand-based characteristics. A case study-based methodology is then used to guide an analysis of antecedents and (expected) outcome of fashion retail innovation. IT-based innovation...... dominates, but innovation is suggested to include a broader scope of technologies. Contrary to innovation maturity models, this chapter proposes to consider innovation as a continuous refinement between dynamic capabilities and absorptive capacity where technologies must be adapted to the special...

  4. Perlindungan Hukum Hak Kekayaan Intelektual (Hki) Dalam Waralaba Retail Mini Market Di Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Hariyanto Hariyanto, S.H., M.KN

    2009-01-01

    Franchise business is more happening in Indonesia. This fast development indicates an interesting investment which on the same time helps the business subjects in starting their own business with a low risk. The franchise business which commonly stable is retail business. One of retail business which serves the main needs and daily needs is mini market Alfamart and Indomaret. This research aims to identify the IPR which the franchise's object between franchisor and franchisee in the mini mark...

  5. Retail Productivity: Investigating the Influence of Market Size and Regional Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Özge

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the productivity of independent retail stores in Sweden by focusing on the impact of market size and regional hierarchy while controlling for several store and employee characteristics over time. The analysis utilizes Swedish store-level data for the years 2002–2008. To capture the urban-periphery interaction in retail markets, the analysis (i) uses an accessible market potential measure, which captures the impact of the potential demand both in clo...

  6. A comparative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in prepackaged versus retail-sliced deli meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, Sarah; Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hicks Quesenberry, Heather; Labarre, David; Schroeder, Carl M; Kause, Janell

    2010-04-01

    Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of this model. Other research has found that retail-sliced deli meats have both higher prevalence and levels of L. monocytogenes than have product sliced and packaged at the manufacturer level. The updated risk assessment model considered slicing location as well as the use of growth inhibitors. The per annum comparative risk ratio for the number of deaths from retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was found to be 4.89, and the per-serving comparative risk ratio was 4.27. There was a significant interaction between the use of growth inhibitors and slicing location. Almost 70% of the estimated deaths occurred from retail-sliced product that did not possess a growth inhibitor. A sensitivity analysis, assessing the effect of the model's consumer storage time and shelf life assumptions, found that even if retail-sliced deli meats were stored for a quarter of the time prepackaged deli meats were stored, retail-sliced product is 1.7 times more likely to result in death from listeriosis. Sensitivity analysis also showed that the shelf life assumption had little effect on the comparative risk ratio.

  7. Quantitative risk assessment of listeriosis-associated deaths due to Listeria monocytogenes contamination of deli meats originating from manufacture and retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths attributable to Listeria monocytogenes contamination in ham and turkey formulated without and with growth inhibitors (GIs). Two contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) prepackaged deli meats with contamination originating solely from manufacture at a frequency of 0.4% (based on reported data) and (ii) retail-sliced deli meats with contamination originating solely from retail at a frequency of 2.3% (based on reported data). Using a manufacture-to-consumption risk assessment with product-specific growth kinetic parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate), reformulation with GIs was estimated to reduce human listeriosis deaths linked to ham and turkey by 2.8- and 9-fold, respectively, when contamination originated at manufacture and by 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, for products contaminated at retail. Contamination originating at retail was estimated to account for 76 and 63% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated without GIs and for 83 and 84% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated with GIs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that storage temperature was the most important factor affecting the estimation of per annum relative risk. Scenario analyses suggested that reducing storage temperature in home refrigerators to consistently below 7 degrees C would greatly reduce the risk of human listeriosis deaths, whereas reducing storage time appeared to be less effective. Overall, our data indicate a critical need for further development and implementation of effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination at the retail level.

  8. Indian Organized Retail Sector: Impediments and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mehta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The winds of globalization have yielded rich dividends to the social and economic growth of India. The boom in Indian market has widened the horizons for the customers to be selective while purchasing any product. On the other hand, the sellers are more proactive in facilitating their customers’ quality services and cater to their growing demands. There is a paradigm shift in the customer’s perception and purchasing tendencies. The traditional shops and shopkeepers are now being slowly but gradually replaced by big/mini retail stores (shopping malls and retailers (top corporate houses. Indian consumers are evolving and accepting modern retail formats. In the context of Indian retail sectors, Big Bazaar, More, Pantaloon Retail India Ltd, ITC's e-choupal Reliance Retail Ltd, Vishal Mega Mart, Titan Industries, Archies, Bata India Ltd etc. are dominating the scene and have a wide spread network to execute their operation. The present paper is an attempt to study impediment and opportunities related to organized retailing in India.

  9. Consumers' multifaceted deal knowledge in a grocery retail setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2017-01-01

    of deal price status, typical deal price knowledge, and deal-spotting ability. Results show reasonably stable knowledge of typical deal prices, while knowledge of deal price status and deal-spotting ability improves significantly during grocery shopping. Surprisingly, consumers’ deal knowledge...... typical deal price knowledge. Furthermore, the findings suggest that consumers store internal reference deal prices. Retailers are therefore well advised to consider mixed depth and creative discount patterns to prevent ‘perfect’ perceptions of typical deal prices.......Despite its relevance to retailers, studies of consumers’ deal knowledge have been few. This study explores consumers’ deal knowledge before, during, and after the store visit applying a between-subjects field-study design with 1204 respondents. In particular, the authors investigate perception...

  10. Merchandise and Replenishment Planning Optimisation for Fashion Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Iannone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration among different companies functions, collaborative planning and the elaboration of focused distribution plans are critical to the success of each kind of company working in the complex retail sector. In this contest, the present work proposes the description of a model able to support coordinated strategic choices continually made by Supply Chain (SC actors. The final objective is achievement of the full optimisation of Merchandise & Replenishment Planning phases, identifying the right replenishment quantities and periods. To test the proposed model’s effectiveness, it was applied to an important Italian fashion company in the complex field of fast-fashion, a sector in which promptness is a main competitive leverage and, therefore, the planning cannot exclude the time variable. The passage from a total push strategy, currently used by the company, to a push-pull one, suggested by the model, allowed us not only to estimate a reduction in goods quantities to purchase at the beginning of a sales period (with considerable economic savings, but also elaborate a focused replenishment plan that permits reduction and optimisation of departures from network warehouses to Points of Sale (POS.

  11. 76 FR 19741 - Exemption for Retail Store Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... the types of operations traditionally and usually conducted at retail stores and restaurants when those operations are conducted at any retail store or restaurant or similar retail-type establishment... Retail Store Operations AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. [[Page 19742

  12. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    The cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato in South America where this specialist parasite is native. To investigate its phylogeography, we have genotyped individuals from 42 Peruvian populations using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. A clear south-to-north phylogeographical pattern was revealed with five well-supported clades. The clade containing the southern populations is genetically more diverse and forms the most basal branch. The large divergence among cytochrome b haplotypes suggests that they diverged before human domestication of potato. As the nematodes studied have been sampled on cultivated potato, multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes must have occurred independently in each clade. We hypothesise that this south-to-north pattern took place during the uplift of the Andes beginning 20 My ago and following the same direction. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a plant parasite sampled on cultivated plants revealing an ancient phylogeographical pattern.

  13. Retailing policies for generic medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Susana

    2005-06-01

    As there is general disagreement about the way generic medicines should be commercialized, two retailing policies are analyzed, taking into account their effects on the welfare of patients, government, pharmacies and physicians. In the first policy scenario, pharmacies are allowed to substitute generic medicines for branded ones, while in the second, substitution is forbidden. In both cases a pharmacies association is allowed to have a share in the production of generic medicines. The model predicts that under some conditions patients may prefer substitution by pharmacies but when doctors' decisions are binding, they are never "excessively bad". However, the policy choice belongs to the government, which prefers to allow for substitution more often than patients would like.

  14. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  15. Real-time PCR detection of Fe-type nitrile hydratase genes from environmental isolates suggests horizontal gene transfer between multiple genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lee; Owens, Erica; Tambling, Karen; O'Neill, David; O'Connor, Laura; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    Nitriles are widespread in the environment as a result of biological and industrial activity. Nitrile hydratases catalyse the hydration of nitriles to the corresponding amide and are often associated with amidases, which catalyze the conversion of amides to the corresponding acids. Nitrile hydratases have potential as biocatalysts in bioremediation and biotransformation applications, and several successful examples demonstrate the advantages. In this work a real-time PCR assay was designed for the detection of Fe-type nitrile hydratase genes from environmental isolates purified from nitrile-enriched soils and seaweeds. Specific PCR primers were also designed for amplification and sequencing of the genes. Identical or highly homologous nitrile hydratase genes were detected from isolates of numerous genera from geographically diverse sites, as were numerous novel genes. The genes were also detected from isolates of genera not previously reported to harbour nitrile hydratases. The results provide further evidence that many bacteria have acquired the genes via horizontal gene transfer. The real-time PCR assay should prove useful in searching for nitrile hydratases that could have novel substrate specificities and therefore potential in industrial applications.

  16. Factors Affecting a Recently Purchased Handgun’s Risk for Use in Crime under Circumstances That Suggest Gun Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    While many handguns are used in crime each year in the USA, most are not. We conducted this study to identify factors present at the time of a handgun’s most recent retail sale that were associated with its subsequent use in crime under circumstances suggesting that the handgun had been trafficked—purchased with the intent of diverting it to criminal use. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun purchases were of particular interest. Using data for 180,321 handguns purchased from federally licensed retailers in California in 1996, we studied attributes of the handguns, the retailers selling them, the purchasers, and the sales transactions. Our outcome measure was a handgun’s recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun’s most recent purchase from a licensed retailer and (b) that the person who possessed the gun when it was recovered by police was not its most recent purchaser. Altogether, 722 handguns were recovered and had trace results that met the additional criteria. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun, same-day transactions were more likely to be traced than were single-purchase handguns (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08 to 1.63). This was not the case for multiple-purchase handguns defined more broadly as multiple handguns purchased by one individual over any 30-day period as used in “one-gun-a-month” laws. Bivariate regressions indicated increased risk of a handgun being traced when it sold new for $150 or less (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.59 to 5.11) or had been purchased by a woman (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.52). Handguns sold by retailers who also had a relatively high proportion (≥2%) of purchases denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms were more likely to be traced than were those sold by other retailers (OR 4.09, 95% CI 3.39 to

  17. Factors affecting a recently purchased handgun's risk for use in crime under circumstances that suggest gun trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mona A; Wintemute, Garen J; Webster, Daniel W

    2010-05-01

    While many handguns are used in crime each year in the USA, most are not. We conducted this study to identify factors present at the time of a handgun's most recent retail sale that were associated with its subsequent use in crime under circumstances suggesting that the handgun had been trafficked--purchased with the intent of diverting it to criminal use. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun purchases were of particular interest. Using data for 180,321 handguns purchased from federally licensed retailers in California in 1996, we studied attributes of the handguns, the retailers selling them, the purchasers, and the sales transactions. Our outcome measure was a handgun's recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun's most recent purchase from a licensed retailer and (b) that the person who possessed the gun when it was recovered by police was not its most recent purchaser. Altogether, 722 handguns were recovered and had trace results that met the additional criteria. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun, same-day transactions were more likely to be traced than were single-purchase handguns (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08 to 1.63). This was not the case for multiple-purchase handguns defined more broadly as multiple handguns purchased by one individual over any 30-day period as used in "one-gun-a-month" laws. Bivariate regressions indicated increased risk of a handgun being traced when it sold new for $150 or less (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.59 to 5.11) or had been purchased by a woman (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.52). Handguns sold by retailers who also had a relatively high proportion (>or=2%) of purchases denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms were more likely to be traced than were those sold by other retailers (OR 4.09, 95% CI 3.39 to 4

  18. Omni-channel Retail Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    key players in the industry of retailing (Wilson, 2012; Verizon, 2012) and covers the idea that anything can be sold anywhere with consistent marketing, reasonable efficiency of the supply chain channels and responsible customer service. This article aims at contributing to a characterisation...... and definition of omni-channel retail information systems (OCRIS) by using the information systems research tradition as a distinctive starting point (Treiblmaier and Strebinger, 2008; Avgerou, 2001; Parboteah et al., 2009). Omni-channel retailing has evolved since 2010 with the ultimate aim of aligning physical...

  19. Monitoring process hygiene in Serbian retail establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesković Moračanin, S.; Baltić, T.; Milojević, L.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of sanitary procedures on food contact surfaces and food handlers’ hands in Serbian retail establishments. For that purpose, a total of 970 samples from food contact surfaces and 525 samples from workers’ hands were microbiologically analyzed. Results of total aerobic plate count and total Enterobacteriaceae count showed that the implemented washing and disinfection procedures, as a part of HACCP plans, were not effective enough in most retail facilities. Constant and intensive education of employees on proper implementation of sanitation procedures are needed in order to ensure food safety in the retail market.

  20. A bilevel model for electricity retailers' participation in a demand response market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Demand response programmes are seen as one of the contributing solutions to the challenges posed to power systems by the large-scale integration of renewable power sources, mostly due to their intermittent and stochastic nature. Among demand response programmes, real-time pricing schemes for small consumers are believed to have significant potential for peak-shaving and load-shifting, thus relieving the power system while reducing costs and risk for energy retailers. This paper proposes a game theoretical model accounting for the Stackelberg relationship between retailers (leaders) and consumers (followers) in a dynamic price environment. Both players in the game solve an economic optimisation problem subject to stochasticity in prices, weather-related variables and must-serve load. The model allows the determination of the dynamic price-signal delivering maximum retailer profit, and the optimal load pattern for consumers under this pricing. The bilevel programme is reformulated as a single-level MILP, which can be solved using commercial off-the-shelf optimisation software. In an illustrative example, we simulate and compare the dynamic pricing scheme with fixed and time-of-use pricing. We find that the dynamic pricing scheme is the most effective in achieving load-shifting, thus reducing retailer costs for energy procurement and regulation in the wholesale market. Additionally, the redistribution of the saved costs between retailers and consumers is investigated, showing that real-time pricing is less convenient than fixed and time-of-use price for consumers. This implies that careful design of the retail market is needed. Finally, we carry out a sensitivity analysis to analyse the effect of different levels of consumer flexibility. - Highlights: ► We model the game between electricity retailers and consumers under dynamic pricing. ► The retailer cuts procurement costs by shifting demand in time via price-incentive. ► Imbalance costs for the retailer taper

  1. Economic information from Smart Meter: Nexus Between Demand Profile and Electricity Retail Price Between Demand Profile and Electricity Retail Price

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Guangyi; Zhu, Wendong; Wang, Fei; Shu, Bin; Zhang, Kai; Rajagopal, Ram; Astier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a consumer's marginal system impact is only determined by their demand profile rather than their demand level. Demand profile clustering is identical to cluster consumers according to their marginal impacts on system costs. A profile-based uniform-rate price is economically efficient as real-time pricing. We develop a criteria system to evaluate the economic efficiency of an implemented retail price scheme in a distribution system by comparing profile cluste...

  2. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  3. The prospects of making small retail outlets in the Townships aggressively competitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malefane Johannes Lebusa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, township Small Retail Outlets were mostly established for survival and operated under a generally closed market system where the competition was not very strong. However, with the advent of democracy many people lost their formal income through retrenchments and out of desperation, many of these people opened Small Retail Outlets thus most of the existing and new entrants into the township market were unskilled or semiskilled labourers with little or no formal skills in business or entrepreneurship. Such efforts were rarely guided by any specific and informed strategy of identifying and exploiting a gap in the market. With the consolidation of the free market system under democracy, big brand businesses such as Shoprite Checkers and Small Retail Outlets of foreign nationals with different strategies entered and competed in this township market. With fewer formal skills in business and entrepreneurship, the owners of the Small Retail Outlets struggled to compete and thrive under these relatively new economic conditions. Given this situation, I conducted semi-structured interviews with fifteen of these traditional Small Retail Outlets to find out and better understand the challenges they face and the skills that might be needed to aggressively compete in this space. Based on these findings and understandings, I further examined these issues and suggest infusions of specific entrepreneurship skills that could develop their aggressive competitiveness. Keywords: entrepreneurship, competitiveness, small retail outlets, shopping complexes, innovation

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in raw retail frozen imported freshwater fish to Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreldin Elhadi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results of this study shows that these raw retail imported frozen freshwater fish are contaminated with potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. And the study recommend and suggest that there is a need for adequate consumer measures.

