WorldWideScience

Sample records for times headquarters daylighting

  1. The New York Times headquarters daylighting mockup: Monitoredperformance of the daylighting control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2006-02-24

    A nine-month monitored field study of the performance of automated roller shades and daylighting controls was conducted in a 401 m{sup 2} unoccupied, furnished daylighting mockup. The mockup mimicked the southwest corner of a new 110 km{sub 2} commercial building in New York, New York, where The New York Times will be the major tenant. This paper focuses on evaluating the performance of two daylighting control systems installed in separate areas of an open plan office with 1.2-m high workstation partitions: (1) Area A had 0-10 V dimmable ballasts with an open-loop proportional control system and an automated shade controlled to reduce window glare and increase daylight, and (2) Area B had digital addressable lighting interface (DALI) ballasts with a closed-loop integral reset control system and an automated shade controlled to block direct sun. Daylighting control system performance and lighting energy use were monitored. The daylighting control systems demonstrated very reliable performance after they were commissioned properly. Work plane illuminance levels were maintained above 90% of the maximum fluorescent illuminance level for 99.9{+-}0.5% and 97.9{+-}6.1% of the day on average over the monitored period, respectively, in Areas A and B. Daily lighting energy use savings were significant in both Areas over the equinox-to-equinox period compared to a non-daylit reference case. At 3.35 m from the window, 30% average savings were achieved with a sidelit west-facing condition in Area A while 50-60% were achieved with a bilateral daylit south-facing condition in Area B. At 4.57-9.14 m from the window, 5-10% and 25-40% savings were achieved in Areas A and B, respectively. Average savings for the 7-m deep dimming zone were 20-23% and 52-59% for Areas A and B, respectively, depending on the lighting schedule. The large savings and good reliability can be attributed to the automatic management of the interior shades. The DALI-based system exhibited faulty behavior that

  2. Daylight time-resolved photographs of lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qrville, R E; Lala, G G; Idone, V P

    1978-07-07

    Lightning dart leaders and return strokes have been recorded in daylight with both good spatial resolution and good time resolution as part of the Thunder-storm Research International Program. The resulting time-resolved photographs are apparently equivalent to the best data obtained earlier only at night. Average two-dimensional return stroke velocities in four subsequent strokes between the ground and a height of 1400 meters were approximately 1.3 x 10(8) meters per second. The estimated systematic error is 10 to 15 percent.

  3. Effects of daylight savings time changes on stock market volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, M Hakan; Dogan, Nukhet; Onar, Bahar

    2010-04-01

    The presence of daylight savings time effects on stock returns and on stock volatility was investigated using an EGARCH specification to model the conditional variance. The evidence gathered from the major United States stock markets for the period between 1967 and 2007 did not support the existence of the daylight savings time effect on stock returns or on volatility. Returns on the first business day following daylight savings time changes were not lower nor was the volatility higher, as would be expected if there were an effect.

  4. Daylight Saving Time Transitions and Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Lahti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm disruptions may have harmful impacts on health. Circadian rhythm disruptions caused by jet lag compromise the quality and amount of sleep and may lead to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and loss of attention and alertness. Even a minor change in time schedule may cause considerable stress for the body. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time alter the social and environmental timing twice a year. According to earlier studies, this change in time-schedule leads to sleep disruption and fragmentation of the circadian rhythm. Since sleep deprivation decreases motivation, attention, and alertness, transitions into and out of daylight saving time may increase the amount of accidents during the following days after the transition. We studied the amount of road traffic accidents one week before and one week after transitions into and out of daylight saving time during years from 1981 to 2006. Our results demonstrated that transitions into and out of daylight saving time did not increase the number of traffic road accidents.

  5. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Haukka, Jari; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The ai...

  6. Work-related accidents and daylight saving time in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, T; Sysi-Aho, J; Haukka, J; Partonen, T

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that transitions into and out of daylight saving time (DST) unbalance the physiological circadian rhythm and may lead to sleep disturbance. Sleep deprivation may have negative effects on motivation, attention and alertness and thus it is possible that transitions into and out of DST may increase accident rates. To explore the impact of DST transitions on the number of occupational accidents in Finland. For the study, we analysed all occupational accidents that happened in Finland 1 week before and 1 week after DST transitions during the years 2002-06. Transitions into and out of DST did not significantly increase the number of occupational accidents. It seems that sleep deprivation after DST transition is not harmful enough to impact on occupational accident rates.

  7. The human circadian clock's seasonal adjustment is disrupted by daylight saving time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantermann, Thomas; Juda, Myriam; Merrow, Martha; Roenneberg, Till

    2007-01-01

    A quarter of the world's population is subjected to a 1 hr time change twice a year (daylight saving time, DST). This reflects a change in social clocks, not environmental ones (e.g., dawn). The impact of DST is poorly understood. Circadian clocks use daylight to synchronize (entrain) to the

  8. Accident rates and the impact of daylight saving time transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David; Barnes, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    One-third of nations have adopted some form of Daylight Saving Time (DST). Associated costs and benefits include impacts on accident rates. Using data from 12.6 million accident claims in New Zealand during 2005-2016, we model accident rates as a function of various date-based predictors including days before/after the start and end of DST, holidays, day of week, and month of year. This is the first study to consider multiple accident categories (Road, Work, Falls and Home & Community), and the first in the southern hemisphere. The start of DST is associated with significantly higher rates of road accidents (first day +16% and second day +12%). Evidence that accident rates for Falls and Home & Community decline (increase) prior to the start (end) of DST suggest potential behavioural adaption from anticipating the change. While Work accidents show limited impact from DST changes, they exhibit a significant decline over the course of the week (Friday 13% lower than Monday), whereas Road accidents exhibit a significant increase (Friday 19% higher than Monday). Our results have implications for both DST implementation and policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  10. A Study on the Optimal Duration of Daylight Saving Time (DST in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Hee Mihn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Daylight saving time aims at spending effective daylight in summer season. Korea had enforced daylight saving time twelve times from 1948 to 1988. Since 1988, it is not executed, but it is recently discussed the resumption of DST. In this paper, we investigate the trend of DST in other countries, review the history of DST in Korea, and suggest the optimal DST duration in terms of astronomical aspects (times of sunrise and sunset. We find that the starting day of DST in Korea is apt for the second Sunday in Mayor the second Sunday in April according to the time of sunrise or to the difference between Korean standard meridian and observer`s, respectively. We also discuss time friction that might be caused by time difference between DST and Korea Standard Time (KST.

  11. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Haukka, Jari; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-02-26

    Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of transitions into and out of daylight saving time on the incidence of accidents and manic episodes in the Finnish population during the years of 1987 to 2003. The nationwide data were derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. From the register we obtained the information about the hospital-treated accidents and manic episodes during two weeks before and two weeks after the transitions in 1987-2003. The results were negative, as the transitions into or out of daylight saving time had no significant effect on the incidence of accidents or manic episodes. One-hour transitions do not increase the incidence of manic episodes or accidents which require hospital treatment.

  12. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lönnqvist Jouko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of transitions into and out of daylight saving time on the incidence of accidents and manic episodes in the Finnish population during the years of 1987 to 2003. Methods The nationwide data were derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. From the register we obtained the information about the hospital-treated accidents and manic episodes during two weeks before and two weeks after the transitions in 1987–2003. Results The results were negative, as the transitions into or out of daylight saving time had no significant effect on the incidence of accidents or manic episodes. Conclusion One-hour transitions do not increase the incidence of manic episodes or accidents which require hospital treatment.

  13. Daylight saving time transitions and hospital treatments due to accidents or manic episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Tuuli A; Haukka, Jari; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Background Daylight saving time affects millions of people annually but its impacts are still widely unknown. Sleep deprivation and the change of circadian rhythm can trigger mental illness and cause higher accident rates. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time changes the circadian rhythm and may cause sleep deprivation. Thus it seems plausible that the prevalence of accidents and/or manic episodes may be higher after transition into and out of daylight saving time. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of transitions into and out of daylight saving time on the incidence of accidents and manic episodes in the Finnish population during the years of 1987 to 2003. Methods The nationwide data were derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. From the register we obtained the information about the hospital-treated accidents and manic episodes during two weeks before and two weeks after the transitions in 1987–2003. Results The results were negative, as the transitions into or out of daylight saving time had no significant effect on the incidence of accidents or manic episodes. Conclusion One-hour transitions do not increase the incidence of manic episodes or accidents which require hospital treatment. PMID:18302734

  14. Daylight Savings Time Transitions and the Incidence Rate of Unipolar Depressive Episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel Teilfeldt; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Hageman, Ida

    2017-01-01

    : Using time series intervention analysis of nationwide data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we compared the observed trend in the incidence rate of hospital contacts for unipolar depressive episodes after the transitions to and from summer time to the predicted...... trend in the incidence rate. Results: The analyses were based on 185,419 hospital contacts for unipolar depression and showed that the transition from summer time to standard time were associated with an 11% increase (95% CI = 7%, 15%) in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes......Background: Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate...

  15. Daylight Savings Time Transitions and the Incidence Rate of Unipolar Depressive Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Sønderskov, Kim M; Hageman, Ida; Dinesen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-05-01

    Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Using time series intervention analysis of nationwide data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we compared the observed trend in the incidence rate of hospital contacts for unipolar depressive episodes after the transitions to and from summer time to the predicted trend in the incidence rate. The analyses were based on 185,419 hospital contacts for unipolar depression and showed that the transition from summer time to standard time were associated with an 11% increase (95% CI = 7%, 15%) in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes that dissipated over approximately 10 weeks. The transition from standard time to summer time was not associated with a parallel change in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. This study shows that the transition from summer time to standard time was associated with an increase in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Distress associated with the sudden advancement of sunset, marking the coming of a long period of short days, may explain this finding. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B179.

  16. Transition into daylight saving time influences the fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daylight saving time is widely adopted. Little is known about its influence on the daily rest-activity cycles. We decided to explore the effects of transition into daylight saving time on the circadian rhythm of activity. Methods We monitored the rest-activity cycles with the use of wrist-worn accelerometer on a sample of ten healthy adults for ten days around the transition into summer time. Identical protocols were carried out on the same individuals in two consecutive years, yielding data on 200 person-days for analysis in this study. Results There was no significant effect on the rest-activity cycle in the sample as a whole. Fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle was enhanced in a subgroup of persons having sleep for eight hours or less (P = 0.04 but reduced in those who preferred to sleep for more than eight hours per night (P = 0.05. The average level of motor activity was increased in persons having the morning preference for daily activity patterns (P = 0.01. Conclusion Transition into daylight saving time may have a disruptive effect on the rest-activity cycle in those healthy adults who are short-sleepers or more of the evening type.

  17. Effects of daylight-saving time changes on stock market volatility: a comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Mark J; Kramer, Lisa A; Levi, Maurice D

    2010-12-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Berument, Dogan, and Onar (2010) challenged the existence of the previously documented daylight-saving effect. Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi's original finding (2000) was that average stock market returns on Mondays following time changes are economically and statistically significantly lower than typical Monday returns. Kamstra, et al. hypothesized that the effect may arise due to heightened anxiety or risk aversion on the part of market participants after they experience a 1-hr. disruption in their sleep habits, in accordance with prior findings in the psychology literature linking sleep desynchronosis with anxiety. Berument, et al. replicated the original findings using ordinary least squares estimation, but when they modeled the mean of returns using a method prone to producing biased estimates, they obtained puzzling results. The analysis here, based on standard, unbiased modeling techniques, shows that the daylight-saving effect remains intact in the U.S.

  18. Critical analysis of the daylight saving time; Analisis critico al horario del verano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes Rubio, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Ciudad-Ixtapalapa, Mexico, D.F., (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The critical analysis is presented as a synthesis of the problem untied since the implementation of the daylight saving time. The often related history is retaken to introduce the reader into the context of the causes of a such program. The geometric aspect of the solar trajectories is discussed and the length of the day as a function of the latitude and the time of the year to have technical elements for the time displacement in a certain region. The technical implementation of the daylight saving time based on three elements is justified: time of dawn and the decline (length of the day), national economic motivation and tourism industry. Stands out that although the daylight saving time schedule has a set of social and economic benefits it is not centered in the individual but in the society as a whole. The errors in handling the information and the misinformation are pointed out as the main causes of the controversy, the discord and the political manipulation of competing groups. [Spanish] El analisis critico se presenta como una sintesis del problema desatado desde la implementacion del horario de verano. La historia muchas veces contada se retoma para introducir al lector en el contexto de las causas de un tal programa. Se discute el aspecto geometrico de las trayectorias solares y la longitud del dia como una funcion de la latitud y de la epoca del ano para tener elementos tecnicos para el desplazamiento horario en una region determinada. Se justifica la implementacion tecnica del horario de verano en funcion de tres elementos: hora de alba y del ocaso (longitud del dia), motivacion economica nacional e industria turistica. Se destaca que si bien el horario de verano tiene un conjunto de beneficios sociales y economicos no se centra en el individuo sino en la sociedad en su conjunto. Se senalan los errores de manejo de la informacion y la desinformacion como los principales causantes de la polemica, el desacuerdo y la manipulacion politica de grupos

  19. Effects of Daylight Saving Time changes on stock market volatility: a reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Nukhet

    2011-12-01

    There is a rich array of evidence that suggests that changes in sleeping patterns affect an individual's decision-making processes. A nationwide sleeping-pattern change happens twice a year when the Daylight Saving Time (DST) change occurs. Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi argued in 2000 that a DST change lowers stock market returns. This study presents evidence that DST changes affect the relationship between stock market return and volatility. Empirical evidence suggests that the positive relationship between return and volatility becomes negative on the Mondays following DST changes.

  20. Does extending daylight saving time save energy? Evidence from an Australian experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Wolff, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics]|[Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA), Bonn (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Several countries are considering extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) in order to conserve energy, and the U.S. will extend DST by one month beginning in 2007. However, projections that these extensions will reduce electricity consumption rely on extrapolations and simulations rather than empirical evidence. This paper, in contrast, examines a quasiexperiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. Using detailed panel data and a triple differences specification, we show that the extension did not conserve electricity, and that a prominent simulation model overstates electricity savings when it is applied to Australia. (orig.)

  1. Daylight Science and Daylighting Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kittler, Richard; Darula, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight profoundly influences the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. Nature fuels the evolution of all living things, their visual systems, and the manner in which they adapt, accommodate, and habituate. Sun luminance measurements serve as data to calculate typical changes in the daily, monthly, and annual variability characteristics of daylight. Climate-based sky luminance patterns are used as models in predicting daylighting calculation and computer programs applied in architecture and building design. Historically, daylight science and daylighting technology has prioritized photometric methods of measurements, calculation, and graphical tools aimed at predicting or evaluating the daylighting of architectural design alternatives. However, due to a heightened awareness of general health and well-being, sunlight exposure and freedom from visual discomfort while undertaking visual tasks are now equally prioritized. Therefore, in order to assure optimal environmental quality, daylighting technology must be base...

  2. Lost sleep and cyberloafing: Evidence from the laboratory and a daylight saving time quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David T; Barnes, Christopher M; Lim, Vivien K G; Ferris, D Lance

    2012-09-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool that has changed the way people work. However, the ubiquity of the Internet has led to a new workplace threat to productivity-cyberloafing. Building on the ego depletion model of self-regulation, we examine how lost and low-quality sleep influence employee cyberloafing behaviors and how individual differences in conscientiousness moderate these effects. We also demonstrate that the shift to Daylight Saving Time (DST) results in a dramatic increase in cyberloafing behavior at the national level. We first tested the DST-cyberloafing relation through a national quasi-experiment, then directly tested the relation between sleep and cyberloafing in a closely controlled laboratory setting. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory, practice, and future research.

  3. The impact of the daylight saving time on electricity consumption-A case study from Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad Momani, Mohammad; Yatim, Baharudin; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in Jordan. Two types of analysis were done: the first analysis examines the impact of DST on the lighting loads based on a survey study made for residential and commercial sectors. The second examines the impact of DST on the over all electricity generation through analyzing the daily load curves (DLCs) before and after the DST onset and removal in 2000 and 2007. The results show that the application of DST during the year 2000 saves the electricity used for illumination by -0.73% but it increases the overall generation at the onset and removal of DST by 0.5% and 1.4% due to increase in the heating and cooling loads. The analysis of DLCs during the year 2007 shows similar effects as in the year 2000 except during the early morning period at the DST onset where DST decreases the demand during this time. The analysis shows that DST decreases the electricity demand at DST onset by 0.2% and increases it at DST removal by 0.3%. A possible decrease in the electricity consumption may take place if the DST is implemented from April to end of August.

  4. Self-reported discomfort associated with Daylight Saving Time in Brazilian tropical and subtropical zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, João Carlos Nascimento de; Leocadio-Miguel, Mario André; Duarte, Leandro Lourenção; Louzada, Fernando; Fontenele Araujo, John; Pedrazzoli, Mario

    2017-11-01

    Daylight Saving Time (DST) annually moves clocks 1 hour forward, when daytime is longer than night. Previous studies from medium and high latitude locations have pointed to a disruptive effect of DST on human circadian rhythms. Since Brazil is an equatorial country implementing DST, a different relationship between photic and social synchronisers may interfere with DST effects. To explore the prevalence and duration of self-reported discomfort related to DST among Brazilian residents (latitude 12-33° S, longditude 39-57° W). It was hypothesised that an elevated prevalence of self-reported discomfort would be found in Brazil, due to the pronounced uncoupling between social and geophysical synchronisers. In total, 12 467 volunteers completed a web-based, Brazilian version of Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, provided demographic information, and answered questions related to DST complaints (discomfort, duration of discomfort). Of the total sample, 45.43% reported no discomfort related to DST, with meaningful proportions for all chronotypes. However, eveningness was most associated with discomfort. About one fourth of the total sample reported discomfort over the whole DST period. Gender interaction is largely supported by these results. DST at low latitude locations may be disruptive for circadian rhythms, since seasonality of sunrise near the equator is negligible or very mild.

  5. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  6. The impact of daylight saving time on electricity consumption: Evidence from southern Norway and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Faisal Mehmood; Bergland, Olvar

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of daylight saving time (DST) on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. As DST was implemented in both the countries in 1980, we do not have a clear counterfactual in the form of a control period to identify the impact of DST directly with before and after or with and without analysis. This problem in the study is resolved by using 'equivalent day normalization technique' to identify the impact of DST. The difference-in-difference (DID) average treatment effects model suggests an annual reduction of at least 1.0 percent in electricity consumption for both Norway and Sweden due to DST. The average annual electricity consumption reduction corresponding to DST effects equals 519 and 882 GWh for southern Norway and Sweden, resulting in an annual financial saving of 16.1 million Euros and 30.1 million Euros, respectively. The distribution of treatment effects across different hours of the day indicates a small but significant reduction in electricity consumption during the morning and a steep decline during the evening hours in both countries. - Highlights: → We assess the impact of DST on electricity consumption in southern Norway and Sweden. → DST reduces electricity consumption by 1.3 percent in both countries. → The impact is smaller during the morning hours but larger during evening hours. → Respective annual financial savings equal Euro 16.1 and 30.1 million for Norway and Sweden. → Average annual electricity savings equal 519 and 882 GWh for two countries, respectively.

  7. Effects of daylight-saving time changes on stock market returns and stock market volatility: rebuttal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Mark J; Kramer, Lisa A; Levi, Maurice D

    2013-02-01

    In a 2011 reply to our 2010 comment in this journal, Berument and Dogen maintained their challenge to the existence of the negative daylight-saving effect in stock returns reported by Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi in 2000. Unfortunately, in their reply, Berument and Dogen ignored all of the points raised in the comment, failing even to cite the Kamstra, et al. comment. Berument and Dogen continued to use inappropriate estimation techniques, over-parameterized models, and low-power tests and perhaps most surprisingly even failed to replicate results they themselves reported in their previous paper, written by Berument, Dogen, and Onar in 2010. The findings reported by Berument and Dogen, as well as by Berument, Dogen, and Onar, are neither well-supported nor well-reasoned. We maintain our original objections to their analysis, highlight new serious empirical and theoretical problems, and emphasize that there remains statistically significant evidence of an economically large negative daylight-saving effect in U.S. stock returns. The issues raised in this rebuttal extend beyond the daylight-saving effect itself, touching on methodological points that arise more generally when deciding how to model financial returns data.

  8. Year-round daylight saving time will save more energy in India than corresponding DST or time zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Dilip R.; SenGupta, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Many countries have experimented with daylight saving time (DST) to save energy and to align human activities more closely to the daily cycle of light and darkness. Using a novel methodology, we estimate the year-round energy savings to be obtained from advancing Indian Standard Time (IST), from the introduction of DST, and from dividing the country into two time zones. We find that the option of advancing IST consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST option, which in turn saves more energy than the corresponding time zones option. This is because the energy benefits of advancing IST accrue for the entire year throughout the country, whereas the benefits of DST are confined to summer months and the benefits of two time zones are largely in the lower energy consuming eastern region. We recommend advancing IST by half-hour to being six hours ahead of UTC. This confers the advantages of DST and time zones without their disadvantages and is forecast to save more than 2 billion kWh of electricity every year during evening peaks that are difficult to supply. While these results are India-specific, similar exercises would be useful to many other countries. - Highlights: ► Advancing IST (YRDST) consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST. ► DST consistently saves more energy than dividing India into two time zones. ► There are also many non-energy benefits of advancing IST. ► Results are for India; countries with DST may find it useful to consider YRDST.

  9. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  10. The daylight saving time in Mexico; El cambio de horario durante la epoca del verano en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The daylight saving time in Mexico for energy saving is analyzed; such a change is made forwarding the clocks one hour in all Mexico the first Sunday of April and backing them an hour the last Sunday of October. Mention is made the reasons why Mexico adopted this measure, the social-economic impact that brings along and the benefits of this daylight saving time. The case of countries that also apply this measure is analyzed. It is expected that this measure attains benefits for the society either collectively or individually through the ecology and the economy. [Espanol] Se analiza el cambio de horario en la epoca de verano en Mexico para ahorrar energia; dicho cambio se realiza al adelantar una hora al reloj en todo el territorio de Mexico el primer domingo de abril y retrazarlo una hora el ultimo domingo de octubre. Se mencionan las razones por las cuales Mexico adopto esta medida, el impacto socio-economico que traera consigo y los beneficios del cambio de horario. Se aborda la situacion de los paises que tambien aplican esta medida. Se espera que esta medida logre beneficios para la sociedad, ya sea en modo colectivo o individual, para la ecologia y para la economia.

  11. Daylight-saving time: Consumption and demand saving and pollutants emission reduction; El cambio de horario de verano: Ahorros en consumo y demanda, y reduccion de contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Gaudencio; Diaz, Rodrigo; Fiscal, Raul; Alquicira, Claudia; Martinez, Serafin; Maqueda, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents some of the saving obtained in demand and in fuels with the daylight-saving time, as well as the main aspects considered to make an evaluation of it. [Espanol] Se presentan los ahorros obtenidos en consumo, demanda y combustibles con el cambio de horario de verano, asi como los principales aspectos considerados para efectuar la evaluacion de los mismos.

  12. Daylight And Seating Preference In Open-Plan Library Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Keskin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Daylight factor has long been the predominant metric to evaluate daylight performance. Recently, the profession has moved toward annual dynamic daylight metrics such as useful daylight illuminance and daylight autonomy, which are based on absolute values of time varying daylight illuminance for a period of full year. As opposed to static daylight metrics that only concentrate on individual sky conditions, such as the widely used daylight factor, these metrics provide a more comprehensive way to measure illuminance for a wide range of sun positions and sky conditions. Although there is a growing consensus assigning importance to dynamic daylight metrics, there is no common understanding of how to integrate the preference and behaviour of building occupants in assessing the applicability of these metrics. In fact, it is when these occupancy observations and quantitative measurements are taken together that the importance of daylight performance metrics is fully realized. This study seeks to investigate the extent to which the influence of daylight on behaviour can be predicted, and for this the behaviour investigated is seating preferences of occupants in open plan, hot-desking spaces in two university libraries in Sheffield: Western Bank Library and the Information Commons. The results suggest that the association between daylight and seat choice may not be strong, and that any effect is better associated with daylight factor than with useful daylight illuminance or daylight autonomy.

  13. Daylight saving time (summer 2001) for a culture of energy care; Horario de verano 2001 por una cultura del cuidado de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    As in other headings, such as the care of water and the environment, in what corresponds to energy care, we must take a foresighted attitude so that in a near future we not only can continue covering our energy needs, but also that we do not lack of it, because it is an indispensable service for modern life, practically in any field of the human activity. In this article it is mentioned how the daylight saving time works, the impact in the consumption and demand of electrical energy, resulting from the daylight saving time program 1996-2000. Energy impact, certification of the energy impact due to the application of the program in Mexico, the environmental impact, how the organism adapts harmonically to the summer schedule, the daylight saving program in the world, the daylight saving time program in Mexico, the adjustment in the period of application, and the accumulated results 1996-2000 by the establishment of the daylight saving time program. [Spanish] Al igual que en otros rubros, tales como el cuidado del agua y del medio ambiente, en lo que corresponde al cuidado de la energia, debemos tomar una actitud previsora para que en un futuro cercano no solo podamos continuar cubriendo nuestras necesidades de energia, sino para que esta no nos falte, porque se trata de un servicio indispensable para la vida moderna, practicamente en cualquier campo de la actividad humana. Este articulo se habla sobre como funciona el horario de verano, el impacto en el consumo y la demanda de energia electrica, resultados del horario de verano 1996-2000, Impacto energetico, certificacion del impacto energetico debido a la aplicacion del horario de verano en Mexico, el impacto ambiental, el organismo se adapta armonicamente al horario de verano, el horario de verano en el mundo, el horario de verano en Mexico, el ajuste en el periodo de aplicacion, y resultados acumulados 1996-2000 por el establecimiento del horario de verano.

  14. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  15. Daylight calculations in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Roy, Nicolas; Hvass, Mette

    programs can give different results. This can be due to restrictions in the program itself and/or be due to the skills of the persons setting up the models. This is crucial as daylight calculations are used to document that the demands and recommendations to daylight levels outlined by building authorities....... The aim of the project was to obtain a better understanding of what daylight calculations show and also to gain knowledge of how the different daylight simulation programs perform compared with each other. Furthermore the aim was to provide knowledge of how to build up the 3D models that were...

  16. The best time to have sex: mating behaviour and effect of daylight time on male sexual competitiveness in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito worldwide and works as a vector for many important pathogens. Control tools rely to chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. Recently, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, such as evaluation of plant-borne compounds and sterile insect technique (SIT) programs. Success of SIT is dependent to the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with wild ones. Little is still known about mating behaviour of Aedes males. Most of the studies focus on comparisons of insemination ability in sterilised and wild males, while behavioural analyses of mating behaviour are lacking. Here, I quantified the courtship and mating behaviour of A. albopictus and evaluated how daylight hours affect male mating behaviour and success. A. albopictus males chased females facing them frontally, from behind, or from a lateral side. If the female allowed genital contact, copulation followed. Otherwise, females performed rejection kicks and/or flew away. Thirty-seven percent of males obtained a successful copulation (i.e. sperm transfer occurs), lasting 63 ± 4 s. Unsuccessful copulation (20 % of males) had shorter duration (18 ± 1 s). Successful copulations followed longer male courtships (39 ± 3 s), over courtships preceding unsuccessful copulation (20 ± 2 s) or male's rejection (22 ± 2 s). After copulation, the male rested 7 ± 0.4 s close to the female, then move off. In a semi-natural environment, male mating success was lower in early afternoon, over morning and late afternoon. However, little differences in courtship duration over daylight periods were found. This study adds knowledge to the reproductive behaviour of A. albopictus, which can be used to perform comparisons among courtship and mating ethograms from different mosquito species and strains, allowing monitoring and optimisation of mass rearing quality over time in SIT programs.

  17. Selected DOE headquarters publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This publication provides listings of (mainly policy and programmatic) publications which have been issued by headquarters organizations of the Department of Energy; assigned a DOE/XXX- type report number code, where XXX is the 1- to 4-letter code for the issuing headquarters organization; received by the Energy Library; and made available to the public

  18. Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    -divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple.......e., an innovation that is important for the firm beyond the divisional boundaries, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, on average, a non-significant effect of cross-divisional embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. Yet, both cross...

  19. The time of sunrise and the number of hours with daylight may influence the diurnal rhythm of acute heart attack mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriszbacher, Ildikó; Bódis, József; Boncz, Imre; Koppan, Agnes; Koppan, Miklós

    2010-04-01

    We investigated whether the time of sunrise and the number of daylight hours have an effect on the seasonality, or the daily rhythm of heart attack mortality. We analyzed retrospectively data of patients admitted to hospitals with the diagnosis of heart attack (n=32,329) and patients who deceased of a heart attack (n=5142) between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2005 in Hungary. Heart attack mortality was highest during winter, while lowest number of events was recorded during summer . The daily peak of diurnality was between 6:00 am and 12:00 pm (33.77%). A positive correlation was found between the time of sunrise, time of sunset and the mortality caused by myocardial infarction (pheart attack mortality we found a negative correlation (r=-0.105, pheart attack mortality. Our data suggest, that the occurrence and the mortality of heart attack may be related to the time of sunrise and the number of daylight hours. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DOE headquarters publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This bibliography provides listings of (mainly policy and programmatic) publications issued from the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. The listings are arranged by the ''report code'' assigned to each of the major organizations at DOE Headquarters, followed by the three categories of environmental reports issued from DOE Headquarters. All of the publications listed, except for those shown as still ''in preparation,'' may be seen in the Energy Library. A title index arranged by title keywords follows the listings. Certain publications are omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, ''fact sheets,'' bulletins and weekly/monthly issuances of DOE's Energy Information Administration and Economic Regulatory Administration, and employee bulletins and newsletters. Omitted from the bibliography altogether are headquarters publications assigned other types of report codes--e.g., ''HCP'' (Headquarters Contractor Publication) and ''CONF'' (conference proceedings)

  1. American Red Cross Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This point file represents only the headquarters location for each chapter and does not reflect any branch offices or warehouse facilities. Due to the recent changes...

  2. Fortune 500 Corporate Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Large Corporate Headquarters in the United States This database is composed of 'an annual list of the 500 largest industrial corporations in the U.S., published by...

  3. News from IAEA Headquarters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Two more countries have joined the Agency - Panama and Jordan - bringing IAEA membership up to 96. Mr. Ginige Richard Walter de Silva (Ceylon) has been appointed Director of the Division of Conference and General Services of the Agency. Born in 1911 at Nugegeda, Ceylon, Mr. de Silva obtained his B.Sc. in Physics at London University and his M.A. in Physics and Mathematics at Cambridge University. He has had a long career in the Civil Service, mainly in the administrative, commercial and finance branches of government. Mr.de Silva took over from Mr. Arthur E. Barrett, Chief of the Conference and Engineering Services, who had been Acting Director of the Division for a long period of time, and who will be leaving the Agency later this year to take up work elsewhere. From the early days of IAEA in 1957, Mr. Barrett has been closely associated with the establishment of the Agency's temporary headquarters in Vienna. He has been in charge of the planning and design of the technical facilities for the various conference installations and responsible for the servicing of all the General Conference sessions since 1958. In fact, Mr. Barrett has played an essential part in the creation of the Vienna Congress Centre in the former Hofburg Imperial Palace. Educated at Cambridge and London Universities, Mr. Barrett has had some 35 years of public service, first in the BBC in London and subsequently with the United Nations in New York. (author)

  4. Welcome to the Journal of Daylighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I am delighted to welcome you to a newly launched Solarlits electronic journal: the Journal of Daylighting (JD. As the Editor-in-Chief of JD it is a great pleasure to introduce the inaugural issue of this new, open-access, bi-annual journal to readers, researchers, future authors, and colleagues. The decision by SolarLits to launch this new journal is very timely. Because the growth of lighting demand is increasing due to rising average illuminance levels in buildings, more attention has been paid to introduce daylighting in buildings, which will sustainably reduce the overall energy consumption in buildings. JD will serve as a new international platform for researchers to share advances in daylighting. As an international, peer-reviewed research journal it will exclusively cover the vibrant and diverse field of daylighting technologies and applications. JD will serve as an interdisciplinary forum for the scientific and research community active in daylighting and its applications. Topics will include, but not limited to: daylighting and hybrid lighting systems, lighting and daylighting simulation, lighting designs, lighting metrology and light quality, lighting control, building physics - lighting, building energy modeling, energy efficient buildings, zero-energy buildings, indoor environment quality, sustainable solar energy systems, application of solar energy sources in buildings, building-integrated photovoltaics, and solar thermal and concentrator technology. I will work with the Associate Editors, the Editorial Board, and the scientific and engineering research community to make JD a primary journal for the dissemination of breakthrough results, discussion of key challenges, and topics in daylighting. JD will publish full-length research articles, review articles, book reviews, and short communications.

  5. Location of hotel groups’ headquarters

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Ivanova, Maya

    2018-01-01

    The paper assesses the factors that influence the location of hotel groups’ headquarters. The concentration of headquarters in a particular country is modelled by three different variables: share of Hotels 325 ranked hotel groups headquartered in the country, share of hotels in Hotels 325 ranked groups headquartered in the country and share of rooms in Hotels 325 ranked hotel groups headquartered in the country. Three groups of factors are assessed: hotel industry-specific factors (size of th...

  6. DOE headquarters publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    This bibliography provides listings of (mainly policy and programmatic) publications issued from the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. The listings are arranged by the ''report code'' assigned to each of the major organizations at DOE Headquarters, followed by the three categories of environmental reports issued from DOE Headquarters. All of the publications listed, except for those shown as still ''in preparation,'' may be seen in the Energy Library. A title index arranged by title keywords follows the listings. Certain publications are omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, ''fact sheets,'' bulletins and weekly/monthly issuances of DOE's Energy Information Administration and Economic Regulatory Administration, and employee bulletins and newsletters. Omitted from the bibliography altogether are headquarters publications assigned other types of report codes--e.g., ''HCP'' (Headquarters Contractor Publication) and ''CONF'' (conference proceedings). (RWR)

  7. DOE headquarters publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    This bibliography provides listings of (mainly policy and programmatic) publications issued from the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. The listings are arranged by the report number assigned to each publication. All of the publications listed, except for those shown as still in preparation, may be seen in the Energy Library. A title index arranged by title keywords follows the listings. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins and weekly/monthly issuances of DOE's Energy Information Administration and Economic Regulatory Administration, and employee bulletins and newsletters. Omitted from the bibliography altogether are headquarters publications assigned other types of report codes--e.g., HCP (Headquarters Contractor Publication) and CONF (conference proceedings).

  8. DOE headquarters publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This bibliography provides listings of (mainly policy and programmatic) publications issued from the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. The listings are arranged by the report number assigned to each publication. All of the publications listed, except for those shown as still in preparation, may be seen in the Energy Library. A title index arranged by title keywords follows the listings. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins and weekly/monthly issuances of DOE's Energy Information Administration and Economic Regulatory Administration, and employee bulletins and newsletters. Omitted from the bibliography altogether are headquarters publications assigned other types of report codes--e.g., HCP (Headquarters Contractor Publication) and CONF

  9. Relative roles of emissions and meteorology in the diurnal pattern of urban PM10: analysis of the daylight saving time effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ricardo C

    2012-06-01

    Daylight saving time (DST) is a common practice in many countries, in which Official Time (OT) is abruptly shifted 1 hour with respect to solar time on two occasions every year (in fall and spring). All anthropogenic emitting processes tied to OT like job and school commuting traffic, abruptly change in this moment their timing with respect to solar time, inducing a sudden shift between emissions and the meteorological factors that control the dispersion and transport of air pollutants. Analyzing 13 years of hourly particulate matter (PM10) concentrations measured in Santiago, Chile, we demonstrate that the DST practice has observable non-trivial effects in the PM10 diurnal cycle. The clearest impact is in the morning peak of PM10 during the fall DST change, which occurs later and has on average a significant smaller magnitude in the days after the DST change as compared to the days before it. This decrease in magnitude is most remarkable because it occurs in a period of the year when overall PM10 concentrations increase due to generally worsening of the dispersion conditions. Results are shown for seven monitoring stations around the city, and for the fall and spring DST changes. They show clearly the interplay of emissions and meteorology in conditioning urban air pollution problems, highlighting the role of the morning and evening transitions of the atmospheric boundary layer in shaping the diurnal pattern of urban air pollutant concentrations.

