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Sample records for times higher yield

  1. Higher antibiotic yielding mutants of bacillus subtilis by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Shaukat, G.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    When Bacillus Subtilis AECL69 was grown in malt extract-pepetone-molasses-sugar (MPMS) medium, it could produce antibiotic substance(s) with antibacterial and antifungal properties in the culture fluid. The bacterial cells grown in MPMS medium were washed and suspended into distilled water and irradiated with gamma rays in Gammacell 220 at different doses. Higher antibiotic yielding isolates (plus mutants) were obtained from cell pollutions irradiated at 15 Kr. These gamma rays-induced plus mutants showed simultaneous higher production of antibacterial as well as antifungal activity. (author)

  2. Higher biomolecules yield in phytoplankton under copper exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline Carmo; Echeveste, Pedro; Lombardi, Ana Teresa

    2018-05-30

    Copper is an important metal for industry, and its toxic threshold in natural ecosystems has increased since the industrial revolution. As an essential nutrient, it is required in minute amounts, being toxic in slightly increased concentrations, causing great biochemical transformation in microalgae. This study aimed at investigating the physiology of Scenedesmus quadricauda, a cosmopolitan species, exposed to copper concentrations including those that trigger intracellular biochemical modifications. The Cu exposure concentrations tested ranged from 0.1 to 25 µM, thus including environmentally important levels. Microalgae cultures were kept under controlled environmental conditions and monitored daily for cell density, in vivo chlorophyll a, and photosynthetic quantum yield (Φ M ). After 24 h growth, free Cu 2+ ions were determined, and after 96 h, cellular Cu concentration, total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and cell volume were determined. The results showed that both free Cu 2+ ions and cellular Cu increased with Cu increase in culture medium. Microalgae cell abundance and in vivo chlorophyll a were mostly affected at 2.5 µM Cu exposure (3.8 pg Cu cell -1 ) and above. Approximately 31% decrease of photosynthetic quantum yield was obtained at the highest Cu exposure concentration (25 µM; 25 pg Cu cell -1 ) in comparison with the control. However, at environmentally relevant copper concentrations (0.5 µM Cu; 0.4 pg Cu cell -1 ) cell volume increased in comparison with the control. Considering biomolecules accumulation per unit cell volume, the highest carbohydrates and proteins yield was obtained at 1.0 µM Cu (1.1 pg Cu cell -1 ), while for lipids higher Cu was necessary (2.5 µM Cu; 3.8 pg Cu cell -1 ). This study is a contribution to the understanding of the effects of environmentally significant copper concentrations in the physiology of S. quadricauda, as well as to biotechnological approach to increase biomolecule yield in

  3. Managment oriented analysis of sediment yield time compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Raclot, Damien; Nunes, João P.; Licciardello, Feliciana; Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Latron, Jérôme; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Mathys, Nicolle; Klotz, Sébastien; Mekki, Insaf; Gallart, Francesc; Solé Benet, Albert; Pérez Gallego, Nuria; Andrieux, Patrick; Moussa, Roger; Planchon, Olivier; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Alshihabi, Omran; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of inter- and intra-annual variability of sediment yield is important for the land use planning and management decisions for sustainable landscapes. It is of particular importance in the regions where the annual sediment yield is often highly dependent on the occurrence of few large events which produce the majority of sediments, such as in the Mediterranean. This phenomenon is referred as time compression, and relevance of its consideration growths with the increase in magnitude and frequency of extreme events due to climate change in many other regions. So far, time compression has ben studied mainly on events datasets, providing high resolution, but (in terms of data amount, required data precision and methods), demanding analysis. In order to provide an alternative simplified approach, the monthly and yearly time compressions were evaluated in eight Mediterranean catchments (of the R-OSMed network), representing a wide range of Mediterranean landscapes. The annual sediment yield varied between 0 to ~27100 Mg•km-2•a-1, and the monthly sediment yield between 0 to ~11600 Mg•km-2•month-1. The catchment's sediment yield was un-equally distributed at inter- and intra-annual scale, and large differences were observed between the catchments. Two types of time compression were distinguished - (i) the inter-annual (based on annual values) and intra- annual (based on monthly values). Four different rainfall-runoff-sediment yield time compression patterns were observed: (i) no time-compression of rainfall, runoff, nor sediment yield, (ii) low time compression of rainfall and runoff, but high compression of sediment yield, (iii) low compression of rainfall and high of runoff and sediment yield, and (iv) low, medium and high compression of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield. All four patterns were present at inter-annual scale, while at intra-annual scale only the two latter were present. This implies that high sediment yields occurred in

  4. ISOL yield predictions from holdup-time measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spejewski, Eugene H.; Carter, H Kennon; Mervin, Brenden T.; Prettyman, Emily S.; Kronenberg, Andreas; Stracener, Daniel W

    2008-01-01

    A formalism based on a simple model is derived to predict ISOL yields for all isotopes of a given element based on a holdup-time measurement of a single isotope of that element. Model predictions, based on parameters obtained from holdup-time measurements, are compared to independently-measured experimental values

  5. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  6. Real-time yield estimation based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Sheppard, Clay

    2017-05-01

    Crop yield estimation is an important task in product management and marketing. Accurate yield prediction helps farmers to make better decision on cultivation practices, plant disease prevention, and the size of harvest labor force. The current practice of yield estimation based on the manual counting of fruits is very time consuming and expensive process and it is not practical for big fields. Robotic systems including Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV), provide an efficient, cost-effective, flexible, and scalable solution for product management and yield prediction. Recently huge data has been gathered from agricultural field, however efficient analysis of those data is still a challenging task. Computer vision approaches currently face diffident challenges in automatic counting of fruits or flowers including occlusion caused by leaves, branches or other fruits, variance in natural illumination, and scale. In this paper a novel deep convolutional network algorithm was developed to facilitate the accurate yield prediction and automatic counting of fruits and vegetables on the images. Our method is robust to occlusion, shadow, uneven illumination and scale. Experimental results in comparison to the state-of-the art show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  7. Higher dimensional time-energy entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richart, Daniel Lampert

    2014-01-01

    Judging by the compelling number of innovations based on taming quantum mechanical effects, such as the development of transistors and lasers, further research in this field promises to tackle further technological challenges in the years to come. This statement gains even more importance in the information processing scenario. Here, the growing data generation and the correspondingly higher need for more efficient computational resources and secure high bandwidth networks are central problems which need to be tackled. In this sense, the required CPU minituarization makes the design of structures at atomic levels inevitable, as foreseen by Moore's law. From these perspectives, it is necessary to concentrate further research efforts into controlling and manipulating quantum mechanical systems. This enables for example to encode quantum superposition states to tackle problems which are computationally NP hard and which therefore cannot be solved efficiently by classical computers. The only limitation affecting these solutions is the low scalability of existing quantum systems. Similarly, quantum communication schemes are devised to certify the secure transmission of quantum information, but are still limited by a low transmission bandwidth. This thesis follows the guideline defined by these research projects and aims to further increase the scalability of the quantum mechanical systems required to perform these tasks. The method used here is to encode quantum states into photons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). An intrinsic limitation of photons is that the scalability of quantum information schemes employing them is limited by the low detection efficiency of commercial single photon detectors. This is addressed by encoding higher dimensional quantum states into two photons, increasing the scalability of the scheme in comparison to multi-photon states. Further on, the encoding of quantum information into the emission-time degree of

  8. Higher dimensional time-energy entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richart, Daniel Lampert

    2014-07-08

    Judging by the compelling number of innovations based on taming quantum mechanical effects, such as the development of transistors and lasers, further research in this field promises to tackle further technological challenges in the years to come. This statement gains even more importance in the information processing scenario. Here, the growing data generation and the correspondingly higher need for more efficient computational resources and secure high bandwidth networks are central problems which need to be tackled. In this sense, the required CPU minituarization makes the design of structures at atomic levels inevitable, as foreseen by Moore's law. From these perspectives, it is necessary to concentrate further research efforts into controlling and manipulating quantum mechanical systems. This enables for example to encode quantum superposition states to tackle problems which are computationally NP hard and which therefore cannot be solved efficiently by classical computers. The only limitation affecting these solutions is the low scalability of existing quantum systems. Similarly, quantum communication schemes are devised to certify the secure transmission of quantum information, but are still limited by a low transmission bandwidth. This thesis follows the guideline defined by these research projects and aims to further increase the scalability of the quantum mechanical systems required to perform these tasks. The method used here is to encode quantum states into photons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). An intrinsic limitation of photons is that the scalability of quantum information schemes employing them is limited by the low detection efficiency of commercial single photon detectors. This is addressed by encoding higher dimensional quantum states into two photons, increasing the scalability of the scheme in comparison to multi-photon states. Further on, the encoding of quantum information into the emission-time degree of

  9. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245 Cm, and 249 Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232 Th to 252 Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables

  10. Effect of Oxidation Time on Humic Acid Yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin Thidar Cho; May Zin Lwin

    2010-12-01

    In this study,humic acids were produced from coal under controlled conditions by using different oxidation time. This research studies on the behaviour of coal during oxidation process. The coal used as raw material in this research was obtained from Ka Lay Wa, Sagaing Division . The coals were oxidized at the different oxidation times from 76 hr to 380 hr at the temperature 150 5C. The yields of humic acid, the ultimate analysis (percentage of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen) and the proximate analysis (percentage of volatile, ash and moisture) were done in this study. The functional groups and structural entities of the obtained humic acids were identified by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). The yield percentage of prepared humic acid in Ka Lay Wa coal was found to be 3%.

  11. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  12. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Asim, A.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  13. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  14. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  15. Time of harvest affects the yield of soluble polysaccharides extracted enzymatically from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Sørensen, Ole Bandsholm; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    properties as bifidogenic prebiotic fibers. The potato starch processing campaign is based on processing of fresh potatoes (in Denmark the campaign lasts from September to December). This study examines the effect of time of harvest and processing during the campaign on the yield of enzymatically solubilized...... fibers; this outcome may be the result of an inherent effect of the higher maturity of the potatoes late in the campaign....

  16. Access time optimization of SRAM memory with statistical yield constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Beelen, T.G.J.; Janssen, H.H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A product may fail when design parameters are subject to large deviations. To guarantee yield one likes to determine bounds on the parameter range such that the fail probability P_fail is small. For Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) characteristics like Static Noise Margin and Read Current,

  17. SCS-CN based time-distributed sediment yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, J. V.; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, Ranvir; Singh, V. P.

    2008-05-01

    SummaryA sediment yield model is developed to estimate the temporal rates of sediment yield from rainfall events on natural watersheds. The model utilizes the SCS-CN based infiltration model for computation of rainfall-excess rate, and the SCS-CN-inspired proportionality concept for computation of sediment-excess. For computation of sedimentographs, the sediment-excess is routed to the watershed outlet using a single linear reservoir technique. Analytical development of the model shows the ratio of the potential maximum erosion (A) to the potential maximum retention (S) of the SCS-CN method is constant for a watershed. The model is calibrated and validated on a number of events using the data of seven watersheds from India and the USA. Representative values of the A/S ratio computed for the watersheds from calibration are used for the validation of the model. The encouraging results of the proposed simple four parameter model exhibit its potential in field application.

  18. Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A general solution of Einstein field equations corresponding to a charged fluid distribution on the background of higher dimensional spheroidal space-time is obtained. The solution generates several known solutions for superdense star having spheroidal space-time geometry.

  19. Just in Time Research: Data Breaches in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This "Just in Time" research is in response to recent discussions on the EDUCAUSE Higher Education Information Security Council (HEISC) discussion list about data breaches in higher education. Using data from the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, this research analyzes data breaches attributed to higher education. The results from this…

  20. Part-Time Higher Education: Employer Engagement under Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Employer support for employees who are studying part-time for higher education qualifications constitutes a form of indirect employer engagement with higher education institutions that has contributed strongly to the development of work-related skills and knowledge over the years. However, this form of employer engagement with higher education…

  1. The effects of irrigation timing on growth, yield, and physiological traits of hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahedur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop-specific timing of irrigation is necessary to conserve irrigation water and improve yield of vegetables. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to identify the optimum irrigation timings for hydroponic lettuce plants. Three nutrient solution timings, T1(once a day at 0900 hours, T2(once on alternative days at 0900 hours, and T3(once at two-day intervals, and three varieties, ‘Legacy’ (V1, ‘Red fire’ (V2, and ‘Green wave’ (V3 were evaluated. Growth and yield parameters, including number of leaves, leaf length, leaf diameter, and fresh weight of leaves, and growth parameters, including leaf area (LA, leaf area ratio (LAR, leaf mass ratio (LMR, root weight ratio (RWR, relative growth rate (RGR, and net assimilation rate (NAR were determined. The values of growth parameters were the highest for T1. The highest and lowest NAR and RGR values were obtained for T1 and T3, respectively. The values of most growth traits, including fresh weight, NAR, and RGR were higher for V1 than other varieties. T1 provides high yield with comparatively less irrigation water and nutrient solution so it can be used to culture lettuce using aggregate hydroponics as.

  2. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  3. Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Kyza, Irene; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2013-01-01

    on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time

  4. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, Camilla Nielsen; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  5. Ecuador's higher education system in times of change

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, María Isabel; Torres León, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador’s higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador’s universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions of full-time faculty. This article describes the attempt to raise the level of Ecuador’s system of higher education and its impact on faculty and a...

  6. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hoof, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador’s higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador’s universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions of full-time faculty. This article describes the attempt to raise the level of Ecuador’s system of higher education and its impact on faculty and a...

  7. The Times Higher Education Ranking Product: Visualising Excellence through Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will examine the Times Higher Education's (THE) World University Rankings as a corporate media product. A number of empirical studies have critiqued the methodology of the THE, yet individuals, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and governments continue to use them for decision-making. This paper analyses the influence of…

  8. Adopting Consumer Time: Potential Issues for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Time and temporality have received little attention in the consumerism, marketing or, until recently, higher education literature. This paper attempts to compare the notions of timing implicit in education as "paideia" (transitional personal growth) with that implicit in consumerism and the marketing practices which foster it. This…

  9. Pretreatment of cottonseed flakes with proteases and an amylase for higher oil yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanein, Minar M.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of enzymatic pretreatment of cottonseed flakes on oil extractability was studied. The enzymes investigated included bacterial protease (Bp, papain (Pa, savinase (S, termamyl (T, pectinase (Pe and cellulase (C. The variables studied during the enzymatic hydrolysis experiments were: enzyme concentration, moisture: cottonseed flakes ratio, and time of hydrolysis. Enzymatic hydrolysis experiments were first carried out with a single enzyme, then with enzyme mixtures formulated according to the results of single enzyme treatments. Results were evaluated based on the relative increase in oil extractability, and some oil characteristics in comparison with untreated cottonseed flakes (control. Pretreatment with enzyme mixtures resulted in a relative increase in oil extractability that was higher than single enzyme pretreatment and the control. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (at 5% level between the control and all enzymatically treated oils as well as among different enzymatically treated oils. The relative increase in oil extractability due to pretreatment with enzyme mixtures were in the following order: S: Pe: Bp>S: P>S: C: Pe>S: Bp>S:T>S: C >S: Pa with values 44.9%, 38.9%, 37.1%, 34.9%, 30.1%, 28.9%, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment of cottonseed flakes resulted in oils with fatty acid composition, acid value, iodine value and peroxide values that were generally comparable to the control.En este trabajo se estudió el efecto del pretratamiento con enzimas sobre la extractabilidad del aceite en hojuelas de semilla de algodón. Las enzimas que se investigaron fueron proteasa bacteriana (Bp, papaína (Pa, savinasa (S, temamil (T, pectinasa (Pe y celulasa (C. Las variables estudiadas durante los experimentos de hidrólisis enzimática fueron: concentración de la enzima, ratio humedad:cantidad de hojuelas y tiempo de hidrólisis. Estos experimentos se realizaron primeramente con una sola enzima y posteriormente con

  10. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T 9 with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30± deg. C for 6 hours. In M 2 population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M 3 M 6 generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T 9 (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others

  11. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R K; Raghuvanshi, S S [Plant Genetic Unit, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow (India)

    1987-07-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T{sub 9} with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30{+-} deg. C for 6 hours. In M{sub 2} population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M{sub 3} M{sub 6} generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T{sub 9} (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others.

  12. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 15 distillation times (DT), ranging from 1.25 to 960 min, on oil yield, essential oil profiles, and antioxidant capacity of male J. scopulorum trees. Essential oil yields were 0.07% at 1.25 min DT and reached a maximum of 1.48% at 840 min DT. The concentrations of alpha-thujene (1.76-2.75%), alpha-pinene (2.9-8.7%), sabinene (45-74.7%), myrcene (2.4-3.4%), and para-cymene (0.8-3.1%) were highest at the shortest DT (1.5 to 5 min) and decreased with increasing DT. Cis-sabinene hydrate (0.5-0.97%) and linalool plus trans-sabinene (0.56-1.6%) reached maximum levels at 40 min DT. Maximum concentrations of limonene (2.3-2.8%) and pregeijerene-B (0.06-1.4%) were obtained at 360-480 min DT, and 4-terpinenol (0.7-5.7%) at 480 min DT. Alpha-terpinene (0.16-2.9%), gamma-terpinene (0.3-4.9%) and terpinolene (0.3-1.4%) reached maximum at 720 min DT. The concentrations of delta-cadinene (0.06-1.65%), elemol (0-6.0%), and 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol (0-4.4%) reached maximum at 840 min DT. The yield of the essential oil constituents increased with increasing DT. Only linalool/transsabinene hydrate reached a maximum yield at 360 min DT. Maximum yields of the following constituents were obtained at 720 min DT: alpha-thujene, alpha-pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, alpha-terpinene, para-cimene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, terpinolene, and 4-terpinenol. At 840 min DT, cis-sabinene hydrate, prejeijerene-B, gamma muurolene, delta-cadinene, reached maximum. At 960 min DT, maximum yields of beta-pinene, elemol, alphaeudesmol/betaeudesmol, 8-alpha-acetoxyelemol were reached. These changes were adequately modeled by either the Michaelis-Menten or the Power (Convex) nonlinear regression models. Oils from the 480 min DT showed higher antioxidant activity compared to samples collected at 40, 160, or 960 min DT. These results show the potential for obtaining essential oils with various compositions and antioxidant capacity from male J

  13. A Better Banana. IAEA Research Helps Produce Higher-Yielding Robust Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durczok, Alessia

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 7 billion people live on our planet today and populations continue to grow. Some of us enjoy better nutrition, longer lives and more robust health than our grandparents did a century ago. At the same time, the UN forecasts an increase of mal- or undernourished people, especially in the developing world. More and better food is essential to combat and overcome malnutrition and hunger. Larger and more stable food supplies will need to be developed for food-deficient areas

  14. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension

  15. Milk yield affects time budget in daiyr cows kept in tie-stalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norring, M.; Valros, A.; Munksgaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Effective selection in breeding programs and improved management has increased the milk production per cow. However, the effects of the increased yield on behavior have not yet been clarified. We investigated the effect of milk yield on the time budget of 29 Finnish Ayrshire cows in the same stage...

  16. Radioactive stimulated mutagenesis for a higher crop yield - past and present examples from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micieta, K.; Murin, G.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation resistance of Vicia faba L. seeds was studied in this paper. Germination of seeds as well as vitality, cytological evaluation and frequency of chromosomal aberrations for Vicia faba L. seeds sets was also evaluated. The experiment did not show any significant differences between time of seed storage and doses of a radiation. On the other hand tendency of improvement in vitality from oldest to youngest seed sets and from lowest to highest doses of a radiation was more uniform. The wide variety of particular results still made most of comparisons between doses inside of a particular seed set insignificant. We may confirm that with younger seeds sets their vitality improved clearly up to a control level.

  17. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  18. Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulations deal with PDEs on deformable domains upon extending the domain velocity from the boundary into the bulk with the purpose of keeping mesh regularity. This arbitrary extension has no effect on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time-dependent advection-diffusion-model problem in moving domains, and study their stability properties. The analysis hinges on the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity for dG. Exploiting the variational structure and assuming exact integration, we prove that our conservative and nonconservative dG schemes are equivalent and unconditionally stable. The same results remain true for piecewise polynomial ALE maps of any degree and suitable quadrature that guarantees the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity. This approach generalizes the so-called geometric conservation law to higher-order methods. We also prove that simpler Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order are conditionally stable, that is, subject to a mild ALE constraint on the time steps. Numerical experiments corroborate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of industrial hemp-effect of harvest time on methane energy yield per hectare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuger, E; Escobar, F; Bjoernsson, L [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Prade, T; Svensson, S -E; Englund, J -E [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 104, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    There is a worldwide emphasis to increase the share of renewable transportation fuels. When using agricultural land for production of renewable transportation fuels, the energy output per hectare for different crops and transportation fuels is a crucial factor. In this study, the gross methane energy yield per hectare from anaerobic digestion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), was determined at four different harvest times between July and October in Southern Sweden, a cold climate region. The biomass yield was determined for three years and the methane yield was determined for two years through the biochemical methane potential test. The highest biomass yield, 16 tonnes dry matter per hectare on an average, and the highest methane energy yield per hectare was achieved when the hemp was harvested in September or October, with an average gross methane energy yield of 136 {+-} 24 GJ per hectare. There was no significant difference in the specific methane yield between the harvest times; the average being 234 {+-} 35 m{sup 3} per tonne volatile solids. Biogas from hemp turned out to be a high yielding alternative to the currently dominating renewable transportation fuels produced from crops grown in Sweden: ethanol from wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. (author)

  20. Subprimal purchasing and merchandising decisions for pork: relationship to retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1996-01-01

    Boxed pork was obtained to represent four different purchase specifications (different anatomical separation locations and[or] external fat trim levels) common in the pork industry to conduct a study of retail yields and labor requirements. Bone-in loins (n = 180), boneless loins (n = 94), and Boston butts (n = 148) were assigned randomly to fabrication styles within subprimals. When comparing cutting styles within subprimals, it was evident that cutting style affected percentage of retail yield and cutting time. When more bone-in cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 92.80 +/- .61 to 95.28 +/- .45%, and processing times ranged from 222.57 +/- 10.13 to 318.99 +/- 7.85 s, from the four suppliers. When more boneless cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 71.12 +/- 1.10 to 77.92 +/- .77% and processing times ranged from 453.49 +/- 8.95 to 631.09 +/- 15.04 s from the different loins. Comparing boneless to bone-in cuts from bone-in loins resulted in lower yields and required greater processing times. Significant variations in yields and times were found within cutting styles. These differences seemed to have been the result of variation in supplier fat trim level and anatomical separation (primarily scribe length).

  1. Effect of Irrigation Timing on Root Zone Soil Temperature, Root Growth and Grain Yield and Chemical Composition in Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High air temperatures during the crop growing season can reduce harvestable yields in major agronomic crops worldwide. Repeated and prolonged high night air temperature stress may compromise plant growth and yield. Crop varieties with improved heat tolerance traits as well as crop management strategies at the farm scale are thus needed for climate change mitigation. Crop yield is especially sensitive to night-time warming trends. Current studies are mostly directed to the elevated night-time air temperature and its impact on crop growth and yield, but less attention is given to the understanding of night-time soil temperature management. Delivering irrigation water through drip early evening may reduce soil temperature and thus improve plant growth. In addition, corn growers typically use high-stature varieties that inevitably incur excessive respiratory carbon loss from roots and transpiration water loss under high night temperature conditions. The main objective of this study was to see if root-zone soil temperature can be reduced through drip irrigation applied at night-time, vs. daytime, using three corn hybrids of different above-ground architecture in Uvalde, TX where day and night temperatures during corn growing season are above U.S. averages. The experiment was conducted in 2014. Our results suggested that delivering well-water at night-time through drip irrigation reduced root-zone soil temperature by 0.6 °C, increase root length five folds, plant height 2%, and marginally increased grain yield by 10%. However, irrigation timing did not significantly affect leaf chlorophyll level and kernel crude protein, phosphorous, fat and starch concentrations. Different from our hypothesis, the shorter, more compact corn hybrid did not exhibit a higher yield and growth as compared with taller hybrids. As adjusting irrigation timing would not incur an extra cost for farmers, the finding reported here had immediate practical implications for farm

  2. Deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles enabled by exploiting higher intrinsic quantum yield through use of millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haichun; Xu, Can T.; Dumlupinar, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    We have accomplished deep tissue optical imaging of upconverting nanoparticles at 800 nm, using millisecond single pulse excitation with high peak power. This is achieved by carefully choosing the pulse parameters, derived from time-resolved rate-equation analysis, which result in higher intrinsic...... quantum yield that is utilized by upconverting nanoparticles for generating this near infrared upconversion emission. The pulsed excitation approach thus promises previously unreachable imaging depths and shorter data acquisition times compared with continuous wave excitation, while simultaneously keeping...... therapy and remote activation of biomolecules in deep tissues....

  3. Term-time Employment and Student Attainment in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Dennis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of UK full-time university students engaging in term-time employment (TTE is rising. Students engaging in TTE have previously been found to achieve less well academically than those who do not. This study aimed to explore patterns of TTE and academic achievement of undergraduates at a large UK higher education institution. Self-reported TTE hours were matched to attainment data for 1304 undergraduate students in levels 1-4 of study (SQCF levels 7-10. The majority of students in TTE (71%, n=621 reported undertaking TTE to cover essential living expenses. Compared to students not undertaking TTE, attainment was significantly better at low levels of TTE (1-10 hours, and only significantly worse when TTE was >30 hours/week. This pattern was magnified when job type was taken into account – students employed in skilled roles for ≤10 hours/week on average attained grades 7% higher than those not in TTE; students working >10 hours/week in unskilled positions showed a mean 1.6% lower grade. The impact of ‘academic potential’ (measured via incoming UCAS tariff was accounted for in the model. The finding that students engaging in some categories of TTE achieve better academic outcomes than their non-employed peers is worthy of further investigation. This study is unable to provide direct evidence of possible causation, but would tentatively suggest that students may benefit from taking on 10 or fewer hours of TTE per week.

  4. Wheat Yield Forecasting for Punjab Province from Vegetation Index Time Series and Historic Crop Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dempewolf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers, government planners and agricultural market participants in Pakistan require accurate and timely information about wheat yield and production. Punjab Province is by far the most important wheat producing region in the country. The manual collection of field data and data processing for crop forecasting by the provincial government requires significant amounts of time before official reports can be released. Several studies have shown that wheat yield can be effectively forecast using satellite remote sensing data. In this study, we developed a methodology for estimating wheat yield and area for Punjab Province from freely available Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery approximately six weeks before harvest. Wheat yield was derived by regressing reported yield values against time series of four different peak-season MODIS-derived vegetation indices. We also tested deriving wheat area from the same MODIS time series using a regression-tree approach. Among the four evaluated indices, WDRVI provided more consistent and accurate yield forecasts compared to NDVI, EVI2 and saturation-adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (SANDVI. The lowest RMSE values at the district level for forecast versus reported yield were found when using six or more years of training data. Forecast yield for the 2007/2008 to 2012/2013 growing seasons were within 0.2% and 11.5% of final reported values. Absolute deviations of wheat area and production forecasts from reported values were slightly greater compared to using the previous year's or the three- or six-year moving average values, implying that 250-m MODIS data does not provide sufficient spatial resolution for providing improved wheat area and production forecasts.

  5. Beyond-one-loop quantum gravity action yielding both inflation and late-time acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Elizalde

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A unified description of early-time inflation with the current cosmic acceleration is achieved by means of a new theory that uses a quadratic model of gravity, with the inclusion of an exponential F(R-gravity contribution for dark energy. High-curvature corrections of the theory come from higher-derivative quantum gravity and yield an effective action that goes beyond the one-loop approximation. It is shown that, in this theory, viable inflation emerges in a natural way, leading to a spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio that are in perfect agreement with the most reliable Planck results. At low energy, late-time accelerated expansion takes place. As exponential gravity, for dark energy, must be stabilized during the matter and radiation eras, we introduce a curing term in order to avoid nonphysical singularities in the effective equation of state parameter. The results of our analysis are confirmed by accurate numerical simulations, which show that our model does fit the most recent cosmological data for dark energy very precisely.

  6. Foodservice yield and fabrication times for beef as influenced by purchasing options and merchandising styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, B H; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Walter, J P; De La Zerda, M J; Tipton, N C; Savell, J W

    2001-12-01

    Selected beef subprimals were obtained from fabrication lines of three foodservice purveyors to assist in the development of a software support program for the beef foodservice industry. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in or boneless foodservice ready-to-cook portion-sized cuts and associated components by professional meat cutters. Each subprimal was cut to generate mean foodservice cutting yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from observed weights (kilograms) and processing times (seconds). Once fabrication was completed, data were analyzed to determine means and standard errors of percentage yields and processing times for each subprimal. Subprimals cut to only one end point were evaluated for mean foodservice yields and processing times, but no comparisons were made within subprimal. However, those traditionally cut into various end points were additionally compared by cutting style. Subprimals cut by a single cutting style included rib, roast-ready; ribeye roll, lip-on, bone-in; brisket, deckle-off, boneless; top (inside) round; and bottom sirloin butt, flap, boneless. Subprimals cut into multiple end points or styles included ribeye, lip-on; top sirloin, cap; tenderloin butt, defatted; shortloin, short-cut; strip loin, boneless; top sirloin butt, boneless; and tenderloin, full, side muscle on, defatted. Mean yields of portion cuts, and mean fabrication times required to manufacture these cuts differed (P < 0.05) by cutting specification of the final product. In general, as the target portion size of fabricated steaks decreased, the mean number of steaks derived from any given subprimal cut increased, causing total foodservice yield to decrease and total processing time to increase. Therefore, an inverse relationship tended to exist between processing times and foodservice yields. With a method of accurately evaluating various beef purchase options, such as traditional commodity subprimals, closely trimmed subprimals, and pre-cut portion

  7. Pyrolysis of Lantana camara and Mimosa pigra: Influences of temperature, other process parameters and incondensable gas evolution on char yield and higher heating value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F

    2017-11-01

    Pyrolysis of invasive non-indigenous plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP) was conducted at milligram-scale for optimisation of temperature, heating rate and hold time on char yield and higher heating value (HHV). The impact of scaling-up to gram-scale was also studied, with chromatography used to correlate gas composition with HHV evolution. Statistically significant effects of temperature on char yield and HHV were obtained, while heating rate and hold time effects were insignificant. Milligram-scale maximised HHVs were 30.03MJkg -1 (525°C) and 31.01MJkg -1 (580°C) for LC and MP, respectively. Higher char yields and HHVs for MP were attributed to increased lignin content. Scaling-up promoted secondary char formation thereby increasing HHVs, 30.82MJkg -1 for LC and 31.61MJkg -1 for MP. Incondensable gas analysis showed that temperature increase beyond preferred values caused dehydrogenation that decreased HHV. Similarly, CO evolution profile explained differences in optimal HHV temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

  9. Effect of timing and intensity of defoliation on yield and quality of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali kamandi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of defoliation on root yield and quality of suagrbeet (Beta vulgaris L. was examined in a field study in Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhd during 2005 growing season. The experiment was conducted as a split plot on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications.Time of Defoliation (May 16th, May 31th, June 18th, July 9th, July 31th, and August 20th were allocated to main plots and defoliation severity (0, 30, 60, and 100% were assigned to subplots. Results showed that root yield, shoot and root dry weight and sugar yield were influenced by defoliation time. However, defoliation time had no significant effects on sugar white content and white sugar yield. Effects of defoliation on plant growth was more pronounced in mid season when about 1500 degree days was accumulated, compared to early or late season. Defoliation intensity resulted in a significant decrease in root yield, shoot fresh weigth, root and shoot dry weight, sugar and white sugar content, and white sugar yield compared with undefoliated control, but molass sugar was increased in all defoliation intensities. sugar and white suagr percent were significantly affected by defoliation time x intensity interaction. Complete defoliation (100% on July 30th and Auguat 19th led to 18 and 21% reduction in sugar and 29 and 28% in white suagar, respectively. However, 100% defoliation in July 8th resulted in 6 and 8% increase in sugar and white sugar, respectively. Keywords: Time of defoliation, defoliation intensity, sugarbeet yield,sugar beet quality.

  10. Influence of wholesale lamb marketing options and merchandising styles on retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Martin, A M; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1997-01-01

    Lamb carcasses (n = 94) from five packing plants, selected to vary in weight class and fat thickness, were used to determine retail yield and labor requirements of wholesale lamb fabrication. Carcasses were allotted randomly according to weight class to be fabricated as whole carcasses (n = 20), three-piece boxes (n = 22), or subprimals (n = 52). Processing times (seconds) were recorded and wholesale and retail weights (kilograms) were obtained to calculate retail yield. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in retail cuts or boneless or semi-boneless retail cuts. Retail yield for subprimal lamb legs decreased from 85.3 +/- .6% for bone-in to 68.0 +/- .7% for a completely boneless retail product. Correspondingly, processing times increased from 126.1 +/- 5.4 s to 542.0 +/- 19.2 s for bone-in and boneless legs, respectively. For all subprimals, retail yield percentage tended to decrease and total processing time increase as cuts were fabricated to boneless or semi-boneless end points compared with a bone-in end point. Percentage retail yield did not differ (P > .05) among whole carcass, three-piece box, and subprimal marketing methods. Total processing time was shorter for subprimals (P < .05) than for the other two marketing methods.

  11. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  12. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order

  13. Yields, market values and n use efficiency in flue-cured tobacco influenced by time of basal n fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhijian; Tu Shuxin; Li Jinping; Xu Rubing; Chen Zhenguo; Wang Xuelong

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment with 15 N isotope tracing micro-plots was carried out to study the effects of basal N fertilizer application time (0 d, 15 d, 30 d before the transplanting) on the yields, market values and N uptake, utilization and distribution in different organs of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) in two ecological tobacco production areas (Zhaojiashan and Laowan) of Xiangfan City, Hubei Province. The results showed that supplying N fertilizer significantly increased the yields and market values of FCT by 13% ∼ 40% and 14% ∼ 35% for the experimental site of Zhaojiashan (lower altitude) and Laowan (higher altitude), respectively. Compared to applying basal fertilizer at 0 d before transplanting, applying basal fertilizer at 15 d or 30 d before transplanting increased the market values by 10% ∼ 30% (P < 0.05). And early application of basal N fertilizer (30 d before transplanting) increased N accumulation by 8% ∼ 26% as compared with that of applying basal N fertilizer at 0 d or 15 d before transplanting in the two ecological areas. There was no significant effects of basal N application time on N fertilizer efficiency in lower altitude site, but increasing by 3% ∼ 6% in higher altitude site. These results indicated that properly earlier (15 d for example) supplication of basal N fertilizer could improve the N fertilizer efficiency, and thus increase the yields and market values of FCT, especially in higher altitude areas with less sunshine and lower temperature. (authors)

  14. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Beghein, Yves; Nair, Naveen V.; Cools, Kristof; Bagci, Hakan; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method's efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  15. The effect of rate and time of application of Nitrogen on maize yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of rate and time of application of Nitrogen on maize yield in Chinyika Resettlement area, Zimbabwe. M W Munguri, I K Mariga, O A Chivinge, D Musambasi. Abstract. No abstract available. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Timing of mounding for bambara groundnut affects crop development and yield in a rainfed tropical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouedrago, Mahama; M'bi, Bertin Zagre; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    -ecological zone of Burkina Faso were conducted. Yield data confirm the findings from a drier part of Burkina Faso; i.e., mounding of bambara groundnut should not be carried out around the time of flowering. In a semi-arid area, such as Sudan–Sahel agro-ecological zone and with germplasm maturing within 90 days...

  17. Modification of yield and composition of essential oils by distillation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to model the length of the steam distillation time (DT) on essential oil yield and oil composition of peppermint, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. The DTs tested were 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min for peppermint, and 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40...

  18. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were established in controlled and field environment to evaluate the effect of time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield in 2014 and 2015. Rye termination dates ranged from 25 days before planting (DB...

  19. Effect of time of fertilizer application on growth and yield of maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out during the 2006 growing season, between June and November, to investigate the growth and yield responses of four varieties of maize (SUWAN-1-Y, TZSR-Y, DMESR-W and ACROSS-97 TZL) to time of fertilizer application (2,4 and 6 weeks after planting). The experiment was laid out in a 3 x ...

  20. The effect of autumn and spring planting time on seed yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of autumn and spring plantings on seed yield and quality of chickpea genotypes. Fourteen chickpea genotypes were grown over the consecutive two growing seasons in northwest Turkey. The results showed that planting time had significant effects on the investigated ...

  1. Effects of harvesting time on some yield and quality traits of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of harvesting time was investigated on yield and quality traits for spring season production in different maturing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars under agro-climatic conditions of southern of Turkey in 2006 and 2007. The experimental layout was a randomized split plot with three replications, including six ...

  2. Dwell time dependent morphological transition and sputtering yield of ion sputtered Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, H X; Zeng, X R; Zhou, W

    2010-01-01

    Self-organized nano-scale patterns may appear on a wide variety of materials irradiated with an ion beam. Good manipulation of these structures is important for application in nanostructure fabrication. In this paper, dwell time has been demonstrated to be able to control the ripple formation and sputtering yield on Sn surface. Ripples with a wavelength of 1.7 μm were observed for a dwell time in the range 3-20 μs, whereas much finer ripples with a wavelength of 540 nm and a different orientation were observed for a shorter dwell time in the range 0.1-2 μs. The sputtering yield increases with dwell time significantly. The results provide a new basis for further steps in the theoretical description of morphology evolution during ion beam sputtering.

  3. Retail yield and fabrication times for veal as influenced by purchasing options and merchandising styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, M S; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1998-06-01

    Twenty-nine selected styles of subprimals or sections of veal were obtained from a commercial facility to assist in the development of a support program for retailers. They were fabricated into bone-in or boneless retail cuts and associated components by trained meat cutters. Each style selected (n = 6) was used to generate mean retail yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from wholesale and retail weights and processing times. Means and standard errors for veal ribs consisting of five different styles (n = 30) concluded that style #2, 7-rib 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm), had the lowest percentage of total retail yield (P < .05) owing to the greatest percentage of bone. Furthermore, rib style #2 required the longest total processing time (P < .05). Rib styles #3, 7-rib chop-ready, and #5, 6-rib chop ready, yielded the greatest percentage of total retail yield and also had the shortest total processing time (P < .05). Within veal loins, style #2, 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm) loin kidney fat in, had the greatest percentage fat (P < .05). Loin styles #2 and #3, 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm) loin special trimmed, generated more lean and fat trimmings and bone, resulting in lower percentage of total retail yields than loin style #1, 0 (0 cm) x 1 (2.5 cm) loin special trimmed (P < .05). Results indicated that bone-in subprimals and sections required more processing time if fabricated into a boneless end point. In addition, as the number of different retail cuts increased, processing times also increased.

  4. Numerical experimentation on focusing time and neutron yield in GN1 plasma focus machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Arwinder; Lee, Sing; Saw, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have shown how we have fitted Lee's six phase model code to analyze the current waveform of the GN1 plasma focus machine working in deuterium gas. The Lee's 6-phase model codes was later configured to work between 0.5 to 6 Torr and the results of both focusing time and neutron yield was then compared with the published experimental results. The final results indicate that Lee's code, gives realistic plasma dynamics and focus properties together with a realistic neutron yield for GN1 plasma focus, without the need of any adjustable parameters, needing only to fit the computed current trace to a measured current trace. (author)

  5. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order basis functions in time to improve the accuracy of the solver. The method is validated by showing convergence in temporal basis function order, time step size, and geometric discretization order. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. DETERMINATION THE EFFECT OF DEFOLIATION TIMING ON COTTON YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karademir Emine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out for determining the effect of different application times at 40, 50, 60 and 70 % boll opening and untreated plot of the defoliant on cotton yield, earliness and technological properties in Southeast Anatolia Region conditions in Turkey. Maras 92 cotton variety was used as plant material in the experiment field of the Southeast Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute during 2000-2001. Defoliant was including thidiazuron + diuron chemical substance. The result of this study showed that ginning percentage, 100 seed weight, seed germination percentage, fiber fineness, fiber length, fiber strength, reflectance, elongation and seed cotton yield were not affected by the treatment; plant height and first picking percentage in 2001, fiber uniformity in 2000 were 5 % significantly affected. This study showed that application of defoliant didn’t affect significantly yield and technological properties of cotton and after 40 % boll opening the defoliant can be used.

  7. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  8. Effect of Harvest Time and Nitrogen Doses on Cassava Root Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Trajano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for cassava, and N availability can influence the crop cycle, including earlier harvest. The aim of this study was to study the effect of harvest time on the production components of cassava, “Aciolina” cultivar, at different rates of N fertiliser. The experiment was carried out in an area newly incorporated into the productive system in a savannah ecosystem in the northern Amazon. A randomised block experimental design was used in a split plot arrangement with four replications. The N rates (0, 30, 60, 150, and 330 kg ha-1 were allocated to the main plots, and the harvest times (90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 days after emergence of the stalks - DAE were allocated to the subplots. Plant height, shoot fresh matter yield, number of roots per plant, average root diameter, and root fresh matter yield display an increasing linear response up to 360 DAE in cassava cv. “Aciolina”. For all harvest times, the N rates promote an increase in root fresh matter yield. At 300 and 360 DAE, the root fresh matter and starch yield and the harvest index show a quadratic response as a function of the N level. The greatest efficiency of N topdressing on the production of root fresh matter occurs at 300 DAE, promoting an earlier harvest. At that time, the dose of maximum technical efficiency, 226 kg ha-1 N, results in a yield of 62 Mg ha-1 of root fresh matter, 13 Mg ha-1 of starch, and a harvest index of 81 %.

  9. Estimation of the Hiroshima bomb yield and weather conditions at the time of the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Eizo

    1984-01-01

    The results of the survey made immediately after the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were compiled in Collection of Reports on the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb Casualties published in 1953. Much valuable information for the reassessment of dose are included in this document. One of the major problems to be solved for the dose reassessment is the yield of the Hiroshima bomb. Two articles with relatively detailed description were selected, and the estimation of the yield was attempted, based on them. The data on roof tile melting were used for the purpose. Assuming the yield of the Nagasaki bomb as 22 kt, the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was given as 12.4 kt. By the experiment using the charred state of cypress boards, the total radiant energy from the bomb was calculated as 4.6 x 10 12 cal, and the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was estimated as 14.2 kt and 13.2 kt. The true value is likely between 12 and 13 kt. The vapor pressure at the time of bombing significantly affected the neutron spectrum. On the day of bombing, Japan was covered by hot, humid maritime air mass, namely summer monsoon pattern. The air density and water vapor content in the atmosphere were determined by the Japan Weather Association, and compared with the data of Dr. Kerr et al. (Kako, I.)

  10. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  11. Effect of Time and Level of Pruning on Vegetative Growth, Flowering, Yield, and Quality of Guava

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Shiva; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality fruit production in the rainy season and failure to manipulate production periods are common problems for guava production in India and Nepal. As a possible management to overcome these problems, a field experiment was conducted to understand the effect of time and level of pruning...... (%) of fruits increased with the increased level of pruning in both seasons irrespective of timing of pruning, but fruit acidity was not affected by both treatments. In conclusion, pruning plants at a 20 cm pruning level in early May was the most effective management to reduce yield in the rainy season...... on growth, flowering, yield, and quality of guava. An experiment was laid out with split-pot design allocating three pruning times (mid-April, early May, and mid-May) and four pruning levels (0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-cm tip removal) with three replications in each treatment. Increased level of pruning in early...

  12. The influence of milking procedures on cow’s teat tissue, milk yield and milking time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Špoljar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different milking procedures on teat length and diameter, milk yield and milking time. During the first milking procedure the milker decides when to remove the milking cluster from the udder, while in the second an automatic cluster removal, when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min, was performed. Measurements were made on two commercial farms B and A on 15 randomly chosen cows without any clinical sign of mastitis. There were no significant differencesbetween those farms in teat length and diameter differences before and after the milking. Average milking time on farm A was 6 min and 58 s, while on farm B was 5 min and 3 s. Average milk yield was 12.9 kg on farm B and 13.4 kg on farm A. Milking time was considerably shorter on farm B compared to farm A, while milk yield was almost equal on both farms. Automatic cluster weighting 2 kg removal was performed when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min in order to shorten the time needed to milk the cow, ensuring good udder health.