  5. Cost analysis of a novel HIV testing strategy in community pharmacies and retail clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecher, Shirley Lee; Shrestha, Ram K; Botts, Linda W; Alvarez, Jorge; Moore, James H; Thomas, Vasavi; Weidle, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    To document the cost of implementing point-of-care (POC) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rapid testing in busy community pharmacies and retail clinics. Providing HIV testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics is an innovative way to expand HIV testing. The cost of implementing POC HIV rapid testing in a busy retail environment needs to be documented to provide program and policy leaders with adequate information for planning and budgeting. Cost analysis from a pilot project that provided confidential POC HIV rapid testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics. The pharmacy sites were operated under several different ownership structures (for-profit, nonprofit, sole proprietorship, corporation, public, and private) in urban and rural areas. We included data from the initial six sites that participated in the project. We collected the time spent by pharmacy and retail clinic staff for pretest and posttest counseling in an activity log for time-in-motion for each interaction. Pharmacists and retail clinic staff. HIV rapid testing. The total cost was calculated to include costs of test kits, control kits, shipping, test supplies, training, reporting, program administration, and advertising. The six sites trained 22 staff to implement HIV testing. A total of 939 HIV rapid tests were conducted over a median time of 12 months, of which 17 were reactive. Median pretest counseling time was 2 minutes. Median posttest counseling time was 2 minutes for clients with a nonreactive test and 10 minutes for clients with a reactive test. The average cost per person tested was an estimated $47.21. When we considered only recurrent costs, the average cost per person tested was $32.17. Providing POC HIV rapid testing services required a modest amount of staff time and costs that are comparable to other services offered in these settings. HIV testing in pharmacies and retail clinics can provide an additional alternative venue for increasing the

  6. A nationwide survey of the quality of antimalarials in retail outlets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harparkash; Goodman, Catherine; Thompson, Eloise; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Masanja, Irene; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2008-01-01

    Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania. We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine), 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nearly one quarter (23.8%) of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone. Substandard antimalarial formulations were widely

  7. A nationwide survey of the quality of antimalarials in retail outlets in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harparkash Kaur

    Full Text Available Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania.We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine, 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Nearly one quarter (23.8% of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone.Substandard antimalarial formulations were

  8. Credit Default and Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation of Brazilian Retail Loans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo da Silva Correa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We use microdata from the Credit Information System (SCR of the Central Bank of Brazil to study the relationship between credit default and business cycles. In particular, we study the first part of the argument underlying the discussion about procyclicality related to the Basel II Accord: that recessions might increase credit defaults and have adverse impacts on the losses in portfolios of lender institutions. We explore both time series and cross-sectional variation in the data. Our data on the individual level are composed of retail loan transactions in two modalities-Consumer Credit and Vehicle Financing-from 2003 to 2008. Our results support the idea of a negative relationship between business cycles and credit default, but less strong than suggested in previous studies that use corporate data. We also find low and dispersed default correlations, and smaller losses in Value at Risk (VaR experiments than those found in the literature. These results may be possibly explained by the fact that, in the retail sector, loans are given to a large number of individuals, which may help to diversify risks.

  9. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  10. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze important aspects of buying behavior of food retailers, i.e., trade buyers' evaluation of product and vendor attributes, based on a number of background variables, when choosing a new supplier of an already well-known product category. The study encompassed...... the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...... attributes, and that it is possible to generalise retailers' buying behavior for different food products across countries, retail organizations, and buyers....

  11. Predicting retail banking customers' attitude towards Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    at increasing the adoption of Internet banking use among retail banking .... customers to access and perform financial transactions on their bank account from ..... customers barely agree with the statements that measured this construct.

  12. 76 FR 40779 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... transaction are offset when: (i) The customer maintains separate accounts managed by different advisors; (ii... could nominate a deposit account as containing margin for its retail forex transactions. Nothing in this...

  13. Retailing and Shopping on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Internet advertising and commercial activity are increasing. This article examines challenges facing the retail industry on the Internet: location; comparison shopping; security, especially financial transactions; customer base and profile; nature of the shopping experience; and legal and marketplace controls. (PEN)

  14. Electricity prices in the Finnish retail market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, Eero

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses, firstly, on the pricing of electricity in the Finnish retail market. In particular, the impact of the ownership structure on prices is tested empirically. Secondly, the influence of low-cost electricity sources on retail prices is considered. The question about whether the average fuel costs rather than the wholesale price determine the retail prices is thus addressed. The supply side behaviour characterised may explain the passivity of client activity in the seemingly competitive Finnish market. - Research highlights: → Ownership has a strong impact on retail prices in the Finnish electricity market. → Locally owned companies' rates are 5-15 per cent lower than investor owned companies' rates. → Own low cost acquisition of electricity helps local firms to keep prices at low levels.

  15. Green Power Partnership Top 30 Retail

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This list represents the largest green power users among retail partners within the GPP.

  16. Clostridium difficile in retail meat and processing plants in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Roger B; Norman, Keri N; Andrews, Kathleen; Norby, Bo; Hume, Michael E; Scanlan, Charles M; Hardin, Margaret D; Scott, Harvey M

    2011-07-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in pork from sausage manufacturing plants and retail meat in Texas. Twenty-three C. difficile isolates were detected from 243 meat samples (9.5%) from 3 sausage-manufacturing plants and 5 retail meat outlets from 2004 to 2009. Twenty-two isolates were positive for toxins A, B, and binary toxin, and were characterized as toxinotype V, PFGE type-NAP7, or "NAP7-variant." Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study were similar to those reported previously for toxinotype V isolates, although the results suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat, animal, or human clinical toxinotype V isolates.

  17. The Retail Designer in the Age of Phygital Retail: a Practice-based Retail Design Competence Framework for Retail Design Education

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Stephanie; Quartier, Katelijn; Vanrie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    During the past two decades, digitalisation and the emergence of new online/mobile channels have changed retailing dramatically (Verhoef et al. 2015). The proliferation of channels and consumers’ demand for a seamless experience across them, is challenging retailers’ business strategies (Melero et al. 2016). Concerning the physical channel, professional literature (e.g. blogs, newsletters, opinion articles) urges retailers to shift towards a phygital strategy. By means of integrating digital ...

  18. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  19. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This is a special CALiPER report on LED lamps available through the retail marketplace and targeted toward general consumers. It follows similar reports published in 2011 and 2012 (products purchased in 2010 and 2011), and is intended as a continuation that identifies long-term trends. For this report, products were selected to investigate specific hypotheses, rather than represent a sample of the increasingly large retail LED market.

  20. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  1. A study of Canadian retail gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, A.L.

    1999-05-01

    Retail gasoline pricing in Canadian markets was examined to demonstrate why retail prices tend to follow one of two distinct patterns and that neither pattern is observable in the wholesale price. In many cities, retail prices are more rigid than wholesale prices, while in other markets, retail prices follow a cyclic pattern not seen in wholesale prices. This study examined why constant prices are observed in some cities, while other cities have cyclic prices. Theoretical justification was given to the argument that prices will remain constant only in markets in which there are only few gasoline companies with a small number of stations, but a large per-station capacity. It was shown that when one firm operates significantly more stations than its rival, a constant cost equilibrium cannot be maintained. However, a cycle equilibrium can be constructed in this case, and also when the two companies are similarly sized. An initial examination of available price, cost and market structure data shows that there is a positive correlation between price stability and concentration. The response of retail prices to wholesale price movements in the presence of a retail price cycle was also examined through the use of a simple model based on the predictions of the above theory. Data for the city of Windsor, Ontario was used for the modelling approach. A new cycle is created by an increase in price whenever the distance between the previous retail price and the current wholesale prices is very small. Retail prices are more responsive to wholesale prices over the increasing portion of the cycle. It was shown that when the asymmetric error correction model of Borenstein, Cameron and Gilbert is estimated, it indicates a more rapid response to wholesale price increases than to decreases. 72 refs., 22 tabs., 8 figs

  2. Clustering and Joint Marketing in Retail Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlin, Nils

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the idea that retail trade stories might cluster with their competitors to pool marketing expenses and thereby increase their individual visibility among consumers. In a model which presumes such a marketing technology we derive some new comparative statics results. In a small/mega center we expect more competing stores in retail trade markets where products are heterogenous and consumers like to compare products before they buy, i.e. where people like to shop around. The ...

  3. Retail business model transformation in multichannel environment

    OpenAIRE

    Chapagain, B. (Bimala)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With the advent of internet and e-commerce, the way of carrying out business and transactions has changed to a great extent. Consumers are continuously changing the way they do shopping and this has forced retail business to transform their traditional brick and mortar into adopting multi-channel business models. Retailing is one of the most dynamic and competitive areas of business organization. Effective marketin...

  4. ASPECTS REGARDING THE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT OF RETAILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Cristian Dabija

    2011-01-01

    The marketing environment in which producers or retailers act consists of the totality of factors and forces that come under the immediate control of a production or retail company and that influence the maintenance or development of profitable relationships with customers [Balaure, 2002, p.76]. It also represents the grouping of actors and of external forces of a company capable of influencing the way in which it develops and maintains satisfactory exchanges with the target market [Kotler, K...

  5. Attitudes of Chinese consumers towards retail formats

    OpenAIRE

    Staack, Tosten; Schramm, Matthias; Spiller, Achim

    2006-01-01

    The Chinese consumer goods market is widely considered to be one of the economic hot spots of the world. China seems to be the market with the largest growth potential within the next decade. Multina - tional retail companies, for example, Wal-Mart, Metro and Carrefour have made large investments to open up this new market. However, parallel to the positive aspects of the market development, foreign retail companies entering the market encounter numerous risks and difficulties. Whereas questi...

  6. How do minimum cigarette price laws affect cigarette prices at the retail level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N C; Zellers, L; Wellington, N

    2005-04-01

    Half of US states have minimum cigarette price laws that were originally passed to protect small independent retailers from unfair price competition with larger retailers. These laws prohibit cigarettes from being sold below a minimum price that is set by a formula. Many of these laws allow cigarette company promotional incentives offered to retailers, such as buydowns and master-type programmes, to be calculated into the formula. Allowing this provision has the potential to lower the allowable minimum price. This study assesses whether stores in states with minimum price laws have higher cigarette prices and lower rates of retailer participation in cigarette company promotional incentive programmes. Retail cigarette prices and retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programmes in 2001 were compared in eight states with minimum price laws and seven states without them. New York State had the most stringent minimum price law at the time of the study because it excluded promotional incentive programmes in its price setting formula; cigarette prices in New York were compared to all other states included in the study. Cigarette prices were not significantly different in our sample of US states with and without cigarette minimum price laws. Cigarette prices were significantly higher in New York stores than in the 14 other states combined. Most existing minimum cigarette price laws appear to have little impact on the retail price of cigarettes. This may be because they allow the use of promotional programmes, which are used by manufacturers to reduce cigarette prices. New York's strategy to disallow these types of incentive programmes may result in higher minimum cigarette prices, and should also be explored as a potential policy strategy to control cigarette company marketing practices in stores. Strict cigarette minimum price laws may have the potential to reduce cigarette consumption by decreasing demand through increased cigarette prices and reduced

  7. Did residential electricity rates fall after retail competition? A dynamic panel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadley, Adam; Yücel, Mine

    2011-01-01

    A key selling point for the restructuring of electricity markets was the promise of lower prices. There is not much consensus in earlier studies on the effects of electricity deregulation in the U.S., particularly for residential customers. Part of the reason for not finding a consistent link with deregulation and lower prices was that the removal of transitional price caps led to higher prices. In addition, the timing of the removal of price caps coincided with rising fuel prices, which were passed on to consumers in a competitive market. Using a dynamic panel model, we analyze the effect of participation rates, fuel costs, market size, a rate cap and switch to competition for 16 states and the District of Columbia. We find that an increase in participation rates, price controls, a larger market, and high shares of hydro in electricity generation lower retail prices, while increases in natural gas and coal prices increase rates. We also find that retail competition makes the market more efficient by lowering the markup of retail prices over wholesale costs. The effects of a competitive retail electricity market are mixed across states, but generally appear to lower prices in states with high participation rates. - Highlights: ► We analyze the effects of retail competition in electricity markets on residential retail prices. ► Analysis carried out using a dynamic panel model; monthly data for 17 U.S. states. ► More customer participation and larger market lead to lower prices. ► Higher fuel costs increase retail prices, but with a lag. ► Retail competition leads to a more efficient electricity market.

  8. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  9. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to open-quotes play the marketclose quotes. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers

  10. Coordinating supplier-retailer using multiple common replenishment epochs with retailers’ choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwen Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Provide a coordination strategy using multiple common replenishment epochs (MCRE for a single-supplier multi-retailer supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The demand of a product occurs only with a group of heterogeneous and independent retailers with constant rates, whereas all their order requests are fulfilled by the supplier. The supplier decides a set of MCREs with general price and extra bonus to entice the retailers to join any one of the MCREs, or to let them remain with their original order time epochs. A retailer is willing to participate in a CRE as long as the retailer’s cost increase is within its tolerance. This paper provide a mixed integer programming to determine the MCRE strategies in order to minimize the total costs of the supplier. Findings: The results illustrate that MCRE model provided in the paper can generate a better replenishment coordination scheme than single CRE models. Practical implications: Replenishment coordination is one of the most important mechanisms to improve the efficiency in supply chains, e.g., chain convenience stores in the modern retail industry. Originality/value: This is a follow-up research on Joint Economic Lot Size (JELS models with a focus on multiple retailers with their replenishment coordination.

  11. ARCHITECTURE IMPACT IN IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SERVICES IN RETAIL PHARMACIES: CASE STUDY PRISHTINA, KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Jakupi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to analyse the performance of the pharmacist and the wellbeing of the patients on the actual pharmacy layout (in retail pharmacies in Pristina, Kosovo and recognize the modifications that need to be done in architectural design of pharmacies, in improving the quality of care, communication, decrease of the dispensing errors and providing more private spaces to patients. Retail pharmacies are more complex environment as in the same time besides being health care institution are also a retail business environment, therefore there is a need for a more comprehensive analysis regarding the workflow. The mixed methodology has been used, by employing questionaries’ as quantitative method and empirical study of direct observation and interviews as qualitative means. The layout proposals are not envisioned to be implemented as a retail models, but, as ideas to provoke and encourage discussion. Kosovo retail pharmacies are a fast growing market and as such functioning self-sufficiently, which means that they can easily adapt to the local marketplace circumstances and cultural context. It is important for the retail pharmacies to test out the recommendations and challenge its environment in aim of equally maximize productivity and workflow, by keeping incorrectness to a minimum.

  12. AN OVERVIEW ON RETAIL REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical approach on retail reverse logistics. Environmental concern and the current marketing strategy have spurred retailers to implement strategies to facilitate product returns from end customers. Reverse logistics, indicating the process of this return flow, encompasses such activities as the movement of returned products, facilities to accommodate returned items, and overall remedy process for returned items. The retail industry, under great competitive pressure, has used return policies as a competitive weapon. Grocery retailers were the first to begin to focus serious attention on the problem of returns and to develop reverse logistics innovations. Grocery retailers first developed innovations such as reclamation centers. Reclamation centers, in turn, led to the establishment of centralized return centers. Centralizing returns has led to significant benefits for most firms that have implemented them. Over the last several years, retailers have consolidated. Now, more than ever, reverse logistics is seen as being important. This reverse distribution activity can be crucial to the survival of companies, because the permanent goodwill of the company is at stake. Businesses succeed because they respond to both external and internal changes and adjust in an effective manner to remain competitive.