  10. ERDA Headquarters reports: March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    ERDA headquarters reports (ERDA 77-41) provides a cumulative record, through various lists and an index, of the reports issued from ERDA Headquarters (''ERDA Reports''). The four sections of this publication are New ERDA Reports, a list of Headquarters reports received in the ERDA Library during the past month; Cumulative List of ERDA Reports, all ERDA Headquarters reports already issued or scheduled to be issued; Reports by Program Division, separate lists of ERDA reports arranged by the division or office at ERDA Headquarters responsible for their preparation and/or issuance; and Index to Keywords in Report Titles

  11. Daylight utilisation in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jens

    This Ph.D. thesis presents the qualitative and quantitative consequences of full-scale measurements on two daylighting systems, light shelf and Venetian blinds. The systems were investigated to assess their ability to increase daylight penetration and improve daylight distribution in the interior......, aiming at increased utili sation of daylight in order to supplement and replace artificial lighting. The visual quality is assessed only by subjective evalua tions of the luminous environment, luminance distributions in the interior and glare problems. This thesis does not pretend to answer or solve all...

  12. Designing with daylight; the relationship between daylight and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    architecture’ which focuses on how to increase the solar influx when designing and building houses (Hobday 1999, 2007). But daylight is also complicated because it is measured and valued quantitatively and qualitatively and, furthermore, has seasonal variations, creating challenges when building living areas...... aiming at as much daylight as possible through the year. Those responsible for designing and building the home, architects and engineers, rely on quantifiable ways of allowing enough daylight into buildings (or reducing too much); yet people living in the homes may have entirely different perceptions...... and the significance of daylight. This paper describes the views and significance of daylight to people in their everyday lives. Based on a qualitative research project in Denmark about the use of windows, performed from May to August 2012 among 13 families , using in-depth interviews, observations, photos...

  13. The methodology for the evaluation of the energy saving by the daylight saving time in Mexico; Metodologia para la evaluacion del ahorro de energia debido al cambio de horario durante la epoca del verano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    A description is made of the methodology for the evaluation of energy saving by the daylight saving time in Mexico. A mathematical model was developed that would allow the quantitative evaluation of the energy saving by the daylight saving time, through measurements of the consumption of different users from the domestic commercial and industrial sector, considering the various variables that impact the consumption [Espanol] Se describe la metodologia para la evalucion del ahorro de energia por el cambio de horario de verano en Mexico. Se desarrollo un modelo matematico que permitiera evaluar cuantitativamente el ahorro de energia debido al cambio de horario durante la epoca de verano, atraves de mediciones de consumos de los diferentes usuarios de los sectores domestico, comercial e industrial, considerando las diversas variables que impactan en el consumo

  14. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  15. Daylight photodynamic therapy in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordey, Helen; Valentine, Ronan; Lesar, Andrea; Moseley, Harry; Eadie, Ewan; Ibbotson, Sally

    2017-05-01

    Chronic sun-induced dysplastic skin changes (actinic keratoses) are extremely common in fair-skinned people in Scotland. These changes are a major cause of morbidity and may develop into skin cancer. Actinic keratoses are often extensive and pose a therapeutic challenge as field-directed treatment is required for chronic disease management. One such treatment approach is hospital-based photodynamic therapy, which is a well-established treatment in Scotland for actinic keratoses, using a photosensitiser pro-drug and red LED light irradiation. However, photodynamic therapy using daylight as the activating light source is increasingly and effectively used in continental Europe, but had not been explored in Scotland until we initiated this in 2013. We report our experience of daylight photodynamic therapy in 64 patient-treatment courses and demonstrate that this can be an effective, well-tolerated treatment, which is liked by patients. Our most recent data show that most patients (73%) achieved clearance or at least a good response to treatment and had high levels of satisfaction with daylight photodynamic therapy. Daylight exposure measurements indicated that treatment is feasible in Scotland between April to September. Daylight photodynamic therapy is an important advancement in treatment options for Scottish patients with extensive pre-cancerous field changes and provides opportunities for home-based treatment and increased efficiency of photodynamic therapy services.

  16. Daylight as a building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter; Madsen, Merete

    2005-01-01

    The article draws on examples to chronologically trace the use of daylight as building material in architecture of the 20th and early 21st century. The essay covers works of Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Erik Bryggman, Rudolf Schwarz, Alvar Aalto, Aldo Rossi, Jørn Utzon, Daniel Libeskind, Peter...

  17. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  18. Assessment of daylight quality in simple rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau

    The present report documents the results of a study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. The overall objective of the study was to develop a basis for a method for the assessment of daylight quality in a room with simple geometry and window configurations. As a tool...... the windows). A number of light indicators allowed understanding and describing the geometry of daylight in the space in a very detailed and thorough manner. The inclusion of the daylight factor, horizontal illuminance, luminance distribution, cylindrical illuminance, the Daylight Glare Index, vertical...

  19. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    A cumulative listing of DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979 is provided along with an index of title keywords. Three types of headquarters publications have been included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations; reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE headquarters) to describe research and development work they have performed for the department; and environmental development plans, environmental impact statements, and environmental readiness documents. Availabilities of documents are given

  20. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A cumulative listing of DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979 is provided along with an index of title keywords. Three types of headquarters publications have been included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations; reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE headquarters) to describe research and development work they have performed for the department; and environmental development plans, environmental impact statements, and environmental readiness documents. Availabilities of documents are given. (GHT)

  1. 7 CFR 1726.150 - Headquarters buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headquarters buildings. 1726.150 Section 1726.150... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Buildings § 1726.150 Headquarters buildings. This section includes headquarters buildings such as warehouses and equipment service type buildings...

  2. Impact of three window configurations on daylight conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau; Traberg-Borup, Steen

    The report describes the results of a pilot study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. As a tool for the analyses the Radiance Lighting Simulating System was used to simulate one room with three different window configurations, a vertical window, a dormer window......, and a roof window. The simulations were performed for overcast sky conditions and under one sunny sky, for two different times of the day. The study shows that the window configuration affects the daylight conditions (distribution and intensity) significantly. The roof window results in a higher (average......) daylight factor on a horizontal plane, i.e. more than twice as high compared with the vertical window, and more than triple as high compared with the dormer window....

  3. OpenDaylight SDN controller platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes Garcia, Bernat

    2015-01-01

    Implementació d'una solució SDN amb opendaylight Implementación of a SDN solution based on OpenDaylight: controller architecture and developer guide Implementación de una solución SDN basada en OpenDaylight: arquitectura y guia de desarrollo. Implementació d'una solució SDN basada en OpenDaylight: arquitectura del controlador i guia de desenvolupament.

  4. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  5. Solar Shading System Based on Daylight Directing Glass Lamellas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Santos, Inês; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    The overheating problems in office buildings must be solved with efficient solar shadings in order to reduce the energy demand for cooling and ventilation. At the same time the solar shading should not reduce the daylight level in the building on overcast days because it would result in a lower...

  6. Evaluation of Daylight Availability for Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bellia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic daylight simulations are very useful instruments in daylighting design process. They allow an in depth analysis of indoor daylight availability levels and define if they are adequate to perform a particular visual task. Their results can be used to design shading devices or lighting control systems and compare different technical solutions. The use of these simulations is likely to spread in the common design practice since some regulations and green building rating systems suggest their use. This paper presents dynamic daylight simulation results related to an open-plan office, performed with Autodesk 3ds Max Design®, which is a calculation software validated by recent researches. It is not used in academic context but it is very widespread between technicians for photorenderings production purposes. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the functionality of this software also in dynamic daylight simulations field and propose an analysis' methodology to use it.

  7. Conflict Resolution in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gammelgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of regulatory fit and moral emotions, that is, contempt and anger, in influencing conflict resolution between the headquarters and subsidiary boundary spanners. We develop a theoretical framework, which integrates literature on international business and headquarters-subsi...

  8. 39 CFR 221.5 - Headquarters organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headquarters organization. 221.5 Section 221.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.5 Headquarters organization. (a) Postmaster General—(1) Appointment. The postmaster general (PMG), the chief...

  9. Financial Reporting at the Washington Headquarters Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-15

    FINANCIAL REPORTING AT THE WASHINGTON HEADQUARTERS SERVICES Report No. D-2001-081 March 15, 2001...to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Financial Reporting at the Washington Headquarters Services Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number...underlying financial reporting processes that cause abnormal balances on the trial balances of Other Defense Organizations. An account balance is abnormal

  10. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Kappen, Philip; Dellestrand, Henrik

    innovation importance, i.e., an innovation that is important for the division and the corporate level, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, no significant effect of dual embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. The network size....... The current paper takes on this neglected question by empirically investigating corporate and divisional headquarters direct involvement in innovation development projects at the subsidiary level. Analyses that draw upon 85 innovation development projects in 23 multinational enterprises reveal that dual...... of the developing subsidiary positively moderates the two aforementioned effects on dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures. Thus, the results question simplistic views...

  12. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2014-01-01

    innovation importance, i.e., an innovation that is important for the division and the corporate level, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, no significant effect of dual embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. The network size....... The current paper takes on this neglected question by empirically investigating corporate and divisional headquarters direct involvement in innovation development projects at the subsidiary level. Analyses that draw upon 85 innovation development projects in 23 multinational enterprises reveal that dual...... of the developing subsidiary positively moderates the two aforementioned effects on dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures. Thus, the results question simplistic views...

  13. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2014-01-01

    . The current paper takes on this neglected question by empirically investigating corporate and divisional headquarters direct involvement in innovation development projects at the subsidiary level. Analyses that draw upon 85 innovation development projects in 23 multinational enterprises reveal that dual...... innovation importance, i.e., an innovation that is important for the division and the corporate level, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, no significant effect of dual embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. The network size...... of the developing subsidiary positively moderates the two aforementioned effects on dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures. Thus, the results question simplistic views...

  14. Computer program for calculating the daylight level in a room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordaans, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that calculates the total quantity of daylight provided to an arbitrary place in a room by direct incident daylight, by reflected daylight from opposite buildings and ground, and by interreflected daylight from walls, ceilings and floors. Input data include the

  15. Seasonality in trauma admissions – Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Background Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Methods Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001–2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). Results A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Conclusion Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year. PMID:29425210

  16. Seasonality in trauma admissions - Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røislien, Jo; Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001-2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year.

  17. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. Publications issued during October 1977 to September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6. Publications from 26 headquarters offices are presented and consist of three types: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations; reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department under 01-type contracts; and environmental development plans, impact statements, and readiness documents. Availability of the documents is described

  18. Selected DOE headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. Publications issued during October 1977 to September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6. Publications from 26 headquarters offices are presented and consist of three types: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations; reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department under 01-type contracts; and environmental development plans, impact statements, and readiness documents. Availability of the documents is described.

  19. Selected DOE Headquarters Publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. (Publications issued during October 1977-September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6.) Three types of headquarters publications are included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations, reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department, and environmental development plans and impact statements. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories, headquarters publications issued under the DOE-tr and CONF codes, technical reports from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA issued under DOE/JPL and DOE/NASA codes, and weekly/monthly reports of the Energy Information Administration. (RWR)

  20. Selected DOE Headquarters publications, October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This publication provides cumulative listings of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. Three types of headquarters publications are included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations, reports prepared by contractors to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department, and environmental development plans and impact statements. Such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, telephone directories, headquarters publications issued under the DOE-tr and CONF codes, technical reports from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA issued under DOE/JPL and DOE/NASA codes, and weekly/monthly reports of the Energy Information Administration are not included. (RWR)

  1. Selected DOE Headquarters publications, October 1979-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    This publication provides a cumulative listing of and an index to DOE headquarters publications issued since October 1979. (Publications issued during October 1977 to September 1979 are covered in DOE/AD-0010/6.) Three types of headquarters publications are included: publications dealing mainly with program and policy that are attributed to and issued by headquarters organizations, reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department, and environmental development plans, environmental impact statements, and environmental readiness documents. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories. Also omitted are weekly/monthly reports of the Energy Information Administration and headquarters publications issued under the DOE-tr and CONF codes. (RWR)

  2. Analysis of the astronomical elements and its impact in the daylight saving time in Mexico; Analisis de los elementos astronomicos y su repercusion en el horario de verano en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Torres, Juan M; Navarrete Padilla, Roberto [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The analysis of the denominated daylight time is presented in Mexico, starting from the consideration of the astronomical elements that they determine the conformation of the day. In a principle we contemplates that only variable but along the process others were included that are decisive of the process of this change in the time. With the above-mentioned like reference is contemplated the analyses starting from the following general variable: a) astronomical variable, b) economic variable c) variable bio-environmental. The analysis for the astronomical part is developed starting from including the elements that determine the concept by day Astronomical and Civil day and its starting from statements and approaches outlined by the official sources and the bio-environmental (in specific the biological rhythms) for some results of investigators' studies in the matter. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis del denominado Horario de Verano (H. de V.) en Mexico, a partir de la consideracion de los elementos astronomicos que determinan la conformacion del dia. En un principio se contemplo esa unica variable pero a lo largo del proceso se incluyeron otras que son determinantes del proceso de cambio en el tiempo. Con lo anterior como referencia se contempla el analisis a partir de las siguientes variables generales: a) variable astronomica, b) variable bio-ambiental c) variable economica. El analisis de la parte astronomica se desarrolla a partir de incluir los elementos que determinan el concepto de dia Astronomico y dia Civil y su relacion, por otro lado la parte economica se revisa a partir de afirmaciones y criterios planteados por las fuentes oficiales y la bio-ambiental (en especifico los ritmos biologicos) por algunos resultados de estudios de investigadores en la materia.

  3. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Multibusiness Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Kappen, Philip; Dellestrand, Henrik

    development projects of subsidiaries. Analyses of 85 innovation development projects reveal that dual innovation importance (innovation that is important for the division and the rest of the firm), and dual dual embeddedness (innovating subsidiary is embedded both within the division and in the rest...... of the firm) lead to greater dual headquarters involvement, especially when the innovation development network is large. The results contribute to the literature on complex parenting and theory of selective headquarters involvement....

  4. Continuous activation of PpIX by daylight is as effective as and less painful than conventional photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses; a randomized, controlled, single-blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Hædersdal, Merete; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly effective treatment for actinic keratoses (AK); however, it is time consuming and often painful for the patient. Daylight-PDT would make the treatment independent of the clinic and less painful due to the continuous activation of small amounts...... was more painful than daylight (P continuous activation of porphyrins by daylight proved to be as effective as conventional PDT. PDT using daylight activation will make the treatment...

  5. Combining annual daylight simulation with photobiology data to assess the relative circadian efficacy of interior spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechacek, C.S.; Andersen, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Architecture, Building Technology; Lockley, S.W. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital

    2008-07-01

    This paper addressed the issue of hospital design and the role of daylight in patient health care. It presented a new approach for integrating empirical data and findings in photobiology into the performance assessment of a space, thus combining both visual and health-related criteria. Previous studies have reported significant health care outcomes in daylit environments, although the mechanism and photoreceptor systems controlling these effects remain unknown. This study focused on furthering the previous studies beyond windows to describing the characteristics of daylight that may promote human health by providing daylighting for the appropriate synchronization of circadian rhythms, and then make specific daylighting recommendations, grounded in biological findings. In particular, this study investigated the use of daylight autonomy (DA) to simulate the probabilistic and temporal potential of daylight for human health needs. Results of photobiology research were used to define threshold values for lighting, which were then used as goals for simulations. These goals included spectrum, intensity and timing of light at the human eye. The study investigated the variability of key architectural decisions in hospital room design to determine their influence on achieving the goals. The simulations showed how choices in building orientation, window size, user-window position and interior finishes affect the circadian efficacy of a space. Design decisions can improve or degrade the health potential for the space considered. While the findings in this research were specific to hospitals, the results can be applied to other building types such as office buildings and residences. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Weather conditions and daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S R; Fabricius, S; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses (AKs). Daylight-mediated methyl aminolaevulinate PDT (daylight-PDT) is a simple and painless treatment procedure for PDT. All daylight-PDT studies have been performed in the Nordic countries. To...

  7. Effect of daylight hours on performance of growing grasscutters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daylight hours on growing grasscutters was determined using sixteen 8-months old femalegrasscutters. The grasscutters were separated into four groups and allotted to four treatments of varying daylight hours. The treatments included; zero (0) hours of daylight and twenty four (24) hours (6.00 am-6.00 am) of ...

  8. Headquarters-subsidiary relationship governance in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses the views of agency and stewardship theory on governance of the relationship between headquarters and subsidiaries. It explores the influence of strategy, task environment and cultural differences on this relationship. The conceptual model is explored based on a survey of 76

  9. Legitimacy Dynamics in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Kumar, Rajesh

    The relationship between multinational enterprises’ (MNE) headquarters and their subsidiaries has been of considerable interest to international business scholars (e.g., Dörrenbächer and Geppert, 2009). Although a subsidiary is an integral part of an MNE, its interests do not necessarily converge...

  10. MNC Headquarters as Global Network Orchestrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentino, Alfredo; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hotho, Jasper J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased interest in headquarters (HQ) and their activities, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the drivers of HQ relocations and their consequences. We seek to address this gap by examining whether HQ relocations are primarily driven by cost-reduction or value-creation motiv...

  11. Does Distance to Subsidiaries affect Headquarters Value Added?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    How does distance between MNC headquarters and their subsidiaries affect the value added generated by headquarters? Integrating theories on spatial transaction costs with the headquarter view of the MNC, we link two types of distances, geographic distance and contextual distance, with headquarters...... of headquarters is highest for subsidiaries that are not externally embedded in the host country and that operate at a large distance. It is lowest for locally responsive subsidiaries with high external embeddedness operating at a large distance. We discuss implications for the literature on headquarters...

  12. Does Distance to Subsidiaries affect Headquarters Value Added?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Ambos, Björn

    How does distance between MNC headquarters and their subsidiaries affect the value added generated by headquarters? Integrating theories on spatial transaction costs with the headquarter view of the MNC, we link two types of distances, geographic distance and contextual distance, with headquarters...... of headquarters is highest for subsidiaries that are not externally embedded in the host country and that operate at a large distance. It is lowest for locally responsive subsidiaries with high external embeddedness operating at a large distance. We discuss implications for the literature on headquarters...

  13. Glazing for intelligent daylight utilisation; Verglasungen fuer die intelligente Tageslichtnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubbert, F. [VEGLA Vereinigte Glaswerke GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    Daylight, a part of the solar energy incident on the Earth`s surface, is available to us for free and usually in sufficient quantity. Nevertheless, in office and administration buildings artificial lighting is used for an average 60% of total occupancy time. This figure refers not only those times of the year and day when daylight intensity is naturally weak but also includes periods when sunlight is available in excess. To minimise buildings` absorption of solar energy (and so reduce the cooling load) and shield workplaces against direct sunlight, frequent use is made of mechanical shading systems which necessitate the use of artificial lighting, this in turn adding to the cooling load. Several daylight systems have been developed and are now increasingly being used to resolve this paradoxical situation. [Deutsch] Tageslicht, als Bestandteil der Sonnenenergie, steht uns taeglich kostenlos und meistens in ausreichender Menge zur Verfuegung. Dennoch wird in Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeuden die kuenstliche Beleuchtung im Durchschnitt waehrend etwa 60% der Nutzungszeit eingeschaltet. Dies jedoch nicht nur waehrend der tages- und jahreszeitlich bedingten Phasen mit einer geringen natuerlichen aeusseren Beleuchtungsstaerke, sondern gerade auch zu den Zeiten in denen Sonnenlicht im Uebermass zur Verfuegung steht. Denn zur Minimierung der in die Gebaeude eingebrachten solaren Energie (Reduzierung der Kuehllasten) und zur Erzielung eines Blendschutzes an den betroffenen Arbeitsplaetzen werden sehr haeufig mechanische Verschattungssysteme benutzt, die ein Zuschalten der kuenstlichen Beleuchtung erforderlich machen und somit wieder zu einer Erhoehung der Kuehllasten fuehren. Um dieser Parodoxie aufzuloesen, wurden einige Tageslichtsysteme entwickelt, die im zunehmenden Masse auch praktisch angewandt werden. (orig.)

  14. NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center: Providing Situational Awareness for Spaceflight Contingency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.; Bihner, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the NASA Headquarters mishap response process for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, and how the process has evolved based on lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia accidents. It also describes the NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center (SOC) and its special role in facilitating senior management's overall situational awareness of critical spaceflight operations, before, during, and after a mishap, to ensure a timely and effective contingency response.

  15. Architecture, energy and daylight. Study of seven buildings; Arkitektur, energi og dagslys. Undersoegelse af syv bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, J.; Petersen, E.; Svensson, O.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this research project was to enhance the designer's knowledge for designing buildings, rooms and window openings which utilise daylight in such a way that aesthetic and functional requirements can be met and energy consumption for electric lighting can be reduced at the same time. It was not the purpose of the project to develop guidelines but only to demonstrate how good daylight conditions and energy conservation can be achieved. The daylight conditions in the seven selected buildings were registered and assessed by the panel on two field trips in the spring of 1999. During these visits, the research team registered the location of rooms, their orientation, windows, artificial lighting etc. After the field trips, the buildings were photographed and the research group performed measurements and analyses of the lighting conditions in the rooms. However, the quality of daylight cannot be determined based only on measurements. The four professionals therefore supplemented the measurements with a subjective evaluation. The study of these seven buildings led to a number of results that must be assumed to be generally valid. A main result is that good daylight conditions in no way prevents or impedes the creation of good architecture. On the contrary, quality of daylight creates both functional as well as aesthetically satisfactory architecture. In all the investigated buildings, the ratio of glass areas to floor area is highter than 10%. In Denmark, this ratio would ensure reasonable daylight access and a view out. However, when size of glass area and daylight measurements are compared, the relationship between them is not straight-forward. The quantity and quality of daylight in buildings depend on other factors too, such as the depth of window openings, solar shading devices, opposite buildings, outdoor vegetation etc. The study points out that there are no standard solutions of how to design facades and window openings which satisfy all

  16. Daylighting simulation: methods, algorithms, and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, William L.

    1999-12-01

    This document presents work conducted as part of Subtask C, ''Daylighting Design Tools'', Subgroup C2, ''New Daylight Algorithms'', of the IEA SHC Task 21 and the ECBCS Program Annex 29 ''Daylight in Buildings''. The search for and collection of daylighting analysis methods and algorithms led to two important observations. First, there is a wide range of needs for different types of methods to produce a complete analysis tool. These include: Geometry; Light modeling; Characterization of the natural illumination resource; Materials and components properties, representations; and Usability issues (interfaces, interoperability, representation of analysis results, etc). Second, very advantageously, there have been rapid advances in many basic methods in these areas, due to other forces. They are in part driven by: The commercial computer graphics community (commerce, entertainment); The lighting industry; Architectural rendering and visualization for projects; and Academia: Course materials, research. This has led to a very rich set of information resources that have direct applicability to the small daylighting analysis community. Furthermore, much of this information is in fact available online. Because much of the information about methods and algorithms is now online, an innovative reporting strategy was used: the core formats are electronic, and used to produce a printed form only secondarily. The electronic forms include both online WWW pages and a downloadable .PDF file with the same appearance and content. Both electronic forms include live primary and indirect links to actual information sources on the WWW. In most cases, little additional commentary is provided regarding the information links or citations that are provided. This in turn allows the report to be very concise. The links are expected speak for themselves. The report consists of only about 10+ pages, with about 100+ primary links, but

  17. 39 CFR 223.1 - Headquarters and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Headquarters and areas. 223.1 Section 223.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNICATION CHANNELS § 223.1 Headquarters and areas. Headquarters provides policy guidance, procedures, and...

  18. The effect of different weather data sets and their resolution on climate-based daylight modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, A; Svendsen, Svend; Nielsen, Toke Rammer

    2013-01-01

    Climate-based daylight modelling is based on the available weather data, which means that the weather data used as input to the daylight simulations are of great importance. In this paper, the effect on the outcome of the daylight simulations of using one weather data file rather than another...... for the same location was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of using weather data sets with an hourly resolution compared to a one-minute resolution was investigated. The results showed that the lighting dependencies varied by up to 2% depending on the chosen weather data file and indoor illuminance...... threshold. The energy consumption for artificial lighting was underestimated when simulating with time steps of hourly means compared to one-minute resolution. The findings from this comparison show that the dynamic, short-term effects of the weather have a surprisingly small impact on the simulation...

  19. A spatially augmented reality sketching interface for architectural daylighting design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yu; Yapo, Theodore C; Young, Christopher; Cutler, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of interactive global illumination and spatially augmented reality to architectural daylight modeling that allows designers to explore alternative designs and new technologies for improving the sustainability of their buildings. Images of a model in the real world, captured by a camera above the scene, are processed to construct a virtual 3D model. To achieve interactive rendering rates, we use a hybrid rendering technique, leveraging radiosity to simulate the interreflectance between diffuse patches and shadow volumes to generate per-pixel direct illumination. The rendered images are then projected on the real model by four calibrated projectors to help users study the daylighting illumination. The virtual heliodon is a physical design environment in which multiple designers, a designer and a client, or a teacher and students can gather to experience animated visualizations of the natural illumination within a proposed design by controlling the time of day, season, and climate. Furthermore, participants may interactively redesign the geometry and materials of the space by manipulating physical design elements and see the updated lighting simulation. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  20. Performance of a daylight-redirecting glass-shading system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    with the prototype façade. This layout allowed the use of the same orientation and surroundings for both façades. The working plane illuminance was measured over several months and the measurements were accompanied with annual daylight simulations. The prototype system improved the daylighting conditions compared...... to the original system. The visual comfort was evaluated by glare analysis and the redirected daylight did not cause an additional discomfort glare. The higher utilization of daylight can save 20% of the lighting energy. The thermal insulation of the fenestration was maintained, with slightly increased solar...

  1. Daylight photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine; Wulf, H C; Szeimies, R-M

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for non-melanoma skin cancers including actinic keratoses (AKs) because it allows treatment of large areas; it has a high response rate and results in an excellent cosmesis. However, conventional PDT for AKs is associated with inconveniently long...... clinic visits and discomfort during therapy. In this article, we critically review daylight-mediated PDT, which is a simpler and more tolerable treatment procedure for PDT. We review the effective light dose, efficacy and safety, the need for prior application of sunscreen, and potential clinical scope...

  2. Stimulating Sustainability in Multinational Companies: the Significance of Regional Headquarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G. M. NACHBAGAUER

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, regional headquarters have gained practical importance and theoretical attention. Traditionally considered a mere transmission facility to manage complex organisations, advanced approaches, however, locate regional headquarters in a field of tension between hierarchical integration and strategic independence. Given the growing concern for global responsibility, stimulating sustainability also and particularly addresses regional headquarters. This conceptual article combines the call for sustainability with the upcoming importance of regional headquarters: which contributions can the regional headquarters of a multinational company deliver to stimulate the development of sustainable corporate strategy and operations? The main topics are the effects different versions of embedding regional headquarters into the corporate context have on opportunities to implement sustainability policies: Are there different chances for successful implementation depending on the strategic setup of the company? Does the distribution of competences matter? Which types of interaction between headquarters and branch are suitable to introduce sustainability sustainably? Is the mix of national contexts of headquarters and branch of importance? First results show that depending on the companywide strategy, and especially on the structure and distribution of competences, regional headquarters can play a significant role as trigger of sustainability. The literature favours strong involvement and large autonomy of both branches as well as regional headquarters for the development and management of sustainability. The parts of the company involved in a critical environment often are the starting point of sustainability policies.

  3. Light Moves: Integrating Daylight into School Design from the Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossy de Dios, Eric; Rogic, Tinka; Vaughn, Wendell

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of daylight on the learning environment. Enhanced student performance and mood, increased teacher and student attendance, reduced energy costs, as well as a positive effect on the environment are some of the improvements seen in school buildings that use well-planned daylighting concepts. Looking at…

  4. Adaptive integration of daylight and artificial lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2016-01-01

    cloud, with which to determine dynamic compositions of colour temperatures and luminous intensities. The presentation will demonstrate a fully functional adaptive lighting design system, which enables sketching from user experience in full-scale participatory lighting design encounters....... that simultaneously separates, and connects us to our surroundings. One can say that the world outside projects itself into the interior space, essentially as diffused illuminating reflections. As figuratively abstract and blurred phenomena, these diffused luminous reflections rouse us into interactions...... with the world. In contrast to fluctuating daylight, a specific distinctive feature of artificial light has been – until very recently – its constancy in colour and intensity. However, by virtue of the technological convertibility of LEDs in concert with digital control systems, LEDs are capable of dynamically...

  5. Hardware-in-the-Loop Modeling and Simulation Methods for Daylight Systems in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Alex Robert

    This dissertation introduces hardware-in-the-loop modeling and simulation techniques to the daylighting community, with specific application to complex fenestration systems. No such application of this class of techniques, optimally combining mathematical-modeling and physical-modeling experimentation, is known to the author previously in the literature. Daylighting systems in buildings have a large impact on both the energy usage of a building as well as the occupant experience within a space. As such, a renewed interest has been placed on designing and constructing buildings with an emphasis on daylighting in recent times as part of the "green movement.''. Within daylighting systems, a specific subclass of building envelope is receiving much attention: complex fenestration systems (CFSs). CFSs are unique as compared to regular fenestration systems (e.g. glazing) in the regard that they allow for non-specular transmission of daylight into a space. This non-specular nature can be leveraged by designers to "optimize'' the times of the day and the days of the year that daylight enters a space. Examples of CFSs include: Venetian blinds, woven fabric shades, and prismatic window coatings. In order to leverage the non-specular transmission properties of CFSs, however, engineering analysis techniques capable of faithfully representing the physics of these systems are needed. Traditionally, the analysis techniques available to the daylighting community fall broadly into three classes: simplified techniques, mathematical-modeling and simulation, and physical-modeling and experimentation. Simplified techniques use "rules-of-thumb'' heuristics to provide insights for simple daylighting systems. Mathematical-modeling and simulation use complex numerical models to provide more detailed insights into system performance. Finally, physical-models can be instrumented and excited using artificial and natural light sources to provide performance insight into a daylighting system

  6. Physical fitness and health education program at NASA Headquarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: policy procedures to enter the NASA Headquarters Physical Fitness and Health Program; eligibility; TDY eligibility; health promotions offered; and general facility management.

  7. Daylighting monitoring protocols and procedures for buildings. A report of Task 21/Annex 29. Daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atif, M.R. [National Research Council, Inst. for Research in Construction, Indoor Environment Research Program (Denmark); Love, J.A. [Univ. of Calgary, Faculty of Environmental Design (Canada); Littlefair, P. [Building Research Establishment, Lighting and Applied Vision Section (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    This official IEA report is a deliverable of IEA SHC Task 21/IEA BCS Annex 29: Daylight in Buildings. The Task focuses on daylighting systems and strategies which can be applied in new and existing buildings with a high potential electricity saving potential such as offices, schools, commercial, and institutional buildings. The daylighting performance of these strategies and systems is tested in laboratory facilities, through modeling, and in real case study buildings. This paper provides methods and procedures to evaluate the daylighting performance of real buildings. Annex 29 case studies located in Europe, North America, and Australia. It is a deliverable of Subtask D research projects. The main objective of Subtask D, as stated in the Implementing Agreement of Task 21/Annex 29, is `to demonstrate the viability of daylighting buildings in various world climatic zones as a means of achieving significant improvements in building energy efficiency while maintaining a satisfactory visual and thermal environment for occupants`. (au)

  8. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Pearce

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K, all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  9. Chromatic illumination discrimination ability reveals that human colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Bradley; Crichton, Stuart; Mackiewicz, Michal; Finlayson, Graham D; Hurlbert, Anya

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of colour constancy in human visual perception keeps surface colours constant, despite changes in their reflected light due to changing illumination. Although colour constancy has evolved under a constrained subset of illuminations, it is unknown whether its underlying mechanisms, thought to involve multiple components from retina to cortex, are optimised for particular environmental variations. Here we demonstrate a new method for investigating colour constancy using illumination matching in real scenes which, unlike previous methods using surface matching and simulated scenes, allows testing of multiple, real illuminations. We use real scenes consisting of solid familiar or unfamiliar objects against uniform or variegated backgrounds and compare discrimination performance for typical illuminations from the daylight chromaticity locus (approximately blue-yellow) and atypical spectra from an orthogonal locus (approximately red-green, at correlated colour temperature 6700 K), all produced in real time by a 10-channel LED illuminator. We find that discrimination of illumination changes is poorer along the daylight locus than the atypical locus, and is poorest particularly for bluer illumination changes, demonstrating conversely that surface colour constancy is best for blue daylight illuminations. Illumination discrimination is also enhanced, and therefore colour constancy diminished, for uniform backgrounds, irrespective of the object type. These results are not explained by statistical properties of the scene signal changes at the retinal level. We conclude that high-level mechanisms of colour constancy are biased for the blue daylight illuminations and variegated backgrounds to which the human visual system has typically been exposed.

  10. Analysis and prediction of daylighting and energy performance in atrium spaces using daylight-linked lighting controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Stanley K.H.; Li, Danny H.W.; Lee, Eric W.M.; Lam, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Daylight-linked lighting control and energy performance for atrium is studied. ► Field measurement of automatic dimming control shows 93% energy saving. ► Field measurement of manual on–off control shows 95% energy saving. ► Atrium illuminance is correlated with daylight factor for energy saving prediction. - Abstract: In subtropical Hong Kong, a certain amount of electricity is used to create visually comfortable interior spaces through electric lighting, which is the second major electricity-consuming item in commercial buildings, accounting for 20–30% of total electricity use. The burning of fossil fuels for electricity generation has many adverse effects on the environment. Daylighting is an important and useful strategy for enhancing visual comfort and reducing the need for the electricity consumed by light fittings. The rational use of daylight through tools such as photoelectric lighting controls can effectively reduce buildings’ electricity consumption and the related pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. Daylighting design techniques are often best demonstrated via field measurements that provide reliable operational and energy performance data for establishing design guidelines. An atrium provides an environmentally controlled indoor public space that introduces daylight into the hearts of large buildings. In circulation areas such as corridors, people expect the way ahead to be sufficiently lit and daylight-linked lighting controls can deliver excellent energy savings. This paper presents the daylighting and energy performance of an atrium space using daylight-linked lighting controls. The cost, energy and environmental issues related to various daylight illuminances are estimated and design implications are discussed

  11. Daylight and energy implications for CIE standard skies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) has adopted a range of 15 standard skies, which include the existing CIE overcast, very clear and cloudless polluted skies, covering the whole probable spectrum of usual skies found in the world. The traditional daylight factor (DF) approach with the calculations being based on an isotropic overcast sky, however, cannot cater to the dynamic variations in daylight luminance and illuminance as the sun's position changes under non-overcast skies. Currently, we propose a numerical procedure that considers the changes in the luminance of sky elements to predict the interior daylight illuminance under the 15 CIE standard skies. This paper evaluates the method by using a typical room with a large vertical glazing window facing north. The available daylight for the room at mean hourly sun positions in each month in terms of DF and illuminance levels were determined and compared with those based on a computer program, namely, RADIANCE. A modification to the ground reflected component was made when a well defined shadow was cast in front of the window facade. It is shown that the results estimated by the proposed approach are in reasonably good agreement with those produced from RADIANCE. The interior daylight and lighting energy consumption were also determined using the proposed and the traditional DF approaches. The findings reveal that daylighting designs using existing CIE overcast sky only would considerably underestimate the indoor daylight availability and electric lighting energy savings, especially under high design indoor illuminance settings

  12. Longview District Operations and Maintenance Headquarters: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) operations and maintenance staff are presently based at a headquarters next to the Longview Substation. These headquarters buildings, however, were built in 1941 and have deteriorated to the point of needing extensive repair. They also lack sufficient inside storage space. New buildings cannot be constructed on the site because of surrounding development. In addition, the site is within an area exposed to industrial fallout (coal tar pitch and metallic particles) that may be damaging buildings, equipment, and vehicles. BPA is concerned about the potential health risk to headquarters staff from the fallout. In light of these problems, BPA proposes to construct a new operations and maintenance headquarters at a different location, and to demolish the existing headquarters. This paper discusses the environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives

  13. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    The desert climate is endowed by clear sky conditions, providing an excellent opportunity for optimum utilization of natural light in daylighting building indoor spaces. However, the sunny conditions of the desert skies, in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens" Very little research work addressed different design aspects of external Solar Screens and their influence on daylighting performance, especially in desert conditions, although these screens proved their effectiveness in controlling solar radiation in traditional buildings throughout history.This paper reports on the outcomes of an investigation that studied the influence of perforation percentage of Solar Screens on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room of a building in a desert location. The objective was to identify minimum perforation percentage of screen openings that provides adequate illuminance levels in design-specific cases and all-year-round.Research work was divided into three stages. Stage one focused on the analysis of daylighting illuminance levels in specific dates and times, while the second stage was built on the results of the first stage, and addressed year round performance using Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics (DDPMs). The third stage addressed the possibility of incidence of glare in specific cases where illuminance levels where found very high in some specific points during the analysis of first stage. The research examined the daylighting performance in an indoor space with a number of assumed fixed experimentation parameters that were chosen to represent the principal features of a typical residential living room located in a desert environment setting.Stage one experiments demonstrated that the screens fulfilled the

  14. Image registration for daylight adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael

    2018-03-15

    Daytime use of adaptive optics (AO) at large telescopes is hampered by shot noise from the bright sky background. Wave-front sensing may use a sodium laser guide star observed through a magneto-optical filter to suppress the background, but the laser beacon is not sensitive to overall image motion. To estimate that, laser-guided AO systems generally rely on light from the object itself, collected through the full aperture of the telescope. Daylight sets a lower limit to the brightness of an object that may be tracked at rates sufficient to overcome the image jitter. Below that limit, wave-front correction on the basis of the laser alone will yield an image that is approximately diffraction limited but that moves randomly. I describe an iterative registration algorithm that recovers high-resolution long-exposure images in this regime from a rapid series of short exposures with very low signal-to-noise ratio. The technique takes advantage of the fact that in the photon noise limit there is negligible penalty in taking short exposures, and also that once the images are recorded, it is not necessary, as in the case of an AO tracker loop, to estimate the image motion correctly and quickly on every cycle. The algorithm is likely to find application in space situational awareness, where high-resolution daytime imaging of artificial satellites is important.