  13. Analysis of B{yields}K{sup *}{sub J}({yields}K{pi}){mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} in the higher kaon resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Cai-Dian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ (China); Wang, Wei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    We study the resonant contributions in the process anti B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} with the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} invariant mass square m{sup 2}{sub K{pi}} element of [1, 5] GeV{sup 2}. Width effects of the involved strange mesons, K{sup *}(1410), K{sup *}{sub 0}(1430), K{sup *}{sub 2}(1430), K{sup *}(1680), K{sup *}{sub 3}(1780) and K{sup *}{sub 4}(2045), are incorporated. In terms of the helicity amplitudes, we derive a compact form for the full angular distributions, through which the branching ratios, forward-backward asymmetries and polarizations are attained. We propose that the uncertainties in the B {yields} K{sup *}{sub J} form factors can be pinned down by the measurements of a set of SU(3)-related processes. Using results from the large energy limit, we derive the dependence of branching fractions on the m{sub K{pi}}, and find that the K{sup *}{sub 2} resonance has a clear signature, in particular, in the transverse polarizations. (orig.)

  14. Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jamila R.

    2016-01-01

    The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…

  15. Rebooting Irish Higher Education: Policy Challenges for Challenging Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis cast a long shadow over Ireland's higher education and research system. The IMF said Ireland experienced an "unprecedented economic correction", while Ireland's National Economic and Social Development Office said Ireland was beset by five different crises: a banking crisis, a fiscal crisis, an economic…

  16. Higher Education in Times of Financial Distress: The Minnesota Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Like many states, Minnesota has incurred large budget deficits during the past two years. Those deficits have, in turn, led to changes in a number of areas of state government, particularly higher education. Faculty have incurred pay freezes and layoffs, programs have closed, and tuition increased. Campuses within the MnSCU system have been…

  17. Learning and Teaching Problems in Part-Time Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, D. I.

    1988-01-01

    Results of a British survey of the administrations of six universities and six public colleges, employers, and employees who were part-time students are reported and discussed. The survey assessed the perceptions of those groups concerning problems in the instruction and learning of part-time students. (MSE)

  18. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2014-12-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method\\'s efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  19. Higher time derivatives of the generalized Liapunov function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieve, W.C.; Bulsara, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    Using the generalized N-body expression for a Liapunov functional developed by Prigogine and coworkers, a condition is obtained whereby the successive time derivatives of this function alternate in sign for weakly coupled systems. This generalized Liapunov function contains contributions from the diagonal as well as off-diagonal (correlation) components of the density matrix. The alternating sign condition is applied (and seen to hold true) for the cases of elastic phonon scattering in a lattice, three-phonon scattering (the anharmonic lattice), and the quantum electron gas. It is also proved simply for the Friedrichs model

  20. Impact of harvesting time on ultimate methane yield of switchgrass grown in eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Y.; Masse, D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada). Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre; Savoie, P.; Belanger, G.; Parent, G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre; Babineau, D.L. [Groupe EBI, Berthierville, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    European research in green energy production from crops has resulted in the development of full scale bioreactors that use energy crops as feedstock. Switchgrass has been touted as one of the most promising crops for energy production among several perennial grass species grown under moderate to hot climates. However, few studies have been conducted in colder climate conditions. This study examined the mesophilic methane yield of switchgrass grown under the cooler growing conditions that exist in northeastern North America. In 2007, switchgrass was harvested in late July, August and September and conserved as silage. The regrowth of plots harvested in late July was also harvested in late September as a two-cut strategy. A 30 L small-scale laboratory digester was used to anaerobically digest the switchgrass silage samples. Specific methane yield decreased considerably with advancing plant development, but was similar between the first harvest in late July and the regrowth in late September. Nearly 25 per cent more methane could be produced by hectare for the two-cut strategy compared to harvesting once in late August. It was concluded that additional studies are needed to determine the effect of cutting times and strategies on the long term yield of switchgrass and to establish the production cost of this renewable energy.

  1. Influence of Sowing Times, Densities, and Soils to Biomass and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Xuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels helps to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and therefore decreases CO2 emission. Ethanol mixed with gasoline in mandatory percentages has been used in many countries. However, production of ethanol mainly depends on food crops, commonly associated with problems such as governmental policies and social controversies. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is one of the most potential and appropriate alternative crops for biofuel production because of its high biomass and sugar content, strong tolerance to environmental stress conditions and diseases, and wide adaptability to various soils and climates. The aim of this study was to select prospective varieties of sweet sorghum, optimum sowing times and densities to achieve high yields of ethanol production and to establish stable operational conditions in cultivating this crop. The summer-autumn cropping season combined with the sowing densities of 8.3–10.9 plant m−2 obtained the highest ethanol yield. Among cultivated locations, the soil with pH of 5.5 and contents of Al and Zn of 39.4 and 0.6 g kg−1, respectively, was the best condition to have an ethanol yield >5000 L ha−1. The pH ≥ 6.0 may be responsible for the significant reduction of zinc content in soils, which decreases both biomass of sweet sorghum and ethanol yield, while contents of N, P, K, organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe likely play no role. The cultivar 4A was the preferred candidate for ethanol production and resistant to pests and diseases, especially cut worm (Agrotis spp..

  2. Upland cotton growth and yield response to timing the initial postplant irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, A.J.; Silvertooth, J.C.; Brown, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) production in arid and semiarid regions depends on well-managed irrigation systems for optimum yield and production efficiency. Water deficit stress early in the growing season can affect the subsequent growth and development of short-season cotton. A 2-yr field study was conducted in southern Arizona to determine the optimum timing of the initial postplant irrigation for a short-season upland cotton variety based on midday leaf water potential (LWP) measurements, and to evaluate the season-long effects of delayed irrigation on subsequent plant growth patterns. In both years, the short-season upland variety, DPL 20, was planted into a Pima clay loam soil [fine-silty, mixed (calcareous), thermic Typic Torrifluvent] that had received a preplant irrigation of 152 (1993) or 254 mm (1994) approximately 3 wk prior to planting. Treatments, designated T1, T2, and T3, received the initial postplant irrigation when the average midday LWP of the uppermost, fully expanded leaf measured −1.5, −1.9, and −2.3 MPa, respectively. Daily midday LWP measurements were taken using the pressure chamber technique. Soil water was measured at 25-cm depth increments using neutron attenuation. Plant height, number of mainstem nodes, nodes above white flower (NAWF), and canopy closure were measured at weekly intervals. All treatments reached maturity, as measured by NAWF ≤ 5, at approximately the same time during the growing season. Complete canopy closure was delayed in the T3 plots resulting in reduced interception and utilization of available solar radiation early in the growing season. When treatments were initiated, approximately 84% (T1), 62% (T2), and 32% (T3) of the total plant-available water (field capacity less permanent wilting point) was present in the upper 1.5 of the soil profile. Yields were 1263, 1244, and 1110 kg lint ha−1 in 1993 and 1229, 1176, and 1095 kg lint ha −1 in 1994 for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Lint yields were significantly

  3. A combined simple bubbling method with high performance liquid chromatography purification strategy, higher radiochemical yield and purity and faster preparation of carbon-11-raclopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huacheng; Ning, Yanli; Zhang, Bucheng; Lou, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-11-raclopride (¹¹C-R) is a positron-emitting radiotracer successfully used for the study of cognitive control and widely applied in PET imaging. A simple automated preparation of ¹¹C-R by using the reaction of carbon-(11)-methyl triflate (¹¹C-MeOTF) or ¹¹C-methyl iodide (¹¹C-MeI) with demethylraclopride is described. Specifically we used a simple setup applied an additional "U" reaction vessel for ¹¹C-MeOTf compared with ¹¹C-MeI and assessed the influence of several solvents and of the amount of the percussor for ¹¹C-methylation of demethylraclopride by the bubbling method. The reversal of retention order between product and its precursor has been achieved for ¹¹C-R, enabling collection of the purified ¹¹C-R by using the HPLC column after shorter retention time. By the improved radiosynthesis and purification strategy, ¹¹C-R could be prepared with higher radiochemical yield than that of the previous studies. The yield for ¹¹C-MeOTf was 76% and for ¹¹C-CH3I >26% and with better radiochemical purity (>99% based on both ¹¹C-MeOTf and ¹¹C-MeI) as compared to the previously obtained purity of ¹¹C-R using HPLC method with acetonitrile as a part of mobile phase. Furthermore, by using ethanol as the organic modifier, residual solvent analysis prior to human injection could be avoided and ¹¹C-R could be injected directly following simple dilution and sterile filtration. Improved radiosynthesis and HPLC purification in combination with ethanol containing eluent, extremely shortened the time for preparation of ¹¹C-R, gave a higher radiochemical yield and purity for ¹¹C-R and can be used for multiple and faster synthesis of ¹¹C-R and probably for other ¹¹C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals.

  4. Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.

  5. Do new production concepts and a new management of employment relations, yield higher employee performance and low job strain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs) and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In

  6. Ratio of basin lag times for runoff and sediment yield processes recorded in various environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banasik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available River basin lag time (LAG, defined as the elapsed time between the occurrence of the centroids of the effective rainfall intensity hyetograph and the storm runoff hydrograph, is an important factor in determining the time to peak and the peak value of the instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH. In the procedure of predicting a sedimentgraph (suspended sediment load as a function of time, the equivalent parameter is the lag time for the sediment yield (LAGs, which is defined as the elapsed time between the occurrence of the centroids of sediment production during a storm event and the observed sedimentgraph at the gauging station. Data of over 150 events recorded in 11 small river catchments (located in Poland, Germany, UK and USA with a drainage area of 0.02 km2 to 82 km2 have been analysed to estimate the ratio of LAGs/LAG. The ratio, in majority of cases was smaller than 1, and decreased with increase of river basin slope. Special attention is given to the data collected in a small agricultural catchment and also during snowmelt periods, which is located in central Poland.

  7. Thermal decomposition of expanded polystyrene in a pebble bed reactor to get higher liquid fraction yield at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.S.; Gopinath, S.; Razdan, P.; Delattre, C.; Nirmala, G.S.; Natarajan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Expanded polystyrene is one of the polymers produced in large quantities due to its versatile application in different fields. This polymer is one of the most intractable components in municipal solid waste. Disposal of polymeric material by pyrolysis or catalytic cracking yields valuable hydrocarbon fuels or monomers. Literature reports different types of reactors and arrangements that have uniform temperatures during pyrolysis and catalytic cracking. The present study focuses on reducing the temperature to maximize the quantity of styrene monomer in the liquid product. A bench scale reactor has been developed to recover the styrene monomer and other valuable chemicals. Experiments were carried under partial oxidation and vacuum conditions in the temperature range of 300-500 deg. C. In the pyrolysis optimization studies, the best atmospheric condition was determined to be vacuum, the pyrolysis temperature should be 500 deg. C, yield of liquid product obtained was 91.7% and yield of styrene obtained was 85.5%. In the characterization studies, distillation and IR spectroscopy experiments were carried out. The remaining of the liquid product comprises of benzene, ethyl benzene, and styrene dimers and trimers

  8. Microscopic predictions of fission yields based on the time dependent GCM formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Verriere, M.; Schunck, N.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Previous studies reported promising results by numerically solving the TDGCM+GOA equation with a finite difference technique. However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to properly control numerical errors. In addition, it prevents one from performing calculations with more than two collective variables. To overcome these limitations, we have developed the new code FELIX-1.0 that solves the TDGCM+GOA equation based on the Galerkin finite element method. In this article, we briefly illustrate the capabilities of the solver FELIX-1.0, in particular its validation for n+ 239 Pu low energy induced fission. FELIX-1.0 gives full control on the numerical precision of fission product yields in neutron-induced fission, and its scalability also enables series of dynamical calculations on several potential energy surfaces. Preliminary results suggest an important sensitivity of our two-dimensional approach to the input potential energy surface

  9. Phosphorescence quantum yield determination with time-gated fluorimeter and Tb(III)-acetylacetonate as luminescence reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Procedure for absolute phosphorescence quantum yield measurement is described. ► Experimental setup for absolute luminescence quantum yield standard calibration. ► Tb(acac){sub 3} proposed as phosphorescence quantum yield reference standard. ► Luminescence quantum yield of Tb(acac){sub 3} in cyclohexane measured. ► Luminescence lifetime of Tb(acac){sub 3} in cyclohexane measured. - Abstract: Phosphorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent and phosphorescent samples require the use of time-gated fluorimeters in order to discriminate against the fluorescence contribution. As reference standard a non-fluorescent luminescent compound is needed for absolute phosphorescence quantum yield determination. For this purpose the luminescence behavior of the rare earth chelate terbium(III)-acetylacetonate (Tb(acac){sub 3}) was studied (determination of luminescence quantum yield and luminescence lifetime). The luminescence quantum yield of Tb(acac){sub 3} was determined by using an external light source and operating the fluorimeter in chemo/bioluminescence mode with a fluorescent dye (rhodamine 6G in methanol) as reference standard. A procedure is developed for absolute luminescence (phosphorescence) quantum yield determination of samples under investigation with a time-gated fluorimeter using a non-fluorescent luminescent compound of known luminescence quantum yield and luminescence lifetime.

  10. Xylanase, protease and superdosing phytase interactions in broiler performance, carcass yield and digesta transit time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago T. dos Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of xylanase, protease and superdosing (1,500 FTU/kg phytase in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was studied in broilers fed sorghum-based diets. A total of 2,800 one-day-old unsexed Ross 308 chicks were housed in 56 pens with 50 birds per pen, with or without inclusion of xylanase, protease and phytase, totaling 8 treatments and 7 replicates per treatment. Body weight (BW and feed intake (FI were measured at 21 and 42 days of age, and mortality corrected feed conversion ratio (FCR was calculated for each period and cumulatively. Tibia ash and carcass yield were determined in 2 birds per replicate at 21 and 42 days of age, respectively. Digesta transit time was determined at 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age using 5 birds per replicate. Results showed that superdosing phytase increased BW and FI at 42 days of age (P < 0.05 and xylanase improved FCR (P < 0.05. Xylanase and phytase also positively influenced carcass yield and breast weight, respectively. Overall, inclusion of superdosing phytase increased transit time when included in a diet containing xylanase, and no change with protease inclusion. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of xylanase, protease and superdosing phytase in broiler performance were not additive. This limitation is likely not related to the lack of efficacy of any one of the individual enzymes but to a limitation of the bird to respond additively to successive additions of enzymes.

  11. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  12. Organic SIMS: the influence of time on the ion yield enhancement by silver and gold deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, L.; Vangaever, F.; Gijbels, R.

    2004-06-01

    A series of organic dyes and pharmaceuticals was used to study the secondary ion yield enhancement by metal deposition. The molecules were dissolved in methanol and spincasted on silicon substrates. Subsequently, silver or gold was evaporated on the samples to produce a very thin coating. The coated samples, when measured with TOF-SIMS, showed a considerable increase in characteristic secondary ion intensity. Gold-evaporated samples appear to exhibit the highest signal enhancement. These observations apply to organic samples in general, an advantage that allows to use the technique of metal deposition on real-world samples. However, the observed signal increase does not occur at any given moment. The time between metal deposition on the sample surface and the measuring of the sample with TOF-SIMS appears to have an important influence on the enhancement of the secondary ion intensities. In consideration of these observations several experiments were carried out, in which the spincasted samples were measured at different times after sample preparation, i.e., after gold or silver was deposited on the sample surface. The results show that, depending on the sample and the metal deposited, the secondary ion signals reach their maximum at different times. Further study will be necessary to detect the mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement effect.

  13. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien

  14. Supplementary effects of higher levels of various disaccharides on processing yield, quality properties and sensory attributes of Chinese - style pork jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Lin, Hsien-Tang

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ). CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm) with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80), enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.

  15. Supplementary effects of higher levels of various disaccharides on processing yield, quality properties and sensory attributes of Chinese - style pork jerky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various disaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ. Methods CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. Results The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Conclusion Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80, enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.

  16. The Effect of Nitroxin Biofertilizer and Foliar Applicatin of Micronutrients Time Consumption on Yield and Yield Components of New Wheat Cultivars under Khorramabad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to study the effects of Nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients time consumption on yield and yield components of new wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum & T. durum under Khorramabad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm khorramabad during growing season of 2012-2013. Considering the positive effect of inoculation with bio-fertilizer and foliar Nitroxin micronutrients and reaction of cultivars to this type of fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizers and the importance of wheat as one of the main crops, this study aims to determine the most appropriate time for foliar and Nitroxin application of micronutrients at the different stages of plant growth and bio-fertilizer application on yield and yield components. Materials and Methods The first factor was considered in six levels: N0: The lack of the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and without the foliar application of micronutrients (control, N1: the seed inoculation with the nitroxin biofertilizer, N2: the foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N3: the foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage, N4: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N5: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage. The second factor was considered at two levels, consisting: V1: Parsi cultivar and V2: Dena cultivar. MSTATC Software was used for data analysis and means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test at the 5% level. Results and Discussion In this experiment the grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, 1000- grain weight, spike number per m-2, grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike of wheat were studied. The results of the data variance analysis has

  17. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  18. Do New Production Concepts and a new Management of Employment Relations, yield higher Employee Performance and lower Job Strain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolus Kraan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In the past decades, in reaction to dysfunctions of Tayloristic and professional bureaucratic production concepts and employment relations, several new forms of employment relations and NPCs, appeared. Examples are the Socio-technical NPC and customized employment relations. In this study both this NPC and customized employment relations - i.c. customized performance targets - demonstrate positive associations with employee performance. According to Socio-technical theory the design of employment relations is relatively unimportant, as human resources are mobilised primarily by the production concept. Our results for this NPC show the legitimacy of this assumption, because its high employee performance is irrespective of the employment relation instruments. On the contrary, in the other NPCs and in professional bureaucracies, the (employment relation instruments of respectively an increased period needed for learning the job, and customized performance targets can compensate for the lower employee performance in these production concepts. The results do not show increased job strain, due to new production concepts, or new employment relations. production concepts, employment relations, labour productivity, socio-technical theory

  19. Predicted harvest time effects on switchgrass moisture content, nutrient concentration, yield, and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production costs change with harvest date of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a result of nutrient recycling and changes in yield of this perennial crop. This study examines the range of cost of production from an early, yield-maximizing harvest date to a late winter harvest date at low moisture...

  20. Microscopic predictions of fission yields based on the time dependent GCM formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Previous studies reported promising results by numerically solving the TDGCM+GOA equation with a finite difference technique. However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to properly control numerical errors. In addition, it prevents one from performing calculations with more than two collective variables. To overcome these limitations, we developed the new code FELIX-1.0 that solves the TDGCM+GOA equation based on the Galerkin finite element method. In this article, we briefly illustrate the capabilities of the solver FELIX-1.0, in particular its validation for n+239Pu low energy induced fission. This work is the result of a collaboration between CEA,DAM,DIF and LLNL on nuclear fission theory.

  1. Genomic selection in mink yield higher accuracies with a Bayesian approach allowing for heterogeneous variance than a GBLUP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Trine Michelle; Su, Guosheng; Cai, Zexi

    2018-01-01

    by sequencing. Four live grading traits and four traits on dried pelts for size and quality were analysed. GWAS analysis detected significant SNPs for all the traits. The single-trait Bayesian model resulted in higher accuracies for the genomic predictions than the single-trait GBLUP model, especially......The accuracy of genomic prediction for mink was compared for single-trait and multiple-trait GBLUP models and Bayesian models that allowed for heterogeneous (co)variance structure over the genome. The mink population consisted of 2,103 brown minks genotyped with the method of genotyping...... for the traits measured on dried pelts. We expected the multiple-trait models to be superior to the single trait models since the multiple-trait model can make use of information when traits are correlated. However, we did not find a general improvement in accuracies with the multiple-trait models compared...

  2. A natively paired antibody library yields drug leads with higher sensitivity and specificity than a randomly paired antibody library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Adam S; Bedinger, Daniel; Adams, Matthew S; Asensio, Michael A; Edgar, Robert C; Leong, Renee; Leong, Jackson; Mizrahi, Rena A; Spindler, Matthew J; Bandi, Srinivasa Rao; Huang, Haichun; Tawde, Pallavi; Brams, Peter; Johnson, David S

    2018-04-01

    Deep sequencing and single-chain variable fragment (scFv) yeast display methods are becoming more popular for discovery of therapeutic antibody candidates in mouse B cell repertoires. In this study, we compare a deep sequencing and scFv display method that retains native heavy and light chain pairing with a related method that randomly pairs heavy and light chain. We performed the studies in a humanized mouse, using interleukin 21 receptor (IL-21R) as a test immunogen. We identified 44 high-affinity binder scFv with the native pairing method and 100 high-affinity binder scFv with the random pairing method. 30% of the natively paired scFv binders were also discovered with the randomly paired method, and 13% of the randomly paired binders were also discovered with the natively paired method. Additionally, 33% of the scFv binders discovered only in the randomly paired library were initially present in the natively paired pre-sort library. Thus, a significant proportion of "randomly paired" scFv were actually natively paired. We synthesized and produced 46 of the candidates as full-length antibodies and subjected them to a panel of binding assays to characterize their therapeutic potential. 87% of the antibodies were verified as binding IL-21R by at least one assay. We found that antibodies with native light chains were more likely to bind IL-21R than antibodies with non-native light chains, suggesting a higher false positive rate for antibodies from the randomly paired library. Additionally, the randomly paired method failed to identify nearly half of the true natively paired binders, suggesting a higher false negative rate. We conclude that natively paired libraries have critical advantages in sensitivity and specificity for antibody discovery programs.

  3. Development of a New Class of Scintillating Fibres with Very Short Decay Time and High Light Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchev, O.; Ponomarenko, S.; Surin, N.; Cavalcante, A.B.R.; Gavardi, L.; Gruber, L.; Joram, C.; Shinji, O.

    2017-01-01

    We present first studies of a new class of scintillating fibres which are characterised by very short decay times and high light yield. The fibres are based on a novel type of luminophores admixed to a polystyrene core matrix. These so-called Nanostructured Organosilicon Luminophores (NOL) have high photoluminescense quantum yield and decay times just above 1 ns. A blue and a green emitting prototype fibre with 250 μm diameter were produced and characterised in terms of attenuation length, ionisation light yield, decay time and tolerance to x-ray irradiation. The well-established Kuraray SCSF-78 and SCSF-3HF fibres were taken as references. Even though the two prototype fibres mark just an intermediate step in an ongoing development, their performance is already on a competitive level. In particular, their decay time constants are about a factor of two shorter than the fastest known fibres, which makes them promising candidates for time critical applications.

  4. The Space-Time Variation of Global Crop Yields, Detecting Simultaneous Outliers and Identifying the Teleconnections with Climatic Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, E.; Devineni, N.; Pal, I.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the climate factors that influence the space-time variability of crop yields is important for food security purposes and can help us predict global food availability. In this study, we address how the crop yield trends of countries globally were related to each other during the last several decades and the main climatic variables that triggered high/low crop yields simultaneously across the world. Robust Principal Component Analysis (rPCA) is used to identify the primary modes of variation in wheat, maize, sorghum, rice, soybeans, and barley yields. Relations between these modes of variability and important climatic variables, especially anomalous sea surface temperature (SSTa), are examined from 1964 to 2010. rPCA is also used to identify simultaneous outliers in each year, i.e. systematic high/low crop yields across the globe. The results demonstrated spatiotemporal patterns of these crop yields and the climate-related events that caused them as well as the connection of outliers with weather extremes. We find that among climatic variables, SST has had the most impact on creating simultaneous crop yields variability and yield outliers in many countries. An understanding of this phenomenon can benefit global crop trade networks.

  5. Effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time, and seed particles on secondary organic aerosol chemical composition and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2015-03-01

    This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed particles are routinely used.

  6. The influence of rate and time of nitrate supply on nitrogen fixation and yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen

    1986-01-01

    contributed with 82, 13 and 5% of total plant N, respectively. The supply of low rates of nitrate fertilizer at sowing (“starter N”) increased the vegetative dry matter production, but not the seed yield significantly. Nitrogen fixation was not significantly decreased by the lower rates of nitrate but higher...

  7. Seed yield of radish as affected by uprooting time and root cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Shohidul Hoque

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU, Gazipur, Bangladesh during November 2005 to April 2006 to study the seed production potentiality of BSMRAU developed open pollinated radish varieties (viz., BU Mula 1 and BU Mula 2 under two levels of root cutting (viz., one third and no cutup and three levels of uprooting namely 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (DAS. Results revealed that both root cutting and uprooting days significantly influenced most of the characters pertaining to seed yield per plant. Root cutting delayed the flowering, pod initiation, maturation of siliqua and reduced plant height, number of branches per plant, number of siliqua per plant, and number of seeds per siliqua. The yields were also impaired by root cutting. In general, the entire yield components and seed yield were highly affected with the one third root cutting. Various uprooting days also had influenced these characters. In case of treatment combination of no cut and 30 days of uprooting there was a significant difference between the varieties. The variety BU Mula 2 produced better seed yield per plot than BU Mula 1. Also in both the varieties the 1/3rd cut treatment with 30 or 50 days uprooting sequence showed unsatisfied number of seeds per siliqua in comparison to the no cut treatment except 40 days uprooting.

  8. The effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity and milk yield of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, van T.; Parmet, Y.; Steensels, M.; Maltz, E.; Antler, A.; Schlageter Tello, A.A.; Lokhorst, C.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Viazzi, S.; Bahr, C.; Berckmans, D.; Halachmi, I.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of hoof trimming on cow behavior (ruminating time, activity, and locomotion score) and performance (milk yield) over time. Data were gathered from a commercial dairy farm in Israel where routine hoof trimming is done by a trained hoof trimmer

  9. The influence of crop density and harvesting time on yield and quality of various sugar beet cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of crop density and harvesting time on yield and quality of various sugar beet cultivars has been analyzed. During three year research conducted on soil of carbonate chernozem on loess terrace on experimental field of Institute Tamiš in Pančevo. Method of completely random block system in four repetitions we're analyzed the influence of crop density (80.000 plants per ha, 100.000 plants per ha and 120.000 plants per ha and harvesting time (10th Sept, 01st Oct and 20th Oct on yield and quality of various sugar beet cultivars of different technological type (Esprit N - type, Belinda Z - type and Chiara NE - type. Increase in crop density had very little effect on increase on sugar beet yield. The yield was considerably increased in the period between the first harvesting date and the second. The highest yield of consumable sugar was obtained of cultivars of N - type Esprit and lower yield was obtained of cultivars of Z - type (Belinda. .

  10. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  11. Time dependence of the yield of chromosome mutations and free radicals in. gamma. -irradiated dry seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzhdin, N I; Samokhvalova, N S; Dozortseva, R L; Petrova, L E; Sheksheev, E M [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh

    1976-07-01

    It has been revealed in dry barley seeds that the yield of induced ESR signals and the number of cells having chromosome aberrations depend on the irradiation conditions (single or fractionated exposures, and varying dose rates) and the duration of the post-irradiation storage. Radiobiological effects caused in dry seeds by fractionated irradiation and varying dose rates are of different nature.

  12. Switchgrass harvest time management can impact biomass yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a dedicated energy crop native to much of North America. While high-biomass yield is of significant importance for the development of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop, nutrient content in the biomass as it relates to biofuel conversion efficiency is also critical...

  13. Time as the Fourth Dimension in the Globalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper calls for an analysis of time to be integrated into the theories on the globalization of higher education. Specifically, the author argues that academic capitalism, fuelled by globalization, has led to changes in the university visible in time/space compression, time acceleration, the reification of time and our internalization of the…

  14. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  15. Effect of Timing of Potassium Application on Millet (Setaria italica Yield and Grain Protein Content in Different Irrigation Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hayati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The research on reducing the water consumption in conventional cropping system is one of the important strategies to improve the water use efficiency in agriculture. In order to investigate the effect of time of potassium application under different irrigation regimes on millet grain yield and protein percent, a field experiment was carried out in Agricultural Research Center of Yasuj, Iran, in 2009. The experiment was conducted as split plot design in a randomized complete blocks design with 3 replications. Irrigation regime included 7, 14 and 21-day intervals as main factor and sub-plots included time of potassium fertilizer application in four stages: planting, tillering, stem development and flowering. The results showed that the effect of irrigation interval was significant on 1000-seed weight, grain and biological yield, number of grains per spike, harvest index, protein content, and chlorophyll a, b and total of leaves. By increasing the irrigation interval, all the above-mentioned traits decreased, except the protein percent that increased. The 1000-seed weight, grain and biological yield, harvest index and protein content were affected significantly by the time of potassium application. Maximum grain yield was obtained by interaction of 7- day irrigation interval and potassium application at the stem development stage. Maximum grain protein content was measured in potassium application at flowering stage. In general, increasing the irrigation interval, and subsequent water stress, reduced plant growth and yield components. Application of potassium fertilizer at early growth stages increased yield and yield components, while in reproductive stages increased seed quality.

  16. Biomass and biomass and biogas yielding potential of sorghum as affected by planting density, sowing time and cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, A.; Hussain, A.; Shahzad, A. N.; Honermeier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Biogas from biomass is a promising renewable energy source whose importance is increasing in European as well as in other countries. A field experiment at one location (Experimental Station Giessen, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany) over two years was designed to study the effect of altering sowing time (ST), planting density and cultivar on the biomass yield and chemical composition of biomass sorghum, and its potential for methane production. Of the two cultivars tested, cv. Goliath (intraspecific hybrid) was more productive with respect to biomass yield than cv. Bovital (S. bicolor x S. sudanense hybrid). ST also influenced biomass yield and most of the quality parameters measured. Delayed sowing was in general advantageous. The choice of cultivar had a marked effect on biogas and methane yield. The highest biogas and methane yields were produced by late sown cv. Bovital. Sub-optimal planting densities limited biomass accumulation of the crop, however neither the chemical composition nor the methane yield was affected by planting density. (author)

  17. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  18. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application timing on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efretuei A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of initiating application of fertilizer nitrogen (N to winter wheat at different growth stages (GSs on grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE. A factorial experiment was carried out in two growing seasons (2011 and 2012 with five timings of first N application (GS 24/26 [tillering], GS 30, GS 31, GS 32 or GS 37 and an unfertilized control, two sowing densities (100 and 400 seeds/m2 and a cattle slurry treatment (with or without slurry. The latter was included to simulate variation in soil N supply (SNS. Delaying the first application of N from the tillering stage until GS 30 had no significant effect on grain yield in either year. Further delaying the initial N application until GS 31 caused a significant yield reduction in 2011, in comparison to GS 30 application, but not in 2012. Differences in efficiency of recovery and use of fertilizer N by the crop among the first three application timings were small. There was no evidence to support alteration in the timing of the first application of N in response to low plant density. Slurry application did not influence SNS, so the interaction between SNS and fertilizer N application timing could not be determined. It is concluded that in order to maximise yield and NUE, the first N application should be applied to winter wheat between late tillering and GS 30 and that delaying the first N until GS 31 can lead to yield reductions compared to the yield obtained with earlier application.

  19. Assessment of adaptability and stability of grain yield in bread wheat genotypes under different sowing times in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, M.; Ali, M.A.; Subhani, G.M.; Munir, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty advanced lines/genotypes of wheat including two check varieties were sown under two different sowing times through out the Punjab province at 18 different locations with diverse environments to study their stability and adaptability. Normal sowing was done in second week of November 2007 while the delayed sowing was completed during second week of December 2007 during crop season 2007-08. The pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences among environments and genotypes for grain yield demonstrating the presence of considerable variations (p<0.01) among genotypes as well as diversity of growing environments at various locations for both normal and late sown wheat crops. The highest average grain yield was obtained at Jalandar Seed Farm, Arifwala and Pak. German Farm, Multan for normal and delayed sown crops, respectively. Most of the locations emerged as high yielding in normal sowing compared to late sown crop. Dendrograms of 18 locations based on the average yield of 20 wheat genotypes grown under normal and late sown crop revealed two main clusters. Under both normal and late sowing, none of the varieties exceeded the check Seher-2006, however, the check was followed by the advanced lines V-04022 and V-05066 for normal sown crop and Shafaq-2006, V-05066 and V-04022 under delayed sowing. All the genotypes revealed decline in grain yield for late sown wheat crop. The analysis of stability based on mean grain yield, regression coefficient and deviation from regression advocated that the cultivars V-05066 and V-03BT007 were most stable and adapted to diverse environmental conditions of Punjab. These cultivars revealed unit regression and non-significant deviations from regression. The check variety Seher-2006 produced maximum yield for both sowing times that suggested its consistent and stable performance across the environments. (author)

  20. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time

  1. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  2. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  3. Chemical composition and methane yield of reed canary grass as influenced by harvesting time and harvest frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of harvest time on biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, biochemical composition and biological methane potential of reed canary grass harvested twice a month in one-cut (OC) management. The regrowth of biomass harvested in summer was also harvested in autumn...... as a two-cut management with (TC-F) or without (TC-U) fertilization after summer harvest. The specific methane yields decreased significantly with crop maturity that ranged from 384 to 315 and from 412 to 283 NL (normal litre) (kg VS)-1 for leaf and stem, respectively. Approximately 45% more methane...... was produced by the TC-F management (5430 Nm3 ha-1) as by the OC management (3735 Nm3 ha-1). Specific methane yield was moderately correlated with the concentrations of fibre components in the biomass. Larger quantity of biogas produced at the beginning of the biogas assay from early harvested biomass...

  4. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre

    2009-01-01

    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  5. Higher Education Institution Leaders' Identity Constructions in Times of Changing Structures and Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigerstedt, Christa

    2016-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on the leadership of higher education institutions (HEI) in Finland and more specifically on the rector's leadership. The higher education sector is undergoing many changes and has been so for a long time. How, then, do the current changes become visible from a leadership perspective? The leadership discourse is here…

  6. Deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements with the 4.5 m neutron-time-of-flight detectors at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M J; Bond, E J; Clancy, T J; Eckart, M J; Khater, H Y; Glebov, V Yu

    2012-10-01

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator∕photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring deuterium-deuterium (DD) and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield (Y(n)) measurements from below 10(9) (DD) to nearly 10(15) (DT). The detectors initially demonstrated detector-to-detector Y(n) precisions better than 5%, but lacked in situ absolute calibrations. Recent experiments at NIF now have provided in situ DT yield calibration data that establish the absolute sensitivity of the 4.5 m differential tissue harmonic imaging (DTHI) detector with an accuracy of ± 10% and precision of ± 1%. The 4.5 m nTOF calibration measurements also have helped to establish improved detector impulse response functions and data analysis methods, which have contributed to improving the accuracy of the Y(n) measurements. These advances have also helped to extend the usefulness of nTOF measurements of ion temperature and downscattered neutron ratio (neutron yield 10-12 MeV divided by yield 13-15 MeV) with other nTOF detectors.

  7. Phenology and yield of strawberry as influenced by planting time and genotypes in a sub tropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Islam, N.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of planting time on phenology of five strawberry genotypes Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008, and BARI strawberry-1 were evaluated at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute in two consecutive years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. Sweet Charlie took the shorter time to begin flowering, followed by BARI Strawberry-1 and Festival when planted in 1st October. Genotype FA 008 took longer time to flower when planted in 1st December. Days to flowering of all the varieties was found to decrease with the increase in air temperature. Regardless of planting year, the genotype FA 005 followed by Camarosa and Festival, planted on 1st September, exhibited the longest harvest duration, while Sweet Charlie planted on 1st December exhibited the shortest harvest duration in both years. Genotype Festival planted on October yielded fruit with the greatest fruit weight, followed by Sweet Charlie and Camarosa planted on the same date. Plants of FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 planted in December produced minimum fruit weight. Maximum number of fruits/plant as well as yield/plant obtained from Sweet Charlie planted in October, while BARI Strawberry-1 planted in December yielded the least. With the use of quadratic equation it was estimated that maximum yield was obtained at ambient temperature 18.5 degree C then it was decreased with the increase of temperature. Strawberry planted in early October was found to be the most suitable in Bangladesh. Among the studied genotypes, Sweet Charlie was found to be superior in yield and early planting, and Camarosa was suitable for late planting. Festival was found less sensitive to planting date. (author)

  8. Influence of production time on quality and height of yield of crisp lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odziemkowski, S.; Gajc-Wolska, J.; Skapski, H.

    1998-01-01

    The cultivar of crisp lettuce Saladin, was grown in the field in 10 production terms starting from spring to autumn in 1993-95. The highest average weight of head of crisp lettuce was obtained in earlier terms of production. The head weight at the time of harvest depended on the amount of solar radiation during the time of lettuce head formation

  9. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  10. The Motivations and Outcomes of Studying for Part-Time Mature Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jon; Hammond, Cathie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the motivations and outcomes for mature students who study part-time in higher education (HE) in the UK. Although many students in HE are mature part-time learners, they have not been the specific focus of much research or policy interest. In-depth narrative interviews were carried out with 18 graduates who had studied…

  11. Yields, market values and n use efficiency (15n) in flue-cured tobacco influenced by basal fertilization time and n fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhijian; Tu Shuxin; Li Jinping; Chen Zhenguo; Xu Rubing; Cao Shiming; Li Jianping; Wang Xuelong; Chen Liangcun; Guo Li; Cao Xianglian; Hu Gongjun; Zhang Yunzheng

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment with 15 N isotope tracing micro-plots was carried out to study the effects of basal N fertilizer application time (0 d, 15 d, 30 d before the transplanting) on the yields, market values and N uptake, utilization and distribution in different organs of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) in two ecological tobacco production areas Zhaojiashan (N 31 degree 28', E 111 degree 15', 903 m above sea level) and Laowan (N 31 degree 27', E 111 degree 14', 1 130 m above sea level)] of Xiangfan city, Hubei province. The results showed that supplying N fertilizer significantly increased the yields and market values of FCT by 13%-40% and 14%-35% for the experimental site of Zhaojiashan (lower altitude ) and Laowan (higher altitude), respectively. Compared to applying basal fertilizer at 0 d before transplanting, applying basal fertilizer at 15-30 d before transplanting increased the market values by 10%-30% (P<0.05). And early application of basal N fertilizer (30 d before transplanting) increased N accumulation by 8%-26% as compared with that of applying basal N fertilizer at 0 d or 15 d before transplanting in the two ecological areas. There was no significant effects of basal N application time on N fertilizer efficiency in lower altitude site, but increasing by 3%-6% in higher altitude site. The proportion of fertilizer N to total N in FCT decreased by 8%-32% in lower altitude, but increased by 25%-32% in higher altitude when basal N fertilizer was supplied at 30d before transplanting., These results indicated that properly earlier supplication of basal N fertilizer could improve the N fertilizer efficiency, and thus increase the yields and market values of FCT, especially in higher altitude areas with less sunshine and lower temperature. (authors)

  12. The effects of heating temperatures and time on deformation energy and oil yield of sunflower bulk seeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Sigalingging, R.; Demirel, C.

    2018-02-01

    The deformation energy (J) and percentage oil yield (%) of sunflower bulk seeds under the influence of heat treatment temperatures and heating time were examined in compression test using the universal compression testing machine and vessel diameter of 60 mm with a plunger. The heat treatment temperatures were between 40 and 100 °C and the heating time at specific temperatures of 40 and 100 °C ranged from 15 to 75 minutes. The bulk sunflower seeds were measured at a pressing height of 60 mm and pressed at a maximum force of 100 kN and speed of 5 mm/min. Based on the compression results, the deformation energy and oil yield increased along with increasing heat treatment temperatures. The results were statistically significant (p 0.05).

  13. EFFECT OF THE TIME OF POULTRY MANURE APPLICATION AND GENOTYPE ON THE GROWTH, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PLANTAINS (MUSA spp. AAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie Ndukwe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of time of poultry manure application: no application, at planting, 1, 2 and 3 months after planting (MAP were determined on the growth, yield and fruit quality of two plantain (Musa spp. AAB cultivars (PITA 17 and French Reversion. PITA 17 significantly produced more standing leaves, fruits with longer green and shelf life. French Reversion significantly produced taller plants, heavier bunches and fruits, wider and longer fruits. Dry matter partitioning to the pulp, pulp degree of lightness and redness were also higher for French Reversion than PITA 17. The application of poultry manure at 2 MAP produced heaviest bunches and the highest yield components while pulp dry matter and fruit shelf life duration were highest with manure application at 3 MAP. Bunch and fruit weights were heaviest in French Reversion plots applied with poultry manure at 2 MAP whereas shelf life was longest with PITA 17 that received manure application at planting.

  14. Prediction of spur overlap time, radical yield profiles, and decomposition of trichloroethylene induced by various pulse types of electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.-W.; Han, K.-C.; Lee, W.-K.; Ihm, S.-K.

    1996-01-01

    A kinetic model was suggested to compute the yield profiles of primary radicals generated from water radiolysis. For various cases including pulse radiolysis and steady irradiation time of spur overlap was computed in order to ensure homogeneity over the entire system. As a result, consistency to roughly first order kinetics was resulted for decomposition of 1 ppm trichloroethylene (TCE) and slight deviation from the linear model was predicted for 10 ppm TCE. (author)

  15. Understanding N timing in corn yield and fertilizer N recovery: An insight from an isotopic labeled-N determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Estevam Munhoz; Pierozan Junior, Clovis; Lago, Bruno Cocco; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2018-01-01

    Early fertilizer nitrogen (N) application on cover crops or their residues during the off-season is a practice adopted in Brazil subtropical conditions under no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) systems. However, the effect of early N application on yield, plant N content, and N recovery efficiency (NRE) for corn is not yet well documented. Five fertilizer N timings in an oat-corn system were evaluated in two studies utilizing an isotopic-labeled N determination, 15N isotope. The N fertilization timings were: (i) oat tillering, (ii) 15 days before corn planting time, over the oat residues, (iii) at corn planting time, (iv) in-season at the three-leaf growth stage (V3), and (v) in-season split application at V3 and six-leaf (V6) growth stages. Based on the statistical analysis, the N fertilization timings were separated into three groups: 1) N-OATS, designated to N applied at oat; 2) N-PLANT, referred to pre-plant and planting N applications; and 3) N-CORN, designated to in-season corn N applications. Corn yield was not affected by the N fertilization timing. However, the N-CORN N fertilization timings enhanced NRE by 17% and 35% and final N recovery system (plant plus soil) by 16% and 24% all relative to N-OATS and N-PLANT groups, respectively. Overall, N-OATS resulted in the largest N derived from fertilizer (NDFF) amount in the deeper soil layer, in overall a delta of 10 kg N ha-1 relative to the rest of the groups. Notwithstanding corn yield was not affected, early N fertilization under subtropical conditions is not a viable option since NRE was diminished and the non-recovery N increased relative to the in-season N applications. PMID:29462178

  16. Understanding N timing in corn yield and fertilizer N recovery: An insight from an isotopic labeled-N determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel de Oliveira, Silas; Almeida, Rodrigo Estevam Munhoz de; Ciampitti, Ignacio A; Pierozan Junior, Clovis; Lago, Bruno Cocco; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Favarin, José Laércio

    2018-01-01

    Early fertilizer nitrogen (N) application on cover crops or their residues during the off-season is a practice adopted in Brazil subtropical conditions under no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) systems. However, the effect of early N application on yield, plant N content, and N recovery efficiency (NRE) for corn is not yet well documented. Five fertilizer N timings in an oat-corn system were evaluated in two studies utilizing an isotopic-labeled N determination, 15N isotope. The N fertilization timings were: (i) oat tillering, (ii) 15 days before corn planting time, over the oat residues, (iii) at corn planting time, (iv) in-season at the three-leaf growth stage (V3), and (v) in-season split application at V3 and six-leaf (V6) growth stages. Based on the statistical analysis, the N fertilization timings were separated into three groups: 1) N-OATS, designated to N applied at oat; 2) N-PLANT, referred to pre-plant and planting N applications; and 3) N-CORN, designated to in-season corn N applications. Corn yield was not affected by the N fertilization timing. However, the N-CORN N fertilization timings enhanced NRE by 17% and 35% and final N recovery system (plant plus soil) by 16% and 24% all relative to N-OATS and N-PLANT groups, respectively. Overall, N-OATS resulted in the largest N derived from fertilizer (NDFF) amount in the deeper soil layer, in overall a delta of 10 kg N ha-1 relative to the rest of the groups. Notwithstanding corn yield was not affected, early N fertilization under subtropical conditions is not a viable option since NRE was diminished and the non-recovery N increased relative to the in-season N applications.