  13. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  14. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  15. Identifying the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers in Scotland by utilising Porter’s generic competitive strategy model and the marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola O’HARE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El mismo texto del Independent retailers in the fashion sector make a substantial contribution to the UK economy at the time of significant change on the high street due to financial pressures and the growth of online trade. They provide an element of creativity and innovation to a homogenous retail landscape. The independent fashion retailer creates a destination and individual identity by presenting a unique offering and differentiated experience. Whilst independent retailers are important to the future of our high street, research is limited, particularly in the area of fashion independents. Therefore this research examines and identifies the unique characteristics of independent fashion retailers within Scotland. The research adopts a case study approach, qualitative methods of data collection in order to fulfil the aim and objectives of the study. Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies and the marketing mix were utilised as a means of drawing out the individual aspects and unique characteristics of the independent fashion retailer.

  16. Retail Deli Slicer Inspection Practices: An EHS-Net Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipcsei, Lauren E; Brown, Laura G; Hoover, E Rickamer; Faw, Brenda V; Hedeen, Nicole; Matis, Bailey; Nicholas, David; Ripley, Danny

    2018-05-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 3,000 people die in the United States each year from foodborne illness, and Listeria monocytogenes causes the third highest number of deaths. Risk assessment data indicate that L. monocytogenes contamination of particularly delicatessen meats sliced at retail is a significant contributor to human listeriosis. Mechanical deli slicers are a major source of L. monocytogenes cross-contamination and growth. In an attempt to prevent pathogen cross-contamination and growth, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created guidance to promote good slicer cleaning and inspection practices. The CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network conducted a study to learn more about retail deli practices concerning these prevention strategies. The present article includes data from this study on the frequency with which retail delis met the FDA recommendation that slicers should be inspected each time they are properly cleaned (defined as disassembling, cleaning, and sanitizing the slicer every 4 h). Data from food worker interviews in 197 randomly selected delis indicate that only 26.9% of workers ( n = 53) cleaned and inspected their slicers at this frequency. Chain delis and delis that serve more than 300 customers on their busiest day were more likely to have properly cleaned and inspected slicers. Data also were collected on the frequency with which delis met the FDA Food Code provision that slicers should be undamaged. Data from observations of 685 slicers in 298 delis indicate that only 37.9% of delis ( n = 113) had slicers that were undamaged. Chain delis and delis that provide worker training were more likely to have slicers with no damage. To improve slicer practices, food safety programs and the retail food industry may wish to focus on worker training and to focus interventions on independent and smaller delis, given that these delis were less likely to properly inspect their slicers and to have

  17. Profiling Customer Types in Luxury Retail Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tisovski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The type of customer who buys luxury is continuing to evolve. This research investigates the value and service-dominant theory effects on the value co-creation process between a service provider and service consumer within the luxury retail environment. The goal of the paper is two-fold: first, to offer a new view on value co-creation and second, to suggest potential in-store target segments based on experiential drivers in order to improve value sharing within luxury stores for diverse luxury shoppers. In other words, the author noticed a gap between the existing writing and practice – customer involvement has become interactive, and not neglected. The paper, thus, introduces four groups of customers: Experts, Popular, Exclusive and Aspirational. The methodology used combines analyses of four value creation denominators within the luxury setting: actor’s role, aesthetics, networks and luxury brand with findings from secondary research to integrate into the existing writing in this field. The managerial implications mainly target brand managers of luxury and premium brands with the objective to offer insights on how to address, with higher precision, the types of clients visiting and shopping for luxury products.

  18. Gaining access to the retail customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, D.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing Ontario's municipal electric utilities (MEUs) in the new competitive electricity marketplace are discussed. Various roles that MEUs are in a good position to perform have been suggested. Among them are: to represent consumer interests, to serve as a source of unbiased information to consumers, to provide meter ownership, meter reading, data management, billing and collection services on behalf of customers and all competitors. This author considers MEUs as assets to be leveraged and not liabilities to be fixed. The majority of retail customers in Ontario have been well served by their MEUs in the past and the performance-based regulation required by Bill 35 will guarantee that MEUs continue to be accountable to consumers and competitors for prices and standards of the services they receive. For this reason, it seems excessive to compare publicly-owned MEUs with private gas companies and conclude that the rules should be the same. To be viable, MEUs should remain over 50 per cent municipally owned, and rather than limit their activities, they should be given operational and commercial freedom to benefit their consumers and their municipality

  19. The Importance of Store Image and Retail Service Quality in Private Brand Image-Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Alić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this research is to highlight the role which store image and retail service quality can play in private brand image-building in the context of an emerging market in South-Eastern Europe (i.e. Bosnia and Herzegovina. We propose to address this issue by seeking answers to the following questions: (1 Does a ‘halo effect’ take place between the store image and the private brand image? (2 How does consumer’s evaluation of the quality of the service delivered by a retailer affect the image of its private brand? Research Design & Methods: Data were collected through a field survey via the store-intercept method. The sample consisted of 699 customers of two large retail chains. The data were analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings: The findings of the present study suggest that store image and retail service quality are important factors in the formation of the image of product-branded products. Implications & Recommendations: This study offers some important insights for retailers who intend to develop their private brand. First, the image transfer from store brand to private brand suggests that retailers should consider the introduction of a private brand as a brand extension, with their stores as the parent brand. Second, we recommend that retailers put more emphasis on quality improvement initiatives related to the store environment attributes. Contribution & Value Added: This study enhances the discussion on the phenomenon of private branding by analysing the store-level factors which underpin the formation of private brand image in the context of less developed European markets.

  20. Inherent Complexity Research on the Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains with Two Retailers: The Impact of Three Forecasting Methods Considering Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important phenomenon in supply chain management which is known as the bullwhip effect suggests that demand variability increases as one moves up a supply chain. This paper contrasts the bullwhip effect for a two-stage supply chain consisting of one supplier and two retailers under three forecasting methods based on the market share. We can quantify the correlation coefficient between the two retailers clearly, in consideration of market share. The two retailers both employ the order-up-to inventory policy for replenishments. The bullwhip effect is measured, respectively, under the minimum mean squared error (MMSE, moving average (MA, and exponential smoothing (ES forecasting methods. The effect of autoregressive coefficient, lead time, and the market share on a bullwhip effect measure is investigated by using algebraic analysis and numerical simulation. And the comparison of the bullwhip effect under three forecasting methods is conducted. The conclusion suggests that different forecasting methods and various parameters lead to different bullwhip effects. Hence, the corresponding forecasting method should be chosen by the managers under different parameters in practice.

  1. Toward retail product recognition on grocery shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Gül; Kuzu, Rıdvan S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of retail product recognition on grocery shelf images. We present a technique for accomplishing this task with a low time complexity. We decompose the problem into detection and recognition. The former is achieved by a generic product detection module which is trained on a specific class of products (e.g. tobacco packages). Cascade object detection framework of Viola and Jones [1] is used for this purpose. We further make use of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to recognize the brand inside each detected region. We extract both shape and color information; and apply feature-level fusion from two separate descriptors computed with the bag of words approach. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset (available on request) that we have collected for similar research purposes. Results are presented on this dataset of more than 5,000 images consisting of 10 tobacco brands. We show that satisfactory detection and classification can be achieved on devices with cheap computational power. Potential applications of the proposed approach include planogram compliance control, inventory management and assisting visually impaired people during shopping.

  2. How to Design for Strategic Resilience: A Case Study in Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Välikangas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Few firms can be said to be truly resilient by sustaining high performance for a long time. We draw on a case study of a large U.S.-based retailer to explore how an organization develops resilience – the ability to recover quickly from environmental jolts or misfortunes. The company’s CEO, concerned about the company’s ability to maintain its industry leadership and excellent performance, sought to engage the organization in a broad quest for developing resilience capabilities. Our analysis of this case suggests that generative doubt, organizational slack, and mindful engagement throughout the organization are key conditions for resilience. These three conditions need to co-exist to develop and sustain strategic resilience.

  3. Strategic choices for retail development in the context of marketing management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working out the retail development strategy is a crucial and the most time-consuming task to be solved by retailers in the context of marketing management. The lack of theoretical and methodological frameworks constrains working out strategic directions for retail development. In this regard, the authors define the concept of the strategy and its role in marketing management in retailing. The basis for the retail development strategies is to establish relationships with suppliers, customers and within the network, the effectiveness of which is determined by the effectiveness of selected methods for this purpose, exercises and principles of conduct. In the au-thors’ opinion, in the circumstances concerned one of the directions of the strategy realization should be establishing control over con-tractors’ activities in the framework of horizontal and vertical co-operation strategies. The authors state that in case of the horizontal cooperation strategy realization general guidelines should be strategic alliances conclusion and franchising development. While implementing the vertical cooperation strategy suppliers and retailers should establish sustainable relationships. In order to evaluate the rela-tionships between the supplier and the retailer the paper provides a procedure of calculating the interrelationship force indicator. The procedure is based on scoring a satisfaction level taking into account mutual requirements, followed by weighting and averaging these indicators. The proposed procedure can be used for configuring a suppliers’ portfolio. Supplier Relationship Management within SCM models, as well as assessment of the level of commitment will allow time to adapt to the changes associated with the structure of suppliers.

  4. A retailer's perspective on generation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willerton, K.

    2003-01-01

    There are several reasons for a retailer to invest in power generation. This investment acts as a risk management hedge against fixed price retail load, while improving competitiveness in illiquid wholesale markets. Investing in power generation leverages the retailer's wholesale trading capabilities. It also provides appropriate returns. Some of the factors that ensure the success of a retailer investing in power generation are low cost structure, low risk, strong forward commodity market, owners with large healthy balance sheets, and willingness to finance projects entirely with equity. A cost comparison was presented for different generation technologies. ENMAX chose to invest in wind power since the costs were comparable to that of other technologies. In addition, green credits will lower the cost of wind power. With low environmental impacts and no fuel risk, wind energy fitted ENMAX's retail strategy. Green power at ENMAX (GREENMAX) was the first to implement a Green Power Residential program in 1998, followed by the Green Power Commercial program in 2000. The author discussed the McBride Lake Wind Farm located near Fort MacLeod, Alberta. figs

  5. RETAIL BANKING BUSINESS: CURRENT STATE ANDSPECIFIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гузель Рефкадовна Фаизова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the retail banking business in the banking sector continueto grow. The current state of the retail banking business is considered and specific features of this area in the face of growing demand for banking products and services by the public and interest from lending institutions are identified by the article.Purpose: Research of current state of retail banking business and detection specific features of this area.Methodology: In the process of analysis and researchof the question the methods of economical and statistical analysis, methods of comparison and generalizationwereused.Results: The conclusion is that interest in the retail banking business continues to grow.There were revealed the role and the importance of standardized service processes and standardized products and services delivering as one of the main line of development in the segment of retail business.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-2

  6. “People over Profits”: Retailers Who Voluntarily Ended Tobacco Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. Methods We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer’s decision. Results Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store’s image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers’ values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Conclusion Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers

  7. 29 CFR 779.408 - “Full-time students”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Provisions Relating to Certain Employees of Retail or Service Establishments... establishment. In addition, the student's employment must not be of the type ordinarily given to a full-time...

  8. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, Leon; Geest, Stephanie A. van der; Varkevisser, Marco

    2003-01-01

    This article analyses the retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996-2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which the prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of the outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using these two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on the Dutch consumer costs is negligible. (Author)

  9. Price asymmetry in the Dutch retail gasoline market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettendorf, L.; Van der Geest, S.A.; Varkevisser, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses retail price adjustments in the Dutch gasoline market. We estimate an asymmetric error correction model on weekly price changes for the years 1996 to 2001. We construct five datasets, one for each working day. The conclusions on asymmetric pricing are shown to differ over these datasets, suggesting that the choice of the day for which prices are observed matters more than commonly believed. In our view, the insufficient robustness of outcomes might explain the mixed conclusions found in the literature. Using two approaches, we also show that the effect of asymmetry on Dutch consumer costs is negligible

  10. EXISTENCE OF TRADITIONAL FORMATS AND SELF SERVICE IN RETAIL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betzaida Oliveros de Sarmiento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research determines the concept of store format; revises the definition of each format and trade strategy which characterizes it as a result of adaptation to the type of consumer who is headed. There are commercial sectors in Venezuela where the traditional and self-formats coexist due to the adaptation of each store to your target consumer; this process must be continued to ensure the sustainability of the shop in the market. It is suggested that there are numerous alternatives for future research to determine the success of different formats in specific sectors of Venezuelan retail trade.

  11. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.

  12. Retail Food Refrigeration and the Phaseout of HCFC-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information on the HCFC phaseout that is relevant to food retailers, including alternatives to the use of HCFC-22 in retail food refrigeration, other refrigerant regulations, and resources for more information.

  13. Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of wholesale and retail frozen fish marketing in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... from each market giving 30 retail marketers and 30 wholesale marketers. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults Retail clinics are medical clinics based in pharmacies, ...

  15. Internationalization and Performance of Retail Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; T. Ratchford, Brian

    2012-01-01

    retailers through facilitating the transfer of learning in international markets. The study innovates by introducing a new performance metric, and an advanced methodology to account for the dynamic aspects of organizational learning. Testing our hypotheses on a sample of international retailers, we find......This paper offers a fresh approach to the literature examining the effect of internationalization on retail-firm performance. We draw on the organizational learning theory to test the moderating effect of four variables which are hypothesized to affect the performance of internationalizing...... that the relationship between internationalization and performance is U-shaped, and moderated by mergers and acquisitions, age at entry to international markets and country of origin. The findings extend prior research by providing more comprehensive evidence regarding the conditions under which internationalization...

  16. How retailer coupons increase attitudinal loyalty –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierich, Ralf; Zielke, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate how different design elements of retailer coupons increase the attitudinal loyalty towards retailers. Design/methodology/approach – Three design elements are manipulated in a 2x2x2 experimental design. Data is analysed using structural equation...... and the minimum purchase amount require at least some cognitive processing to have a loyalty impact. Research limitations/implications – Future studies can use the developed framework to test the impact of other design elements, promotion types or loyalty schemes. Practical implications – The results underline...... that personalization offers opportunities for increasing loyalty without the necessity of large investments. As these effects can occur without redemption, coupon promotions should not be evaluated based on redemption rates only. Originality/value – The study extends existing research by focusing on retailer coupons...

  17. WHOLESALER TO RETAILER GOODS FORWARDING CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg NIKIFOROV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern trends in the development of logistics controlling through the prism of collaboration between wholesale companies and retail chains have been considered. The nature and structure of cargo transportation by the wholesale company to the retail chain have been analysed. The key transportation processes have been identified and the reliance on transportation drivers-forwarders for their effectiveness has been determined. The study has resulted in the program-mathematical approach to the transportation controlling automation used by the wholesale company to deliver goods to the retail chain as well as the mathematical model of the system information flow. The practical recommendations for the mathematical software implementation using the AWS Forwarder software product as an example have been illustrated.

  18. Modern food retailing buying behaviour in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John

    2016-01-01

    by the overlapping food certification requirements of various government agencies, which impose limitations on the buyers’ decision. Due to the exploratory nature of the study and its focus on the context of a particular geographical marketplace, the findings may not be generalizable to other countries. Originality......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in developing economies using the case of Tanzania. This paper provides an insight into the decision-making practice of modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in emerging modern food distribution systems, where...... the buying task involves balancing the retailer’s commercial interests with more stringent government regulations that shape food business in the region. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study approach was used for the study. The researcher used semi-structured interviews with retailers...