  15. A Contextualized Model of Headquarters-subsidiary Agency Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostova, Tatiana; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hoenen, Anne Kristin

    This paper proposes an agency model for headquarters-subsidiary relationships in multinational organizations with headquarters as the principal and the subsidiary as the agent. As a departure from classical agency theory, our model is developed for the unit level of analysis and considers two root...... in which the headquarters-subsidiary dyad is embedded. We then discuss several agency scenarios that lead to different manifestations of the agency problem. The framework informs more relevant applications of agency theory in organizational studies and motivates future research....

  16. Selected DOE Headquarters publications, October 1977-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This sixth issue of cumulative listings of DOE Headquarters publications covers the first two years of the Department's operation (October 1, 1977 - September 30, 1979). It lists two groups of publications issued by then-existing Headquarters organizations and provides an index to their title keywords. The two groups of publications are publications assigned a DOE/XXX-type report number code and Headquarters contractor reports prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department. Certain publications are omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories, as well as headquarters publications issued under the DOE-tr (DOE translation) and CONF (conference proceedings) codes, and technical reports from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA issued under DOE/JPL and DOE/NASA codes. The contents of this issue will not be repeated in subsequent issues of DOE/AD-0010. (RWR)

  17. Selected DOE Headquarters publications received by the Energy Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography provides listings of (mainly policy and programmatic) publications issued from the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. The listings are arranged by the ''report code'' assigned to the major organizations at DOE Headquarters, followed by the three categories of environmental reports issued from DOE Headquarters. All of the publications listed, except for those shown as still ''in preparation,'' may be seen in the Energy Library. A title index arranged by title keywords follows the listings. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, ''fact sheets,'' bulletins and weekly/monthly issuances of DOE's Energy Information Administration and Economic Regulatory Administration, and employee bulletins and newsletters. Omitted from the bibliography altogether are headquarters publications assigned other types of report codes--e.g., ''HCP'' (Headquarters Contractor Publication) and ''CONF''

  18. Daylight case study building. A working document of Task 21. Daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, P.E.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes 16 buildings, that have been selected as Task 21 case studies. Totally 15 buildings will be monitored and described according to the procedures developed in Task 21. One case study building is in design stage, the new ISE Headquarters in Freiburg, and this project has been selected as a case study on building design. The monitoring programme for the buildings runs through 1997 until mid 1998. The present document serves as a basic document describing the case studies, until the projects will be described in more detail, including monitoring results, towards the end of the Task. (au)

  19. Daylight strategies for architectural studio facilities: the literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Anas Bin; Azfahani Ahmad, Nur; Ajis, Azizah Md

    2017-05-01

    The implementation of daylighting strategies in buildings is a common aspect in architecture. However, due to the availability of inexpensive electricity, natural lighting strategies became insignificant, and been overlooked by designers. With the current concern over rapid increment on electricity cost, many designers now try to revitalized daylighting strategies in buildings. This includes educational buildings. In Malaysian cases, it is a norm that universities; especially during lecture and studio sessions, used artificial lighting throughout the day. Definitely, this is not parallel with the “green” aim made by the Government in the Malaysian Plan. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the impact of daylight strategies for educational studios in universities, by maximising the penetration of natural daylight into the space towards creating a more green-conducive studio. The paper review literature about the types, criteria and benefits of daylight strategies. This paper also presented a pilot study that has been performed in one university in Perak, Malaysia, by selecting architectural studios as the main subject.

  20. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy in Spain: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Gilaberte, Y

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an option for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and certain types of basal cell carcinoma. It is also used to treat various other types of skin condition, including inflammatory and infectious disorders. The main disadvantages of PDT are the time it takes to administer (both for the patient and for health professionals) and the pain associated with treatment. Daylight-mediated PDT has recently been reported to be an alternative to the conventional approach. Several studies have shown it to be similar in efficacy to and better tolerated than classic PDT for the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis. Nevertheless, most of these studies are from northern Europe, and no data have been reported from southern Europe. The present article reviews the main studies published to date, presents the treatment protocol, and summarizes our experience with a group of treated patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. New construction of a company center: Esprit Global Business Headquarters; Neubau einer Firmenzentrale: Esprit Global Business Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerres, E.

    2004-07-01

    Esprit GmbH is a business of dynamic growth. In 1999, a new administrative building was projected which was to serve as a headquarter for all compartments. The building was to be constructed at Ratingen. (orig.) [German] Die Esprit GmbH ist durch dynamisches Wachstum gekennzeichnet, was der Grund war, Anfang 1999 Projektstudien fuer einen Neubau an alternativen Standorten zu entwickeln. Verschiedene, bislang verstreut gelegene Unternehmensteile sollten in einem gemeinsamen Headquarter zusammengefasst werden. Die Entscheidung fiel fuer den Standort Ratingen. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of Architectural Strategies in Relation to Daylight and Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Iversen, Anne; Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    his paper investigates the use of daylight in three architecturally successful buildings. The aim is to discuss the challenges and opportunities of architectural daylight strategies in relation to integrated design. All these buildings were designed with the focus on a strategy of using daylight...... that the architectural daylight strategies formulated by the architects and engineers at the beginning of the design process are actually experienced by the “users” in the existing buildings. The architectural daylight strategy was different in each of the three libraries, and analysis of the results shows that daylight...

  3. Daylight Design of Office Buildings: Optimisation of External Solar Shadings by Using Combined Simulation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrating daylight and energy performance with optimization into the design process has always been a challenge for designers. Most of the building environmental performance simulation tools require a considerable amount of time and iterations for achieving accurate results. Moreover the combination of daylight and energy performances has always been an issue, as different software packages are needed to perform detailed calculations. A simplified method to overcome both issues using recent advances in software integration is explored here. As a case study; the optimization of external shadings in a typical office space in Australia is presented. Results are compared against common solutions adopted as industry standard practices. Visual comfort and energy efficiency are analysed in an integrated approach. The DIVA (Design, Iterate, Validate and Adapt plug-in for Rhinoceros/Grasshopper software is used as the main tool, given its ability to effectively calculate daylight metrics (using the Radiance/Daysim engine and energy consumption (using the EnergyPlus engine. The optimization process is carried out parametrically controlling the shadings’ geometries. Genetic Algorithms (GA embedded in the evolutionary solver Galapagos are adopted in order to achieve close to optimum results by controlling iteration parameters. The optimized result, in comparison with conventional design techniques, reveals significant enhancement of comfort levels and energy efficiency. Benefits and drawbacks of the proposed strategy are then discussed.

  4. Initial operations in local nuclear emergency response headquarter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the Fukushima nuclear accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake and the tsunami that occurred thereafter, local nuclear emergency response headquarters (local headquarters) was set up at off-site center (OFC). However, several obstacles such as the collapse of means of communication resulting from severed communication lines, food and fuel shortage resulting from stagnant physical distribution, and increasing radiation dose around the center significantly restricted originally intended operation of local headquarters. In such severe situation, the personnel gathered at the OFC from the government, local public bodies and electric companies from March 11 to 15 acted without sufficient food, sleep or rest and did all they could against successively occurring unexpected challenges by using limited means of communication. However, issues requiring further consideration were activities of each functional group, location of OFC and the functions of equipment, machines and materials and reflecting the consideration results into future protective measures and revision of the manual for nuclear emergency response were greatly important. This report described investigated results on initial operations in local headquarters such as situation of activities conducted by local headquarters and operations at functional groups. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Analysis of Daylighting Requirements within ASHRAE Standard 90.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2013-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), under the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) funded by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides support to the ASHRAE/IES/IESNA Standard 90.1(Standard 90.1) Standing Standards Project Committee (SSPC 90.1) and its subcommittees. In an effort to provide the ASHRAE SSPC 90.1 with data that will improve the daylighting and fenestration requirements in the Standard, PNNL collaborated with Heschong Mahone Group (HMG), now part of TRC Solutions. Combining EnergyPlus, a whole-building energy simulation software developed by DOE, with Radiance, a highly accurate illumination modeling software (Ward 1994), the daylighting requirements within Standard 90.1 were analyzed in greater detail. The initial scope of the study was to evaluate the impact of the fraction of window area compared to exterior wall area (window-to-wall ratio (WWR)) on energy consumption when daylighting controls are implemented. This scope was expanded to study the impact of fenestration visible transmittance (VT), electric lighting controls and daylighted area on building energy consumption.

  6. NOUR. Daylighting and thermal effects of windows in desert houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Djamel

    1999-07-01

    This study is on a combined effect of window, the daylighting and the thermal effects, in desert houses. It is comprised of two complementary studies. In the introduction a historical review on the development of using daylight has been carried out in order to place the case study in a historical perspective. The first study is comprehensive and contains two main parts. In the first part a study was carried out on the people and history of the town of Ghardaia in Southern Algeria. This was done in order to understand the architectural form of that region. The second part is experimental and consists of two field studies carried out in Ghardaia. Their aim was to investigate the influence of daylight and temperature on the use of residential houses. This investigation included both traditional and 'modern' houses, the modern having relatively large windows similar to those of the northern part of Algeria, the traditional ones having small or no windows. The second study is also experimental consisting of computer parametric studies on window design from two standpoints, namely daylighting level and thermal effects of windows in desert houses. A typical traditional house is described as it was observed. Then the recorded light values are presented and commented upon. In the second part, three types of modern houses observed in the field studies are presented and compared to the traditional archetype. The comparison especially dwells on the relative effectiveness of the two systems of daylighting. In the third part, focusing on various issues of lighting, the results of interviews with the inhabitants are presented. The historical studies indicate that the process of housing development, in several respects, has reached a certain quality (social, technology, and adaptation to climate) appropriate to the local original context, but that development has slowed down. The results of the lighting study indicate that the use of more windows in modern houses

  7. Switching From Conventional Photodynamic Therapy to Daylight Photodynamic Therapy For Actinic Keratoses: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Velázquez, A; Redondo, P

    2017-05-01

    Actinic keratosis is a precursor lesion to the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be effective, but the procedure is time-consuming, can be very painful, and requires infrastructure. These shortcomings led to the emergence of daylight PDT. To obtain a global estimate of efficacy, we undertook a systematic literature review and performed a meta-analysis of the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of daylight PDT as compared to conventional PDT in the treatment of actinic keratosis and/or field cancerization. The conclusion is that the difference in efficacy is clinically negligible (global estimate of the mean response rate difference, -3.69%; 95% CI, -6.54% to -0.84%). The adverse effects of daylight PDT are mild and localized (79% of patients report no discomfort), and patients report less pain (P<.001). Daylight PDT gives good to excellent cosmetic results in more than 90% of patients, and patient satisfaction is greater (P<.001). Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Corporate headquarters as physical embodiments of organisational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marrewijk, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the interdependency of corporate architecture and organisation cultural change. Corporate headquarters have become symbols of corporate change ambitions to endure cultural value sets. The paper seeks to contribute to the growing interest in the

  9. Selected DOE Headquarters publications received by the Energy Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography provides listings of (mainly policy and programmatic) publications issued from the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. The listings are arranged by the ''report code'' assigned to the major organizations at DOE Headquarters, followed by the three categories of environmental reports issued from DOE Headquarters. All of the publications listed, except for those shown as still ''in preparation,'' may be seen in the Energy Library. A title index arranged by title keywords follows the listings. Certain publications have been omitted. They include such items as pamphlets, ''fact sheets,'' bulletins and weekly/monthly issuances of DOE's Energy Information Administration and Economic Regulatory Administration, and employee bulletins and newsletters. Omitted from the bibliography altogether are headquarters publications assigned other types of report codes--e.g., ''HCP'' (Headquarters Contractor Publication) and ''CONF'' (conference proceedings).

  10. Information Sharing Among Military Headquarters: The Effects of Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Communication systems. 3. Military art and science—United States— Decision making. 4. United States—Armed Forces—Headquarters. I. Moffat, James...1995/1996) argues that the study of complex adaptive systems is better referred to as plectics, because it is ‘a broad, transdisciplinary subject

  11. local government headquarters and spatial interaction within rivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    places. This should be within the framework of urban-rural regions defined in the context of contiguous zones of effective interaction between the centres and the rural hinterlands. ... from Port Harcourt which is the state headquarters other towns are in deplorable conditions in ..... visit and I point for the least frequent visits.

  12. Enhancing Army Joint Force Headquarters Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    insights, advice, and support. We also would like to thank Colonel James Dickens , Army Forces Command, and Lieutenant Colonel Ted Crisco, Combined Arms... Dickens (2004a, 2004b). 17 An important point is that the individual ground and air commanders change over time (because of duty shifts or...Division G3, 1st Cavalry Division, “Task Force Baghdad: Operation Iraq Freedom II,” undated briefing. Arnas, Neyla, Charles Barry, and Robert B. Oakley

  13. DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE OF HORIZONTAL LIGHT PIPE BRANCHING ON OPEN PLAN OFFICE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feny ELSIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For daylighting purpose, office buildings should have a shallow plan and increase the ratio of surface to building’s volume. However, intensive use of air-conditioning drives office building’s plan to be deep with a minimum surface to volume ratio. This leads to the presence of areas that have insufficient daylight level at the work plane. Considering limitations of some daylighting methods in distributing daylight to these areas, Horizontal Light Pipe (HLP was selected. The aim of this research was to evaluate and explain the effect of HLP branching on daylight quantity and distribution inside open plan office space. Experimental with simulation as a tool was used as the research method. HLP branching’s uniformity ratio, illuminance and Daylight Factor were compared with unbranching HLP, simultaneously with daylighting standards. Results showed that office space with HLP-L branching had higher daylight level than HLP-T branching, 296 lux and 295 lux, HLP-L and HLP-T, respectively. However, HLP-T branching distributed daylight more evenly than HLP-L branching, with uniformity ratio as 1.49:1 and 1.50:1, HLP-T and HLP-L, respectively. Both of them met the illuminance target value and uniformity at work plane. Light’s deflection and improvement amount of opening distribution decreased average illuminance and Daylight Factor up to 3.59%. Those also decreased uniformity of daylight inside the space.

  14. From dark to bright: novel daylighting applications in solid state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Helmar G.

    2011-10-01

    The term "daylighting" is used in various ways, on one hand in a more architectural sense, i.e. using existing daylight to illuminate spaces, and on the other, more recently, for using light sources to replicate daylight. The emergence of solid state lighting (SSL) opens up a large number of new avenues for daylighting. SSL allows innovative controllability of intensity and color for artificial light sources that can be advantageously applied to daylighting. With the assistance of these new technologies the combination of natural and artificial lighting could lead to improvements in energy savings and comfort of living beings. Thus it is imperative to revisit or even improve daylighting research so that building networks of the future with their sensor, energy (e.g. HVAC) and lighting requirements can benefit from the emerging capabilities. This paper will briefly review existing daylighting concepts and technology and discuss new ideas. An example of a tunable multi-color SSL system will be shown.

  15. Byron G. Rogers Federal Building Harvests Daylight and Super Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-01

    Case study describes how the Byron G. Rogers Federal Building replaced existing T12 and T8 luminaires with LED dedicated troffers with advanced controls. Together these measures cut lighting energy use by nearly 60% in the 18-story, 791,000-square-foot facility. The new lighting control system provides automated dimming of lights down to 0% output when daylight provides adequate light levels. The project earned GSA an award for exemplary performance from the Interior Lighting Campaign in 2016.

  16. Daylighting in linear atrium buildings at high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusiak, Barbara

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes new criteria for visual comfort based on knowledge of visual perception and a method for estimating the modelling ability of light by using inter-reflection calculations. Simplified calculations are presented for the daylight factor in linear building structures, using the projected solid angle principle, for uniform sky and for CIE overcast sky conditions. The calculations are compared with experimental results. Simple diagrams are created based on calculations of the mean daylight factor in rooms adjacent to a narrow street. These diagrams and presented formulas and tables can be used as a simple design tool. Daylighting strategies for linear atrium buildings at high latitudes are developed and examined. These strategies are divided into three groups: (1) the atrium space and facades as light conductor/reflector, (2) the glass roof as a light conductor, and (3) light reflectors on the neighbouring roof. The atrium space and facade strategies are subdivided into passive and active. The strategies connected to the glazed roof includes different configurations of glazing: horizontal, single pitched, double pitched, and the use of laser cut panels and prismatic panels in the glazed roof. The shapes of reflectors on the neighbouring roof are a flat reflector, a parabolic reflector and a parabolic concentrator. Strategies from all three groups are examined on a physical model of scale 1:20 in the artificial sky of mirror box type. Simulations with artificial sun have also been done. The results from model studies are compared with computer simulations. All the active daylighting systems designed for use in the atrium space or on the atrium facades have a huge potential for use in atrium buildings. From the strategies connected with the glazed roof the negatively sloped glass is found to be the best alternative for glazed roofs at high latitudes. Among the roof reflectors, the flat one performs best. 82 refs., 122 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Impact of shading on daylight quality. Simulations with radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.C.

    2001-07-01

    The impact of six exterior shading devices on daylight quality and on the potential for daylight utilisation in a standard, south-oriented office room was investigated through computer simulations with Radiance. The daylight quality was evaluated by considering four performance indicators: the absolute work plane illuminance, the illuminance uniformity on the work plane, the absolute luminance in the visual field and the luminance ratios between the work plane, VDT screen and surrounding surfaces. The results indicate that the overhang, white awning and horizontal venetian blind generated work plane illuminance levels that are more suitable for offices where traditional tasks are carried out. However, these devices did not prevent high luminance values at the window. On the other hand, the grey specular screen produced unacceptably low work plane illuminance, poor illuminance uniformity and unacceptably low luminance levels which resulted in unsuitable luminance ratios between the VDT screen, work plane and surroundings. The 45 deg venetian blind, white screen and blue awning provided work plane illuminance levels suitable for offices where a combination of paper and computer work is carried out. They also provided acceptable illuminance uniformity on the work plane, suitable luminance ratios between the work plane, VDT screen and surroundings and they significantly reduced the luminance of the window. However, the blue awning had a poorer performance in December than in June and the white screen resulted in high luminance values at the window, which indicates that the best device among the ones studied was the 45 deg venetian blind.

  18. A geostatistical analysis of IBTS data for age 2 North Sea haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus ) considering daylight effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Rivoirard, J.

    2001-01-01

    to ordinary kriging being most pronounced for years characterized by a high portion of night hauls and a low mean catch rate at night. This demonstrates that external drift kriging with a day/night indicator but preferably with time of day is capable of compensating successfully for daylight effects...... are included in the estimation without any correction for possible daylight effects. In the present study, ordinary kriging was used to correct for sampling irregularities and external drift kriging with a day/night indicator or a cosine function of time of day was applied to account additionally for diurnal...... differences in the catch rates. Only minor differences between the standard indices and the abundance estimates obtained by ordinary kriging were found. In contrast, the external drift kriging, particularly with time of day, yielded higher estimates of mean abundance for all years with the differences...

  19. Daylight Utilization with Light Pipe in Farm Animal Production: A Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pacheco Diéguez’

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Light pipes offer a passive way to bring daylight inside deep buildings, such as agricultural buildings. However, the lack of reliable performance predictability methods for light pipes represents a major obstacle preventing their widespread use. This paper evaluates a simulation approach for performance prediction and identifies key light pipe design parameters affecting their daylight transmission performance. The study was carried out through continuous monitoring of daylight in two full-scale, identical pig stables fitted with two light pipe systems, Solatube® and Velux®. The experiment included three continuously measuring sensors in each stable and an outdoor sensor during 2013 and 2014. A forward raytracing tool, TracePro®, was used for illuminance prediction and parametric simulations. The simulation results for overcast skies indicated discrepancies between the simulated and average measurement results below 30% in all cases. The discrepancies for clear skies were somewhat higher, i.e., below 30% for 67% of the cases. The higher discrepancies with clear skies were due to the overestimation of absolute sunlight levels and absence of an advanced and detailed optical characterization of the dome collector’s surface. The parametric results have shown that light pipes’ performance is better during summer time, in sunny climates, at low to mid-latitudes, which provides higher solar altitudes than during winter and cloudy climates at high latitudes. Methods to improve the luminous transmittance for low solar altitudes occurring in Scandinavia include: bending or tilting the pipe, increasing the aspect ratio, improving the pipe specular reflectance, tilting the collector to the south, and using optical redirecting system in the collector.

  20. The effect of dynamic solar shading on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in a nearly zero-energy loft room in Rome and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    alternatives in buildings with very low space-heating demand, this study mapped and compared energy, daylighting and thermal comfort for various combinations of window size and glazing properties, with and without dynamic shading. The study considered a loft room with sloped roof windows and moderate venting......Dynamic solar shading is commonly suggested as a means of reducing the problem of overheating in well-insulated residential buildings, while at the same time letting daylight and solar irradiation in when needed. To critically investigate what dynamic shading can and cannot do compared to permanent...... options in nearly zero-energy homes in Rome and Copenhagen. The more flexible solution space with dynamic shading made it possible to either reduce the time with operative temperatures exceeding the comfort limit by 40–50 h or increase daylighting by 750–1000 h more than could be achieved without shading...

  1. Reorganizing Geographic Combatant Command Headquarters for Joint Force 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Fred R. David, Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases (Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2005), 251. 2 efficiencies in overhead and headquarters.” 3... Fred J. Borch (Chief Executive Officer (then known as CXO) from 1963-1972) “instituted a series of corporate reorganizations;” 16 formed several... hollow force; and then recognizing that we might not get it right, and that we needed to build in reversibility both on the industrial base and in our

  2. 76 FR 19467 - Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased... to workers of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters, including on-site leased workers from Volt Services, Adecco, and Manpower, Federal Way, Washington. The workers supply corporate and...

  3. Using the whole-building design approach to incorporate daylighting into a retail space: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.; Eastment, M.; Judkoff, R.

    2000-06-21

    This paper focuses on implementation of daylighting into the Bighorn Center, a collection of home improvement retail spaces in Silverthorne, Colorado, which were constructed in three phases. Daylighting was an integral part of the design of the Phase 3 building. Energy consultants optimized the daylighting design through detailed modeling using an hourly building energy simulation tool. Energy consultants also used this tool to address the building owner's concerns related to customer comfort and increased product sales.

  4. Analysis of daylight calculated using the EnergyPlus programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Greici; Ghisi, Enedir [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis - SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In order to properly evaluate the thermal energy performance of buildings it is also necessary to analyse the use of daylight, since this influences the thermal load of a building. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the calculation of internal illuminances carried out using the EnergyPlus simulation programme. The analysis was carried out through a comparison of the Useful Daylight Illuminances (UDI) and the daylight factor (DF) estimated using the EnergyPlus programme with the results from another two programmes: Daysim/Radiance and TropLux. Also, the external horizontal illuminance estimated using EnergyPlus was compared with that measured in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, between 2003 and 2005. The simulations were carried out for three different rooms: one square (5 m x 5 m x 3 m), one shallow rectangular (10 m x 5 m x 3 m) and one deep rectangular (5 m x 10 m x 3 m). From this analysis it was verified that the EnergyPlus programme has a problem related to both the DF and the external illuminance values. A comparison between the DF values calculated using the three programmes shows that there is a problem in EnergyPlus related to solving the internal reflection, such that the greater the importance of the portion of light reflected, the greater the difference found between the programmes. A comparison between the calculated and measured external horizontal illuminances shows differences greater than 100% both for the diffuse and direct illuminances indicating that the EnergyPlus programme overestimates these values. (author)

  5. Daylighting as the Driving Force of the Design Process: from the Results of a Survey to the Implementation into an Advanced Daylighting Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio R.M. Lo Verso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study for the transformation of an industrial area in Turin, Italy. The area hosts two buildings (one of which appointed as listed to be transformed into dwellings. A synergic approach was adopted which combined expertise from architecture, social-economics, psychology and building physics sciences. Building physics sciences lead the research team. A user-centered design was pursued, using a bottom-up approach. A specifically developed questionnaire was submitted on-line to potential users. The survey showed that ‘amount of daylight’, ‘size of rooms’, ‘tranquility of the area’ and ‘presence of a private garden’ were perceived by users to be the most positive aspects of both their present and future, ideal home. These results were then implemented into the project. The exploitation of daylight became the driving force of the transformation project. Especially for the listed building, skylights and light wells were designed to bring daylight into the cores of the buildings, which host common spaces such as libraries or study rooms. The amount of daylight was assessed through the legislative index of the average daylight factor and through a climate-based modeling approach, calculating dynamic metrics such as the spatial daylight autonomy and the Useful Daylight Illuminance. The paper critically compares and discusses these two approaches. Finally, the energy demand for lighting was also calculated to analyze how the increased exploitation of daylight may imply a reduced need for electricity for lighting.

  6. Impact of Furniture Layout on Indoor Daylighting Performance in Existing Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, home-based computing workspaces have developed substantially all over the world, especially in Malaysia. This growing trend attracts computer workers to run a business from their residential units. Hence, visual comfort needs to be considered in addition to thermal comfort for home workers in their residential working rooms. While such rooms are always occupied with furniture, the layout of the furniture may influence the indoor daylighting distribution. Several various furniture layouts can be arranged in a residential working room. However, to have better generalisation, this study focused on the impacts of mostly-used-furniture-layouts (MUFLs on indoor daylighting performance in residential working rooms. The field measurement was conducted in a typically furnished room under a tropical sky to validate the results of the simulation software under different sky conditions. Then, daylight ratio (DR, as a quantitative daylighting variable, and the illuminance uniformity ratio (IUR, CIE glare index (CGI, and Guth visual comfort probability (GVCP, as qualitative daylighting variables, were analysed through simulation experiments. In conclusion, by changing the furniture layout, daylight uniformity recorded the highest fluctuations in the case room among all variables. While various furniture layouts, in a residential working room in the tropics, may even slightly reduce the extreme indoor daylight quantity, they can worsen the indoor daylight quality compared to an unfurnished space. The paper shows that furniture as an interior design parameter cannot help to improve tropical daylighting performance in a building.

  7. Daylighting in schools: Improving student performance and health at a price schools can afford: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.; Conway, S.; Epstein, K.

    2000-06-14

    Over the next seven years, at least 5,000 new schools will be designed and constructed to meet the needs of American students in kindergarten through grade 12. National efforts are underway to encourage the use of daylighting, energy efficiency, and renewable energy technologies in school designs, which can significantly enhance the learning environment. Recent rigorous statistical studies, involving 21,000 students in three states, reveal that students perform better in daylit classrooms and indicate the health benefits of daylighting. This paper discusses the evidence regarding daylighting and student performance and development, and presents four case studies of schools that have cost effectively implemented daylighting into their buildings.

  8. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan

    2014-05-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance of clear skies.The daylighting and energy performance of solar screens is affected by many parameters. These include screen perforation, depth, reflectivity and color, aspect ratio of openings, shape, tilt angle and rotation. Changing some of these parameters can improve the daylighting performance drastically. However, this can result in increased energy consumption. A balanced solution must be sought, where acceptable daylighting performance would be achieved at minimum energy consumption.This paper aims at defining solar screen designs that achieve visual comfort and at the same time minimum energy consumption in residential desert settings. The study focused on the effect of changing the solar screen axial rotation and the aspect ratio of its openings under the desert clear-sky. The individual and combined effects of changing these parameters were studied.Results of this study demonstrated that a non-rotated solar screen that has wide horizontal openings (aspect ratio of 18:1) proved to be successful in the north and south orientations. Its performance in the east/west orientations was also superior. In contrast, the screen that was rotated along its vertical axis while having small size openings (aspect ratio of 1:1) proved to be more successful in the east/west orientations. Its performance in the north orientation was also good. These solutions enhanced daylighting performance, while maintaining the energy consumption at a minimum.Moreover, it was observed that combining two screen parameters which proved useful in previous studies on daylighting or thermal performance does not add up to better solutions. The combined solutions that were tested in this study did not prove successful in satisfying daylighting and thermal

  9. Application of automated blind for daylighting in tropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiwiwatworakul, Pipat; Chirarattananon, Surapong; Rakkwamsuk, Pattana

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental and simulation study on application of automated Venetian blind for daylighting in tropical climate. A horizontal blind system operating automatically under programmed control was constructed and integrated onto the glazed windows to form a window system with an automated blind in a room of a laboratory building. A dimming controller was also integrated to the lighting system of the room. Different operation schemes of the window system were devised and tested in the attempt to maximize energy savings while maintaining the quality of the visual environment in the room. Intensive measurement of illuminance of the interior space was undertaken during the experiments. A methodology for calculation of interior daylight illuminance and associated glare corresponding to the configurations of the experiments was adopted. The method was coded into a computer program. Results of calculation from the program agree well with those from experiments for all the schemes of operation conducted. The program was used to simulate the situation when each scheme of operation was implemented for a whole year. It was found that such window system with automated blind enabled energy savings of 80%, but a more sophisticated scheme also helped maintain the interior visual quality at high level.

  10. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  11. Embedded microstructures for daylighting and seasonal thermal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostro, André; Geiger, Mario; Jolissaint, Nicolas; Gonzalez Lazo, Marina A.; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Leterrier, Yves; Schüler, Andreas M.

    2012-10-01

    A novel concept for an advanced fenestration system was studied and samples were produced to demonstrate the feasibility. The resulting novel glazing will combine the functions of daylighting, glare protection, and seasonal thermal control. Coated microstructures provide redirection of the incident solar radiation, thus simultaneously reducing glare and projecting daylight deep into the room in the same manner as an anidolic mirror-based system. The solar gains are reduced for chosen angles corresponding to aestival elevations of the sun, thereby minimizing heating loads in winter and cooling loads in summer. A ray-tracing program developed especially for the study of laminar structures was used for the optimization of structures with the above mentioned goals. The chosen solution is based on reflective surfaces embedded in a polymer film that can be combined with a standard doubled glazed window. The fabrication of such structures required several steps. The fabrication of a metallic mould with a relative high aspect ratio and mirror polished surfaces is followed by the production of an intermediate Polydimethylsiloxane moulds that was subsequently used to replicate the structure with a UV curable polymer. Selected facets of these samples were then coated with a thin film of highly reflective material in a physical vapour deposition process. Finally, the structures were filled with the same polymer to integrated the mirrors.

  12. Multiobjective generalized extremal optimization algorithm for simulation of daylight illuminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Srividya Ravindra; Kurian, Ciji Pearl; Gomes-Borges, Marcos Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    Daylight illuminants are widely used as references for color quality testing and optical vision testing applications. Presently used daylight simulators make use of fluorescent bulbs that are not tunable and occupy more space inside the quality testing chambers. By designing a spectrally tunable LED light source with an optimal number of LEDs, cost, space, and energy can be saved. This paper describes an application of the generalized extremal optimization (GEO) algorithm for selection of the appropriate quantity and quality of LEDs that compose the light source. The multiobjective approach of this algorithm tries to get the best spectral simulation with minimum fitness error toward the target spectrum, correlated color temperature (CCT) the same as the target spectrum, high color rendering index (CRI), and luminous flux as required for testing applications. GEO is a global search algorithm based on phenomena of natural evolution and is especially designed to be used in complex optimization problems. Several simulations have been conducted to validate the performance of the algorithm. The methodology applied to model the LEDs, together with the theoretical basis for CCT and CRI calculation, is presented in this paper. A comparative result analysis of M-GEO evolutionary algorithm with the Levenberg-Marquardt conventional deterministic algorithm is also presented.

  13. Photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses with 8% and 16% methyl aminolaevulinate and home-based daylight exposure: a double-blinded randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Haedersdal, M.; Eriksen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective but time-consuming and often painful treatment for actinic keratosis (AK). Home-based daylight-PDT has the potential to facilitate treatment procedure and to reduce associated pain due to continuous activation of small amounts of porphyrins...

  14. Results of the study on the impact of the daylight saving time in Mexico that was coordinated by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; Resultados del estudio sobre el impacto del horario de verano en Mexico que fue coordinado por la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez Ocon, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Due to the multiple discussions that were raised in ample sectors of the society on the occasion of the implantation of the daylight saving last year, the Federal Government offered to make an integral study of the impact that causes this measure in the Mexican society. Later, the Secretariat of Energy asked for this study to Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). In talks with the representatives of that Secretariat, it was determined that the study had to cover the largest number of sectors and activities of the society in which it could exist a suspicion of impact by this change, and which in addition had an important relevance in the life of the society. These areas were eighteen, that are listed in alphabetical as follows: agriculture, commerce, education, energy, family, finances, cattle raising, individual, industry, environment, mass media, health, public security, telecommunications, free time, transport, tourism, border zones. Altogether 70 institutions, 121 professors and investigators participated, 36 of which pertain to 15 dependencies of the UNAM; 46% belong to institutions in the Federal District and 54% to private institutions. It is worth to clarify that the time that was granted to make the study was of three months as of 1 May, which gave little margin to make specific studies with the purpose of successfully obtaining new information. Most of the analysis was made with already existing information in the corresponding sectors. [Spanish] Debido a las multiples discusiones que se suscitaron en amplios sectores de la sociedad con motivo de la implantacion del horario de verano el ultimo anos, el Gobierno Federal ofrecio realizar un estudio integral del impacto que causa esta medida en la sociedad mexicana. Posteriormente, la Secretaria de Energia le solicito este estudio a la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). En platicas con los representantes de esa Secretaria, se determino que el estudio debia cubrir el mayor numero de

  15. Daylighting practices of the architectural industry (baseline results of a national survey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1990-05-01

    A national survey of over 300 commercial design architects was conducted to develop baseline information on their knowledge, perceptions, and use of daylighting in commercial building designs. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted the survey for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). In the survey daylighting was defined as the intentional use of natural light as a partial substitute for artificially generated light. The results suggested that architects need to be educated about the true benefits of daylighting and the impacts it can have on a building's energy performance. Educational programs that will increase the architects' understanding and awareness of modern daylighting technologies and practices should be developed by utilities, stage agencies, and the federal government. If more architects can be made aware of the true effectiveness and positive attributes of daylighting systems and technologies, daylighting may be used in more commercial buildings. The results of the survey show that the more familiar architects feel they are with daylighting, the more they use daylighting. 3 refs., 19 tabs.

  16. Lives under the Sun; The sensory qualities of daylight in designing the everyday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    significance to their bodies and lives as they describe it. By taking a biomimetic approach a metaphor is presented that, like plants, some people crave daylight in order to feel well. By showing people’s engagement with the sun and its daylight the phenomenon of natural light becomes imbued with sociality...

  17. Daylight and health: A review of the evidence and consequences for the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.J. Aarts; Joost van Hoof; M.B.C. Aries

    2015-01-01

    Daylight has been associated with multiple health advantages. Some of these claims are associations, hypotheses or beliefs. This review presents an overview of a scientific literature search on the proven effects of daylight exposure on human health. Studies were identified with a search strategy

  18. An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    abstract and blurred phenomena, these diffused luminous reflections rouse us into interactions with the world. In this book we are interested in identifying the qualitative parameters involved in the integration of dynamic artificial lighting and daylight; the latter being already highly dynamic by nature......An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument Daylight is dynamic and dependent upon weather conditions; unfolding with both subtle and dramatic variations in qualities of light. Through a building’s apertures, daylight creates a connection between...... that examine how the dynamic artificial lighting in the observational instrument unfolds during the changing of the daylight situations that are generated by the weather outside. This research employs the concept of coupling between interior and exterior, in order to identify a spectrum of design parameters...