  17. Detrended fluctuation analysis based on higher-order moments of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yue; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is proposed as a new measure to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. We extend DFA and local scaling DFA to higher moments such as skewness and kurtosis (labeled SMDFA and KMDFA), so as to investigate the volatility scaling property of financial time series. Simulations are conducted over synthetic and financial data for providing the comparative study. We further report the results of volatility behaviors in three American countries, three Chinese and three European stock markets by using DFA and LSDFA method based on higher moments. They demonstrate the dynamics behaviors of time series in different aspects, which can quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data and provide us with more meaningful information than single exponent. And the results reveal some higher moments volatility and higher moments multiscale volatility details that cannot be obtained using the traditional DFA method.

  18. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products: Effects of temperature and time on energy yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at different temperatures and times. Torrefaction of biomass involves heating in an inert atmosphere to remove volatile components for improved grindability and increased ene...

  19. Latest time-lapse seismic data from Sleipner yield new insights into CO2 plume development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadwick, R.A.; Noy, D.; Arts, R.; Eiken, O.

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 1996, the CO2 injection operation at Sleipner has been monitored by 3D time-lapse seismic surveys. Striking images of the CO2 plume have been obtained, showing a multi-tier feature of high reflectivity, interpreted as arising from a number of thin layers of CO2 trapped beneath

  20. Influence of tumbling, tumbling time, trim and sodium tripolyphosphate on quality and yield of cured hams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, R.J.; Ockerman, H.W.; Krol, B.; Moerman, P.C.; et al.

    1978-01-01

    Forty‐four boneless, cured hams were assigned to treatment groups to study the effect of tumbling, tumbling time (18 hr intermittent, 9.5 hr intermittent, 3 hr continuous), tumbling temperature (5°C and 15°C), sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) pickle level (0 and 3.3%), and trim (lean, regular, and fat)

  1. Effect of different defoliants and application times on the yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of different defoliants (Dropp ultra® (DU): thidiazuron+diuron and Roundup (RU): glyphosate) and application times [60, 75 and 90 days after flowering (DAF)] on cotton. The research was carried out at the Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture Research and Application ...

  2. Interrelations between glucose-induced insulin response, metabolic indicators, and time of first ovulation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, P; Leroy, J L M R; De Vliegher, S; Opsomer, G

    2008-09-01

    High-yielding dairy cows are more susceptible to metabolic and reproductive disorders than low-yielding cows. Insulin plays a pivotal role in the development of both problems. In the present study, we aimed to assess the glucose-induced insulin responses of dairy cows at different time points relative to calving and to relate this to the metabolic status and the time of first ovulation. Twenty-three healthy, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with a high genetic merit for milk yield were studied from 14 d prepartum to 42 d postpartum. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed on -14, 14, and 42 d relative to calving to evaluate the plasma insulin and glucose responses to a glucose load, as estimated by the peak concentration, the area under the curve (AUC), and the clearance rates of insulin and glucose. Blood samples were obtained at 3-d intervals and analyzed for glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The time of first ovulation was defined by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma progesterone analysis. Glucose-induced insulin AUC and peak concentration decreased and glucose clearance increased during lactation compared with the dry period. Plasma NEFA concentrations were negatively related to insulin AUC and peak concentrations. Fourteen cows ovulated within 42 d postpartum, and the remaining 9 cows suffered from delayed resumption of ovarian function. Survival analysis demonstrated that cows with lower NEFA concentrations during the dry period tended to have earlier resumption of ovarian activity. In conclusion, our data suggest a decreased plasma insulin response to glucose postpartum in high-yielding dairy cows, possibly contributing to metabolic stress during the early postpartum period. It is hypothesized that NEFA impair glucose-induced insulin secretion in dairy cows. Additionally, our results suggest the importance of lipolysis during the transition period as a risk factor for delayed ovulation.

  3. Effect of cutting height and time on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184

    OpenAIRE

    Pimpaporn Pholsen; Chureerat Satjipanon; Krailas Kiyothong

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to study the effect of cutting height and time on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 in Korat soil series at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research Center, during April 2000 - May 2001. The experimental design was 2 × 4 factorial in randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The treatment consisted of 2 factors: - 1) Two levels of cutting height viz. 20 and 30 cm above ground; 2) Four periods of cutting time viz. at 6...

  4. A re-evaluation of the initial yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Yusa; Lin Mingzhang; Wu, Guozhong; Iijima, Hokuto; Yoshii, Koji; Ueda, Toru; Kudo, Hisaaki; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    The yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range has been re-evaluated with an ultrafast pulse radiolysis system using a laser photocathode RF-gun in combination with a conventional one, and a value of 4.1±0.2 per 100 eV of absorbed energy at 20 ps was derived. This is consistent with recent experimental results using a time correlation method [Bartels et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1686-1691 (2000)] and with Monte-Carlo calculations [Muroya et al., Can. J. Chem. 80 1367-1374 (2002)

  5. Shorter Perceived Outpatient MRI Wait Times Associated With Higher Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anna; Glenn, Harold; Mahmood, Rabia; Cai, Qingpo; Kang, Jian; Duszak, Richard

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in perceived versus actual wait times among patients undergoing outpatient MRI examinations and to correlate those times with patient satisfaction. Over 15 weeks, 190 patients presenting for outpatient MR in a radiology department in which "patient experience" is one of the stated strategic priorities were asked to (1) estimate their wait times for various stages in the imaging process and (2) state their satisfaction with their imaging experience. Perceived times were compared with actual electronic time stamps. Perceived and actual times were compared and correlated with standardized satisfaction scores using Kendall τ correlation. The mean actual wait time between patient arrival and examination start was 53.4 ± 33.8 min, whereas patients perceived a mean wait time of 27.8 ± 23.1 min, a statistically significant underestimation of 25.6 min (P perceived wait times at all points during patient encounters were correlated with higher satisfaction scores (P perceived and actual wait times were both correlated with higher satisfaction scores. As satisfaction surveys play a larger role in an environment of metric transparency and value-based payments, better understanding of such factors will be increasingly important. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A comprehensive & systematic study of coincidence time resolution and light yield using scintillators of different size, wrapping and doping

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, E.; Geraci, F.; Ghezzi, A.; Gundacker, S.; Hillemanns, H.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Paganoni, M.; Pauwels, K.; Pizzichemi, M.; Lecoq, P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last years interest in using time-of-flight-based Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET) systems has significantly increased. High time resolution in such PET systems is a powerful tool to improve signal to noise ratio and therefore to allow smaller exposure rates for patients as well as faster image reconstruction. Improvement in coincidence time resolution (CTR) in PET systems to the level of 200ps FWHM requires the optimization of all parameters in the photon detection chain influencing the time resolution: crystal, photodetector and readout electronics. After reviewing the factors influencing the time resolution of scintillators, we will present in this paper the light yield and CTR obtained for different scintillator types (LSO:Ce, LYSO:Ce, LGSO:Ce, LSO:Ce:0.4Ca, LuAG:Ce, LuAG:Pr) with different cross-sections, lengths and reflectors. Whereas light yield measurements were made with a classical PMT, all CTR tests were performed with Hamamatsu-MPPCs or SiPMs S10931-050P. The CTR measurements were ...

  7. The peculiarities' study of higher education applicants' employment in pharmaceutical specialties of full-time training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotvitska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Employment of applicants of pharmaceutical higher education has both positive and negative impact on the quality of educational services provided by institutions, especially in terms of knowledge and skills acquired by student. Objective is to study peculiarities of higher education employment, full-time training, and features driving them to conclude labor agreements. Materials and methods. During the study, we used juridical and comparative legal methods of analysis. Results. The study has defined the following features of the employment of applicants of higher education in the health care institutions, pharmaceutical enterprises and organizations. The current legislation provides the applicants of higher education enrolled in HEIs for full-time training with a right to make a free choice of the field of study, profession, type of occupation and work. The relationship developed between an applicant and higher education institutions are not to be regarded as an employment relationship. The working under the items of labor agreement for person who combine it with the full-time education is not a part or combination or sharing, and is considered the main place of job. Thus, it stipulates maintenance of records book of the employed worker according to the general procedure. An applicant of higher education has discretion to choose working hours (full- or part-time working day, full- or part-time working week with taking into consideration the HEIs schedule and only in the free time. When full-time operating in frameworks of collective agreement at enterprise, institution, or organization, having accounted peculiarities of operation, non-standardized working day for some positions can be set. The current legislation stipulates possibility of employment for persons without higher pharmaceutical education to the health care institutions on the clearly defined positions. Conclusions.The country authority has created and is providing favorable

  8. Yield and crop cycle time of peaches cultivated in subtropical climates and subjected to different pruning times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of peaches in regions of subtropical and tropical climate is currently achieved through a set of practices such as using less demanding cultivars in cold conditions, applying plant growth regulators to break dormancy, and performing specific pruning, like production and renewal pruning. Research on the climate adaptation of cultivars is of great importance in establishing a crop in a given region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of three cultivars subjected to different production pruning times in Botucatu/SP, where 2-year old peach trees were evaluated, grown at a spacing of 6.0 x 4.0 meters. The experimental design was a split plot design with four blocks, using the cultivars Douradão, BRS Kampai and BRS Rubimel, and the subplots corresponded to pruning times in May, June, July and August. Ten plants were used per plot, with the four central plants considered useful and the remaining considered as margins. Pruning in June and July showed the best results in terms of percentage of fruit set and production. The cultivar BRS Rubimel showed the best percentage of fruit set when pruned in June (44.96%, and best fruit production when pruned in July (18.7 kg plant-1. Pruning in May anticipated the harvest of cultivar BRS Rubimel by 13 days whereas pruning carried out in July and August provided late harvests for cultivars Douradão and BRS Kampai.

  9. A Linear-Elasticity Solver for Higher-Order Space-Time Mesh Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2018-01-01

    A linear-elasticity approach is presented for the generation of meshes appropriate for a higher-order space-time discontinuous finite-element method. The equations of linear-elasticity are discretized using a higher-order, spatially-continuous, finite-element method. Given an initial finite-element mesh, and a specified boundary displacement, we solve for the mesh displacements to obtain a higher-order curvilinear mesh. Alternatively, for moving-domain problems we use the linear-elasticity approach to solve for a temporally discontinuous mesh velocity on each time-slab and recover a continuous mesh deformation by integrating the velocity. The applicability of this methodology is presented for several benchmark test cases.

  10. "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 Ranking: Old Wine in a New Bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 ranking is a new twist to the university ranking. It focuses on universities that have a history of 50 years or less with the purpose of offsetting the advantage of prestige of the older ones. This article re-analysed the data publicly available and looked into relevant conceptual and statistical issues. The…

  11. Employers' Demand for and the Provision of Part-Time Higher Education for Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, Danusia

    1987-01-01

    A study of public and private employers' demand for part-time higher education for their employees and the response of institutions is reported. The study focuses on Wales and on the regional economic and social trends affecting educational demand and supply. Improved communication between employers, employees, and institutions is recommended.…

  12. Higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equations involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkinjon Karimov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  13. Higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equations involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Erkinjon Karimov; Sardor Pirnafasov

    2017-01-01

    In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE) with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  14. Mechanical energy yields and pressure volume and pressure time curves for whole core fuel-coolant interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, P [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1979-10-15

    In determining the damage consequences of a whole core Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI), one measure of the strength of a FCI that can be used and is independent of the system geometry is the constant volume mixing mechanical yield (often referred to as the Hicks-Menzies yield), which represents a near upper limit to the mechanical work of a FCI. This paper presents a recalculation of the Hicks-Menzies yields for UO{sub 2} and sodium for a range of initial fuel temperatures and fuel to coolant mass ratios, using recently published UO{sub 2} and sodium equation of state data. The work presented here takes a small number of postulated FCIs with as wide range as possible of thermal interaction parameters and determines their pressure-volume P(V) and pressure-time P(t) relations, using geometrical constraints representative of the reactor. Then by examining these P(V) and P(t) curves a representative pressure-relative volume curve or range of possible curves, for use in containment analysis, is recommended

  15. Chemical composition and methane yield of reed canary grass as influenced by harvesting time and harvest frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Tanka P; Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Møller, Henrik B; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul E

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the influence of harvest time on biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, biochemical composition and biological methane potential of reed canary grass harvested twice a month in one-cut (OC) management. The regrowth of biomass harvested in summer was also harvested in autumn as a two-cut management with (TC-F) or without (TC-U) fertilization after summer harvest. The specific methane yields decreased significantly with crop maturity that ranged from 384 to 315 and from 412 to 283 NL (normal litre) (kgVS)(-1) for leaf and stem, respectively. Approximately 45% more methane was produced by the TC-F management (5430Nm(3)ha(-1)) as by the OC management (3735Nm(3)ha(-1)). Specific methane yield was moderately correlated with the concentrations of fibre components in the biomass. Larger quantity of biogas produced at the beginning of the biogas assay from early harvested biomass was to some extent off-set by lower concentration of methane. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Goh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottle is one of the common plastic wastes existed in the municipal solid waste in Malaysia. One alternative to solve the abundant of PET wastes is chemical recycling of the wastes to produce a value added product. This technology not only can decrease the PET wastes in landfill sites but also can produce many useful recycled PET products. Bis(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET obtained from glycolysis reaction of PET waste was purified using crystallization process. The hot distilled water was added to glycolysis product followed by cooling and filtration to extract BHET in white solid form from the product. The effect of three operating conditions namely crystallization time, crystallization temperatures and amount of distilled water used to the yield of crystallization process were investigated. The purity of crystallization products were analyzed using HPLC and DSC. The optimum conditions of 3 hours crystallization time, 2 °C crystallization temperature and 5:1 mass ratio of distilled water used to glycolize solid gave the highest yield and purity of the crystallization process. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd August 2014; Revised: 4th February 2015; Accepted: 5th February 2015How to Cite: Goh, H.W., Salmiaton, A., Abdullah, N., Idris, A. (2015. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 143-154. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154  

  17. Some compositional and health indicators of milk quality of dairy cows with higher milk yield at including of selected corn species into feeding ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pozdíšek

    2008-01-01

    influenced. More important differences were in total dry matter, 12.09 (K < 12.23 (P1 or 12.40 % (P2. While for wheat was not for triticale was similar effect observed in crude protein (CP of milk (3.08 (K or 3.05 (P1 < 3.23 % (P2. Similar trend was also confirmed in casein (CAS; 2.43 or 2.44 < 2.55 %; from P < 0.05 to P < 0.001 for CP and CAS. There were insignificant differences between groups for casein number, pH acidity, electrical conductivity, Mg and Cu (P > 0.05. Milk specific weight was lowest in P1 (P < 0.01, but this indicator is practically less important. More expressive differences were in somatic cell count (SCC in geometric mean 249 (P2 > 76 (K or 72 103/ml (P1. Because of quite typical high SCC variability in tri­ti­ca­le P2 group (in opposite to this low variability in K and P1 groups it could be caused by chance in animal selection for groups and all values met the standard demand for extra quality of milk. Therefore, it is not necessary to over estimate this result. Milk urea as metabolical indicator was higher in wheat group, significantly (P < 0.05 versus triticale group (23.39 (P1 > 20.80 (K and 20.50 mg / 100ml (P2, but all values lay in respected physiological range (from 20 to 30 mg / 100ml. In the Ca case it was significantly higher (P < 0.05 versus wheat in triticale milk group by 5.7 and 4.0 % (1306 (P2 > 1231 (K or 1253 (P1 mg / kg. This increase could be interested in terms of milk nutritive value, but not for routine milk payment. The levels of P and Fe in milk were higher in K versus experimental groups (P < 0.05. It is less interesting in terms of economy or nutrition. In general milk was a little different according to differences in corn portions of cow feeding rations and corn variant replacement. In terms of experiment the concrete corn replacement in concentrate portion of feeding ration could not have an essential impact on milk quality and it si possible to agree with such conception. However, the milk quality and yield

  18. Impact of thermal time shift on wheat phenology and yield under warming climate in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Qi, Yongqing; Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rende; Moiwo, Juana P.; Liu, Fengshan

    2017-03-01

    Given climate change can potentially influence crop phenology and subsequent yield, an investigation of relevant adaptation measures could increase the understanding and mitigation of these responses in the future. In this study, field observations at 10 stations in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China (HHHP) are used in combination with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model to determine the effect of thermal time shift on the phenology and potential yield of wheat from 1981-2009. Warming climate speeds up winter wheat development and thereby decreases the duration of the wheat growth period. However, APSIM-Wheat model simulation suggests prolongation of the period from flowering to maturity (Gr) of winter wheat by 0.2-0.8 d•10yr-1 as the number of days by which maturity advances, which is less than that by which flowering advances. Based on computed thermal time of the two critical growth phases of wheat, total thermal time from floral initiation to flowering (TT_floral_initiation) increasesd in seven out of the 10 investigated stations. Alternatively, total thermal time from the start of grainfilling to maturity (TT_start_ grain_fill) increased in all investigated stations, except Laiyang. It is thus concluded that thermal time shift during the past three decades (1981-2009) prolongs Gr by 0.2-3.0 d•10yr-1 in the study area. This suggests that an increase in thermal time (TT) of the wheat growth period is critical for mitigating the effect of growth period reduction due to warming climatic condition. Furthermore, climate change reduces potential yield of winter wheat in 80% of the stations by 2.3-58.8 kg•yr-1. However, thermal time shift (TTS) increases potential yield of winter wheat in most of the stations by 3.0-51.0 kg•yr-1. It is concluded that wheat cultivars with longer growth periods and higher thermal requirements could mitigate the negative effects of warming climate on crop production in the study area.

  19. Yield and quality of milk and udder health in Martina Franca ass: effects of daily interval and time of machine milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty asses of Martina Franca breed, machine milked twice a day, were used to assess the influence of milking interval (3-h, 5-h, and 8-h; N=5 and time (700, 1200 and 1900 on milk yield and udder health. Individual milk samples were taken to determine fat, protein and lactose con- tent. Sensory analysis profile was also assessed. Milk’s total bacterial count (TBC, somatic cell con- tent (SCC and udder’s skin temperature were considered to assess udder health. Milk yield increases by 28.4% (P<0.01 with a milking interval from 3-h to 8-h and is higher (P<0.01 at morning milking. The maximum milk yield per milking corresponds to 700 milking (1416.9 mL thus indicating a circa- dian rhythm in milk secretion processes. Milking intervals of 5 and 8 hours cause a decrease (P<0.01 in milk fat and lactose content. The 8-h interval leads to an increase (P<0.01 in SCC but without any significance for the health udder. No alterations about CBT, clinical evaluation and temperature of ud- der were observed. Milk organoleptic characteristics were better in the 3-h interval milking.

  20. Bio-affinity mediated immobilization of lipase onto magnetic cellulose nanospheres for high yield biodiesel in one time addition of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandikari, Ramesh; Qian, Jiaxin; Baskaran, Ram; Liu, Ziduo; Wu, Gaobing

    2018-02-01

    To synthesis biodiesel from palm oil in one-time addition of methanol and solvent-free medium using CBD fused with C-terminal of lipase from G. stearothermophilus (GSlip-CBD) was immobilized onto magnetic cellulose nanosphere (MCNS). The immobilized matrix traits were preconceived by FT-IR, TEM and XRD. Perceptible biodiesel yield 98 and 73% was synthesized by GSlip-CBD-MCNS in 4 h and GSlip-MCNS in 6 h under the optimized conditions of oil:methanol ratio (1:3.5), temperature (55 and 50 °C) and enzyme loading (15 U). Intriguingly, the operational stability of GSlip-CBD-MCNS was an easily attainable owing to the magnetic properties and could be reused up to 8th and19th cycles with 94 and 45% of biodiesel yield respectively, compared to GSlip-MCNS. Thus GSlip-CBD-MCNS could be a potential biocatalyst for higher yield of biodiesel and reusability in one step addition of methanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our estimates hold without any restrictions on the time steps for dG with exact integration or Reynolds\\' quadrature. They involve a mild restriction on the time steps for the practical Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order. The key ingredients are the stability results shown earlier in Bonito et al. (Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: stability, 2013) along with a novel ALE projection. Numerical experiments illustrate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Structural strength assessment of the reconstructed road structure in terms of the loading time and yield criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Grzegorz; Iwański, Marek

    2018-05-01

    This article reports the results of numerical simulations of the stress-strain states in the rebuilt road structure compared to the solutions contained in the Polish Catalogue, with the true characteristics of the layer materials taken into account. In the case analysed, a cold-recycled base layer with foamed bitumen as a recycling agent was used. The presented analysis is complementary to the mandatory in Poland procedure of mechanistic pavement design based on a linear elastic model. The temperature distribution in the road structure was analysed at the reference temperature of 40°C on the asphalt layer surface. The loading time was included in the computer simulations through the use of the classic generalized Maxwell model and thus the stiffness-time history of the layers had to be determined. For this purpose, the dynamic modulus E* tests of the loading time frequency from 0.1 Hz to 20 Hz were carried out, and the yield point was modelled using the Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion calculated on the basis of triaxial compression tests. The analytical solution to the problem was found with ABAQUS. The results demonstrate that the high temperature of asphalt layers and long loading time noticeably reduces the stiffness modulus in those layers. That reduction changes the principal stress levels, which significantly influences the shear stress both in the recycled base layer and in the subgrade soil. Should the yield point be exceeded rapidly in the recycled layer, the horizontal stresses in the asphalt layers will increase and adversely affect the durability of the reconstructed road pavement structure, especially in the zones of slow heavy vehicle traffic.

  3. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  4. YAOPBM-II: extension to higher degrees and to shorter time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    In 2005, I presented a new fitting methodology (Yet AnOther Peak Bagging Method -YAOPBM), derived for very-long time series (2088-day-long) and applied it to low degree modes, {iota} {<=} 25. That very-long time series was also sub-divided into shorter segments (728-day-long) that were each fitted over the same range of degrees, to estimate changes with solar activity levels. I present here the extension of this method in several 'directions': a) to substantially higher degrees ({iota} {<=} 125); b) to shorter time series (364- and 182-day-long); and c) to additional 728-day-long segments, covering now some 10 years of observations. I discuss issues with the fitting, namely the leakage matrix, and the f- and p1 mode at very low frequencies, and I present some of the characteristics of the observed temporal changes.

  5. Euclidean scalar Green function in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    We construct the explicit Euclidean scalar Green function associated with a massless field in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time, i.e., a (1+d)-space-time with d≥3 which presents a solid angle deficit. Our result is expressed in terms of an infinite sum of products of Legendre functions with Gegenbauer polynomials. Although this Green function cannot be expressed in a closed form, for the specific case where the solid angle deficit is very small, it is possible to develop the sum and obtain the Green function in a more workable expression. Having this expression it is possible to calculate the vacuum expectation value of some relevant operators. As an application of this formalism, we calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the square of the scalar field, 2 (x)> Ren , and the energy-momentum tensor, μν (x)> Ren , for the global monopole space-time with spatial dimensions d=4 and d=5

  6. Effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on fruit yield and accumulation of nutrient elements in Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbitaceae is one of the largest families in vegetable kingdom consisting of largest number of edible type species. Momordica charantia is one such important vegetable that belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae. In order to evaluate the effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on M. charantia, a field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2011 growing season. The experiment was laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of nitrogen rates consisting of: N1 = 75, N2 = 150 and N3 = 225 kg N ha−1 as main plot and three time application including: T1 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 before flowering, T2 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 after fruit to start, and T3 = 1/3 at 3 and 4 leaves, 1/3 before flowering, and 1/3 after fruit to start were used as sub plot. The results revealed that both rate and time of nitrogen application had a significant effect on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield was recorded at the rate of N3 and time of nitrogen application in T3 treatment. In this study, by increasing nitrogen levels from 75 to 225 kg N ha−1, the values of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in fruit increased. The time of nitrogen application and interaction between rate and time of nitrogen treatments had no significant effect on the amounts of these three elements. Nitrogen level had a significant effect on the amounts of calcium, manganese and zinc elements. The highest values of calcium and zinc were obtained at N2 and manganese at N3 nitrogen level. Time of nitrogen application treatment in this experiment had only significant effect on the amounts of calcium and zinc elements and had no significant effect on the other elements.

  7. Time-dependent radiolytic yields at room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electrons in polyols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Mingzhang; Mostafavi, M.; Lampre, I.; Muroya, Y.; Katsumura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The molar extinction coefficients at the absorption maximum of the solvated electron spectrum have been evaluated to be 900, 970, and 1000 mol -1 ·m 2 for 1,2-ethanediol (12ED), 1,2-propanediol (12PD), and 1,3-propanediol (13PD), respectively. These values are two-third or three-fourth of the value usually reported in the published report. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies have aided in depicting the radiolytic yield of the solvated electron in these solvents as a function of time from picosecond to microsecond. The radiolytic yield in these viscous solvents is found to be strongly different from that of the water solution. The temperature dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electron in 12ED, 12PD, and 13PD have been also investigated. In all the three solvents, the optical spectra shift to the red with increasing temperature. While the shape of the spectra does not change in 13PD, a widening on the blue side of the absorption band is observed in 12ED and 12PD at elevated temperatures. (authors)

  8. The effect of blood sample positions in a water phantom at the time of irradiation on the dicentric yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshinori

    1995-01-01

    Blood samples of man and rabbit, placed at various distances from the surface of a water phantom with a dosimeter were exposed to 250mGy of 60 Co γ-rays. Increases in the dicentric yields in the lymphocytes were observed with increased distances from the surface of the water phantom. As a variation of the dicentric yield with increasing distance in water was found, in the experiment to obtain calibration curves for biological dosimetry, it is recommended that blood samples should be positioned at a constant distance from the surface of a water phantom at the time of irradiation. ICRU REPORT 23 recommends that the calibration measurement be carried out with an ionization chamber positioned at 5cm depth below the surface of a water phantom for 150 kV-10 MV X rays, and 137 Cs and 60 Co γ-rays. As the same reasons which determine a 5cm depth in the recommendation, should be applied to this case, it is desirable that the experiment be carried out with blood samples positioned at 5cm distance from the surface of a water phantom. (author)

  9. Higher spins tunneling from a time dependent and spherically symmetric black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-01-01

    The discussions of Hawking radiation via tunneling method have been performed extensively in the case of scalar particles. Moreover, there are also several works in discussing the tunneling method for Hawking radiation by using higher spins, e.g. neutrino, photon, and gravitino, in the background of static black holes. Interestingly, it is found that the Hawking temperature for static black holes using the higher spins particles has no difference compared to the one computed using scalars. In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation for a spherically symmetric and time dependent black holes using the tunneling of Dirac particles, photon, and gravitino. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature is similar to the one derived in the tunneling method by using scalars. (orig.)

  10. Higher spins tunneling from a time dependent and spherically symmetric black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M. [Parahyangan Catholic University, Physics Department, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2016-03-15

    The discussions of Hawking radiation via tunneling method have been performed extensively in the case of scalar particles. Moreover, there are also several works in discussing the tunneling method for Hawking radiation by using higher spins, e.g. neutrino, photon, and gravitino, in the background of static black holes. Interestingly, it is found that the Hawking temperature for static black holes using the higher spins particles has no difference compared to the one computed using scalars. In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation for a spherically symmetric and time dependent black holes using the tunneling of Dirac particles, photon, and gravitino. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature is similar to the one derived in the tunneling method by using scalars. (orig.)

  11. Calculating Higher-Order Moments of Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Summaries in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Amrit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stochastic mapping is a simulation-based method for probabilistically mapping substitution histories onto phylogenies according to continuous-time Markov models of evolution. This technique can be used to infer properties of the evolutionary process on the phylogeny and, unlike parsimony-based mapping, conditions on the observed data to randomly draw substitution mappings that do not necessarily require the minimum number of events on a tree. Most stochastic mapping applications simulate substitution mappings only to estimate the mean and/or variance of two commonly used mapping summaries: the number of particular types of substitutions (labeled substitution counts) and the time spent in a particular group of states (labeled dwelling times) on the tree. Fast, simulation-free algorithms for calculating the mean of stochastic mapping summaries exist. Importantly, these algorithms scale linearly in the number of tips/leaves of the phylogenetic tree. However, to our knowledge, no such algorithm exists for calculating higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries. We present one such simulation-free dynamic programming algorithm that calculates prior and posterior mapping variances and scales linearly in the number of phylogeny tips. Our procedure suggests a general framework that can be used to efficiently compute higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries without simulations. We demonstrate the usefulness of our algorithm by extending previously developed statistical tests for rate variation across sites and for detecting evolutionarily conserved regions in genomic sequences. PMID:28177780

  12. [Effects of deep plowing time during the fallow period on water storage-consumption characteristics and wheat yield in dry-land soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian You; Pei, Xue Xia; Zhang, Ding Yi; Wang, Jiao Ai; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Xue Ping

    2016-09-01

    Through a three-year field trail, effects of deep plowing time during the fallow period on water storage of 0-200 cm soil before sowing, water consumption of growth period, and growth and development of wheat were investigated. Results demonstrated that soil water storage (SWS) of the fallow period was influenced by deep plowing time, precipitation, and rainfall distribution. With postponing the time of deep plowing in the fallow period, SWS was increased firstly, and then decreased. SWS with deep plowing in early or middle of August was 23.9-45.8 mm more than that with deep plowing in mid-July. It would benefit SWS when more precipitation occurred in the fallow period or more rainfall was distributed in August and September. Deep plowing at a proper time could facilitate SWS, N and P absorption of wheat, and the number of stems before winter and the spike number. The yield of wheat with deep plowing in early or middle August was 3.67%-18.2% higher than that with deep plowing in mid-July, and it was positively correlated with water storage of 0-200 cm soil during the fallow period and SWS of each soil layer during the wheat growth period. However, this correlation coefficient would be weakened by adequate rainfall in spring, the critical growing period for wheat. The time of deep plowing mainly affected the water consumption at soil layer of 60-140 cm during wheat growth. Under current farming conditions of south Shanxi, the increased grain yield of wheat could be achieved by combining the measures of high wheat stubble and wheat straw covering for holding soil water and deep plowing between the Beginning of Autumn (August 6th) and the Limit of Heat (August 21st) for promoting soil water penetration characteristics to improve the number of stems before winter and spike.

  13. Effect of P nature phosphate dosage and embedding time of Azolla mycrophylla Kaulfuss on Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudah Hamawi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort of growing azolla in intercroping rice will be hoped to supply a green manure for rice plants. Additing P of the phosphat rock in the field can be expected to increase the result of rice yield.The research was conducted on December 2, 2006 to April 5, 2007 at Tegalgondo Karangploso of Malang. onsidering those problems, the researcher employs the factorial group randome desigh that compose two factor by controlling as comparison tool (inorganic treatment. The first factor is P in the phosphat rock contained 4 stages. As followed Po (without P, P1 (25 kg P ha-1, P2 (50 kg P ha-1, P3 (25 kg P ha-1. The second factor is time of incorporated Azolla microphylla Kaulfuss (W, which consist 4 stage. As followed W1 (incorporated 1 day before transplanting rice, W2 (50 % the azolla biomass in the field was incorporated during 14, 28, and 42 days after transplanting rice, W3 (50 % the azolla biomass in the field was incorporated during 21, and 49 days after transplanting rice, W4 (50 % the azolla biomass in the field was incorporated during 35 days after transplanting rice. The research was replicated 3 replications. The research finding showed that phosphat rock with 25 kg of P ha-1 doses combinationed with time of incorporating the azolla biomass at 14, 28 and 42 days after transplanting rice, the result of rice would be increasing in 31,4 % and R/C value resulted 1,47. Giving phosphat rock with 25 – 75 kg P ha-1 doses increased the azolla biomass at 146,4 % until 153 % and increased the yield of rice at 21,1% until 43,8 %.

  14. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Flexible Learning and Teaching: Looking Beyond the Binary of Full-time/Part-time Provision in South African Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages with literature on flexible learning and teaching in order to explore whether it may be possible, within the South African context, to have flexible learning and teaching provide a third way which goes beyond the current practice of full-time/part-time provision. This binary classification of students is a proxy for day-time/after-hours delivery.  The argument is made that effective, flexible learning and teaching requires a fundamental shift in thinking about learning and teaching in higher education that moves us beyond such binaries. The paper proposes that in order to ensure access and success for students, ‘common knowledge’ (Edwards, 2010 will need to be co-constructed which understands flexible learning and teaching in ways which will meet needs of a diversity of students, including working students. It will require ‘resourceful leadership’ (Edwards, 2014 within the university that recognises, enhances and gives purpose to the capability of colleagues at every level of the systems they lead. Also, it will require the building of ‘common knowledge’ between certain sectors of universities and particular workplaces.

  16. TIME MANAGEMENT SKILLS IN HIGHER INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONIC & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORBAHIAH MISRAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Time management is an important skill that every student in higher education institutions should acquire since it is one of the key factors in assuring excellent achievement in academic. Students with poor time-management skills are far more likely to be tressed and, as a result, have a negative impact on the quality of life. Thus, this paper discusses this issue based on a study among students of Electrical, Electronic & System Engineering at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia according to year of study and then establishes the relationship with the student's academic performance. Data were collected using a set of questionnaire carried out on 272 undergraduate students from year one to year four for 2015/2016 session. These data were then analysed using ANOVA statistical inference and Pearson correlations. Results revealed that time management skills of the respondents were at moderate level and established a negative correlation with year of study. This study also found significant findings where time management skills have a positive but weak correlation with student’s academic performance. These findings suggest the need for additional research to further refine the justifications of these measures. The university is also anticipated to provide a good platform for students to develop their time management skills at the early stage of their admission to university.

  17. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2017-10-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  18. Effects of the time of application and the form of nitrogen on two maize inbred lines seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojka Zdravko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the experimental filed of the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, on calcareous chernozem in the period 2001-2003. The traits of two maize inbred lines (L1-FAO 400 and L2-FAO 600 were observed in dependence on the time of the nitrogen application (No-control without fertilizing; Nautumn - 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 60 kg K2O ha-1 applied in autumn (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in autumn; Nspring - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (applied in spring; N1/2 - PK (const + 100 kg N ha-1 (half of which was applied in autumn and the other half in spring; N1/2-PK (const 100 kg N ha-1 (1/3 of which was applied in autumn, 1/3 in spring and 1/3 through soil dressing; Nmin - PK (const + fertilizing in spring on the basis of the Nmin method, and forms of applied nitrogen: Urea (amide form KAN (ammonium-nitrate form and (NH42SO4 (ammonium form. The highest average yield was obtained by the use of Nmin method (3,486 kg ha-1, as well as, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in sprig (Nspring (3,337 kg ha-1, 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn and spring (N1/2 (3,020 kgha-1 and 100 kg N ha-1 applied in autumn, spring and soil dressing (N1/3 (3,005 kg ha-1 in the ammonium-nitrate form (KAN. The highest average seed yield of observed maize inbred lines (3,264 kg ha-1 was obtained by the application of ammonium-sulphate in the primary tillage (Nautumn. The use of the Nmin method (N ranging from 17 to 35 kg ha-1, in dependence on the soil mineral nitrogen content, especially in years with lower precipitation sums resulted in the highest increase in seed yield (39.2% of observed maize inbred lines in relation to the control.

  19. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  20. Increased [CO2] does not compensate for negative effects on yield caused by higher temperature and [O3] in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    in existing genotypes is vital. In this study, the responses in yield and biomass production of four different cultivars of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were tested under five different combinations of increased [CO2] (700 ppm), temperature (+5 °C) and [O3] (+40 ppb). Especially the multifactor treatments...

  1. Improving Spiking Dynamical Networks: Accurate Delays, Higher-Order Synapses, and Time Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Aaron R; Eliasmith, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Researchers building spiking neural networks face the challenge of improving the biological plausibility of their model networks while maintaining the ability to quantitatively characterize network behavior. In this work, we extend the theory behind the neural engineering framework (NEF), a method of building spiking dynamical networks, to permit the use of a broad class of synapse models while maintaining prescribed dynamics up to a given order. This theory improves our understanding of how low-level synaptic properties alter the accuracy of high-level computations in spiking dynamical networks. For completeness, we provide characterizations for both continuous-time (i.e., analog) and discrete-time (i.e., digital) simulations. We demonstrate the utility of these extensions by mapping an optimal delay line onto various spiking dynamical networks using higher-order models of the synapse. We show that these networks nonlinearly encode rolling windows of input history, using a scale invariant representation, with accuracy depending on the frequency content of the input signal. Finally, we reveal that these methods provide a novel explanation of time cell responses during a delay task, which have been observed throughout hippocampus, striatum, and cortex.

  2. Using a time-series statistical framework to quantify trends and abrupt change in US corn, soybean, and wheat yields from 1970-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Ives, A. R.; Turner, M. G.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have identified global agricultural regions where "stagnation" of long-term crop yield increases has occurred. These studies have used a variety of simple statistical methods that often ignore important aspects of time series regression modeling. These methods can lead to differing and contradictory results, which creates uncertainty regarding food security given rapid global population growth. Here, we present a new statistical framework incorporating time series-based algorithms into standard regression models to quantify spatiotemporal yield trends of US maize, soybean, and winter wheat from 1970-2016. Our primary goal was to quantify spatial differences in yield trends for these three crops using USDA county level data. This information was used to identify regions experiencing the largest changes in the rate of yield increases over time, and to determine whether abrupt shifts in the rate of yield increases have occurred. Although crop yields continue to increase in most maize-, soybean-, and winter wheat-growing areas, yield increases have stagnated in some key agricultural regions during the most recent 15 to 16 years: some maize-growing areas, except for the northern Great Plains, have shown a significant trend towards smaller annual yield increases for maize; soybean has maintained an consistent long-term yield gains in the Northern Great Plains, the Midwest, and southeast US, but has experienced a shift to smaller annual increases in other regions; winter wheat maintained a moderate annual increase in eastern South Dakota and eastern US locations, but showed a decline in the magnitude of annual increases across the central Great Plains and western US regions. Our results suggest that there were abrupt shifts in the rate of annual yield increases in a variety of US regions among the three crops. The framework presented here can be broadly applied to additional yield trend analyses for different crops and regions of the Earth.

  3. Effects of illuminants and illumination time on lettuce growth, yield and nutritional quality in a controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. Z.; Guo, S. S.; Ai, W. D.; Tang, Y. K.

    2014-07-01

    Effects of illuminants and illumination time on the growth of lettuce were researched. Red-blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs, 90% red light +10% blue light) and white light fluorescent (WF) lamps were compared as the illuminants for plant cultivation. Under each type of illuminant, lettuce was grown at 4 illumination times: 12 h, 16 h, 20 h and 24 h, with the same light intensity of 600 μmolm-2s-1. The leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under the two illuminants was comparable but the shape of lettuce was obviously affected by the illuminant. The WF lamps produced more compact plant, while red-blue LED resulted in less but longer leaves. However, the total leaf area was not significantly affected by the illuminant. The red-blue LED produced nearly same aboveground biomass with far less energy consumption relative to WF lamps. The underground biomass was lowered under red-blue LED in comparison with WF lamps. Red-blue LED could improve the nutritional quality of lettuce by increasing the concentration of soluble sugar and vitamin C (VC) and reducing the concentration of nitrate. Under each type of illuminant, longer illumination time resulted in higher Pn, more leaves and larger leaf area. The total chlorophyll concentration increased while the concentration ratio of chlorophyll a/b decreased with the extension of illumination time. Illumination time had highly significant positive correlation with biomass. Moreover, when total daily light input was kept the same, longer illumination time increased the biomass significantly as well. In addition, longer illumination time increased the concentration of crude fiber, soluble sugar and VC and reduced the concentration of nitrate. In summary, red-blue LEDs and 24 h illumination time were demonstrated to be more suitable for lettuce cultivation in the controlled environment.

  4. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  5. Agency Beliefs Over Time and Across Cultures: Free Will Beliefs Predict Higher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Farh, Jiing-Lih; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2017-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the relationship between free will beliefs and job satisfaction over time and across cultures. Study 1 examined 252 Taiwanese real-estate agents over a 3-months period. Study 2 examined job satisfaction for 137 American workers on an online labor market over a 6-months period. Study 3 extended to a large sample of 14,062 employees from 16 countries and examined country-level moderators. We found a consistent positive relationship between the belief in free will and job satisfaction. The relationship was above and beyond other agency constructs (Study 2), mediated by perceived autonomy (Studies 2-3), and stronger in countries with a higher national endorsement of the belief in free will (Study 3). We conclude that free-will beliefs predict outcomes over time and across cultures beyond other agency constructs. We call for more cross-cultural and longitudinal studies examining free-will beliefs as predictors of real-life outcomes. PMID:29191084

  6. Effects on noise properties of GPS time series caused by higher-order ionospheric corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongfei

    2014-04-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) effects are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system (GPS) analysis. These effects also influence the non-linear characteristics of GPS coordinate time series. In this paper, we investigate these effects on coordinate time series in terms of seasonal variations and noise amplitudes. Both power spectral techniques and maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) are used to evaluate these effects quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show an overall improvement for the analysis of global sites if HOI effects are considered. We note that the noise spectral index that is used for the determination of the optimal noise models in our analysis ranged between -1 and 0 both with and without HOI corrections, implying that the coloured noise cannot be removed by these corrections. However, the corrections were found to have improved noise properties for global sites. After the corrections were applied, the noise amplitudes at most sites decreased, among which the white noise amplitudes decreased remarkably. The white noise amplitudes of up to 81.8% of the selected sites decreased in the up component, and the flicker noise of 67.5% of the sites decreased in the north component. Stacked periodogram results show that, no matter whether the HOI effects are considered or not, a common fundamental period of 1.04 cycles per year (cpy), together with the expected annual and semi-annual signals, can explain all peaks of the north and up components well. For the east component, however, reasonable results can be obtained only based on HOI corrections. HOI corrections are useful for better detecting the periodic signals in GPS coordinate time series. Moreover, the corrections contributed partly to the seasonal variations of the selected sites, especially for the up component. Statistically, HOI corrections reduced more than 50% and more than 65% of the annual and semi-annual amplitudes respectively at the

  7. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU, may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1 urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2 broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75% of N sources; and (3 a single fall (100% application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT, ammonium nitrate (AN, or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN at 0, 56, 84, and 112 kg·N·ha−1 on wheat yield, wheat biomass, N uptake by wheat, and frost-seeded red clover (FSC (Trifolium pratense L. forage yield (2004–2007. PCU applied in fall released less than 30% urea by February. Urea released from PCU by harvest was 60% and 85% in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In poorly-drained soils, wheat yields ranked PCU > AN > U + NBPT > urea ≥ UAN over the rates evaluated for fall-only application. PCU was a viable fall-applied N source, with yields similar to or greater than urea or U + NBPT split-applied. Split-N applications of AN, urea, UAN, and U + NBPT generally resulted in greater wheat yields than a fall application. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers provide farmers with flexible options for maintaining high yielding production systems.

  8. Rate and Timing Effects of Growth Regulating Herbicides Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry E. Besançon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicamba and 2,4-D are among the most common and inexpensive herbicides used to control broadleaf weeds. However, different studies have pointed the risk of crop injury and grain sorghum yield reduction with postemergence applications of 2,4-D. No research data on grain sorghum response to 2,4-D or dicamba exists in the Southeastern United States. Consequently, a study was conducted to investigate crop growth and yield response to 2,4-D (100, 220, and 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba (280 g acid equivalent ha−1 applied on 20 to 65 cm tall sorghum. Greater stunting resulted from 2,4-D applied at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 or below 45 cm tall sorghum whereas lodging prevailed with 2,4-D at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba applied beyond 35 cm tall crop. Regardless of local environmental conditions, 2,4-D applied up to 35 cm tall did not negatively impact grain yield. There was a trend for yields to be somewhat lower when 2,4-D was applied on 45 or 55 cm tall sorghum whereas application on 65 cm tall sorghum systematically decreased yields. More caution should be taken with dicamba since yield reduction has been reported as early as applications made on 35 cm tall sorghum for a potentially dicamba sensitive cultivar.