  19. Global sourcing risk management approaches: A study of small clothing and textile retailers in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Niemann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global sourcing has increased as buyers searched for new markets that offered better pricing, quality, variety and delivery lead times than their local markets. However, the increase in global sourcing has also exposed businesses to many supply risks. Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to explore the global sourcing supply risks encountered by small clothing and textile retailers in Gauteng and to determine what supply risk identification and management approaches they utilise. Method: This study utilised semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 small clothing and textile retail owners. Results: The study found that the three major supply risks encountered by these retailers were fluctuating exchange rates, communication barriers and costly and complicated logistics, which included high customs costs. Furthermore, although aware of the supply risks, none of the small clothing and textile retailers had formal identification and management approaches in place. Instead, risks are dealt with at the sole discretion of the owner as and when they occur. The study also found that informal identification and management approaches were being applied by some of the retailers. These included factoring exchange rate fluctuations into the profit margins and using translators to combat communication barriers. Contribution: The study is one of the first empirical studies conducted on global supply risks and the associated identification and management approaches in the South African small business context, specifically focused on clothing and textile retailers. Conclusion: Small clothing and textile retailers need to proactively identify and manage global sourcing risk using the identified approaches in order to reduce and mitigate potential supply disruptions.

  20. Fashion Retail Master Data Model and Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hovmøller, Harald; Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Retailing, and particularly fashion retailing, is changing into a much more technology driven business model using omni-channel retailing approaches. Also analytical and data-driven marketing is on the rise. However, there has not been paid a lot of attention to the underlying and underpinning datastructures, the characteristics for fashion retailing, the relationship between static and dynamic data, and the governance of this. This paper is analysing and discussing the data dimension of fash...

  1. Retailing & design: combining the best of both worlds

    OpenAIRE

    QUARTIER, Katelijn; LOMMELEN, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    In today’s knowledge economies, the importance of lifelong learning for active professionals grows tremendously (Vanweddingen, 2009). Also in a traditional sector like retailing. Because of evolutions in the interplay between on- and offline stores and omni-channel retail, retailers need to follow up on these developments to remain competitive (Van Ossel, 2014). Looking at the current educational offer in Europe to professionals in the domain of retail, two perspectives are possible, i.e. the...

  2. Pricing, Variety, and Inventory Decisions in Retail Operations Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maddah, Bacel

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with decision making in retail operations management. Specifically, we focus on pricing, variety, and inventory decisions, which are at the interface of the marketing and operations functions of a retail firm. We consider two problems that relate to two major types of retail goods. First, we study joint pricing, variety, and inventory decisions for a set of substitutable" items that serve the same need for the consumer (commonly referred to as a "retailer's ...

  3. RETAIL READY PACKAGING – WHAT'S IN IT FOR FOOD MANUFACTURERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Dujak; Martina Ferencic; Jelena Franjkovic

    2014-01-01

    Process of concentration in retail market, as well in Croatia as in other European countries, has insured for retailers stronger negotiating position in fast moving consumer goods supply chain, especially in food chain. Retailers have initiated retail supply chain management - a lot of different cost efficiency processes in food supply chain which they were able to force with their suppliers, usually with the absence of an equitable distribution of savings that this collaboration enables. One...

  4. When IKEA enters : Do local retailers win or lose?

    OpenAIRE

    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Mihaescu, Oana; Nilsson, Helena; Rudholm, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    IKEA is one of the world’s largest retailers, but little is known about how IKEA impact incumbent retailers when deciding to enter a local market. Previous studies on the effects of big-box entry on surrounding retailers have also generated inconclusive results, and mainly been focused towards entry of Wal-Mart in the United States. We contribute to this literature by investigating the effects of IKEA entry on revenues and employment for incumbent retail firms in three Swedish municipalities ...

  5. Antecedents of loyalty in an online retailing business

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Roshanak

    2013-01-01

    Retailing industry is challenged by empowered customers, scattered markets and intensified competition. Online retailing has a unique opportunity to take a leading role in the global marketplace by providing location free, customer controlled, and information rich retail service. Customer experience with an online retailer includes multiple factors. It is crucial to determine what website functions and features should be emphasized to create a satisfactory experience. Understanding an effecti...

  6. A bilevel model for electricity retailers' participation in a demand response market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    (followers) in a dynamic price environment. Both players in the game solve an economic optimisation problem subject to stochasticity in prices, weather-related variables and must-serve load. The model allows the determination of the dynamic price-signal delivering maximum retailer profit, and the optimal......-time pricing is less convenient than fixed and time-of-use price for consumers. This implies that careful design of the retail market is needed. Finally, we carry out a sensitivity analysis to analyse the effect of different levels of consumer flexibility....

  7. Cost reduction analysis in the online retail as compared to the classic retail

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Camelia BABA

    2015-01-01

    The industry of retail was segmented by new technologies, but the financial performance of every segment is far to explain the market share. An exploratory study is necessary in order to explain the appeal for entrepreneurs. A comparison between two new forms of retail is used to understand the business models in this industry. Due to the fact that the maturity of the new segment of retail are different in various countries, the study cases focused on the some leaders firms from USA, China an...

  8. Customer satisfaction in European food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Østergaard, Peder

    2002-01-01

    based upon measures identifying how potential partners are perceived by the customers. Based on results from the European Customer Satisfaction study, a comparative analysis of customer satisfaction in Europe is conducted. Some specific Danish results are shown and the relationship between customer...... loyalty, supermarket type and ownership structure is studied. The relationship between results after taxes and customer loyalty is documented.......Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is becoming an increasingly important factor in modern retailing - a market characterized by slow growth and intense competition. Big non-European chains such as Walmart are already present in some countries and consider to buy some of the retail chains...

  9. Multinational retailers and home country food exports

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela; Latouche, Karine; Emlinger, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This article questions whether food exports to a given national market are impacted by a domestic retailer opening in that market. To answer this question, we considered an empirical gravity-type trade model. We tested our model with data on bilateral exports of food products sold in supermarkets (groceries) on a large panel of countries, as well as the foreign grocery sales of the world’s 100 largest retail companies from 2001–2010. We found a strong positive effect of the overseas presence ...

  10. Buying atmosphere in the selected retail unit

    OpenAIRE

    GOLKOVÁ, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals with analysis of the shopping atmosphere of selected retail unit depending on its main objective. In the first part of the thesis - literary research - the theoretical background of the issue is processed. The second part - own work - already deals with the analysis. Retail unit Tesco České Budějovice was chosen for the analysis and a description of its shopping atmosphere is included in the work. The main method of analysis was an on-line questionnaire survey which was c...

  11. Issues of innovations in large retailers marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the way distribution systems evolved in various countries it can be seen that, in all areas of the globe, the distribution has become progressively dynamic, suffering mutations on all levels, changing constantly the methods of marketing and sale, distribution forms, geographic distribution, etc. Retail sector has become a dynamic sector, with a rapid evolution and various forms of organization, mainly due to economic development and technological progress we have witnessed in recent years. To the rapid development of retail contributed the innovation, allowing it to adapt rapidly to market conditions, to continuous growth in consumer demands and requirements and the need for traders to streamline their business activities.

  12. Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt

    2011-01-01

    in Sweden but higher than in Norway and Finland. Because of market design Norwegian default contracts are competitive whereas Swedish contracts provide the retailer with some market power. We interpret the low Finnish margins as a result of municipal retailers continuing traditional pricing from...... competitive prices....... default prices are regulated whereas default prices in the other countries are unregulated. Systematic price differences exist among the Nordic countries. However, as wholesale prices sometimes differ the gross margin is a more relevant indicator. Regulated gross margins are lower in Denmark than...

  13. Internet Retailing as a Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten; Noll, R.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the incentives for incumbent bricks-and-mortar firms and new entrants to start an online retail channel in a differentiated goods market. To this end we set up a two-stage model where firms first decide whether or not to build the infrastructure necessary to start an online retail channel and then compete in prices using the channels they have opened up. Consumers trade-off the convenience of online shopping and the ease to compare prices, with online uncertainties. Wit...

  14. Retail industry adopting change : adaptation: automation: benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Nabeel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains the research on the key change adoptive agents/forces and the solu-tions to the world‟s rapidly growing and one of the most consumer facing industry. The trillions worth retail industries are undergoing the period of important restructuring inter-nally and externally. The author highlights the key factors that force the retail industry to adopt modern technologies for their daily business processes in order to be more competi-tive. The factors have been viewed in two pers...

  15. Retail Structured Products for Socially Responsible Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Institutional investors are the main drivers of demand for socially responsible investment (SRI). Preferences for non- nancial goals such as social and environmental sustainability are also held by small retail agents who, nonetheless, are almost non-existent in the market. This paper studies how...... and when it can be utility enhancing to engage in SRI: It proposes a quantitative method to incorporate responsibility into the investment decision and investigates how structured financial instruments can facilitate access to SRI for small retail agents. The goal is to demonstrate market potential...

  16. Bridging Theory and Practice in an Applied Retail Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Fredrik; Rosengren, Sara; Colliander, Jonas; Hernant, Mikael; Liljedal, Karina T.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we present an educational approach that bridges theory and practice: an applied retail track. The track has been co-created by faculty and 10 partnering retail companies and runs in parallel with traditional courses during a 3-year bachelor's degree program in retail management. The underlying pedagogical concept is to move retail…

  17. 78 FR 21019 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an agreement, contract, or...)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat all such futures and options and all.... 7 U.S.C. 1a(21). \\4\\ For purposes of the retail forex rules, ``Federal regulatory agency'' includes...

  18. 76 FR 46652 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Federal regulatory agency shall prescribe \\6\\ (a ``retail forex rule''). Section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes... Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78f(a)).'' \\7\\ A Federal regulatory agency's retail forex rule must treat... retail forex statutory provisions will be the section where the provisions will be codified in the...

  19. Factory Gate Pricing: An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. le Blanc; F. Cruijssen (Frans); H.A. Fleuren; M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFactory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution. Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers. Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks

  20. Factory Gate Pricing : An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; de Koster, M.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Factory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution.Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers.Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks (the supplier

  1. Development of a Cooperative Retailing Program for the Disadvantaged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzinger, F. Donald; And Others.

    This report presents a two-year junior college retailing curriculum for the disadvantaged, proposed on the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to retailing industries in the Metropolitan Rochester area. The questionnaires were designed to assess the need and feasibility of such a retailing program and to ascertain qualifications required to…

  2. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  3. The economy and loss given default: evidence from two UK retail lending data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Mindy Leow; Christophe Mues; Lyn Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Loss given default (LGD) models predict losses as a proportion of the outstanding loan, in the event a debtor goes into default. The literature on corporate sector LGD models suggests LGD is correlated to the economy and so changes in the economy could translate into different predictions of losses. In this work, the role of macroeconomic variables in loan-level retail LGD models is examined by testing the inclusion of macroeconomic variables in two different retail LGD models: a two-stage mo...

  4. Identifying service quality dimensions as antecedents to customer satisfaction in retail banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iča Rojšek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores service quality in a retail bank setting in Slovenia and its influence on customer satisfaction. In previous studies both SERVQUAL and SERVPERF scales have been used for measuring service quality. Based on SERVPERF a 28-item scale has been developed for this study. Through factor analysis four dimensions of service quality have been obtained. The results from regression analysis suggest that all four dimensions of service quality as well as service range influence customer satisfaction. The information provided by this research can be used when designing marketing strategies to improve customer satisfaction in retail banking.

  5. The emerging geography of e-commerce in British retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, GP; Thompson, C; Birkin, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the growth of e-commerce in British grocery retailing and examines the spatial variations in e-commerce usage. The main data source is a large commercial consumer survey (Acxiom’s Research Opinion Data) rarely used by academics to date. Using these data in combination with census data, the paper addresses a number of key questions. After outlining key trends in the dataset on e-commerce usage (by product and over time) the first research question is: How do e-commerce purc...

  6. Workplace bullying and task performance: A study on salespeople in retail industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Min Chia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational stress has been known as a major cause of safety and health issues among sales people in retail organizations. Despite this, numerous studies have indicated the importance of factors and outcomes of occupational stress in several occupations, a knowledge gap on occupational stress remains a hot topic of interest for academics and practitioners. This study aims to examine the workplace bullying as a factor and task performance as the outcome of occupational stress among salespeople in the retail industry in Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed to salespeople in the large-scale retail organization. Data from 222 salespeople suggest that workplace bullying was positively related to occupational stress and in turn, it affects employee performance. These findings contribute to understanding how workplace bullying affects the occupational stress and how stress may affect the performance of salespeople. Implications were presented for employers and employees who should be viewed with caution, in turn, to reduce the occupational stress at the workplace.

  7. The Impact of Membership in Strategic Alliances on the Profitability of Firms in the Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Butigan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic alliances in the retail sector are based on cooperation in a variety of activities, ranging from supply and marketing to knowledge sharing and branding. For their members, they are a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Ever since the 1990s, a growing number of firms from the retail sector have attempted to improve their performance through participation in strategic alliances. The objective of this paper is to explore how participation in strategic alliances influences profitability of firms in the retail sector. A dynamic panel analysis is applied to the data on nearly 3,700 firms obtained from Amadeus, a large firm-level database, for eight countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Poland, Hungary and Estonia for the 2007–2012 period. The results of the investigation suggest that participation in strategic alliances positively influences a firm’s performance.

  8. FORMATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS WITH THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE GLOBAL RETAIL CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kudyrko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyze the features of formation and functioning of multi-marketing distribution systems involving global retail chains and identify the causes of conflicts between participants in the global supply chain and suggest possible ways to displace them. The article represents the author’s definition of the term “global retail chain”. The role and responsibilities of international retailers in the formation of marketing structures on international markets are discovered. The algorithm of the relationship between the participants in the traditional vertical marketing system with the definition of international components is determined. The conflict causes between the participants within the distribution channel are identified.

  9. SPICE ROUTE: LOGISTIC JOURNEY OF SPICES IN RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulrajan Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the findings of the study of the routes and the distance traveled by spices from the farming location to the consumer in traditional and organised retailing. This research study is primarily exploratory in nature, and the research instruments include interviews and survey through questionnaires with players in the spice supply chain. The study is to track the spice routes by the retailers for assessing the current state of the supply chain management practices, and evaluate ‘food mileage’ clocked by them. ‘Food miles’ is a relatively recent concept in retailing and result of this study reveals that significant increase in food miles in the case of organised retailers. Longer food miles of spices are an indicator of the shift towards organised retailing. The speed at which spices reach their destination as well as the time taken between any two points was not observed. This is the limitation of this study, and also the scope for further research. The research study is not aimed at finding the factors related to the food mileage.

  10. Cost reduction analysis in the online retail as compared to the classic retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Camelia BABA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The industry of retail was segmented by new technologies, but the financial performance of every segment is far to explain the market share. An exploratory study is necessary in order to explain the appeal for entrepreneurs. A comparison between two new forms of retail is used to understand the business models in this industry. Due to the fact that the maturity of the new segment of retail are different in various countries, the study cases focused on the some leaders firms from USA, China and Romania are important to design a probable trend the online commerce. General theoretical benchmarks, validated by current practice are used in case studies, as well as innovative approaches and well-known examples of successful retail companies.

  11. Making working in retailing interesting: A study of human resource management practices in Danish grocery retail chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka

    In this paper we investigate the human resource management practices of five Danish grocery retail chains from the perspective of both retailers and employees. We present an analytical framework for analysing the social and institutional context of Danish retailing and interpret our case study...

  12. The Aspects Of Inventory Controlling Instruments Implementation In The System Of Retail Chains Finance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Buratchuk

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with issues of implementation of inventory controlling instruments in the system of retail chains finance management. The author suggests expanded classification of methods and instruments of inventory controlling distinguishing 3 groups of specific instruments: logistic controlling instruments, expenditures and supply chains controlling instruments and inventory special controlling mechanisms. Based on investigation of controlling methods and instruments, the approximate li...