  19. Detailed simulations of lighting conditions in office rooms lit by daylight and artificial light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne

    In this thesis the effect on the annual artificial lighting demand is investigated by employing detailed simulations of lighting conditions in office rooms lit by daylight and artificial. The simulations of the artificial lighting demand is accomplished through daylight simulations in Radiance....... The detailed simulations includes studies of the resolution of different weather data sets in climate-based daylight modeling. Furthermore, influence of the electrical lighting demand by simulating with dynamic occupancy patterns is studied. Finally the thesis explores the influence of obstructions in an urban...... canyon on the daylight availability within the buildings, and hence on the energy consumption for artificial lights. The results from the thesis demonstrates that the effect on the outcome of the daylight simulations when simulating with typical weather data files for the location of Copenhagen...

  20. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure Lighting at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2013-03-01

    This report documents a solid-state lighting (SSL) technology demonstration at the parking structure of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) Headquarters in Washington, DC, in which light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires were substituted for the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires and evaluated for relative light quantity and performance. The demonstration results show energy savings of 52% from the initial conversion of HPS to the LED product. These savings were increased to 88% by using occupancy sensor controls that were ultimately set to reduce power to 10% of high state operation after a time delay of 2.5 minutes. Because of the relatively high cost of the LED luminaires at their time of purchase for this project (2010), the simple payback periods were 6.5 years and 4.9 years for retrofit and new construction scenarios, respectively. Staff at DOL Headquarters reported high satisfaction with the operation of the LED product.

  1. Status report on roadmap headquarters issue resolution activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Roadmap Project Office (RPO), under the Office of Planning (EM-14), continues to review headquarters (HQ) issues raised by the field in their roadmap documents. Currently, twenty-nine HQ issues are in the ''resolution'' process or are being defined for resolution. The resolution process involves an Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program (EM) HQ person, the Action Officer (AO), as the leader in the resolution process. The RPO is responsible to EM-14 for reporting on the progress of issue resolution activities and also to provide contractor support to each Action Officer: the contractor support person is identifies as the Issue Resolution Facilitator (IF). Field contacts also are identified for each issue. This document provides current information on HQ issues actively in the ''resolution'' process or being defined for resolution. The issues are primarily institutional rather than technical and mainly involve regulatory, coordination, prioritization, policy and management concerns

  2. 78 FR 79498 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-OpenDaylight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Production Act of 1993--OpenDaylight Project, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 13, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), OpenDaylight Project, Inc. (``OpenDaylight'') has filed written...

  3. The integration of daylighting with artificial lighting to enhance building energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashwal, Najib Taher; Hassan, Ahmad Sanusi

    2017-10-01

    In sustainable building designs, daylight is considered as an alternative source of light to artificial lighting. Daylight is an energy-free and efficient-cost lighting source. Natural light is the best source for light due to its good quality, which matches the visual response of the human eyes. Daylight positively affects people by providing a sense of liveliness and brightness in the living space. The positive impact of daylight on the building occupants' visual comfort, health and performance is well recognized. However, daylight is not widely utilized to supplement artificial lighting, because there is a lack of information and tools to evaluate daylighting and potentials for energy savings. The efficient utilization of natural lighting will not only affect the interior environment and the occupants' health and performance but also has a direct impact on the building energy performance. Therefore, this paper reviews and discusses the effects of daylighting on the building energy performance mainly in schools and office buildings. This includes lighting energy performance, total energy consumption, cooling load. The methods, which are used to estimate the possible reduction in total energy consumption, are also reviewed in this research paper. Previous studies revealed that a clear reduction can be obtained in the energy consumed by electric lighting, as well as in the total energy end-use when a suitable lighting control system is applied to utilize the available natural light.

  4. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina M. Lerche

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor “daylight PDT” and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX. Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector, white light-emitting diode (LED lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed.

  5. Evaluation of daylight intensity for sustainbility in residential buildings in cantonment cottages multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, S.; Maqsood, S.

    2017-01-01

    Day lighting is a useful and effective source of energy savings and visual comforts in buildings. Occupants expect good daylight in their living spaces for better living environment. The quality and quantity of natural light entering in to a building depend on both internal and external factors. Daylight strategies basically depend on the accessibility of natural light that is determined by the latitude of the building site and the conditions surrounding the building. Daylight provides lighting energy and energy demand reduction during peak utility hours. Bringing daylight into a building that displaces electric lighting and provides sufficient illumination is the greenest way to light a building presently. This research, aims at analyzing the daylight intensity in residential buildings in Cantonment Cottages Multan which is one of the hottest and progresse city of Pakistan. The intensity of daylight can be expressed in the terms of luminance and daylight factor. In this research, the 5 and 7 marla houses in Cantt Cottages in Multan were selected. The device lux meter was used for measuring intensity with which the brightness appears to the human eye. The readings were taken by placing Lux Meter at the center and near windows in each building component at 2-4 pm. In order to evaluate the daylight intensity, the measured luminance in each component of building is compared with the standard illuminance as per recommendation of CIBSE (Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers). After investigation, it has been found that daylight factor is much higher than the standard values as per recommended by CIBSE. The design parameters including building orientation, glazing area, room size to window opening ratio etc. is not appropriate with respect to sustainable design. (author)

  6. 75 FR 76040 - Weyerhaeuser Company Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Weyerhaeuser Company Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased... Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters, including on-site leased workers from Volt Services, Adecco, and... subject firm. The workers supply corporate and administrative services for the firm. The company reports...

  7. Understanding Agency Problems in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostova, Tatiana; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hoenen, Anne Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an agency model for headquarters-subsidiary relationships in multinational organizations with headquarters as the principal and the subsidiary as the agent. As a departure from classical agency theory, our model is developed for the unit level of analysis and considers two root...

  8. Disaggregating the Corporate Headquarters: : Investor Reactions to Inversion Announcements by US Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, Arjen H.L.; Baaij, Marc; Valboni, R.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally disaggregated headquarters arise from cross-border relocations of headquarters components. To shed more light on the business consequences of such component relocations, we analyse stock market reactions to inversion initiatives, which are plans by US firms to offshore their

  9. 39 CFR 223.2 - Channels of communication, headquarters with area offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channels of communication, headquarters with area offices. 223.2 Section 223.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNICATION CHANNELS § 223.2 Channels of communication, headquarters with area offices. (a...

  10. 19 CFR 172.12 - Petitions acted on at Customs Headquarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions acted on at Customs Headquarters. 172.12 Section 172.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Petitions § 172.12 Petitions acted on at Customs Headquarters. Upon receipt of a petition for relief filed...

  11. Acquisition: Policies and Procedures for Military Interdepartmental Purchase Requests at Washington Headquarters Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... the required goods or services. Washington Headquarters Services maintains the financial records of unliquidated obligations for OSD customers. As of March 2001, the Washington Headquarters Services had 908 military interdepartmental purchase requests, valued at $290.6 million, with unliquidated obligations of $64.3 million.

  12. A simple tool to evaluate the effect of the urban canyon on daylight level and energy demand in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Momme, Amalie Jin; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    Daylight is a restricted resource in urban contexts. Rooms situated in an urban context often have a significant proportion of the sky and the sun blocked out by the urban building mass. The reduced direct daylight potential makes daylight reflected from outdoor surfaces an important daylight sou...... the impact of urban canyon parameters on indoor environment and energy performance....

  13. The influence of the urban environment on the availability of daylighting in office buildings in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capeluto, I.G. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel). Climate and Energy Laboratory in Architcture

    2003-05-01

    The main goals of the present work are to investigate the influences of the built environment on the potential use of daylighting in office buildings in Israel, and to offer a simple design method for architects during initial design stages to assess the daylighting potential of the building site. A typical office building under different surrounding built layouts has been modeled and simulated using Sustarc and Radiance. Parametric simulations have been performed to estimate the influence of different obstruction patterns on the daylighting performance of the office. The availability of daylighting has been shown to be approximately proportional to the sky solid angle (SSA) subtended from the center of the window. The proposed methodology can help designers evaluate and understand the possibilities of using natural lighting from the early conceptual design stages when different design alternatives are being considered as well as adapt the building design for the existing surrounding conditions. (author)

  14. An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2015-01-01

    An Exploration into Integrating Daylight and Artificial Light via an Observational Instrument Daylight is dynamic and dependent upon weather conditions; unfolding with both subtle and dramatic variations in qualities of light. Through a building’s apertures, daylight creates a connection between...... the space inside and the world outside. The aperture or window itself constitutes the frame that simultaneously separates, and connects, us to our surroundings. One can say that the world outside projects itself into the interior space, essentially as diffused illuminating reflections. As figuratively...... that examine how the dynamic artificial lighting in the observational instrument unfolds during the changing of the daylight situations that are generated by the weather outside. This research employs the concept of coupling between interior and exterior, in order to identify a spectrum of design parameters...

  15. Natural Light is the Right Light - Daylighting Design and Technology between Architecture, Art and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterhaus, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Within contemporary architecture, the art of daylighting design ? despite its many recognized advantages in comparison with electric lighting ? still encounters skepticism, primarily because it is usually developed and articulated more intuitively, rather than technically. Innovative daylighting...... applications have added sparkle and interest to buildings. The sun?s rays have been captured to create magnificent plays of forms in light. People perceive daylight as an essential element of life. But architects, lighting designers, and clients alike, often underestimate the importance of daylight for human...... well-being and energy performance of buildings. It is undisputed that modern architecture requires a creative, but well-planned approach that allows for the integration of many aesthetic, technical, and social or historical factors. If integrative planning is neglected, especially in the early phases...

  16. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy of moderate to thick actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Fabricius, S.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    response rate and light dose in patients who received an effective light dose of > 3·5 J cm . Conclusions: Daylight-mediated PDT of moderate to thick AKs was less effective than daylight-mediated PDT of thin AKs especially in some centres. However, nearly all thicker lesions (grades II and III) were......Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses (AKs). Daylight-mediated PDT is a simple and tolerable treatment procedure for PDT. Methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL)-PDT is approved for the treatment of thin or nonhyperkeratotic AKs...... on the face and scalp. However, thick AK lesions are often treated as well when present in the field-cancerized treatment area. Objectives: In a randomized multicentre study to evaluate efficacy of daylight-mediated PDT for different severity grades of AKs. Methods One hundred and forty-five patients...

  17. Simple tool to evaluate the impact of daylight on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple building simulation tool for integrated daylight and thermal analysis. The tool is capable of importing the thermal and visual properties for different glazings and shading positions from the Window Information System (WIS) program. Radiosity methodology is used...... to derive the daylight levels for different sky conditions on an hourly basis. The daylight levels are fed into an existing simple thermal simulation program capable of calculating energy demand and the indoor environment. Straightforward control systems for general and task lighting systems have been...... implemented together with a shading control strategy that adjusts the shading according to the indoor operative temperature and the profile angle of the sun. The implemented daylight calculation method allows for shades from the window recess and overhang. Comparisons with the raytracing program Radiance show...

  18. Workshop report and proposal for a new IEA Task: Daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, P.E.; Johnsen, K.

    1994-04-01

    The IEA workshop on Daylight in Buildings was held in Copenhagen on March 14-16, 1994. At the workshop, presentations were given on key topics as a basis for discussions by the experts participating in the meeting. The presentations and discussions covered a range of technical, architectural and amenity aspects of daylighting in buildings. A great interest in research collaboration on daylight was expressed, and it was agreed that plenty of work still needs to be done, and that the appropriate form of work would be an IEA Task. It was agreed that daylighting systems and control strategies should be evaluated and tested in test rooms, as well as in existing buildings as case studies. Furthermore, the workshop expressed that one of the best ways to realize and present the Task results to practice would be through a few demonstration buildings, build in different countries and under different climatic conditions. (EG)

  19. PULSE: Integrated Parametric Modeling for a Shading System: From Daylight Optimization to Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Teeling, M.V.M.T.; Turrin, M.; de Ruiter, P.; Turrin, Michela; Peters, Brady; O'Brien, William; Stouffs, Rudi; Dogan, Timur

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a parametric approach to an integrated and performance-oriented design, from the conceptual design phase towards materialization. The novelty occurs in the use of parametric models as a way of integrating multidisciplinary design constraints, from daylight optimization to the additive manufacturing process. The work focuses on the case of a customized sun-shading system that tailors daylighting effects for a fully glazed façade of the alleged PULSE building.The overall wor...

  20. Impacts of orientation on daylighting in high-rise office buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdolHamid Mahdavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation is one of the important factors in building design to use daylight and ‎conserve energy. Well-orientated buildings maximise daylight reception through ‎building facades and reduce the need for artificial lighting. Reasonable daylighting usage in office buildings is an important part of an architect’s designing process, which leads to lesser electricity consumption as well as providing a visual and thermal comfort for the occupants. Orientation is an important factor in passive design strategies. This paper focuses on the orientation effect on daylighting into office rooms. The research method of this study was simulation which is performed on a hypothetical model on a 25 storey high-rise office building in Malaysia. All simulations were carried out in the IES-VE software that uses RADIANCE program for illuminance calculations. To evaluate the daylight in various conditions, a new index SAZ was introduced which assesses daylight factor (DF and absolute Lux. Results showed similar SAZ in CIE overcast sky in various orientations; whereas, in sunny sky due to sun path in Malaysia, different results showed northern and southern rooms have the best illuminance distribution. However, the similar window form and size in four orientations lead to more energy consumption for artificial lighting and cooling loads.

  1. Flat Optical Fiber Daylighting System with Lateral Displacement Sun-Tracking Mechanism for Indoor Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An essential impact which can improve the indoor environment and save on power consumption for artificial lighting is utilization of daylight. Optical fiber daylighting technology offers a way to use direct daylight for remote spaces in a building. However, the existing paradigm based on the precise orientation of sunlight concentrator toward the Sun is very costly and difficult to install on the roof of buildings. Here, we explore an alternative approach using mirror-coated lens array and planar waveguide to develop a flat optical fiber daylighting system (optical fiber daylighting panel with lateral displacement Sun-tracking mechanism. Sunlight collected and reflected by each mirror-coated lens in a rectangular lens array is coupled into a planar waveguide using cone prisms placed at each lens focus. This geometry yields a thin, flat profile for Sunlight concentrator. Our proposed concentrating panel can be achieved with 35 mm thickness while the concentrator’s width and length are 500 mm × 500 mm. The commercial optical simulation tool (LightToolsTM was used to develop the simulation models and analyze the system performance. Simulation results based on the designed system demonstrated an optical efficiency of 51.4% at a concentration ratio of 125. The system can support utilizing a lateral displacement Sun-tracking system, which allows for replacing bulky and robust conventional rotational Sun-tracking systems. This study shows a feasibility of a compact and inexpensive optical fiber daylighting system to be installed on the roof of buildings.

  2. Kiasma Helsinki Museum of contemporary art integration of daylight and electric light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazzal, A. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lighting Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The use of daylighting as the prime light source is now gradually being recognized again. It provides a valuable means of improving visual comfort and energy performance of a building. The integration of daylight and artificial light for interior lighting is an holistic design process for the visual environment. Maximizing the merits and minimizing the deficiencies of both daylight and electric light to be used simultaneously during daytime to obtain pleasant daylight spaces for the maximum period possible and for the largest fraction of the building interior should be closely coordinated during the early design process when the major decisions affecting the daylighting and also the thermal performance of the building are made. The size, shape, position, orientation and inclination of windows and transmittance of glazing decide quantity of daylighting on the whole. Aesthetics of lighting solutions form a principal consideration in the design process as do economics of operation and installation together with maintainability. A pleasant visual environment is essential to attracting people. Museums and art galleries are built to show objects of art to visitors, most of whom arrive and remain of their own interest. Lighting plays a key role in a visitor`s ability to perceive and enjoy both the exhibits in a museum and the building in total. Thus, lighting has to be considered a major and critical design issue and also something of a balancing act to provide an effective compromise between the conflicting requirements of conservation and effective display

  3. Attention in words, not in deeds : Effects of attention dissonance on headquarters-subsidiary communication in multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ul Haq, Hammad; Drogendijk, Rian; Blankenburg Holm, Desiree

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the notion of attention dissonance, where the subsidiary within a headquarter-subsidiary relationship feels that headquarters’ attention at the cognitive level, reflected in its strategic intentions (attention perspective), is not aligned with the routine actions the headquarters

  4. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  5. Headquarters reports of the Energy Research and Development Administration: 1975--1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This publication is, in effect, the last issue of ERDA Headquarters Reports. It provides a list of headquarters-originated ERDA, ERHQ, and other reports received in the ERDA Energy Library during the period October through December 1977. It also includes all reports issued from ERDA Headquarters beginning with ERDA-1, the ERDA environmental impact statements and assessments, the ERDA environmental development plans, and the ERHQ reports. The reports are also listed by division or office responsible for their preparation. A keyword index is included. (RWR)

  6. Robustness of circadian clocks to daylight fluctuations: hints from the picoeucaryote Ostreococcus tauri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Thommen

    Full Text Available The development of systemic approaches in biology has put emphasis on identifying genetic modules whose behavior can be modeled accurately so as to gain insight into their structure and function. However, most gene circuits in a cell are under control of external signals and thus, quantitative agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model is difficult. Circadian biology has been one notable exception: quantitative models of the internal clock that orchestrates biological processes over the 24-hour diurnal cycle have been constructed for a few organisms, from cyanobacteria to plants and mammals. In most cases, a complex architecture with interlocked feedback loops has been evidenced. Here we present the first modeling results for the circadian clock of the green unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri. Two plant-like clock genes have been shown to play a central role in the Ostreococcus clock. We find that their expression time profiles can be accurately reproduced by a minimal model of a two-gene transcriptional feedback loop. Remarkably, best adjustment of data recorded under light/dark alternation is obtained when assuming that the oscillator is not coupled to the diurnal cycle. This suggests that coupling to light is confined to specific time intervals and has no dynamical effect when the oscillator is entrained by the diurnal cycle. This intriguing property may reflect a strategy to minimize the impact of fluctuations in daylight intensity on the core circadian oscillator, a type of perturbation that has been rarely considered when assessing the robustness of circadian clocks.

  7. 75 FR 65517 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Corporate Headquarters/Hard Drive Development Division, Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Corporate Headquarters/Hard Drive Development Division, Lake Forest, CA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for...

  8. The impact of windows and daylight on acute-care nurses' physiological, psychological, and behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Rana Sagha; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey; Williams, Gary; Chung, Susan Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological and psychological effects of windows and daylight on registered nurses. To date, evidence has indicated that appropriate environmental lighting with characteristics similar to natural light can improve mood, alertness, and performance. The restorative effects of windows also have been documented. Hospital workspaces generally lack windows and daylight, and the impact of the lack of windows and daylight on healthcare employees' well being has not been thoroughly investigated. Data were collected using multiple methods with a quasi-experimental approach (i.e., biological measurements, behavioral mapping, and analysis of archival data) in an acute-care nursing unit with two wards that have similar environmental and organizational conditions, and similar patient populations and acuity, but different availability of windows in the nursing stations. Findings indicated that blood pressure (p windows and daylight. A possible micro-restorative effect of windows and daylight may result in lowered blood pressure and increased oxygen saturation and a positive effect on circadian rhythms (as suggested by body temperature) and morning sleepiness. Critical care/intensive care, lighting, nursing, quality care, work environment.

  9. Daylight Management in Mediterranean Cities: When Shortage Is Not the Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Lopez-Besora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources such as daylight and sunlight are highly appreciated in countries with prevailing overcast skies. Taking advantage of this scarce resource contributes to saving energy on artificial lighting. In contrast to northern, southern European cities are distinguished by a large number of days with direct sunlight caused by a propitious climate condition. While it is a positive issue in terms of energy availability, the abundance of it can be counterproductive if management measures are not taken. Apart from the thermal consequences, lighting penetration into buildings causes a great contrast between inside and outside. This is especially critical when the visual system does not have enough time to adapt, as happens at entrance areas. The aim of this study is to analyze the light contrast between these areas and the urban outside in sunny conditions. To attain this objective, light data from five entrance spaces and their contiguous streets were analyzed and measured. The results were divided into three zones in the visual scene, showing an increasing contrast from top to bottom of the visual field. It may be concluded that interventions applied to urban areas and building pavements can improve visual adaptation in the transition zone.

  10. Rapid microwave-assisted nonaqueous synthesis and growth mechanism of AgCl/Ag, and its daylight-driven plasmonic photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Lizhi

    2011-03-21

    We report on a rapid microwave-assisted nonaqueous synthesis and the growth mechanism of AgCl/Ag with controlled size and shape. By rationally varying the reaction temperature and the microwave irradiation time, we achieved the transformation of nanocubes to rounded triangular pyramids by a combined process of "oriented attachment" and Ostwald ripening. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties of the as-prepared AgCl/Ag have been found to be somewhat dependent on the size, morphology, and composition. The as-prepared AgCl/Ag exhibits high photocatalytic activity and good reusability for decomposing organic pollutants (such as methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RhB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP)) under indoor artificial daylight illumination (ca. 1 mW cm(-2)). The AgCl/Ag has also been found to display a superior ability to harvest diffuse indoor daylight (ca. 5 mW cm(-2)), and could complete the degradation of 10 mg  L(-1) MO within 15 min. Experiments involving the trapping of active species have shown that the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in the AgCl/Ag system may proceed through direct hole transfer. This study has revealed that plasmonic daylight photocatalysis may open a new frontier for indoor pollutant control around the clock under fluorescent lamp illumination. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Determining daylight and view preferences from the use of blinds in apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2015-01-01

    of a building façade in the centre of Aalborg. The research presented here is a pilot-study based on photographic observations of an apartment building in a dense context of Aalborg, Denmark. Two similar facades on a building were under observation. They were pointing towards different contexts and different...... facades in the same building there is no indication of curtains and blinds being operated based on daylight. However, it appears that view and context plays a significant part in the use of blinds. Furthermore, it appears that the amount of traffic and the perception of privacy plays a role...... for the inhabitants’ health and well-being, as well as the energy consumption. Present research is an important contribution, because of the increased knowledge about daylights impact on health and well-being as well as daylights impact on the energy consumption in our buildings. However, it is often seen...

  12. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    for electrical lighting by 30% compared to the method suggested in this paper, which is based on hourly calculated illuminance levels in a representative point in the workspace. Implementing the suggested method in Be06 would be a better representation of the reality compared to the current method. Furthermore......Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  13. Continuous activation of PpIX by daylight is as effective as and less painful than conventional photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses; a randomized, controlled, single-blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Hædersdal, Merete; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly effective treatment for actinic keratoses (AK); however, it is time consuming and often painful for the patient. Daylight-PDT would make the treatment independent of the clinic and less painful due to the continuous activation of small amounts...

  14. Recent research on anidolic daylighting systems: highly reflective coating materials and chronobiological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Friedrich; Wittkopf, Stephen K.; Münch, Mirjam; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2009-08-01

    Making daylight more available in buildings is highly desirable for reasons of energy efficiency, visual comfort, occupant well-being and health. The Anidolic Integrated Ceiling (AIC) is a highly efficient daylighting system, designed to gather and redirect daylight from the outside of a building into its interior with minimal losses. The reflective coating materials used within AICs have a major impact on the optical efficiency of such systems. The first part of our article presents a new computer model of an AIC consisting of more than 30 distinct components. We discuss on which of them the use of expensive, highly reflective coatings makes the most sense. We conclude that coating the component "Anidolic element 1" is always a good choice and that considerable financial savings can be obtained by following an appropriate optimization sequence.The second part of our article discusses chronobiological properties of Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS). We recorded daytime irradiance values for several weeks from March to May 2009 in an experimental office setup in our laboratory using a portable digital spectroradiometer. Our results showed to which extent different sky conditions influenced daylight exposure of office workers in an ADS-equipped office room. We conclude that for the tested ADS-equipped office room, daylight supply can be considered largely sufficient during long periods on most working days. However, complementary artificial lighting with blue-enriched polychromatic fluorescent tubes might be useful on days with predominantly overcast skies as well as before 09:00 and after 16:30 on all days.

  15. On the development of new SPMN diurnal video systems for daylight fireball monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2008-09-01

    Daylight fireball video monitoring High-sensitivity video devices are commonly used for the study of the activity of meteor streams during the night. These provide useful data for the determination, for instance, of radiant, orbital and photometric parameters ([1] to [7]). With this aim, during 2006 three automated video stations supported by Universidad de Huelva were set up in Andalusia within the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). These are endowed with 8-9 high sensitivity wide-field video cameras that achieve a meteor limiting magnitude of about +3. These stations have increased the coverage performed by the low-scan allsky CCD systems operated by the SPMN and, besides, achieve a time accuracy of about 0.01s for determining the appearance of meteor and fireball events. Despite of these nocturnal monitoring efforts, we realised the need of setting up stations for daylight fireball detection. Such effort was also motivated by the appearance of the two recent meteorite-dropping events of Villalbeto de la Peña [8,9] and Puerto Lápice [10]. Although the Villalbeto de la Peña event was casually videotaped, and photographed, no direct pictures or videos were obtained for the Puerto Lápice event. Consequently, in order to perform a continuous recording of daylight fireball events, we setup new automated systems based on CCD video cameras. However, the development of these video stations implies several issues with respect to nocturnal systems that must be properly solved in order to get an optimal operation. The first of these video stations, also supported by University of Huelva, has been setup in Sevilla (Andalusia) during May 2007. But, of course, fireball association is unequivocal only in those cases when two or more stations recorded the fireball, and when consequently the geocentric radiant is accurately determined. With this aim, a second diurnal video station is being setup in Andalusia in the facilities of Centro Internacional de Estudios y

  16. Estimation Methodology for the Electricity Consumption with the Daylight- and Occupancy-Controlled Artificial Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Strømberg, Ida Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Artificial lighting represents 15-30% of the total electricity consumption in buildings in Scandinavia. It is possible to avoid a large share of electricity use for lighting by application of daylight control systems for artificial lighting. Existing methodology for estimation of electricity...... consumption with application of such control systems in Norway is based on Norwegian standard NS 3031:2014 and can only provide results from a rough estimate. This paper aims to introduce a new estimation methodology for the electricity usage with the daylight- and occupancy-controlled artificial lighting...

  17. Design optimization and manufacturing of holographic windows for daylighting applications in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholl, H.D.; Stojanoff, C.G.; Kubiza, R.; Willbold-Lohr, G. [Aachen Inst. of Technology (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    The function of holographic optical elements in daylighting applications is to redirect sunlight from the immediate window area into the rear of a room in order to illuminate the darker regions and to reduce glare. A prerequisite for the successful application of holograms in daylighting systems is the solution of the problems of white light diffraction and of uniform holographic properties across a large aperture. This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations of these two problems. It will be shown that white light diffraction is possible and that uniform diffraction efficiencies over large apertures are attainable.

  18. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina; Heerfordt, Ida M; Heydenreich, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    -emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse...... was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation...

  19. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Trine Holm; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    luminescence-depth profile from a feldspar-rich granite cobble from an archaeological site near Aarhus, Denmark. This profile shows qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events; these are quantified using the model developed here. By determining the burial ages from the surface layer...... of the cobble and by fitting the new model to the luminescence profile, it is concluded that the cobble was well bleached before burial. This indicates that the OSL burial age is likely to be reliable. In addition, a recent known exposure event provides an approximate calibration for older daylight exposure...

  20. Heritage, agency and memory: the demolition of Sociedade Italiana de Espírito Santo do pinhal (SP headquarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Maria Tamaso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the strategies undertaken by a group of pinhalenses on the demolition process of the Italian Society de Mútuo Socorro headquarters "Dante Alighieri" in the city of Espírito Santo do Pinhal (SP is analysed, which although it isnot recognized by official heritage agencies, it was considered socially and culturally significant in order to configure on a heritage to the descendants of Italians. Two "critical situations", located in different times, is used as a parameter for the interpretations developed here: (1 the confiscation of assets of Italian immigrants in 1942, when Brazil' enters into the World War II and (2 the demolition of the Italian Society headquarters in 1991. In an analysis of the social interaction of two disciplinary organizations in time and space - the Italian Society and a Lodge - with various social agents, children of Italians, in order to follow the cultural debate of the social practise. We seek to articulate the relationship between the unspeakable memories and thus silenced, of the war period, with the data of cartographic documents, interwoven with historical data, in order to understand the headquarter’s demolition as a result of strategic behaviour undertaken by a group of pinhalenses, which aimed to eliminate the tangible marks of fascism in the city.

  1. Simple tool to evaluate the impact of daylight on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    and the profile angle of the sun. The implemented daylight calculation method allows for shades from the window recess and overhang, and for distant shades blocking the sky vault. Comparisons with the ray-tracing program Radiance show that the accuracy of this approach is adequate for predicting the energy...

  2. Determining daylight and view preferences from the use of blinds in apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2015-01-01

    facades in the same building there is no indication of curtains and blinds being operated based on daylight. However, it appears that view and context plays a significant part in the use of blinds. Furthermore, it appears that the amount of traffic and the perception of privacy plays a role...

  3. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinomas - an explorative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S R; Skødt, V; Wulf, H C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that daylight-photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment of actinic keratoses, nearly pain free and more convenient for both the clinics and patients. Treatment of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is another main indication for PDT. OBJECTIVES: The aim...

  4. Estimation of exterior vertical daylight for the humid tropic of Kota Kinabalu city in East Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djamila, Harimi; Ming, Chu Chi; Kumaresan, Sivakumar [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag No. 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    In tropical regions natural daylight has been a fundamental factor in building design. It is the most efficient way of lighting a building in the daytime and has a great potential for energy conservation in buildings. In Malaysia there are a limited available data of measured illuminance which is the case of several regions in the tropics. Using established models it is possible to predict the luminous efficacy and then estimate the monthly mean hourly exterior illuminance. In this study two different models were chosen. The Perez and Du Mortier-Perraudeau-Page-Littlefair models were selected for the prediction of hourly exterior horizontal illuminance for the city of Kota Kinabalu in East Malaysia. Comparison between the two models were made. The vertical hourly illuminance was predicted also using Perez approach. The potentiality of daylight in four orientations was discussed. This study highlights the importance of Sunpath diagram on daylight illuminance during the conceptual design stage. The results in this study is hoped to contribute further insight into the potentiality of daylighting of tropical sky. (author)

  5. Feasibility Study on Parametric Optimization of Daylighting in Building Shading Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sun Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shading design to optimize daylighting is in many cases achieved through a designer’s sense based on prior knowledge and experience. However, computer-assisted parametric techniques can be utilized for daylighting design in an easy and much more accurate way. If such tools are utilized in the early stages of a project, this can be more effective for sustainable design. This study compares the conventional approach, which depends on a designer’s sense of judgment to create optimal indoor lighting conditions by adjusting louver shapes and window patterns, with the approach of making use of genetic algorithms. Ultimately, this study discusses the advantages and disadvantages of those two approaches. As a starting point, 30 designers were instructed to design a facade by manually adjusting several input parameters of shading. The parameters govern six kinds of louver and window types, with the ratio of analysis grid surface area achieving a daylight factor of 2%–5%. Secondly, input parameters were automatically created by using genetic algorithm optimization methods to find optimal fitness data. As a conclusion, conventional approaches result in a strong disposition toward designing certain shading types represented by linear relationships. Computer-assisted daylight simulation can help influence this, being effective when dealing with a large amount of data and non-linear relationships.

  6. Practical approach to the use of daylight photodynamic therapy with topical methyl aminolevulinate for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, C A; Wulf, H C; Szeimies, R M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy has been shown to be an effective therapy for actinic keratoses (AKs) and a simple and tolerable treatment procedure in three randomized Scandinavian studies and two recent Phase III randomized controlled studies in Australia and Europe. OBJECT...

  7. PULSE: Integrated Parametric Modeling for a Shading System : From Daylight Optimization to Additive Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeling, M.V.M.T.; Turrin, M.; de Ruiter, P.; Turrin, Michela; Peters, Brady; O'Brien, William; Stouffs, Rudi; Dogan, Timur

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a parametric approach to an integrated and performance-oriented design, from the conceptual design phase towards materialization. The novelty occurs in the use of parametric models as a way of integrating multidisciplinary design constraints, from daylight optimization to the

  8. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  9. Investigation of Architectural Strategies in Relation to Daylight and Integrated Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael; Iversen, Anne; Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    to create well-lit, exciting spaces and spatial sequences. The original ideas, thoughts, and decisions behind the designs and daylight strategy are compared with answers in questionnaires from test subjects who have experienced the space and lighting conditions created. The results indicate...

  10. The Effect of Headquarter Integration Mechanisms on Subsidiaries’ New Product Success: From Control to Coordination Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmanzah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available New product launching (NPL to the local market by subsidiary managers is a strategic activity, which requires organizational supports from MNC global network. The NPL activity is marked by high level of uncertainty, risk, and market failure. Thus, a headquarter needs to integrate the subsidiary NPL into global strategy. There are two mechanisms to integrate subsidiaries’ activities during NPL process; coordination and control process. By testing the effect of each mechanism on role clarity and functional conflict, I found that coordination mechanism increase role clarity between headquarter and subsidiaries’ managers. In contrast, exercising control mechanism reduces role clarity and functional conflict between headquarter and subsidiaries’ managers during NPL. This research shows that both role clarity and functional conflict increase new product commercial performance introduced by subsidiary in the local market.

  11. Daylighting simulation : comparison of softwares for architect's utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakou, D.E.; Amorim, C.N.D. [Brazil Univ., Brasilia (Brazil). Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism

    2005-07-01

    This study analyzed and compared 4 daylighting software packages to determine the primary benefits and limits of each one, while considering the priorities for the use of the software by architects. The complex task of daylight simulation is an important step in designing buildings, particularly when the main objective is comfort and energy conservation. Simulation is not yet commonly practiced by professional architects because of the complexities of various software packages, the lack of user friendly interfaces and difficulty in interpreting results. The 4 software packages that were evaluated in this study were: (1) Desktop Radiance, (2) Rayfront, (3) Relux 2004 Vision, and (4) Lightscape. Criteria such as interfaces, flexibility, and help manuals were also analyzed in an effort to establish a frame of the main points to be considered when choosing daylighting software for architectural use, both in educational and office environments. Simulations of a test room were performed in which some parameters were modified to verify the performance of the following main criteria: flexibility in adapting to the architect's workflow; the use of state of the art algorithms; numerical precision; and, access possibility by Brazilian architects. The results demonstrate the potential of software's improvement, particular in terms of user interfaces and help manuals. The study showed that Relux 2004 Vision is the most adequate for architect's use. Rayfront and Desktop Radiance presented more difficulties in the design process, but Desktop Radiance had the advantage of being enclosed in AUTOCAD, a well known interface. Lightscape had a user friendly interface but was not as intuitive as Relux. It was concluded that the ideal daylighting simulation software does not yet exist. The ideal software should integrate diverse factors and combine edition and modeling tools beyond luminous evaluation and thermal consequences of daylight use. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Combined daylight and intelligent LED lighting - getting the daylight into the buildings; Kombineret dagslys og intelligent LED belysning - fae dagslys ind i bygningerne. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Corell, D.D.; Thorseth, A.; Behrensdorff Poulsen, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU Fotonik, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Markvart, J.; Iversen, A.; Logadottir, A. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    The main result of the project is the construction of the new intelligent and dynamic LED lighting system for demonstration and research purposes, and a number of extensive user testing is completed. The LED lighting system is a total system for office lighting with ceiling fixtures and desk lamps, which has made it possible to create a general and workplace lighting in two offices each with two work places. The system is installed in a day light laboratory for such two office spaces. All lamps can be controlled via a developed computer interface, and the desk lamps are further manually controllable by a user via two buttons for color temperature and brightness, respectively. The new intelligent and dynamic lighting system is based on color mixing LED technology and makes it possible to control the color composition, color coordinates and thus the color temperature of the light. Control-wise, the system is pre-programmed to produce white light with a correlated color temperature from 2700 K to 7000 K. The color composition is optimized from the desire for a very good color given at a general CRI value of 92-97 over the area. The system can be dimmed 20-100 %, with no significant change in the light's color properties. A mini-spectrometer is calibrated and built-in in the system and provides the current estimate of daylight brightness and color temperature through measurement of daylight color scheme in the visible range. The system uses daylight properties to control the light from the LED lighting system. The results of user tests show, that the developed possibility to automatically control of light in the office depending on the daylight color temperature is considered to be equally preferred and results in equally satisfied users as a traditional lighting system with even lighting in the room. On the other hand, user results showed that there were both energy savings and more satisfied users to be gained by providing users the opportunity to self-adjust either

  13. The Texts of the Agency's Headquarters Agreement with Austria and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The texts of six agreements concluded between the Agency and the Republic of Austria as a result of the location of the Agency's headquarters in Austria, which were in force on 31 October 1975, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  14. An evaluation of solar energy for heating a highway maintenance headquarters building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A highway maintenance area headquarters building having overall dimensions of 64 ft - 8 in by 42 ft - 0 in was equipped with an active solar heating system to assist in heating space and domestic hot water. The solar system was instrumented and its o...