  9. Reduced Time in Therapeutic Range and Higher Mortality in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Taking Acenocoumarol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Roldán, Vanessa; Esteve-Pastor, María Asunción; Valdés, Mariano; Vicente, Vicente; Marín, Francisco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) depends on the quality of anticoagulant control, reflected by the mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) of international normalized ratio 2.0 to 3.0. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between TTR and change in TTR (ΔTTR) with the risk of mortality and clinically significant events in a consecutive cohort of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. We included 1361 AF patients stable on VKAs (international normalized ratio 2.0-3.0) during at least the previous 6 months. After 6 months of follow-up we recalculated TTR, calculated ΔTTR (ie, the difference between baseline and 6-month TTRs) and investigated the association of both with the risk of mortality and "clinically significant events" (defined as the composite of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, and all-cause deaths). The median ΔTTR at 6 months of entry was 20% (interquartile range 0-34%), 796 (58.5%) patients had a TTR reduction of at least 20%, while 330 (24.2%) had a TTR <65%. During follow-up, 34 (2.5% [4.16% per year]) patients died and 61 (4.5% [7.47% per year]) had a clinically significant event. Median ΔTTR was significantly higher in patients who died (35.5% vs 20%; P = 0.002) or sustained clinically significant events (28% vs 20%; P = 0.022). Based on Cox regression analyses, the overall risk of mortality at 6 months for each decrease point in TTR was 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P = 0.003), and the risk of clinically significant events was 1.01 (95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P = 0.028). Patients with TTR <65% at 6 months had higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio = 2.96; 95% CI, 1.51-5.81; P = 0.002) and clinically significant events (hazard ratio = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.01-2.88; P = 0.046). Our findings suggest that in AF patients anticoagulated with VKAs, a change in TTR over 6 months (ie, ΔTTR) is an independent risk factor for mortality and clinically significant events

  10. Variation in honey yield per hive of Africanized bees depending on the introducing time of young queens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladson Carbonari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to evaluate the honey production per hive and the egg laying rates of queens produced in 2007, 2008 and 2010. Thirty colonies initiated with a queen per colony at each climatic season were used during the three years. The years, started on January (summer, April (autumn, July (winter and October (spring and ended 12 months later, at the same periods related to each season of the later years. Honey supply were weighed before and after centrifugation to evaluate the quantity of the stored honey. Colonies with queens introduced during autumn and winter in the three years produced 57.2±6.0kg and 60.7±7.5kg of honey, respectively. In the first year of production activity, after the introduction of queens in the initial colonies, values were significantly higher than those obtained in colonies with queens introduced in the summer (39.3±7.6kg and spring (41.8±3.7kg. Egg laying rates of queens were higher in spring (98.2±3.9% and summer (88.4±7%, indicating greater food flow (flowerings in these seasons compared to the averages in autumn (30.3±8.1% and winter (24.5±7.2%. Produce and introduce queens of Africanized Apis mellifera in colonies initiated during autumn and winter was found to be economically feasible. Honey production of colonies initiated in these periods were higher and they had greater population stability in times of scarcity of flowerings.

  11. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  12. Flourishing for the Common Good: Positive Leadership in Christian Higher Education during Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlvig, Jolyn E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues that higher education should exist for society's common good, a focus that has been lost in recent years (Dorn, 2011; Eagan et al., 2015; Ford 2016; Habley, Bloom & Robbins, 2012). To explore how Christian higher education can provide leadership in returning to a focus on the common good, this paper traces the movement of…

  13. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, C. J., E-mail: cjwaugh@mit.edu; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  14. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C J; Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C

    2015-05-01

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  15. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, C. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule

  16. Real-Time Systems: Reflections on higher education in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    File, Jonathan M.; Goedegebuure, Leo; Goedegebuure, L.C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Real-time systems (An ICT definition) In real-time multiprocessing there is the extra requirement that the system complete its response to any input within a certain critical time. This poses additional problems, particularly in situations where the system is heavily loaded and is subject to many

  17. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  18. Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur

    2013-01-01

    A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.

  19. Transformative, transgressive social learning: rethinking higher education pedagogy in times of systemic global dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Wals, A.E.J.; Kronlid, David; McGarry, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    The nature of the sustainability challenges currently at hand is such that dominant pedagogies and forms of learning that characterize higher education need to be reconsidered to enable students and staff to deal with accelerating change, increasing complexity, contested knowledge claims and

  20. Blurring Time and Place in Higher Education with Bring Your Own Device Applications: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is increasing rapidly in society, and student device ownership is becoming more or less ubiquitous in many parts of the world. This might be an under-utilised resource that could benefit the educational practices of institutions of higher education. This review examines 91 journal articles from 28 countries published in…

  1. The United Nations, Peace, and Higher Education: Pedagogic Interventions in Neoliberal Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Peace and conflict studies (PACS) education in recent decades has become a popular approach to social justice learning in higher education institutions (Harris, Fisk, and Rank 1998; Smith 2007; Carstarphen et al. 2010; Bajaj and Hantzopoulos 2016) and has been provided legitimacy through a number of different United Nations (UN) declarations…

  2. Breadth vs. Depth: The Timing of Specialization in Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15943

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the tradeoff between early and late specialization in the context of higher education. While some educational systems require students to specialize early by choosing a major field of study prior to entering university, others allow students to postpone this choice. I develop a model in which individuals, by taking courses in…

  3. Times, Measures and the Man: the Future of British Higher Education Treated Historically and Comparatively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neave, Guy

    2006-01-01

    This article is a tribute to the life work of Maurice Kogan. Very little of higher education's landscape in the United Kingdom has remained unchanged over the past four decades and this article sets out to analyze the way the perception of the role of universities in society has changed in the

  4. On a higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equation involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Pirnapasov, Sardor; Karimov, Erkinjon

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE) with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. We investigate a boundary value problem for fractional heat equation involving higher order Caputo-Fabrizio derivatives in time-variable. Using method of separation of variables and integration by parts, we reduce fractional order PDE to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  5. Test beam studies of the light yield, time and coordinate resolutions of scintillator strips with WLS fibers and SiPM readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Dmitri [Fermilab, Batavia IL (United States); Evdokimov, Valery [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag [Vinča Institute, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-03-11

    Prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for large muon detection systems were tested in the muon beam of the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. Light yield of up to 137 photoelectrons per muon per strip has been observed , as well as time resolution of 330 ps and position resolution along the strip of 5.4 cm.

  6. Effect of Different Proportions of Agrowaste on Cultivation Yield and Nutritional Composition of the Culinary-Medicinal Jelly Mushroom Auricularia polytricha (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chiu-Yeh; Liang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Kuan-Jzen; Shih, Hsin-Der; Liang, Zeng-Chin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Auricularia polytricha was cultivated on a sawdust basal substrate supplemented with different proportions (30%, 45%, and 60%, respectively) of agrowastes-sugarcane bagasse (SB), rice straw (RS), and rice husk (RH)-to evaluate the alternative substrates. The mycelial growth rate, total colonization time, time to first primordia, biological efficiency, and chemical composition of the fruiting bodies were determined. Results indicated that the 60% SB substrate was the best substrate for mycelial growth of A. polytricha, with a corresponding total colonization period of 35.2 days, followed by the control (35.5 days) and 45% SB (36.2 days) substrates. The most suitable substrate with a high biological efficiency was 60% RS substrate (159.14%), followed by the 45% SB (128.45%), and 20% RH (124.47%) substrates. The nutrient values of fruiting bodies showed the largest amounts of ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy cultivated on 60% SB, 60% SB, 30% SB, 30% RH, and 30% RH/the control substrates, respectively. The results indicated that 60% RS was an appropriate substrate for A. polytricha cultivation.

  7. Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Kyza, Irene; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2013-01-01

    We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our

  8. A higher order numerical method for time fractional partial differential equations with nonsmooth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yanyuan; Yan, Yubin

    2018-03-01

    Gao et al. [11] (2014) introduced a numerical scheme to approximate the Caputo fractional derivative with the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 equation is sufficiently smooth, Lv and Xu [20] (2016) proved by using energy method that the corresponding numerical method for solving time fractional partial differential equation has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 equation has low regularity and in this case the numerical method fails to have the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 quadratic interpolation polynomials. Based on this scheme, we introduce a time discretization scheme to approximate the time fractional partial differential equation and show by using Laplace transform methods that the time discretization scheme has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 0 for smooth and nonsmooth data in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. Numerical examples are given to show that the theoretical results are consistent with the numerical results.

  9. The effects of time of disease occurrence, milk yield, and body condition on fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, S H; de Vries, M J; Schukken, Y H

    1999-12-01

    The associations between occurrence of diseases, milk yield, and body condition score on conception risk after first artificial insemination (AI) were analyzed in an observational study on a convenience sample of 43 farms participating in a herd health program. Data were taken from 9369 lactations, from 4382 cows inseminated between 20 and 180 d in milk from 1990 to 1996. Two logistic regression models, one containing data from all lactations and a subset containing data from 1762 lactations with body condition scoring, were used to determine pregnancy risk at first AI. The effects of herd deviation in test-day milk yield, body condition score loss, and milk fat to protein ratio changes in early lactation were significant predictors of pregnancy risk, independent of disease; days in milk; farm; and seasonal factors. Three different methods of disease parameterization (incidence rates, binomial classes dependent on the interval in days since last occurrence with respect to AI, and a linear variable weighted for this interval) produced similar results. Metritis, cystic ovarian disease, lameness, and mastitis gave odds ratios for pregnancy risk ranging from 0.35 to 1.15, largely dependent on the interval in days from final disease occurrence to first AI. Displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained fetal membranes resulted in odds ratios for pregnancy risk of 0.25, 0.85, and 0.55, respectively. These diseases showed little relationship between fertility and the number of days since last occurrence. Results of this study confirm the negative effects of milk yield, body score condition loss, and disease on dairy cow fertility. The effects of some diseases on first service conception were strongly dependent on the interval since last disease occurrence. This was especially valid for clinical mastitis, which has an extremely weak effect on conception if occurring prior to AI and is associated with > 50% reduction in pregnancy risk if occurring in the 3 wk directly after

  10. Earlier school start times are associated with higher rates of behavioral problems in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S; Gilbert, Lauren R; Haak, Eric A; Bi, Shuang; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-04-01

    Early school start times may curtail children's sleep and inadvertently promote sleep restriction. The current study examines the potential implications for early school start times for behavioral problems in public elementary schools (student ages 5-12 years) in Kentucky. School start times were obtained from school Web sites or by calling school offices; behavioral and disciplinary problems, along with demographic information about schools, were obtained from the Kentucky Department of Education. Estimated associations controlled for teacher/student ratio, racial composition, school rank, enrollment, and Appalachian location. Associations between early school start time and greater behavioral problems (harassment, in-school removals, suspensions, and expulsions) were observed, although some of these associations were found only for schools serving the non-Appalachian region. Findings support the growing body of research showing that early school start times may contribute to student problems, and extend this research through a large-scale examination of elementary schools, behavioral outcomes, and potential moderators of risk. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Late-time tails of wave propagation in higher dimensional spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Yoshida, Shijun; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2003-01-01

    We study the late-time tails appearing in the propagation of massless fields (scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational) in the vicinities of a D-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. We find that at late times the fields always exhibit a power-law falloff, but the power law is highly sensitive to the dimensionality of the spacetime. Accordingly, for odd D>3 we find that the field behaves as t -(2l+D-2) at late times, where l is the angular index determining the angular dependence of the field. This behavior is entirely due to D being odd; it does not depend on the presence of a black hole in the spacetime. Indeed this tail is already present in the flat space Green's function. On the other hand, for even D>4 the field decays as t -(2l+3D-8) , and this time there is no contribution from the flat background. This power law is entirely due to the presence of the black hole. The D=4 case is special and exhibits, as is well known, t -(2l+3) behavior. In the extra dimensional scenario for our Universe, our results are strictly correct if the extra dimensions are infinite, but also give a good description of the late-time behavior of any field if the large extra dimensions are large enough

  12. Azacitidine-lenalidomide (ViLen) combination yields a high response rate in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-ViLen-01 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Moshe; Filanovsky, Kalman; Ofran, Yishai; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Raanani, Pia; Braester, Andrei; Goldschmidt, Neta; Kirgner, Ilya; Herishanu, Yair; Perri, Chava; Ellis, Martin; Oster, Howard S

    2016-10-01

    Azacitidine treatment is effective in higher risk MDS (HR-MDS), with less than 50 % response, lasting 2 years. Aza and lenalidomide (Len) have a potential synergistic effect. ViLen-01 phase IIa trial includes 6-month induction (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, Len 10 mg/day, days 6-21, every 28 days), 6-month consolidation (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, every 28 days), and 12-month maintenance (Len 10 mg/day, days 1-21, every 28 days). Response was evaluated according to IWG criteria. Totally, 25 patients enrolled, with an average of 76.3 years old (60-87), and 88 % with major comorbidities. Thirteen patients completed induction, 7 proceeded for consolidation, and 2 for maintenance. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72 % (18/25), with 6 (24 %) for CR, 3 (12 %) for marrow CR, and 9 (36 %) for hematologic improvement (HI). The 7 non-responding patients were on the study 3 days to 4.1 months. At 6 months, 4 of 6 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and 2 with del (5q) at diagnosis. Adverse events (AEs) were as expected in these patients: grades III-IV, mainly hematologic-thrombocytopenia (20 patients) and neutropenia (13 patients). The common non-hematologic AEs were infections (14 patients), nausea (7), vomiting (7), diarrhea (7), and skin reactions (5). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 ± 1.36 months, with median overall survival (OS) of 12 ± 1.7 months. Quality of life (FACT questionnaire) data were available for 12 patients with a tendency towards improved QoL. This trial with elderly HR-MDS patients with an expected poor prognosis demonstrates a high (72 %) response rate and a reasonable expected safety profile but a relatively short PFS and OS.

  13. Rate and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the growth, nitrogen remobilization and yield of soyabean (Glycine max(L) Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeley, J. F.; Sarkodie-Addo; Duku, S.

    2015-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in 2012 at the plantation Crop section of the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, to investigate the effect N availability on nodulation, nitrogen fixation, N remobilization and grain yield of soybean. The design used in both studies was a 3 x 4 factorial arranged in randomized complete block design. Each treatment was replicated three times. The factors studied were rate and time of N fertilizer application. The N rate were 0, 20, 40 and 60kg N/ha and the time of application were early vegetative and early flowering phases. Anidaso, an improved soybean variety of 110 days maturity was used. Following land preparation, seeds were planted at the beginning of the rains at a spacing of 50 x 5cm. All required cultural practices were observed. Data collected were nodule number per plant and nodule dry weight, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seeds weight, total nitrogen fixed, harvest index, grain yield and remobilized N. The total nitrogen difference method was used in determining the amount of N 2 fixed by the soybean and the micro kjeldahl method was used in determining the total plant N. The results indicated that nodulation was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by N rate and time of N application. However Nitrogen fixation was significantly (p<0.05 in affected time of N application in the minor season. Harvest index was significantly affected time of N application in the major season. Grain yield was also significantly affected by time of N application in both seasons. The results indicate that if farmers would apply N fertilizer to soybean at the vegetative growth phase, there would be increase in yield. The study also demonstrate that N remobilization occurs in soybean during grain filling although rate and time of application used did not significantly (p>0.05) affect N remobilization. (au)

  14. Effect of Dose and Oxadiargyl Application Time at the Different Growth Stages on Weed Biomass and Tuber Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of dose and application time of oxadiargyl, as a postemergence herbicide, on weed biomass and tuber yield of potato, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications was conducted at Alaroog Research Station at the University of Mohaghegh-Ardabili in 2013. Treatments consisted of oxadiargyl dosages (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 lit a.i /ha, and its time of applications at different potato growth stages (potato emergence, stolon initiation and potato tuber bulking, weed free treatment was considered as control. Statistical analysis showed that 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl reduced biomass of weed by 66.16 percent. Oxadiargyl application at emergence time resulted in highest percent reduction of weed biomass. Results, also, showed that application 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl, after weed free condition, increased number of seed tuber and total tuber yield by 82.16 and 51.59 percent respectively, but it reduced number of non seed tuber by 43.17 percent. Application of oxadiargyl at emergence time, as compared with the other application times, resulted in highest increase in the number of seed tuber and total tuber yield, but it did not affected number of non seed tubers. Interaction effect of dose by time of oxadiargyl application revealed that using 0.8 lit a.i/ha dose at potato emergence time increased number of edible tubers by 100%. It may be conducted that application of this dose at potato emergence time was highly efficient in controlling weeds and increasing potato tuber yield.

  15. Approximate solution of space and time fractional higher order phase field equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldeen, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a class of space and time fractional partial differential equation (STFDE) with Riesz derivative in space and Caputo in time. The proposed STFDE is considered as a generalization of a sixth-order partial phase field equation. We describe the application of the optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) to obtain an approximate solution for the suggested fractional initial value problem. An averaged-squared residual error function is defined and used to determine the optimal convergence control parameter. Two numerical examples are studied, considering periodic and non-periodic initial conditions, to justify the efficiency and the accuracy of the adopted iterative approach. The dependence of the solution on the order of the fractional derivative in space and time and model parameters is investigated.

  16. Radiolysis of liquid water: an attempt to reconcile Monte-Carlo calculations with new experimental hydrated electron yield data at early times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Y.; Meesungnoen, J.; Jay-Gerin, J.-P.; Filali-Mouhim, A.; Goulet, T.; Katsumura, Y.; Mankhetkorn, S.

    2002-01-01

    A re-examination of our Monte-Carlo modeling of the radiolysis of liquid water by low linear-energy-transfer (LET ∼ 0.3 keV μm -1 ) radiation is undertaken herein in an attempt to reconcile the results of our simulation code with recently revised experimental hydrated electron (e aq - ) yield data at early times. The thermalization distance of subexcitation electrons, the recombination cross section of the electrons with their water parent cations prior to thermalization, and the branching ratios of the different competing mechanisms in the dissociative decay of vibrationally excited states of water molecules were taken as adjustable parameters in our simulations. Using a global-fit procedure, we have been unable to find a set of values for those parameters to simultaneously reproduce (i) the revised e aq - yield of 4.0 ± 0.2 molecules per 100 eV at 'time zero' (that is, a reduction of ∼20% over the hitherto accepted value of 4.8 molecules per 100 eV), (ii) the newly measured e aq - decay kinetic profile from 100 ps to 10 ns, and (iii) the time-dependent yields of the other radiolytic species H . , . OH, H 2 , and H 2 O 2 (up to ∼1 μs). The lowest possible limiting 'time-zero' yield of e aq - that we could in fact obtain, while ensuring an acceptable agreement between all computed and experimental yields, was ∼4.4 to 4.5 molecules per 100 eV. Under these conditions, the mean values of the electron thermalization distance and of the geminate electron-cation recombination probability, averaged over the subexcitation electron 'entry spectrum,' are found to be equal to ∼139 A and ∼18%, respectively. These values are to be compared with those obtained in our previous simulations of liquid water radiolysis, namely ∼88 A and ∼5.5%, respectively. Our average electron thermalization distance is also to be compared with the typical size (∼64-80 A) of the initial hydrated electron distributions estimated in current deterministic models of 'spur' chemistry

  17. Reducing anti-nutritional factor and enhancing yield with advancing time of planting and zinc application in grasspea in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Ashutosh; Fikre, Asnake; El-Moneim, Ali M Abd; Nakkoul, Hani; Singh, Murari

    2018-01-01

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important pulse crop for food, feed and sustainable crop production systems in Ethiopia. Despite its advantages in nutrition and adaptability to harsh climate and low fertile soil, it contains a neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-α,β-diamiono propionic acid (β-ODAP), which paralyses the lower limbs and is affected by genotypic and agronomic factors. To determine the effect of zinc application and planting date on yield and β-ODAP content of two genotypes, experiments were conducted in two regions of Ethiopia. The main effects of variety, sowing date and zinc and their interactions were significant (P zinc. For the improved grasspea variety, an application of 20 kg ha -1 zinc showed a reduction of β-ODAP from 0.15% to 0.088% at Debre Zeit and 0.14% to 0.08% at Sheno and increased its yield from 841 kg ha -1 to 2260 kg ha -1 at Debre Zeit and from 715 to 1835 kg ha -1 at Sheno. Early sowing showed a reduction in ODAP content in relation to the late sowing. An application of Zn beyond even 20 kg ha -1 with an early sowing is recommended for the improved variety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Riccion from higher-dimensional space-time with D-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    suggest that space-time above 3 05¢1016 GeV should be fractal. .... Here VD is the volume of SD, g´4·Dµ is the determinant of the metric tensor gMN (M ...... means that above 3.05x1016 GeV, SD is not a smooth surface whereas M4 is smooth.

  19. Widening Participation, Social Justice and Injustice: Part-Time Students in Higher Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article critically assesses the nature and scope of current financial support for part-time undergraduates in England, highlighting its importance for widening participation. It considers the limitations of these financial arrangements, why they are in need of reform, and some of the consequences of their inadequacies. The paper argues that…

  20. Seven Steps to Heaven: Time and Tide in 21st Century Contemporary Music Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Annie K.

    2018-01-01

    Throughout the time of my teaching career, the tide has exposed changes in the nature of music, students and music education. This paper discusses teaching and learning in contemporary music at seven critical stages of 21st century music education: i) diverse types of undergraduate learners; ii) teaching traditional classical repertoire and skills…

  1. (Re-)designing higher education curricula in times of systemic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassone, Valentina C.; O’Mahony, Catherine; McKenna, Emma; Eppink, Hansje J.; Wals, Arjen E.J.

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to address the grand sustainability challenges of our time, and to explore new and more responsible ways of operating, researching, and innovating that enable society to respond to these challenges. The emergent Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) policy agenda can act

  2. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  3. The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Thamrin Sebayang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and yield of soybeans can decrease due to competition from weeds. Various efforts have been made to control the growth of weeds such as land preparation and weeding periods. An experiment to study the effect of soil tillage systems and weeding time on the growth of weeds and soybean crop yield (Glycine max (L. Merril has been done in Wringinsongo Village, Tumpang Sub-District, Malang Regency from February to May 2017. The split-plot design with three replicates was used with the soil tillage system as the main plot consisting of three levels, T0: no tillage, T1: minimum tillage, and T2: conventional tillage, and weeding time as the sub plot consisting of 4 levels, P0: no weeding, P1: weeding 1 time, P2: weeding two times and P3: weeding three times. The results showed that the dominant weed species before treatment were Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, and Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane. After treatment, the dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry, and Eclipta alba (False daisy. There was no significant difference of the dry weight of weeds in conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting, and minimum tillage and no tillage. For the yield of soybeans, conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting were not significant with that of minimum tillage. The yield of soybeans was lower than that of with no tillage and no weeding.

  4. Higher Prevalence of Left-Handedness in Twins? Not After Controlling Birth Time Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Kauko; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Saari-Kemppainen, Aulikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Haukka, Jari; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Iivanainen, Matti

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy- and birth-related factors may have an effect on handedness. Compared with singletons, twins have a lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and are at higher risk for birth complications. We tested whether the prevalence of left-handedness is higher among twins than singletons, and if so, whether that difference is fully explained by pregnancy and birth-related differences between twins and singletons. We analyzed Finnish population-based datasets; included were 8,786 twins and 5,892 singletons with information on birth weight (n = 12,381), Apgar scores (n = 11,129), and gestational age (n = 11,811). Two twin cohorts were involved: FinnTwin12 included twins born during 1983-1987, and FinnTwin16 included twins born during 1974-1979. We had two comparison groups of singletons: 4,101 individuals born during 1986-1988 and enrolled in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial, and 1,791 individuals who were partners of FinnTwin16 twins. We used logistic regression models with writing hand as the outcome for comparison and evaluating effects of covariates. Left-handedness was more common in twins (9.67%) than in singletons (8.27%; p = .004). However, Apgar scores were associated with handedness, and after controlling for covariates, we found no difference in the prevalence of left-handedness between twins and singletons. Increased left-handedness among twins, often reported by others, was evident in our data, but only among our older twin cohorts, and that association disappeared after removing effects of perinatal covariates.

  5. Tensor-product preconditioners for higher-order space-time discontinuous Galerkin methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2017-02-01

    A space-time discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element discretization is presented for direct numerical simulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. An efficient solution technique based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method is developed in order to overcome the stiffness associated with high solution order. The use of tensor-product basis functions is key to maintaining efficiency at high-order. Efficient preconditioning methods are presented which can take advantage of the tensor-product formulation. A diagonalized Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme is extended to the space-time discontinuous Galerkin discretization. A new preconditioner for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations based on the fast-diagonalization method is also presented. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of these preconditioners for the direct numerical simulation of subsonic turbulent flows.

  6. Tensor-Product Preconditioners for Higher-Order Space-Time Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    space-time discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element discretization is presented for direct numerical simulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equat ions. An efficient solution technique based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method is developed in order to overcome the stiffness associated with high solution order. The use of tensor-product basis functions is key to maintaining efficiency at high order. Efficient preconditioning methods are presented which can take advantage of the tensor-product formulation. A diagonalized Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme is extended to the space-time discontinuous Galerkin discretization. A new preconditioner for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations based on the fast-diagonalization method is also presented. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of these preconditioners for the direct numerical simulation of subsonic turbulent flows.

  7. Models for the transport of low energy electrons in water and the yield of hydrated electrons at early times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Miller, J.H.; Ritchie, R.H.; Bichsel, H.

    1985-01-01

    An insulator model with four experimental energy bands was used to fit the optical properties of liquid water and to extend these data to non-zero momentum transfer. Inelastic mean free paths derived from this dielectric response function provided the basic information necessary to degrade high energy electrons to the subexcitation energy domain. Two approaches for the transport of subexcitation electrons were investigated. (i) Gas phase cross sections were used to degrade subexcitation electrons to thermal energy and the thermalization lengths were scaled to unit density. (ii) Thermalization lengths were estimated by age-diffusion theory with a stopping power deduced from the data on liquid water and transport cross sections derived from elastic scattering in water vapor. Theoretical ranges were compared to recent experimental results. A stochastic model was used to calculate the rapid diffusion and reaction of hydrated electrons with other radiolysis products. The sensitivity of the calculated yields to the model assumptions and comparison with experimental data are discussed

  8. Influence of ageing time on yield and texture of marinated chicken breast cooked using a continuous process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais Colpo Sartori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different ageing times before deboning (deboning time and ageing times after deboning (holding time on the quality (sensory attributes and texture and cooking loss of chicken breast marinated, cooked and frozen using a continuous process.The following3² experimental design was used (3 deboning times: zero, 6 and 12 hours; and 3 holding times: zero, 12 and 24 hours. Brine absorption, chicken breast pH and cooking loss were evaluated, a sensory analysis was carried out and the shear force was determined. The deboning and holding times did not significantly influence brine absorption and pH, but did significantly influence cooking loss, where the lowest value obtained was a mean of 19.72% for deboning times of 6 or 12 hours and a holding time of 24 hours. A deboning time of 6 hours was sufficient to improve tenderness as measured by a sensory analysis and shear force determination.

  9. Higher Volume at Time of Breast Conserving Surgery Reduces Re-Excision in DCIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Wolf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical and pathological variables which impact rate of re-excision following breast conserving therapy (BCS with or without concurrent additional margin excision (AM. Methods. The pathology database was queried for all patients with DCIS from January 2004 to September 2008. Pathologic assessment included volume of excision, subtype, size, distance from margin, grade, necrosis, multifocality, calcifications, and ER/PR status. Results. 405 cases were identified and 201 underwent BCS, 151-BCS-AM, and 53-mastectomy. Among the 201 BCS patients, 190 underwent re-excision for close or involved margins. 129 of these were treated with BCS and 61 with BCS-AM (P<.0001. The incidence of residual DCIS in the re-excision specimens was 32% (n=65 for BCS and 22% (n=33 for BCS-AM (P<.05. For both the BCS and the BCS-AM cohorts, volume of tissue excised is inversely correlated to the rate of re-excision (P=.0284. Multifocality (P=.0002 and ER status (P=.0382 were also significant predictors for rate of re-excision and variation in surgical technique was insignificant. Conclusions. The rate of positive margins, re-excision, and residual disease was significantly higher in patients with lower volume of excision. The performance of concurrent additional margin excision increases the efficacy of BCS for DCIS.

  10. Effects of temperature sum on vitamin C concentration and yield of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides fruit: optimal time of fruit harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmou Yao

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of temperature sum on vitamin C concentration (Vc, yield and maturity of sea buckthorn fruit (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and to predict the optimal harvest time, berries were collected from eight genotypes at an interval of about one week from August 16 to December 2. Maturity was visually observed, berry weight measured and Vc determined. Berries matured at 1165-1316 degree-days (d.d.. Vc reached maximum at about 1229 d.d., while fruit size and yield reached maximum at 1380 d.d.. Mathematical models of polynomial equations were highly significant for predicting the effects of temperature sum on Vc, maturity and fruit yield. Optimal harvest time for maximizing Vc, yield or economic income could be determined according to differential equations. Great variations in Vc, fruit maturity and fruit size suggested good opportunities for selection and breeding. Low rank correlations in vitamin C concentration during fruit maturity, however, call for special attention in selection and breeding.

  11. Monolithic reactor : Higher yield, less energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzer, M.T.; Moulijn, J.A.; Kapteijn, F.; Mols, B.

    2004-01-01

    The production of margarine, the desulphurisation of crude oil, and the manufacture of synthetic diesel fuel, these are only three of the many industrial processes in which a three-phase reactor is used. Traditionally, this type of reactor is rather ill-defined. Success with a lab scale set-up is no

  12. Monitoring crop leaf area index time variation from higher resolution remotely sensed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Sihong

    2014-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is significant for research on global climate change and ecological environment. China HJ-1 satellite has a revisit cycle of four days, providing CCD data (HJ-1 CCD) with a resolution of 30 m. However, the HJ-1 CCD is incapable of obtaining observations at multiple angles. This is problematic because single angle observations provide insufficient data for determining the LAI. This article proposes a new method for determining LAI using HJ-1 CCD data. The proposed method uses background knowledge of dynamic land surface processes that are extracted from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI 1-km resolution data. To process the uncertainties that arise from using two data sources with different spatial resolutions, the proposed method is implemented in a dynamitic Bayesian network scheme by integrating a LAI dynamic process model and a canopy reflectance model with remotely sensed data. Validation results showed that the determination coefficient between estimated and measured LAI was 0.791, and the RMSE was 0.61. This method can enhance the accuracy of the retrieval results while retaining the time series variation characteristics of the vegetation LAI. The results suggest that this algorithm can be widely applied to determining high-resolution leaf area indices using data from China HJ-1 satellite even if information from single angle observations are insufficient for quantitative application

  13. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Constituents in a Population of Adult Cigarette Smokers in the U.S. Who Spontaneously Switched to Cigarettes with Lower or Higher Machine Measured ‘Tar’ Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad-Kah RS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in exposure to cigarette smoke and smoking behavior were assessed in adult smokers participating in a multi-center, cross-sectional study who spontaneously switched to > 3 mg lower or higher machine measured ‘tar’ yield. Of 2,542 consenting smokers only 23 down-switchers (DWNSW and 68 up-switchers (UPSW met study eligibility criteria. Biomarkers of exposure (BOE to selected smoke constituents were measured. Large variability was observed in the BOEs (e.g. CV% for nicotine equivalents (nicotine and five of its metabolites, NE per day ranged from 59% to 78%. On average, DWNSW smoked two more cigarettes/day (+ 9% that had ~ 5.9 mg lower ‘tar’ yield. Mean NE/day were 12.0 ± 6.2 mg/day compared to 13.9 ± 8.2 mg/day after down switching. Slightly lower levels of NE/cigarette (-8%, total NNAL/day and per cigarette were observed (-18% and -23% in the DWNSW's. UPSW smoked two fewer cigarettes/day (-13% with higher ‘tar’ yield (~ 8.4 mg higher ‘tar’. NE/day was 12.5 ± 9.7 vs. 12.8 ± 9.0 mg/day. Total NNAL values per day and per cigarette were lower (-24% and -17%. Due to the large variability and insufficient power to detect significant differences in exposure based on post-hoc power calculations, no definitive conclusions can be drawn from this study. These results suggest that it might not be feasible to conduct a definitive assessment of changes in exposure among spontaneous switchers.

  14. Structured syncope care pathways based on lean six sigma methodology optimises resource use with shorter time to diagnosis and increased diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Leon; Goode, Grahame; Wold, Johan F H; Beck, Lionel; Martin, Georgina; Perings, Christian; Stolt, Pelle; Baggerman, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a pilot study on the potential to optimise care pathways in syncope/Transient Loss of Consciousness management by using Lean Six Sigma methodology while maintaining compliance with ESC and/or NICE guidelines. Five hospitals in four European countries took part. The Lean Six Sigma methodology consisted of 3 phases: 1) Assessment phase, in which baseline performance was mapped in each centre, processes were evaluated and a new operational model was developed with an improvement plan that included best practices and change management; 2) Improvement phase, in which optimisation pathways and standardised best practice tools and forms were developed and implemented. Staff were trained on new processes and change-management support provided; 3) Sustaining phase, which included support, refinement of tools and metrics. The impact of the implementation of new pathways was evaluated on number of tests performed, diagnostic yield, time to diagnosis and compliance with guidelines. One hospital with focus on geriatric populations was analysed separately from the other four. With the new pathways, there was a 59% reduction in the average time to diagnosis (p = 0.048) and a 75% increase in diagnostic yield (p = 0.007). There was a marked reduction in repetitions of diagnostic tests and improved prioritisation of indicated tests. Applying a structured Lean Six Sigma based methodology to pathways for syncope management has the potential to improve time to diagnosis and diagnostic yield.

  15. Structured syncope care pathways based on lean six sigma methodology optimises resource use with shorter time to diagnosis and increased diagnostic yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Martens

    Full Text Available To conduct a pilot study on the potential to optimise care pathways in syncope/Transient Loss of Consciousness management by using Lean Six Sigma methodology while maintaining compliance with ESC and/or NICE guidelines.Five hospitals in four European countries took part. The Lean Six Sigma methodology consisted of 3 phases: 1 Assessment phase, in which baseline performance was mapped in each centre, processes were evaluated and a new operational model was developed with an improvement plan that included best practices and change management; 2 Improvement phase, in which optimisation pathways and standardised best practice tools and forms were developed and implemented. Staff were trained on new processes and change-management support provided; 3 Sustaining phase, which included support, refinement of tools and metrics. The impact of the implementation of new pathways was evaluated on number of tests performed, diagnostic yield, time to diagnosis and compliance with guidelines. One hospital with focus on geriatric populations was analysed separately from the other four.With the new pathways, there was a 59% reduction in the average time to diagnosis (p = 0.048 and a 75% increase in diagnostic yield (p = 0.007. There was a marked reduction in repetitions of diagnostic tests and improved prioritisation of indicated tests.Applying a structured Lean Six Sigma based methodology to pathways for syncope management has the potential to improve time to diagnosis and diagnostic yield.

  16. Effect of Timing and Amount of Irrigation Water on Bean Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Arid and Semi-arid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Nurbakhsh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, due to lack of water resources and increasing demand for water, agricultural water planning issues need further consideration. With proper planning and determination of irrigation depth and time, the effects of stress and yield loss on the plants are reduced. Irrigation scheduling is one of the most important factors in crop’s quality and quantity. The main objective of irrigation scheduling is to control crop’s water conditions in order to achieve its optimum yield level. So irrigation timing is the vital factor on which crop water stress and eventually yield's level are dependent upon. Moreover, irrigation timing is used in irrigation scheduling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation time on water consumption, water use efficiency and yield of beans. Materials and Methods: In order to observe the effect of the amount and the time of the irrigation on water consumption, yields rate and water use efficiency, the current research was carried out at the University of Shahrekord during the summer of 2012. The experiment was done as a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions consisting of irrigation time and the amount of irrigation in 4 and 2 levels (at 6, 8, 14 and 18 and (deficit irrigation, full irrigation, respectively. Beans seeds were planted in 32 similar vases with a diameter of 45 cm and height of 60 cm, in each experiment. Treatments were begun after 37 days from planting. Treatments were irrigated when the average moisture in the root zone was equal to the lower border of readily available water of full irrigation. At the end of the experiments, plants were completely harvested. Then the plant’s height, number of branches, numbers of pods per plant, pod and seed weight were measured. Results and Discussion: Results showed that irrigating at different times during the day influenced water use efficiency, water consumption, seeds yield and number of pods in the bush. The water

  17. Response and recovery of water yield and timing, stream sediment, abiotic parameters, and stream chemistry following logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Swank; Jennifer Knoepp; James Vose; Stephanie Laseter; Jackson Webster

    2014-01-01

    Watershed ecosystem analysis provides a scientific approach to quantify and integrate resource responses to management (Hornbeck and Swank 1992) and also to address issues of resource sustainability (Christensen et. al. 1996). Philosophical components of the research approach at Coweeta are 1) the quantity, timing, and quality of streamflow provides an integrated...

  18. Microbiology specimens obtained at the time of surgical lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease: clinical yield and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibla, Juan J; Brunelli, Alessandro; Allen, Mark S; Wigle, Dennis; Shen, Robert; Nichols, Francis; Deschamps, Claude; Cassivi, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    In efforts to obtain complete results, current practice in surgical lung biopsy (LB) for interstitial lung disease (ILD) recommends sending lung tissue samples for bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, and viral cultures. This study assesses the value of this practice by evaluating the microbiology findings obtained from LB for ILD and their associated costs. A total of 296 consecutive patients (140 women, 156 men, median age=61 years) underwent LB for ILD from 2002 to 2009. All had lung tissue sent for microbiology examination. Microbiology results and resultant changes in patient management were analyzed retrospectively. A cost analysis was performed based upon nominal hospital charges adjusted on current inflation rates. Cost data included cultures, stains, smears, direct fluorescent antibody studies, and microbiologist consulting fees. As many as 25 patients (8.4%) underwent open LB and 271 (91.6%) underwent thoracoscopic LB. A total of 592 specimens were assessed (range 1-4 per patient). The most common pathologic diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in 122 (41.2%), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia in 31 (10.5%), and respiratory bronchiolitis ILD in 16 (5.4%). Microbiology testing was negative in 174 patients (58.8%). A total of 118 of 122 (96.7%) positive results were clinically considered to be contaminants and resulted in no change in clinical management. The most common contaminants were Propionibacterium acnes (38 patients; 31%) and Penicillium fungus (16 patients; 13%). In only four patients (1.4%), the organism cultured (Nocardia one, Histoplasma one, and Aspergillus fumigatus two) resulted in a change in clinical management. The cost of microbiology studies per specimen was $984 (€709), with a total cost for the study cohort being $582,000 (€420,000). The yield and impact on clinical management of microbiology specimens from LB for ILD is very low. Its routine use in LB is questionable. We suggest it should be limited to those cases of ILD with

  19. Changes in Growth and Oil Yield Indices of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola 401 in Different Concentrations andTimes of Application of Supplementary Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi Kehal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of concentration and time of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer spray on growth indices of rapeseed (cv. Hyola 401, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Institute of Iran as a randomized complete blocks design with 16 treatments and 3 replications in 2008-2009. The treatments included concentration of nitrogen fertilizer (urea at two levels (5 and 10 ppm in seven levels of application time:1 spraying at 6-8- leaf stage, 2 beginning of stem elongation, 3 prior to flowering, 4 at 6-8- leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation, 5 at 6-8- leaf + prior to flowering, 6 beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, and 7 at 6-8- leaf + beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering, which were compared with two control treatments (no fertilizer nitrogen and conventional soil fertilization. Results showed that significant difference was observed between spray treatments including concentration and times of nitrogen application, between controls and between controls with spray treatments, of grain and oil yield, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and leaf area duration (LAD. Application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages produced maximum grain yield (4221.7 kg/ha and oil yield (1771.1 kg/ha. Spray treatments produced maximum oil yield index (15.3% compared to controls. Maximum LAI (6.9 and 5.6 respectively, CGR (15.2 and 14.3 g/m2.10 GDD, respectively and LAD (1204 and 1029 cm2/10 GDD, respectively were also obtained from spray application of nitrogen (10 ppm at the beginning of stem elongation+ prior to flowering stages and at 6-8-leaf stage + beginning of stem elongation + prior to flowering. According to the results of the present investigation, it seems that foliar application of supplementary nitrogen fertilizer at the end growth stages (beginning of stem elongation and prior to flowering of rapeseed plants may help to enhance growth indices

  20. FeCl3-catalyzed ethanol pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse boosts sugar yields with low enzyme loadings and short hydrolysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongdan; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Yuan, Hongyou; Lyu, Gaojin; Xie, Jun

    2018-02-01

    An organosolv pretreatment system consisting of 60% ethanol and 0.025 mol·L -1 FeCl 3 under various temperatures was developed in this study. During the pretreatment, the highest xylose yield was 11.4 g/100 g raw material, representing 49.8% of xylose in sugarcane bagasse. Structural features of raw material and pretreated substrates were characterized to better understand how hemicellulose removal and delignification affected subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The 160 °C pretreated solid presented a remarkable glucose yield of 93.8% for 72 h. Furthermore, the influence of different additives on the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated solid was investigated. The results indicated that the addition of Tween 80 shortened hydrolysis time to 6 h and allowed a 50% reduction of enzyme loading to achieve the same level of glucose yield. This work suggested that FeCl 3 -catalyzed organosolv pretreatment could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis significantly and reduce the hydrolysis time and enzyme dosage with the addition of Tween 80. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of NaOH catalyst concentration and extraction time on the yield and properties of Citrullus vulgaris seed oil as a potential biodiesel feed stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Efavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oil was extracted from Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon seeds for potential feedstock in biodiesel production. The results showed that, the oil content from Citrullus vulgaris seeds oil during extraction reached an average yield of 50%. Biodiesel was produced via transesterification using NaOH as catalyst. The effect of NaOH on the yield of the biodiesel was investigated at three different concentrations; 0.13, 0.15 and 0.18 g and oil to methanol ratio of 5:1 under different reaction times; 90, 120 and 150 min at 60 °C. The yield of biodiesel from NaOH concentration of 0.13 g was found to be 70% as compared to those of concentrations, 0.15 g and 0.18 g which were 53% and 49% respectively.Gas chromatography was used to identify the methyl ester groups present in the biodiesel and the results revealed both concentration and time-dependent increase in oil yield. The physicochemical properties of the watermelon seed oil such as flash point (141.3 ± 0.4–143.4 ± 0.2, density (0.86 ± 0.04–0.91 ± 0.01 g/cm3, kinematic viscosity (30.50 ± 0.1–31.20 ± 0.04 mm2/s and acid value (mg KOH/g are similar to conventional vegetable oils. This work therefore, highlights the potential utility of water melon seeds for biodiesel production. Keywords: Citrullus vulgaris, Gas chromatography, Catalyst

  2. Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to increase H(2) yields from fermentative H(2) production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H(2) yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low pH, short solids retention time) can replace heat treatment. Gas sparging increases H(2) yields compared to un-sparged reactors, but no relationship exists between the sparging rate and H(2) yield. Lower sparging rates may improve the H(2) yield with less energy input and product dilution. The reasons why sparging improves H(2) yields are unknown, but recent measurements of dissolved H(2) concentrations during sparging suggest the assumption of decreased inhibition of the H(2)-producing enzymes is unlikely. Significant disagreement exists over the effect of organic loading rate (OLR); some studies show relatively higher OLRs improve H(2) yield while others show the opposite. Discovering the reasons for higher H(2) yields during dissolved gas removal and changes in OLR will help improve H(2) yields.

  3. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning.

  4. Performance, carotenoids yield and microbial population dynamics in a photobioreactor system treating acidic wastewater: Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiangkun; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent organic loading rate (OLR) were investigated in a photobioreactor containing PNSB (Rhodopseudomonas palustris)-chemoheterotrophic bacteria to treat volatile fatty acid wastewater. Pollutants removal, biomass production and carotenoids yield in different phases were investigated in together with functional microbial population dynamics. The results indicated that properly decreasing HRT and increasing OLR improved the nutrient removal performance as well as the biomass and carotenoids productions. 85.7% COD, 89.9% TN and 91.8% TP removals were achieved under the optimal HRT of 48h and OLR of 2.51g/L/d. Meanwhile, the highest biomass production and carotenoids yield were 2719.3mg/L and 3.91mg/g-biomass respectively. In addition, HRT and OLR have obvious impacts on PNSB and total bacteria dynamics. Statistical analyses indicated that the COD removal exhibited a positive relationship with OLR, biomass and carotenoids production. PNSB/total bacteria ratio had a positive correlation with the carotenoids yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  6. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  7. Effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and quality parameters of melon crop amended with winery waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena, María Carmen; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2016-04-01

    In Spain, drip irrigation systems are widely used for horticultural crop production. In drip irrigation systems, emitter clogging has been identified as one of the most important concerns. Clogging is closely related to the quality of the irrigation water and the structure of the emitter flow path, and occurs as a result of multiple physical, biological and chemical factors. So, the use of acid fertilizers (e.g. phosphoric acid) in these systems is common to avoid the emitter clogging. Moreover, in this country the use of exhausted grape marc compost as source of nutrients and organic matter has been identified as a good management option of soil fertility, especially in grape-growing areas with a large generation of wastes from the wine and distillery industries. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer with fertirrigation in a melon crop amended with winery waste compost on yield and quality parameters. During two years, the melon crop was grown under field conditions and beside the control treatment, three doses of compost were applied: 6.7, 13.3 and 20.0 t ha-1. All the compost treatments received 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer (phosphoric acid) for the season varying the time of application: The first year phosphorus application started after male and female flowering, and the second year the application started before flowering. Yield and quality parameters were evaluated to assess the suitability of these practices. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Phosphorus fertilizer, exhausted grape marc compost, melon crop, yield and quality parameters.