  13. Subsidising artemisinin-based combination therapy in the private retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiyo, Newton; Yamey, Gavin; Garner, Paul

    2016-03-09

    interrupted-time-series studies that compared the effects of ACT price subsidies for private retailers to no subsidies or alternative ACT financing mechanisms were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed study risk of bias and confidence in effect estimates (certainty of evidence) using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). We included four trials (two cluster-randomised trials reported in three articles and two non-randomised cluster trials). Three trials assessed retail sector ACT subsidies combined with supportive interventions (retail outlet provider training, community awareness and mass media campaigns). One trial assessed vouchers provided to households to purchase subsidised ACTs. Price subsidies ranged from 80% to 95%. One trial enrolled children under five years of age; the other three trials studied people of all age groups. The studies were done in rural districts in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania).In this East Africa setting, these ACT subsidy programmes increased the percentage of children under five years of age receiving ACTs on the day, or following day, of fever onset by 25 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.1 to 35.9 percentage points; 1 study, high certainty evidence). This suggests that in practice, among febrile children under five years of age with an ACT usage rate of 5% without a subsidy, subsidy programmes would increase usage by between 19% and 41% over a one year period.The ACT subsidy programmes increased the percentage of retail outlets stocking ACTs for children under five years of age by 31.9 percentage points (95% CI 26.3 to 37.5 percentage points; 1 study, high certainty evidence). Effects on ACT stocking for patients of any age is unknown because the certainty of evidence was very low.The ACT subsidy programmes decreased the median cost of ACTs for children under five

  14. Assessing the impact of forward trading, retail liberalization, and white certificates on the Italian wholesale electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrella, Andrea; Sapio, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    How do policy actions affect the dynamics of deregulated electricity prices? We investigate this issue in the context of the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX), using data on the daily average day-ahead price (PUN) between April 2004 and December 2008. Estimates of baseline time series models (SARMAX and SARMAX-EGARCH) and their forecasting performances suggest that the trend in natural gas prices, market power indicators, deterministic weekly patterns, perceived temperatures, persistence in conditional volatility, and the inverse leverage effect are essential features of the PUN dynamics. We then augment the best-performing models with dummies that account for changes in the market architecture, such as the introduction of contracts for differences (CfDs) to support renewables, trading of white certificates for energy efficiency, and the demand-side liberalization. The findings show that changes in the market architecture affected both the PUN level and its volatility. Specifically, wholesale electricity prices and volatility appear to have decreased upon the introduction of CfDs, only to be pushed upwards following the start of white certificates' trading and retail liberalization. Moreover, after controlling for reforms the inverse leverage effect vanishes, and the persistence in volatility is lower than in the baseline estimates. - Highlights: ► We model Italian wholesale power prices using SARMAX and EGARCH models. ► We assess the price impact of contracts for differences, retail liberalization, white certificates. ► The electricity price level and its volatility have increased after the adoption of contracts for differences. ► Following retail liberalization and the start of white certificates trading, the price level and its volatility have increased.

  15. Private Equity for Retail Investors : How to efficiently involve Finnish retail investors in private equity

    OpenAIRE

    Moita, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Private equity has been the best performing asset class for institutional investors. Meanwhile, retail investors have been left out from the asset class for several reasons, such as legislation and wealth profiling. This study aims at assessing the types of private equity vehicles that could be the most appropriate for Finnish retail investors. The study solely focuses on the investment opportunities, hence it does not cover investment behaviour. Private equity should not be a primary as...

  16. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  17. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  18. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  19. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  20. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  1. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  2. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  3. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  4. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  5. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  6. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  7. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS OF THE FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES BOARD Zone Operations and...

  8. Retail environments and spatial shopping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, H.J.P.; Gaerling, T.; Golledge, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The interplay between aspects of retail environments and consumer spatial shopping behavior has traditionally been an area of major concern in geography, urban planning and related disciplines. It reflects an interest in explaining the relationship between locational and nonlocational attributes of

  9. Retail inventory management with lost sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu - Stefanut, A.

    2012-01-01

    The inventory control problem of traditional store-based grocery retailers has several challenging features. Demand for products is stochastic, and is typically lost when no inventory is available on the shelves. As the consumer behavior studies reveal, only a small percentage of customers are

  10. Italian retail gasoline activities: inadequate distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    It is common belief that competition in the Italian retail gasoline activities is hindered by oil companies' collusive behaviour. However, when developing a broader analysis of the sector, low efficiency and scarce competition could results as the consequences coming from an inadequate distribution network and from the recognition of international markets and focal point [it

  11. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  12. Student Guide Presentation Retail Marketing (Merchandising)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Vigaray, María Dolores de

    2010-01-01

    La asignatura se imparte íntegramente en inglés. Presentación de la asignatura RETAIL MARKETING con los contenidos, requisitos, métodos y técnicas de aprendizaje, sistema de evaluación, trabajo a realizar.

  13. Customer loyalty of retail firm - Billa

    OpenAIRE

    Dančevská, Ráchel

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis results from marketing, which includes customer loyalty and consumer typology. Then the thesis is concerned with a marketing research and a proper creation of a questionnaire for this research. The practical part of the thesis introduces the retail company Billa and presents the results from field research, which was focused on finding of customer loyalty of the Billa's customers.

  14. Management economics in a large retail company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.S. Siebert (W. Stanley); N.V. Zubanov (Nick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe use unique data from 245 stores of a UK retailer to study links among middle (store) manager skills, sales, and manager pay. We find that, of the six management practice areas surveyed, the most important is "commercial awareness," where abler managers achieve up to 13.9% higher sales

  15. The old pillars of new retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, L L

    2001-04-01

    Despite the harsh realities of retailing, the illusion persists that magical tools can help companies overcome the problems of fickle consumers, price-slashing competitors, and mood swings in the economy. Such wishful thinking holds that retailers will thrive if only they communicate better with customers through e-mail, employ hidden cameras to learn how customers make purchase decisions, and analyze scanner data to tailor special offers and manage inventory. But the truth is, there are no quick fixes. In the course of his extensive research on dozens of retailers, Leonard Berry found that the best companies create value for their customers in five interlocking ways. Whether you're running a physical store, a catalog business, an e-commerce site, or a combination of the three, you have to offer your customers superior solutions to their needs, treat them with respect, and connect with them on an emotional level. You also have to set prices fairly and make it easy for people to find what they need, pay for it quickly, and then move on. None of these pillars is new, and each sounds exceedingly simple, but don't be fooled--implementing these axioms in the real world is surprisingly difficult. The author illustrates how some retailers have built successful operations by attending to these commonsense ways of dealing with their customers and how others have failed to do so.

  16. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  17. Nudging consumer behaviour in retail stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Abdulfatah

    2016-01-01

    -effectiveness of alternative interventions in retail store settings. In cooperation with a supermarket chain in Denmark, we manipulated food locations inside the store so that relatively low energy dense products were placed favorable shelf locations. The underlying theory for the experiment was the behavioral approach (so...

  18. Virtual Retail Simulations in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of simulations in virtual reality to teach students the fundamental processes behind retailing and product development. The project described involved one class of students who developed their own clothing lines of "virtual merchandise." A second class of students then "purchased" the wholesale…

  19. Internet Retailing as a Marketing Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the incentives for incumbent bricks-and-mortar firms and new entrants to start an online retail channel in a differentiated goods market. To this end we set up a two-stage model where firms first decide whether or not to build the infrastructure necessary to start an online

  20. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON RETAILING IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mrvica MAĐARAC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade is one of the leading sectors of the Croatian economy, which has undergone significant changes under the influence of globalization over the last decade. According to Central Bureau of Statistics in Croatia about 16 % of all employees work in trade business, and more than a quarter of business entities are registered in this sector. Therefore the trade has a significant share in Croatian GDP creation. Globalization is considered an important factor of economic development around the world. Through development of communication technology the world has become integrated into the "global village" and a business contact itself can be accomplished in a matter of minutes. The effects of globalization on retailing in Croatia are mostly reflected in the introduction of new retailing forms, development of e-commerce, consumer protection, the introduction of space management, changes in consumer habits and the arrival of multinational trading companies on the market of Croatia. In this way, the Croatian market has become a part of a single system. Globalization has a negative effect on trade in the Republic of Croatia too, because the domestic production and retail sales of small neighborhood stores are threatened in this way. Retailing in Croatia should make an attempt to adapt to the global trends in the world and to new changes taking into account the domestic production by the principle of comparative advantage.

  1. Microbiological Quality Assessment of Game Meats at Retail in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Kawase, Jun; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Honda, Mioko; Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Uema, Masashi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Igimi, Shizunobu; Takai, Shinji

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and the distribution of indicator bacteria in 248 samples of game meats (120 venison and 128 wild boar) retailed between November 2015 and March 2016 in Japan. No Salmonella spp. were detected in any of the samples, whereas Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype OUT:H25 (stx 2d + , eae - ) was isolated from one deer meat sample, suggesting a possible source for human infection. Plate count assays indicated greater prevalence of coliforms and E. coli in wild boar meat than in venison, whereas their prevalence in processing facilities showed greater variation than in animal species. The 16S rRNA ion semiconductor sequencing analysis of 24 representative samples revealed that the abundances of Acinetobacter and Arthrobacter spp. significantly correlated with the prevalence of E. coli, and quantitative PCR analyses in combination with selective plate count assay verified these correlations. To our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize the diversity of microorganisms of game meats at retail in Japan, together with identification of dominant microbiota. Our data suggest the necessity of bottom-up hygienic assessment in areas of slaughtering and processing facilities to improve microbiological safety.

  2. Directions in healthcare research: pointers from retailing and services marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Thomas L J; Tanja-Dijkstra, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of the environment in relation to healing processes has been well established, empirical evidence for environmental effects on patient well-being and behavior is sparse. In addition, few attempts have been made to integrate insights from related fields of research such as retailing and services marketing with findings from healthcare studies. In this paper, relevant findings and insights from these domains are discussed. What insights and findings from retailing and services marketing are (potentially) of interest to the healthcare context, and how should one interpret and follow up on these results in healthcare environments? Research in retailing and services marketing indicates that physical environmental factors (i.e., music and scent) and social environmental factors (i.e., crowded conditions) may affect consumer satisfaction and well-being. In addition, environmental effects have been shown to vary with contextual factors (e.g., the type of environment) and consumer needs (e.g., the extent to which consumers value social contact or stimulation in a specific setting). Although the evidence base for environmental factors in health environments is steadily growing, few attempts have been made to integrate findings from both domains. The findings presented indicate that environmental variables such as music and scent can contribute to patient well-being and overall satisfaction. In addition, findings suggest that these variables may be used to counteract the negative effects resulting from crowded conditions in different healthcare units. Taking into account recent developments in the healthcare industry, the importance of creating memorable and pleasant patient experiences is likely to grow in the years to come. Hence, the finding that subtle and relatively inexpensive manipulations may affect patient well-being in profound ways should inspire follow-up research aimed at unraveling the specifics of environmental influences in health

  3. An examination of the variables influencing the fuel retail industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sartorius

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The objective of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of the key variables that influence the profitability of this sector, as well as to develop a reliable model to predict retail fuel sales volumes in an urban setting. Problem investigated: South African fuel retail outlets are confronted by a wide range of variables that constrain profit and a significant number of outlets are not profitable. In the event of further deregulation, it is conceivable that many fuel stations will go out of business. Methodology: A combination of a quantitative and a case study methodology, in conjunction with a literature review, was used to test the principal research questions. Findings/implications: The results suggest that location significantly influences urban retail fuel sales volumes whilst fuel station size and the fuel price play a lesser role. Other significant factors, however, also influence fuel station profitability. The demand for petrol appears to be relatively inelastic in the short term and more elastic over the long term. Conversely, the demand for diesel appears to be completely inelastic. Value: The article promotes a better understanding of the cost dynamics of the fuel industry. In this regard, the model constructed to predict urban fuel station turnover indicated high levels of reliability. Furthermore, few comparable studies have been published in accounting journals. Conclusion: The study concludes that urban petrol stations selling more than 370 000 liters of fuel per month are likely to be profitable and that location is a key variable influencing sales. In the event of deregulation, many operators are likely to be eliminated because of high levels of competition and low profit margins. An even greater number of fuel stations, therefore, will be reliant on non forecourt activities to survive.

  4. Sales Forecasting for Fashion Retailing Service Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting is crucial for many retail operations. It is especially critical for the fashion retailing service industry in which product demand is very volatile and product’s life cycle is short. This paper conducts a comprehensive literature review and selects a set of papers in the literature on fashion retail sales forecasting. The advantages and the drawbacks of different kinds of analytical methods for fashion retail sales forecasting are examined. The evolution of the respective forecasting methods over the past 15 years is revealed. Issues related to real-world applications of the fashion retail sales forecasting models and important future research directions are discussed.

  5. CLOUD COMPUTING AND BIG DATA AS CONVERGENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR RETAIL PRICING STRATEGIES OF SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George SUCIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most retailers know that technology has played an increasingly important role in helping retailers set prices. Online business decision systems are at the core point of an SMEs management and reporting activities. But, until recently, these efforts have been rooted in advances in computing technology, such as cloud computing and big data mining, rather than in newfound applications of scientific principles. In addition, in previous approaches big data mining solutions were implemented locally on private clouds and no SME could aggregate and analyze the information that consumers are exchanging with each other. Real science is a powerful, pervasive force in retail today, particularly so for addressing the complex challenge of retail pricing. Cloud Computing comes in to provide access to entirely new business capabilities through sharing resources and services and managing and assigning resources effectively. Done right, the application of scientific principles to the creation of a true price optimization strategy can lead to significant sales, margin, and profit lift for retailers. In this paper we describe a method to provide the mobile retail consumers with reviews, brand ratings and detailed product information at the point of sale. Furthermore, we present how we use Exalead CloudView platform to search for weak signals in big data by analyzing multimedia data (text, voice, picture, video and mining online social networks. The analysis makes not only customer profiling possible, but also brand promotion in the form of coupons, discounts or upselling to generate more sales, thus providing the opportunity for retailer SMEs to connect directly to its customers in real time. The paper explains why retailers can no longer thrive without a science-based pricing system, defines and illustrates the right science-based approach, and calls out the key features and functionalities of leading science-based price optimization systems. In particular, given

  6. Perspectives of retailers and local food suppliers on the evolution of modern retail in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Nandonde, Felix Adamu

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory qualitative study of the evolution of modern food retailing in Tanzania ( from both retailers and suppliers’ perspectives). Design/methodology/approach – The qualitative case approach was used in this study. Participa......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory qualitative study of the evolution of modern food retailing in Tanzania ( from both retailers and suppliers’ perspectives). Design/methodology/approach – The qualitative case approach was used in this study...... factors that account for the evolution of modern food retail in the country were identified. These are availability of suppliers, acceptance of trade credit, innovation, lifestyle change, institutional support, convenience, and availability of consumers. Originality/value – The study has expanded...... the knowledge of the evolution ofmodern food retail in developing economies by using the relationship marketing theory. Furthermore, the study employed some major actors in the food value chain to understand determinant factors that accelerated the evolution of supermarkets in Tanzania....

  7. Fatty acid and cholesterol profiles and hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic, and thrombogenic indices of table eggs in the retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Youssef A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Korish, Mohamed A; Shiboob, Mohamed M

    2015-10-27

    Eggs are an important source of food due to its favorable effects on human health derived from the protein, fats, minerals, vitamins and bioactive components. We studied the effects of source of eggs in the retail market on fatty acids, lipid profiles and antioxidant status in eggs. Eggs from four sources named A, B, C, and D in the retail market were collected to determine fatty acid, total lipid, and cholesterol profiles; hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombotic indices; antioxidant status (e.g., of malondialdehyde); and total antioxidant capacity in the whole edible parts of eggs (albumen + yolk) and egg yolk. Samples were collected four times and pooled over times to represent 5 and 10 samples per source for determinations of fatty acids and determinations of lipid profiles and antioxidant status, respectively. Fatty acid, total lipid, and cholesterol profiles; hypocholesterolemic, atherogenic and thrombotic indices; presence of malondialdehyde; and total antioxidant capacity in the whole edible parts of eggs and egg yolk showed significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) among different sources of eggs in retail market. Source D showed higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and linoleic and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)/polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio but lower levels of MUFA and linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaeonic (EPA), decohexaenoic (DHA), and total ω9 fatty acids and lower unsaturated fatty acids (UFA)/SFA ratio. Similar trend was shown in fatty acids profiles of the whole edible parts of eggs. On the other hand, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and total antioxidant capacity of source D were significantly higher than those of other source, but levels of hypocholesterolemic index, and malondialdehyde levels were lower for source D. Eggs in the retail market in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, from May to August 2015 showed a

  8. Energy consumption and conservation in food retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Ge, Y.; Hadawey, A.; Marriott, D.