  15. Managing Market Segmentatıon for Dıfferent Brands of the same Headquarter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Hakan Özkan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Brand management is inevitable for sustainable marketing. Civil aviation companies focus on sustainable marketing, because of their long-term investments. Customer loyalty is one of the most improtant factors of sustainable marketing. It is known that, if there is no certain limit or border, segmentation damages the reputation of the brands and it is one of the most important threats of sustainable marketing. Segmentation can be done by using new brands, but this process has its own constraints. Such constraints are related with the reputability of the company. To evaluate the impact of a new brand on reputability, service quality is taken as a metric and SERVQUAL is used. The customers of two civil aviation companies participated the study. These two aviation companies have the same headquarter, but they have different brand management strategies. One of them is globally reputable and it is the headquarter company. 166 questionnaires of the 83 participants are evaluated. It is seen that the service quality perception on the brand of the headquarter company did not change and the new brand did not effect its reputability. New brand created its own market or took a share from the other civil aviation companies which attract the customers of the headquarter company with their lower prices.

  16. Are Standing Joint Task Force Headquarters the First Step in Transforming Cold War Formations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    overpopulation , and critne. 24 Thomas L. Friedman. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. Friedman uses a sports analogy, to contrast the obsolete Cold War system to...34 Michale L. Hencshen. "Establishment of a Permanent Joint Task Force Headquarters: An Analysis of Sourcing a Command and Control Structure Capable of

  17. Flextime: A Modified Work Force Scheduling Technique for Selected Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, Reed T.; Prince, Samuel M. O.

    The thesis discusses the advantages and disadvantages of one work force scheduling technique--flextime. The authors were interested in determining if a flextime schedule could be put into effect in a governmental organization such as Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC). The study objectives were to determine the feasibility,…

  18. 32 CFR 1605.8 - Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staff of Region Headquarters for Selective... SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.8 Staff of Region..., the staff of each region for Selective Service shall consist of as many officers, either military or...

  19. An analysis of headquarters location in the Canadian oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, K.T.

    1993-04-01

    Headquarters location theory identifies several factors which are expected to influence the location of corporate head offices. Some of these factors directly affect the costs of operation and the basic profitability of the company, such as the cost of office space, tax levels, availability of qualified labour, cost of labour, proximity to corporate activities, and agglomeration with other services and companies. Headquarters location theory is applied to Canada's energy sector. During the previous 27 years, concentration of energy company headquarters has shifted from Toronto to Calgary. A regression model tests the extent to which those factors identified in the literature appear to be statistically significant for the headquarters relocation experience in Canada's energy sector. The results of the tests suggest that certain factors do appear to significantly influence relocation decisions. These factors are agglomeration with other oil and gas companies, and relative proximity to oil and gas operations (which unexpectedly displayed a negative coefficient). The agglomeration factor was by far the most significant. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Reduction of lighting energy consumption in office buildings through improved daylight design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadouri, Maria Violeta Prado

    This study aims to investigate the lighting energy consumption in office buildings and the options for its reduction. One way to reduce lighting energy consumption is by improving the daylight design. A better use of daylight in buildings might be an outcome from the effort made in different directions. Like the improvement of a building's fabric and layout, the materials, even the furniture in a space influences the daylight quality considerably. Also very important role in lighting energy consumption has the development of more efficient lighting technology like the electric lighting control systems, such as photo sensors and occupancy sensors. Both systems are responsible so that the electric light is not used without reason. As the focusing area of this study, is to find ways to improve the daylight use in buildings, a consequent question is which are the methods provided in order to achieve this The accuracy of the methodology used is also an important issue in order to achieve reliable results. The methodology applied in this study includes the analysis of a case study by taking field measurements and computer simulations. The first stage included gathering information about the lighting design of the building and monitoring the light levels, both from natural and from the electric lighting. The second stage involved testing with computer simulations, different parameters that were expected to improve the daylight exploitation of the specific area. The results of the field measurements showed that the main problems of the space were the low natural light levels and the poor daylight distribution. The annual electric lighting energy consumption, as it was calculated with the use of computer simulations, represented the annual energy consumption of a typical air-conditioned prestige office building (energy consumption guide 19, for energy use in offices, 2000). After several computer simulations, the results showed that initial design parameters of the building

  1. Energy-efficient window systems. Effects on energy use and daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow-Huebe, H.

    2001-11-01

    This thesis deals with energy-efficient windows in Swedish buildings. Parametric studies were performed in the dynamic energy simulation tool Derob-LTH in order to study the effects of window choices on energy use and indoor climate for both residential and office buildings. A steady-state program was used to evaluate two years of measurements of energy use and indoor temperatures of an energy-efficient row-house. Two behavioural studies regarding (1) daylight transmittance, view and room perception using super-insulated windows and (2) the satisfaction with the daylight environment and the use of shading devices in response to daylight/sunlight were conducted in full-scale laboratory environments exposed to the natural climate. Results show that as the energy-efficiency of buildings increase, window U-values must decrease in order not to increase the annual heating demand, since the heating season is shortened, and useful solar gains become smaller. For single-family houses with a window-to-floor area ratio of 15 % and insulated according the current Swedish building code, the U-values should thus on average be lower than 1.0 W/m{sup 2}K. For houses insulated according to 1960s standard, the U-value may on average be 1.6 W/m{sup 2}K. For colder climates (northern Sweden), the U-values should be somewhat lower, while slightly higher U-values can be tolerated in milder climates of south Sweden. Thermal comfort during winter is improved for energy-efficient windows. However, overheating problems exist for both super-insulated houses and highly glazed office buildings showing a need for very low U-values in combination with low g-values. Daylight experiments indicate that the use of two low-emittance coatings tints the transmitted daylight enough to be appreciated, and colours may be perceived as more drab and rooms more enclosed. A compromise between energy-efficiency and daylighting may be needed, and it is suggested that only one coating be used except when very

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and... to Part 241—Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters The geographical boundaries of FRA's eight regions and the addresses for the regional headquarters of those regions...

  3. [Analysis of tongue color under natural daylight based on chromatic aberration correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-tuo; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Yan, Zhu-juan; Tu, Li-ping; Lu, Lu-ming; Shi, Mei-yu; Zhu, Feng-lan

    2009-05-01

    To establish an analytical method for tongue image acquisition under natural daylight based on L*a*b* error correction, and to observe the classification rules of tongue color using color error correction. The tongue images in 413 cases were collected under natural indoor daylight by using Nikon D70 digital SLR camera, and then the color error was adjusted by using Nikon Capture NX software correction according to Kodak Q-13 grey card. The classification and quantitative analysis of the tongue color after software correction was carried out depending on L*a*b* color space. The software correction method had good effects in adjusting the tongue color image error. The L* values of light red, deep red and cyanosis tongues decreased as compared with that of light white tongue (PL*a*b* error correction is accurate in color restoration and feasible to operate.

  4. Economic feasibility of maximising daylighting of a standard office building with efficient electric lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontoynont, Marc; Ramananarivo, Karine; Soreze, Thierry Silvio Claude

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of developing various daylighting strategies for a standard office building in relation to their ability to reduce electric lighting consumption. The reference building design for this study corresponds to a typical configuration that minimises the construction...... costs and is typical of the French market. We have compared scenarios that entail moving service spaces to the periphery, increasing ceiling height and adding light wells of various shapes. These special features increased the proportion of the indoor area with sufficient daylight by up to 40......%, with an increase of construction costs ranging between 1.3% and 15.5% of the cost of the building. The extra cost of adding light wells was estimated at an average of €344 per work place, or €34 m-2 for a standard building with a distance between facades of 18 m. This value has to be compared with typical...

  5. Mathematical model quantifies multiple daylight exposure and burial events for rock surfaces using luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiesleben, Trine; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Jain, Mayank; Al Khasawneh, Sahar; Hvidt, Søren; Jakobsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of rock surfaces has increased significantly over the last few years, as the potential of the method has been explored. It has been realized that luminescence-depth profiles show qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events. To quantify both burial and exposure events a new mathematical model is developed by expanding the existing models of evolution of luminescence–depth profiles, to include repeated sequential events of burial and exposure to daylight. This new model is applied to an infrared stimulated luminescence-depth profile from a feldspar-rich granite cobble from an archaeological site near Aarhus, Denmark. This profile shows qualitative evidence for multiple daylight exposure and burial events; these are quantified using the model developed here. By determining the burial ages from the surface layer of the cobble and by fitting the new model to the luminescence profile, it is concluded that the cobble was well bleached before burial. This indicates that the OSL burial age is likely to be reliable. In addition, a recent known exposure event provides an approximate calibration for older daylight exposure events. This study confirms the suggestion that rock surfaces contain a record of exposure and burial history, and that these events can be quantified. The burial age of rock surfaces can thus be dated with confidence, based on a knowledge of their pre-burial light exposure; it may also be possible to determine the length of a fossil exposure, using a known natural light exposure as calibration. - Highlights: • Evidence for multiple exposure and burial events in the history of a single cobble. • OSL rock surface dating model improved to include multiple burial/exposure cycles. • Application of the new model quantifies burial and exposure events.

  6. Apolux : an innovative computer code for daylight design and analysis in architecture and urbanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claro, A.; Pereira, F.O.R.; Ledo, R.Z. [Santa Catarina Federal Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main capabilities of a new computer program for calculating and analyzing daylighting in architectural space were discussed. Apolux 1.0 was designed to use three-dimensional files generated in graphic editors in the data exchange file (DXF) format and was developed to integrate an architect's design characteristics. An example of its use in a design context development was presented. The program offers fast and flexible manipulation of video card models in different visualization conditions. The algorithm for working with the physics of light is based on the radiosity method representing the surfaces through finite elements divided in small triangular units of area which are fully confronted to each other. The form factors of each triangle are determined in relation to all others in the primary calculation. Visible directions of the sky are also included according to the modular units of a subdivided globe. Following these primary calculations, the different and successive daylighting solutions can be determined under different sky conditions. The program can also change the properties of the materials to quickly recalculate the solutions. The program has been applied in an office building in Florianopolis, Brazil. The four stages of design include initial discussion with the architects about the conceptual possibilities; development of a comparative study based on 2 architectural designs with different conceptual elements regarding daylighting exploitation in order to compare internal daylighting levels and distribution of the 2 options exposed to the same external conditions; study the solar shading devices for specific facades; and, simulations to test the performance of different designs. The program has proven to be very flexible with reliable results. It has the possibility of incorporating situations of the real sky through the input of the Spherical model of real sky luminance values. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  7. Technology Assessments of High Performance Envelope with Optimized Lighting, Solar Control, and Daylighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Touzani, Samir; Dutton, Spencer; Shackelford, Jordan; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this monitored field study was to identify near-term innovative façade technologies for solar control and daylighting with a goal of 20-40% energy use savings below Title 24 2013 in the 30-ft deep perimeter zone near vertical windows within cost and comfort constraints. The targeted market was new or existing commercial office buildings or buildings with similar patterns of use.

  8. A consensus on the use of daylight photodynamic therapy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbotson, Sally; Stones, Robin; Bowling, Jonathan; Campbell, Sandra; Kownacki, Stephen; Sivaramakrishnan, Muthu; Valentine, Ronan; Morton, Colin A

    2017-06-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a consequence of chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Treatment of chronically photo-damaged skin and AKs is driven by risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma, as well as for symptomatic relief. Conventional photodynamic therapy (c-PDT) is indicated when AKs are multiple or confluent and if patients respond poorly or are unable to tolerate other therapies. c-PDT is limited by the field size that can be treated in single sessions and can cause significant discomfort. Recent studies investigated daylight illumination to activate protoporphyrin IX and daylight-PDT (d-PDT) is now licensed in the UK for face and scalp AKs. A group of experts met to discuss application of d-PDT with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) and develop a UK consensus statement, specific to UK weather conditions. The UK consensus recommendations were reached among eight experts, who reviewed recent studies on d-PDT, assessed UK meteorological data and discussed personal experiences of d-PDT for AKs. Recommendations from these discussions provide guidance on d-PDT use, specifically regarding patient selection, therapeutic indications, when to treat, skin preparation, MAL application and daylight exposure for patients with AKs. This UK expert consensus provides practical guidance for UK application of d-PDT.

  9. The role of spectral response of photosensors in daylight responsive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulos, L.; Topalis, F.V. [Laboratory of Photometry, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Politexniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Tsangrassoulis, A. [Department of Architecture, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    Lighting control technologies using photosensors have a great potential for energy savings in areas with high levels of daylight. Although the proper application of these controls can exploit this potential, unfortunately, it has been accomplished in a small percentage of new projects. One reason is the difficulty in justification of energy savings, which in turn, is directly linked with the simulation of the behaviour of these lighting controls. The core of these systems is the photosensor, which adjusts the electric light output in proportion to the amount of the daylight that detects, using its spatial and spectral response. The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of photosensor spectral response on its illuminance values, by taking into account various daylight spectra as these are modified due to various types of coloured glazing. Five commercial photosensors were selected and their spectral response was measured. In addition, spectral transmittance of 16 commercial types of glazing was measured as well. Using these data, a set of simulations were performed using three colour channels in a typical office room and the relative differences in illuminance - and thus energy savings - among the photosensors are presented. The results show that differences are significant ranging from 36 to 118%, a fact that can affect the estimated payback period of a lighting control system. (author)

  10. EFFECT OF DAYLIGHT HOURS ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    understanding of its requirements as a nocturnal animal. The nocturnal activities of thegrasscutter are determined by changes indaylength or photoperiod. Photoperiod depends on the rotation of the earth around the sun anddetermines the time of the year (Gwinner,. 1986). The biologically controlled rhythm in theactivities.

  11. Use of Daylight and Aesthetic Image of Glass Facades in Contemporary Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roginska-Niesluchowska, Malgorzata

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the architecture of contemporary buildings in respect to their aesthetic image created by the use of natural light. Sustainability is regarded as a governing principle of contemporary architecture, where daylighting is an important factor as it affects energy consumption and environmental quality of the space inside a building. Environmental awareness of architecture, however, involves a much wider and more holistic view of design. The quality of sustainable architecture can be considered in its aesthetic and cultural context with regard to landscape, local tradition, and connection to the surrounding world. This approach is associated with the social mission of architecture, i.e. providing appropriate space for living, facilitating social relations and having positive impact on people. The purpose of the research is to study the use of daylight in creating an aesthetic image of contemporary buildings. The author focuses mainly on public buildings largely dedicated to art and culture which satisfy high functional and aesthetic requirements. The paper examines the genesis and current trends in the aesthetic image of modern buildings which use daylight as the main design strategy, focusing on the issues of glass facades. The main attention is given to the shaping of representative public areas which feature the glass facades. The research has been based on a case study, critical review of literature review, observation and synthesis. The study identifies and classifies different approaches to using daylight in these areas and highlights changes in the aesthetics of architecture made of glass, which uses daylight as the main design strategy. These changes are primarily caused by the development and spreading of new glazing materials and the use of digital method of design. The influence of light and its mode depends on glass materials but also on the local conditions of the site, and has a significant impact on the relationship between

  12. MAL Daylight Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis: Clinical and Imaging Evaluation by 3D Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cantisani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common skin cancer with an incidence that varies widely worldwide. Among them, actinic keratosis (AK, considered by some authors as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, are the most common and reflect an abnormal multistep skin cell development due to the chronic ultraviolet (UV light exposure. No ideal treatment exists, but the potential risk of their development in a more invasive form requires prompt treatment. As patients usually present with multiple AK on fields of actinic damage, there is a need for effective, safe, simple and short treatments which allow the treatment of large areas. To achieve this, daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT is an innovative treatment for multiple mild actinic keratosis, well tolerated by patients. Patients allocated to the PDT unit, affected by multiple mild−moderate and severe actinic keratosis on sun-exposed areas treated with DL-PDT, were clinically evaluated at baseline and every three months with an Antera 3D, Miravex© camera. Clinical and 3D images were performed at each clinical check almost every three months. In this retrospective study, 331 patients (56.7% male, 43.3% female were treated with DL-PDT. We observed a full clearance in more than two-thirds of patients with one or two treatments. Different responses depend on the number of lesions and on their severity; for patients with 1–3 lesions and with grade I or II AK, a full clearance was reached in 85% of cases with a maximum of two treatments. DL-PDT in general improved skin tone and erased sun damage. Evaluating each Antera 3D images, hemoglobin concentration and pigmentation, a skin color and tone improvement in 310 patients was observed. DL-PDT appears as a promising, effective, simple, tolerable and practical treatment for actinic damage associated with AK, and even treatment of large areas can be with little or no pain. The 3D imaging allowed for quantifying in real time the aesthetic benefits

  13. Influence of daylight on the fate of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles in natural aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Nanoparticles, such as silver (Ag-NP) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NP), are increasingly used in many consumer products. These nanoparticles (NPs) will likely be exposed to the aquatic environment (rain, river, lake water) and to light (visible and UV) in the products where they are applied, or after those products are discharged. Dissolution of Ag-NP and ZnO-NP is an important process because the dissolved Ag + and Zn 2+ are readily available and toxic for aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of daylight (UV and visible) for the fate of engineered Ag-NP and ZnO-NPs in different types of natural waters. Ag-NP and ZnO-NP were exposed to rainwater, river Rhine, and lake waters (Greifen, Lucerne, Cristallina, Gruère) under different light conditions (no light, UV 300-400 nm and visible light 400-700 nm) for up to 8 days. Stronger agglomeration of Ag-NP was observed in the waters with higher ionic strength in comparison to those with lower ionic strength. Visible light tended to increase the dissolution of Ag-NP under most natural water conditions in comparison to dark conditions, whereas UV-light led to decreased dissolved Ag + after longer exposure time. These effects illustrate the dynamic interactions of Ag-NP with light, which may lead both to increased oxidation and to increased reduction of Ag + by organic compounds under UV-light. In the case of ZnO-NP, agglomeration occurred at higher ionic strength, but the effects of pH were predominant for dissolution, which occurred up to concentrations close to the solubility limit of ZnO(s) at pH around 8.2 and to nearly complete dissolution of ZnO-NP at lower pH (pH 4.8-6.5), with both visible and UV-light facilitating dissolution. This study thus shows that light conditions play an important role in the dissolution processes of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reply [to “Is the AGU headquarters bond issue really a boon?”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenso, Ned A.

    Dick Von Herzen raises two issues that affect us all: our Union's economic health and the role of a headquarters building in our financial portfolio. These issues deserve the widest possible ventilation among our total membership, and I am grateful that Dick's comments offer yet another opportunity to address them. I assume this responsibility in my capacity as chairman of the ad hoc Real Estate Committee and as the “continuity” member of the Budget and Finance Committee.In responding, I want to make two salient points: the AGU is financially healthy and the role of the headquarters building in our asset mix is established by formal policy. By extension, the new building is derived from a series of explicit Council decisions.

  15. Defense Headquarters: Improved Data Needed to Better Identify Streamlining and Cost Savings Opportunities by Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2014.13 We obtained documentary and testimonial evidence from senior officials in the Office of the Deputy Chief Management Officer to determine the...Command and U.S. Africa Command, and increased mission requirements for the theater special operations commands.4 We also found that DOD’s process...and reviewed DOD headquarters-related efficiency efforts begun since 2014.3 We obtained documentary and testimonial evidence from senior officials in

  16. Applicability of SEI's Capability Maturity Model in Joint Information Technology, Supreme Command Headquarters

    OpenAIRE

    Thongmuang, Jitti.

    1995-01-01

    The Software Engineering Institute's (SEI) Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is analyzed to identify its technological and economic applicability for the Joint Information Technology (JIT), Supreme Command Headquarters, Royal Thai Ministry of Defense. Kurt Lewin's force field theory was used to analyze different dimensions of CMM's applicability for JIT's organizational environment (defined by the stakeholder concept). It suggests that introducing CMM technology into JIT is unwarranted at this ...

  17. The Influence of Transverse CSR Structure on Headquarters/Subsidiary Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Barin Cruz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have already highlighted the effects of the introduction of Corporate Social Responsibility [CSR] projects into Multinational Corporations’ [MNC] strategies. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of transverse CSR structure on headquarters/subsidiary integration. In this article, we begin with the following question: What is the influence of the introduction of a centralized/decentralized structure on conducting a CSR strategy in a MNC? Our main objective is to identify conditions through which the structure of the CSR department influences the CSR strategy of the MNC. We define transverse CSR structure as: (1 the existence of a CSR directory at the headquarters level and a CSR representative at the subsidiary level, and (2 the existence of representatives from different areas who participate in meetings or committees to make decisions about CSR strategy. We argue that a transverse CSR structure favors consideration of global and local CSR demands by headquarters and subsidiaries. This process takes place through the mediation of three main elements: information exchange, awareness activities and definition of objectives.

  18. ColorDazl/Daylight Dazzler and eye protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, James Pierre; Hamadani, Siavosh; Fine, Kevin; Edrich, David A.; Eagan, Justin

    2009-05-01

    The "ColorDazl" is a device designed to be used for testing eye and sensor dazzling, at modest range, in a package that can be carried, and with a projector that could be mounted to a lethal weapon (or if desired, to another type of non-lethal device such as a "stinger"). The Tri-Laser Module (TLM) is a completely self contained subsystem of the device containing functional 3 color (RGV) laser sources. The laser beams are transmitted to the projector by an optical fiber. A 2" or larger diameter projector produces an eye-safe beam throughout its range, yet one of sufficient Irradiance or Illuminance to potentially dazzle sensors, and the unaided eye at ranges between 20' and 200' under night-time or twilight conditions. The TLM is a single pulse laser source, which can be fired every few seconds, with computer controls which keep it eye-safe at the exit aperture, and throughout the range. The output is adjustable with varying power levels and varying pulse duration of the three colors, allowing a flickering output. The system is operated from a LapTop computer which controls the total power, and pulse lengths of each individual laser, so that the total power is below 500 mW, and the energy per pulse for all 3 beams is kept below 30 mJ per pulse. This mode of operation ensures that the device is a Class 3b source as determined by ANSI Z136 classification, and is therefore free from the limitations of Class 4 which include key lock, emission delay, audible warning, etc. With simple refinements to the ColorDazl laser controller software and new projector and receiver combinations currently being considered, a higher power dazzler could be designed in the near future that will be effective and relatively safe under brighter ambient lighting and longer range conditions.

  19. National Labor Relations Board: Action Needed to Improve Case-Processing Time at Headquarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    States (6;AO/!Iim-9.-1 it;, Apr. 30, 1990). Child Labor Violations and Sweatshops in the I T.S. (GAQ/T- wl)A)0--18, Mar. 16, 1990). How Well Does OSIIA...Protect Workers From Reprisal: Inspector Opin- ions (GAO/T-IRI)-.9o-8, Nov. 16, 1989). " Sweatshops " in the U.S.: Opinions on Their Extent and

  20. A study on the performance enhancement of low-temperature solar applications : Daylighting and Adsorption Desalination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Min

    2011-02-01

    Thermal applications of solar energy are categorized by low, medium and high temperature. The present study has explored two major applications of solar energy widely researched and practiced these days. Of these, one deals with the utilization of solar energy for lighting in buildings, which is responsible for a great portion of electricity consumption, especially, for office and public buildings. Rapid improvements in lighting technology harnessing solar energy (daylight) have greatly contributed to radically reduce its consumption levels - and thereby reduce CO 2 emissions and cost. The other case considered here for solar utilization is so-called solar desalination using adsorbents (silica gels). This technology utilizes a silica gel adsorbent (desiccant) as a medium between an evaporator and a condenser to reject and facilitate latent heat of vaporization. Vapour is adsorbed and desorbed between evaporation and condensation phases. 1. Daylighting simulation A lighting upgrade is an obvious step toward improving a building's energy consumption, which could be easily assessed by using computer simulations. The present study has carried out a series of computer simulations for a lightless space as well as an actual classroom (in Jeju National University) when sun pipe systems are installed. They were first modeled by ECOTECT before RADIANCE was called in to conduct lighting analysis. Simulations were performed for equinoxes and solstices when the sun is at its highest altitude, i.e. at noon (12 PM). A lightless space and classroom of the same dimensions revealed the effectiveness of sun pipe systems to improve indoor lighting conditions throughout the year. 2. Development of adsorption desalination system utilizing silica-gel Some major components of an adsorption desalination system were designed and fabricated to assess its desalination efficiency when packs of silica-gel were used at different operating conditions. The amount of fresh water yield was studied

  1. Optimal sun-shading design for enhanced daylight illumination of subtropical classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Ming-Chin [Architecture and Building Research Institute, MOI (China); Chiang, Che-Ming [Department of Architecture, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Chou, Po-Cheng [Department of Interior Design, Shu-Te University, No. 59 Hun-Shan Road, Yenchau 82445, Kaohsiung County (China); Chang, Kuei-Feng [Department of Real Estate Management, National Pingtung Institute of Commerce (China); Lee, Chia-Yen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515 (China)

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of fitting windows with sun-shadings in order to minimize the lighting power costs in daylight-illuminated classrooms lit from a single side in subtropical regions. An IES-CPC model is created of a representative classroom in Taiwan, and a series of simulations is performed to determine the average illuminance value and the uniformity of the illuminance distribution in the classroom under various lighting conditions with no sun-shadings fitted to the window. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements obtained using an array of nine-channel photometers. Having confirmed the validity of the simulation scheme, the illumination properties of four different sun-shading designs are considered. The results show that a double-layered sun-shading represents the optimal sun-shading design in terms of achieving a uniform illumination distribution within the classroom. Given appropriate physical dimensions, this daylight access device achieves the minimum illuminance requirement of 500 lx and improves the lighting uniformity ratio from 0.25-0.35 to 0.40-0.42. Furthermore, using this sun-shading device, the required illuminance ratio of 0.5 can be obtained simply by switching on one of the three rows of lights in the classroom. Accordingly, the daylight access device not only improves the illuminance conditions within the classroom, but also reduces the lighting power cost by 71.5% compared to the case where all of the lights are turned on. (author)

  2. Integrated control of sun shades, daylight and artificial light; Integreret regulering af solafskaermning, dagslys og kunstlys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Christoffersen, J.; Soerensen, Henrik; Jessen, G.

    2011-07-01

    The project established a basis of calculation and a practical basis for optimum choice of solar shading and integrated control strategies for both new buildings and for office, commercial and institutional buildings to be renovated with new calculation models for controlling solar shading integrated in the BSim program. A complete and applicable model for optimum, integrated solar shading control was established, focusing on thermal and visual comfort criteria towards energy consumption for heating, cooling and lighting. A prototype was tested in the daylight laboratory at Danish Building Research Institute-Aalborg University and at University of Southern Denmark. (LN)

  3. Daylight Influence on Colour Design : Empirical Study on Perceived Colour and Colour Experience Indoors

    OpenAIRE

    Hårleman, Maud

    2007-01-01

    It is known that one and the same interior colouring will appear different in rooms with windows facing north or facing south, but it is not known how natural daylight from these two compass points affects perceived colour and the ways in which colour is experienced. The objective is to describe the perceived colours to be expected in rooms with sunlight and diffused light, and thus develop a tool for colour design. Two empirical investigations provide the basis for six attached papers. The m...

  4. Daylight illumination-color-contrast tables for full-form objects naturally illuminated objects

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, M

    1978-01-01

    Daylight Illumination-Color-Contrast Tables for Full-form Objects is the result of a major computational project concerning the illumination, color, and contrast conditions in naturally illuminated objects. The project from which this two-chapter book is derived is originally conceived in support of the various remote sensing and image processing activities of the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen, West Germany DFVLR, in particular, those depending on the quantitative photometric and colorimetric evaluation of photographs and other environmental

  5. Design methodology and criteria for daylight and thermal comfort in nearly-zero energy office buildings in Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth

    be improved by considering the location in the room, accounting for both long and short-wave radiation and that daylighting should be modelled in a dynamic manner. Full-scale measurements have been conducted to verify improved models for MRT and climate-based daylighting and their implementation...... into the simulation tool IDA ICE. Furthermore, the control of solar shading is given attention, since it is a crucial link between the thermal and daylighting performance. The thesis presents results of an occupant survey with 46 subjects, which was carried out to investigate occupants’ preferences towards......’ perception of glare was indicated. Based on these results and findings in the literature, a shading strategy was proposed. Its performance is verified by full-scale measurements and annual simulations....

  6. Modified optical fiber daylighting system with sunlight transportation in free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Ngoc-Hai; Pham, Thanh-Tuan; Shin, Seoyong

    2016-12-26

    We present the design, optical simulation, and experiment of a modified optical fiber daylighting system (M-OFDS) for indoor lighting. The M-OFDS is comprised of three sub-systems: concentration, collimation, and distribution. The concentration part is formed by coupling a Fresnel lens with a large-core plastic optical fiber. The sunlight collected by the concentration sub-system is propagated in a plastic optical fiber and then collimated by the collimator, which is a combination of a parabolic mirror and a convex lens. The collimated beam of sunlight travels in free space and is guided to the interior by directing flat mirrors, where it is diffused uniformly by a distributor. All parameters of the system are calculated theoretically. Based on the designed system, our simulation results demonstrated a maximum optical efficiency of 71%. The simulation results also showed that sunlight could be delivered to the illumination destination at distance of 30 m. A prototype of the M-OFDS was fabricated, and preliminary experiments were performed outdoors. The simulation results and experimental results confirmed that the M-OFDS was designed effectively. A large-scale system constructed by several M-OFDSs is also proposed. The results showed that the presented optical fiber daylighting system is a strong candidate for an inexpensive and highly efficient application of solar energy in buildings.

  7. Development of Optical Fiber-Based Daylighting System and Its Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optic daylighting systems have been shown to be a promising and effective way to transmit sunlight in the interior space whilst reducing electric lighting energy consumption. To increase efficiency in terms of providing uniform illumination in the interior, the current need is to illuminate optical fiber-bundle with uniform light flux. To this end, we propose a method for achieving collimated light, which illuminates the fiber-bundle uniformly. Light is collected through a parabolic concentrator and focused toward a collimating lens, which distributes the light over each optical fiber. An optics diffusing structure is utilized at the end side of the fiber bundle to spread light in the interior. The results clearly reveal that the efficiency in terms of uniform illumination, which also reduces the heat problem for optical fibers, is improved. Furthermore, a comparison study is conducted between current and previous approaches. As a result, the proposed daylighting system turns out convenient in terms of energy saving and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. STUDI SIMULASI MODEL PENERANGAN ALAMI (DAYLIGHTING RUANG PADA BANGUNAN FASILITAS PENDIDIKAN TINGGI DENGAN SUPERLITE 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Elitasari Mahaputri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Daylight was the only efficient source of light available for building. Therefore, architecture was dominated by the goal of creating openings large enough to distribute daylight to building interiors. It is important to understand the amount of natural light penetration when outdoor obstruction are displaced in order to propose optimum external shading strategies as design solutions. This paper presents a study of the daylight factor and daylight contourt approaches and also investigates the effect of outdoor obstruction displacement on natural-light penetration of a specific room in higher-education building facility. The interior daylight illuminance data were simulated and analyzed using Superlite 2.0. The result shows that several effects of the external obstruction displacement as shading provider, depending on transmitted natural-light penetration, which determine the better consideration option in designing landscape surround building, especially in hot humid climates. Sinar matahari merupakan sumber penerangan yang efisien bagi bangunan. Tujuan utama dalam arsitektur adalah merancang bukaan pencahayaan yang cukup besar bagi bangunan untuk mendistribusikan cahaya ke bagian dalam bangunan. Sangat penting untuk mengetahui besar penetrasi penerangan alami yang masuk ke dalam ruang bila di luar bangunan diletakkan suatu halangan sebagai salah satu solusi disain dengan mengoptimalkan strategi perancangan pem­bayangan lingkungan. Makalah ini membahas tentang kajian pendekatan faktor penerangan alami (daylight factor dan koefisien penerangan alami, serta mengamati pengaruh perletakan halangan lingkungan terhadap penetrasi penerangan alami suatu ruang fasilitas pendidikan tinggi. Data illuminasi penerangan interior disimulasikan dan dianalisa menggunakan software Superlite 2.0. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan beberapa pengaruh perletakan halangan lingkungan sebagai elemen pembayangan lingkungan berkaitan dengan penetrasi cahaya alami, yang

  9. Annual dynamics of daylight variability and contrast a simulation-based approach to quantifying visual effects in architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Rockcastle, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    Daylight is a dynamic source of illumination in architectural space, creating diverse and ephemeral configurations of light and shadow within the built environment. Perceptual qualities of daylight, such as contrast and temporal variability, are essential to our understanding of both material and visual effects in architecture. Although spatial contrast and light variability are fundamental to the visual experience of architecture, architects still rely primarily on intuition to evaluate their designs because there are few metrics that address these factors. Through an analysis of contemporary

  10. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the

  11. Photoageing of Baltic amber-influence of daylight radiation behind window glass on surface colour and chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the interaction between Baltic amber and daylight behind window glass, essential to understanding the mechanisms by which the material degrades in museum environments and to propose techniques for preventive conservation based on the control...... surface discolouration, oxidation of the molecular structure and breakdown of unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds in various environmental conditions, confirming the degrading role of daylight behind window glass. The conclusions of this study can be applied to the development of techniques for preventive...

  12. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.

    2012-11-01

    In desert sunny clear-sky regions solar penetration can become excessive. This can cause non-uniform daylight distribution, glare and high solar heat gain, affecting both visual and thermal comfort. Shading devices, such as solar screens, were usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space under the desert sunny clear-sky. The larger aim is to arrive at efficient solar screen designs that suit the different orientations.The study was divided into three consecutive phases. In phase one, the effect of the two parameters on Daylight Availability was tested. The solar screen was axially rotated by three different angles at 10° increments. Also, the aspect ratio of the screen opening in both horizontal and vertical directions was changed systematically. Simulation was conducted using the annual Daylight Dynamic Performance Metrics (DDPMs). In phase two, the Annual Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric was evaluated for the cases that were found adequate in phase one. In the third phase, the annual solar energy transmittance through the screen was calculated for the cases that achieved acceptable performance in the two previous phases in order to identify the more energy efficient screens.Solar screens with openings having horizontal aspect ratios were found to be the most effective, while those with vertical aspect ratios were achieved the lowest performance. In the North orientation, since almost all the cases that were tested in this research provided acceptable daylighting performance, the designer now have a variety of options to choose from. Preference should be given to screen openings of horizontal aspect ratios, especially the 12:1 and 18:1 (H:V) screens that achieved the best performance where 92% of the space was " daylit" in comparison with only 53

  13. Continuous ultra-low-intensity artificial daylight is not as effective as red LED light in photodynamic therapy of multiple actinic keratoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine Regin; Heydenreich, Jakob; Fabricius, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a simple and tolerable treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. It is of interest which light intensity is sufficient to prevent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and effectively treat actinic keratoses (AKs). We compared the efficacy of PDT wit...... with light-emitting diode (LED) to daylight-mediated PDT with very low-intensity artificial daylight ('daylight') in the treatment of multiple AKs in the face or scalp.......Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a simple and tolerable treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. It is of interest which light intensity is sufficient to prevent accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and effectively treat actinic keratoses (AKs). We compared the efficacy of PDT...

  14. Quantifying the radiant exposure and effective dose in patients treated for actinic keratoses with topical photodynamic therapy using daylight and LED white light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, M.; Collins, P.; Gray, L.; O’Gorman, S.; McCavana, J.