  8. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  9. EFFECT OF ”KOMBA-KOMBA” PRUNING COMPOST AND PLANTING TIME OF MUNGBEAN IN INTERCROPPING WITH MAIZE ON YIELD AND SOIL FAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode Sabaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil fauna plays an important role in decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The objective of this research was to study the effect of "komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize on yield and soil fauna. The research was conducted in research station of Agricultural Faculty, Haluoleo University. The experiment was laid out using split plot design with two factors ("komba-komba" compost and planting time of mungbean intercropped with maize. The result indicated that the highest net assimilation rate (NAR of mungbean 5.78 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the komba-komba compost 10 ton per ha with planting time of mungbean at 14 days after planting (DAP maize whereas NAR of maize 5.50 g per cm2 per week was obtained in the planting time of mungbean at 14 DAP maize. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae were dominant and Shannon's diversity index ranged between 0.32 and 1.28. LER values tended to increase with the addition of "komba-komba" compost in soil and time variation of planting mungbean intercropped with maize. The relation between Shannon's diversity and LER values was variable.

  10. Time-resolved photoemission micro-spectrometer using higher-order harmonics of Ti:sapphire laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, J.; Kamada, M.; Kondo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new photoemission spectrometer is under construction for the photoemission microscopy and the time-resolved pump- probe experiment. The higher order harmonics of the Ti:sapphire laser is used as the light source of the VUV region in this system. Because the fundamental laser is focused tightly into the rare gas jet to generate the higher order harmonics, the spot size of the laser, in other words, the spot size of the VUV light source is smaller than a few tens of micrometer. This smallness of the spot size has advantage for the microscopy. In order to compensate the low flux of the laser harmonics, a multilayer-coated schwaltzshild optics was designed. The multilayers play also as the monochromatic filter. The spatial resolution of this schwaltzshild system is found to be less than 1 micrometer by the ray-tracing calculations. A main chamber of the system is equipped with a time-of-flight energy analyzer to improve the efficiency of the electron detection. The main chamber and the gas chamber are separated by a differential pumping chamber and a thin Al foil. The system is designed for the study of the clean surface. It will be capable to perform the sub-micron photoemission microscopy and the femto-second pump-probe photoemission study for the various photo-excited dynamics on clean surfaces

  11. Effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on the N-fertilizer use efficiency, lint properties and seed cotton yield using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, Kh

    2001-12-01

    Field experiment was carried out at Der El-Hajar research station during 1998 growing season to evaluate the effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on N-recovery, seed cotton yield and lint properties using 15 N isotope dilution technique. Aleppo 40 variety was tested, irrigation scheduling was set up at 80% of field capacity. Phosphorus fertilizer was applied as TSP 46% before planting at a rate of 180 kg/ha. N fertilizer was applied as urea (46%) in four different applications follows: one application 180 kg N/ha before planting (T1), two split application 180 (90 + 90) kg N/ha (T2), three equally split applications 180 (60 + 60 + 60) kg N/ha (T3), and four equally split applications 180 (45 + 45 + 45 + 45) kg N/ha (T4). Labeled N-fertilizer (5.09 a.e%) was also applied as urea 46% to the subplots (1.0 m 2 each) of the corresponding treatments. All agricultural practices were carried out as the common practices locally employed. Soil samples were analyzed for CEC, ph, EC, OM, total N, available P, and CaCO 3 as outlined by our laboratory standard procedure. Plant samples were collected at physiological maturity and analyzed for 15 N enrichment to assess N recovery. Lint samples were analyzed for lint properties. the results showed no significant effect of the nitrogen fertilizer time course application on the tested parameters such as dry matter production, seed cotton yield, N uptake and lint properties. on the other hand the T2, T3 and T4 treatments where shown to have a positive significant response toward time course application relative to T1 treatment. (authors)

  12. Sowing time on Soybean yield potential in Uberlândia-MGÉpoca de semeadura no Potencial produtivo de Soja em Uberlândia-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Divina Lemes Hamawaki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in Uberlândia (MG to evaluate the performance of seven soybeans cultivars sowed in four different times: October 30th, November 15th, December 14th and 31st during the 2001/2002 season. The cultivars utilized were: DM-118 early-maturing, DM-247, DM-Victoria, DM-339, medium late cycle and DM-309, DM-98C81 and DM-Noble cycle Late. The statistical design was a randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (7 cultivars x 4 times with three replications. The evaluated characteristics were: yield, number of days for flowering, number of days for maturing, plant height, first bean height and plant laying. For the most evaluated cultivars, sowing beyond December 14th in Uberlandia region presented yield losses for earlier cultivars as DM-118 as well for the later ones as DM Vitória, compared to sowing in 30th October. The time for flowering and maturing and plant height had effect on the yield.O trabalho foi feito em Uberlândia, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de soja em quatro épocas distintas de semeadura: 30 de Outubro, 15 de Novembro, 14 e 31 de Dezembro, na safra 2001/02. As cultivares utilizadas foram: DM-118 de ciclo precoce, DM-247, DM-Vitória, DM-339, de ciclo semitardio e DM-309, DM-98C81 e DM-Nobre de ciclo tardio. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 cultivares x 4 épocas com três repetições. As características avaliadas foram: produtividade, número de dias para floração e maturação, altura de plantas na maturação, inserção da primeira vagem e acamamento. Para a maioria das cultivares, a semeadura realizada a partir de 14 de dezembro na região de Uberlândia provocou queda na produtividade, tanto para as cultivares mais precoces quanto para mais tardia, DM Vitória, quando comparada a semeadura em 30 de outubro. O período para o florescimento, maturação e a altura de plantas interferiram na produtividade. Há decréscimo de altura de

  13. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FORECASTING MODELS FOR TREND AND SEASONAL TIME SERIES DOES COMPLEX MODEL ALWAYS YIELD BETTER FORECAST THAN SIMPLE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartono Suhartono

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many business and economic time series are non-stationary time series that contain trend and seasonal variations. Seasonality is a periodic and recurrent pattern caused by factors such as weather, holidays, or repeating promotions. A stochastic trend is often accompanied with the seasonal variations and can have a significant impact on various forecasting methods. In this paper, we will investigate and compare some forecasting methods for modeling time series with both trend and seasonal patterns. These methods are Winter's, Decomposition, Time Series Regression, ARIMA and Neural Networks models. In this empirical research, we study on the effectiveness of the forecasting performance, particularly to answer whether a complex method always give a better forecast than a simpler method. We use a real data, that is airline passenger data. The result shows that the more complex model does not always yield a better result than a simpler one. Additionally, we also find the possibility to do further research especially the use of hybrid model by combining some forecasting method to get better forecast, for example combination between decomposition (as data preprocessing and neural network model.

  14. Variations in Essential Oil Yield, Composition, and Antioxidant Activity of Different Plant Organs from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. at Different Growth Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Mei; Pang, Yu-Xin; Yu, Fu-Lai; Chen, Ce; Liu, Li-Wei; Chen, Zhen-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Lu; Hu, Xuan

    2016-08-05

    Blumea balsamifera, also named Ainaxiang, is widely used as an ancient medicinal herb in tropical and subtropical Asia. It is rich in essential oils. In this work the essential oils of B. balsamifera from different plant organs and in different months were extracted, and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that essential oil yield of young leaves was the highest (0.65 mL/100 g), followed by mature leaves (0.57 mL/100 g), and the oil yield was higher in October (0.47 mL/100 g) than other months. A total of 44 compounds were identified, representing 92.64%-96.71% of the oil. Eighteen common chemical components were found among the six plant organs, representing >80% of the oil constituents. l-borneol was the main ingredient in leaves, and its content was the highest in senescent leaves and in December. In the essential oils of young shoots and young stems, the main component was dimethoxydurene. Antioxidant activity was also determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays. The results indicated that the β-carotene bleaching activity was far stronger than the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, and the young leaves and young shoots showed stronger antioxidant activity. Dimethoxydurene, β-caryophyllene, and α-caryophyllene play a positive role in good antioxidant activity, while β-eudesmol, phytol, and tetradecanal play a negative role. The antioxidant activity revealed in this study might help in developing this promising bioresource for use in the medicinal and cosmetic industries.

  15. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries-conjoint analysis-which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods.

  16. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: Its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eBialek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship. However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal.The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries - conjoint analysis - which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 & 2, and they are more stable over time (Study 2 compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods.

  17. Singularity Structure Analysis of the Higher-Dimensional Time-Gated Manakov System: Periodic Excitations and Elastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuetche, Victor Kamgang; Bouetou, Thomas Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the singularity structure analysis of the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system referring to the (2+1)-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schroedinger (CNLS) equations, and we show that these equations are Painleve-integrable. By means of the Weiss et al.'s methodology, we show the arbitrariness of the expansion coefficients and the consistency of the truncation corresponding to a special Baecklund transformation (BT) of these CNLS equations. In the wake of such transformation, following the Hirota's formalism, we derive a one-soliton solution. Besides, by using the Zakharov-Shabat (ZS) scheme which provides a general Lax-representation of an evolution system, we show that the (2+1)-dimensional CNLS system under interests is completely integrable. Furthermore, using the arbitrariness of the above coefficients, we unearth and investigate a typical spectrum of periodic coherent structures while depicting elastic interactions amongst such patterns. (author)

  18. Computer-mediated communication and time pressure induce higher cardiovascular responses in the preparatory and execution phases of cooperative tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Ferrer, Raquel; Serrano Rosa, Miguel Ángel; Zornoza Abad, Ana; Salvador Fernández-Montejo, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The cardiovascular (CV) response to social challenge and stress is associated with the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. New ways of communication, time pressure and different types of information are common in our society. In this study, the cardiovascular response to two different tasks (open vs. closed information) was examined employing different communication channels (computer-mediated vs. face-to-face) and with different pace control (self vs. external). Our results indicate that there was a higher CV response in the computer-mediated condition, on the closed information task and in the externally paced condition. These role of these factors should be considered when studying the consequences of social stress and their underlying mechanisms.

  19. Regional 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Hypometabolism is Associated with Higher Apathy Scores Over Time in Early Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatchel, Jennifer R; Donovan, Nancy J; Locascio, Joseph J; Becker, J Alex; Rentz, Dorene M; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Marshall, Gad A

    2017-07-01

    Apathy is among the earliest and most pervasive neuropsychiatric symptoms in prodromal and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia that correlates with functional impairment and disease progression. We investigated the association of apathy with regional 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. 57 North American research sites. 402 community dwelling elders. Apathy was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. Baseline FDG metabolism in five regions implicated in the neurobiology of apathy and AD was investigated in relationship to apathy at baseline (cross-sectional general linear model) and longitudinally (mixed random/fixed effect model). Covariates included age, sex, diagnosis, apolipoprotein E genotype, premorbid intelligence, cognition, and antidepressant use. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that posterior cingulate hypometabolism, diagnosis, male sex, and antidepressant use were associated with higher apathy scores. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the interaction of supramarginal hypometabolism and time, posterior cingulate hypometabolism, and antidepressant use were associated with higher apathy scores across time; only supramarginal hypometabolism was positively related to rate of increase of apathy. Results support an association of apathy with hypometabolism in parietal regions commonly affected in early stages of AD, rather than medial frontal regions implicated in the neurobiology of apathy in later stages. Further work is needed to substantiate whether this localization is specific to apathy rather than to disease stage, and to investigate the potential role of AD proteinopathies in the pathogenesis of apathy. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of the irradiation time on the activity of decay products during the cooling. Case: Mo-98 {yields} Mo-99 {yields} Tc-99m; Influencia del tiempo de irradiacion en la actividad de los productos de decaimiento durante el enfriamiento. Caso: Mo-98 {yields} Mo-99 {yields} Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes J, J.L.; Ruiz C, M.A.; Alanis M, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In this work the behavior of the activity in the cooling time of Mo-99, Tc-99 and Tc-99m obtained by Neutron activation of natural Mo is described. The analytical development is based on the application of the Laplace transform for resolving the balance equations. (Author)

  1. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  2. Quantum Statistical Entropy of Non-extreme and Nearly Extreme Black Holes in Higher-Dimensional Space-Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dian-Yan

    2003-01-01

    The free energy and entropy of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in higher-dimensional space-time are calculated by the quantum statistic method with a brick wall model. The space-time of the black holes is divided into three regions: region 1, (r > r0); region 2, (r0 > r > n); and region 3, (T-J > r > 0), where r0 is the radius of the outer event horizon, and r, is the radius of the inner event horizon. Detailed calculation shows that the entropy contributed by region 2 is zero, the entropy contributed by region 1 is positive and proportional to the outer event horizon area, the entropy contributed by region 3 is negative and proportional to the inner event horizon area. The total entropy contributed by all the three regions is positive and proportional to the area difference between the outer and inner event horizons. As rt approaches r0 in the nearly extreme case, the total quantum statistical entropy approaches zero.

  3. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  4. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  5. Planting time for maximization of yield of vinegar plant calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Época de plantio para maximização daprodução de cálices de vinagreira (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmar Eduardo Arbex de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, a medicinal plant, at four planting times in Lavras - MG. The treatments were four planting times (October 18th, November 15th, December 18th 2001 and January 15th 2002 and a harvest was proceeded when practically there were no developing calyxes, almost at the end of the plant cycle. The numbers of calyxes per plant, the fresh and dry biomasses of calyxes and quality were taken into account. It follows that planting time influenced yield per plant and the fresh and dry biomasses of calyxes, differing from each other by Tukey test at 5%. In October planting, there was a higher yield (2,522kg/ha with a yield 5.24 as high relative to the planting of the month of January (481 kg/ha. The planting s in the month of November to December showed yields of 1,695 and 1,093 kg/ha of dry calyxes, respectively and in relation to the same months of January, yield was of 3.52 to 2.27 times more. Harvest must be done as soon as the calyxes are ripe in order to preserve quality.Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade de cálices de Hibiscus sabdariffa L., planta medicinal, em quatro épocas de plantio em Lavras - M.G. Os tratamentos foram quatro épocas de plantio (18 de outubro; 15 de novembro; 18 de dezembro de 2001 e 15 de janeiro de 2002 e realizada uma colheita quando praticamente não existiam cálices em desenvolvimento, quase no final do ciclo da planta. Foram considerados os números de cálices por planta, as fitomassas frescas e secas dos cálices e a qualidade. Concluiu-se que a época de plantio influenciou o rendimento por planta e as fitomassas frescas e secas dos cálices, diferindo entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. No plantio de outubro, houve maior rendimento (2.522 kg/ha, com produção de 5,24 vezes a mais em relação ao plantio do mês de janeiro (481 kg/ha. Os plantios nos meses de novembro e dezembro tiveram produções de 1.695 e 1.093 kg.ha-1 de c

  6. On Rigorous Drought Assessment Using Daily Time Scale: Non-Stationary Frequency Analyses, Revisited Concepts, and a New Method to Yield Non-Parametric Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Onyutha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the problems in drought assessments are that: analyses tend to focus on coarse temporal scales, many of the methods yield skewed indices, a few terminologies are ambiguously used, and analyses comprise an implicit assumption that the observations come from a stationary process. To solve these problems, this paper introduces non-stationary frequency analyses of quantiles. How to use non-parametric rescaling to obtain robust indices that are not (or minimally skewed is also introduced. To avoid ambiguity, some concepts on, e.g., incidence, extremity, etc., were revisited through shift from monthly to daily time scale. Demonstrations on the introduced methods were made using daily flow and precipitation insufficiency (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration from the Blue Nile basin in Africa. Results show that, when a significant trend exists in extreme events, stationarity-based quantiles can be far different from those when non-stationarity is considered. The introduced non-parametric indices were found to closely agree with the well-known standardized precipitation evapotranspiration indices in many aspects but skewness. Apart from revisiting some concepts, the advantages of the use of fine instead of coarse time scales in drought assessment were given. The links for obtaining freely downloadable tools on how to implement the introduced methods were provided.

  7. Assessments of higher-order ionospheric effects on GPS coordinate time series: A case study of CMONOC with longer time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Ma, Yifang

    2014-05-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HIO) corrections are proposed to become a standard part for precise GPS data analysis. For this study, we deeply investigate the impacts of the HIO corrections on the coordinate time series by implementing re-processing of the GPS data from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Nearly 13 year data are used in our three processing runs: (a) run NO, without HOI corrections, (b) run IG, both second- and third-order corrections are modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 (IGRF11) to model the magnetic field, (c) run ID, the same with IG but dipole magnetic model are applied. Both spectral analysis and noise analysis are adopted to investigate these effects. Results show that for CMONOC stations, HIO corrections are found to have brought an overall improvement. After the corrections are applied, the noise amplitudes decrease, with the white noise amplitudes showing a more remarkable variation. Low-latitude sites are more affected. For different coordinate components, the impacts vary. The results of an analysis of stacked periodograms show that there is a good match between the seasonal amplitudes and the HOI corrections, and the observed variations in the coordinate time series are related to HOI effects. HOI delays partially explain the seasonal amplitudes in the coordinate time series, especially for the U component. The annual amplitudes for all components are decreased for over one-half of the selected CMONOC sites. Additionally, the semi-annual amplitudes for the sites are much more strongly affected by the corrections. However, when diplole model is used, the results are not as optimistic as IGRF model. Analysis of dipole model indicate that HIO delay lead to the increase of noise amplitudes, and that HIO delays with dipole model can generate false periodic signals. When dipole model are used in modeling HIO terms, larger residual and noise are brought in rather than the effective improvements.

  8. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  9. Influence of malaxation time of olive paste on oil extraction yields and chemical and organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serraiocco, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to ascertain the influence of malaxation time of olive paste on extraction yields and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving. Results show that malaxation time has to be no less than 45 minutes to have a satisfactory oil extraction yield. Furthermore, it was ascertained that the malaxation time, protracted up to 90 minutes, does not have influence upon qualitative and organoleptic characteristics of oils. Only the total phenols content of oils changed significantly when the malaxation time of olive paste increased from 15 to 90 minutes. However, in this research has been demonstrated that in some cases the total phenols content of oils increased during the first 30-45 minutes of malaxation and after it diminished. This is due to the variation of total phenols content of vegetable water that in the first time increased and after diminished very quickly. Because of the partition equilibrium law, the total phenols content of oil changed in the same way. Finally, results show that the composition of volatile substances of head-space of oils did not change increasing the malaxation time of olive paste obtained from good quality olive fruits.Se realizaron pruebas experimentales para verificar la influencia del tiempo de batido sobre los rendimientos en aceite y sobre las características de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos con un decanter centrifugo con ahorro de agua. Los resultados conseguidos indicaron que el tiempo de batido no debe ser inferior a 45 minutos para poder obtener rendimientos en aceite satisfactorios. Además, se pudo verificar que la operación de batido, aun siendo prolongada a 90 minutos, no influencia significativamente en las características cualitativas y organolépticas de los aceites. Solo el contenido de fenoles totales en los aceites disminuyó cuando el tiempo de batido fue incrementado de 15 a 90 minutos. Sin embargo, se

  10. Seven novel probe systems for real-time PCR provide absolute single-base discrimination, higher signaling, and generic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James L; Hu, Peixu; Shafer, David A

    2014-11-01

    We have developed novel probe systems for real-time PCR that provide higher specificity, greater sensitivity, and lower cost relative to dual-labeled probes. The seven DNA Detection Switch (DDS)-probe systems reported here employ two interacting polynucleotide components: a fluorescently labeled probe and a quencher antiprobe. High-fidelity detection is achieved with three DDS designs: two internal probes (internal DDS and Flip probes) and a primer probe (ZIPR probe), wherein each probe is combined with a carefully engineered, slightly mismatched, error-checking antiprobe. The antiprobe blocks off-target detection over a wide range of temperatures and facilitates multiplexing. Other designs (Universal probe, Half-Universal probe, and MacMan probe) use generic components that enable low-cost detection. Finally, single-molecule G-Force probes employ guanine-mediated fluorescent quenching by forming a hairpin between adjacent C-rich and G-rich sequences. Examples provided show how these probe technologies discriminate drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants, Escherichia coli O157:H7, oncogenic EGFR deletion mutations, hepatitis B virus, influenza A/B strains, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human VKORC1 gene. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bascuñán-Godoy Luisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. Results The same reduction (25% in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA and non-acclimated (NA plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype. Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively. Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT. NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Conclusions Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the

  12. A rich fossil record yields calibrated phylogeny for Acanthaceae (Lamiales) and evidence for marked biases in timing and directionality of intercontinental disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Erin A; McDade, Lucinda A

    2014-09-01

    More than a decade of phylogenetic research has yielded a well-sampled, strongly supported hypothesis of relationships within the large ( > 4000 species) plant family Acanthaceae. This hypothesis points to intriguing biogeographic patterns and asymmetries in sister clade diversity but, absent a time-calibrated estimate for this evolutionary history, these patterns have remained unexplored. Here, we reconstruct divergence times within Acanthaceae using fossils as calibration points and experimenting with both fossil selection and effects of invoking a maximum age prior related to the origin of Eudicots. Contrary to earlier reports of a paucity of fossils of Lamiales (an order of ∼ 23,000 species that includes Acanthaceae) and to the expectation that a largely herbaceous to soft-wooded and tropical lineage would have few fossils, we recovered 51 reports of fossil Acanthaceae. Rigorous evaluation of these for accurate identification, quality of age assessment and utility in dating yielded eight fossils judged to merit inclusion in analyses. With nearly 10 kb of DNA sequence data, we used two sets of fossils as constraints to reconstruct divergence times. We demonstrate differences in age estimates depending on fossil selection and that enforcement of maximum age priors substantially alters estimated clade ages, especially in analyses that utilize a smaller rather than larger set of fossils. Our results suggest that long-distance dispersal events explain present-day distributions better than do Gondwanan or northern land bridge hypotheses. This biogeographical conclusion is for the most part robust to alternative calibration schemes. Our data support a minimum of 13 Old World (OW) to New World (NW) dispersal events but, intriguingly, only one in the reverse direction. Eleven of these 13 were among Acanthaceae s.s., which comprises > 90% of species diversity in the family. Remarkably, if minimum age estimates approximate true history, these 11 events occurred within

  13. Credentialism, Adults, and Part-Time Higher Education in the United Kingdom: An Account of Rising Take Up and Some Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Explains the growing importance of higher-level qualifications for adults in the UK, highlighting statistical trends in commitment to learning and qualifying-the result of taking part-time courses in higher education. Most part-time undergraduates fund their own tuition. Mature students' backgrounds and perspectives partly account for their rising…

  14. Advances in Non-Destructive Early Assessment of Fruit Ripeness towards Defining Optimal Time of Harvest and Yield Prediction—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global food security for the increasing world population not only requires increased sustainable production of food but a significant reduction in pre- and post-harvest waste. The timing of when a fruit is harvested is critical for reducing waste along the supply chain and increasing fruit quality for consumers. The early in-field assessment of fruit ripeness and prediction of the harvest date and yield by non-destructive technologies have the potential to revolutionize farming practices and enable the consumer to eat the tastiest and freshest fruit possible. A variety of non-destructive techniques have been applied to estimate the ripeness or maturity but not all of them are applicable for in situ (field or glasshouse assessment. This review focuses on the non-destructive methods which are promising for, or have already been applied to, the pre-harvest in-field measurements including colorimetry, visible imaging, spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Machine learning and regression models used in assessing ripeness are also discussed.

  15. Colostrum immunoglobulin G concentration of multiparous Jersey cows at first and second milking is associated with parity, colostrum yield, and time of first milking, and can be estimated with Brix refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Del-Río, N; Rolle, D; García-Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Jiménez, S; Valldecabres, A; Lago, A; Pandey, P

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate colostrum IgG concentration harvested at first and second milking from multiparous Jersey cows, the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking. In addition, we validated the use of a Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows using radial immunodiffusion as the reference method. Colostrum samples and total weight of colostrum harvested at first (n = 134) and second (n = 68) milking were collected from 134 multiparous Jersey cows housed in a California herd. Fresh colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration with Brix refractometry and frozen samples by radial immunodiffusion. A total of 90.4 and 42.7% of the samples from first and second milking met industry standards of quality for IgG concentration (>50 g/L). Second and third lactation cows had similar colostrum IgG concentration but lower than cows on their fourth and greater lactation. At second milking, 56.4% of cows on their fourth or greater lactation had colostrum IgG concentrations >50 g/L. When colostrum yield increased from low (6 kg), IgG concentration decreased. Higher IgG concentration was observed on colostrum harvested at 50 IgG g/L was 20.9% based on logit equations with Youden's index criterion and 18.0% based on accuracy criterion. For colostrum harvested at second milking, similar Brix thresholds were obtained, 19.2 and 19.0%, regardless of whether Youden's index or accuracy was used as the selection criterion. Our results indicate that the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking relative to calving are associated with IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows. Second milking colostrum from mature Jersey cows should be evaluated to extend colostrum supply on dairies especially during times of shortage. Readings of %Brix can be used to rapidly estimate IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum harvested at first and second milking

  16. On yield gaps and yield gains in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gou, Fang; Yin, Wen; Hong, Yu; Werf, van der Wopke; Chai, Qiang; Heerink, Nico; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat-maize relay intercropping has been widely used by farmers in northwest China, and based on field experiments agronomists report it has a higher productivity than sole crops. However, the yields from farmers’ fields have not been investigated yet. Yield gap analysis provides a framework to

  17. Higher-order Brain Areas Associated with Real-time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training of the Somato-motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Frahm, Jens; Schweizer, Renate

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback (NFB) allows subjects to learn self-regulation of neuronal brain activation based on information about the ongoing activation. The implementation of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) for NFB training now facilitates the investigation into underlying processes. Our study involved 16 control and 16 training right-handed subjects, the latter performing an extensive rt-fMRI NFB training using motor imagery. A previous analysis focused on the targeted primary somato-motor cortex (SMC). The present study extends the analysis to the supplementary motor area (SMA), the next higher brain area within the hierarchy of the motor system. We also examined transfer-related functional connectivity using a whole-volume psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis to reveal brain areas associated with learning. The ROI analysis of the pre- and post-training fMRI data for motor imagery without NFB (transfer) resulted in a significant training-specific increase in the SMA. It could also be shown that the contralateral SMA exhibited a larger increase than the ipsilateral SMA in the training and the transfer runs, and that the right-hand training elicited a larger increase in the transfer runs than the left-hand training. The PPI analysis revealed a training-specific increase in transfer-related functional connectivity between the left SMA and frontal areas as well as the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) for right- and left-hand trainings. Moreover, the transfer success was related with training-specific increase in functional connectivity between the left SMA and the target area SMC. Our study demonstrates that NFB training increases functional connectivity with non-targeted brain areas. These are associated with the training strategy (i.e., SMA) as well as with learning the NFB skill (i.e., aMCC and frontal areas). This detailed description of both the system to be trained and the areas involved in learning can provide valuable information

  18. A Time of Quiet Activism: Research, Practice, and Policy in American Women's Higher Education, 1945-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on three narratives that affected American women's participation in higher education during the first twenty years after World War II. In hindsight, the educators of the 1950s and early 1960s may seem gratuitously meek and self-effacing. In comparison to later efforts, their activism can appear unnecessarily limited and too…

  19. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  20. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  1. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  2. Hard Times in Higher Education: The Closure of Subject Centres and the Implications for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chalkley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within many British Universities and, indeed, across higher education internationally, how best to provide education for sustainable development (ESD has become an increasingly important issue. There is now a widespread view that higher education sectors have a key part to play in preparing societies for the transition to a low carbon economy and the shift towards more sustainable ways of living and working. In the UK, a leading role in this field has been played by the Higher Education Academy and especially its network of 24 Subject Centres, each of which promotes curriculum enhancement in a particular discipline area. The mission of the Higher Education Academy has been to help raise the overall quality of the student learning experience across all disciplines and all Higher Education institutions (HEIs. As part of promoting and supporting many kinds of curriculum innovation and staff development, the HE Academy has championed the cause of ESD. Now, however, as a result of government spending cuts, the Academy is facing severe budget reductions and all its Subject Centres are soon to close. At this pivotal moment, the purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the HE Academy’s past contribution to ESD and to explore the likely future implications of the demise of its Subject Centres. The paper ends by outlining some ideas as to how the ESD agenda might be advanced in the post-Subject Centre era, in the light of the Academy’s intention to support subject communities under its new structure. The paper has been developed through participation in key committees, engagement with Academy and Subject Centre staff, as well as through a literature review.

  3. Examining the Potential Impact of Full Tuition Fees on Mature Part-Time Students in English Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines current part-time mature learners' views on the potential impact upon future students as full fees are introduced from 2012. It investigates the problems which part-time mature learners may face with the advent of student loans and subsequent debt, given that they are usually combining complex lives with their studies, with…

  4. Primary scab control using a "during-infection" spray timing and the effect on fruit quality and yield in organic apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in Europe depends to a great extent on the use of copper fungicides for scab control (Venturia inaequalis. The objective of this 6-year study (2003-2008 conducted in Belgium was to determine measures for reducing the use of copper fungicides in organic apple production. The effectiveness of a 'during-infection' spray strategy using wettable sulphur (with or without copper, lime sulphur, potassium bicarbonate, silicon and five natural plant extracts (orange peel, soapbark, tea seed, quinoa seed and grapefruit seed for controlling primary scab was investigated in a split-plot field experiment. Four apple cultivars that express a gradient of partial scab resistance were included: a high scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pinova', a medium scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pirouette' and two old cultivars expressing low to very low scab susceptibility (cvs. 'Reinette Hernaut' and 'Reinette des Capucins'. Apart from these cultivars, four monogenic Vf scab-resistant cultivars (cvs. 'Initial', 'Topaz', 'Zvatava' and 'JN 20/33/58' were also included in the experimental orchard. In order to reduce the amount of fungicide required, two strategies were used: a specific spray timing involving spraying during the infection processes, before fungal penetration, determined by the RIMpro software warning system, and a tunnel sprayer machine for optimal treatment applications. Depending on the year, a total of 8-12 applications were made annually. Under field conditions that were highly conducive disease, low rates of elemental sulphur (≤ 40 kg.ha-1 per year combined with low rates of copper (≤ 2.1 kg.ha-1 per year provided the best scab control and reduced scab severity on the leaves and fruits by 85-100%, depending on the year and cultivar, compared with the untreated control. In most cases, the lime sulphur spray treatment, which used more elemental sulphur but did not use copper, provided a similar level of scab control to the

  5. [Study on High-yield Cultivation Measures for Arctii Fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yong; Jiang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Tao; Sun, Ji-ye; Hu, Shang-qin; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-01

    To find out the high yield cultivation measures for Arctii Fructus. Completely randomized block experiment design method was used in the field planting, to analyze the effect of different cultivation way on agronomic characters, phenological phase,quality and quantity of Arctii Fructus. Arctium lappa planted on August 28 had the best results of plant height, thousand seeds weight and yield. The highest yield of Arctii Fructus was got at the density of 1,482 plants/667 m2. Arctiin content was in an increase trend with the planting time delay and planting density increasing. The plant height, thousand seeds weight, yield and arctiin content by split application of fertilizer were significantly higher than that by one-time fertilization. Compared with open field Arctium lappa, plant height, yield, arctiin content and relative water content of plastic film mulching Arctium lappa was higher by 7.74%, 10.87%, 6.38% and 24.20%, respectively. In the topping Arctium lappa, the yield was increased by 11.09%, with 39. 89% less branching number. Early planting time and topping shortened the growth cycle of Arctium lappa plant. The high-yield cultivation measures of Arctii Fructus are: around August 28 to sowing, planting density of 1 482 plants/667 m2, split application of fertilizer for four times, covering film on surface of the soil and topping in bolting.

  6. The Hidden Benefits of Part-Time Higher Education Study to Working Practices: Is There a Case for Making Them More Visible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Little, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Within the UK, part-time study is now seen as important in meeting wider government objectives for higher education (HE) and for sustainable economic growth through skills development. Yet, measures to capture the impact of HE may not be wholly appropriate to part-time study. In particular, the continuing focus on tangible, economic measures may…

  7. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  8. Recruitment and Retention of Full-Time Engineering Faculty, Fall 1980. Higher Education Panel Report Number 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    The extent of faculty vacancies in colleges of engineering, the effects of such vacancies upon research and instructional programs, and the nature of the competition between academia and industry in hiring engineering faculty were surveyed. The focus is on permanent full-time faculty positions in the following major engineering fields:…

  9. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  10. On the de Sitter and Nariai solutions in general relativity and their extension in higher dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hidekazu; Ishihara, Hideki.

    1983-01-01

    Various geometrical properties of Nariai's less-familiar solution of the vacuum Einstein equations R sub( mu nu ) = lambda g sub( mu nu ) is f irst summarized in comparison with de Sitter's well-known solution. Next an extension of both solutions is performed in a six-dimensional space on the supposition that such an extension will in future become useful to elucidate more closely the creation of particles in an inflationary stage of the big-bang universe. For preparation, the behavior of a massive scalar field in the extended space-time is studied in a classical level. (author)

  11. Teachers' views of using e-learning for non-traditional students in higher education across three disciplines [nursing, chemistry and management] at a time of massification and increased diversity in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Helen T; O'Driscoll, Mike; Simpson, Vikki; Shawe, Jill

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of the higher educational sector in the United Kingdom over the last two decades to meet political aspirations of the successive governments and popular demand for participation in the sector (the Widening Participation Agenda) has overlapped with the introduction of e-learning. This paper describes teachers' views of using e-learning for non-traditional students in higher education across three disciplines [nursing, chemistry and management] at a time of massification and increased diversity in higher education. A three phase, mixed methods study; this paper reports findings from phase two of the study. One university in England. Higher education teachers teaching on the nursing, chemistry and management programmes. Focus groups with these teachers. Findings from these data show that teachers across the programmes have limited knowledge of whether students are non-traditional or what category of non-traditional status they might be in. Such knowledge as they have does not seem to influence the tailoring of teaching and learning for non-traditional students. Teachers in chemistry and nursing want more support from the university to improve their use of e-learning, as did teachers in management but to a lesser extent. Our conclusions confirm other studies in the field outside nursing which suggest that non-traditional students' learning needs have not been considered meaningfully in the development of e-learning strategies in universities. We suggest that this may be because teachers have been required to develop e-learning at the same time as they cope with the massification of, and widening participation in, higher education. The findings are of particular importance to nurse educators given the high number of non-traditional students on nursing programmes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Just-in-time research: a call to arms for research into mobile technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Byrne-Davis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n=443 who received tablet computers (iPads from their medical school during their 4th year of study. Students were surveyed prior to receiving the iPads and again regarding their usage and experiences at 2, 6 and 12 months post receipt of tablets. Findings indicate that students differed in their use of iPads but that the majority felt that tablets had impacted on their learning and the majority were using them frequently (at least once a day during learning. Almost half of the students reported that clinical supervisors had raised the possibility of tablets changing patient care. These results, although only descriptive, raise important questions about the impact of mobile technologies on learning.

  13. Ecuadorian youth, social and geographic mobility and higher education in Spain and Ecuador. Unequal educational trajectories in times of crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vega Solís

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyze the inequalities that emerge from and are reproduced in Ecuadorian’s higher education trajectories in the context of economic crises. We focus on the strategies that these youth and their families employ for social mobility as well as the role of public policy in these processes. We examine the trajectories of three groups: sons and daughters of the 2000 migration wave from Ecuador to Spain who study at universities in Spain, those who have returned to Ecuador for their studies, and Ecuadorians who move to Spain in order to carry out postgraduate studies, some of them funded by scholarships from the Ecuadorian government. The research project employed a qualitative methodology based on interviews, focus groups and a survey with Ecuadorians in Spain who took the entrance exam for admittance into Ecuador’s public university system. Our findings highlight the varied forms of capitals that these diverse students employ, as well as the social and economic constraints that they encounter. In a period of economic crisis in Spain, the first group of students must often downgrade their expectations in order to continue their studies. Their experience contrasts starkly with Ecuadorians undertaking postgraduate studies in Spain, whose heterogenous trajectories are upwardly and geographically mobile. The case of the return university students to Ecuador shows us that education is inserted into a broader strategy that depends on transnational networks shaped over more than a decade of Ecuador-Spain migration.

  14. Results of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay for Specimens Yielding “Target Not Detected” Results by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test▿

    OpenAIRE

    Babady, N. Esther; Germer, Jeffrey J.; Yao, Joseph D. C.

    2009-01-01

    No significantly discordant results were observed between the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test (CTM) among 1,190 unique clinical plasma specimens obtained from laboratories located in 40 states representing all nine U.S. geographic regions and previously yielding “target not detected” results by CTM.

  15. Results of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay for specimens yielding "target not detected" results by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babady, N Esther; Germer, Jeffrey J; Yao, Joseph D C

    2010-03-01

    No significantly discordant results were observed between the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay and the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test (CTM) among 1,190 unique clinical plasma specimens obtained from laboratories located in 40 states representing all nine U.S. geographic regions and previously yielding "target not detected" results by CTM.

  16. Academic Work—Faster, Higher, Further? On the (Missing Proportion of Work to Spare Time in the (Cultural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Dressel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We make the practices of the academic production of knowledge a subject of critical discussion by focusing on the world of academic work and the academics themselves. Based on interviews with academics in the field of cultural sciences we conclude that with regard to their daily routines, their annual schedules, and their life-courses the so-called private life (family life, leisure time etc. becomes dominated by the social and cultural logics of the working sphere. Although it might appear exaggerated, we will refer to the humanities as a "total institution" which entails social, physical, and mental costs for its "inmates" as well as for those who never managed to become "inmates" (in spite of their efforts and those who don’t belong to the institution any more. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801385

  17. Spinor Green function in higher-dimensional cosmic string space-time in the presence of magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelly, J.; Mello, E.R. Bezerra de

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the vacuum polarization effects associated with quantum fermionic charged fields in a generalized (d+1)-dimensional cosmic string space-times considering the presence of a magnetic flux along the string. In order to develop this analysis we calculate a general expression for the respective Green function, valid for several different values of d, which is expressed in terms of a bispinor associated with the square of the Dirac operator. Adopting this result, we explicitly calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensors, (T A B ) Ren. , associated with massless fields. Moreover, for specific values of the parameters which codify the cosmic string and the fractional part of the ratio of the magnetic flux by the quantum one, we were able to present in closed forms the bispinor and the respective Green function for massive fields.

  18. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  19. Influence of harvest time and frequency on light interception and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cultivated on a peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2016-01-01

    managements,which contributed to similar IPAR (908–919 MJ m−2), total biomass yield (16.4–18.8 Mg DM ha−1yr−1)and RUE (1.80–2.07 g MJ−1) for all managements. Whereas both crops were highly productive under both3C management and 2C management with first harvest after flowering (i.e., 2C-late), the 2C......tIn this study, we report efficiencies of light capture and biomass yield of festulolium and tall fescue cul-tivated on a riparian fen in Denmark under different harvesting managements. Green biomass targetedfor biogas production was harvested either as two cuts (2C) or three cuts (3C) in a year....... Three differenttimings of the first cut in the 2C systems were included as early (2C-early), middle (2C-mid) and late (2C-late) cuts corresponding to pre-heading, inflorescence emergence and flowering stages, respectively. Thefraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) was derived...

  20. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales

  1. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  2. Optimizing the space-time-yield and the specific energy consumption of molten salt electrolysis processes for the electrowinning of metals in subgroups 4 and 5 of the periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeck, W.

    1988-04-01

    Disadvantages of molten salt electrolysis are its low space-time-yield (kg/m 3 h) combined with its high specific energy consumption (kWh/kg). These factors essentially determine how electrolysis is applied on an industrial scale. The electrolysis of tantalum was selected as an example representative for other electrolytic processes; this series of tests allow statements also on the winning of the other elements from subgroups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, and on electrolytic aluminium extraction. Optimal operating conditions for direct current electrolysis were determined in the laboratory by varying the current density and the electrolysis temperature. In order to improve the space-time-yield from an existing electrolytic cell with a given electrolyte composition beyond the optimal range of direct current electrolysis, the process of periodic current reversal is applied. In this process, the polarity is reversed for a short time at constant periodic intervals. If the forward time period and the backward time period are chosen in a suitable way, both the current efficiency and the space-time-yield can be improved without increasing the energy consumption. 59 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  3. Time and Energy Characterization of a Neutron Time of Flight Detector Using a Novel Coincidence Method for Constraining Neutron Yield, Ion Temperature and Liner Density Measurements from MagLIF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Jedediah D.

    The focus of this work is the characterization of a typical neutron time-of-flight (NTOF) detector that is fielded on inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments conducted at the Z-experimental facility with emphasis on the Magnetized Liner Fusion (MagLIF) concept. An NTOF detector consisting of EJ-228 scintillator and two independent photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), a Hamamatsu-mod 5 and Photek-PMT240, has been characterized in terms of the absolute time and energy response. The characterization was done by measuring single, neutron-induced events in the scintillator by measuring the alpha particle and neutron produced from the D-T reaction in kinematic coincidence. The results of these experiments provided the time dependent instrument response function and the detector sensitivity as a function of applied voltage covering the entire dynamic range of the detector. Historically, impulse response functions have been measured using various photon sources as surrogates for a neutron source. Thus, this measurement using a single hit neutron source results in the most accurate measured response function, which will improve the accuracy of impulse response corrections to the NTOF signals. While this detector has not yet been fielded on any MagLIF experiments, the development of a predictive capability was desired for transferring the measured detector response from the calibration geometry to the more complex Z geometry. As a proof-of-principle, a detailed model of the Z-machine was developed in MCNP6 to correct for geometry issues when transferring the calibration results from a light lab setting to the Z-environment. Representative values for the instrument response function and the sensitivity for the current detectors fielded on MagLIF experiments were convolved with the modeled results. These results were compared with data collected on three previous MagLIF experiments. The comparison shows the model results can be used to constrain three parameters that are

  4. PENGARUH WAKTU REAKSI ETANOLISIS PADA SUHU RUANG TERHADAP RENDEMEN DAN STABILITAS EMULSI PRODUK ETANOLISIS Palm Kernel Oil (PKO [The Effect of Ethanolisis Reaction Time at Room Temperature on Yield and Emulsion Stability Ofproduct of Ethanolisis Palm Kernel Oil (PKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Yunggo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PKO (palm kernel oil is made from palm kernel of Elaesis gueneensis Jacq, which is a mixture of triglycerides. Triglycerides can be converted into a number of derivative products such as mono-diglycerides (MG-DG. MG-DG can be formed by ethanolisis reaction. In this study ethanolisis reaction of PKO was done by adding 96% of technical ethanol containing NaOH 1% (w/w PKO on PKO solution at a room temperature and a shorter time than the another PKO ethanolisis before. This study was aimed to find the best PKO ethanolisis reaction time in providing products of ethanolisis PKO with yield and high emulsion stability. The experiment was a nonfactorial  and arranged in a complete randomized block design (CRBD with four replications.  The single factor studied was 7 levels of  the reaction time in which  were 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 minutes.  The data  were analysed using ANOVA and  further by Orthogonal polynomial on the significant level of 1% and 5%. The results showed that the reaction time ethanolisis had no effect on the yield and stability of the emulsion of fresh coconut milk. The yield of the resulting range between 17.32% - 18.07% and the stability of emulsion ranged between 88.88% - 92.50% during one day and 85.23% - 89.50% during two days. The sensory observation indicated that PKO ethanolisis product can preserve coconut milk for 3 days of storage time with color and scent of fresh coconut milk, and  more stable compared to control. Keywords: emulsion stability, ethanolisis, PKO, time, yield

  5. Continuing professional education: Motivations and experiences of health and social care professional's part-time study in higher education. A qualitative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Simon; Mairs, Hilary; Pusey, Helen; Bradshaw, Timothy; Keady, John

    2016-11-01

    To understand the motivations and experiences of health and social care professionals undertaking part-time, accredited, continuing professional education in higher education. A review following systematic principles. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and December 2015 using the databases: SCOPUS, Web of Science, Medline, PsychINFO, Social Policy and Practice and CINAHL. Studies were included if they were published in the English language and were qualitative in design, focussing on the motivations and experiences of staff engaged in part-time, accredited, higher education study. Three reviewers appraised the quality of the selected studies. Thirteen qualitative studies were identified for the review. Motivating factors for staff to engage in part-time, accredited, continuing professional development study included: personal and professional drivers, influence of workplace/management and funding and availability. Key themes in relation to how staff experienced study included: the demands of adjusting to the academic requirements of higher education study; the experience of juggling competing demands of study, work and family; and the presence or absence of support for part-time study in the personal and professional arenas. Health and social care professionals experience a number of challenges when engaging in part-time, continuing professional education in higher education institutions. A significant challenge is the juggling of competing demands of study, work and family, and this may have a negative impact on learning. Research is needed to inform how higher education can address the specific learning needs of this population and develop pedagogic approaches that are both responsive to need and support of effective learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods: Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n ...