    2011-01-01

    The total annual CO 2 emissions associated with the energy consumption of the major retail food outlets in the UK amount to around 4.0 MtCO 2 . The energy consumption and emissions from supermarkets varies widely and can depend on many factors such as the type and size of the store, business and merchandising practices and refrigeration and environmental control systems used. This paper provides energy consumption data of a sample of 2570 retail food stores from a number of major retail food chains in the UK. The sample covers all major store categories from convenience stores to hypermarkets and includes approximately 30% of the total number of stores in the UK having a net sales area more than 280 m 2 . The data show a wide variability of energy intensity even within stores of the same retail chain. A power law can be used to describe the variation of the average electrical energy intensity of the stores in the sample with sales area. If the electrical intensity of the stores above the average is reduced to the average by energy conservation measures, annual energy savings of the order of 10% or 840 GWh can be achieved representing 355,000 tonnes annual reduction in CO 2 emissions. The paper also discusses the major energy consuming processes in retail food stores and identifies opportunities for energy savings. - Research highlights: → Energy consumption by supermarkets in the UK is significant and a wide variability exists between stores of similar size. → Energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption of individual stores to the average can produce a0% energy savings. → Significant opportunities for energy savings exist from the integration of HVAC and refrigeration equipment.

  9. Retail health care: gaining advantage by dropping below the radar screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    There are many examples throughout the country of providers that are getting into retail medicine themselves, and of companies that are helping providers do this. Carolinas Healthcare System, e-Cleveland Clinic and the aforementioned partners of Health Ventures are examples. Orlikoff believes that retail medicine is a key piece in building an infrastructure that is relevant to the future for healthcare providers, and as he often says, "The riches are in the niches." "It's an exciting time for providers," Firestone says, "but they've got to risk doing things very differently, driven by their patients, the consumer."

  10. Mapping the Customer Experience Management Strategies for Customer Loyalty in Retail Hypermarket Jabodetabek

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Marcellinus Logahan; Janita Sembiring Meliala; Iskandar Putong

    2015-01-01

    Today, competition in the global market has become increasingly difficult and and at the same time products and services provided by retail companies tend to be similar. So in such circumstances, customers expect not only satisfied with the products and services, but also the pursuit of the perfect shopping experience during the shopping process. The purpose of this study was to devise a customer experience management strategy at a hypermarket retailer Carrefour, Hypermart, Giant, and Lotte M...

  11. Interaction among actors in retail market competition in malang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, B.; Ma'ruf, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    In several countries, traditional market lose in competition with supermarket. Supermarket has several advantages compared with traditional market. It can provides consumers with lower prices, offer more varieties of products and higher quality products than traditional retailers, has more comfortable place for shopping. In Malang City, the existence of traditional traders was threatened. In a competitive retail market, traditional traders get less protection from the Government of Malang Municipality. Massive demonstrations conducted by traditional traders along with other society elements unable to stem the rapid growth of modern retail. This paper focus on the interaction of Malang Municipality actors in the local retail market competition. How those interaction can make imbalance retail market competition. The author uses descriptive-analytic method with a qualitative approach in this work. As a result, the interaction tend to produce imbalance retail market competition. Interaction between legislative, executive, bureaucracy and mass media tend to support modern retail growth than traditional one.

  12. Suggestions for Christmas gifts.

    CERN Document Server

    Connie Potter; Markus Nordberg

    Have you been working long hours lately? Stuck in meetings too long to make it in time before the shops close? No need to worry. The ATLAS secretariat has plenty of items that will make great Christmas gifts for friends and family. Here are some of the items in stock. Note that you can negotiate a good price for bulk order. ATLAS caps (new item), 12 chf ATLAS t-shirts designed by Alan Alda, 20 chf ATLAS fleece jackets in several sizes and colors, 30 chf grey or dark blue in men's sizes pale blue for women's sizes (limited quantity) red for children (limited quantity) ATLAS puzzles with 500 pieces made by the Ravensburger company 15 chf for 1 box (price is less when purchasing more boxes) 50 chf for 5 boxes or more can also be purchased in boxes of 24, ready to ship to your institute ATLAS 3-D viewers, 5 chf ATLAS DVD, 5 chf CERN playing cards, 2 chf Make sure to get several boxes of the ATLAS puzzle for Christmas gifts. Offer hours of entertainement to friends and family! We tak...

  13. Deregulation of shopping hours: The impact on independent retailers and chain stores

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies shopping hour decisions by retail chains and independent competitors. We use a Salop-type model where retailers compete in prices and shopping hours. Our results depend significantly on efficiency differences between retail chain and independent retailer. If the efficiency difference is small, the independent retailer may choose longer shopping hours than the retail chain and may gain from deregulation at the expense of the retail chain. The opposite result emerges when the...

  14. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  15. Classification of Listeria monocytogenes persistence in retail delicatessen environments using expert elicitation and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, P; Steingrimsson, J; Wiedmann, M; Stasiewicz, M J

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing plants has been the underlying cause of a number of human listeriosis outbreaks. This study extracts criteria used by food safety experts in determining bacterial persistence in the environment, using retail delicatessen operations as a model. Using the Delphi method, we conducted an expert elicitation with 10 food safety experts from academia, industry, and government to classify L. monocytogenes persistence based on environmental sampling results collected over six months for 30 retail delicatessen stores. The results were modeled using variations of random forest, support vector machine, logistic regression, and linear regression; variable importance values of random forest and support vector machine models were consolidated to rank important variables in the experts' classifications. The duration of subtype isolation ranked most important across all expert categories. Sampling site category also ranked high in importance and validation errors doubled when this covariate was removed. Support vector machine and random forest models successfully classified the data with average validation errors of 3.1% and 2.2% (n = 144), respectively. Our findings indicate that (i) the frequency of isolations over time and sampling site information are critical factors for experts determining subtype persistence, (ii) food safety experts from different sectors may not use the same criteria in determining persistence, and (iii) machine learning models have potential for future use in environmental surveillance and risk management programs. Future work is necessary to validate the accuracy of expert and machine classification against biological measurement of L. monocytogenes persistence. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. 75 FR 53953 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... convenience and customs purposes, the written description of the scope of the order is dispositive. Selection... information available at the time of selection, or exporters and producers accounting for the largest volume...

  17. Learning Cultures in Retail: Apprenticeship, Identity and Emotional Work in England and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The paper is based on a study of apprentices in retail and motor vehicle maintenance in England and Germany, exploring their perceptions of themselves as learners over time and in particular learning environments. The study combines biographical interviews with participant observation in colleges and workplaces. The paper examines the concept of…

  18. How to design for strategic resilience : a case study in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Välikangas, L.; Romme, A.G.L.

    2013-01-01

    Few firms can be said to be truly resilient by sustaining high performance for a long time. We draw on a case study of a large U.S.-based retailer to explore how an organization develops resilience – the ability to recover quickly from environmental jolts or misfortunes. The company’s CEO, concerned

  19. A comparative study of East and West Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans; Esbjerg, Lars

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a project comparing retail buy-ing behaviour in Poland and Germany. The study demon-strates several differences in the way listing decisions are made in the two countries - differences which at the same time raise prob-lems and offer opportunities for small...

  20. How to organise return handling; an exploratory study with nine retailer warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); M.P. de Brito (Marisa); M.A. van de Vendel (Masja)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAlready for a long time retailers take back products. In this paper we explore the factors contributing to the decision of combining vs. separating inbound and outbound flows during the return handling process. We do so through a comparative analysis of the operations in nine

  1. Physician office vs retail clinic: patient preferences in care seeking for minor illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Arif; Fincham, Jack E

    2010-01-01

    Retail clinics are a relatively new phenomenon in the United States, offering cheaper and convenient alternatives to physician offices for minor illness and wellness care. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cost of care and appointment wait time on care-seeking decisions at retail clinics or physician offices. As part of a statewide random-digit-dial survey of households, adult residents of Georgia were interviewed to conduct a discrete choice experiment with 2 levels each of 4 attributes: price ($59; $75), appointment wait time (same day; 1 day or longer), care setting-clinician combination (nurse practitioner in retail clinic; physician in private office), and acute illness (urinary tract infection [UTI]; influenza). The respondents indicated whether they would seek care under each of the 16 resulting choice scenarios. A cooperation rate of 33.1% yielded 493 completed telephone interviews. The respondents preferred to seek care for both conditions; were less likely to seek care for UTI (beta = -0.149; P = .008); preferred to seek care from a physician (beta = 1.067; P clinic and $82.12 to wait 1 day or more. Time and cost savings offered by retail clinics are attractive to patients, and they are likely to seek care there given sufficient cost savings. Appointment wait time is the most important factor in care-seeking decisions and should be considered carefully in setting appointment policies in primary care practices.

  2. Fanning the flames? : How media coverage of a price war impacts retailers, consumers and investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, H.J.; Gijsbrechts, E.; Pauwels, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how media coverage of a price war impacts customer, retailer and investor reactions over time. Based on data covering a Dutch supermarket price war (2003–2005), the authors find that price reductions, and especially deep ones, trigger media coverage of the price conflict. This

  3. The emerging marijuana retail environment: Key lessons learned from tobacco and alcohol retail research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Henriksen, Lisa; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Haardoerfer, Regine; Freisthler, Bridget

    2018-06-01

    The emerging retail market for recreational marijuana use warrants research and surveillance as such markets are established in more US states. This research can be informed by the existing literature regarding tobacco and alcohol, which highlights the impact of spatial access to tobacco and alcohol retailers and exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing on smoking and drinking among youth and young adults. Prior research indicates that tobacco and alcohol retailers, as well as medical marijuana dispensaries, are disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage and by higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and young adults. Moreover, retail marketing or point-of-sale practices may differentially target subpopulations and differ by neighborhood demography and local policy. This literature and the methods employed for studying the tobacco and alcohol market could inform research on the retail environment for marijuana, as current gaps exist. In particular, much of the existing literature involves cross-sectional research designs; longitudinal studies are needed. Moreover, standardized measures are needed for systematic monitoring of industry marketing practices and to conduct research examining neighborhood differences in exposure to retail marketing for marijuana and its contribution to use modality and frequency, alone and in combination with nicotine and alcohol. The use of standardized measures for tobacco and alcohol marketing have been critical to develop an evidence base from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that document the impact of retail marketing on substance use by adolescents and adults. Similar research is needed to establish an evidence base to inform federal, state, and local regulations of marijuana. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in retail oyster tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Yan; Shi, Xianming

    2014-03-03

    Oysters are one of the important vehicles for the transfer of foodborne pathogens. It was reported that bacteria could be bio-accumulated mainly in the gills and digestive glands. In artificially treated oysters, bacterial communities have been investigated by culture-independent methods after harvest. However, little information is available on the seasonal dynamics of bacterial accumulation in retail oyster tissues. In this study, retail oysters were collected from local market in different seasons. The seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in oyster tissues, including the gills, digestive glands and residual tissues, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was interesting that the highest bacterial diversity appeared in the Fall season, not in summer. Our results indicated that Proteobacteria was the predominant member (23/46) in oyster tissues. Our results also suggested that bacterial diversity in gills was higher than that in digestive glands and other tissues. In addition, not all the bacteria collected from surrounding water by gills were transferred to digestive glands. On the other hand, few bacteria were found in oyster tissues except in the gills. Therefore, the gills could be the best candidate target tissue for monitoring of pathogenic bacteria either to human or to oyster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Price and Income Elasticity of Australian Retail Finance: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Higgs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper models the price and income elasticity of retail finance in Australia using aggregate quarterly data and an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL approach. We particularly focus on the impact of the global financial crisis (GFC from 2007 onwards on retail finance demand and analyse four submarkets (period analysed in brackets: owneroccupied housing loans (Sep 1985–June 2010, term loans (for motor vehicles, household goods and debt consolidation, etc. (Dec 1988–Jun 2010, credit card loans (Mar 1990–Jun 2010, and margin loans (Sep 2000–Jun 2010. Other than the indicator lending rates and annual full-time earnings respectively used as proxies for the price and income effects, we specify a large number of other variables as demand factors, particularly reflecting the value of the asset for which retail finance demand is derived. These variously include the yield on indexed bonds as a proxy for inflation expectations, median housing prices, consumer sentiment indices as measures of consumer confidence, motor vehicle and retail trade sales, housing debt-to-housing assets as a measure of leverage, the proportion of protected margin lending, the available credit limit on credit cards, and the All Ordinaries Index. In the long run, we find significant price elasticities only for term loans and margin loans, and significant income elasticities of demand for housing loans, term loans and margin loans. We also find that the GFC only significantly affected the longrun demand for term loans and margin loans. In the short run, we find that the GFC has had a significant effect on the price elasticity of demand for term loans and margin loans. Expected inflation is also a key factor affecting retail finance demand. Overall, most of the submarkets in the analysis indicate that retail finance demand is certainly price inelastic but more income elastic than conventionally thought.

  6. PERANCANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN DALAM PENGONTROLAN PERSEDIAAN RETAIL ELEKTONIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebagian besar retail elektronik melakukan pengambilan keputusan dalam hal pengontrolan inventori berdasarkan intuisi tanpa dukungan database elektronik yang valid. Hal tersebut sering mengakibatkan terjadinya lost sales, karena tidak ada barang di gudang ketika ada permintaan.  Guna mengatasi permasalahan sistem inventori tersebut, peneliti mencoba mengembangkan Sistem Informasi Inventori yang dapat membantu perusahaan. Sistem informasi yang bersifat web-based membuat staff di masing-masing bagian dapat melihat tingkat stok yang akurat di tiap gudang. Manfaat yang dirasakan terutama bagi pemilik/owner yaitu mendapat perkiraan demand di masa mendatang melalui peramalan serta memperoleh usulan bagaimana mengontrol persediaan melalui tingkat safety stock, reorder point, quantity, dan frekuensi pesan yang disarankan. Kata kunci :  inventori,  peramalan, web-based, sistem informasi, retail elektronik   Abstract Most electronics retailers make decisions in terms of inventory control based on intuition without a valid electronic database support. This often resulted in lost sales, as no goods in the warehouse when there is demand. To overcome the problems of inventory system, researchers are trying to develop Inventory Information System that can help the company. Information systems that are web-based to make staff in each section can see accurate stock levels at each warehouse. Perceived benefits, especially for owners / owner that gets the estimated future demand through forecasting and obtaining suggestions how to control inventory through level safety stock, reorder point, quantity, and frequency of the message suggested. Keywords: inventory, forecasting, web-based, information systems, electronic retail

  7. Customer satisfaction in European food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Østergaard, Peder

    2002-01-01

    Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty is becoming an increasingly important factor in modern retailing - a market characterized by slow growth and intense competition. Big non-European chains such as Walmart are already present in some countries and consider to buy some of the retail chains...... in other countries, e.g. in the Scandinavian countries. This development will demand even more focus on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in order to stay in business and may also demand that existing actors on the market place form new coalitions. Promising new partners may be identified, partly...... based upon measures identifying how potential partners are perceived by the customers. Based on results from the European Customer Satisfaction study, a comparative analysis of customer satisfaction in Europe is conducted. Some specific Danish results are shown and the relationship between customer...