    2018-02-01

    Daylight photodynamic therapy (dl-PDT) is as effective as conventional PDT (c-PDT) for treating actinic keratoses but has the advantage of reducing patient discomfort significantly. Topical dl-PDT and white light-PDT (wl-PDT) differ from c-PDT by way of light sources and methodology. We measured the variables associated with light dose delivery to skin surface and influence of geometry using a radiometer, a spectral radiometer and an illuminance meter. The associated errors of the measurement methods were assessed. The spectral and spatial distribution of the radiant energy from the LED white light source was evaluated in order to define the maximum treatment area, setup and treatment protocol for wl-PDT. We compared the data with two red LED light sources we use for c-PDT. The calculated effective light dose is the product of the normalised absorption spectrum of the photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), the irradiance spectrum and the treatment time. The effective light dose from daylight ranged from 3  ±  0.4 to 44  ±  6 J cm‑2due to varying weather conditions. The effective light dose for wl-PDT was reproducible for treatments but it varied across the treatment area between 4  ±  0.1 J cm‑2 at the edge and 9  ±  0.1 J cm‑2 centrally. The effective light dose for the red waveband (615–645 nm) was 0.42  ±  0.05 J cm‑2 on a clear day, 0.05  ±  0.01 J cm‑2 on an overcast day and 0.9  ±  0.01 J cm‑2 using the white light. This compares with 0.95  ±  0.01 and 0.84  ±  0.01 J cm‑2 for c-PDT devices. Estimated errors associated with indirect determination of daylight effective light dose were very significant, particularly for effective light doses less than 5 J cm‑2 (up to 83% for irradiance calculations). The primary source of error is in establishment of the relationship between irradiance or illuminance and effective dose. Use of the O’Mahoney model is

  15. New insight into daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag: synergistic effect between semiconductor photocatalysis and plasmonic photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Hao; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-05-14

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are often used as electron scavengers in conventional semiconductor photocatalysis to suppress electron-hole (e(-)-h(+) ) recombination and promote interfacial charge transfer, and thus enhance photocatalytic activity of semiconductors. In this contribution, it is demonstrated that noble metal NPs such as Ag NPs function as visible-light harvesting and electron-generating centers during the daylight photocatalysis of AgBr@Ag. Novel Ag plasmonic photocatalysis could cooperate with the conventional AgBr semiconductor photocatalysis to enhance the overall daylight activity of AgBr@Ag greatly because of an interesting synergistic effect. After a systematic investigation of the daylight photocatalysis mechanism of AgBr@Ag, the synergistic effect was attributed to surface plasmon resonance induced local electric field enhancement on Ag, which can accelerate the generation of e(-)-h(+) pairs in AgBr, so that more electrons are produced in the conduction band of AgBr under daylight irradiation. This study provides new insight into the photocatalytic mechanism of noble metal/semiconductor systems as well as the design and fabrication of novel plasmonic photocatalysts. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Full-color see-through daylight-readable goggle-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Christian Dean

    2011-06-01

    See-through near-to-eye displays offer an opportunity to present visual information laid on top of the view of the real world. The information presented can be used to augment or annotate the scene the user sees. Microvision has developed a see-through, full-color, daylight-readable, monocular display in a goggle form factor. The image source for the display is a Pico Display Engine (PDE) that uses modulated red, green, and blue lasers reflecting off a MEMS based bi-axial scanning mirror to create an image. This image is relayed to the eye through a pupil-expanding substrateguiding optic. The low Lagrange invariant laser-based display engine is an excellent match for the substrate guided optics for presenting the user with an infinite conjugate image. This paper discusses design considerations and performance characteristics of the eyewear display.

  17. Dynamic window daylighting systems: electropolymeric technology for solar responsive building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krietemeyer, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Shane I.; Dyson, Anna H.

    2011-04-01

    Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of sunlight in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing window technologies have made moderate progress towards greater energy performance for facades but remain limited in their response to dynamic solar conditions, building energy requirements, and variable user preferences for visual comfort. Recent developments in electropolymeric display technology provide opportunities to transfer electroactive polymers to windows that can achieve high levels of geometric and spectral selectivity through the building envelope in order to meet the lighting, thermal and user requirements of occupied spaces. Experimental simulations that investigate daylight quality, energy performance, and architectural effects of electropolymeric glazing technology are presented.

  18. Discomfort glare with complex fenestration systems and the impact on energy use when using daylighting control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine; McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Eleanor S.; Kalyanam, Raghuram

    2015-11-03

    Glare is a frequent issue in highly glazed buildings. A modelling approach is presented that uses discomfort glare probability and discomfort glare index as metrics to determine occupants’ behaviour. A glare control algorithm that actuated an interior shade for glare protection based on the predicted perception was implemented in a building simulation program. A reference case with a state-of-the-art base glazing was compared to the same glazing but with five different complex fenestration systems, i.e., exterior shades. The windows with exterior shades showed significant variations in glare frequencies. Energy use intensity in a prototypical office building with daylighting controls was greatly influenced for the systems with frequent glare occurrence. While the base glazing could benefit from glare control, some of the exterior shades showed significantly greater energy use when discomfort glare-based operation of interior shades was considered.

  19. The urban canyon and building energy use: Urban density versus daylight and passive solar gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn; Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2011-01-01

    of low-energy buildings in a north-European setting is affected by their context.This study uses a comprehensive suite of climate-based dynamic thermal and daylight simulations to describe how these primary factors in the passive energy properties of buildings are affected by increases in urban density......The link between urban density and building energy use is a complex balance between climatic factors and the spatial, material and use patterns of urban spaces and the buildings that constitute them. This study uses the concept of the urban canyon to investigate the ways that the energy performance.......It was found that the geometry of urban canyons has an impact on total energy consumption in the range of up to +30% for offices and +19% for housing, which shows that the geometry of urban canyons is a key factor in energy use in buildings. It was demonstrated how the reflectivity of urban canyons plays...

  20. Controlling daylight illumination in cultural heritage buildings by using thin-film and thermographic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, D.; Muñoz de Luna, J.; Alvarez, A.; Mayorga, S.; Hernández, G.; Garcia, A.; Laborde, A.; Herráez, J. A.; del Egido, M.

    2012-12-01

    There are many master pieces of the cultural heritage which cańt be correctly contemplated if daylight is not part of the exhibition environment, since they were made with the sun light as essential element of them. The Pórtico de la Gloria and the Cloister and paintings of Santa María de El Paular monastery are ones of these cases. The Pórtico de la Gloria (Gate of the Glory) is probably the most relevant masterpiece of the Santiago de Compostela cathedral. It is located at the narthex of the west gate. It is a masterwork of Romanesque sculpture built between 1168 and 1188 by Master Mateo. During the XVIII century a new Baroque façade was placed in front of it replacing the middle ages wall. Daylight entering through the windows of the facade makes possible to see the art work but the sun can generate serious problems since it heats the stone and evaporates the humidity. Thermal imagers have been used to test the thermal performance of the antireflection treatment located in the windows in the actual temperature of the stone sculptures. The cloister of the monastery of Santa María de El Paular, housed until the confiscation of 1835 a collection of 54 paintings of Vincente Carducho called Carthusian series. When in 2006 the restoration of the 52 still preserved paintings was completed, began a refurbishment of the cloister to return the paintings to their original place. We conducted a study of the incidence of the Sun in the cloister and how to avoid direct sunlight on Carducho's paintings.

  1. Daylighting and Cooling of Atrium Buildings in Warm Climates: Impact of the Top-Fenestration and Wall Mass Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Morad Rachid

    1992-01-01

    Sun-lighting and daylighting contribute greatly to the aesthetic value of an atrium. However, today's atria are often found either over-lit with extensive cooling loads, or under-lit requiring increased artificial lighting loads. The increase of the top-glazing area increases the cooling loads and decreases the lighting loads. The increase of the mass in the atrium walls decreases the maximum atrium temperature and the cooling loads. Furthermore, the mass distribution and its reflectance affect the lighting levels at the atrium floor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the simultaneous impact of the top-fenestration and the mass and reflectance of atrium walls on the cooling and daylighting performance of atria in warm climates. It attempts to determine the optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting and low cooling loads. The daylighting performance was evaluated through illumination measurements in physical models in a sky simulator. The cooling performance was evaluated using the software TRNSYS 13.1. Two types of top-fenestration were tested: horizontal and vertical south-facing, each with three alternate areas. The variations of the atrium walls included materials (standard frame and heavyweight concrete) and percentage and reflectance of the solid area. Two and four-story atria were considered, each with square and linear configuration. The performance was evaluated for three warm climates. The optimum top-fenestration for efficient daylighting was determined. The daylighting prediction algorithm was extended to include the effective reflectance of the atrium walls. The increase of mass in the atrium walls significantly decreased the atrium temperature range, the maximum atrium temperature, and the cooling loads. This impact decreased from horizontal to vertical south-facing top-glazing. The vertical south-facing top-glazing and, to a lesser degree, the reduction of the glazed atrium cover by 50% had more cooling benefits than increasing the

  2. Malaria in New Guinea during the Second World War: the Land Headquarters Medical Research Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F; Sweeney, A W

    1998-06-01

    In June 1943 arrangements were made to carry out experiments on malaria suppressive drugs on human volunteers in Cairns, in north Queensland, under the direction of Brigadier Neil Hamilton Fairley; early in 1944 the Land Headquarters Medical Research Unit was established to continue this work. Using 868 healthy volunteers and 317 infected soldiers and A. punctulatus mosquitoes flow in from New Guinea or bred locally, several suppressive drugs were tested. Doses of 10 grains of quinine daily failed to suppress New Guinea strains of P. falciparum and were only partially effective against P. vivax infections, whereas 100 mg of atebrin daily controlled symptoms of P. vivax infection and cured infections with most New Guinea strains of P. falciparum, however some strains of P. falciparum from Wewak were resistant to this dose, but were cured with double the daily dose.

  3. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  4. Investigating the Influence of Light Shelf Geometry Parameters on Daylight Performance and Visual Comfort, a Case Study of Educational Space in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Moazzeni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daylight can be considered as one of the most important principles of sustainable architecture. It is unfortunate that this is neglected by designers in Tehran, a city that benefits from a significant amount of daylight and many clear sunny days during the year. Using a daylight controller system increases space natural light quality and decreases building lighting consumption by 60%. It also affects building thermal behavior, because most of them operate as shading. The light shelf is one of the passive systems for controlling daylight, mostly used with shading and installed in the upper half of the windows above eye level. The influence of light shelf parameters, such as its dimensions, shelf rotation angle and orientation on daylight efficiency and visual comfort in educational spaces is investigated in this article. Daylight simulation software and annual analysis based on climate information during space occupation hours were used. The results show that light shelf dimensions, as well as different orientations, especially in southern part, are influential in the distribution of natural light and visual comfort. At the southern orientation, increased light shelf dimensions result in an increase of the area of the work plane with suitable daylight levels by 2%–40% and a significant decrease in disturbing and intolerable glare hours.

  5. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic

  6. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving...

  7. Quantifying the potential of automated dynamic solar shading in office buildings through integrated simulations of energy and daylight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa; Svendsen, Svend; Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    comfort. To gain a complete picture of any façade’s performance and subsequently carry out a reasonable benchmarking of various façade alternatives, the total energy consumption and indoor environment need to be considered simultaneously. We quantified the potential of dynamic solar shading façade...... components by using integrated simulations that took energy demand, the indoor air quality, the amount of daylight available, and visual comfort into consideration. Three types of façades were investigated (without solar shading, with fixed solar shading, and with dynamic solar shading), and we simulated...... for significant energy reduction, but greater differences and conflicting tendencies were revealed when the energy needed for heating, cooling and artificial lighting were considered separately. Moreover, the use of dynamic solar shading dramatically improved the amount of daylight available compared to fixed...

  8. Impact of façade window design on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in nearly zero-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2015-01-01

    a solution space defined by targets for daylighting and thermal comfort. In contrast with existing guidelines, the results show an upper limit for energy savings and utilisation of solar gains in south-oriented rooms. Instead, low U-values are needed in both north- and south oriented rooms before large......Appropriate window solutions are decisive for the design of 'nearly zero-energy' buildings with healthy and comfortable indoor environment. This paper focuses on the relationship between size, orientation and glazing properties of façade windows for different side-lit room geometries in Danish...... 'nearly zero-energy' houses. The effect of these parameters on space heating demand, daylighting and thermal environment is evaluated by means of EnergyPlus and DAYSIM and presented in charts illustrating how combinations of design parameters with minimum space heating demand can be selected within...

  9. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye under the Daylight Irradiation over CN-TiO₂ Modified with OMS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed Elfatih; Chen, Jing; Liu, Guanglong; Zhu, Duanwei; Cai, Jianbo

    2014-12-12

    In this study, CN-TiO₂ was modified with cryptomelane octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) by the sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique to enhance its photocatalytic activity under the daylight irradiation. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and porosimeter analysis. The results showed that the addition of OMS-2 in the sol lead to higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, pore volume, porosity of particle after heat treatment and the specific surface area, porosity, crystallite size and pore size distribution could be controlled by adjusting the calcination temperature. Compared to the CN-TiO₂-400 sample, CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 exhibited greater red shift in absorption edge of samples in visible region due to the OMS-2 coated. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO₂/OMS-2 composite photocatalyst was subsequently evaluated for the degradation of the methyl orange dye under the daylight irradiation in water. The results showed that the methyl orange dye degradation rate reach to 37.8% for the CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 sample under the daylight irradiation for 5 h, which was higher than that of reference sample. The enhancement in daylight photocatalytic activities of the CN-TiO₂/OMS samples could be attributed to the synergistic effects of OMS-2 coated, larger surface area and red shift in adsorption edge of the prepared sample.

  10. LED versus daylight phototherapy at low irradiance in newborns ≥35 weeks of gestation: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Danielle Cintra Bezerra; Draque, Cecilia Maria; Sañudo, Adriana; de Gusmão Filho, Fernando Antonio Ribeiro; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco

    2015-01-01

    To compare the decline in TSB after 24 h of LED or fluorescent phototherapy from below in breastfed neonates ≥35 weeks of gestation. Seventy-four neonates treated with a 17-bulb blue LED were compared with 76 neonates treated with a 7-bulb daylight device in a rooming-in unit. Spectral irradiance was measured at 5 points on a 30 × 60 cm rectangle on the gel transparent mattress. TSB of 14.0 ± 1.2 mg/dL at 64 ± 15 h after birth when starting phototherapy were similar in both groups. TSB declined by 0.16 ± 0.09 in the LED versus 0.16 ± 0.08 mg/dL/hour in the daylight group after 24 h of therapy (p = 0.87). Mean irradiance (μW/cm(2)/nm) was 10.5 ± 0.9 (32.5 at the central, 5.9 at the superior and 3.9 for the inferior points) in the LED versus 8.7 ± 0.6 (range, 8.3 to 9.8) in the daylight group (p LED than in fluorescent (23% versus 9%; p = 0.02) group. LED with heterogeneous irradiance was as effective as daylight phototherapy with homogeneous irradiance; however there is a greater need for rigorous control of the room temperature (NCT01340339).

  11. Low cost data acquisition module for evaluating the quantitative performance of daylight systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampini, F.; Scarazzato, P.S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo, P.O. Box 6021, CEP 13083-852 Campinas (Brazil); Neves, A.A.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Departamento de Eletronica Quantica, P.O. Box 6165, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Pereira, D.C.L.; Yamanaka, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Departamento de Tecnologia da Arquitetura, Rua do Lago, 878 CEP 05508-080, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    The search for efficient, auto-sustainable constructions that allows the user a contact with the outer environment has stimulated the development of advanced strategies, in various devices, for the exploitation of the daylight. A low cost data acquisition system was developed in this study, to observe the distribution of the natural light inside a prototype and to evaluate the quantitative performance for redirecting systems. The luminous sensor is a light dependent resistor, that responds to the illuminance with a reduction in the resistance when illuminated, through a log-log dependence. Calibration curves are set up to relate the change of resistance to absolute illuminance. It therefore provides a continuous investigation of the illuminance for various sampled points in the interior test space with a 0.03% digital error due to the 12-bit resolution. The final measured error of 5% is mainly due to the system calibration and resistance memory history. The circuit connects to a standard parallel port of any Personal Computer and supplies 64 analog inputs, one for each luminous sensor. The circuit can be easily modified to attend different quantities of analog inputs or communication ports. (author)

  12. Exposure to Non-Extreme Solar UV Daylight: Spectral Characterization, Effects on Skin and Photoprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Marionnet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV rays (UVA, 320–400 nm and UVB, 280–320 nm. The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1 the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2 description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3 analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  13. Exposure to non-extreme solar UV daylight: spectral characterization, effects on skin and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marionnet, Claire; Tricaud, Caroline; Bernerd, Françoise

    2014-12-23

    The link between chronic sun exposure of human skin and harmful clinical consequences such as photo-aging and skin cancers is now indisputable. These effects are mostly due to ultraviolet (UV) rays (UVA, 320-400 nm and UVB, 280-320 nm). The UVA/UVB ratio can vary with latitude, season, hour, meteorology and ozone layer, leading to different exposure conditions. Zenithal sun exposure (for example on a beach around noon under a clear sky) can rapidly induce visible and well-characterized clinical consequences such as sunburn, predominantly induced by UVB. However, a limited part of the global population is exposed daily to such intense irradiance and until recently little attention has been paid to solar exposure that does not induce any short term clinical impact. This paper will review different studies on non-extreme daily UV exposures with: (1) the characterization and the definition of the standard UV daylight and its simulation in the laboratory; (2) description of the biological and clinical effects of such UV exposure in an in vitro reconstructed human skin model and in human skin in vivo, emphasizing the contribution of UVA rays and (3) analysis of photoprotection approaches dedicated to prevent the harmful impact of such UV exposure.

  14. Quantifying energy savings in daylight responsive systems: The role of dimming electronic ballasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulos, L.; Topalis, F. [Laboratory of Photometry, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Politexniou 9, 157 80 Zografou (Greece); Tsangrassoulis, A. [Department of Architecture, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 383 34 Volos (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    The application of lighting control technologies with photosensors has led to an increase in public interest. Although these technologies have been promoted during the last years their successful use in buildings has been accomplished in a small percentage of new projects. One reason is the difficulty in quantifying the energy savings and thus the subsequent payback period. Daylight responsive dimming systems consist of three basic components: photosensor, controller, and dimming unit. Electronic dimming ballast (EDB) is one substantial component of these lighting control systems which can adjust the light output due to the transferred signal from the photosensor and lighting controller. The aim of this study is to quantify energy savings among different EDBs. Eighteen commercial EDBs were selected and various sets of electrical and illuminance measurements were taken for different dimming levels, in order to develop polynomial functions between light output and consumed power. Using the measured data, a set of simulations were performed for a photosensor with an ideal cosine spatial sensitivity distribution installed in a typical office room using two control algorithms, closed loop and integral reset, trying to quantify the relative differences in energy savings. (author)

  15. Screening for Hypothyroidism-Results of a Study Conducted at District Headquarter Hospital, Abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, N.; Farid, J.; Idris, M.; Sarwar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-clinically hypo-functioning thyroid is a condition in which there is biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism but patient is clinically asymptomatic. This concept is not new. The typical picture of this condition is increased thyroid stimulating hormone and normal thyroxine levels. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been found to have variable prevalence ranging from 4-10 percent to 10-26 percent. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 378 adult patients coming to outpatient department of District Headquarter Hospital Abbottabad over a period of two years from February 2013 to February 2015. Results: Out of the 378 individuals studied, 37 (9.78 percent) had subclinical hypothyroidism. Mean age of the patients was 43.5±10.5 years. Females outnumbered males, i.e., 24 out of 37 (65 percent). It was noted that there was no correlation between mean TSH level and gender or age of the patients. Conclusion: Subclinical hypothyroidism is not an uncommon condition and its diagnosis is established easily by doing thyroid hormone levels in fasting condition. Early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention may not only prevent the progression to clinical hypothyroidism but also help in preventing the wastage of resources on doing unnecessary investigations. (author)

  16. Screening For Hypothyroidism-Results Of A Study Conducted At District Headquarter Hospital, Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Nasreen; Farid, Jamila; Idris, Muhammad; Sarwar, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Sub-clinically hypo-functioning thyroid is a condition in which there is biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism but patient is clinically asymptomatic. This concept is not new. The typical picture of this condition is increased thyroid stimulating hormone and normal thyroxine levels. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been found to have variable prevalence ranging from 4-10% to 10- 26%. This cross sectional study was conducted on 378 adult patients coming to outpatient department of District Headquarter Hospital Abbottabad over a period of two years from February 2013 to February 2015. Out of the 378 individuals studied, 37 (9.78%) had subclinical hypothyroidism. Mean age of the patients was 43.5±10.5 years. Females outnumbered males, i.e., 24 out of 37 (65%). It was noted that there was no correlation between mean TSH level and gender or age of the patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism is not an uncommon condition and its diagnosis is established easily by doing thyroid hormone levels in fasting condition. Early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention may not only prevent the progression to clinical hypothyroidism but also help in preventing the wastage of resources on doing unnecessary investigations.

  17. Daylighting for energy conservation in an existing building under tropical climate conditions: a case study of Lai Sue Thai building Ramkhamhaeng University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerdlekha Tanachaikhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daylighting using skylight has been shown to have a high potential in reducing electrical lighting energy, and could provide a more pleasant atmosphere of a daylit space. However, in hot climates, the main constraint of daylighting is the solar heat gain that contributes to major heat load for an air-conditioning system. If the balance between the beneficial light gain used to offset lighting energy requirement and heat gain from daylight is well considered, significant energy savings can be obtained. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of daylighting for energy conservation in the tropics through theoretical analysis (simulation study and experimental observation. Lai Sue Thai Building (an existing and educational building located at Ramkhamkaeng University was selected as a case study. From analysis, use of daylight could reduce electrical energy in this building by up to 76% compared to the initial condition where fully lighting was supplied. Window orientation would also play an important role. Moreover, heat gain through windows due to daylighting can be controlled by overhangs and the appropriate Window-to-Wall ratio that would be about 30% for this building. An experimental study was also carried out to validate the results in a selected room. About 49% and 37% of Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE were observed in light and heat measurements, respectively

  18. Essence of Daylight in the Cistercian Monastic Church of S. Bento de Cástris, Évora, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana M. T.; Carlos, Jorge S.

    2017-10-01

    Natural light in the Cistercian churches is closely linked not only with the liturgical requirements at the “officium” but also with the canonical hours based on the "ora et labora" dictated by the Rule of St. Benedict. The Cistercian architecture, in its beginnings (12th century forward) is characterized by austerity, simplicity and the play of light and shadow that gives value to the monastic architectural space itself, making it perfect for a contemplative experience. In the Cistercian Monastery the church is the central piece of the monastic building. Nave, transept and apse are the main architectural components to which is added the choir. This paper contextualizes the importance and close connections of natural light, within the Cistercian Monasteries architecture. Thus the essence of daylight is analysed within the Church of the Monastery of S. Bento de Cástris, in Évora, Portugal. This former Monastery (13th - 19th centuries) includes the church, at the south-eastern corner which has not only a high choir, but also a low lateral choir (within the presbytery). Its unchanged exterior walls are made of solid masonry. Although the function of the walls is primarily structural, the windows allow the daylight to penetrate the space of the church. The church has two external façades facing northeast and southeast. The combined orientation effect of the church’s main axis and the sun trajectory determines how the sunlight reaches the interior of this architectural structure. This study presents the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the luminous environment in the church of S. Bento de Cástris, being the first based on the authors’ perception of the effect of the daylight within the different areas of the enclosed space. The appreciation of the spatial experiences was supported by quantitative daylight simulations that were conducted in selected areas within the space. With this paper is intended to contribute to the debate about the specificity

  19. Frequency of hepatitis B in asymptomatic patients of district Headquarter hospital Kotli, Azad Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, J.; Ahmad, W.; Saleem, M.; Jamshed, F.; Gul, N.; Idrees, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B is prevalent throughout the world including Pakistan. A large proportion of patients suffering from Hepatitis B may be asymptomatic and can transmit the disease to healthy population. Objectives of this study were to estimate the frequency of Hepatitis B in asymptomatic adult population coming to District Headquarter Hospital Kotli, Azad Kashmir and to determine the risk factors associated with its transmission. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study extending from January to December 2008. Subjects were randomly selected from those who attended the medial OPD of DHQ Hospital Kotli, Azad Kashmir for non-Hepatitis related problems. Both males and females between the ages of 15-80 years were included in the study. Blood samples taken from selected subjects were analysed for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by Immuno chromatographic kit methods (ICT). Hepatitis B positive samples were further confirmed by third generation ELIZA. The patients thus confirmed were interrogated for different risk factors associated with transmission of Hepatitis B. Results: A total of 9,564 patients were analysed. Out of them 4230 (44.22%) were males and 5334 (55.77%) were females. Overall 141 (1.47%) patients were positive for HBSAg, 71 (1.68%) males and 70 (1.31%) females. Patients between 21-30 years of age were most commonly effected (35.46%, n=50). Blood transfusion was the most common risk factor (24.82%, n=35) associated with Hepatitis B transmission followed by dental procedures (14.18%, n=20). Conclusion: Frequency of Hepatitis B in asymptomatic people in this study was quite high. Blood transfusions and dental procedures were the most common risk factors associated with the transmission of Hepatitis B. (author)

  20. National Guard and Reserves: Air Force Needs to Consistently Assess Personnel Requirements to Appropriately Size Its Headquarters Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam also have National Guard forces that can be activated for federal missions. Over the same period...the 54 Joint Force Headquarters – State, located in each state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico , the Virgin Islands, and Guam, is comprised of... currency reviews be performed in conjunction with the biannual application of personnel assessment standards. Officials from the Office of the

  1. The missing dimension of knowledge transfer from subsidiaries to headquarters: The case of Oil and Gas companies in CEE region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies knowledge management determinants of knowledge transfer from subsidiaries to headquarters in the top Oil & Gas companies in Central and Eastern Europe as their level of innovations, internationalization and economic importance are emerging. The paper sheds a light not only on the process of knowledge transfer parent-subsidiary but via versa as it is critical in the 21st century for better adapting to specific business needs in certain geographical regions. Thus, this reversed knowledge from subsidiaries to headquarters is critical for the given business sector where the level of innovation and amount of R&D investments are enormous. The study argues that the reversed process of knowledge transfers from subsidiary to parent company is positively related to company performance and business diversification. Nowadays the knowledge formed in the subsidiaries of Multinational Corporations (MNCs is transferred to headquarters by investing in R&D centres, building new exploration and testing sites abroad. In the reversed knowledge transfer process we can identify main challenges, which are very critical to analyse and determine the exact process.

  2. The daylight alternative for energy conservation saving in lighting systems; La luz natural alternativa para el ahorro de energia en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escutia Perez, A.; Cruz Mendez, E. P. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Buitron Sanchez, H. [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The technological advances generate far reaching changes in all types of installation. The new spaces and the existing ones justify the introduction of new technologies taking into account important economic considerations, mostly when the advantage of daylight is taken into consideration in industrial and commercial lighting. In the daylight design it is necessary to know the solar transit, the atmospheric conditions, the architectural design of the building, the materials and the control elements, etc. to apply with precision the calculation method. The fundamental lighting technic have varied little. In the greatest part of commerces and industries the general lighting is used, that produces an illumination more or less uniform on the working areas, which guarantees a total freedom for the placement of machinery, working benches, racks, exhibitors, clothes racks, etc.. This type of lighting is obtained by means of the use of a more or less regular series of skylights. The adequate localized lighting is used in those zones where because of the presence of obstructions or unfavorable slant of the working plan are not sufficiently well lighted by the general lighting system. The daylight use in accordance with the every moment availability will permit in many working centers a sensible diminution of the artificial lighting time, provided that the characteristics of the control operation of the installation permit it, along with modern controlling devices and the great variety of efficient saving lamps. [Espanol] Los avances tecnologicos generan cambios trascendentes en todo tipo de instalacion. Los nuevos espacios y los ya existentes justifican la introduccion de nuevas tecnologias teniendo consideraciones economicas importantes, sobre todo cuando se aprovecha la luz natural en sistemas de alumbrado industrial y comercial. En el diseno de iluminacion natural, es necesario tener el conocimiento del transito solar, las condiciones atmosfericas, el diseno

  3. Frequency of hepatitis C in asymptomatic patients in district headquarters hospital Kotli, Azad Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Ahmad, W.; Sarwar, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C is a common problem in developing world. It can affect a large number of asymptomatic people in whom it may cause serious complications in long run. Moreover, these asymptomatic infected people pose a serious risk for the transmission of infection to healthy population. Objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of Hepatitis C in asymptomatic adult patients attending medical OPD of District Headquarters Hospital Kotli, Azad Kashmir, and to assess the risk factors associated with its transmission. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included asymptomatic patients of both genders, aged 15-80 years, attending medical OPD of District Head quarter Hospital Kotli, Azad Kashmir from January to December, 2008. They attended the OPD for problems other than Hepatitis and most of them presented with vague complaints like generalised body aches, tiredness and dyspeptic symptoms. They were randomly tested for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies by Immuno chromatographic kit method. Positive samples for Hepatitis C antibodies were confirmed by third generation ELISA. Those who were confirmed were assessed for the risk factors associated with HCV transmission. Results: The study included 9,564 patients. Out of them 4,2 (44.22%) were males and 5,334 (55.77%) were females. A total of 611 (6.38%) cases were positive for HCV; 257 (6.08%) were males, and 354 (6.64%) were females. Highest frequency (36%) was found between 21 and 30 years of age, and 60.54% positive patients were 21-40 years old. Blood transfusion was the most common (34.36%) risk factor followed by history of dental procedures (24.54%). In 27.16% no risk factor could be detected. Conclusion: Frequency of Hepatitis C is quite high in our population. Rate is higher in young adults. It is needed to adopt organised preventive strategies to overcome this problem. Blood transfusion is still the most significant risk factor followed by dental and surgical procedures. Health related

  4. Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation Pilot Project. CIELO meeting, NEA Headquarters, 18-20 May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattoon, Caleb; Brown, David; Trkov, Andrej; Plompen, Arjan; Hawari, Ayman I.; Roubtsov, Danila; Kim, Do Heon; Bauge, Eric; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Kessedjian, Gregoire; Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Qian, Jing; Leal, Luiz Carlos; Chadwick, Mark; Herman, Michal Wladyslaw; White, Morgan C.; Cabellos, Oscar; Romain, Pascal; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Ichou, Raphaelle; Jacqmin, Robert; Hilaire, Stephane; Danon, Yaron; Ge, Zhigang; Malvagi, Fausto; Kahler, Albert C. Skip; Morillon, Benjamin; Mcnabb, Dennis P.; Oleynik, Dmitry S.; Wu, Haicheng; Marquez Damian, Jose Ignacio; Yokoyama, Kenji; Dunn, Michael; Cho, Young-Sik; Pignet, Sophie; Ignatyuk, Anatoly V.; Leeb, Helmut; Wang, Wenming; Ruan, Xichao

    2015-05-01

    WPEC subgroup 40-CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. SG40-CIELO focusses on 6 important isotopes: 1 H, 16 O, 56 Fe, 235,238 U, 239 Pu. This document is the proceedings of the CIELO meeting, held at the NEA Headquarters on 18-20 May 2015. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - CIELO project: - 1: Status of Cross Section Progress (M. Chadwick); - 2: Update on CIELO Related Measurements at RPI (Y. Danon); - 3: IAEA-NDS and the CIELO Project (A. Trkov); - 4: LANL Criticality Data Testing using CIELO Candidate Evaluations (S. Kahler); - 5: ENDF/B-VII.1 vs. CIELO (R. Cullen); B - O 16 : - 6: n+ 16 O (A. Plompen); - 7: Resonance Evaluations for 16 O for the CIELO Project (L. Leal); - 8: Validation of Leal and Hale O-16 Evaluations against FNS/JAEA Liquid Oxygen ToF Benchmark (I. Kodeli); - 9: Cierjacks 1968, Cierjacks 1980 and RPI 2015 (C.R. Lubitz); - 10: O 16 Items (C.R. Lubitz); C - Fe 56 : - 11: Iron in fast neutron range, beta-0 evaluation for 56 Fe (M. Herman); - 12: Data Evaluation at ORNL (L. Leal); - 13: IAEA-NDS and the CIELO Project Fe-56 (A. Trkov); - 14: The evaluation of experimental data in fast range for 56 Fe (Z. Ge); D - H1 - 15: Reactivity effect of New Light and Heavy Water TSL on Critical Systems (J.I. Marquez); E - Big3: - 16: Resonance Evaluations of 235 U for the CIELO Project (L. Leal); - 17: IAEA-NDS and the CIELO Project U-235 (A. Trkov); - 18: Status of 235 U CIELO evaluation (B. Morillon); - 19: U 235 Items (C.R. Lubitz); - 20: Fission Results, Capture

  5. Corallina and Ellisolandia (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) photophysiology over daylight tidal emersion: interactions with irradiance, temperature and carbonate chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, C. J.; Brodie, J.; Goss, B.; Yallop, M.; Lee, S.; Perkins, R.

    2014-01-01

    The photophysiology of three geniculate coralline algal species (Corallina officinalis, C. caespitosa and Ellisolandia elongata) was determined in intertidal rock pools in the south-west UK at Combe Martin (51°12′31N 4°2′19W) and Heybrook Bay (50°31′66N 4°11′41W), at the start, middle and end of summer (September 1 and 2) and winter (February 9 and 10) daylight tidal emersion periods, in relation to prevailing irradiance, temperature and carbonate chemistry conditions. Algal photophysiology w...

  6. IG Statement: Arthur A. Elkins, Jr., on OIG report Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in Landover, Maryland, Requires Immediate EPA Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statement of Inspector General Arthur A. Elkins, Jr., on the Office of Inspector General (OIG) report Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in Landover, Maryland, Requires Immediate EPA Attention.

  7. Proposal of the Tubular Daylight System Using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS Metalized with Aluminum for Reflective Tube Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Diogo Spacek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to reduce the consumption of electric energy, the possibility of using natural light for lighting through TDD (tubular daylight devices or TDGS (tubular daylight guidance systems appears. These natural luminaires are used in rooms where you want to save electricity and enjoy the benefits of natural light. The present work proposes the construction of a tubular system for the conduction of natural light that replaces aluminum with silver (currently marketed by several companies by polymer metallized with aluminum, offering a low cost. The polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, coated with aluminum by physical vapor deposition (ionization, was evaluated for some tests to verify characteristics of the structure and the metallized surface. After the tests, the construction of the reflective tube was performed and validated in a real scale of application. The results proved the technical viability of the proposed tube construction for the realization of direct sunlight for illumination using polymeric material. Although it has produced 35% less than the reference tube, it can be marketed at an estimated cost of 50% less.

  8. Continuous daylight in the high-Arctic summer supports high plankton respiration rates compared to those supported in the dark

    KAUST Repository

    Mesa, Elena

    2017-04-21

    Plankton respiration rate is a major component of global CO2 production and is forecasted to increase rapidly in the Arctic with warming. Yet, existing assessments in the Arctic evaluated plankton respiration in the dark. Evidence that plankton respiration may be stimulated in the light is particularly relevant for the high Arctic where plankton communities experience continuous daylight in spring and summer. Here we demonstrate that plankton community respiration evaluated under the continuous daylight conditions present in situ, tends to be higher than that evaluated in the dark. The ratio between community respiration measured in the light (Rlight) and in the dark (Rdark) increased as the 2/3 power of Rlight so that the Rlight:Rdark ratio increased from an average value of 1.37 at the median Rlight measured here (3.62 µmol O2 L-1 d-1) to an average value of 17.56 at the highest Rlight measured here (15.8 µmol O2 L-1 d-1). The role of respiratory processes as a source of CO2 in the Arctic has, therefore, been underestimated and is far more important than previously believed, particularly in the late spring, with 24 h photoperiods, when community respiration rates are highest.

  9. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized

  10. In a Queer Gothic Space and Time: Love Triangles in Jeanette Winterson’s The Daylight Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Antosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In her work, Jeanette Winterson consistently shows an interest in history and the way in which it has been transmitted through generations. In particular, she attempts to fill in the gaps of historical representation by shedding light on those identities that were marginalised and made invisible because they ostensibly violated society’s norms, or because they were perceived as deviant and threatening for the social order. From her first novel Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit (1985 to her more recent works, Winterson reclaims a verbal and symbolic space for those subjects whom society has failed to recognise. Winterson narratively revisits history by adopting and combining several technical postmodern strategies, such as historiographic metafiction, parody, intertextuality, self-reflectivity and pastiche. In so doing, she aims to explore the cultural construction of sexual and gender identities as well as to challenge patriarchal and heterosexual hegemonic discourses.

  11. Radiological and chemical toxicity risks of uranium in groundwater based-drinking at Immigration Headquarters Gosa and Federal Housing Lugbe area of Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omeje Maxwell; Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor; Husin Wagiran; Olusegun Adewoyin; Joel, E.S.; Ngozi Adeleye; Zaidi Embong; Tenebe, I.T.

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate public water supply by the Water Board in Abuja has forced the public to source for groundwater as the only alternative for consumption without consideration for radiological risk. The radiological risk for cancer mortality of uranium in Immigration Headquarters Gosa and Federal-Housing Lugbe groundwater water samples were measured and compared with Water Board and hand-dug well water samples from the same area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The highest radiological risks for cancer mortality and morbidity were found to be low, with highest values of 1.24 × 10 -7 and 1.64 × 10 -7 obtained from Federal-Housing Lugbe borehole. The chemical toxicity risk of 238 U in drinking water over life time consumption has a mean value of 4.0 × 10 -4 μg kg -1 day -1 with highest value of 6.0 × 10 -3 μg kg -1 day -1 obtained from Federal-Housing Lugbe. Significantly, this study inferred that the 238 U concentrations reported in groundwater based-drinking originated from sheared zone of magmatic metamorphosed basaltic dyke intrusion. Due to the low risk values found in the water samples when compared with the International Reference Standard, radiological and chemical toxicity risks values may not pose any health risk to the public that rely on groundwater in the area. (author)

  12. Artificial daylight photodynamic therapy with "non-inflammatory" doses of hexyl aminolevulinate only marginally delays SCC development in UV-exposed hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for actinic keratoses, but is associated with pain and post-treatment inflammation. Daylight-mediated PDT and PpIX-precursors at low concentrations reduce pain and inflammation intensity. The objective was to evaluate the effect of repeated low...