  7. Redfield Ratios in Inland Waters: Higher Biological Control of C:N:P Ratios in Tropical Semi-arid High Water Residence Time Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng H. They

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The canonical Redfield C:N:P ratio for algal biomass is often not achieved in inland waters due to higher C and N content and more variability when compared to the oceans. This has been attributed to much lower residence times and higher contributions of the watershed to the total organic matter pool of continental ecosystems. In this study we examined the effect of water residence times in low latitude lakes (in a gradient from humid to a semi-arid region on seston elemental ratios in different size fractions. We used lake water specific conductivity as a proxy for residence time in a region of Eastern Brazil where there is a strong precipitation gradient. The C:P ratios decreased in the seston and bacterial size-fractions and increased in the dissolved fraction with increasing water retention time, suggesting uptake of N and P from the dissolved pool. Bacterial abundance, production and respiration increased in response to increased residence time and intracellular nutrient availability in agreement with the growth rate hypothesis. Our results reinforce the role of microorganisms in shaping the chemical environment in aquatic systems particularly at long water residence times and highlights the importance of this factor in influencing ecological stoichiometry in all aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Pedagogical Change at Times of Change in the Higher Education System: An Exploration of Early Career Mentoring, Co-publication and Teaching & Learning Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities are at a time of change. Their social, political and economic conditions are under challenge, while technological change challenges curriculum design and implementation, requiring reconsiderations of teaching and learning practices. In this context, and as part of the conference session on Higher education in 2014: threshold, watershed or business as usual?, I reviewed an approach I have been trialing to supporting early- and mid-career academics to navigate through this changing environment. This paper presents an illustrated essay on a human-scale approach to early- and mid-career mentoring through the establishment of small team-based research and writing projects. The essay provides examples of activities that, on the one hand, assist academics to develop the tools they need to navigate the new and evolving environment of higher education, while on the other hand directly addresses key pedagogical issues and provides new insight into teaching and learning in higher education.

  9. Milk Yield and Quality of Holstein and Jersey Breeds of Cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Friesian cows were used to evaluate the effects of breed, month of lactation and milking time on the milk yield and quality of commercial dairy cows under the tropical climate of Nigeria. Mean milk yield and milk protein were significantly higher ...

  10. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  11. Comparison of breeding methods for forage yield in red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Jalůvka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three methods of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. breeding for forage yield in two harvest years on locations in Bredelokke (Denmark, Hladké Životice (Czech Republic and Les Alleuds (France were compared. Three types of 46 candivars1, developed by A recurrent selection in subsequent generations (37 candivars, divided into early and late group, B polycross progenies (4 candivars and C ge­no-phe­no­ty­pic selection (5 candivars were compared. The trials were sown in 2005 and cut three times in 2006 and 2007; their evaluation is based primarily on total yield of dry matter. The candivars developed by polycross and geno-phenotypic selections gave significantly higher yields than candivars from the recurrent selection. However, the candivars developed by the methods B and C did not differ significantly. The candivars developed by these progressive methods were suitable for higher yielding and drier environment in Hladké Životice (where was the highest yield level even if averaged annual precipitation were lower by 73 and 113 mm in comparison to other locations, respectively; here was ave­ra­ge yield higher by 19 and 13% for B and C in comparison to A method. Highly significant interaction of the candivars with locations was found. It can be concluded that varieties specifically aimed to different locations by the methods B and C should be bred; also the parental entries should be selected there.

  12. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  13. Yield gap analysis in long-term experiments with intensive rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureles, E.V.; Correa, T. Jr.; Buresh, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term continuous cropping experiment at IRRI is cultivated with three rice crops in a year, making it the world's most intensively cropped long-term rice experiment. The availability of comprehensive rice production records, compiled weather data, and tested crop models provides a means to evaluate long-term trends in measured and potential yields and yield gaps in this rice production system. Yield trends were assessed using the highest yielding cultivar in each cropping season from 1979 to 2005. Potential yield of the highest yielding cultivar in each season was determined using three rice models (ORYZA, TERM, and CERES) run with the actual transplanting and harvest dates for the cultivar. The yield gap was determined from the difference between the simulated potential grain yield and the measured grain yield. Measured and potential yields and the yield gap varied across seasons and years. Measured yields were higher in the dry season than in the early and late wet seasons. The yield gap tended to be higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Climatic parameters, particularly solar radiation, influenced the performance of rice cultivars. The relatively larger yield gaps in the late wet season than in the dry season were associated with increased spikelet sterility. The cumulative measured yield for the three annual rice crop was near 80 percent of the annual yield potential in years with best practices for fertilizer N and crop management. The long term trends suggest that effective timing and rates of N fertilization and effective control of diseases were critical in achieving 80 percent of the annual yield potential

  14. Higher risks when working unusual times? A cross-validation of the effects on safety, health, and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greubel, Jana; Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Lombardi, David A

    2016-11-01

    Replication and cross-validation of results on health and safety risks of work at unusual times. Data from two independent surveys (European Working Conditions Surveys 2005 and 2010; EU 2005: n = 23,934 and EU 2010: n = 35,187) were used to examine the relative risks of working at unusual times (evenings, Saturdays, and Sundays) on work-life balance, work-related health complaints, and occupational accidents using logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders such as demographics, work load, and shift work. For the EU 2005 survey, evening work was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor work-life balance (OR 1.69) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.14), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.49) and occupational accidents (OR 1.34), and Sunday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.15) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.17). For EU 2010, evening work was associated with poor work-life balance (OR 1.51) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.12), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.60) and occupational accidents (OR 1.19) but a decrease in risk for work-related health complaints (OR 0.86) and Sunday work with work-related health complaints (OR 1.13). Risk estimates in both samples yielded largely similar results with comparable ORs and overlapping confidence intervals. Work at unusual times constitutes a considerable risk to social participation and health and showed structurally consistent effects over time and across samples.

  15. Comparing predicted yield and yield stability of willow and Miscanthus across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Jaiswal, Deepak; Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2016-01-01

    was 12.1 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for willow and 10.2 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for Miscanthus. Coefficent of variation as a measure for yield stability was poorest on the sandy soils of northern and western Jutland and the year-to-year variation in yield was greatest on these soils. Willow was predicted to outyield...... Miscanthus on poor, sandy soils whereas Miscanthus was higher yielding on clay-rich soils. The major driver of yield in both crops was variation in soil moisture, with radiation and precipitation exerting less influence. This is the first time these two major feedstocks for northern Europe have been compared....... The semi-mechanistic crop model BioCro was used to simulate the production of both short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and Miscanthus across Denmark. Predictions were made from high spatial resolution soil data and weather records across this area for 1990-2010. The potential average, rain-fed mean yield...

  16. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  17. Exploitation of rapid acidification phenomena of food waste in reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of high rate anaerobic digester without conceding on biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruti, Kranti; Begum, Sameena; Ahuja, Shruti; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Juntupally, Sudharshan; Gandu, Bharath; Ahuja, Devender Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study and infer a full scale experience on co-digestion of 1000kg of FW (400kg cooked food waste and 600kg uncooked food waste) and 2000L of rice gruel (RG) on daily basis based on a high rate biomethanation technology called "Anaerobic gas lift reactor" (AGR). The pH of raw substrate was low (5.2-5.5) that resulted in rapid acidification phenomena with in 12h in the feed preparation tank that facilitated to obtain a lower hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 10days. At full load, AGR was fed with 245kg of total solids, 205kg of volatile solids (167kg of organic matter in terms of chemical oxygen demand) which resulted in the generation of biogas and bio manure of 140m 3 /day and 110kg/day respectively. The produced biogas replaced 60-70kg of LPG per day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  19. Efeito do tempo de experiência de operadores de Harvester no rendimento operacional Effect of time experience of Harvester operators in operating yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Leonello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A mecanização da colheita de madeira permite maior controle dos custos e pode proporcionar reduções em prazos relativamente curtos. Além disso, tem um lugar de destaque na humanização do trabalho florestal e no aumento do rendimento operacional. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho de operadores de harvester em função do tempo de experiência na atividade. Foram avaliados oito operadores do sexo masculino, com idade entre 23 e 46 anos. O estudo consistiu na análise do volume de madeira colhida pelo harvester. O tempo de experiência afeta significativamente o rendimento operacional dos operadores de harvester. Tal rendimento aumenta expressivamente nos primeiros 18 meses de experiência, mantendo-se em ascensão nos próximos 26 meses. Após os 44 meses de experiência, o rendimento dos operadores tende a reduzir, revelando as possíveis acomodações do cotidiano. Tais resultados permitem concluir que por volta dos 50 meses de experiência na atividade de operação de harvester, se faz necessária a adoção de medidas de reciclagem, motivação, entre outras, a fim de proporcionar aos operadores melhores condições de trabalho que os possibilitem continuar exercendo a atividade de forma eficiente e rentável à empresa.The mechanization of timber harvesting allows greater control of costs and can provide reductions in relatively short intervals. Moreover, it has a place in the humanization of the working forest and the increase in performance. This work provides comparisons of operating performance of different operator harvester according to the time of experience in the activity. The operators evaluated were eight males, aged between 23 and 46 years old. The study consisted of analysis of the volume of timber harvested by the harvester. The experience significantly affects the performance of harvesters operators. The performance increases significantly in the first 18 months of experience, and it remained on

  20. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  1. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  2. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  3. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  4. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  5. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  6. Do later wake times and increased sleep duration of 12th graders result in more studying, higher grades, and improved SAT/ACT test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration, wake time, and hours studying on high school grades and performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)/ American College Testing (ACT) college entrance exams. Data were collected from 13,071 recently graduated high school seniors who were entering college in the fall of 2014. A column proportions z test with a Bonferroni adjustment was used to analyze proportional differences. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine mean group differences. Students who woke up prior to 6 a.m. and got less than 8 h of sleep (27 %) were significantly more likely to report studying 11 or more hours per week (30 %), almost double the rate compared to students who got more than 8 h of sleep and woke up the latest (16 %). Post hoc results revealed students who woke up at 7 a.m. or later reported significantly higher high school grades than all other groups (p students who woke up between 6:01 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. and got eight or more hours of sleep. The highest reported SAT/ACT scores were from the group that woke up after 7 a.m. but got less than 8 h sleep (M = 1099.5). Their scores were significantly higher than all other groups. This study provides additional evidence that increased sleep and later wake time are associated with increased high school grades. However, this study also found that students who sleep the longest also reported less studying and lower SAT/ACT scores.

  7. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  8. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  9. Evaluation of a reduced centrifugation time and higher centrifugal force on various general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes in plasma and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette F; Søndergaard, Tove R; Kristensen, Helle T; Münster, Anna-Marie B

    2017-09-01

    Background Centrifugation of blood samples is an essential preanalytical step in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Centrifugation settings are often altered to optimize sample flow and turnaround time. Few studies have addressed the effect of altering centrifugation settings on analytical quality, and almost all studies have been done using collection tubes with gel separator. Methods In this study, we compared a centrifugation time of 5 min at 3000 ×  g to a standard protocol of 10 min at 2200 ×  g. Nine selected general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes and interference indices were studied in lithium heparin plasma tubes and serum tubes without gel separator. Results were evaluated using mean bias, difference plots and coefficient of variation, compared with maximum allowable bias and coefficient of variation used in laboratory routine quality control. Results For all analytes except lactate dehydrogenase, the results were within the predefined acceptance criteria, indicating that the analytical quality was not compromised. Lactate dehydrogenase showed higher values after centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 ×  g, mean bias was 6.3 ± 2.2% and the coefficient of variation was 5%. Conclusions We found that a centrifugation protocol of 5 min at 3000 ×  g can be used for the general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes studied, with the possible exception of lactate dehydrogenase, which requires further assessment.

  10. Estimating yield gaps at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilpart, Nicolas; Grassini, Patricio; Sadras, Victor O; Timsina, Jagadish; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2017-05-01

    Yield gap analyses of individual crops have been used to estimate opportunities for increasing crop production at local to global scales, thus providing information crucial to food security. However, increases in crop production can also be achieved by improving cropping system yield through modification of spatial and temporal arrangement of individual crops. In this paper we define the cropping system yield potential as the output from the combination of crops that gives the highest energy yield per unit of land and time, and the cropping system yield gap as the difference between actual energy yield of an existing cropping system and the cropping system yield potential. Then, we provide a framework to identify alternative cropping systems which can be evaluated against the current ones. A proof-of-concept is provided with irrigated rice-maize systems at four locations in Bangladesh that represent a range of climatic conditions in that country. The proposed framework identified (i) realistic alternative cropping systems at each location, and (ii) two locations where expected improvements in crop production from changes in cropping intensity (number of crops per year) were 43% to 64% higher than from improving the management of individual crops within the current cropping systems. The proposed framework provides a tool to help assess food production capacity of new systems ( e.g. with increased cropping intensity) arising from climate change, and assess resource requirements (water and N) and associated environmental footprint per unit of land and production of these new systems. By expanding yield gap analysis from individual crops to the cropping system level and applying it to new systems, this framework could also be helpful to bridge the gap between yield gap analysis and cropping/farming system design.

  11. Effect of Irrigation Intervals, Type of Fertilizers and Harvesting Time on Essence Content and Yield of Three Medicinal Plants: Lavender (lavandula angustifolia, Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis and Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis in Mashhad Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of fertilizer types and irrigation regimes on quality criteria of three medicinal plants: Lavander, Rosemary and Hyssop, an experiment was conducted at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during two growing years of 2007-2009. A split plot design with three replications was used. Treatments were three irrigation intervals (10, 20, 30 days as main plots and six fertilizers: including (control, Nitroxin (5lit/ha, nitrogen fertilizer (50 and 100 (kg/ha, cow manure (10 and 20 ton/ha and three medicinal plants as sub-subplots. Animal manure and chemical fertilizer were applied at the time of transferring seedlings to the field and Nitroxin was used with the first irrigation. Results indicated that the effect of irrigation intervals on yield of essential oil in all species was significant (p≤0.01. The highest essential oil content was from Rosemary (1.5% but the highest yield of essential oil was obtained from three species, Lavander (10kg/ha, Rosemary (7kg/ha and Hyssop (12kg/ha with application of biological fertilizer. Application of fertilizer affected significantly (P

  12. High-dynamic-range neutron time-of-flight detector used to infer the D(t,n){sup 4}He and D(d,n){sup 3}He reaction yield and ion temperature on OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, C. J., E-mail: cforrest@lle.rochester.edu; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Romanofsky, M. H.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Upgraded microchannel-plate–based photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMT’s) with increased stability to signal-shape linearity have been implemented on the 13.4-m neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector at the Omega Laser Facility. This diagnostic uses oxygenated xylene doped with diphenyloxazole C{sub 15}H{sub 11}NO + p-bis-(o-methylstyryl)-benzene (PPO + bis-MSB) wavelength shifting dyes and is coupled through four viewing ports to fast-gating MCP-PMT’s, each with a different gain to allow one to measure the light output over a dynamic range of 1 × 10{sup 6}. With these enhancements, the 13.4-m nTOF can measure the D(t,n){sup 4}He and D(d,n){sup 3}He reaction yields and average ion temperatures in a single line of sight. Once calibrated for absolute neutron sensitivity, the nTOF detectors can be used to measure the neutron yield from 1 × 10{sup 9} to 1 × 10{sup 14} and the ion temperature with an accuracy approaching 5% for both the D(t,n){sup 4}He and D(d,n){sup 3}He reactions.

  13. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  14. Modelling crop yield in Iberia under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Páscoa, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia

    2017-04-01

    The improved assessment of the cereal yield and crop loss under drought conditions are essential to meet the increasing economy demands. The growing frequency and severity of the extreme drought conditions in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has been likely responsible for negative impacts on agriculture, namely on crop yield losses. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of vegetation activity and a reliable estimation of drought impacts is crucial to contribute for the agricultural drought management and development of suitable information tools. This works aims to assess the influence of drought conditions in agricultural yields over the IP, considering cereal yields from mainly rainfed agriculture for the provinces with higher productivity. The main target is to develop a strategy to model drought risk on agriculture for wheat yield at a province level. In order to achieve this goal a combined assessment was made using a drought indicator (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) to evaluate drought conditions together with a widely used vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) to monitor vegetation activity. A correlation analysis between detrended wheat yield and SPEI was performed in order to assess the vegetation response to each time scale of drought occurrence and also identify the moment of the vegetative cycle when the crop yields are more vulnerable to drought conditions. The time scales and months of SPEI, together with the months of NDVI, better related with wheat yield were chosen to perform a multivariate regression analysis to simulate crop yield. Model results are satisfactory and highlighted the usefulness of such analysis in the framework of developing a drought risk model for crop yields. In terms of an operational point of view, the results aim to contribute to an improved understanding of crop yield management under dry conditions, particularly adding substantial information on the advantages of combining

  15. The influence of aging stress on the yield point phenomenon in the zirconium alloy, ozhennite 0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.I.; Sayar, A.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of aging stress on the occurrence of yield points during interrupted tensile tests was studied in the temperature range 423 to 623 K for aging times of 2 to 10 min. The results indicate that at the lower temperatures the yield points are produced by dislocation rearrangements, with a minimum yield drop resulting from an aging close to the internal stress estimated by an unloading to zero stress relaxation technique. Above approximately 458 K, solute atoms can play an important role in the formation of the yield points. When this solute strain-aging occurs strongly, a maximum yield drop is at times obtained by aging at a stress close to the measured internal stress. At the higher deformation temperatures, the yield drop decreases more rapidly with increasing plastic strain, which result appears related to the greater amount of tangling of dislocations produced at the higher temperatures. (Auth.)

  16. Early lactate clearance in septic patients with elevated lactate levels admitted from the emergency department to intensive care: time to aim higher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Craig A; Griffith, David M; Gray, Alasdair J; Datta, Deepankar; Hay, Alasdair W

    2013-10-01

    Septic patients with hyperlactatemia have increased mortality rates, irrespective of hemodynamic and oxygen-derived variables. The aims of the study are the following: (1) to ascertain whether lactate clearance (LC) (percentage change in lactate over unit time) predicts mortality in septic patients admitted to intensive care directly from the emergency department and (2) to calculate the optimal "cut-off" value for mortality prediction. Three-year retrospective observational study of consecutive patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to intensive care from the emergency department of a tertiary UK hospital. We calculated 6-hour LC, performed receiver operating characteristic analyses to calculate optimal cut-off values for initial lactate and LC, dichotomized patients according to the LC cut-off, and calculated hazard ratios using a Cox proportional hazards model. One hundred six patients were identified; 78, after exclusions. Lactate clearance was independently associated with 30-day mortality (P<.04); optimal cut-off, 36%. Mortality rates were 61.1% and 10.7% for patients with 6-hour LC 36% or less and greater than 36%, respectively. Hazard ratio for death with LC 36% or less was 7.33 (95% confidence interval, 2.17-24.73; P<.001). Six-hour LC was independently associated with mortality, and the optimal cut-off value was 36%, significantly higher than previously reported. We would support further research investigating this higher LC as a distinct resuscitation end point in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  18. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  19. Yielding of leaf celery Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum Alef. depending on the number of harvests and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Rożek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf celery (Apium graveolensvar. secalinum is a vegetable with medicinal and spicy properties. Its numerous intensely fragrant leaves can be cut several times during the plant growing period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation and number of harvests on leaf celery yield of the cultivars ‘Afina’ and‘Gewone Snij’. Plant irrigation significantly increased leaf yield and plant height of leaf celery. Higher total yield was obtained from non-irrigated plants when leaves were harvested three times, whereas for irrigated plants yield was higher in the case of two leaf harvests. Irrespective of the experimental factors, higher yield was obtained from the cultivar ‘Gewone Snij’.

  20. Hot-boning enhances cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H; Bowker, B C; Buhr, R J; Brambila, G Sanchez

    2014-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of postmortem deboning time on cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs. In experiment 1, chicken thigh meat was deboned at 0.75 (hot-bone), 2, and 24 h postmortem (PM) and trimmed to obtain mainly iliotibialis muscle. Samples were cooked directly from a frozen state. Cook yield of the muscle was significantly influenced by PM deboning time. Hot-boned thighs exhibited a 7% greater cook yield than the samples deboned at 24 h. In experiment 2, boneless skinless chicken thighs were deboned at 0.3, 2, and 24 h PM and cooked directly from a fresh, never-frozen state at 24 h PM. Cook yield of the hot-boned thighs was significantly higher than those of the 2 and 24 h deboned samples, which did not differ from each other. In experiment 3, whole legs (thigh + drumstick) were cut from the carcass backbone at 0.3 (hot-cut), 2, and 24 h PM. Thighs were separated from the legs (drumsticks) at either the same time the whole legs were removed from the carcasses or at 24 h PM. Intact thighs (bone in) were cooked fresh at 24 h PM. Color of fresh thigh muscles, cook yield, and Warner-Bratzler shear force of cooked samples were measured. Cook yield of the thighs cut from the backbone before chilling was significantly higher than those cut from the carcasses at 2 and 24 h PM, which did not differ from each other. The PM time at which intact thighs were separated from the leg (drumstick) did not influence cook yield. These results demonstrate that postmortem deboning time can significantly affect cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thigh products. Deboning chicken thighs after chilling reduces the cook yield. Differences in the cook yield of thighs may also result from the removal of whole chicken legs from the carcass backbone. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels....

  2. Yield risks in global maize markets: Historical evidence and projections in key regions of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson B. Villoria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous worldwide crop failures stemming from a more unstable climate may reduce the scope for international trade to compensate food shortages and stabilize food prices across the various regions of the world. Understanding the effects of changes in crop productivity on global markets requires knowledge about the extent to which crop yields may be systematically related across producing and consuming centers. This short communication contributes to this knowledge by investigating the potential changes in the strength of two key sources of supply risks in global maize markets: yield variance and cross-country yield correlation. We focus on the largest producing and consuming countries of the world. We capitalize on yield projections from the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison project. Exploratory analysis of the skill of the underlying GGCMI models in reproducing key moments of the distribution of observed yields reveals that they overstate observed variances but faithfully reproduce observed patterns of cross-country correlations. We find no evidence of an increase in the degree of cross-country dependency of maize yields. We also find a higher incidence of what would be considered extremely low maize yields by present-time standards stemming from the projected downward trend in yields levels toward mid-century. The weak dependency of maize yields across countries, an the possibility of reducing the higher incidence of extremes through policies aimed to reverse the climate-induced downward trends in yields, suggest that international trade can become a valuable tool to ameliorate the effects of more unstable crop yields. Keywords: Extremely low yields, Maize markets, Food prices, Agricultural yields, Systemic risk in agriculture, Global agriculture, AgMIP, Global gridded crop model intercomparison

  3. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  4. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  5. Implementation of a new data acquisition and exclusive measurement of the reaction (vector)pp {yields} pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} at the time of flight spectrometer COSY-TOF; Implementierung einer neuen Datenerfassung und exklusive Messung der Reaktion (vector)pp {yields} pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} am Flugzeitspektrometer COSY-TOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardt, Arthur

    2009-06-12

    The two-pion production pp pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} was measured exclusively at T{sub p}=793 MeV using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. In this measurement both the new EMS-based data acquisition system and a delayed pulse technique have been used, which, in addition to particle identification, energy, time of flight, and angle determination provides pi+ identification for pions in the theta{sub lab} range from 2 to 28 degrees. The measured total cross section for this reaction is {sigma}=4.1(4) {mu}b at T{sub p}=793 MeV. Due to an improved efficiency correction, the earlier measured total cross section has been corrected to {sigma}=1.6 {mu}b at T{sub p}=747 MeV. This value agrees nicely with the results from WASA/PROMICE. The data are compared to previous data and theoretical models which have been developed to understand the results from WASA/PROMICE measurements. The measurements have been carried out with transversally polarized proton beam which made it possible to determine analyzing powers for different subsystems of the two pion production reaction. In contrast to predictions we find significant analyzing power values up to A{sub y}=0.3. The data in the range of Roper excitation confirm that the dominating {pi} {pi} decay channel is N{sup *}{yields}N{sigma}. (orig.)

  6. Factors influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy for bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Du, Y.; Luo, T.Y.; Yang, H.F.; Yu, J.H.; Xu, X.X.; Zheng, H.J.; Li, B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the factors influencing diagnostic yield of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) for bone lesions. Materials and methods: Between September 2005 and July 2011, 162 consecutive CT-guided CNB procedures were performed in 155 patients. The variables analysed were age, sex, lesion location, lesion type, lesion size, specimen size, biopsy needle gauge, and individual radiologist. The factors influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous CNB for bone lesions were determined by multivariate analysis of variables. Results: The diagnostic yield was 81.5%. Diagnostic yield was 89.9% for lytic bone lesions and 48.5% for sclerotic bone lesions (p < 0.001), and 89.2% for lesions ≥3 cm and 73.4% for lesions <3 cm (p = 0.010). The significant factors influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous CNB for bone lesions were lesion type [p < 0.001; odds ratio (OR) for a lytic lesion was approximately 12 times higher than that for a sclerotic lesion; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.22–34.01], and lesion size (p = 0.012; OR for a lesion size ≥3 cm was about five-times higher than that for a lesion size <3 cm; 95% CI: 1.42–16.71). Conclusion: Lesion type and lesion size are determining factors in diagnostic yield. The higher diagnostic yield is correlated with lytic lesion and lesion size ≥3 cm

  7. From Lean Times to Enrollment Declines: The Governor's Commission on the Future of Higher Education in Michigan. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Patricia

    Conditions in higher education in Michigan and the role of the Governor's Commission on the Future of Higher Education in Michigan are highlighted. The average college tuition rate in Michigan is the highest in the nation, and a critical maintenance and equipment problem exists. The Commission is composed of knowledgeable persons without vested…

  8. Preliminary Estimates of 1972-73 Full-Time Instructional Faculty in Institutions of Higher Education. Bulletin. Advanced Statistics for Management. No. 14, March 1, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Educational Statistics (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In response to needs expressed by the community of higher education institutions, the National Center for Educational Statistics has produced early estimates of a selected group of mean salaries of instructional faculty in institutions of higher education in 1972-73. The number and salaries of male and female instructional staff by rank are of…

  9. Using Low Resolution Satellite Imagery for Yield Prediction and Yield Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rojas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Low resolution satellite imagery has been extensively used for crop monitoring and yield forecasting for over 30 years and plays an important role in a growing number of operational systems. The combination of their high temporal frequency with their extended geographical coverage generally associated with low costs per area unit makes these images a convenient choice at both national and regional scales. Several qualitative and quantitative approaches can be clearly distinguished, going from the use of low resolution satellite imagery as the main predictor of final crop yield to complex crop growth models where remote sensing-derived indicators play different roles, depending on the nature of the model and on the availability of data measured on the ground. Vegetation performance anomaly detection with low resolution images continues to be a fundamental component of early warning and drought monitoring systems at the regional scale. For applications at more detailed scales, the limitations created by the mixed nature of low resolution pixels are being progressively reduced by the higher resolution offered by new sensors, while the continuity of existing systems remains crucial for ensuring the availability of long time series as needed by the majority of the yield prediction methods used today.

  10. Yield, yield components and dry matter digestibility of alfalfa experimental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage crop grown in the temperate regions. It is cultivated for production of vegetative aerial mass used fresh or as hay, and recently as haylage and silage. In many centres worldwide, efforts are made to breed and create new alfalfa cultivars with both higher yields and of higher nutritional value. The aim of this paper was to determine yield and digestibility of 12 experimental populations of alfalfa, and to compare their results to the yields of well-known domestic alfalfa commercial cultivars. The results show significant differences in yield of green forage and dry matter among alfalfa populations, as well as in yield components, height, proportion of leaves in yield and growth rate (tab. 1, 2 and 3. Differences between in vitro digestible dry matter (% and yields of in vitro digestible dry matter (t ha-1 were also significant (tab. 5 and 6. Yield and quality of experimental populations were at the same level or higher than of control cultivars. Synthetic SINUSA exceeded the control cutivars (NS Mediana ZMS V and Banat VS in yield and quality of dry matter. .

  11. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  12. Using historical wafermap data for automated yield analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, K.W.; Karnowski, T.P.; Gleason, S.S.; Jensen, D.; Lakhani, F.

    1999-01-01

    To be productive and profitable in a modern semiconductor fabrication environment, large amounts of manufacturing data must be collected, analyzed, and maintained. This includes data collected from in- and off-line wafer inspection systems and from the process equipment itself. This data is increasingly being used to design new processes, control and maintain tools, and to provide the information needed for rapid yield learning and prediction. Because of increasing device complexity, the amount of data being generated is outstripping the yield engineer close-quote s ability to effectively monitor and correct unexpected trends and excursions. The 1997 SIA National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors highlights a need to address these issues through open-quotes automated data reduction algorithms to source defects from multiple data sources and to reduce defect sourcing time.close quotes SEMATECH and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been developing new strategies and technologies for providing the yield engineer with higher levels of assisted data reduction for the purpose of automated yield analysis. In this article, we will discuss the current state of the art and trends in yield management automation. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  13. Improving Aspergillus niger tannase yield by N+ ion beam implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to improve tannase yield of Aspergillus niger through N+ ion beam implantation in submerged fermentation. The energy and dose of N+ ion beam implantation were investigated. The results indicated that an excellent mutant was obtained through nine successive implantations under the conditions of 10 keV and 30-40 (×2.6×10(13 ions/cm², and its tannase yield reached 38.5 U/mL, which was about five-time higher than the original strain. The study on the genetic stability of the mutant showed that its promising performance in tannase production could be stable. The studies of metal ions and surfactants affecting tannase yield indicated that manganese ions, stannum ions, xylene and SDS contained in the culture medium had positive effects on tannase production under submerged fermentation. Magnesium ions, in particular, could enhance the tannase yield by the mutant increasing by 42%, i.e. 53.6 U/mL. Accordingly, low-energy ion implantation could be a desirable approach to improve the fungal tannase yield for its commercial application.

  14. The yield of different pleural fluid volumes for Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Koegelenberg, Coenraad Frederik; Bolliger, Chris T; Chung, Pui Khi; Rautenbach, Cornelia; Wasserman, Elizabeth; Bernasconi, Maurizio; Friedrich, Sven Olaf; Diacon, Andreas Henri

    2013-03-01

    We prospectively compared the culture yields of two pleural fluid volumes (5 and 100 ml) inoculated in liquid culture medium in 77 patients of whom 58 (75.3%) were diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis. The overall fluid culture yield was high (60.3% of cases with pleural tuberculosis). The larger volume had a faster time to positivity (329 vs 376 h, p=0.055) but its yield was not significantly higher (53.5% vs 50%; p=0.75). HIV-positive patients were more likely to have positive cultures (78.9% vs 51.5%; p=0.002).

  15. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in

  16. Assessing the Impact of a Statewide STEM Investment on K-12, Higher Education, and Business/Community STEM Awareness over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Johnson, Carla C.; Walten, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite monetary and educational investments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) being at record high levels, little attention has been devoted to generating a common understanding of STEM. In addition, working with business, K-12 schools, and/or institutions of higher education to establish a grassroots effort to help…

  17. Produtividade de cultivares de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. submetidas a diferentes épocas de parcelamento da adubação Yield of coffee cultivars (Coffea arabica L. under different split-fertilization times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ferreira Bartholo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos foram instalados na Fazenda Experimental da Epamig em São Sebastião do Paraíso, com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento das cultivares Mundo Novo-IAC 379/19; Icatu Precoce-IAC 3282; Icatu Amarelo-IAC 2944 e Rubi-MG 1192, em relação a épocas de parcelamento de adubação. As respostas das cultivares foram medidas sobre a produção em função das épocas de parcelamento da adubação, demonstrando que a característica estudada foi influenciada pelas combinações das épocas em que foram submetidas. A cultivar Mundo Novo-IAC 379/19 tolerou intervalos maiores entre as adubações no período de outubro a março, e a cultivar Icatu Amarelo-IAC 2944 respondeu de modo significativo a quatro parcelamentos consecutivos com intervalo de 30-40 dias entre as aplicações. Para a cultivar Icatu Precoce-IAC 3282, existem opções de estabelecimento de épocas adequadas, dependendo do início das chuvas. A cultivar Rubi-MG 1192 não respondeu às épocas de parcelamento da adubação.ABSTRACT - The work was conducted at EPAMIG's Experimental Station in São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, to study the performance of Mundo Novo-IAC 379/19; Icatu Precoce-IAC 3282; Icatu Amarelo-IAC 2944 and Rubi- MG 1192 coffee cultivars, in relation to time and parceling out of fertilization. Cultivar responses were evaluated by yield measurements, with the results showing that this parameter was affected by time in which fertilization was made. Mundo Novo-IAC 379/19 cultivar tolerated broader intervals between the fertilizations from October to March. Icatu Amarelo-IAC 2944 response was significant to four consecutive parceling, with intervals from 30 to 40 days between applications. Icatu Precoce-IAC 3282 cultivar presented other more appropriate time options depending on the start of rainy season. Rubi-MG 1192 cultivar was not responsive to split-fertilization.

  18. The Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Water Yield in Dali County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water yield is of great importance to the balance between supply and demand of water resources. The provision of freshwater for Dali is estimated and mapped in 1988, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2008, using the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST modeling toolset. The stability of water yield’s spatial variation is analyzed by a sorting method. The factors are explored which lead to the change in the relative water yield capacity. The yields at five points in time are compared, and the result of which shows a sharp fluctuation. The water yield curve is of a similar waveform as precipitation. An obvious and relatively stable spatial variation appears for water yield. The highest water yield areas are mainly located in the area where the elevation is high and both the elevation and the slope changes are large, and the main land uses are Shrub Land and High Coverage Grassland. The lowest areas are mainly in the eastern part of Erhai or the surrounding area. Precipitation, construction land expansion and the implementation of policy on land use are the three main factors which contribute to the change of the relative water yield capacity during 1988–2008 in Dali. In the study area, the water yield appears highly sensitive to the change in precipitation. The elasticity coefficient is calculated to illustrate the sensitivity of the water yield to the precipitation. When the elasticity index is larger, the risk of natural disaster will be higher.

  19. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  20. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  1. Produção da figueira submetida a diferentes épocas de poda e irrigação The yield of fig trees as a function of pruning time and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes épocas de poda, correspondentes aos meses de julho, agosto, setembro e outubro dos anos de 2004/05 e 2005/06, com e sem o uso de irrigação, em figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos', no município de Botucatu-SP. Para atingir tal objetivo, adotou-se o delineamento experimental em parcelas subdivididas, com 5 repetições em blocos, onde as parcelas corresponderam aos tratamentos com e sem irrigação, e as subparcelas foram constituídas pelas podas realizadas nos quatro meses do ano. Foram avaliadas características de produção e alguns atributos de qualidade, que serviram para indicar a necessidade do uso de irrigação. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que, na avaliação do desdobramento da interação entre épocas de poda e irrigação complementar, o mês de agosto, com o uso de irrigação complementar, foi o mais favorável para a realização da poda da figueira, proporcionando as maiores produções médias verificadas no ensaio, tanto no ciclo agrícola de 2004/05 (3.513,8 g planta-1, quanto em 2005/06 (4.110,7 g planta-1. Em condições não-irrigadas, não houve diferença estatística entre os meses de julho, agosto e setembro de 2004/05 e entre julho e agosto de 2005/06.The research had the purpose to determine the effects of pruning time in July, August, September and October of 2004/05 and 2005/06, with and without irrigation, in the fig trees 'Roxo de Valinhos', located in Botucatu/SP/Brazil. The experimental design was in split plots with 5 replications at random in lines, where the plots consisted in the treatments with and without irrigation and the subplots were composed of the pruning accomplished in the four months of the year. It was evaluated the yield and fruits quality. These characteristics could be used to evaluate the irrigation necessity. The August month with irrigation was the best time to the fig trees pruning, enhancing the yield (3.513,8 g plant-1 in 2004

  2. Metabolic enzyme cost explains variable trade-offs between microbial growth rate and yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike T Wortel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbes may maximize the number of daughter cells per time or per amount of nutrients consumed. These two strategies correspond, respectively, to the use of enzyme-efficient or substrate-efficient metabolic pathways. In reality, fast growth is often associated with wasteful, yield-inefficient metabolism, and a general thermodynamic trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield has been proposed to explain this. We studied growth rate/yield trade-offs by using a novel modeling framework, Enzyme-Flux Cost Minimization (EFCM and by assuming that the growth rate depends directly on the enzyme investment per rate of biomass production. In a comprehensive mathematical model of core metabolism in E. coli, we screened all elementary flux modes leading to cell synthesis, characterized them by the growth rates and yields they provide, and studied the shape of the resulting rate/yield Pareto front. By varying the model parameters, we found that the rate/yield trade-off is not universal, but depends on metabolic kinetics and environmental conditions. A prominent trade-off emerges under oxygen-limited growth, where yield-inefficient pathways support a 2-to-3 times higher growth rate than yield-efficient pathways. EFCM can be widely used to predict optimal metabolic states and growth rates under varying nutrient levels, perturbations of enzyme parameters, and single or multiple gene knockouts.

  3. Evaluation of Hail Simulated Damage on Marketable Tuber Yield of Potato Agria Cultivar in Ardabil Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hassanpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Ardabil Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station during the year of 2010. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications and two factors were used to evaluate the effect of simulated hail damage to foliage at different growth stages of potato Agria cultivar on marketable tuber yield. The first factor consisted of six levels of foliar damage (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent and the second factor of five levels of plant growth stages (2, 5, 8, 11 and 15 weeks after the growing. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among plants for levels and times of hail damage and their interactions in terms of marketable tuber yield. Percentage of marketable yield reduction at early stages of vegetative growth (2 weeks after growing was minimal. Occurrence of hail damage at the tuberization and bulking stages (5, 8 and 11 weeks after growing severely reduced marketable tuber yield. While, its damage at late growing stages of (14 weeks after growing on tuber yield was not appreciable. Times of hail damage on marketable tuber yield reduction was calculated through the regression. Relative reduction of marketable tuber yield at the early stages of vegetative growth, due to hail damage, against non-marketable tuber yield was higher than of bulking stage.

  4. Influence of gamma rays on the yield of Linum usitatissimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghouse, A.K.M.; Abidi, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of various acute doses of gamma-rays has been studied in an oil yielding Indian variety, Neelum of Linum usitatissimum. It has been found that gamma irradiation brings about an increase in the yield of the crop at lower doses upto 75 krads, while the higher ones like 125 and 150 krads reduce the yield to half. (auth.)

  5. Maize yield and quality in response to plant density and application of a novel plant growth regulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, L.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Farmers in China have gradually increased plant density in maize to achieve higher yields, but this has increased risk of lodging due to taller and weaker stems at higher plant densities. Plant growth regulators can be used to reduce lodging risk. In this study, for the first time, the performance

  6. Determinants of the abilities to jump higher and shorten the contact time in a running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Zushi, Koji

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain useful information for developing training techniques for the running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball (lay-up shot jump). The ability to perform the lay-up shot jump and various basic jumps was measured by testing 19 male basketball players. The basic jumps consisted of the 1-legged repeated rebound jump, the 2-legged repeated rebound jump, and the countermovement jump. Jumping height, contact time, and jumping index (jumping height/contact time) were measured and calculated using a contact mat/computer system that recorded the contact and air times. The jumping index indicates power. No significant correlation existed between the jumping height and contact time of the lay-up shot jump, the 2 components of the lay-up shot jump index. As a result, jumping height and contact time were found to be mutually independent abilities. The relationships in contact time between the lay-up shot jump to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the 2-legged repeated rebound jump were correlated on the same significance levels (p jumping height existed between the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the lay-up shot jump (p jumping height between the lay-up shot jump and both the 2-legged repeated rebound jump and countermovement jump. The lay-up shot index correlated more strongly to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump index (p jump index (p jump is effective in improving both contact time and jumping height in the lay-up shot jump.

  7. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high-yield

  8. Time does not heal all wounds: older adults who experienced childhood adversities have higher odds of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Sarah M; Mackenzie, Corey S; Henriksen, Christine A; Afifi, Tracie O

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of several types of childhood adversity across adult cohorts, whether age moderates the effect of childhood adversity on mental health, the relationship between childhood adversity and psychopathology among older adults, the dose-response relationship between number of types of childhood adversities and mental disorders in later life, and whether lifetime mental health treatment reduces the odds of psychopathology among older survivors of childhood adversity. In a population-based, cross-sectional study on a nationally representative U.S. sample, we studied 34,653 community-dwelling Americans 20 years and older, including 7,080 adults 65 years and older from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Trained lay interviewers assessed past-year mood and anxiety disorders and lifetime personality disorders. Participants self-reported childhood adversity based on questions from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Childhood adversity was prevalent across five age cohorts. In our adjusted models, age did not moderate the effect of childhood adversity on mental disorders. Older adults who experienced childhood adversity had higher odds of having mood (odds ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.28), anxiety (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.83), and personality disorders (odds ratio: 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-2.54) after adjusting for covariates. An increasing number of types of childhood adversities was associated with higher odds of personality disorders and somewhat higher odds of anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking was associated with a reduced likelihood of anxiety and, especially, mood disorders in older adult childhood adversity survivors. These results emphasize the importance of preventing childhood adversity and intervening once it occurs to avoid the negative mental health effects that can last into old age. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  9. Employment status at time of first hospitalization for heart failure is associated with a higher risk of death and rehospitalization for heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Fosbøl, Emil L; Mogensen, Ulrik M

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization in a nation......AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization...

  10. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  11. Papers of the Canadian Institute's forum on natural gas purchasing strategies : critical information for natural gas consumers in a time of diminishing natural gas supplies and higher prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference provided insight into how to prosper in an increasingly complex natural gas marketplace. The presentations from key industry players offered valuable information on natural gas purchasing strategies that are working in the current volatile price environment. Diminishing natural gas supplies in North America mean that higher prices and volatility will continue. Other market challenges stem from potential cost increases in gas transportation, unbundling of natural gas services, and the changing energy marketing environment. The main factors that will affect prices for the winter of 2004 were outlined along with risk management and the best pricing strategies for businesses. The key strategies for managing the risks associated with natural gas purchase contracts were also reviewed, along with the issue of converging natural gas and electricity markets and the impact on energy consumers. The conference featured 15 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. High protein intake along with paternal part-time employment is associated with higher body fat mass among girls from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhe; Xue, Hong-Mei; Pan, Jay; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Yang, Min; Quan, Liming; Cheng, Guo

    2017-05-23

    Protein intake has been suggested to be associated with body composition among western children. Our aim was to determine whether protein intake is associated with body composition among Chinese children and to investigate whether parental socioeconomic status modifies these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from the baseline survey of an ongoing population-based prospective open cohort study conducted in 2013. In this survey, 2039 children in South China were recruited using cluster random sampling. Information of 1704 children (47% girls), aged 7-12 years from three primary schools (42 classes), on diet and anthropometry was included finally. Their daily protein intake was obtained by 3-day 24-h dietary recalls. Skinfold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, protein intake was positively associated with %BF and FMI [estimate (SE) for %BF: 0.007 (0.003), p = 0.04; for FMI: 0.092 (0.002), p = 0.03], adjusted for pubertal stage, breast-feeding, maternal overweight, carbohydrate intake, energy intake, and physical activity level. Furthermore, there was interaction between paternal occupation and the relations of dietary protein with %BF and FMI (p for interaction  ≤ 0.04). None of the associations between protein intake and %BF, FMI, or FFMI was found among boys. Our data indicate that school-aged girls, but not boys, living in South China with higher dietary protein intake might have higher body fat mass, which could be modified by paternal occupation.