  8. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Beeson, Tracy A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The CALiPER program first began investigating LED lamps sold at retail stores in 2010, purchasing 33 products from eight retailers and covering six product categories. The findings revealed a fragmented marketplace, with large disparities in performance of different products, accuracy of manufacturer claims, and offerings from different retail outlets. Although there were some good products, looking back many would not be considered viable competitors to other available options, with too little lumen output, not high enough efficacy, or poor color quality. CALiPER took another look in late 2011purchasing 38 products of five different types from nine retailers and the improvement was marked. Performance was up; retailer claims were more accurate; and the price per lumen and price per unit efficacy were down, although the price per product had not changed much. Nonetheless, there was still plenty of room for improvement, with the performance of LED lamps not yet reaching that of well-established classes of conventional lamps (e.g., 75 W incandescent A19 lamps). Since the second retail lamp study was published in early 2012, there has been substantial progress in all aspects of LED lamps available from retailers. To document this progress, CALiPER again purchased a sample of lamps from retail stores 46 products in total, focusing on A19, PAR30, and MR16 lamps but instead of a random sample, sought to select products to answer specific hypotheses about performance. These hypotheses focused on expanding ranges of LED equivalency, the accuracy of lifetime claims, efficacy and price trends, as well as changes to product designs. Among other results, key findings include: There are now very good LED options to compete with 60 W, 75 W, and 100 W incandescent A19 lamps, and 75 W halogen PAR30 lamps. MR16 lamps have shown less progress, but there are now acceptable alternatives to 35 W, 12 V halogen MR16 lamps and 50 W, 120 V halogen MR16 lamps for some applications. Other

  9. Developing a retail energy service business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleckaitis, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Opportunities in the retail energy market and some of the steps that Consumersfirst Ltd. plans to take to carve out an appropriate niche for itself in what is expected to be a fiercely competitive deregulated energy market in Ontario are discussed. The major components of Consumersfirst Ltd's (Canadian division of IPLE's retail energy services), are a multi-faceted energy strategy, featuring unbundling Consumers Gas, acquisition of complementary enterprises such as e.g. HVAC contractors, investigation of green energy opportunities, and alliances and joint ventures with companies providing complementary services, such as e.g. Hydro-Quebec. The critical success factors, as always, are understanding customer needs, defining clear and differentiated value propositions, delivering on promises, selecting the right people for the job, and taking the longer-term view. Most important of all is to realize that there is no proven or single 'end state' model as markets are constantly evolving. figs

  10. Post-retail Responsibility of Garments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kerli Kant

    2014-01-01

    have engaged with reuse and recycling practices and which opportunities and challenges they face. Design/methodology/approach – The study relies on the qualitative multiple explorative case study method. The data were collected from 12 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with seven fashion companies......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the reuse and recycling of garments from the fashion industry's perspective. Through multiple case studies the paper maps the emerging organizational field of post-retail responsibility of garments, describing how and why several fashion companies...... and in-depth understanding. Findings – The findings demonstrate that post-retail responsibility of fashion is an emerging field in the fashion industry that offers several business opportunities to fashion companies, but also requires rethinking of existing value propositions and engagement of a wider...

  11. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper addresses this gap. The and six case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper sheds light on the types of constraints generated by the relevant constraint generators. The paper shows that in the cases studied......Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands. During a design process a retail designer has to consider various constraint generators such as stakeholder interests, physical limitations and restrictions. Obviously the architectural site, legislators...... and landlords need to be considered as well as the interest of the client and brand owner. Furthermore the users need to be taken into account in order to develop an interesting and functional shopping and working environments. Finally, suppliers and competitors may influence the design with regard...

  12. A national audit of retail lamb loin quality in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Channon, H A; Hopkins, D L; Hall, D G; van de Ven, R

    2002-07-01

    A retail audit of lamb loin tenderness was conducted over a 12-month period to determine the variation in tenderness of Australian lamb. Tenderness was objectively measured using Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force. Muscle pH and cooking loss were determined on all samples and colour was measured on a sub-sample of loins. A total of 909 midloins from retail butcher shops and supermarkets located in four Australian capital cities (Sydney, Canberra, Melbourne, and Perth) were evaluated at four sampling times (December 1997 and March, June, and October 1998). Overall, 20.3% of all midloins purchased had a WB shear force value above the threshold level of 5 kg. Generic samples from Melbourne butcher shops were similar for WB shear force on average to the generic samples from Canberra and Sydney, whereas those from Melbourne supermarkets had significantly (Plamb had a greater WB shear force (Plamb. No relationship was found between price per kg and shear force (r=0.02) for loins purchased in Sydney (n=220). Price per kg differed between months (Plamb sold in the domestic market. A lamb eating quality assurance system, based on set protocols, is one approach that is currently being investigated in Australia to ensure the supply of consistently high eating quality lamb to consumers.

  13. The Impact of Relationship Marketing Strategy in Indonesia Retail Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Pandapotan Simbolon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to examine the impact of relationship marketing strategy on customer loyalty in Indonesia’s retail industries. A questionnaire derived from previous studies and the relevant literature was completed by 182 retail customers in Jakarta. Multiple regression analysis assessed the impact on customer loyalty of four key constructs of relationship marketing (trust, commitment, communication, and conflict handling. The two variables (trust and commitment had a significant effect and predicted a good proportion of the variance in customer loyalty. Moreover, they were significantly related to one another. The relationships investigated in this study deserved further research. Since the data analyzed were collected from one sector of the service industry in one region, more studies were required before general conclusions can be drawn. It is reasonable to conclude, on this evidence, that customer loyalty can be created, reinforced, and retained by marketing plans aimed at building trust, demonstrating a commitment to service, communicating with customers in a timely, reliable and proactive fashion, and handling conflict efficiently, reinforces and refines the body of knowledge relating to customer loyalty in service industries.

  14. RETAIL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT THROUGH CENTRALIZED DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Davor Dujak

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the trends in the design of distribution systems in retail supply chain management. Through goals, design decisions and costs of distribution system or distribution network, the paper points to the complexity and importance of this area of supply chain management. The goal of paper is to present modern trends in the distribution system, as well as specify the advantages and disadvantages of the leading distribution systems, with a special emphasis on the central distribution...

  15. New Service Development in Flower Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Abdigali, Alikhan

    2010-01-01

    My research will focus on the practical dimension of new service development in flower retail in Kazakhstan. Our group project, the business plan, investigated the issue from an entrepreneur perspective without going into detail in theoretical part. I will try to come up with a set of recommendations to entrepreneurs who want to develop a customer oriented service, based on theories drawn from service development literature. The product and service mix development is a difficult task, and I h...

  16. Barriers in EU retail financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Micuda, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Looking at the retail financial markets and identifing a number of ‘‘natural’’ and ‘‘policy induced’’ obstacles to free trade. We use the term ‘‘natural’’ barriers to refer to those arising as a result of different cultures or consumer preferences, while different state tax policies or regulations are classified as ‘‘policy induced’’ barriers.

  17. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  18. Flower Retail in Kazakhstan: Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Talgat, Baidauletov; Alikhan, Abdigali

    2010-01-01

    Executive summary Flower retail industry in Kazakhstan is estimated to be around USD $80-100 million. Current market environment allows for entrance of a new player, focused on highly lucrative part segment of the market. Our business will differentiate itself by offering exceptional level of service while retaining competitive market prices. This business plan describes a way to turn USD $204,000 into a business with a turnover above $ 7 million in four years by capturing premium 10% o...

  19. Retail brand architecture and consumer store loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    is to investigate the relationship between consumers perceived retail brand architecture, their store satisfaction and loyalty. Furthermore we use perceived store image as a mediating factor in our framework. In total 772 Danish households participated in a telephone interview and returned questionnaires by mail....... The major contribution of this research is to conceptualise and empirically investigate the role of brand architecture for perceived store image, store satisfaction and loyalty....

  20. 75 FR 55409 - Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... currency with members of the retail public (i.e., ``retail forex transactions''). The new regulations and... in detail the historical background of the regulation of retail forex transactions, and the events... between forex firms and retail customers on the other hand.\\5\\ \\3\\ Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail...

  1. The gasoline retail market in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    1998-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the current status of the gasoline market in Quebec was presented. The study includes: (1) a review of the evolution of the retail market since the 1960s, (2) the development of a highly competitive sales environment, (3) a discussion of governmental interventions in the retail sales of gasoline, and (4) a discussion of the problems associated with the imposition of a minimum gasoline price. The low increase in demand for gasoline in Quebec since the 1980s has led to a considerable restructuring of the gasoline market. Consumers have little loyalty to specific brands but seek the lowest prices or prefer the outlets that offer the widest variety of associated services such as convenience stores, fast-food and car washes. Gasoline has clearly become a commodity in Quebec. An econometric model of gasoline price adjustments for the Montreal and Toronto urban areas and a summary of government interventions in the retail marketing of gasoline in Canada and the USA are included as appendices. tabs

  2. Evaluation of employee training in retail business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stehlíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological development and growing competition on the market asks for continuous improvement of knowledge and skills of employees, not only for securing their work places but also for increasing the companies’ competitiveness and economic development of the society. Company education is one of the main instruments, how the enterprises can improve their position in the market. The main criterion of success in business are in present especially employees’ skills. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the most important topics, which are used for improving skills and working outcomes of employees in retail and wholesale branch. Their possibility for getting feedback was also commented and controllability was further checked. When we summarize all findings, the most important competencies of workers in retail and warehouse business are qualification (shopping skills and knowledge of products, behaviour (obliging attitude to customers, ability to compliment the customer of his/her choice, working reaction (ability to do daily tasks quickly, safety, precisely and punctually, neatness (well and clean dressed employees, different groups of workers are distinguishable from each other. Next step after the list of main competences in retail and warehouse business was creating questionnaire, which should serve for researching quality of company education and its possibility to improvement. This questionnaire can serve for all companies in this field, which want or need to evaluate their company education.

  3. Influence of retail cigarette advertising, price promotions, and retailer compliance on youth smoking-related attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Loomis, Brett R; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to retail tobacco marketing is associated with youth smoking, but most studies have relied on self-reported measures of exposure, which are prone to recall bias. To examine whether exposure to retail cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance is associated with youth smoking-related outcomes using observational estimates of exposure. Data on retail cigarette advertising and promotions were collected from a representative sample of licensed tobacco retailers in New York annually since 2004. County-level estimates of retail cigarette advertising and promotions and retailer compliance with youth access laws were calculated and linked to the New York Youth Tobacco Survey, administered to 54,671 middle and high school students in 2004, 2006, and 2008. Regression models examined whether cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance were associated with youth's awareness of retail cigarette advertising, attitudes about smoking, susceptibility to smoking, cigarette purchasing behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Living in counties with more retail cigarette advertisements is associated with youth having positive attitudes about smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.19, P advertising and promotions may help reduce youth smoking.

  4. Price Strategies between a Dominant Retailer and Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hsun Jung; Mak, Hou Kit

    2009-08-01

    Supply chain-related game theoretical applications have been discussed for decades. This research accounts for the emergence of a dominant retailer, and the retailer Stackelberg pricing models of distribution channels. Research in the channel pricing game may use different definitions of pricing decision variables. In this research, we pay attentions to the retailer Stackelberg pricing game, and discuss the effects when choosing different decision variables. According the literature it was shown that the strategies between channel members depend critically on the form of the demand function. Two different demand forms—linear and non-linear—will be considered in our numerical example respectively. Our major finding is the outcomes are not relative to manufacturers' pricing decisions but to the retailer's pricing decision and choosing percentage margin as retailer's decision variable is the best strategy for the retailer but worst for manufacturers. The numerical results show that it is consistence between linear and non-linear demand form.

  5. Fashion Retail Master Data Model and Business Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmøller, Harald; Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Retailing, and particularly fashion retailing, is changing into a much more technology driven business model using omni-channel retailing approaches. Also analytical and data-driven marketing is on the rise. However, there has not been paid a lot of attention to the underlying and underpinning...... datastructures, the characteristics for fashion retailing, the relationship between static and dynamic data, and the governance of this. This paper is analysing and discussing the data dimension of fashion retailing with focus on data-model development, master data management and the impact of this on business...... development in the form of increased operational effectiveness, better adaptation the omni-channel environment and improved alignment between the business strategy and the supporting data. The paper presents a case study of a major European fashion retail and wholesale company that is in the process...

  6. E-commerce, paper and energy use: a case study concerning a Dutch electronic computer retailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogeveen, M.J.; Reijnders, L. [Open University Netherlands, Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    Impacts of the application of c-commerce on paper and energy use are analysed in a case study concerning a Dutch electronic retailer (e-tailer) of computers. The estimated use of paper associated with the e-tailer concerned was substantially reduced if compared with physical retailing or traditional mail-order retailing. However, the overall effect of e-tailing on paper use strongly depends on customer behaviour. Some characteristics of c-commerce, as practised by the e-tailer concerned, such as diminished floor space requirements, reduced need for personal transport and simplified logistics, improve energy efficiency compared with physical retailing. Substitution of paper information by online information has an energetic effect that is dependent on the time of online information perusal and the extent to which downloaded information is printed. Increasing distances from producers to consumers, outsourcing, and increased use of computers, associated equipment and electronic networks are characteristics of e-commerce that may have an upward effect on energy use. In this case study, the upward effects thereof on energy use were less than the direct energy efficiency gains. However, the indirect effects associated with increased buying power and the rebound effect on transport following from freefalling travel time, greatly exceeded direct energy efficiency gains. (author)

  7. The adoption and effectiveness of loyalty programs in retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Leenheer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Loyalty programs have widely appeared in several sectors, with the aim of enhancing customer loyalty and profitability. This dissertation examines which role loyalty programs can play in the company's marketing-mix, with a special focus on retailing. The dissertation consists of three independent projects. The first project studies the determinants of retailers' decision to adopt loyalty programs and the effectiveness of loyalty programs by means of a retailer survey. The second project studi...

  8. Farm-retail price spread for pork in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng; Randy, Stringer; Wendy, Umberger

    2009-01-01

    The price difference between farm and retail levels is called price spread, which is constituted mostly by marketing costs and profits. From the price spread, this paper intends to estimate elasticities of price transmission for pork in Malaysia via different empirical model specifications of markup pricing model. Using data from January 1997 to December 2007, a quantitative analysis of farm-to-retail price spreads was undertaken for pork in Malaysia. It was found that retail price is the onl...

  9. The Determinants Of Islamic Retail Banking Adoption In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Seethaletchumy Thambiah; Shanti Ramanathan; Mohammad Nurul Huda Mazumder

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors affecting the adoption of Islamic retail banking (IRB) products and services among the banking customers of Malaysia. The market share of Islamic retail banking remains low despite being in operation for the past 28 years. Therefore, an empirical analysis was conducted to study the usage of Islamic retail banking products and services between the urban and rural banking customers of Malaysia. Comparisons were also made on the usage of Islamic deposits an...

  10. Franchising as the model of internationalisation of retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov-Mladenović, Svetlana; Ćuzović, Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Franchising is a system that can be applied in many sectors of the economy. In recent years, it has become a major driving force in the process of internationalisation of the service sector, especially in retailing. Retail chains are increasingly using franchising in the process of expanding their operations on the domestic as well as the international market. The issue of expansion of retail chains to international markets attracted the attention of theoreticians and practitioners in the lat...

  11. Second-life retailing: a reverse supply chain perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, LS; Ghobadian, A; He, Q; Gallear, D; O Regan, N

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the role of entrepreneurial business models in the reverse supply chain of apparel/fashion retailers. The purpose of this paper is to offer an alternative approach to the “return to the point of origin” prevalent in the reverse chain of manufacturers but less technically and economically feasible in the case of apparel/fashion retailers. This approach, second-life retailing, not only reduces waste but also democratises consumption. Design/methodology/approach – The paper i...

  12. New Strategies of the Retail Market to Attract Buyers

    OpenAIRE

    Cãlin Mariana Floricica

    2012-01-01

    New realities of the digital age (continuous growth of internet penetration, card payments and mobile applications) forcing large retailers to rethink their tactics to increase business. The consequences of this development are manifold and manifest more and more that consumers want the ability to get information online on a retailer, you can compare prices - so an increasing demand for transparency - and you can order anytime, anywhere in a simple manner. Online retail allows introducing a w...