  13. Combination of ablative fractional laser and daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis in organ transplant recipients – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lei, Ulrikke; Erlendsson, A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses (AK) is hampered by pain during illumination and inferior efficacy in organ-transplant recipients (OTR). OBJECTIVES: We assessed ablative fractional laser (AFL)-assisted daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) (AFL-dPDT) compared...

  14. Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubekri, Mohamed; Cheung, Ivy N; Reid, Kathryn J; Wang, Chia-Hui; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-06-15

    This research examined the impact of daylight exposure on the health of office workers from the perspective of subjective well-being and sleep quality as well as actigraphy measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Participants (N = 49) included 27 workers working in windowless environments and 22 comparable workers in workplaces with significantly more daylight. Windowless environment is defined as one without any windows or one where workstations were far away from windows and without any exposure to daylight. Well-being of the office workers was measured by Short Form-36 (SF-36), while sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In addition, a subset of participants (N = 21; 10 workers in windowless environments and 11 workers in workplaces with windows) had actigraphy recordings to measure light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Workers in windowless environments reported poorer scores than their counterparts on two SF-36 dimensions--role limitation due to physical problems and vitality--as well as poorer overall sleep quality from the global PSQI score and the sleep disturbances component of the PSQI. Compared to the group without windows, workers with windows at the workplace had more light exposure during the workweek, a trend toward more physical activity, and longer sleep duration as measured by actigraphy. We suggest that architectural design of office environments should place more emphasis on sufficient daylight exposure of the workers in order to promote office workers' health and well-being.

  15. Daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate cream as a convenient, similarly effective, nearly painless alternative to conventional photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubel, D M; Spelman, L; Murrell, D F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) of actinic keratosis (AK) has shown preliminary efficacy and safety results comparable to conventional photodynamic therapy (c-PDT), using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) cream. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of DL-PDT vs. c-PDT ...

  16. Results of a research study on the impact of active daylighting on operating results of a retail business. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    In preliminary evaluations of So-Luminaire`s (SI) product in 1985 and 1986, DOE concluded that it warranted further research and evaluation and was worthy of receiving governmental financial and structural support therefor. SI, along with Safeway, had known intuitively that the So-Luminaire systems which had been previously installed in several of their Phoenix-area stores had resulted in a marked reduction in electrical energy consumption. However, a definitive determination of energy savings had been utilized in previous installations. Further, SI and Safeway both hypothesized that the high quality of natural light provided by these systems displayed goods to greater advantage and contributed to an overall increase in store sales, all other factors being held constant. A study to attempt to objectively determine these two presumed benefits of active daylighting in a commercial application was begun.

  17. Results of a research study on the impact of active daylighting on operating results of a retail business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In preliminary evaluations of So-Luminaire's (SI) product in 1985 and 1986, DOE concluded that it warranted further research and evaluation and was worthy of receiving governmental financial and structural support therefor. SI, along with Safeway, had known intuitively that the So-Luminaire systems which had been previously installed in several of their Phoenix-area stores had resulted in a marked reduction in electrical energy consumption. However, a definitive determination of energy savings had been utilized in previous installations. Further, SI and Safeway both hypothesized that the high quality of natural light provided by these systems displayed goods to greater advantage and contributed to an overall increase in store sales, all other factors being held constant. A study to attempt to objectively determine these two presumed benefits of active daylighting in a commercial application was begun.

  18. The response to daylight or continuous ozone of phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis pathways in poplar differs between leaves and wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richet, Nicolas; Tozo, Koffi; Afif, Dany; Banvoy, Jacques; Legay, Sylvain; Dizengremel, Pierre; Cabané, Mireille

    2012-08-01

    Ozone induces a stimulation of the phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis pathways in leaves but the response of wood, the main lignin-producing tissue, is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to compare the responses of phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways in leaves and stem wood by a simultaneous analysis of both organs. Young poplars (Populus tremula×alba) were subjected either to daylight ozone (200 nL L(-1) during light period) or continuous ozone (200 nL L(-1) during light and dark periods) in controlled chambers. The trees were tilted so as to limit the formation of tension wood to the upper side of the stem and that of opposite wood to the lower side. Continuous ozone fumigation induced more pronounced effects in leaves than daylight ozone. Tension wood and opposite wood displayed similar responses to ozone. Enzyme activities involved in phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis increased in the leaves of ozone-treated poplars and decreased in the wood. All steps involved in phenylpropanoid and monolignol synthesis in leaves and stem wood, were also altered at the transcript level (except coniferyl aldehyde 5-hydroxylase in leaves) suggesting that the responses were tightly coordinated. The response occurred rapidly in the leaves and much later in the wood. Phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis is probably first involved in a defensive role against ozone in the leaves, which would lead to considerable rerouting of the carbon skeletons. The later response of phenylpropanoid and lignin metabolism in wood seemed to result from readjustment to the reduced carbon supply.

  19. The contribution of nuclear energy co-operation to a new global age, OECD Headquarters, Paris, 30 September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Special Session to mark the Fortieth Anniversary of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris, on 30 September 1998. The conference emphasizes the role of the IAEA in enlarging the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and development, and ensuring that atomic energy is used at a high level of security and exclusively for peaceful purposes. The Agency was never intended to 'promote' nuclear energy in any commercial sense. Its role is to be an objective institution that serves as a centre for international norm development, standard setting, independent analysis, expert advice, technology transfer, and impartial oversight and verification. From this perspective, the Director General offers some views on why the international nuclear co-operation, complemented by regional and national activities, is an indispensable part of way forward, highlighting the following areas: energy, safety, verification, and technology transfer

  20. Impact of the terrorist bombings of the Hong Kong Shanghai Bank Corporation headquarters and the British Consulate on two hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey, in November 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkümen; Arnold, Jeffrey L; Yücel, Tayfun; Tokyay, Rifat; Ersoy, Gurkan; Cetiner, Serkan

    2005-07-01

    The authors sought to estimate the impact of the terrorist bombings of the Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation headquarters and the British consulate in Istanbul, Turkey, on November 20, 2003, on two nearby hospitals, in terms of epidemiologic outcomes, resource utilization, and time course of emergency needs. The authors used data from hospital records of injured survivors who used the emergency departments (EDs) at the Taksim Education and Research State Hospital (TERSH) and the American Hospital (AH) in Istanbul on November 20, 2003, to determine the totals and rates of mortality (early, late, and critical), injury, critical injury (Injury Severity Score > 15), ED use, hospitalization, operative care, and in-hospital overtriage and the time intervals of ED arrival. The TERSH received 184 victims in the first hour after the initial blast, of which 88 (48%) were brought by emergency medical services, 171 (93%) had lacerations, 7 (4%) had penetrating eye injuries, 28 (15%) were hospitalized, 18 (10%) received operative care, and 7 (4%) were critically injured. Three deaths occurred in critically injured survivors, including one early death in the operating room and two late deaths on days 5 and 6. The AH received 16 victims, of which 14 (88%) had lacerations, 3 (19%) were hospitalized, 2 (13%) received operative care, and 1 (6%) was critically injured. An additional 4 victims were transferred to the AH from other hospitals, of which 3 were hospitalized and none were critically injured. No early or late deaths occurred. Mortality, injury, and hospitalization rates at both hospitals were consistent with previous reports of open-air mass-casualty terrorist bombings. The TERSH experienced an unprecedented demand for ED surge capacity in an open-air bombing.

  1. History of Allied Force Headquarters - Part Three, December 1943 - July 1944. Section 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-11-01

    AFHQ—Middle East Administrative Information Section and the personal attendance by the C-in-C MEF at the Commanders’conferences 1 at LA MARSA. Such a...426; and for:attendance at the La Marsa conferences see Gen Rooks’s staff study for CofS AFHQ, 6 Nov 43, at Discussion, par 14 0 (G-3 AFGQ file: 55/7...Mediterranean Theater."^ The same cbn!f us ion existed, of bourse , concerning General Devers title, and this was finally clarified at the same time as that of

  2. INFCE Working Group 2 meeting IAEA Headquarters, Vienna 12-13 February 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    Sub-group 1A/2A reported that revised drafts of the first four chapters of their report, covering base forecasts, fuel cycle scenarios, calculational methods, and fuel cycle requirements had been agreed, and that the contents of chapter V had been defined. Sub-group 2B also reported the distribution of draft versions of the first four chapters, with a final chapter on safeguards and non-proliferation yet to be prepared. A modified outline for the final report of WG.2 was discussed, and a time table was agreed upon for its preparation

  3. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Suxiang; Cai, Lejuan; Li, Dapeng; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In2S3 nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  4. Treatment of face and scalp solar (actinic) keratosis with daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy is possible throughout the year in Australia: Evidence from a clinical and meteorological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, Lynda; Rubel, Diana; Murrell, Dedee F; See, Jo-Ann; Hewitt, Daniel; Foley, Peter; Salmon, Robert; Kerob, Delphine; Pascual, Thierry; Shumack, Stephen; Fernandez-Penas, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Solar (actinic) keratosis (AK) is an emergent concern worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of development of non-melanoma skin cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) using methyl aminolaevulinate cream has proved to be an effective, nearly painless, and more convenient alternative to conventional PDT for the treatment of AK. In a phase III, randomised, controlled trial performed in Australia, the mean irradiance (light intensity) received by patients during DL-PDT treatment, assessed via a spectroradiometer, was 305 W/m(2) (min. 40 to max. 585 W/m(2) ) with similar efficacy irrespective of intensity or dose. The objective of the present meteorological study was to assess the suitability of natural daylight to perform DL-PDT for the treatment of face and scalp AK during different periods of the year and different geographical locations and latitudes across Australia. To determine daylight irradiance during a complete year in eight different geographical locations throughout Australia, we used meteorological software (Meteonorm, Meteotest, Bern, Switzerland), and available solar radiation and weather data from 1986-2005. The average daily irradiance remained within the levels (40-585 W/m(2) ) measured during the clinical DL-PDT study in Australia, throughout the year and in all geographical locations investigated (yearly average from Darwin 548 W/m(2) to Hobart 366 W/m(2) ). DL-PDT for the treatment of face and scalp AK in Australia can be performed effectively throughout the entire year as long as weather conditions permit daylight exposure and allow participants to remain under direct light for 2 h. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  5. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye under the Daylight Irradiation over CN-TiO2 Modified with OMS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, CN-TiO2 was modified with cryptomelane octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2 by the sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique to enhance its photocatalytic activity under the daylight irradiation. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and porosimeter analysis. The results showed that the addition of OMS-2 in the sol lead to higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, pore volume, porosity of particle after heat treatment and the specific surface area, porosity, crystallite size and pore size distribution could be controlled by adjusting the calcination temperature. Compared to the CN-TiO2-400 sample, CN-TiO2/OMS-2-400 exhibited greater red shift in absorption edge of samples in visible region due to the OMS-2 coated. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO2/OMS-2 composite photocatalyst was subsequently evaluated for the degradation of the methyl orange dye under the daylight irradiation in water. The results showed that the methyl orange dye degradation rate reach to 37.8% for the CN-TiO2/OMS-2-400 sample under the daylight irradiation for 5 h, which was higher than that of reference sample. The enhancement in daylight photocatalytic activities of the CN-TiO2/OMS samples could be attributed to the synergistic effects of OMS-2 coated, larger surface area and red shift in adsorption edge of the prepared sample.

  6. Workshop - Solar cells and daylight. Solar cell house. House building with integrated solar cell systems; Workshop - Solceller og dagslys. Solcellehus. Boligbyggeri med integrerede solcelleanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Mio; Hansen, Ellen Kathrine

    2005-04-15

    The workshop 'Solar cells and daylight' at Aarhus School of Architecture aimed at studying and developing architectural potentials of integrating solar cell systems in building components for future house building. The aim of the process was to stress that technical conditions such as energy technological component design might work as central points of support in the future shaping and organisation of qualitative and functional design of houses. (BA)

  7. Naval Aspects Regarding the Relocation of the House of Trade Headquarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique TAPIAS HERRERO

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The House of Trade relocation to Cadiz impacted heavily on the Sevilian economy after a seventeenth century full of natural disasters and epidemics which reduced the population drastically. The huge politic power of Seville in the Court was not enough to overcome, among other factors, the inconvenience of the navigation through the river and the barrier of Sanlúcar. In the analysis of reasons which motivate the relocation we are giving in this work a special consideration to the naval aspects which were taken into account in the royal decision. At the same time we will try to measure the weight of these aspects comparing to other important factors such as the difference in fiscal taxes between both ports, the possibilities of fraud in the Cadiz bay and the economic power of merchants in this city. Finally, we will assess the role performed by main naval authorities who intervened in the final decision such as: admirals Pes, Gaztañeta, López Pintado and also José Patiño.

  8. Beyond the ENDF format: A modern nuclear database structure. SG38 meeting, NEA Headquarters, 20-22 May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David; Jouanne, Cedric; Malvagi, Fausto; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; Hawari, Ayman I.; Mattoon, Caleb; Zerkin, Viktor; ); Cornock, Mark; Conlin, Jeremy; Lloydge, Zhigang; Oleynik, Dmitry S.; Cabellos, Oscar; Mills, Robert W.; Kim, Do Heon; Leal, Luiz Carlos; White, Morgan c.; Dunn, Michael; Kahler, Albert C. skip; Mcnabb, Dennis P.; Roubtsov, Danila; Cho, Young-Sik; Beck, Bret; Haeck, Wim

    2015-05-01

    WPEC subgroup 38 (SG38) was formed to develop a new structure for storing nuclear reaction data, that is meant to eventually replace ENDF-6 as the standard way to store and share evaluations. The work of SG38 covers the following tasks: Designing flexible, general-purpose data containers; Determining a logical and easy-to-understand top-level hierarchy for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data; Creating a particle database for storing particles, masses and level schemes; Specifying the infrastructure (plotting, processing, etc.) that must accompany the new structure; Developing an Application Programming Interface or API to allow other codes to access data stored in the new structure; Specifying what tests need to be implemented for quality assurance of the new structure and associated infrastructure; Ensuring documentation and governance of the structure and associated infrastructure. This document is the proceedings of the SG38 meeting which took place at the NEA Headquarters, on 20-22 May 2015. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: - 1) Recent updates to the top-level hierarchy, review draft requirements document (D. Brown); - 2) Properties of Particles (PoPs) database (C.M. Mattoon); - 3) Proposed General Purpose Data Containers (B. Beck); - 4) Feedback on GND Specifications (C. Jouanne); - 5) Using XML in the IAEA-NDS: status, feedback and proposals (V. Zerkin); - 6) Observations Related to Thermal Neutron Scattering Law Data (A.I. Hawari); - 7) Meeting Notes (D.P. Mcnabb)

  9. Technical Workshop on Remediation of Radioactive Contamination in Agriculture, IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 17-18 October 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The year 2016 marks the fifth anniversary of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) and the 30th anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. A Technical Workshop on Remediation of Radioactive Contamination in Agriculture was coorganised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization of Japan (NARO) and held at the IAEA headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 17 to 18 October 2016. Over 100 experts from around the world participated in the event. All presentations and discussions focused on research results and practical experience from Japan and from countries affected by Chernobyl NPP accident. This event was a great success in promoting and sharing knowledge and experience related to remediation of radioactive contamination in food and agriculture. From an agricultural perspective, the impacts of these two major accidents are related to caesium radionuclides, specifically 137 Cs, which is a relatively long lived isotope with a half-life of some thirty years. Research and technical efforts to remediate and ameliorate the impact of radioactivity on agricultural production aim to minimize and prevent contamination of foods and other commodities, and further to assist the social and economic recovery of affected rural communities by enabling sustainable production. However, these efforts are not widely appreciated outside the affected areas

  10. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives

  11. A randomized, multicentre study of directed daylight exposure times of 1½ vs. 2½ h in daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolaevulinate in patients with multiple thin actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine; Fabricius, S; Stender, I M

    2011-01-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common dysplastic skin lesions that may differentiate into invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Although a superior cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is advantageous compared with equally effective treatments such as cryotherapy and curettage...

  12. A randomized, multicentre study of directed daylight exposure times of 11/2 vs. 21/2 h in daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolaevulinate in patients with multiple thin actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Fabricius, S.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common dysplastic skin lesions that may differentiate into invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Although a superior cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is advantageous compared with equally effective treatments such as cryotherapy and curettage...

  13. A randomized, multicentre study of directed daylight exposure times of 1½ vs. 2½ h in daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolaevulinate in patients with multiple thin actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine; Fabricius, S; Stender, I M

    2011-01-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common dysplastic skin lesions that may differentiate into invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Although a superior cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is advantageous compared with equally effective treatments such as cryotherapy and curettage, the inconvenie......Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common dysplastic skin lesions that may differentiate into invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Although a superior cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is advantageous compared with equally effective treatments such as cryotherapy and curettage...

  14. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  15. Organic Light-Emitting Diode with Color Tunable between Bluish-White Daylight and Orange-White Dusk Hue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yun Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The varying color of sunlight diurnally exhibits an important effect on circadian rhythm of living organisms. The bluish-white daylight that is suitable for work shows a color temperature as high as 9,000 K, while the homey orange-white dusk hue is as low as 2,000 K. We demonstrate in this report the feasibility of using organic light-emitting diode (OLED technology to fabricate sunlight-style illumination with a very wide color temperature range. The color temperature can be tuned from 2,300 K to 9,300 K, for example, by changing the applied voltage from 3 to 11 V for the device composing red and yellow emitters in the first emissive layer and blue emitter in the second. Unlike the prior arts, the color-temperature span can be made much wider without any additional carrier modulation layer, which should enable a more cost effective fabrication. For example, the color-temperature span is 7,000 K for the above case, while it is 1,700 K upon the incorporation of a nanoscale hole modulation layer in between the two emissive layers. The reason why the present device can effectively regulate the shifting of recombination zone is because the first emissive layer itself possesses an effective hole modulation barrier of 0.2 eV. This also explains why the incorporation of an extra hole modulation layer with a 0.7 eV barrier did not help extend the desirable color-temperature span since excessive holes may be blocked.

  16. Analysis of daylight performance of solar light pipes influenced by size and shape of sunlight captures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanpeng; Jin, Rendong; Zhang, Wenming; Liu, Li; Zou, Dachao

    2009-11-01

    Experimental investigations on three different sunlight captures with diameter 150mm, 212mm, 300mm were carried out under different conditions such as sunny conditions, cloudy conditions and overcast conditions and the two different size solar light pipes with diameter 360mm and 160mm under sunny conditions. The illuminance in the middle of the sunlight capture have relationship with its size, but not linear. To improve the efficiency of the solar light pipes, the structure and the performance of the sunlight capture must be enhanced. For example, University of Science and Technology Beijing Gymnasium, Beijing 2008 Olympic events of Judo and Taekwondo, 148 solar light pipes were installed with the diameter 530mm for each light pipe. Two sunlight captures with different shape were installed and tested. From the measuring results of the illuminance on the work plane of the gymnasium, the improvement sunlight captures have better effects with the size of augmenting and the machining of the internal surface at the same time, so that the refraction increased and the efficiency of solar light pipes improved. The better effects of supplementary lighting for the gymnasium have been achieved.

  17. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  18. An Analysis of Think Globally-Act Locally Strategy Implementation in Developing Relationship of Headquarters and Subsidiaries: Case Study of John Clements Consultants Inc., Philippines & Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilla Noverita

    2007-01-01

    Moreover, this research analyses how JCCI applies “think globally – act locally” strategy in its global operations and developing relationship with subsidiaries. It brings the issues of all challenges and obstacles the company has in dealing with subsidiaries. Finally, this research recommends alternative strategies to leverage the relationship between headquarters and subsidiaries more efficiently and to minimize the obstacles in cross-cultural management so that the company will be able to strengthen its position in global service market.

  19. Challenges in Strategy and Management of Multinational R&D Centers in Emerging Markets: Perspective from a German Headquarters in the Chemical Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Mitsuo Saito

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of multinational company (MNCs operations abroad represents an observed trend for decades. The news is that in recent years the research and development (R&D activities also have become internationalized, including more intensified focus on emerging countries. Among the implications is the challenge for the MNCs to implement effective organizational structures with the intention to facilitate the articulated coordination of strategies and R&D management between the headquarters and their global R&D centers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the strategy from the perspective of the corporate headquarters of a multinational company and the challenges in the formulation of the global R&D strategy and management of each center located inemerging and developed markets. For this reason, we developed an empirical research based on qualitative multiple case exploratory study in a German chemical MNC company in its five global R&D centers located in Germany (headquarters, USA, Brazil, China and India. The results suggested the needs to creation of organizational management capabilities for constant re-evaluation of its R&D strategy in order to capture the demands and the temporary windows of opportunities from these markets. These capabilities lead to reducing the strong observed centralization level and assigning more responsibilities to the subsidiaries with global R&D center status.

  20. Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jonathan J; Duffy, James P; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-09-23

    Many animals regulate their activity over a 24-h sleep-wake cycle, concentrating their peak periods of activity to coincide with the hours of daylight, darkness, or twilight, or using different periods of light and darkness in more complex ways. These behavioral differences, which are in themselves functional traits, are associated with suites of physiological and morphological adaptations with implications for the ecological roles of species. The biogeography of diel time partitioning is, however, poorly understood. Here, we document basic biogeographic patterns of time partitioning by mammals and ecologically relevant large-scale patterns of natural variation in "illuminated activity time" constrained by temperature, and we determine how well the first of these are predicted by the second. Although the majority of mammals are nocturnal, the distributions of diurnal and crepuscular species richness are strongly associated with the availability of biologically useful daylight and twilight, respectively. Cathemerality is associated with relatively long hours of daylight and twilight in the northern Holarctic region, whereas the proportion of nocturnal species is highest in arid regions and lowest at extreme high altitudes. Although thermal constraints on activity have been identified as key to the distributions of organisms, constraints due to functional adaptation to the light environment are less well studied. Global patterns in diversity are constrained by the availability of the temporal niche; disruption of these constraints by the spread of artificial lighting and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential effects on time partitioning, are likely to be critical influences on species' future distributions.

  1. Beyond the ENDF format: A modern nuclear database structure. SG38 meeting, NEA Headquarters, 29-30 November 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, D.; Zerkin, V.; Mattoon, C.; Koning, A.; Brown, D.; Leal, L.; Sublet, J.C.; Coste-Delclaux, M.; Capote, R.; Forrest, R.; Kodeli, I.; Trkov, A.; Beck, B.; Haeck, W.; Fukahori, T.; Mills, R.W.; White, M.C.; Cullen, D.E.

    2012-11-01

    WPEC subgroup 38 (SG38) was formed to develop a new structure for storing nuclear reaction data, that is meant to eventually replace ENDF-6 as the standard way to store and share evaluations. The work of SG38 covers the following tasks: Designing flexible, general-purpose data containers; Determining a logical and easy-to-understand top-level hierarchy for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data; Creating a particle database for storing particles, masses and level schemes; Specifying the infrastructure (plotting, processing, etc.) that must accompany the new structure; Developing an Application Programming Interface or API to allow other codes to access data stored in the new structure; Specifying what tests need to be implemented for quality assurance of the new structure and associated infrastructure; Ensuring documentation and governance of the structure and associated infrastructure. This document is the proceedings of the SG38 meeting, held at the NEA Headquarters on 29-30 November 2012. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants as well as 3 reports: A - Welcome and Introduction: - Purpose and goals for SG38 (D. McNabb); - Lessons from ENDF, EXFOR and other formats (V. Zerkin); - Lessons from first LLNL attempt at defining a new nuclear data structure (C. Mattoon); - Example of 239 Pu data B - Purpose of the new data structure: - GND: Purpose of the new data structure (A. Koning); - Purpose of the new data structure: Dave's Perspective (D. Brown); C - Nuclear Data System Overview: - ENDF File uses in AMPX (L. Leal); D - Benefits and requirements for data evaluation and processing: - Benefits and requirements (J.C. Sublet); - CEA/DEN contribution (M. Coste-Delclaux); - Proposals from the IAEA-NDS (V. Zerkin, R. Capote, R. Forrest); - User View on the ENDF Formats and Data Processing (I. Kodeli); - On the ENDF Formats and Data Processing - report (A. Trkov); E - Format perspective, organization and requirements for

  2. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The open office area (Figure 9) is 48’ deep with a sloped ceiling designed to disperse light down into the cubicle workstations. The sloped ceiling...Ceiling Ht. 9’ , 10’* Window VT 40%, 70%* Office Furniture 60” Cubicle * Lighting Schedule ASHRAE 90.1* Blinds Control Always Closed, Automated...2829 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ESTCP Program Office Dr. James

  3. Daylight Redirecting Window Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command NPV net present value PET polyethylene terephthalate PSA...polyethylene terephthalate [ PET ]) substrate and coated with a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) on the backside. The microstructures are designed to...lasting furnishings within the building and contributes towards overall reduced cost of ownership , and occupant health and comfort improvement

  4. Color tuning in alert macaque V1 assessed with fMRI and single-unit recording shows a bias toward daylight colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Liu, Yang O; Lafer-Sousa, Luis; Wiest, Michael C; Conway, Bevil R

    2012-05-01

    Colors defined by the two intermediate directions in color space, "orange-cyan" and "lime-magenta," elicit the same spatiotemporal average response from the two cardinal chromatic channels in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). While we found LGN functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to these pairs of colors were statistically indistinguishable, primary visual cortex (V1) fMRI responses were stronger to orange-cyan. Moreover, linear combinations of single-cell responses to cone-isolating stimuli of V1 cone-opponent cells also yielded stronger predicted responses to orange-cyan over lime-magenta, suggesting these neurons underlie the fMRI result. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that V1 recombines LGN signals into "higher-order" mechanisms tuned to noncardinal color directions. In light of work showing that natural images and daylight samples are biased toward orange-cyan, our findings further suggest that V1 is adapted to daylight. V1, especially double-opponent cells, may function to extract spatial information from color boundaries correlated with scene-structure cues, such as shadows lit by ambient blue sky juxtaposed with surfaces reflecting sunshine. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  5. Beyond the ENDF format: A modern nuclear database structure. SG38 meeting, NEA Headquarters, 21-22 May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, D.; Ishikawa, M.; White, M.; Zerkin, V.; Mattoon, C.; Koning, A.; Brown, D.; Badikov, S.; Beck, B.; Haeck, W.; Dunn, M.; Sublet, J.-C.; Sinitsa, V.; Shmakov, V.; Dupont, E.

    2013-05-01

    WPEC subgroup 38 (SG38) was formed to develop a new structure for storing nuclear reaction data, that is meant to eventually replace ENDF-6 as the standard way to store and share evaluations. The work of SG38 covers the following tasks: Designing flexible, general-purpose data containers; Determining a logical and easy-to-understand top-level hierarchy for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data; Creating a particle database for storing particles, masses and level schemes; Specifying the infrastructure (plotting, processing, etc.) that must accompany the new structure; Developing an Application Programming Interface or API to allow other codes to access data stored in the new structure; Specifying what tests need to be implemented for quality assurance of the new structure and associated infrastructure; Ensuring documentation and governance of the structure and associated infrastructure. This document is the proceedings of the SG38 meeting, held at the NEA Headquarters on 21-22 May 2013. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: A - Introduction: - Developing a plan to meet our requirements (D. McNabb); - Possible option for next meeting date and place (M. Ishikawa); B - Task 1 - Designing low-level data containers for the new structure: - Low-Level Data Containers (M. White); - Low-level data structures in EXFOR and associated software - Development of EXFOR-XML (V. Zerkin); - Data containers in GND (C. Mattoon); Download an example of basic data containers for 1, 2 and 3-D data as well as the table and matrix C - Task 2 - Designing high-level hierarchy for nuclear reaction data: - Nuclear reaction data in a new structure (A. Koning); - Bibliographic and documentation issues (D. Brown); - Designing a high-level hierarchy for nuclear reaction data (D. Brown); - The ENDF-6 Format for the Evaluated Covariances of Discrete Radiation Spectrum Data (S. Badikov); D - Task 3 - Designing an API for reading/writing new data

  6. 39 CFR 966.6 - Filing, docketing and serving documents; computation of time; representation of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSETS INITIATED AGAINST... business hours are between 8:15 a.m. and 4:45 p.m., eastern standard or daylight saving time as appropriate... begins, and includes the last day of the period unless the last day is a Saturday, Sunday, or legal...

  7. Use of a Novel Rover-mounted Fluorescence Imager and Fluorescent Probes to Detect Biological Material in the Atacama Desert in Daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S.; Pane, D.; Warren-Rhodes, K.; Cockell, C.; Ernst, L. A.; Minkley, E.; Fisher, G.; Emani, S.; Wettergreen, D. S.; Wagner, M.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an imaging system, the Fluorescence Imager (FI), for detecting fluorescence signals from sparse microorganisms and biofilms during autonomous rover exploration. The fluorescence signals arise both from naturally occurring chromophores, such as chlorophyll of cyanobacteria and lichens, and from fluorescent probes applied to soil and rocks. Daylight imaging has been accomplished by a novel use of a high-powered flashlamp synchronized to a CCD camera. The fluorescent probes are cell permanent stains that have extremely low intrinsic fluorescence (quantum yields less than 0.01) and a large fluorescence enhancement (quantum yields greater than 0.4) when bound to the target. Each probe specifically targets either carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids or membrane lipids, the four classes of macromolecules found in terrestrial life. The intent of the probes is to interrogate the environment for surface and endolithic life forms.

  8. 25. Meeting of the NEA NSC Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) - Summary Record (23-24 May 2013, NEA Headquarters, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France) - NEA-SEN-NSC-WPEC--2013-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Emmeric

    2014-01-01

    This document summarized the content of the previous WPEC meeting held on 23-24 May 2013 at the NEA Headquarters. Experimental nuclear data activities of relevance to the evaluation projects were reviewed. Detailed information about the experimental activities is given in the reports and view graphs presented at the meeting (list in Annex 2). Progress in the major nuclear data evaluation projects was presented. Detailed information about the status of the evaluated nuclear data libraries is also given in the reports and view graphs presented at the meeting (see Annex 2). Results and conclusions of completed or near-completed subgroups were discussed. A summary table of all subgroup status is given in Annex 3. Activities of ongoing subgroups were presented. A summary table of all subgroup status is also given in Annex 3. Two new subgroup proposals were reviewed by WPEC. Detailed information about these proposals is given in the documents and view graphs presented at the meeting (list in Annex 2). Other points discussed at the 25. Meeting: presentation of the main WPEC objectives and working methods; Renewal of the WPEC mandate for the period 2013-2016; Conferences and meetings of interest to the nuclear data community; Time and place of next meeting

  9. Energy-optimized museum building with optimized daylighting. Phase 2. Final report; Forschungs- und Demonstrationsvorhaben: Museum als Niedrigenergiegebaeude mit optimierter Tageslichtversorgung. Phase 2. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottman, G.; Kugler, L.; Hillmann, G.; Jakobiak, R.; Erhorn, H.; Kluttig, H.; Reiss, J.; Steinborn, J.; Beackert, M.; Schreck, H.

    2002-08-19

    Elements of the project were: (a) Energetic and economic optimization of the building; (b) integrative planning as far as possible; (c) development of innovative integrated daylighting and solar energy systems; (d) demonstration of the systems; (e) measurements. The project was carried out in three phases: 1. Projecting phase, 1989-1993; Energetic optimization of the building up to the definition of the ultimate solution; 2. Construction phase, 1993-2001: Implementation of the energy and daylighting concept; 3. Measuring phase from 2003: Optimization, exhibition of the energy concept, analysis of the results. The evaluations will start as soon as the building is opened to the public; currently, exhibitions are installed. This project documents the finished building and shows the situation at the end of Phase II. The report was compiled in a joint effort of all project partners. Tasks were carried out as specified in the application of June 1993 and the working plans of June 1998. [German] Hauptziel des Vorhabens ist das Aufzeigen des Energieeinsparpotenzials grosser oeffentlicher Gebaeude. Elemente des Vorhabens sind (a) die gesamtenergetische und wirtschaftliche Optimierung des Gebaeudes, (b) das Nutzen der Moeglichkeiten integrativen Planens, (c) die Entwicklung innovativer gebaeudeintegrierter Systeme der Tageslichttechnik und der Sonnenenergienutzung, (d) die Demonstration der eingesetzten Systeme, (e) die Messtechnische Auswertung. Das Projekt wird in drei Phasen abgewickelt. Phase I Planungsphase: 1989-1993 Energetische Optimierung des Gebaeudes bis zur Definition der endgueltigen Loesung. Phase II Bauphase: 1993-2001 Bauliche Umsetzung des Energie- und Tageslichtkonzeptes. Phase III Messphase: ab 2003 Betriebliche Optimierung, Ausstellung zum Energiekonzept, und Bewertung der realisierten Loesung. Die messtechnische Auswertung kann erst mit der Eroeffnung des Gebaeudes fuer das Publikum beginnen - gegenwaertig werden die Ausstellungen eingerichtet. Der

  10. Study of the existing problems and public consciousness of the in-service military officers in Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meepien Supawadee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The public consciousness is an important characteristic which requires serious enhancement in Thailand. The objective of this study is to examine the existing problems and the public consciousness of the inservice military officers. As a result shows, there is currently no precise training system for public consciousness training at the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters. The tasks are carried out by the chain of command. A study of the existing problems and the public consciousness could lead to the development of a training model to enhance public consciousness. If the in-service military officers, who would return to their hometown all over the country after being discharged, were to have public consciousness characteristics as a foundation for everyday life, the nation would head up the force to help society.

  11. Analysis of the relationship between Brazilian subsidiary and U.S. corporate headquarter focused in HR management

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Cristina Bitencourt; Debora Boll

    2014-01-01

    Multinational organizations are called agents of globalization, due their economic and social relevance. Given their complexity, by having to act globally and locally at the same time, there is a need to study their RH operation dynamic as a key point to understanding the contemporary management practices. In this scenario, this study aims to understand how the HR management is developed in those companies, when the RH area has the strategic role of attraction, development and retention of pe...

  12. Interim Measures Report for the Headquarters Building Area Location of Concern (LOC) 2E East SWMU 104 John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment portion of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit issued by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), requires identification and evaluation of all known Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Locations of Concern (LOCs) located on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) property. The KSC Headquarters Building Area (KHQA) has been identified as SWMU 104 under KSC's RCRA Program. This report summarizes the Interim Measure (IM) conducted by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for NASA under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Contract NNK12CA13B at the KHQA to mitigate potential exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-affected media at the eastern side of LOC 2E. The IM activities were conducted in June and July 2015 to remediate PCBs above the FDEP Residential Direct-Exposure (R-) Soil Cleanup Target Level (SCTL) of 0.5 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) established by Chapter 62-777, Florida Administrative Code. The IM was performed in accordance with the IM Work Plan (IMWP) approved by the FDEP, dated August 2012. IM activities were conducted in accordance with the KSC Generic PCB Work Plan (NASA 2007).

  13. Nuclear Medicine National Headquarter System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Nuclear Medicine National HQ System database is a series of MS Excel spreadsheets and Access Database Tables by fiscal year. They consist of information from all...

  14. Energy optimised lighting in buildings with simultaneous improvement of quality of life by daylight utilisation and innovative lamps and ballast techniques; Energieoptimierte Beleuchtung bei gleichzeitiger Verbesserung der Lebensqualitaet durch Nutzung von Tageslicht und neuer Lampen- und Vorschalttechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaase, Heinrich; Aydinli, Sirri; Gramm, Stefan; Thiel, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Fakultaet IV Elektrotechnik und Informatik, FG Lichttechnik, Berlin (Germany); De Boer, Jan; Erhorn, Hans [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany); Kuhn, Tilman; Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany); Hillmann, Gustav; Korolkow, Margarethe [IBUS GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Piazena, Helmut [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The scientific and technical goals of this project were developed in five parts. The individual topics arising from current issues, they still have a generally applicable nature. The consortium has worked on the following subprojects: (1) Development of a measurement technique to determine energy and photometric key figures of daylight components with a round robin test with three institutes. (2) Implementation of a detailed evaluation and documentation process for daylighting of interior spaces in different climate zones. (3) For lighting control in private living areas a ''Power Line Carrier Communication'' system has been evaluated and the advantages of a wireless transmission system were identified. (4) In a home for elderly quantitative studies on the well-being, for the fulfillment of visual tasks and the capability of melatonin suppression at different scenarios of general lighting with two different color temperatures of lamps (''warm white'' with TCP = 3000 K and ''cold white daylight'' with TCP = 6500 K) and vertical illuminance at the eyes of the subjects between 100 lx and 700 lx were performed. (5) For two school buildings in Berlin, the final energy consumption of the existing lighting system, the reference building and a re-planning were determined. It became clear in both examples that the existing lighting system exceeds the permitted value (EnEV 2009) by far. A good redesign, however, can be significantly less than the maximum allowed value. These studies were accompanied by a one-year monitoring of energy consumption. A cross-sectional analysis of 48 schools with a total of 86 buildings shows a substantial need for renovation of school buildings that were built before 1990.