  13. A Remote Sensing-Derived Corn Yield Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ranjay Man

    Agricultural studies and food security have become critical research topics due to continuous growth in human population and simultaneous shrinkage in agricultural land. In spite of modern technological advancements to improve agricultural productivity, more studies on crop yield assessments and food productivities are still necessary to fulfill the constantly increasing food demands. Besides human activities, natural disasters such as flood and drought, along with rapid climate changes, also inflect an adverse effect on food productivities. Understanding the impact of these disasters on crop yield and making early impact estimations could help planning for any national or international food crisis. Similarly, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Risk Management Agency (RMA) insurance management utilizes appropriately estimated crop yield and damage assessment information to sustain farmers' practice through timely and proper compensations. Through County Agricultural Production Survey (CAPS), the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) uses traditional methods of field interviews and farmer-reported survey data to perform annual crop condition monitoring and production estimations at the regional and state levels. As these manual approaches of yield estimations are highly inefficient and produce very limited samples to represent the entire area, NASS requires supplemental spatial data that provides continuous and timely information on crop production and annual yield. Compared to traditional methods, remote sensing data and products offer wider spatial extent, more accurate location information, higher temporal resolution and data distribution, and lower data cost--thus providing a complementary option for estimation of crop yield information. Remote sensing derived vegetation indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide measurable statistics of potential crop growth based on the spectral reflectance and could

  14. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  15. [Milk yield and environmental factors: Multiple regression analysis of the association between milk yield and udder health, fertility data and replacement rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsche, C; Staufenbiel, R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between milk yield and both fertility and general animal health in dairy herds is discussed from opposing viewpoints. The hypothesis (1) that raising the herd milk yield would decrease fertility results, the number of milk cells as an indicator for udder health and the replacement rate as a global indicator for animal health as well as increasing the occurrence of specific diseases as a herd problem was compared to the opposing hypotheses that there is no relationship (2) or that there is a differentiated and changing relationship (3). A total of 743 herd examinations, considered independent, were performed in 489 herds between 1995 and 2010. The milk yield, fertility rate, milk cell count, replacement rate, categorized herd problems and management information were recorded. The relationship between the milk yield and both the fertility data and animal health was evaluated using simple and multiple regression analyses. The period between calving and the first service displayed no significant relationship to the herd milk yield. Simple regression analysis showed that the period between calving and gestation, the calving interval and the insemination number were significantly positively associated with the herd milk yield. This positive correlation was lost in multiple regression analysis. The milk cell count and replacement rate using both the simple and multiple regression analyses displayed a significant negative relationship to the milk yield. The alternative hypothesis (3) was confirmed. A higher milk yield has no negative influence on the milk cell count and the replacement rate in terms of the udder and general health. When parameterizing the fertility, the herd milk yield should be considered. Extending the resting time may increase the milk yield while preventing a decline in the insemination index.

  16. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  17. Prevalence of bloodstream pathogens is higher in neonatal encephalopathy cases vs. controls using a novel panel of real-time PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tann, Cally J; Nkurunziza, Peter; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Oweka, James; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Were, Jackson; Nyombi, Natasha; Hughes, Peter; Willey, Barbara A; Elliott, Alison M; Robertson, Nicola J; Klein, Nigel; Harris, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    In neonatal encephalopathy (NE), infectious co-morbidity is difficult to diagnose accurately, but may increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxia-ischemia. We developed a novel panel of species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens amongst newborns with and without NE in Uganda. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for important neonatal bloodstream pathogens (gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus(HSV) and P. falciparum) were performed on whole blood taken from 202 encephalopathic and 101 control infants. Automated blood culture (BACTEC) was performed for all cases and unwell controls. Prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species amongst infants with NE was 3.6%, 6.9% and 8.9%, with culture, PCR and both tests in combination, respectively. More encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected (8.9%vs2.0%, p = 0.028) using culture and PCR in combination. PCR detected bacteremia in 11 culture negative encephalopathic infants (3 Group B Streptococcus, 1 Group A Streptococcus, 1 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 Enterobacteriacae). Coagulase negative staphylococcus, frequently detected by PCR amongst case and control infants, was considered a contaminant. Prevalence of CMV, HSV and malaria amongst cases was low (1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively). This real-time PCR panel detected more bacteremia than culture alone and provides a novel tool for detection of neonatal bloodstream pathogens that may be applied across a range of clinical situations and settings. Significantly more encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected suggesting that infection may be an important risk factor for NE in this setting.

  18. Prevalence of bloodstream pathogens is higher in neonatal encephalopathy cases vs. controls using a novel panel of real-time PCR assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cally J Tann

    Full Text Available In neonatal encephalopathy (NE, infectious co-morbidity is difficult to diagnose accurately, but may increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxia-ischemia. We developed a novel panel of species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens amongst newborns with and without NE in Uganda.Multiplex real-time PCR assays for important neonatal bloodstream pathogens (gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpes simplex virus(HSV and P. falciparum were performed on whole blood taken from 202 encephalopathic and 101 control infants. Automated blood culture (BACTEC was performed for all cases and unwell controls.Prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species amongst infants with NE was 3.6%, 6.9% and 8.9%, with culture, PCR and both tests in combination, respectively. More encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected (8.9%vs2.0%, p = 0.028 using culture and PCR in combination. PCR detected bacteremia in 11 culture negative encephalopathic infants (3 Group B Streptococcus, 1 Group A Streptococcus, 1 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 Enterobacteriacae. Coagulase negative staphylococcus, frequently detected by PCR amongst case and control infants, was considered a contaminant. Prevalence of CMV, HSV and malaria amongst cases was low (1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively.This real-time PCR panel detected more bacteremia than culture alone and provides a novel tool for detection of neonatal bloodstream pathogens that may be applied across a range of clinical situations and settings. Significantly more encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected suggesting that infection may be an important risk factor for NE in this setting.

  19. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    )], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

  20. Higher percentage of in vitro apoptotic cells at time of diagnosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia indicate earlier treatment requirement: Ten years follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić-Stevović Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL has an extremely variable clinical course. Biological reasons for that wide variation in clinical course and survival rates in CLL patients are not fully understood. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of spontaneous apoptosis of CLL cells in vitro determined at presentation of disease, in prediction of treatment requirements and evolution of the CLL. Methods. Malignant B cells were isolated from the whole blood of 30 newly diagnosed CLL patients and cultured for 24 hours in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% of serum obtained from the same CLL patient. Cells were later fixed and processed for embedding in Epon, or cell smears were prepared and stained with TUNEL technique. Results. Ten-year follow-up revealed that patients with lower percentage of cells in apoptosis at presentation of disease had significant longer time treatment initiation (log rank test p0.05. Conclusion. The results of this study emphasize the importance of apoptosis of CLL cells at the time of the initial diagnosis in pathobiology of this disease. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41025

  1. Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane-Droesch, Andrew; Torn, Margaret S; Abiven, Samuel; Jeffery, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar’s potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset—biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis—were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world’s important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar. (letter)

  2. PRODUTIVIDADE DO ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS EM FUNÇÃO DO MANEJO DO SOLO E DA ÉPOCA DE APLICAÇÃO DE NITROGÊNIO UPLAND RICE YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND NITROGEN APPLICATION TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Cobucci

    2011-01-01

    -height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">Times New Roman,serif;">PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Oryza sativa; plantio direto; plantio convencional; escarificação.

    Times New Roman,serif;">Proper soil management and N application time can significantly increase upland rice yield. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between soil management and nitrogen application time on upland rice development and yield. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 5x2 factorial scheme, consisting of five soil management systems (moldboard plow and leveling disc harrow; harrow plow and leveling disc harrow; “matabroto”-type scarifier; no-tillage; and “Aeromix” - superficial scarification equipment and two N application times (all N in the base, being 45 kg ha-1 of N applied with the aid of a mechanical traction fertilizer machine, 1 day before rice sowing, + 45 kg ha-1 of N at sowing; and 45 kg ha-1 of N at sowing + 45 kg ha-1 at the beginning of plant tillering, with 4 repetitions. There was no interaction among factors, concerning final plants stand. For treatments where the soil was plowed by using moldboard plow and disk harrow, yield was higher when the nitrogen was parceled out. When nitrogen was all applied during the planting time, the treatment with the “matabroto”-type scarifier presented the highest yield, differing statistically from all the other treatments. Conventional tillage yield (moldboard plow or disk harrow was similar to no-tillage, when all N was applied during the planting time.

    Effects of planting method on agronomic characteristics, yield and yield components of sweet and super sweet corn (Zea mays L. varieties under saline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faridi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of planting pattern on morphological, Phonological, yield and yield components of sweet and super sweet corn (Zea mays L. varieties under saline conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. Planting pattern in 3 levels included one row in ridge, two row in ridge and furrow planting, as a main plot and varieties in 4 levels sweet corn with 2 types (KSc 403 su, Merit and super sweet with two types (Basin, obsession as sub plots. The results showed that planting pattern had significant differences on plant height, ear height, leaf length, leaf width, number of kernel per row, number of rows per ear and 1000-kernel weight. but had no significant effects on the length of tassel, number of leaf/plant, number of leaf per plant above ear, stem diameter, time of anthesis, time of silking, anthesis silking interval ASI, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. Different varieties had significant effects on the total characteristics studied except number of leaf above ear and stem diameter. Most of the conservable grain yield and harvest index was in Obsession variety (10 kg and 39%, respectively and the least was seen in Basin (4 kg and 20%, respectively. The result showed that use of furrow planting pattern for sweet and super sweet corn in saline conditions can effects result in higher yield.

  3. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Growth Indices of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Conventional and Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Hajghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of organic fertilizers in sustainable agriculture systems improves yield sustainability of field crop. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is native to Middle East and belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is resistant to saline conditions, water stress, and can reach the deep-lying water of soil. The humic acid (HA mentioned as an environmentally friendly, organic matter with low levels of hormonal-like compounds is useful in improving agriculture production (Samavat and Malakuti 2006. The HA influence on plant growth depends on the source, concentration and molecular weight of the substance. Vermicompost is produced by earthworms, mainly Eisenia foetida, it has higher levels of available nutrients compared to the original materials of composts produced by other methods. Recent evidences suggest that using different amounts of vermicompost increased vegetative traits and concentration of minerals in sunflower. However, there has been little discussion about organic farming of safflower. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of organic treatments on yield, yield components, and growth indices of safflower and to compare it with conventional agriculture. Materials and methods This research was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station in Kerman, Iran during 2012–2013. It was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB design and had three replications. The current research has been performed to investigate the effects of two different sources of organic fertilizer on spring safflower. Four levels of vermicompost (V: 0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 were considered in the main plots. Liquid humic acid at four different concentrations (HA: 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were examined and kept in the subplots. Humic acid as a foliar treatment on leaf surface was applied twice at the beginning of stem elongation and at flowering times. In this study, aimed to compare organic farming

  4. Determination of the alcohol-yielding capacity of cereals. A method for the determination of the alcohol-yielding capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, A; Hoppe, W

    1957-01-01

    A laboratory method is reported for the determination of the alcohol yielding capacity of starch-containing distillery raw materials. The starch is inverted with dilute HCl under pressure, after which the material is fermented with yeast at pH 5.4. After distillation, the alcohol is determined pyknometrically. The influence of such factors as amount of yeast was determined experimentally. Analysis of the time curves for the hydrolysis of starch (by paper-chromatographic techniques) in relation to pH showed glucose to be the principal reaction product, with only slight amounts of maltose and higher sugars being formed.

  5. Nearly suppressed photoluminescence blinking of small-sized, blue-green-orange-red emitting single CdSe-based core/gradient alloy shell/shell quantum dots: correlation between truncation time and photoluminescence quantum yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debjit; Mandal, Saptarshi; De, Chayan K; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Mandal, Prasun K

    2018-04-18

    CdSe-based core/gradient alloy shell/shell semiconductor quantum dots (CGASS QDs) have been shown to be optically quite superior compared to core-shell QDs. However, very little is known about CGASS QDs at the single particle level. Photoluminescence blinking dynamics of four differently emitting (blue (λem = 510), green (λem = 532), orange (λem = 591), and red (λem = 619)) single CGASS QDs having average sizes 600 nm). In this manuscript, we report nearly suppressed PL blinking behaviour of CGASS QDs with average sizes correlation between the event durations and found that residual memory exists in both the ON- and OFF-event durations. Positively correlated successive ON-ON and OFF-OFF event durations and negatively correlated (anti-correlated) ON-OFF event durations perhaps suggest the involvement of more than one type of trapping process within the blinking framework. The timescale corresponding to the additional exponential term has been assigned to hole trapping for ON-event duration statistics. Similarly, for OFF-event duration statistics, this component suggests hole detrapping. We found that the average duration of the exponential process for the ON-event durations is an order of magnitude higher than that of the OFF-event durations. This indicates that the holes are trapped for a significantly long time. When electron trapping is followed by such a hole trapping, long ON-event durations result. We have observed long ON-event durations, as high as 50 s. The competing charge tunnelling model has been used to account for the observed blinking behaviour in these CGASS QDs. Quite interestingly, the PLQY of all of these differently emitting QDs (an ensemble level property) could be correlated with the truncation time (a property at the single particle level). A respective concomitant increase-decrease of ON-OFF event truncation times with increasing PLQY is also indicative of a varying degree of suppression of the Auger recombination processes in these four

  6. Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor...... cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However...

  7. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A [Structure and Activity of Normal and Pathological Biomolecules-INSERM/UEVE U829, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf [3.Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aubert, Pascal [Nanometric Media Laboratory, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, ParisTech, BP 87, F-91000 Evry (France); Gaffet, Eric [Nanomaterials Research Group-UMR 5060, CNRS, UTBM, Site de Sevenans, F-90010 Belfort (France)], E-mail: jpb.cnrs@free.fr, E-mail: pcurmi@univ-evry.fr, E-mail: f.jelezko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-06-10

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  8. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  9. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT model was used to identify methods to increase the grain yield and decrease the gap. In order to explore the impact of N and cultivars on wheat yield in the different drought types, the climate conditions during 1981 to 2011 growing seasons was categorized into low, moderate, and severe water deficit classes according to the anomaly percentage of the water deficit rate during the entire wheat growing season. There are differences (P < 0.0001 in the variations of the potential yields among three cultivars over 30 yr. For all three water deficit types, the more recent cultivars Jimai22 and Shijiazhuang8 had higher yields compared to the older 'Jinan17'. As the N fertilizer rate increased, the yield gap decreased more substantially during the low water deficit years because of the significant increase in attainable yield. Overall, the yield gaps were smaller with less water stress. Replacement of cultivars and appropriate N fertilizer application based on the forecasted drought types can narrow the yield gap effectively.

  10. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    grain and biological yield resulted from the treated plants with F1 there was no difference among F2 and F1 fertilizer rate for grain yield of wheat. Also cereal straw + legume (GM in CR4 and CR5 treatments in F2 performed better than F1 fertilizer in no residue treatment and Wheat grain yield under F2 × CR5 treatments was 25% greater than under F1 × CR8 treatments. The combined use of NPK fertilizer plays an important role in wheat production. Application of NPK in balanced share at proper time has great impact on wheat yield. In order to achieve higher crop production, balanced and integrated nutrient supply and proper management of soil fertility is essential. Application of crop residues/green manures along with suitable does of major nutrients for efficient growth of crop prevent the decline in organic carbon and also bridge up gap between potential and actual yield of wheat. Further, use of crop residue had favorable effect on physic chemical and biological properties of soil due to supply of macro and micro-nutrients to crop properly. Furthermore the decomposition and mineralization of crop residue is a slow process which could match the nutrient requirement of crop. The protein percentage, which is higher in CR5 and CR4 ,shows in whole crop residue treatments, the lowest valuable in F3 and improves with the increase in fertilization researching the highest value with the rate F1. No significant difference was observed between the rate F2 and F3; this would suggest a lower efficiency of the latter, at least for protein accumulation. Increased wheat yield and component yield due to different crop residue incorporation and NPK rate were reported by Verhulst et al. (2011 and Aulakh et al. (2012. Conclusion Application of (140N- 90P- 80K kg.ha-1 and straw wheat along with mungbean and application straw barley + green manure was more effective than (180N- 120P- 100K kg.ha-1 application in no residue incorporation on grain yield and based on this research findings

  11. 70-79 Effects of Crop Rotation and NP Fertilizer Rate on Grain Yield a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amendment enabled maize yields and soil fertility to be maintained at a higher level. Multiple ... Higher grain yield and high net return of maize were realized following Niger seed, ...... Generation, Transfer and Gap Analysis Workshop. Nekemt ...

  12. Simulating the potential yield and yield gaps of sugar beet due to water and nitrogen limitations in Khorasan province using SUCROS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Deihimfard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crop productivity is highly constrained by water and nitrogen limitations in many areas of the world (Kalra et al., 2007. Therefore, there is a need to investigate more on nitrogen and water management to achieve higher production as well as quality. Irrigated sugar beet in the cropping systems of Khorasan province in northeastern of Iran accounts for about 34% of the land area under sugar beet production (~115,000 ha with an average yield of around 36 t.ha-1 (Anonymous, 2009. However, there is a huge yield gap (the difference between potential and water and nitrogen-limited yield mainly due to biotic and abiotic factors causing major reduction in farmers’ yield. Accordingly, yield gap analysis should be carried out to reduce the yield reduction and reach the farmer’s yield to the potential yield. The current study aimed to simulate potential yield as well as yield gap related to water and nitrogen shortage in the major sugar beet-growing areas of Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and methods This study was carried out in 6 locations across Khorasan province, which is located in the northeast of Iran. Long term weather data for 1986 to 2009 were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization for 6 selected locations. The weather data included daily sunshine hours (h, daily maximum and minimum temperatures (◦C, and daily rainfall (mm. Daily solar radiation was estimated using the Goudriaan (1993 method. The validated SUCROSBEET model (Deihimfard, 2011; Deihimfard et al., 2011 was then used to estimate potential, water and nitrogen-limited yield and yield gap of sugar beet for 6 selected locations across the Khorasan province in the northeast of Iran. This model simulates the impacts of weather, genotype and management factors on crop growth and development, soil water and nitrogen balance on a daily basis and finally it predicts crop yield. The model requires input data, including local weather and soil conditions, cultivar

  13. Yield stress independent column buckling curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    of the yield stress is to some inadequate degree taken into account in the Eurocode by specifying that steel grades of S460 and higher all belong to a common set of “raised” buckling curves. This is not satisfying as it can be shown theoretically that the current Eurocode formulation misses an epsilon factor......Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...... in the definition of the normalised imperfection magnitudes. By introducing this factor it seems that the GMNIA analysis and knowledge of the independency of residual stress levels on the yield stress can be brought together and give results showing consistency between numerical modelling and a simple modified...

  14. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  15. Interrelationships of somatic cell count, mastitis, and milk yield in a low somatic cell count herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluyker, H A; Gay, J M; Weaver, L D

    1993-11-01

    In a high yielding low SCC herd, changes in milk yield associated with SCC and occurrence of clinical mastitis and differences in SCC with parity, clinical mastitis, and DIM were investigated. Milk yield data were obtained at every milking, and SCC was measured once every 48 h in 117 cows during the first 119 d postpartum. Effects of SCC and clinical mastitis on cumulative milk yield in the first 119 d postpartum were evaluated with least squares linear regression. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to detect changes in SCC. The SCC was highest at lactation onset, and cows with clinical mastitis had significantly higher SCC. During the 10 d prior to onset of clinical mastitis, SCC was higher in affected cows than in matched unaffected controls and surged just prior to diagnosis. During the 10-d period following a mastitis treatment, SCC differences between treated and control cows remained significant but became smaller with time and returned to the premastitis differences. Occurrence of clinical mastitis was associated with 5% milk yield loss. Cows with mean SCC > 245,000 cells/ml over the 119 d showed 6.2% yield loss compared with cows with SCC 245,000 cells/ml) because a greater percentage of cows (26%) had clinical mastitis than elevated SCC (12.5%).

  16. Temporal changes in climatic variables and their impact on crop yields in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bin; Gou, Yu; Wang, Hong-Ye; Li, Hong-Mei; Wu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of variability in climatic variables changes and its impact on crop yields is important for farmers and policy makers, especially in southwestern China where rainfed agriculture is dominant. In the current study, six climatic parameters (mean temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, sunshine hours, temperature difference, and rainy days) and aggregated yields of three main crops (rice: Oryza sativa L., oilseed rape: Brassica napus L., and tobacco: Nicotiana tabacum L.) during 1985-2010 were collected and analyzed for Chongqing-a large agricultural municipality of China. Climatic variables changes were detected by Mann-Kendall test. Increased mean temperature and temperature difference and decreased relative humidity were found in annual and oilseed rape growth time series (Pchanges in climatic variables in this region. Yield of rice increased with rainfall (Pclimatic variables to crop yields. Temperature difference and sunshine hours had higher direct and indirect effects via other climatic variables on yields of rice and tobacco. Mean temperature, relative humidity, rainy days, and temperature difference had higher direct and indirect effects via others on yield of oilseed rape.

  17. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  18. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  19. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides.

  1. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  2. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  3. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  4. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Yun.

    1990-04-01

    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  5. Extended inflation from higher-dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the possibility that higher-dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. We analyze two separate models. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher-dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of nontrivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a nontrivial potential for the radius of the internal space. We find that extended inflation does not occur in these models. We also find that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  6. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  7. The Effect of Rate and Application Method of Potassium on Yield and Yield Components of Cotton in Saline Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ardakani

    2016-12-01

    flowering (25P+25V+50F, and 25% at planting+50% at vegetative stage and 25%at early boll development (25P+50V+25B as the subplot. The seeds planted had been acid-delinted and treated with chemicals against seed and seedling diseases. Plots consisted of six rows spaced 0.5 min row and 0.2 m in plant (10 plants m-2 and 6 m in length. To evaluate yield components of cotton including plant height, sympodial branch number, boll number, boll weight, 10 individual plants were selected randomly from final harvest area. At harvesting time one meter square from the beginning and a half meter around each plot was removed as a marginal effect. The remaining area was harvested by hand for determine of lint and biological yield. Seed-cotton samples were ginned to separate the fiber (lint from the seed. Lint percentage (% was calculated as the weight of lint to weight of the seed-cotton. The statistical analyses were performed by SAS software Ver. 9.1. The mean separation was done through Fischer least significant difference (FLSD test at alpha 0.05. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed that boll weight, seed cotton yield and biological yield were significantly affected by potassium rate, whereas plant height, number of sympodial branch, boll number and lint percentage was not affected by potassium rate. All traits were affected by potassium application method except plant height and lint percentage. Plant height, boll weight, seed cotton yield and lint percentage were affected by interaction of potassium rate and application method. Increasing of K level up to 150 kg ha-1 increased boll weight (23.64%, seed cotton yield (17.67%, and biological yield (9.86% in comparison with the application of 75 kg ha-1. Plant height, sympodial branch number and lint percentage did not respond to K rate. K application as 25% at planting+25% at vegetative stage (5-8 leaves stage, 25% at first flowering and 25% at early boll development (25P+25V+25F+25B had the highest boll weight, seed

  8. Effect of genotype and applied management on alfalfa yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to apply advanced management for successful production of alfalfa hay with premium quality (high content of protein and minerals. The maximum yield and the best quality of alfalfa in Serbia can be obtained by cutting four or five times per year. In alfalfa stands, use of cutting system with three cuts per year is inefficient and does not allow full exploitation of cultivar genetic potential and environmental conditions. It is possible, and economically beneficial to grow alfalfa on pseudoglay soils after application of lime and organic manure, with recommended rates 2.5 t ha-1 lime and 30 t ha-1 manure. Cutting alfalfa at the beginning of flowering stage (5 cuts per year provides hay with better quality - higher content of crude protein and lower portion of fibre fractions (neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin, and there is no reduction in dry matter yield. There is no differences in alfalfa quality after application of lower (2.5 t ha-1 and higher dose (5.0 t ha-1 of lime + 30 t ha-1 of organic manure, but there is significant increase of dry matter yield and protein yield per hectare followed by higher level of metabolic energy per unit area. Upon the results of this study, base of successful alfalfa production would be to develop management system and cultivars for different environments that would maximize hay yields without significant loses of quality.

  9. Algorithms for Brownian first-passage-time estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2009-09-01

    A class of algorithms in discrete space and continuous time for Brownian first-passage-time estimation is considered. A simple algorithm is derived that yields exact mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for linear potentials in one dimension, regardless of the lattice spacing. When applied to nonlinear potentials and/or higher spatial dimensions, numerical evidence suggests that this algorithm yields MFPT estimates that either outperform or rival Langevin-based (discrete time and continuous space) estimates.

  10. Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Azimzadeh

    2017-12-01

    . In fertilizer application at planting time, chemical fertilizer treatment produced the highest seed yield compared with other treatments. The faster availability of nitrogen chemical fertilizer is the reason for more seed yield in this treatment compared with organic fertilizers. In second year in fertilizer application before planting all treatments except 4 ton h-1 vermicompost and 15 ton h-1 municipal solid waste compost produced more seed yield compared with control and chemical fertilizer treatments but in fertilizer application at planting time chemical fertilizer, 4 and 7 ton h-1 vermicompost showed higher seed yield. Conclusions According to the results of this experiment, using 5 ton h-1 municipal solid waste compost before planting is the best treatment to use in safflower production in northern Khorasan.

  11. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  12. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...... that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...

  13. Variables affecting simulated Be sputtering yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björkas, C., E-mail: carolina.bjorkas@helsinki.fi; Nordlund, K.

    2013-08-15

    Since beryllium is a strong candidate for the main plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors, its sputtering behaviour plays an important role in predicting the reactor’s life-time. Consensus about the actual sputtering yields has not yet been achieved, as observations are influenced by experimental method and/or studied sample. In this work, the beryllium sputtering due to deuterium and beryllium self-bombardment is analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The main methodological aspects that influence the outcome, such as flux and fluence of the bombardment, are highlighted, and it is shown that the simulated yields also depend on the sample structure and deuterium content.

  14. Mutation and screening of high-alcoholic-yield yeast by HEPE and optimization of the fermentation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingjing; Lu Jiangtao; Zhang Qin; Wang Yan; Fu Yujie; Wang Shilong; Fu Haiying

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Cerevisiae YE0 was mutated using high-energy-pulse-electron (HEPE) beam. After ethanol stress and determination of the alcohol yield by gas chromatograph, the mutant YF1 with high alcoholic yield was obtained. The results showed that under the optimized fermentation conditions (34 degree C as the fermentation temperature, 72 h as the fermentation time and 30% as the glucose concentration), the alcoholic yield of YF1 was 15.57% which was 58.23% higher than that of the original strain YE0 (9.84%) under the same conditions. The growth rate and lethal temperature of the mutant YF1 were obviously enhanced to the original strain YE0. The mutant YF1 has a great potential application in industrial production of alcohol. And it can also be used as the original strain for further mutagenesis to get the strain of higher alcoholic yield. (authors)

  15. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...... reproductive tiller), the utilization of the potential (e.g. seed set, seed weight) and the realization of the seed yield potential, defined as the number of florets forming a saleable seed. The realization of the seed yield potential is affected by seed retention, seed weight and other traits associated...

  16. Yield and Yield Attributes Responses of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill to Elevated CO2 and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation in the Humid Transitory Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen ADEYEMI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Variations in yield components and grain yield of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculated soybean varieties (Glycine max L. Merrill grown in CO2 enriched environment in the humid rainforest were tested.  A screen house trial was established with soybean varieties (‘TGx 1448-2E’, ‘TGx 1440-1E’ and ‘TGx 1740-2F’, AMF inoculation (with and without and CO2 enrichment (350±50 ppm and 550±50 ppm in open top chamber, arranged in completely randomised design, replicated three times. A field trial was also conducted; the treatments were arranged in a split-split plot configuration fitted into randomised complete block design. In the main plot the variant was CO2 enrichment, the sub-plot consisted of AMF inoculation (with and without, while the sub-sub plot consisted of soybean varieties, replicated three times. Both trials had significantly higher grain yield at elevated CO2 than ambient. This could be attributed to improved yield attributes, more spore count and root colonisation. In both trials, inoculated soybean had significantly higher dry pod weight than un-inoculated, which could suggest the increased grain yield observed on the field. AMF inoculated soybean varieties outperformed un-inoculated in both CO2 enriched and ambient concentrations. AMF inoculated soybean variety ‘TGx 1740-2F’ is most preferable in CO2 enriched environment, while variety ‘TGx 1448-2E’ had the most stable grain yield in all growth environments.

  17. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  18. effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of okro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    reduce the demand for irrigation water (Boland et al., 1993). Deficit irrigation is another way in which water use efficiency can be maximized for higher yields per unit of irrigation water. Stegman (1982) reported that the yield of maize, sprinkler irrigated to induce a 30 - 40 percent depletion of available water between.

  19. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...

  20. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. ... since some combine harvester heads are unable to pick ..... as effected by population density and plant distribution.

  1. Prenatal maternal effects on body condition score, female fertility, and milk yield of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Brotherstone, S; Coffey, M P

    2007-07-01

    In this study, maternal effects were described as age of dam at first and second calving, first-lactation body condition score (BCS) of the dam during gestation, and milk yield of the dam. The impact of these effects on first-lactation daughter BCS, fertility, and test-day milk yield was assessed. The effect of milk yield of dam on daughter 305-d yield in the latter's first 3 lactations was also investigated. The proportion of total phenotypic variance in daughter traits accounted for by maternal effects was calculated. Dams calving early for the first time (18 to 23 mo of age) had daughters that produced 4.5% more first-lactation daily milk, had 7% higher BCS, and had their first service 3 d earlier than cows whose dams calved late (30 to 36 mo). However, daughters of dams that calved early had difficulties conceiving as they needed 7% more inseminations and had a 7.5% higher return rate. Cows from second calvings of relatively young (36 to 41 mo) dams produced 6% more first-lactation daily milk, had 2% higher BCS, and showed a significantly better fertility profile than cows whose dams calved at a late age (47 to 55 mo). High maternal BCS during gestation had a favorable effect on daughter BCS, nonreturn rate, and number of inseminations per conception. However, it was also associated with a small decrease in daughter daily milk yield. Changes in dam BCS during gestation did not affect daughter performance significantly. Maternal effects of milk yield of the dam, expressed as her permanent environment during lactation, adversely affected daughter 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield. However, although the effect was significant, it was practically negligible (<0.3% of the mean). Finally, overall maternal effects accounted for a significant proportion of the total phenotypic variance of calving interval (1.4 +/- 0.6%) and nonreturn rate (1.1 +/- 0.5%).

  2. Satellite-based assessment of grassland yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Siegmund, R.; Wagner, M.; Hartmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    Cutting date and frequency are important parameters determining grassland yields in addition to the effects of weather, soil conditions, plant composition and fertilisation. Because accurate and area-wide data of grassland yields are currently not available, cutting frequency can be used to estimate yields. In this project, a method to detect cutting dates via surface changes in radar images is developed. The combination of this method with a grassland yield model will result in more reliable and regional-wide numbers of grassland yields. For the test-phase of the monitoring project, a study area situated southeast of Munich, Germany, was chosen due to its high density of managed grassland. For determining grassland cutting robust amplitude change detection techniques are used evaluating radar amplitude or backscatter statistics before and after the cutting event. CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A data were analysed. All detected cuts were verified according to in-situ measurements recorded in a GIS database. Although the SAR systems had various acquisition geometries, the amount of detected grassland cut was quite similar. Of 154 tested grassland plots, covering in total 436 ha, 116 and 111 cuts were detected using CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A radar data, respectively. Further improvement of radar data processes as well as additional analyses with higher sample number and wider land surface coverage will follow for optimisation of the method and for validation and generalisation of the results of this feasibility study. The automation of this method will than allow for an area-wide and cost efficient cutting date detection service improving grassland yield models.

  3. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  4. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  5. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  6. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding.

  7. The Effects of Temperature and Precipitation on the Yield of Zea Mays L. I the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stooksbury, David Emory

    Three families of straightforward maize (Zea mays L.) yield/climate models using monthly temperature and precipitation terms are produced. One family of models uses USDA's Crop Reporting Districts (CRD) as its scale of aggregation. The other two families of models use three different district aggregates based on climate or yield patterns. The climate and yield districts are determined by using a two-stage cluster analysis. The CRD-based family of models perform as well as the climate and yield based models. All models explain between 80% and 90% of the variance in maize yield. The most important climate term affecting maize yield in the South is the daily maximum temperature at pollination time. The higher the maximum temperature, the lower the yield. Above normal minimum temperature during pollination increases yield in the Middle South. Weather that favors early planting and rapid vegetative growth increases yield. Ideal maize yield weather includes a dry period during planting followed by a warm period during vegetative growth. Moisture variables are important only during the planting and harvest periods when above normal precipitation delays field work and thereby reduces yield. The model results indicate that the dire predictions about the fate of Southern agriculture in a trace gas warmed world may not be true. This is due to the overwhelming influence of the daily maximum temperature on yield. An optimum aggregate for climate impact studies was not found. I postulate that this is due to the dynamic nature of the American maize production system. For most climate impact studies on a dynamic agricultural system, there does not need to be a concern about the model aggregation.

  8. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  9. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  10. Teor e composição do óleo essencial de inflorescências e folhas de Lavandula dentata L. em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento floral e épocas de colheita Yield and composition of essential oil from inflorescences and leaves of lavender (Lavandula dentata L. in different flower development stages and harvest times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Masetto

    2011-01-01

    , cosmetic and personal care industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and composition of essential oil from lavender inflorescences and leaves in different development stages. The experimental design was completely randomized in 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, with three flower development stages (bud, pre-anthesis/anthesis and senescence and two harvest periods (January and April, and 5 replicates. The essential oil samples were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. There was an interaction between the factors harvest time and flower development on essential oil yield of inflorescences, and a superior average was observed for flower buds harvested in January. The development stages did not alter the essential oil yield of leaves. The development stages influenced the levels of compounds of the essential oil from inflorescences and leaves. For essential oil in senescent flower stage harvested in April, there was a high level of 1,8-cineol, whereas in the remaining development stages, the levels were lower in both harvest times. The levels of camphor increased in the pre-anthesis/anthesis and senescence in January harvest. The essential oil from leaves presented higher levels of 1,8-cineol in branches with flowers in pre-anthesis/anthesis. Camphor and fenchone levels were higher in branches with buds. The essential oil from leaves of branches with buds and senescent flowers showed higher levels of linalool than that from inflorescences.

  11. A Tax for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  12. Biochar boosts tropical but not temperate crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Simon; Abalos, Diego; Prodana, Marija; Catarina Bastos, Ana; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Hungate, Bruce A.; Verheijen, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Applying biochar to soil is thought to have multiple benefits, from helping mitigate climate change [1, 2], to managing waste [3] to conserving soil [4]. Biochar is also widely assumed to boost crop yield [5, 6], but there is controversy regarding the extent and cause of any yield benefit [7]. Here we use a global-scale meta-analysis to show that biochar has, on average, no effect on crop yield in temperate latitudes, yet elicits a 25% average increase in yield in the tropics. In the tropics, biochar increased yield through liming and fertilization, consistent with the low soil pH, low fertility, and low fertilizer inputs typical of arable tropical soils. We also found that, in tropical soils, high-nutrient biochar inputs stimulated yield substantially more than low-nutrient biochar, further supporting the role of nutrient fertilization in the observed yield stimulation. In contrast, arable soils in temperate regions are moderate in pH, higher in fertility, and generally receive higher fertilizer inputs, leaving little room for additional benefits from biochar. Our findings demonstrate that the yield-stimulating effects of biochar are not universal, but may especially benefit agriculture in low-nutrient, acidic soils in the tropics. Biochar management in temperate zones should focus on potential non-yield benefits such as lime and fertilizer cost savings, greenhouse gas emissions control, and other ecosystem services.

  13. Experimental study on yield behavior of Daqing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Lei [China University of Petroleum, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    The yield behavior of Daqing crude oil was studied by means of multi-mode controlled-stress tests with a high-precision stress controlled rheometer. Two experiments of creep and constant stress loading rate were performed. The yield stress of gelled crude oil was dependent on the test conditions such as the stress loading time and the stress loading rate, but the yield strain did not change with test conditions. The yield strain did exist objectively and it can be used as the criterion for the yielding of the structure of gelled crude oil. The yield strain of gelled oil was studied through experiments of creep, constant stress loading rate, oscillatory shear stress increase, and constant shear rate. The yield strain of gelled crude oil decreased with the increasing gel strength. The experiment of constant speed increase of stress showed the strain softening phenomena for low gel strength oil. (orig.)

  14. High-yield exfoliation of tungsten disulphide nanosheets by rational mixing of low-boiling-point solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi-Moghaddam, Ali; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel

    2018-01-01

    Developing high-throughput, reliable, and facile approaches for producing atomically thin sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides is of great importance to pave the way for their use in real applications. Here, we report a highly promising route for exfoliating two-dimensional tungsten disulphide sheets by using binary combination of low-boiling-point solvents. Experimental results show significant dependence of exfoliation yield on the type of solvents as well as relative volume fraction of each solvent. The highest yield was found for appropriate combination of isopropanol/water (20 vol% isopropanol and 80 vol% water) which is approximately 7 times higher than that in pure isopropanol and 4 times higher than that in pure water. The dramatic increase in exfoliation yield can be attributed to perfect match between the surface tension of tungsten disulphide and binary solvent system. Furthermore, solvent molecular size also has a profound impact on the exfoliation efficiency, due to the steric repulsion.

  15. Study of genetic behavior of some early maturing and high yielding mutant lines of soybean in different locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, N.; Moualla, M.

    2007-01-01

    this study aimed at checking the stability of some mutant lines from soybean varieties in different locations and to select the best performing lines in each location. These lines 15 were selected according to previous experiments as being early maturing and/or that yield higher than the control. The study lasted three years, the experiment plants were grown in 3 locations: Raqa, Idleb and Lattakia. The experiment was designed as RCBD with 3 replicates for each variety. Results showed significant difference between lines, Locations and year in both earliness and yield, A significant interaction was realized between (line X location) and (line X year) for earliness and yield. For earliness (line X year) was not significant. The reverse situation was realized for yield. Location X year of yield and earliness was significant. Earliness was correlated positively with all characters (except for 100-seed-weight). Yield was positively and significantly correlated with characters of all lines. Three lines with higher yield than the control (142.61%) and same maturity time were selected. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Irrigation Levels of Drip Irrigation (Tape on Yield and Yield Components of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the serious problems in the further development of maize cultivation is increasing irrigation efficiency. Using conventional irrigation causes a shortage of water resources to increase the acreage of the crop. With regard to the development of maize cultivation, agronomic and executable methods must be studied to reduce water consumption. Using drip irrigation system is most suitable for row crops. Hamedi et al. (2005 compared drip (tape and surface irrigation systems on yield of maize in different levels of water requirement and indicated that drip irrigation increases the amount of yield to 2015 kg/ha and water use efficiency to 3 time. Kohi et al. (2005 investigated the effects of deficit irrigation use of drip (tape irrigation on water use efficiency on maize in planting of one and two rows. The results showed that maximum water use efficiency related to crop density, water requirement and planting pattern 85000, 125% and two rows, respectively with 1.46 kg/m3. Jafari and Ashrafi (2011 studied the effects of irrigation levels, plant density and planting pattern in drip irrigation (tape on corn. The results showed that the amount of irrigation water and crop density on the level of 1% and their interactions and method of planting were significant at the 5 and 10% on water use efficiency, respectively. The yield was measured under different levels of irrigation, crop density and method of planting and the difference was significant on the level of 1%. Lamm et al. (1995 studied water requirement of maize in field with silt loam texture under sub drip irrigation and reported that water use reduced to 75%; but yield of maize remained at maximum amount of 12.5 t/ha. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drip (tape irrigation method for corn production practices in the Qazvin province in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, yield and yield components of corn (SC 704 were investigated under different levels of

  17. Plant yield and nitrogen content of a digitgrass in response to azospirillum inoculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schank, S.C.; Weier, K.L.; MacRae, I.C.

    1981-02-01

    Two Australian soils, a vertisol (pH 6.8, 0.299% N) and a sandy yellow podzol (pH 6.2, 0.042% N), were used with digitgrass, Digitaria sp. X46-2 (PI 421785), in a growth room experiment. Comparisons were made between plants inoculated with live and autoclaved bacterial suspensions of Australian and Brazilian isolates of Azospirillum brasilense. Seedlings were inoculated on days 10 and 35. Acetylene-reducing activity was measured five times during the experiment. Dry matter yields of the digitgrass on the podzol (low N) inoculated with liver bacteria were 23% higher than those of the controls. On the vertisol (high N), yield increases from inoculation with live bacteria were 8.5%. The higher-yielding plants had significantly lower precent nitrogen, but when total nitrogen of the tops was calculated, the inoculated plants had a higher total N than did the controls (P = 0.04). Acetylene-reducing activity was variable in the experiment, ranging from 0.5 to 11.9 mu mol of C2H2 core -1 day -1. Live bacterial treatment induced a proliferation of roots, possible earlier maturity, higher percent dry matter, and a higher total N in the tops. (Refs. 21).

  18. Tradeoffs between vigor and yield for crops grown under different management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic Milas, Anita; Keller Vincent, Robert; Romanko, Matthew; Feitl, Melina; Rupasinghe, Prabha

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing can provide an effective means for rapid and non-destructive monitoring of crop status and biochemistry. Monitoring pattern of traditional vigor algorithms generated from Landsat 8 OLI satellite data represents a robust method that can be widely used to differentiate the status of crops, as well as to monitor nutrient uptake functionality of differently treated seeds grown under different managements. This study considers 24 factorial parcels of winter wheat in 2013, corn in 2014, and soybeans in 2015, grown under four different types of agricultural management. The parcels are located at the Kellogg Biological Station, Long-Term Ecological Research site in the State of Michigan USA. At maturity, the organic crops exhibit significantly higher vigor and significantly lower yield than conventionally managed crops under different treatments. While organic crops invest in their metabolism at the expense of their yield, the conventional crops manage to increase their yield at the expense of their vigor. Landsat 8 OLI is capable of 1) differentiating the biochemical status of crops under different treatments at maturity, and 2) monitoring the tradeoff between crop yield and vigor that can be controlled by the seed treatments and proper conventional applications, with the ultimate goal of increasing food yield and food availability, and 3) distinguishing between organic and conventionally treated crops. Timing, quantity and types of herbicide applications have a great impact on early and pre-harvest vigor, maturity and yield of conventionally treated crops. Satellite monitoring using Landsat 8 is an optimal tool for coordinating agricultural applications, soil practices and genetic coding of the crop to produce higher yield as well as have early crop maturity, desirable in northern climates.

  19. Effects of Sowing Date and Limited Irrigation on Yield and Yield Components of Five Rainfed Wheat Varieties in Maragheh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Tavakkoli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of sowing date (SD and single irrigation (SI amounts on yield and yield components of rainfed wheat varieties, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plots arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications during 2002-2004 at main station of Dryland Agricultural Research Institute in Maragheh, Iran. Treatments included three sowing dates (early, normal and late, three levels of single irrigation (rainfed, 50 mm and 100 mm only at planting time and five wheat varieties (three numbered lines, Azar2 and double-cross Shahi. Results revealed that interactions of SD, SI and wheat varieties were significant for grain yield, number of kernels per spike and water productivity (P≤0.01. Single irrigation at normal planting time increased grain yield, straw, biomass, harvest index, and water productivity. Grain yield and water productivity were increased by 131% and 84.8%, respectively. Single irrigation at late planting time was not significant on agronomic traits and produced low water productivity. Regarding the reaction of wheat to planting date and single irrigation, results showed that normal single irrigation can improve yield, yield components and water productivity index. The effectiveness of single irrigation under dryland conditions can be observed in all wheat cultivars. Although this effectiveness on yield and yield components is observable, but it is necessary to select the time of irrigation properly.