  13. Classification of Franchise Networks in the Retail Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-01-01

    The article clarifies the definitions of the concepts of «franchise network», «franchise trade network», «franchise retail network», which is substantiated by the lack of a unified approach to interpretation of these concepts. The classification of franchise networks in the retail trade taking into account peculiarities in the operation of this sub-sector of the market economy is developed; classification attributes are identified and types of franchise retail chains are cha...

  14. Travel Distance and Market Size in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the process of change in urban systems, specifically the changes in the relationships between urban transportation and food retail distribution activities. The dynamic properties of food retailing and transportation systems are identified by tracing location patterns of food stores in Seattle, Washington. Increases in travel demand due to food shopping trips are estimated based on changes in spatial arrangement of food retail activities over the past 50 years. The study ...

  15. OVERCOMING PERCEPTIONS OF UNCERTAINTY AND RISK IN E-RETAILING

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda Renko; Daniel Popovic

    2013-01-01

    Increasing development of the Internet and the use of information and communication technology contributed to the development of e-retailing in consumers‘ purchasing. The main purpose of this paper is to explore overall perceptions of e-retailing among Croatian consumers. In particular, the focus of the paper is on the areas which influenced the customer commitment and loyalty in e-retailing. In understanding whether the Internet and home shopping affected consumers‘ purchases and what is the...

  16. Generating Customer Profiles for Retail Stores Using Clustering Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Prasad,; Dr. Latesh G. Malik

    2011-01-01

    The retail industry collects huge amounts of data on sales, customer buying history, goods transportation, consumption, and service. With increased availability and ease of use of modern computing technology and e-commerce, the availability and popularity of such businesses has grown rapidly. Many retail stores have websites where customers can make online purchases. These factors have resulted in increase in the quantity of the data collected. For this reason, the retail industry is a major ...

  17. The Prevalence of Organized Retail Crime in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Dabil

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the level of existence of organized retail crime in supermarkets of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The store managers, security managers and general employees were asked about the types of retail crimes occur in the stores. Three independent variables were related to the report of organized retail theft. The independent variables are: 1) the supermarket profile (volume, location, standard and type of the store), 2) the social physical environment of the store (maintenance, clea...

  18. Retail store image in emerging markets: An initial study among Chinese retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    differences regarding store characteristics, purchasing behavior, and supplier selection criteria among the three identified store image segments are revealed. The implications of these findings for practitioners and for future research on store image in emerging markets are highlighted....... their stores to defend and sustain the image (i.e. retailers' perspective). Here Chinese food retailing is used as an example of emerging markets. The study finds three unique store images, corresponding to up-market, middle-range, and down-market store segments. Contrasting the two studies, significant...

  19. Consumer Preferences for Animal Source Foods in Uganda: Quality, Retail Forms and Retail Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Mtimet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a rapid consumer survey undertaken in Uganda. The survey aimed at identifying preferred quality and safety attributes, retail forms and retail outlets for major livestock products and by type of consumers. Results of the survey, combined with nationally representative household datasets, allows description of both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the developing market for animal-source foods, which is anticipated to provide major business opportunities for small-scale livestock producers in the short and medium terms.

  20. Active Market Share: measuring competitiveness in retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.; Malm, E.

    1999-01-01

    As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)

  1. Tobacco Retail Environments and Social Inequalities in Individual-Level Smoking and Cessation Among Scottish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jamie; Rind, Esther; Shortt, Niamh; Tisch, Catherine; Mitchell, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Many neighborhood characteristics may constrain or enable smoking. This study investigated whether the neighborhood tobacco retail environment was associated with individual-level smoking and cessation in Scottish adults, and whether inequalities in smoking status were related to tobacco retailing. Tobacco outlet density measures were developed for neighborhoods across Scotland using the September 2012 Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register. The outlet data were cleaned and geocoded (n = 10,161) using a Geographic Information System. Kernel density estimation was used to calculate an outlet density measure for each postcode. The kernel density estimation measures were then appended to data on individuals included in the 2008-2011 Scottish Health Surveys (n = 28,751 adults aged ≥16), via their postcode. Two-level logistic regression models examined whether neighborhood density of tobacco retailing was associated with current smoking status and smoking cessation and whether there were differences in the relationship between household income and smoking status, by tobacco outlet density. After adjustment for individual- and area-level confounders, compared to residents of areas with the lowest outlet densities, those living in areas with the highest outlet densities had a 6% higher chance of being a current smoker, and a 5% lower chance of being an ex-smoker. There was little evidence to suggest that inequalities in either current smoking or cessation were narrower in areas with lower availability of tobacco retailing. The findings suggest that residents of environments with a greater availability of tobacco outlets are more likely to start and/or sustain smoking, and less likely to quit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries....... The study encompassed the retailers' buying behaviour for fish and cheese products. The results demonstrate that the traditional four P's are losing ground to some previously neglected attributes, which now demand consideration by retail suppliers of products and services and by researchers....

  3. Implications of foreign direct investment in India's retail sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Patibandla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is the backbone of retail business. Adoption of an efficient supply chain between producers and consumers by modern large retailers could reduce average transaction and information costs of market exchange; generate surplus for stakeholders such as producers, farmers, and consumers; expand output; and could thereby contribute to economic growth and net employment gains. Foreign players can introduce a highly advanced supply chain and develop local producers and generate externalities. This paper develops a simple theory of supply chain and economic growth. It shows the implications of adaptation of the Wal-Mart model of retailing on India's retail business.

  4. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline of the st......In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  5. Electronic Cigarette Retail Outlets and Proximity to Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Begley, Kathy; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Johnson, Andrew O; Mundy, Monica E; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    To compare the retail distribution and density per population of electronic and conventional cigarettes in smoke-free communities with and without e-cigarette restrictions. A cross-sectional study with field observations of retail tobacco stores. Two Central Kentucky counties with 100% smoke-free workplace regulations; counties selected on the basis of whether e-cigarette use was restricted. Fifty-seven tobacco retailers in two counties, including conventional retailers and stand-alone e-cigarette stores. Type and location of store and products sold; addresses of stores and schools geocoded with ArcGIS. Bivariate comparisons between counties, rates and confidence intervals for frequency of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette stores per population. Fifty-three percent of tobacco retailers sold e-cigarettes. E-cigarette availability did not differ by whether smoke-free regulation covered e-cigarettes. Rates of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette distributors per 10,000 were 8.29 and 4.40, respectively, in the two-county area. Of the 40 schools, 88% had a tobacco retailer and 68% had an e-cigarette distributor within 1 mile. In this exploratory study, e-cigarette use restriction was not related to store availability. For a relatively new product, e-cigarettes were readily available in retail outlets and close to schools.

  6. Retail gas markets - a case of regulated deregulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.

    2001-01-01

    While much has been said recently on the introduction of full retail contestability in Australia's gas markets, the process is far from over. The General Manager (Retail) with Origin Energy-and a new addition to the Australian Gas Association Board-provides an overview of the process to date, and how it might progress in the future. He concluded that in Australia, the retail gas market is relatively small and the processes initiated to achieve full retail competition are still largely fragmented across jurisdictions. These factors have potential to generate costs which could severely dent, if not exceed the anticipated benefit of competition

  7. Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.; Kung, F.

    2012-03-01

    This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.

  8. Cooperation Between Suppliers and Retail Chains in Developing Systemic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bilińska-Reformat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeking a competitive advantage, retail chains develop systemic products. Introducing systemic products to retailers' offer requires establishment of close cooperation with their suppliers. In the paper the assumption has been made that offering systemic products makes the offer more attractive for customer. It is also reason for development of cooperation between retail chains and suppliers. Selected commercial enterprises were research objects in the study. Analyses included in the paper concern the years between 2009 and 2015. Research methods: critical analysis of the literature, results of own research method concerning cooperation between retail chains and suppliers, and the case research method.

  9. Jumping into the healthcare retail market: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, Pat; Dobberstein, Darla; Wiisanen, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Who among us has not heard of the retail-based clinic concept? Retail-based clinics have been springing up across the country in Target, Walmart, grocery stores, drugstores, and shopping malls. Due to multiple marketplace issues, others who have not traditionally been providers of healthcare saw an opportunity to meet the consumer's demand. Do retail and healthcare mix, and can this model be successful? MeritCare Health System in Fargo, ND made the decision to embrace and experiment with this new emerging consumerism model. This article reviews our experience in developing the first retail-based clinic in our service area and the state of North Dakota.

  10. Supply chain coordination under retail competition and advertising dependent demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain coordination as an effective tool plays an important role in improving supply chain performance. In this article, a two-level supply chain with one manufacturer and two retailers is considered. The order quantity that retailers are faced with depends on the amount of advertisements and both retailers compete with each other on advertising. The Stackelberg game is established between manufacturer and retailers such that the manufacturer and the retailers play the leader and the follower roles, respectively. First, the manufacturer determines the wholesale prices for retailers and instead, the retailers determine the order quantity and advertising level, simultaneously. The manufacturer produces one kind of product and delivers it to retailers before the beginning of selling season. Retailers can affect the order quantity regarding the demand dependency on advertising level through the incurred costs from the advertising. In this paper, we show that we can achieve the desirable supply chain coordination through using combined quantity discount and advertising cost sharing contracts. We also consider the win-win situation for all the members of the supply chain.

  11. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian

    2013-02-07

    The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students' lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students' self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1-2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3-4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1-2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3-4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near

  12. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seliske Laura

    2013-02-01

    was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers.

  13. Strategy of Fast Fashion Retailers in the Czech Republic - A Case Study Analysis of Three Chosen Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Kučmašová, Hana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to define fast fashion and fast fashion retailing, and describe specifics of their business activities with deep focus on the Czech market. The theoretical part reviews literature dealing with international strategy and management and fashion and fast fashion retailing. The empirical part then focuses on real-life business cases. In order to illustrate the behaviour of fast fashion retailers on the Czech market, a case study method is employed. The attention i...

  14. Can A Food Retailer-Based Healthier Foods Initiative Improve The Nutrient Profile Of US Packaged Food Purchases? A Case Study Of Walmart, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthier foods initiatives (HFIs) by national food retailers offer an opportunity to improve the nutritional profile of packaged food purchases (PFPS). Using a longitudinal dataset of US household PFPs, with methods to account for selectivity of shopping at a specific retailer, we modeled the effect of Walmart’s HFI using counterfactual simulations to examine observed vs. expected changes in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs. From 2000 to 2013, Walmart PFPs showed major declines in energy, sodium, and sugar density, as well as declines in sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy, beyond trends at similar retailers. However, post-HFI declines were similar to what we expected based on pre-HFI trends, suggesting that these changes were not attributable to Walmart’s HFI. These results suggest that food retailer-based HFIs may not be sufficient to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. PMID:26526244

  15. The impact of the number of retail outlets on the market share of consumer goods' retail brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahović Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of effects of retail brands of consumer goods on the market share they have in Serbia. In particular, the research includes the impact of the retail format on the growth or decrease in market share. The data were obtained from market retailing research of consumer goods on the Internet and the research carried out by the GFK agency. The study used a statistical method of data processing by the method of descriptive statistics. The survey showed that the Serbian retail market is still underdeveloped, and that the strongest impact on the market share of retail chain stores of consumer goods has the size of the retail network, as well as a strong dominance of traditional trade in comparison to organized one. The retail market in Serbia has a long period of consolidation forthcoming and also taking over such a status that organized trades or TOP 10 retail chains have already had in the most developed countries. The market share of TOP 10 retail chains in Serbia is now at the level slightly bigger than 30%, while those in developed market economies have a market share moving up to 75%.

  16. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Bostean; Catherine M. Crespi; Patsornkarn Vorapharuek; William J. McCarthy

    2017-01-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, ?E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools,? by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1...

  17. Impact of RFID Technology on Logistic Process Efficiency in Retail Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikoličić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that logistics faces in the retail industry must be investigated in the context of the specific retail sector as well as the degree of development of the retail market. The research focus in this paper is on logistic processes in supermarket supply. The aim is to deepen the understanding of logistic processes and then to investigate the possibilities of their enhancement by applying radio frequency identification (RFID as a higher level of information technology for product identification in retail supply chains. The research was conducted in one of the top ten trade companies in the emerging Serbian market. Simulation modelling was performed for one supply chain category, followed by quantification of time and cost performance of the current logistic processes (AS-IS model. Then, in accordance with the capabilities of RFID system, improvements are proposed and integrated into a new simulation model (TO-BE model. The obtained results can be utilised as part of a broader research when deciding on the implementation of modern information technologies in supply chains.

  18. What Motivate Muslim Consumer to Patronage Islamic Based–Retail Store?

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzi, Waida Irani Mohd; Muhammad, Nazlida; Mokhtar, Sany Sanuri Mohd; Yusoff, Rushamie Zain

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant trend among Muslim consumers in reverting to Islamic way of life. The phenomenon somehow affected the Malaysian retail industry with specialty Islamic stores mushrooming, and retailers customizing retail elements to win the Muslim consumers segment. As the mainstream studies on retailing acknowledges the adaptation of retail elements to suit consumers’ segment, there are less report on customizing retail elements to religious consumer group such as Muslim consumers’ seg...

  19. Disentangling the roles of point-of-sale ban, tobacco retailer density and proximity on cessation and relapse among a cohort of smokers: findings from ITC Canada Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Lozano, Paula; Wu, Yun-Hsuan; Hardin, James W; Meng, Gang; Liese, Angela D; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thrasher, James F

    2018-03-08

    To examine how point-of-sale (POS) display bans, tobacco retailer density and tobacco retailer proximity were associated with smoking cessation and relapse in a cohort of smokers in Canada, where provincial POS bans were implemented differentially over time from 2004 to 2010. Data from the 2005 to 2011 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Canada Survey, a nationally representative cohort of adult smokers, were linked via residential geocoding with tobacco retailer data to derive for each smoker a measure of retailer density and proximity. An indicator variable identified whether the smoker's province banned POS displays at the time of the interview. Outcomes included cessation for at least 1 month at follow-up among smokers from the previous wave and relapse at follow-up among smokers who had quit at the previous wave. Logistic generalised estimating equation models were used to determine the relationship between living in a province with a POS display ban, tobacco retailer density and tobacco retailer proximity with cessation (n=4388) and relapse (n=866). Provincial POS display bans were not associated with cessation. In adjusted models, POS display bans were associated with lower odds of relapse which strengthened after adjusting for retailer density and proximity, although results were not statistically significant (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.07, p=0.089). Neither tobacco retailer density nor proximity was associated with cessation or relapse. Banning POS retail displays shows promise as an additional tool to prevent relapse, although these results need to be confirmed in larger longitudinal studies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Comparing sugary drinks in the food retail environment in six NYC neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Sacks, Rachel; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a national public health concern linked to numerous chronic health conditions among Americans of all age groups. Evidence suggests that discretionary calories from sugary drink consumption have been a significant contributor to excess caloric intake among both children and adults. Research has established strong links between retail food environments and purchasing habits of consumers, but little information exists on the sugary drink retail environment in urban neighborhoods. The objective of this assessment was to compare various aspects of the sugary drink retail environment across New York City (NYC) neighborhoods with disparate self-reported sugary drink consumption patterns. In-store retail audits were conducted at 883 corner stores, chain pharmacies, and grocery stores in 12 zip codes throughout NYC. Results showed that among all beverage types assessed, sugary drinks had the most prominent presence in the retail environment overall, which was even more pronounced in higher-consumption neighborhoods. In higher- versus lower-consumption neighborhoods, the mean number of sugary drink varieties available at stores was higher (11.4 vs. 10.4 varieties), stores were more likely to feature sugary drink advertising (97 vs. 89 %) and advertising at multiple places throughout the store (78 vs. 57 %), and several sugary drinks, including 20-oz Coke® or Pepsi®, were less expensive ($1.38 vs. $1.60). These results, all statistically significant, indicate that neighborhoods characterized by higher levels of sugary drink consumption expose shoppers to sugary drinks to a greater extent than lower-consumption neighborhoods. This builds upon evidence documenting the association between the environment and individual behavior.