  20. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Five Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0087, and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) were evaluated for yield and agronomic performance in Imo State University Farm, Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The planting density was 33,000 ...

  1. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  2. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  3. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  4. Development of bioprocess for high density cultivation yield of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans and its spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R. Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans is a spore forming lactic acid bacterium. Spore forming bacteria, have been extensively studied and commercialized as probiotics. Probiotics are produced by fermentation technology. There is a limitation to biomass produced by conventional modes of fermentation. With the great demand generated by range of probiotic products, biomass is becoming very valuable for several pharmaceutical, dairy and probiotic companies. Thus, there is a need to develop high cell density cultivation processes for enhanced biomass accumulation. The bioprocess development was carried out in 6.6 L bench top lab scale fermentor. Four different cultivation strategies were employed to develop a bioprocess for higher growth and sporulation efficiencies of probiotic B. coagulans. Batch fermentation of B. coagulans yielded 18 g L-1 biomass (as against 8.0 g L-1 productivity in shake flask with 60% spore efficiency. Fed-batch cultivation was carried out for glucose, which yielded 25 g L-1 of biomass. C/N ratio was very crucial in achieving higher spore titres. Maximum biomass yield recorded was 30 g L-1, corresponding to 3.8 × 1011 cells mL-1 with 81% of cells in sporulated stage. The yield represents increment of 85 times the productivity and 158 times the spore titres relative to the highest reported values for high density cultivation of B. coagulans.

  5. Comparison of secondary ion emission yields for poly-tyrosine between cluster and heavy ion impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, K.; Saitoh, Y.; Chiba, A.; Yamada, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Narumi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Emission yields of secondary ions necessary for the identification of poly-tyrosine were compared for incident ion impacts of energetic cluster ions (0.8 MeV C 8 + , 2.4 MeV C 8 + , and 4.0 MeV C 8 + ) and swift heavy monoatomic molybdenum ions (4.0 MeV Mo + and 14 MeV Mo 4+ ) with similar mass to that of the cluster by time-of-flight secondary ion mass analysis combined with secondary ion electric current measurements. The comparison revealed that (1) secondary ion emission yields per C 8 + impact increase with increasing incident energy within the energy range examined, (2) the 4.0 MeV C 8 + impact provides higher emission yields than the impact of the monoatomic Mo ion with the same incident energy (4.0 MeV Mo + ), and (3) the 2.4 MeV C 8 + impact exhibits comparable emission yields to that for the Mo ion impact with higher incident energy (14 MeV Mo 4+ ). Energetic cluster ion impacts effectively produce the characteristic secondary ions for poly-tyrosine, which is advantageous for highly sensitive amino acid detection in proteins using time-of-flight secondary ion mass analysis.

  6. Status of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Exact Jacobians of Roe-type flux difference splitting of the equations of radiation hydrodynamics (and Euler equations) for use in time-implicit higher-order Godunov schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsara, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we analyze some of the numerical issues that are involved in making time-implicit higher-order Godunov schemes for the equations of radiation hydrodynamics (and the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations). This is done primarily with the intent of incorporating such methods in the author's RIEMANN code. After examining the issues it is shown that the construction of a time-implicit higher-order Godunov scheme for radiation hydrodynamics would be benefited by our ability to evaluate exact Jacobians of the numerical flux that is based on Roe-type flux difference splitting. In this paper we show that this can be done analytically in a form that is suitable for efficient computational implementation. It is also shown that when multiple fluid species are used or when multiple radiation frequencies are used the computational cost in the evaluation of the exact Jacobians scales linearly with the number of fluid species or the number of radiation frequencies. Connections are made to other types of numerical fluxes, especially those based on flux difference splittings. It is shown that the evaluation of the exact Jacobian for such numerical fluxes is also benefited by the present strategy and the results given here. It is, however, pointed out that time-implicit schemes that are based on the evaluation of the exact Jacobians for flux difference splittings using the methods developed here are both computationally more efficient and numerically more stable than corresponding time-implicit schemes that are based on the evaluation of the exact or approximate Jacobians for flux vector splittings. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Effect of different tillage intensity on yields and yield-forming factors in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Houšť

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on application of minimum tillage technologies when growing winter wheat. Experiments were performed in the sugar-beet-growing region with loamy chernozem within the period of 2005–2009. Aanalysed and evaluated were effects of different methods of soil processing on yield-forming factors in stands of winter wheat grown after three different preceding crops (i.e. alfalfa, maize for silage and pea. Evaluated were the following four variants of tillage: (1 conventional ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1; (2 ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 2; (3 direct sowing into the untilled soil (Variant 3, and (4 shallow tillage to the depth of 0.10 m (Variant 4.The effect of different tillage intensity on winter wheat yields was statistically non-significant after all forecrops. After alfalfa, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded in Variant 2 (i.e. with ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 3 (direct sowing into the untilled soil, respectively. After maize grown for silage, higher yields were obtained in Variant 2 and Variant 1 (conventional ploughing while in Variants 4 and 3 the obtained yields were lower. When growing winter wheat after pea as a preceding crop, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded after direct sowing (Variant 3 and in Variant 1 (i.e. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Results of studies on effect of different tillage technologies on yields of winter wheat crops indicate that under the given pedological and climatic conditions it is possible to apply methods of reduced tillage intensity. However, the choice of the corresponding technology must be performed with regard to the type of preceding crop.

  9. Weed Diversity Affects Soybean and Maize Yield in a Long Term Experiment in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Davis, Adam S; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose L

    2017-01-01

    Managing production environments in ways that promote weed community diversity may enhance both crop production and the development of a more sustainable agriculture. This study analyzed data of productivity of maize (corn) and soybean in plots in the Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) in Michigan, USA, from 1996 to 2011. We used models derived from population ecology to explore how weed diversity, temperature, and precipitation interact with crop yields. Using three types of models that considered internal and external (climate and weeds) factors, with additive or non-linear variants, we found that changes in weed diversity were associated with changes in rates of crop yield increase over time for both maize and soybeans. The intrinsic capacity for soybean yield increase in response to the environment was greater under more diverse weed communities. Soybean production risks were greatest in the least weed diverse systems, in which each weed species lost was associated with progressively greater crop yield losses. Managing for weed community diversity, while suppressing dominant, highly competitive weeds, may be a helpful strategy for supporting long term increases in soybean productivity. In maize, there was a negative and non-additive response of yields to the interaction between weed diversity and minimum air temperatures. When cold temperatures constrained potential maize productivity through limited resources, negative interactions with weed diversity became more pronounced. We suggest that: (1) maize was less competitive in cold years allowing higher weed diversity and the dominance of some weed species; or (2) that cold years resulted in increased weed richness and prevalence of competitive weeds, thus reducing crop yields. Therefore, we propose to control dominant weed species especially in the years of low yield and extreme minimum temperatures to improve maize yields

  10. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  11. Simulating future wheat yield under climate change, carbon dioxide enrichment and technology improvement in Iran. Case study: Azarbaijan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansouri, H.; Raei, Y.; Zaeim, A.N.

    2015-07-01

    Climate change and technology development can affect crop productivity in future conditions. Precise estimation of crops yield change as affected by climate and technology in the future is an effective approach for management strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the impacts of climate change, technology improvement, CO2 enrichment, and overall impacts on wheat yield under future conditions. Wheat yield was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) compared to baseline year (2011) under two scenarios of IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) including SRES-A2 as regional economic scenario and SRES-B1 as global environmental scenario in Azarbaijan region (NW of Iran). A linear regression model, describing the relationship between wheat yield and historical year, was developed to investigate technology development effect. The decision support system for agro-technology transfer (DSSAT4.5) was used to evaluate the influence of climate change on wheat yield. The most positive effects were found for wheat yield as affected by technology in all studied regions. Under future climate change, the SRES projected a decrease in yield, especially in West Azarbaijan region. When the effects of elevated CO2 were considered, all regions resulted to increase in wheat yield. Considering all components effect in comparison with baseline (2011), yield increase would range from 5% to 38% across all times, scenarios and regions. According to our findings, it seems that we may expect a higher yield of wheat in NW Iran in the future if technology development continues as well as past years. (Author)

  12. Breeding high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Wanjari, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The present communication emphasis the developing of high yielding varieties of pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram using induced mutation with disease resistance in these crops. This would help in stabilisation of the higher yield potential

  13. Rice yield estimation with multi-temporal Radarsat-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Cheng-Ru

    2015-04-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in Taiwan. Monitoring rice crop yield is thus crucial for agronomic planners to formulate successful strategies to address national food security and rice grain export issues. However, there is a real challenge for this monitoring purpose because the size of rice fields in Taiwan was generally small and fragmented, and the cropping calendar was also different from region to region. Thus, satellite-based estimation of rice crop yield requires the data that have sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. This study aimed to develop models to estimate rice crop yield from multi-temporal Radarsat-2 data (5 m resolution). Data processing were carried out for the first rice cropping season from February to July in 2014 in the western part of Taiwan, consisting of four main steps: (1) constructing time-series backscattering coefficient data, (2) spatiotemporal noise filtering of the time-series data, (3) establishment of crop yield models using the time-series backscattering coefficients and in-situ measured yield data, and (4) model validation using field data and government's yield statistics. The results indicated that backscattering behavior varied from region to region due to changes in cultural practices and cropping calendars. The highest correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.8) was obtained at the ripening period. The robustness of the established models was evaluated by comparisons between the estimated yields and in-situ measured yield data showed satisfactory results, with the root mean squared error (RMSE) smaller than 10%. Such results were reaffirmed by the correlation analysis between the estimated yields and government's rice yield statistics (R2 > 0.8). This study demonstrates advantages of using multi-temporal Radarsat-2 backscattering data for estimating rice crop yields in Taiwan prior to the harvesting period, and thus the methods were proposed for rice yield monitoring in other regions.

  14. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  15. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  16. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  17. Douglas-fir growth and yield: research 1909-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.O. Curtis; D.D. Marshall

    2004-01-01

    Systematic research on growth and yield of Douglas-fir began in 1909. This line of early research evolved over time and culminated in publication of USDA Bulletin 201, The Yield of Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest. B201 had an enormous influence on development of Douglas-fir forestry and was arguably the most influential single research publication ever produced in...

  18. Yield and Quality Features of Buckwheat-Soybean Mixtures in Organic Agricultural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sürmen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out during the summer of 2014 to determine alternative quality forage sources that could be grown in the Aydın ecological conditions. In the study, effects of 3 different mixtures and 2 pure species (100% Buckwheat, 25% Buckwheat -75% Soybean, 50% Buckwheat -5 0% Soybean, 75% Buckwheat - 25% Soybean, 100% Soybean and 2 different harvesting times (50%-100% flowering/buckwheat on yield and quality characteristics were investigated. According to measurements, the highest average herbage yield was obtained from 75% Buckwheat-25% Soybean application (3100 kg/da at 2nd harvest time. When the average of hay yield was examined, the results were similar to herbage yield. When ADF and NDF were examined, the highest values were seen at the 2nd harvest. When the crude protein ratios were examined, it was found that they decreased at the 2nd harvesting time and the highest value was determined at 100% soybean application at the 1st harvesting time (21.08%. When Digestible Dry Matter (DDM and Relative Feed Value (RFV were examined, the highest values were determined in 100%Soybean applications at first harvest time and when the mixture applications were examined, the highest values were determined to be 75% Buckwheat - 25% Soybean application. As a result of the study, it was determined that the yields obtained at the 2nd harvest time were higher but the forage quality decreased. When the mixtures were examined, it was determined that the mixture having the highest roughage value was 75% buckwheat + 25% soybean application. In this study, the buckwheat which have short vegetation and good quality and the soybean, which is infront of with high quality, mixtures were examined. It has also been found that these mixtures may be important for obtaining high-quality forage in the short and intermediate periods.

  19. Forage yield and quality response of annual ryegrass ( Lolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry matter (DM) content, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) were higher in the treatments being irrigated once every two weeks. These results conclude that higher irrigation coupled with high N application significantly improved the dry matter yield, while water ...

  20. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit yield obtained with Ogbomoso local was 45 and 56% higher than what was obtained for Roma VF and Califonia wonder, respectively. In terms of vitamin C content, Roma VF fertilized with 50% NPK + 50% TC gave the highest value which is 23 to 67% higher than values obtained from the other treatment combinations.

  1. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  2. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  3. Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

    2014-04-05

    Increasing agricultural productivity to 'close yield gaps' creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms.

  4. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    GlM procedure. Means of all treatments were comprised using least significant difference (LSD at 5 % probability level. Results and Discussion The effects of plant density on yield components of baby corn was significant. Increasing the plant densities increased the ear number and percentage of non-standard ears. The Highest yield of ear without husk, standard and non-standard were obtained (2649.5, 766.97, and 3043.9 kg.ha-1, respectively with 13 plants.m-2. In sweet corn, increasing plant density from 7 to 13 plants.m-2, decreased row per ear, grain per row and thousand grain weight. Highest grain yield (1232.5 kg ha-1 and green ear (12607.2 kg ha-1 of sweet corn were obtained with plant density of 9.m-2. Conclusions Analysis of correlation showed that in both baby and sweet corn, there were positive and significant correlations between yield and its components. There was the high number of non-standard ears in all experimental treatments. In sweet corn, the standard ear without husk yield has positive and significant correlation with all traits except the percentage of standard ear and sheathed ear weight. In addition, unsuitable climate conditions during silking stage reduced the yield of sweet corn through the high number of aborted florets. Yield of sweet corn yield showed negative and significant correlation with grain row per ear and grain per row. However, increasing the ear number.m-2 increased yield in higher plant densities up to 9 plant.m-2 density. Generally, the baby corn had high yield with good quality in this region, but, standard ear percent of the baby corn of the hybrid KSC 403 was very low. On the other hand, sweet corn grain yield was low due to high air temperatures during pollination and maturity stages.

  5. Аbоut a theoretical yield of glucose from starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the raw materials for production of crystal food glucose. With at enzyme conversion of the high purity starch, it is possible to receive glucosic syrups of a glucose equivalent (GE 98%, where there is about 95% glucose and maltose and maltotriose – of about 5%. Starch hydrolysis is carried out with a gain of solids. Thus, 100 kg of amylum is possible to give up to 109.81 kg of glucose syrup on dry basis. Taking in account the losses at manufacture steps a yield can decrease to 105.61 kg. The purified glucose syrup is concentrated up to 73–75% of dry matters and goes to a crystallization step. Crystallization of glucose is carried out in a supersaturated solution within 56–70 hours at reduced temperature from 46–48 °C to 24–26 °C, resulting a mixture of glucose crystals and an intercrystal run-off syrup called a massecuite. The crystallization process is stopped when a 50% of crystals content in massecuite is reached. At the same time glucose yield will be 105.61/2 = 52.8%. Crystallization is carried out according to the single-stage scheme, with partial return of the end product – hydrol into the hydrolised syrup. Then the massecuite is sent to a centrifugation step for dividing glucose crystals and a run-off syrup, which is partially returned to the initial syrup to reduce in GE. The second part of the run-off syrup goes to realization. It must be kept in mind: the higher GE of the glucose syrup sent to a crystallization step, the more quantity of a hydrol is possible to be returned to hydrolysed syrup. Therefore, it is in a resulted a higher yield of glucose crystals. On the basis of the carried-out calculations the computer program was made with which it is possible to define a theoretical glucose and a hydrol yield, while changing values of a hydrolysed syrup. The higher GE values of a hydrolysed syrup are the higher yield of crystal glucose and the lower one of hydrol are. So, at 98% GE of a hydrolysed syrup it is

  6. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  7. Investigating the Effect of Cultivate Lines Direction, Bio-Fertilizer Nitroxin and Superabsorbent Materials on Yield and Yield Components of Broad Leaf Vetch (Vicia narbonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Latifinia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The excessive use of fertilizers has caused severe damages to the bio-cycle in the fields and has destroyed the sustainable agricultural machinery. These destructive effects have led to the recommended use of bio-fertilizers. Biodiversity is one of the key sources of supplying nutrients in sustainable agriculture. The use of biological fertilizers in a sustainable agricultural system leads to sustained yield in plant production. Biological fertilizer of nitroxin has increased biological yield and grain yield in fodder corn. Water shortage as a limiting factor has limited vegetation growth and development in these areas. Considering that Iran is a dry country, the use of super adsorbent is one of the ways to reduce water consumption. Investigators in the study of superabsorbent showed that superabsorbent had a significant and positive effect on the yield of forage plants. Crop directions can affect the amount of the product by increasing the leaf area and absorbing light. Proper orientation of crop lines increases the photosynthetic efficiency and increases the yield and yield components of the plant. Research has shown that yields are much higher in plants planted on the north-south lines compared with plants planted on east-west lines. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effect of nitroxin and superabsorbent fertilizer on yield and yield components of broad leaf vetch in a research field of agricultural faculty, Lorestan University, as a split plot factorial based on a complete block design randomization was performed in three replicates. In this research, for main lines, the main factors were considered in the North-South and East-West directions in the main plots. Sub-factors In this experiment, nitroxin biosynthesis and superabsorbent materials were applied at two levels of consumption and non-consumption in sub plots. Nitroxin fertilizer was used as a seed lot at a rate of 1 liter per hectare and the stockosorb

  8. Estimation of heterosis in yield and yield attributing traits in single cross hybrids of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Prasad Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during winter season from 6th October, 2015 to 5th March 2016 to estimate different heterosis on single cross maize hybrids . Thirteen maize hybrids were tested randomized complete block design with three replications. Hybrid namely RML-98/RL-105 gave the highest standard heterosis (57.5% for grain yield over CP-666 followed by RML-4/NML-2 (32.6%, RML-95/RL-105 (29% and RML-5/RL-105 (20.6%. The hybrid RML-98/RL-105 produced the highest standard heterosis (75.1% for grain yield over Rajkumar followed by RML-4/NML-2(50.2%, RML-95/RL-105(46.6%, RML-5/RL-105 and (35.7%. Mid and better parent heterosis were significantly higher for yield and yield attributes viz. ear length, ear diameter, no of kernel row per ear, no of kernel per row and test weight. The highest positive mid-parent heterosis for grain yield was found in RML-98/RL-105 followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. For the grain yield the better parent heterosis was the highest in RML-98/RL-105, followed by RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2. These results suggested that maize production can be maximized by cultivating hybrids namely RML-98/RL-105, RML-5/RL-105, RML-95/RL-105, and RML-4/NML-2 .

  9. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  10. Declining Yield of Oil Palm: A case study of Four Oil Palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the achievable yield and extent of oil palm yield decline over time in four large oil palm plantations in Nigeria and Cameroon. In Nigeria the highest achieved palm oil yield was 2.64 tonnes per hectare for 9-year-old palms in one of the plantations studied. By the eighteenth year, the yield had ...

  11. Compression of freestanding gold nanostructures: from stochastic yield to predictable flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mook, W M; Niederberger, C; Bechelany, M; Philippe, L; Michler, J

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanical response of isolated nanostructures is vitally important to fields such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) where the behaviour of nanoscale contacts can in large part determine system reliability and lifetime. To address this challenge directly, single crystal gold nanodots are compressed inside a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) using a nanoindenter equipped with a flat punch tip. These structures load elastically, and then yield in a stochastic manner, at loads ranging from 16 to 110 μN, which is up to five times higher than the load necessary for flow after yield. Yielding is immediately followed by displacement bursts equivalent to 1-50% of the initial height, depending on the yield point. During the largest displacement bursts, strain energy within the structure is released while new surface area is created in the form of localized slip bands, which are evident in both the SEM movies and still-images. A first order estimate of the apparent energy release rate, in terms of fracture mechanics concepts, for bursts representing 5-50% of the structure's initial height is on the order of 10-100 J m -2 , which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than bulk values. Once this initial strain burst during yielding has occurred, the structures flow in a ductile way. The implications of this behaviour, which is analogous to a brittle to ductile transition, are discussed with respect to mechanical reliability at the micro- and nanoscales.

  12. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  13. VERMICOMPOST APPLICATION IMPROVING SEMIARID-GROWN CORN GREEN EAR AND GRAIN YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO SÉRGIO LIMA E SILVA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive corn farming quickly depletes soil organic matter in the nutrient-poor soils of the Brazilian semiarid region. Application of vermicompost, an excellent organic fertilizer, could help solve that problem. This study evaluated the effect of applying Eisenia fetida vermicompost in the seeding furrows, at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 Mg.ha-1 application rates, on the green ear yield and grain yield of two corn cultivars. Treatments were replicated five times with split-plots (vermicompost application rates within plots in a completely randomized block design. The number of mature ears, number of kernels per ear (cultivar BR 106, and 100-kernel weight (cultivar AG 1051 were not affected by vermicompost application rate. However, vermicompost application increased total number and weight of unhusked and husked marketable green ears as well as grain yield. Total number of green ears was higher in cultivar BR 106 than in cultivar AG 1051. Conversely, grain yield and total ear weight and marketable weight of unhusked and husked green ears was higher in cultivar AG 1051, but responses in the latter two traits were dose-dependent.

  14. Lowering virus attack with improved yield and fiber quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... genotypes on seed cotton yield, fiber quality and virus attack was conducted at the Cotton Research ... even more vital than sowing time in any cropping system for cotton ... theless, minimum information is available regarding.

  15. Effect of Limited Drip Irrigation Regime on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame under Mediterranean Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiota PAPASTYLIANOU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sesame is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Irrigation is of great importance to sesame production due to its positive effect on growth parameters. Although sesame has good drought tolerance compared with many other crops, it is particularly susceptible to drought damage during the seedling, flowering and seed filling stages and this can lead to yield loss. The aim of this study was to determine the response of sesame landraces to different irrigation applications during the 2015 growing season. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replicates, four main plots (irrigation treatments, designated as 100%, 75% 50% and 0 of the daily crop evapotranspiration and two sub-plots (sesame landraces, Limnos and Evros. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of seeds per capsule, and number of capsules per plant, seed yield, 1000-seed weight and % capsules without seeds, were recorded. The results indicated that all traits except 1000-seed weight were significantly affected by irrigation regimes. Plant height, shattering losses and number of capsules per plant decreased with increasing water shortage. Seed yield and number of seeds per capsule were less affected by irrigation level and showed higher values in the 50% of the daily crop evapotranspiration treatment. Limnos produced higher seed yield and number of seeds per capsule under all irrigation regimes. Evros showed higher plant height and shattering losses than Limnos. The results of this study suggest that sesame landraces can use water efficiently, are locally adapted and associated with traditional farming systems.

  16. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  17. Helicity dependence of the {gamma}{yields}p{yields}{yields}n{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} reaction in the second resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Altieri, S.; Annand, J.R.M.; Anton, G.; Arends, H.-J.; Aulenbacher, K.; Beck, R.; Bradtke, C.; Braghieri, A.; Degrande, N.; D' Hose, N.; Dutz, H.; Goertz, S.; Grabmayr, P.; Hansen, K.; Harmsen, J.; Harrach, D. von; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heid, E.; Helbing, K.; Holvoet, H.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Horikawa, N.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Kageya, T.; Kiel, B.; Klein, F.; Kondratiev, R.; Kossert, K.; Krimmer, J.; Lang, M.; Lannoy, B.; Leukel, R.; Lisin, V.; Matsuda, T.; McGeorge, J.C.; Meier, A.; Menze, D.; Meyer, W.; Michel, T.; Naumann, J.; Panzeri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Pinelli, T.; Preobrajenski, I.; Radtke, E.; Reichert, E.; Reicherz, G.; Rohlof, Ch.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Rovelli, C.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sauer, M.; Schoch, B.; Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Speckner, T.; Takabayashi, N.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A.; Vyver, R. van de; Wakai, A.; Weihofen, W.; Wissmann, F.; Zapadtka, F.; Zeitler, G

    2003-01-02

    The helicity dependence of the total cross section for the {gamma}{yields}p{yields}{yields}n{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} reaction has been measured for the first time at incident photon energies from 400 to 800 MeV. The measurement was performed with the large acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. This channel is found to be excited predominantly when the photon and proton have a parallel spin orientation, due to the intermediate production of the D{sub 13} resonance.

  18. A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, Rivaie

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines, derived from irradiated Orba variety with dose of 0.40 kGy, were carried out during the wet and dry season in 1979-1982 in Muara and Citayam, Bogor. The result obtained showed that yield potential of mutant lines no. M6/40/10 was higher than that of the control in dry season in 1979 as well as in the wet season of 1979/80 in Muara. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/8 and no. M6/40/14 were higher than that of the control only in the wet season. The yield potential of semi dwarf mutant lines no. M6/40/68 was highly significant compared to that of the control in dry season in Muara and the wet season in 1981/82 in Citayam. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/69 was higher yield compared to that of the control in dry season in 1981 in Muara. (author). 10 refs

  19. YIELD STABILITY OF NEW HYBRID RICE ACROSS LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of hybrid rice varieties mostly are in specific location and season, but there are some of the varieties have a wide adaptation then adopted by the farmer in the large area. Replicated yield trials were conducted to study the stability of hybrid rice yield and identify the best location to optimize their yield per ha. The trials were conducted in three location such as Sukamandi, Salatiga and Malang during two seasons in 2011. Data across location and season were analazed by using AMMI and Eberhart Russel methods. The AMMI analysis showed that the IR79156A/PK88 was adaptable to favorable environments but unstable. This hybrid is always performing well and produce the higher yield compare to check variety. Some of other hybrids were good only in specific location, i.e. IR62829A/BP2280-1E-12-22 and IR58029A/BP2280-1E-12-22. Those hybrids produced higher yield in Salatiga and Malang, respectively. Seem to AMMI analysis, the result of Eberhart and Russell method also showed that IR79156A/PK81 was the best hybrid with regression slope (b around 1 with the yield average higher than average of all hybrids. It indicated that this hybrid has a wide adaptation and probably can be cultivated in the wider ecosystem.

  20. Nutrient Partitioning and Stoichiometry in Unburnt Sugarcane Ratoon at Varying Yield Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Leite

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unraveling nutrient imbalances in contemporary agriculture is a research priority to improve whenever possible yield and nutrient use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. systems while minimizing the costs of cultivation (e.g., use of fertilizers and environmental concerns. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate biomass and nutrient [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K] content, partitioning, stoichiometry and internal efficiencies in sugarcane ratoon at varying yield levels. Three sites were established on highly weathered tropical soils located in the Southeast region of Brazil. At all sites, seasonal biomass and nutrient uptake patterns were synthesized from four sampling times taken throughout the sugarcane ratoon season. At all sites, in-season nutrient partitioning (in diverse plant components, internal efficiencies (yield to nutrient content ratio and nutrient ratios (N:P and N:K were determined at harvesting. Sugarcane exhibited three distinct phases of plant growth, as follows: lag, exponential-linear, and stationary. Across sites, nutrient requirement per unit of yield was 1.4 kg N, 0.24 kg P, and 2.7 kg K per Mg of stalk produced, but nutrient removal varied with soil nutrient status (based on soil plus fertilizer nutrient supply and crop demand (potential yield. Dry leaves had lower nutrient content (N, P, and K and broader N:P and N:K ratios when compared with tops and stalks plant fractions. Greater sugarcane yield and narrowed N:P ratio (6:1 were verified for tops of sugarcane when increasing both N and P content. High-yielding sugarcane systems were related to higher nutrient content and more balanced N:P (6:1 and N:K (0.5:1 ratios.

  1. Post-heading heat stress and yield impact in winter wheat of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Liu, Leilei; Tian, Liying; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Asseng, Senthold

    2014-02-01

    Wheat is sensitive to high temperatures, but the spatial and temporal variability of high temperature and its impact on yield are often not known. An analysis of historical climate and yield data was undertaken to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of heat stress between heading and maturity and its impact on wheat grain yield in China. Several heat stress indices were developed to quantify heat intensity, frequency, and duration between heading and maturity based on measured maximum temperature records of the last 50 years from 166 stations in the main wheat-growing region of China. Surprisingly, heat stress between heading and maturity was more severe in the generally cooler northern wheat-growing regions than the generally warmer southern regions of China, because of the delayed time of heading with low temperatures during the earlier growing season and the exposure of the post-heading phase into the warmer part of the year. Heat stress between heading and maturity has increased in the last decades in most of the main winter wheat production areas of China, but the rate was higher in the south than in the north. The correlation between measured grain yields and post-heading heat stress and average temperature were statistically significant in the entire wheat-producing region, and explained about 29% of the observed spatial and temporal yield variability. A heat stress index considering the duration and intensity of heat between heading and maturity was required to describe the correlation of heat stress and yield variability. Because heat stress is a major cause of yield loss and the number of heat events is projected to increase in the future, quantifying the future impact of heat stress on wheat production and developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies are critical for developing food security policies in China and elsewhere. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order and the permanent environmental effect (5th order. Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11 to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5. The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.

  3. Hot spots of wheat yield decline with rising temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, Senthold; Cammarano, Davide; Basso, Bruno; Chung, Uran; Alderman, Phillip D; Sonder, Kai; Reynolds, Matthew; Lobell, David B

    2017-06-01

    Many of the irrigated spring wheat regions in the world are also regions with high poverty. The impacts of temperature increase on wheat yield in regions of high poverty are uncertain. A grain yield-temperature response function combined with a quantification of model uncertainty was constructed using a multimodel ensemble from two key irrigated spring wheat areas (India and Sudan) and applied to all irrigated spring wheat regions in the world. Southern Indian and southern Pakistani wheat-growing regions with large yield reductions from increasing temperatures coincided with high poverty headcounts, indicating these areas as future food security 'hot spots'. The multimodel simulations produced a linear absolute decline of yields with increasing temperature, with uncertainty varying with reference temperature at a location. As a consequence of the linear absolute yield decline, the relative yield reductions are larger in low-yielding environments (e.g., high reference temperature areas in southern India, southern Pakistan and all Sudan wheat-growing regions) and farmers in these regions will be hit hardest by increasing temperatures. However, as absolute yield declines are about the same in low- and high-yielding regions, the contributed deficit to national production caused by increasing temperatures is higher in high-yielding environments (e.g., northern India) because these environments contribute more to national wheat production. Although Sudan could potentially grow more wheat if irrigation is available, grain yields would be low due to high reference temperatures, with future increases in temperature further limiting production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Combination of a higher-tier flow-through system and population modeling to assess the effects of time-variable exposure of isoproturon on the green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Denis; Schaefer, Dieter; Dorgerloh, Michael; Bruns, Eric; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Hammel, Klaus; Preuss, Thomas G; Ratte, Hans Toni

    2012-04-01

    A flow-through system was developed to investigate the effects of time-variable exposure of pesticides on algae. A recently developed algae population model was used for simulations supported and verified by laboratory experiments. Flow-through studies with Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under time-variable exposure to isoproturon were performed, in which the exposure patterns were based on the results of FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) model calculations for typical exposure situations via runoff or drain flow. Different types of pulsed exposure events were realized, including a whole range of repeated pulsed and steep peaks as well as periods of constant exposure. Both species recovered quickly in terms of growth from short-term exposure and according to substance dissipation from the system. Even at a peak 10 times the maximum predicted environmental concentration of isoproturon, only transient effects occurred on algae populations. No modified sensitivity or reduced growth was observed after repeated exposure. Model predictions of algal growth in the flow-through tests agreed well with the experimental data. The experimental boundary conditions and the physiological properties of the algae were used as the only model input. No calibration or parameter fitting was necessary. The combination of the flow-through experiments with the algae population model was revealed to be a powerful tool for the assessment of pulsed exposure on algae. It allowed investigating the growth reduction and recovery potential of algae after complex exposure, which is not possible with standard laboratory experiments alone. The results of the combined approach confirm the beneficial use of population models as supporting tools in higher-tier risk assessments of pesticides. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  5. Effect of NS-nitragin application on soybean yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils of Serbia are low in soybean symbiotic bacteria and application of bacteriological preparations has been introduced as a regular cultivation practice when growing soybean. A trial was set up on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops from Novi Sad on chernozem soil using a randomized block design with four replicates. Mineral nitrogen fertilizers were used in rates of 0, 30, 60, and 90 kg ha-1 in the experiment. Each of the nitrogen treatments had two variations, with and without inoculation. The effects of inoculation and different nitrogen fertilizer rates on yield and yield components were determined based on the pod number, seed number, 1000 seed mass and protein and oil content in seeds. Significantly higher pod number was observed in inoculated plants with the application of 30 kg N ha-1. Inoculation with NS-Nitragin increased seed number per plant. In treatment with no mineral nitrogen applied and with application of 30 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg N ha-1, 1000 seed mass was statistically higher in inoculated plants than in uninoculated ones. Inoculation produced statistically significant difference in soybean yield only in the treatment with no mineral nitrogen applied. Inoculation and applied mineral nitrogen rates had no significant effect on protein content in soybean grain.

  6. Statistical timing for parametric yield prediction of digital integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jess, J.A.G.; Kalafala, K.; Naidu, S.R.; Otten, R.H.J.M.; Visweswariah, C.

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty in circuit performance due to manufacturing and environmental variations is increasing with each new generation of technology. It is therefore important to predict the performance of a chip as a probabilistic quantity. This paper proposes three novel path-based algorithms for statistical

  7. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  8. ZNJPrice/Earnings Ratio Model through Dividend Yield and Required Yield Above Expected Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Price/earnings ratio is the most popular and most widespread evaluation model used to assess relative capital asset value on financial markets. In functional terms, company earnings in the very long term can be described with high significance. Empirically, it is visible from long-term statistics that the demanded (required yield on capital markets has certain regularity. Thus, investors first require a yield above the stable inflation rate and then a dividend yield and a capital increase caused by the growth of earnings that influence the price, with the assumption that the P/E ratio is stable. By combining the Gordon model for current dividend value, the model of market capitalization of earnings (price/earnings ratio and bearing in mind the influence of the general price levels on company earnings, it is possible to adjust the price/earnings ratio by deriving a function of the required yield on capital markets measured by a market index through dividend yield and inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The S&P 500 index for example, has in the last 100 years grown by exactly the inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The comparison of two series of price/earnings ratios, a modelled one and an average 7-year ratio, shows a notable correlation in the movement of two series of variables, with a three year deviation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that three years of the expected inflation level, dividend yield and profit growth rate of the market index are discounted in the current market prices. The conclusion is that, at the present time, the relationship between the adjusted average price/earnings ratio and its effect on the market index on one hand and the modelled price/earnings ratio on the other can clearly show the expected dynamics and course in the following period.

  9. Predicting paddlefish roe yields using an extension of the Beverton–Holt equilibrium yield-per-recruit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, M.E.; Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium yield models predict the total biomass removed from an exploited stock; however, traditional yield models must be modified to simulate roe yields because a linear relationship between age (or length) and mature ovary weight does not typically exist. We extended the traditional Beverton-Holt equilibrium yield model to predict roe yields of Paddlefish Polyodon spathula in Kentucky Lake, Tennessee-Kentucky, as a function of varying conditional fishing mortality rates (10-70%), conditional natural mortality rates (cm; 9% and 18%), and four minimum size limits ranging from 864 to 1,016mm eye-to-fork length. These results were then compared to a biomass-based yield assessment. Analysis of roe yields indicated the potential for growth overfishing at lower exploitation rates and smaller minimum length limits than were suggested by the biomass-based assessment. Patterns of biomass and roe yields in relation to exploitation rates were similar regardless of the simulated value of cm, thus indicating that the results were insensitive to changes in cm. Our results also suggested that higher minimum length limits would increase roe yield and reduce the potential for growth overfishing and recruitment overfishing at the simulated cm values. Biomass-based equilibrium yield assessments are commonly used to assess the effects of harvest on other caviar-based fisheries; however, our analysis demonstrates that such assessments likely underestimate the probability and severity of growth overfishing when roe is targeted. Therefore, equilibrium roe yield-per-recruit models should also be considered to guide the management process for caviar-producing fish species.

  10. High yield CTMP fibres as a possibility of the more efficient yield of wood raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klašnja Bojana A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The evident shortage of wood as a raw material has become a limiting factor in the pulp and paper industry which is the greatest consumer of wood in Europe. The situation in our country is similar. During the few past years, the production of poplar and willow pulpwood was 220.000 m3 per year, which is insufficient for the planned increase in the production of sulphate pulp (175.000 tons till 2005. This paper deals with the aspects of the more efficient yield of raw material, based on the significantly higher yield of CTMP fibres, as well as with the significance of the lower adverse effect on the environment. It also analyses the conditions of production and the quality of the obtained fibres, as a possible substitute for chemical pulp and secondary fibres in papers of different quality. The main reasons for the production and use of CTMP fibres in our country are reported.

  11. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  12. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  13. Effect of Different Treatments of Mixed and Row Intercropping on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame and Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Ghale Noyee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping is a kind of multi-culture system where two or more plants are cultivated in a piece of land simultaneously. The aim of intercropping is optimizing the use of space, time and physical resources in both the top and under of the soil surface through maximizing positive relationship and minimizing negative relationship between the components of agricultural ecosystems. In intercropping due to better use of available resources such as land, labor, time, light, water and nutrients, as well as reducing damages caused by pests and diseases and socio-economic advantages, increase in production per unit area can be expected. In this study, yield and yield components of sesame and bean in additive and replacement intercropping with mixed and row planting type was evaluated and the possible advantages of intercropping to monoculture as well as the types of intercropping were compared. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, located in 10 kilometers south-east of the city of Mashhad, Iran (latitude 36° 17′ N, longitude 59° 35′ E and 985 m elevation in 2013 and 2014. Climate of the area is cold and dry. A Split-Plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was used with the factor of cropping system (as main plot and intercropping proportions (as sub plot. The cropping system was included; mixed and row cropping and intercropping proportions were included; monoculture of bean (100b, 25% sesame- 75% bean (25s75b, 50% sesame- 50% bean (50s50b, 75% sesame- 25% bean (75s25b, monoculture of sesame (100s, 10% bean- 100% sesame (10b100s, 20% bean- 100% sesame (20b100s, 30% bean- 100% sesame (30b100s, 100% bean- 10% sesame (100b10s, 100% bean- 20% sesame (100b20s, and 100% bean- 30% sesame (100b30s. Planting was done using common varieties of the region (Esfarayen and Derakhshan varieties for sesame and bean

  14. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  15. Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C; Schukken, Y H; Dobbelaar, P

    1999-02-01

    The study used field data from a regular herd health service to investigate the relationships between body condition scores or first test day milk data and disease incidence, milk yield, fertility, and culling. Path model analysis with adjustment for time at risk was applied to delineate the time sequence of events. Milk fever occurred more often in fat cows, and endometritis occurred between calving and 20 d of lactation more often in thin cows. Fat cows were less likely to conceive at first service than were cows in normal condition. Fat body condition postpartum, higher first test day milk yield, and a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 increased body condition loss. Fat or thin condition or condition loss was not related to other lactation diseases, fertility parameters, milk yield, or culling. First test day milk yield was 1.3 kg higher after milk fever and was 7.1 kg lower after displaced abomasum. Higher first test day milk yield directly increased the risk of ovarian cyst and lameness, increased 100-d milk yield, and reduced the risk of culling and indirectly decreased reproductive performance. Cows with a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 had higher risks for ketosis, displaced abomasum, ovarian cyst, lameness, and mastitis. Those cows produced more milk but showed poor reproductive performance. Given this type of herd health data, we concluded that the first test day milk yield and the fat to protein ratio were more reliable indicators of disease, fertility, and milk yield than was body condition score or loss of body condition score.

  16. Measurements of the neutron yield from a coaxial gun plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolototrubov, I.M.; Krasnikov, A.A.; Kurishchenko, A.M.; Novikov, Yu.M.; Poryatuj, V.S.; Tolstolutskij, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron yield from deuterium plasma produced by a pulse coaxial accelerator was measured. The maximum neutron yield with 5 kj stored in a condenser battery is 3x10 6 neutron/pulse. The basis of the method of measuring neutron yield from the plasma was through the induced activity. It was shown that application of even a small uniform longitudinal magnetic field (up to 1 kOe) on the accelerator decreases several times the neutron yield. It is also shown that a small amount of stored discharge energy can produce high-temperature plasma at the output of pulse coaxial accelerator in the absense of the direct magnetic field. It is supposed that the reason for the reduction of neutron yield level in the case of applying the magnetic field is decreasing plasma density because of increasing the bunch cross-section

  17. Produtividade da beterraba e rúcula em função da época de plantio em monocultivo e consórcio Yield of sugar beet and rocket depending on planting times in sole crop and intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C Grangeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os rendimentos das culturas da beterraba e da rúcula em função de épocas de plantio e sistemas solteiro e consorciado, em Mossoró, de janeiro a março de 2005. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos em quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram dos consórcios da beterraba com rúcula estabelecidos aos 0, 7, 14 e 21 dias após a semeadura da beterraba, monocultura da beterraba e as monoculturas da rúcula, nas mesmas épocas de estabelecimento dos cultivos consorciados. A semeadura da rúcula e beterraba realizada na mesma época proporcionaram maior massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e produtividade de rúcula, sendo respectivamente, de 50,19 g/planta; 5,86 g/planta e 1338,47 g/m². Já para a beterraba, independentemente da época de semeadura, o monocultivo foi superior ao consórcio na produção de massa fresca e de raízes. Os maiores índices de uso eficiente da terra foram obtidos no sistema de consórcio quando a semeadura da rúcula foi realizada no mesmo período (2,0 e aos sete dias (1,9 após a semeadura da beterraba.The yield of sugar beet and rocket was evaluated, as a result of planting times in sole crop and intercropping system. The experiment was carried out in Mossoró, from January to March,f 2005. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with nine treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the intercrops of sugar beet with rocket established at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after sugar beet sowing date, as well as of sugar beet and rocket cultivated as sole crops, planted at the same times of the intercropping establishment. The highest values of fresh shoot (50.19 g/plant, dry mass (5.86 g/plant and yield (1338.47 g/m² of rocket were observed in the intercropping systems established at the same time. The highest values of shoot fresh mass and root yield of sugar beet were observed in sole crop. The highest land equivalent

  18. PREDICTION MODELS OF GRAIN YIELD AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Ysac Avila Serrano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to characterize the grain yield of five cowpea cultivars and to find linear regression models to predict it, a study was developed in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. A complete randomized blocks design was used. Simple and multivariate analyses of variance were carried out using the canonical variables to characterize the cultivars. The variables cluster per plant, pods per plant, pods per cluster, seeds weight per plant, seeds hectoliter weight, 100-seed weight, seeds length, seeds wide, seeds thickness, pods length, pods wide, pods weight, seeds per pods, and seeds weight per pods, showed significant differences (P≤ 0.05 among cultivars. Paceño and IT90K-277-2 cultivars showed the higher seeds weight per plant. The linear regression models showed correlation coefficients ≥0.92. In these models, the seeds weight per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, cluster per plant and pods length showed significant correlations (P≤ 0.05. In conclusion, the results showed that grain yield differ among cultivars and for its estimation, the prediction models showed determination coefficients highly dependable.

  19. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Lv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP. In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., grain yield (GY, yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, in four growing seasons (2005 to 2009. Results showed that maximum GY was achieved with three irrigation treatments in the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 dry seasons and two irrigation treatments in the 2006-2007 normal season. However, in the 2007-2008 wet season, the four irrigation treatments, especially the additional irrigation event at the reviving stage (28, produced maximum GY. Grain yield was significantly related to seasonal full evapotranspiration (ET and 410 to 530 mm of seasonal full ET, including 143 mm rainfall and 214 mm irrigation water, which led to maximum GY. The two types of cultivars responded differently to irrigation management in different rainfall years. The yield of the water-saving cv. 'Shimai 15' was much higher in the dry seasons than in the other seasons. Variations of yield components were mainly caused by irrigation time and meteorological factors. The higher accumulated temperature during the sowing and tillering stages (24 and irrigation or precipitation at the reviving stage (28 significantly improved tiller growth. The lower average temperature in March and April greatly increased grain number per spike. Sunshine duration played a decisive role in improving grain weight. Our results provide very useful information about irrigation time and frequency of winter wheat in the NCP in order to obtain high yield but reduce the use of underground water.

  20. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portofino, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.portofino@enea.it [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto [UTTTRI RIF – C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS Jonica 106, km 419.5, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Galvagno, Sergio [UTTP NANO – C.R. ENEA Portici, P.le E. Fermi, 1 Loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.