  15. Tips for daylighting with windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    These guidelines provide an integrated approach to the cost-effective design of perimeter zones in new commercial buildings and existing building retrofits. They function as a quick reference for building designers, through a set of easy steps and rules-of-thumb, emphasizing “how-to” practical details. References are given to more detailed sources of information, should the reader wish to go further. The design method used in this document emphasizes that building decisions should be made within the context of the whole building as a single functioning system rather than as an assembly of distinct parts. This integrated design approach looks at the ramifications of each individual system decision on the whole building. For example, the decision on glazing selection will have an effect on lighting, mechanical systems, and interior design. Therefore, the entire design team should participate and influence this glazing decision—which typically rests with the architect alone. The benefit of an integrated design approach is a greater chance of success towards long-term comfort and sustained energy savings in the building.

  16. Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). Presentations and documents submitted to the 25. meeting, NEA Headquarters, 23-24 May 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NEA's nuclear data evaluation co-operation activities involve the following evaluation projects: ENDF (United States), JEFF (Data Bank member countries), JENDL (Japan) and RUSFOND/BROND (Russia). The participation from projects in non-NEA Member countries, such as CENDL, is channelled through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The working party was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint evaluation and/or measurement efforts. The 25. meeting of the working party was held on 23-24 May 2013 at the NEA Headquarters, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. This document brings together the available presentations (slides and reports) given at this meeting Presentations (slides) on experimental activities are available for: NEA DB, Japan, USA, Russia and China (slides + report). Brief progress reports (slides) from the evaluation projects are available for: ENDF, JEFF, JENDL (slides + Report), BROND + slides on Rosatom Standard Reference Data System, CENDL, IAEA and TENDL. Presentations (slides) about the Status of subgroups are available for the following subgroups: - Subgroup 31: Meeting nuclear data needs for advanced reactors (slides + report); - Subgroup C: High Priority Request List (HPRL); - Subgroup 33: Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data (slides + report); - Subgroup 34: Coordinated evaluation of 239 Pu in the resonance region; - Subgroup 35: Scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range; - Subgroup 36: Reporting and usage of experimental data for evaluation in the resolved resonance region; - Subgroup 37: Improved fission product yield evaluation methodologies

  17. Survival time of bacteria on different plastics by application of ultraviolet rays and desinfectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, S.

    1975-01-01

    The survival times of four sorts of germs were studied (Staph. albus, Staph. aureus, E.coli and Clebsiella) on 28 different plastic surfaces under different ambient conditions, (darkness, daylight, UV-radiation) and after preceding disinfection of the surfaces. For these studies, a formaldehydecontaining, phenolic, and a surface-active preparation were used. No essential differences in the survival times of the 4 types of germs tested were found. Besides the chemical basic structure additional substances were found to play a substantial role for the autobactericides. The dark values which could help to obtain findings about auto-bactericides did not show significant correspondence within the groups of the plastics. Only for a few materials a safe auto-bactericide could be found (alkyd lake, phenol resin). In the case of some other substances (some preparations made of PVC, polystyrene, polyacetal) an effect on the germs could be seen which was, at least totally seen, unfavourable, if all test conditions (darkness, daylight, UV-radiation) are viewed as a total. As comparative values on glass had shown a lower lethal rate of the germs, a certain auto-bactericide is likely to exist in all plastics tested. A considerable antibacterial effect of daylight was found, even with low daylight quotients and clased windows. UV-rays also diminished the number of germs on the plastic surfaces considerably, even with only indirect irradiation. Delayed effects of desinfecting agents partially depend on the surface material. Thus the phenolic agent showed strong delayed effects on the acryl glas, polyethylene, phenol resin, polycarbonate, but less on PVC. Phormaldehyde showed a good long-term effect only on phenol resin. (orig.) [de

  18. R-Matrix Codes for Charged-Particle Induced Reactions in the Resolved Resonance Region (3), Summary Report of an IAEA Consultants' Meeting IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 28-30 June 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeb, Helmut [Technische Univ. Wien, Vienna (Austria); Dimitriou, Paraskevi [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Thompson, Ian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-23

    A Consultants Meeting was held at the IAEA Headquarters, from 28 to 30 June 2017, to discuss the results of a test exercise that had been defined and assigned to all participants of the previous meeting held in December 2016. Five codes were used in this exercise: AMUR, AZURE2, RAC, SFRESCO and SAMMY. The results obtained from these codes were compared and further actions were proposed. Participants’ presentations and technical discussions, as well as proposed additional actions have been summarized in this report.

  19. Improving influenza vaccine virus selectionReport of a WHO informal consultation held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 14–16 June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, William K.; Baylor, Norman; Cobey, Sarah; Cox, Nancy J.; Daves, Sharon; Edwards, Steven; Ferguson, Neil; Grohmann, Gary; Hay, Alan; Katz, Jacqueline; Kullabutr, Kornnika; Lambert, Linda; Levandowski, Roland; Mishra, A. C.; Monto, Arnold; Siqueira, Marilda; Tashiro, Masato; Waddell, Anthony L.; Wairagkar, Niteen; Wood, John; Zambon, Maria; Zhang, Wenqing

    2011-01-01

    Executive summary • For almost 60 years, the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) has been the key player in monitoring the evolution and spread of influenza viruses and recommending the strains to be used in human influenza vaccines. The GISRS has also worked to continually monitor and assess the risk posed by potential pandemic viruses and to guide appropriate public health responses.• The expanded and enhanced role of the GISRS following the adoption of the International Health Regulations (2005), recognition of the continuing threat posed by avian H5N1 and the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic provide an opportune time to critically review the process by which influenza vaccine viruses are selected. In addition to identifying potential areas for improvement, such a review will also help to promote greater appreciation by the wider influenza and policy‐making community of the complexity of influenza vaccine virus selection.• The selection process is highly coordinated and involves continual year‐round integration of virological data and epidemiological information by National Influenza Centres (NICs), thorough antigenic and genetic characterization of viruses by WHO Collaborating Centres (WHOCCs) as part of selecting suitable candidate vaccine viruses, and the preparation of suitable reassortants and corresponding reagents for vaccine standardization by WHO Essential Regulatory Laboratories (ERLs).• Ensuring the optimal effectiveness of vaccines has been assisted in recent years by advances in molecular diagnosis and the availability of more extensive genetic sequence data. However, there remain a number of challenging constraints including variations in the assays used, the possibility of complications resulting from non‐antigenic changes, the limited availability of suitable vaccine viruses and the requirement for recommendations to be made up to a year in advance of the peak of influenza season because of

  20. Improving influenza vaccine virus selection: report of a WHO informal consultation held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 14-16 June 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, William K; Baylor, Norman; Cobey, Sarah; Cox, Nancy J; Daves, Sharon; Edwards, Steven; Ferguson, Neil; Grohmann, Gary; Hay, Alan; Katz, Jacqueline; Kullabutr, Kornnika; Lambert, Linda; Levandowski, Roland; Mishra, A C; Monto, Arnold; Siqueira, Marilda; Tashiro, Masato; Waddell, Anthony L; Wairagkar, Niteen; Wood, John; Zambon, Maria; Zhang, Wenqing

    2012-03-01

    • For almost 60 years, the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) has been the key player in monitoring the evolution and spread of influenza viruses and recommending the strains to be used in human influenza vaccines. The GISRS has also worked to continually monitor and assess the risk posed by potential pandemic viruses and to guide appropriate public health responses. • The expanded and enhanced role of the GISRS following the adoption of the International Health Regulations (2005), recognition of the continuing threat posed by avian H5N1 and the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic provide an opportune time to critically review the process by which influenza vaccine viruses are selected. In addition to identifying potential areas for improvement, such a review will also help to promote greater appreciation by the wider influenza and policy-making community of the complexity of influenza vaccine virus selection. • The selection process is highly coordinated and involves continual year-round integration of virological data and epidemiological information by National Influenza Centres (NICs), thorough antigenic and genetic characterization of viruses by WHO Collaborating Centres (WHOCCs) as part of selecting suitable candidate vaccine viruses, and the preparation of suitable reassortants and corresponding reagents for vaccine standardization by WHO Essential Regulatory Laboratories (ERLs). • Ensuring the optimal effectiveness of vaccines has been assisted in recent years by advances in molecular diagnosis and the availability of more extensive genetic sequence data. However, there remain a number of challenging constraints including variations in the assays used, the possibility of complications resulting from non-antigenic changes, the limited availability of suitable vaccine viruses and the requirement for recommendations to be made up to a year in advance of the peak of influenza season because of production constraints.

  1. 7 CFR 600.2 - National headquarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., financial management, information technology, administrative support (providing a coordinated administrative... conservation; planning, directing, and coordinating all program, technical, and administrative activities of... assist the Chief as follows: (1) Deputy Chief for Management. The Deputy Chief for Management is...

  2. 21 CFR 5.1100 - Headquarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... International Programs. 3 Office of External Affairs. Office of External Relations. 3 Communications Staff... Media. Office of Surveillance and Biometrics. Issues Management Staff. Division of Biostatistics.... Office of Regulations, Policy and Social Sciences. Regulations and Special Government Employees...

  3. VP Market moves headquarters to Riga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Baltimaade suurim jaekaubandusettevõte VP Market viib oma peakorteri üle Riiga ja nimetab tegevdirektoriks senise müügidirektori Vega Vaitkiviciene. Muutused on seotud laienemisplaanidega Eestis ja Lätis

  4. Energy and reliability optimization of a system that combines daylighting and artificial sources. A case study carried out in academic buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salata, Ferdinando; Golasi, Iacopo; Di Salvatore, Maicol; De Lieto Vollaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of natural and artificial lighting is examined in a classroom. • Simulation of a LED lighting plant characterized by a control logic system. • Visual comfort is guaranteed while meeting the regulations EN 12464-1. • The aim is the energy efficiency and economic advantage with respect to the reliability. • A significant increase of energy efficiency and MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) is reported. - Abstract: The necessity to reduce energy requirements of lighting systems should bring among engineers a more mature and conscious vision while planning and this means that their main goals should be the visual comfort and a decrease in energy and maintenance costs. Therefore this paper examines the case study of a classroom located in the Faculty of Engineering of Sapienza University in Rome and, to evaluate the possibility to combine natural and artificial light, it focuses on the realization of a new lighting system. This new solution is formed by LED sources and control systems able to modulate the power absorbed by every single lamp (to adapt, according to the hour and day, to the conditions of the natural light). In order to meet the EN 12464-1, the process of incorporating natural and artificial light must occur while guaranteeing both the minimum levels expected for the average illuminance E m [lx] and the uniformity coefficient (E min /E m ) and this is the reason why a simultaneous exertion of artificial lights and a variable shielding system of glass surfaces activated through a motorized electronic control unit is required. Thanks to the software DIALux Evo 5.1 a 3D model of the classroom was reproduced and validated in order to simulate the combination of natural and artificial lighting and to verify if the results complied with the regulations. This was followed by an analysis concerning: the reliability of the system (through the examination of the MTBF – Mean Time Between Failure) and energetic and economic aspects

  5. A cyclic nucleotide-gated channel mutation associated with canine daylight blindness provides insight into a role for the S2 segment tri-Asp motif in channel biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tanaka

    Full Text Available Cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels are tetramers formed by CNGA3 and CNGB3 subunits; CNGA3 subunits function as homotetrameric channels but CNGB3 exhibits channel function only when co-expressed with CNGA3. An aspartatic acid (Asp to asparagine (Asn missense mutation at position 262 in the canine CNGB3 (D262N subunit results in loss of cone function (daylight blindness, suggesting an important role for this aspartic acid residue in channel biogenesis and/or function. Asp 262 is located in a conserved region of the second transmembrane segment containing three Asp residues designated the Tri-Asp motif. This motif is conserved in all CNG channels. Here we examine mutations in canine CNGA3 homomeric channels using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. Mutations of these conserved Asp residues result in the absence of nucleotide-activated currents in heterologous expression. A fluorescent tag on CNGA3 shows mislocalization of mutant channels. Co-expressing CNGB3 Tri-Asp mutants with wild type CNGA3 results in some functional channels, however, their electrophysiological characterization matches the properties of homomeric CNGA3 channels. This failure to record heteromeric currents suggests that Asp/Asn mutations affect heteromeric subunit assembly. A homology model of S1-S6 of the CNGA3 channel was generated and relaxed in a membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. The model predicts that the Tri-Asp motif is involved in non-specific salt bridge pairings with positive residues of S3/S4. We propose that the D262N mutation in dogs with CNGB3-day blindness results in the loss of these inter-helical interactions altering the electrostatic equilibrium within in the S1-S4 bundle. Because residues analogous to Tri-Asp in the voltage-gated Shaker potassium channel family were implicated in monomer folding, we hypothesize that destabilizing these electrostatic interactions impairs the monomer folding state in D262N mutant CNG

  6. Parametric optimization of daylight and thermal performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the paper show that there are meaningful optimum parameters which may help for better thermal performance through louvers in hot and dry climate of Tehran. The results indicate impressive efficiency in building industry in contemporary architecture of developing countries especially in Iran and west of Asia.

  7. Antibacterial activity of kaolinite/nanoTiO2 composites in relation to irradiation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dědková, Kateřina; Matějová, Kateřina; Lang, Jaroslav; Peikertová, Pavlína; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Neuwirthová, Lucie; Frydrýšek, Karel; Kukutschová, Jana

    2014-06-05

    The paper addresses laboratory preparation and antibacterial activity testing of kaolinite/nanoTiO2 composite in respect of the daylight irradiation time. Kaolinite/nanoTiO2 composites with 20 and 40 wt% of TiO2 were laboratory prepared, dried at 105 °C and calcined at 600 °C. The calcination caused transformation of kaolinite to metakaolinite and origination of the metakaolinite/nanoTiO2 composite. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman and FTIR spectroscopic methods revealed titanium dioxide only in the form of anatase in all evaluated samples (non-calcined and calcined) and also transformation of kaolinite to metakaolinite after the calcination treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used as a method for characterization of morphology and elemental composition of the studied samples. A standard microdilution test was used to determine the antibacterial activity using four human pathogenic bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A lamp with a wide spectrum bulb simulating daylight was used for induction of photocatalysis. The antibacterial assays found all the KATI samples to have antibacterial potency with different onset of the activity when calcined samples exhibited antibacterial activity earlier than the non-calcined. Significant difference in antibacterial activity of KATI samples for different bacterial strains was not observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [The daily rhythm of heart attack morbidity and mortality may be influenced by the time of sunrise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriszbacher, Ildikó; Csoboth, Ildikó; Boncz, Imre; Bódis, József

    2008-11-16

    The morbidity and mortality of a myocardial infarction show characteristic seasonal and diurnal changes that may be influenced by the time of sunrise and the number of hours with daylight during the day. We wish to study whether the time of sunrise and the number of hours with daylight influence the seasonality of heart attack morbidity and mortality, and whether these have an effect on the diurnal rhythm of a heart attack. We have carried out the retrospective analysis of patients received at Hungarian hospitals with the diagnose of an acute heart attack ( n = 32,329) and those deceased due to a heart attack ( n = 5,142) between 2004 and 2005. Data were gained from the data-base of the National Health Insurance Fund according to the International Classification of Diseases. Positive correlation showed between the time of sunrise and both the incidence of an acute myocardial infarction and related mortality ( p heart attack morbidity and mortality, however, other factors are assumed to take a role as well.

  9. Time over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Navarro, Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present essay is designed to be a general introduction to the philosophical problem of time from its very different forms and ways of approaching. In this sense, the article covers the problem from different perspectives and gives a brief account of the plurality and diversity of the time found in the different philosophical definitions, in the different layers of knowledge, in different periods and cultures and also in the different instruments used to measure time itself

  10. Field and laboratory studies provide insights into the meaning of day-time activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti, the tuco-tuco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M Tomotani

    Full Text Available South American subterranean rodents (Ctenomys aff. knighti, commonly known as tuco-tucos, display nocturnal, wheel-running behavior under light-dark (LD conditions, and free-running periods >24 h in constant darkness (DD. However, several reports in the field suggested that a substantial amount of activity occurs during daylight hours, leading us to question whether circadian entrainment in the laboratory accurately reflects behavior in natural conditions. We compared circadian patterns of locomotor activity in DD of animals previously entrained to full laboratory LD cycles (LD12:12 with those of animals that were trapped directly from the field. In both cases, activity onsets in DD immediately reflected the previous dark onset or sundown. Furthermore, freerunning periods upon release into DD were close to 24 h indicating aftereffects of prior entrainment, similarly in both conditions. No difference was detected in the phase of activity measured with and without access to a running wheel. However, when individuals were observed continuously during daylight hours in a semi-natural enclosure, they emerged above-ground on a daily basis. These day-time activities consisted of foraging and burrow maintenance, suggesting that the designation of this species as nocturnal might be inaccurate in the field. Our study of a solitary subterranean species suggests that the circadian clock is entrained similarly under field and laboratory conditions and that day-time activity expressed only in the field is required for foraging and may not be time-dictated by the circadian pacemaker.

  11. Field and laboratory studies provide insights into the meaning of day-time activity in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys aff. knighti), the tuco-tuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotani, Barbara M; Flores, Danilo E F L; Tachinardi, Patrícia; Paliza, José D; Oda, Gisele A; Valentinuzzi, Verônica S

    2012-01-01

    South American subterranean rodents (Ctenomys aff. knighti), commonly known as tuco-tucos, display nocturnal, wheel-running behavior under light-dark (LD) conditions, and free-running periods >24 h in constant darkness (DD). However, several reports in the field suggested that a substantial amount of activity occurs during daylight hours, leading us to question whether circadian entrainment in the laboratory accurately reflects behavior in natural conditions. We compared circadian patterns of locomotor activity in DD of animals previously entrained to full laboratory LD cycles (LD12:12) with those of animals that were trapped directly from the field. In both cases, activity onsets in DD immediately reflected the previous dark onset or sundown. Furthermore, freerunning periods upon release into DD were close to 24 h indicating aftereffects of prior entrainment, similarly in both conditions. No difference was detected in the phase of activity measured with and without access to a running wheel. However, when individuals were observed continuously during daylight hours in a semi-natural enclosure, they emerged above-ground on a daily basis. These day-time activities consisted of foraging and burrow maintenance, suggesting that the designation of this species as nocturnal might be inaccurate in the field. Our study of a solitary subterranean species suggests that the circadian clock is entrained similarly under field and laboratory conditions and that day-time activity expressed only in the field is required for foraging and may not be time-dictated by the circadian pacemaker.

  12. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  13. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps. Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  14. Time Budget and Diet of the Booted Eagles in the Breeding Season in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoning Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding seasons of 2010-2016, we have found seven nests of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus in Xinjiang, the west of China. We used a method of focal sampling and infrared cameras to continually observe behaviors and nestlings’ growth. Nestling behaviors were different between nestling period and post-nestling period. Attendance at the nests by both adults decreased as the nestling aged. The female brooded significantly more than the male did during daylight hours (P=0.016, F= 8.38, df =1. The daily mean number of food items delivered to the nests by adults was 3.2 times/day in nestling period, and 0.96/day in post-nestling period. Seven orders of wild birds, three orders of mammals and domestic poultry were documented as prey.

  15. Time outs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000756.htm Time outs To use the sharing features on this ... children, 2 to 12 years old. Why Does Time out Work? When you put children in time ...

  16. Time change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Winkel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical operation of time-changing continuous-time stochastic processes can be regarded as a standard method for building financial models. We briefly review the theory on time-changed stochastic processes and relate them to stochastic volatility models in finance. Popular models......, including time-changed Lévy processes, where the time-change process is given by a subordinator or an absolutely continuous time change, are presented. Finally, we discuss the potential and the limitations of using such processes for constructing multivariate financial models....

  17. EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA POR LA UTILIZACIÓN DE COMPONENTES DE CONDUCCIÓN DE LUZ NATURAL EN CLIMA CÁLIDO-HÚMEDO | ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY DERIVED FROM THE USE OF CONDUCTION COMPONENTS OF DAYLIGHT IN WARM-HUMID CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda González Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The electric energy saving was estimated by the utilization of Conduction Components of Daylight (CCD in warm-humid climate. For this, the luminic performance of the component was determined, considering values of horizontal exterior lighting and interior lighting obtained by monitoring under real sky conditions in scale models, and the comparison with incandescent bulbs and Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL. The utilization of the natural light through CCLN allows to obtain a saving in the expense for energy, with respect to the use of Incandescent Bulb and/or Compact Fluorescent Lamp (artificial lighting. In this sense, their use would correspond to 219 KWh and to 54.75 KWh, respectively, if they are used for an average of 10 daily hours, during a period of one year. It was estimated that a possible reduction could be achieved in the electricity consumption, maintaining the comfort and quality of life of the users in buildings (high luminic performance without use of energy from commercial supplier, contributing this way to the "energy efficiency" in them.

  18. Urban Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me.......This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me....

  19. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  20. 10 CFR 2.306 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal government in Washington, DC, NRC Headquarters does not open for business, in which event the... courtesy copies, to all of the other participants in the proceeding. The presiding officer may determine...

  1. 10 CFR 13.27 - Computation of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency closure of the federal government in Washington, DC, NRC Headquarters does not open for business... courtesy copies, to all of the other participants in the proceeding. The presiding officer may determine...

  2. Sleep timing, chronotype, mood, and behavior at an Arctic latitude (69° N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Wynn, Rolf; Gradisar, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Daylight is an important zeitgeber for entraining the circadian rhythm to a 24 h clock cycle, especially within the Polar circle, which has long Polar nights several months each year. Phase delays in sleep timing may occur, but the mean shift is normally small. However, the individual variation in phase shifts is large, implicating moderating factors. Here we examined the role of several self-regulatory variables (mood and fatigue, behavioral habits, and psychological self-regulation) as moderators of seasonality in sleep timing and chronotype. A sample of 162 young adults (76% females; mean age: females 23.4 years, males 24.3 years) participated in a prospective study across three seasons (September, December, March) in Tromsø/Norway at 69°39′N Sleep diary and sleep/health-related questionnaire data were collected at each time-point. Sleep timing and chronotype were delayed during the dark period (December) compared with brighter photoperiods (September and March). Comparable effects were observed for insomnia, fatigue, mood (depression and anxiety), subjective health complaints, physical activity, and school-related stress. Most importantly, depression and fatigue moderated the degree of seasonal shifting in sleep timing, whereas the other self-regulation indicators did not (ie eating habits, physical activity, and psychological self-regulation). Seasonality in sleep timing and chronotype was confirmed, and it seems that depressive symptoms during the dark period exacerbate phase-shifting problems for people living in sub-Arctic regions.

  3. Time Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilov, Todor, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The time management is worthy goal of many human activities. It concerns variety problems related to goals definition, assessment of available resources, control of management policies, scheduling of decisions. This book is an attempt to illustrate the decision making process in time management for different success stories, which can be used as…

  4. Reading: Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2018-01-01

    Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:

  5. Experiencing time

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Our engagement with time is a ubiquitous feature of our lives. We are aware of time on many scales, from the briefest flicker of change to the way our lives unfold over many years. But to what extent does this encounter reveal the true nature of temporal reality? To the extent that temporal reality is as it seems, how do we come to be aware of it? And to the extent that temporal reality is not as it seems, why does it seem that way? These are the central questions addressed by Simon Prosser in Experiencing Time. These questions take on a particular importance in philosophy for two reasons. Firstly, there is a view concerning the metaphysics of time, known as the B-theory of time, according to which the apparently dynamic quality of change, the special status of the present, and even the passage of time are all illusions. Instead, the world is a four-dimensional space-time block, lacking any of the apparent dynamic features of time. If the B-theory is correct, as the book argues, then it must be explained why ...

  6. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  7. Representing time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Poncellini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of natural phenomena applied to architectural planning and design is facing the most fascinating and elusive of the four dimensions through which man attempts to define life within the universe: time. We all know what time is, said St. Augustine, but nobody knows how to describe it. Within architectural projects and representations, time rarely appears in explicit form. This paper presents the results of a research conducted by students of NABA and of the Polytechnic of Milan with the purpose of representing time considered as a key element within architectural projects. Student investigated new approaches and methodologies to represent time using the two-dimensional support of a sheet of paper.

  8. Diurnal and Nocturnal Activity Time Budgets of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus in a Zoological Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise E. Lukacs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal and nocturnal activity time budgets of five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus were studied in a zoological park for two 24-hour, five 14-hour, and one 9-hour observation periods between May and June 2011. Relatively few studies have looked at detailed daytime and nighttime activity time budgets in captive Asian elephants. Continuous observation was used to measure the activity time budgets of at least one focal animal per observation period. The activity time budgets varied between animals and observation periods. The elephants spent 17-49% of the day (daylight hours standing, 1-9% of the day walking, 19-44% of the day eating, and 1-20% of the day using enrichment items. At night, the elephants spent 29-87% of the observation period standing, 1-19% of the night eating, and 0.1-10% of the night using enrichment items. At night, elephants spent 0-45% of the observation period lying down. Variations in activity time budgets between elephants and observation periods have been observed in other studies of captive and wild elephants. Results of this observational study allow comparison between groups of captive elephants and between captive and wild elephants. Furthermore, results of this study can inform management strategies.

  9. Strengthening the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process: Report of the 3rd WHO Informal Consultation for Improving Influenza Vaccine Virus Selection held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 1-3 April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, William K; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bashir, Uzma; Cox, Nancy J; Fasce, Rodrigo; Giovanni, Maria; Grohmann, Gary; Huang, Sue; Katz, Jackie; Mironenko, Alla; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Sasono, Pretty Multihartina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Siqueira, Marilda; Waddell, Anthony L; Waiboci, Lillian; Wood, John; Zhang, Wenqing; Ziegler, Thedi

    2015-08-26

    investigations but could drive a new surveillance paradigm. However, despite the advances made, significant challenges will need to be addressed before next-generation technologies become routine, particularly in low-resource settings. Emerging approaches and techniques such as synthetic genomics, systems genetics, systems biology and mathematical modelling are capable of generating potentially huge volumes of highly complex and diverse datasets. Harnessing the currently theoretical benefits of such bioinformatics ("big data") concepts for the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process will depend upon further advances in data generation, integration, analysis and dissemination. Over the last decade, growing awareness of influenza as an important global public health issue has been coupled to ever-increasing demands from the global community for more-equitable access to effective and affordable influenza vaccines. The current influenza vaccine landscape continues to be dominated by egg-based inactivated and live attenuated vaccines, with a small number of cell-based and recombinant vaccines. Successfully completing each step in the annual influenza vaccine manufacturing cycle will continue to rely upon timely and regular communication between the WHO GISRS, manufacturers and regulatory authorities. While the pipeline of influenza vaccines appears to be moving towards a variety of niche products in the near term, it is apparent that the ultimate aim remains the development of effective "universal" influenza vaccines that offer longer-lasting immunity against a broad range of influenza A subtypes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. About time

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Adam

    2012-01-01

    From Stonehenge to beyond the Big Bang, an exhilarating scientific exploration of how we make time Time is the grandest conception of the universe that we humans have been able to imagine – and its most intimate, the very frame of human life. In About Time, astrophysicist and award-winning writer Adam Frank tells the scientific story of this wonderful and tyrannical invention. A Palaeolithic farmer moved through the sun-fuelled day and star-steered night in a radically different way than the Elizabethan merchants who set their pace to the clocks newly installed in their town squares. Since th

  11. Time out

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be quiet and think about their behavior. Time out is an effective disciplinary technique that does not use physical punishment. Professionals report that NOT physically punishing children may help ...

  12. Time-out/Time-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    time-in and time-out use. Time-in technology use coincides and co-exists within the flow of ordinary life, while time-out use entails ‘taking time out’ of everyday life to accomplish a circumscribed task or engage reflectively in a particular experience. We apply a theoretically informed grounded...... approach to data collected through a longitudinal field study of smartphone users during a 6-month period. We analysed the data based on the concept of time-in/out and show the dynamics in the experience of a device that changes from the ‘extraordinary’ to the ‘ordinary’ over time. We also provide...... a vocabulary that describes this relationship as stages resembling the one between a couple, which evolves from an early love affair, to being married and to growing old together. By repurposing the time-in/out distinction from its origin in media studies, this paper marks a move that allows the distinction...

  13. "Forget time"

    OpenAIRE

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Following a line of research that I have developed for several years, I argue that the best strategy for understanding quantum gravity is to build a picture of the physical world where the notion of time plays no role. I summarize here this point of view, explaining why I think that in a fundamental description of nature we must "forget time", and how this can be done in the classical and in the quantum theory. The idea is to develop a formalism that treats dependent and independent variables...

  14. Heterogeneic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this article is the relation between time and transcultural space in literary history. The argument is that the concept of anachronism can help us understand the complexity of temporality and that the analysis of transcultural exchanges between European and Latin American art...

  15. Time matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Annette

    such as the PISA studies, and tendencies in educational politics and schoolsystems in Europe, USA, Australia and Asia. This spring (2011) all danish pupils in grade 6. has been tested nationally for the first time in reading skills and mathematics. The argumentation behind the initiative points to both economical...

  16. Headquarters Air Force Material Command Customer Relationship Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Christopher B

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, this project sought to answer how customer relationship management (CRM) initiatives varied in the private and public sectors, and to determine an appropriate means of capturing and measuring this type of data...

  17. Developing Headquarters Guidance for Army Installation Sustainability Plans in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    leverage off strong installation pollution prevention, energy man- agement, environmental management systems (EMSs) (such as ISO 14001 implemen- tation...Plans in 2007 Fort Campbell, “Sustainable Installation Management System ISO 14001 .” Fort Campbell, KY, 15 January 2006. As of October 19, 2006...mis- sion requirements worldwide, safeguards human health, improves quality of life, and enhances the natural environment.” This strategy transitions

  18. How do Regional Headquarters Influence Corporate Decisions in Networked MNCs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Ambos, Björn; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In networked MNCs where knowledge and power are distributed, corporate strategy processes benefit from input arising from many different levels of the organization. Recently, the regional (i.e., supra-national) level has been emphasized as an important additional source of knowledge and input...

  19. Visit to NGA Headquarter on September 11, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    intelligence officer for geography and cartography teleconferenced with us from his office in St. Louis for the entire presentation and discussion...author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 9...person. Brian Hagan, NGA’s national geospatial intelligence officer for geography and cartography teleconferenced with us from his office in St. Louis

  20. Headquarters, Special Operations Command, Africa Stuttgart, Germany (redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    his office and discussed the IG complaint. testified to us that he told RDML Losey, "Sir, I had absolutely nothing to do with this" and that "would...appreciate it if you said using their system was malicious.’ And he kind of laughed . He goes, ’Yeah, I know, but it was malicious, I thought okay, he...I told ] that I wrote the award in and said, "Frankly, sir, I have - I have nothing to appeal to other than I believe that [Complainant] has

  1. Presentations and documents submitted to the 26. meeting, NEA Headquarters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    The NEA's nuclear data evaluation co-operation activities involve the following evaluation projects: ENDF (United States), JENDL (Japan), ROSFOND/BROND (Russia), JEFF (other Data Bank member countries) and CENDL (China) in close co-operation with the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The working party was established to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, measurements, nuclear model calculations, validation, and related topics, and to provide a framework for co-operative activities between the participating projects. The working party assesses nuclear data improvement needs and addresses these needs by initiating joint evaluation and/or measurement efforts. This document is a compilation of the available Presentations (slides) and documents (reports) submitted to the 26. WPEC meeting: Summary record of the previous meeting, May 2013; Membership and observers - May 2014 (Participation, Informal discussions on criteria defining an 'evaluation project'); 25. Anniversary of WPEC and brief overview of WPEC history; Reports on experimental activities: Europe, Japan, USA, Russia (no presentation available), China; Brief progress reports from the evaluation projects: ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, BROND/ROSFOND (no presentation available), CENDL, IAEA, TENDL; Status of subgroups: Subgroup 27: Prompt photon production from fission products (no presentation available), Subgroup 28: Processing of covariance data, Subgroup 31: Meeting nuclear data needs for advanced reactors, Subgroup 33: Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data, Subgroup 34: Coordinated evaluation of Pu-239 in the resonance region, Subgroup 35: Scattering angular distribution in the fast energy range (no presentation available), Subgroup 36: Reporting and usage of experimental data for evaluation in the resolved resonance region, Subgroup 37: Improved fission product yield evaluation methodologies, Subgroup 38: A modern nuclear database structure beyond the ENDF format, Subgroup 39: Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files, Subgroup 40: Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation (CIELO) Pilot Project, Subgroup C: High Priority Request List (Renewal of mandate); New subgroup proposals: Improving nuclear data accuracy, Thermal Scattering Kernel S(a,b): Measurement, Evaluation and Application

  2. Total Quality Management Case Study in a Navy Headquarters Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    furnished equipment management 1Based on the scientific method , Deming’s Plan-Do-Check-Act ( PDCA ) cvcle provides a systematic approach to problem...providing methods . B-I 11. Use statistical methods for co~itinuing improvement of quality and productivity, and eliminate work standards that prescribe...retraining to keep up with changes in materials, methods , product design, and machinery. 14. Clearly define top management permanent commitment to quality

  3. Da antiga sede da Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP ao atual Instituto Nacional do Câncer (Inca From the old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP to the Instituto Nacional do Câncer (Inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Tadeu de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A antiga sede da Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP, localizada na rua do Resende, nº 128, e o conjunto arquitetônico histórico de Manguinhos, da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz, são contemporâneos. Foram construídos por iniciativa de Oswaldo Cruz e projetados por Luiz Moraes Júnior. A antiga DGSP é tão importante quanto o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC, atual Fiocruz, na implantação e institucionalização das políticas de saúde pública no Brasil. Este trabalho descreve o projeto de construção do edifício da DGSP, sua evolução, as transformações por que passou e o processo de tombamento pelo patrimônio histórico.The old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP, located on Rua do Resende #128, and the Conjunto Arquitetônico Histórico de Manguinhos da Fiocruz (Manguinhos-Fiocruz Historical Architectural Complex are contemporary buildings built by the initiative of Oswaldo Cruz and projects by Luiz Moraes Júnior. The old DGSP is as important as the so-called Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC then, now Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz for the introduction and institucionalization of public health policies in Brasil. we describe the building project of the DGSP facilities, its evolution, transformations, and the process of becoming part of the Historic Heritage.

  4. 24 Times

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Jason Dee’s installation '24 Times' was part of a large-scale international exhibition: 'The Still Point of the Turning World: Between Film and Photography' at FOMU in Antwerp. The show ran for four months and included numerous highly significant current and historic international practitioners in the fields of photography and cinema. These included: Jeff Wall, Hiroshi Sugimoto, John Stezaker, Paul Graham, John Smith and David Claerbout. The exhibition was accompanied by a 216-page bi-lin...

  5. Beijing Time

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Michael; Lo, Hsiu-ju Stacy; Wu, Dong Dong

    2010-01-01

    “Where is the market?” inquires the tourist one dark, chilly morning. “Follow the ghosts,” responds the taxi driver, indicating a shadowy parade of overloaded tricycles. “It’s not called the ghost market for nothing!” And indeed, Beijing is nothing if not haunted. Among the soaring skyscrapers, choking exhaust fumes, nonstop traffic jams, and towering monuments, one discovers old Beijing—newly styled, perhaps, but no less present and powerful than in its ancient incarnation. Beijing Time cond...

  6. Timing earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the opening of China’s securities market, there have been a number of bull and bear cycles. This paper discusses how executives use the market timing approach to manage earnings in different cycles to maximize firm value. We find that Chinese listed companies choose to release more earnings during bull markets and this phenomenon is more evident in companies that are more profitable and have higher valuations. We also find that executives who do not release more earnings during bull markets are more likely to be dismissed.

  7. Challenging times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, P.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the natural gas situation in North America was presented with particular focus on Duke Energy's gas Transmission assets; United States and Canada natural gas historical and projected supply and demand; natural gas prices; and liquefied natural gas (LNG) forecasts on the east coast, Gulf Coast, and west coast. The presentation also provided an outlook for the North American pipeline and liquefied natural gas infrastructure as well as an outlook on the northeast coast for natural gas demand, LNG developments, and Duke Energy's response. Lastly, the presentation offered a framework for value chain growth. It was concluded that this is a crucial time for the natural gas industry. tabs., figs

  8. Cloud time

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Cloud’, hailed as a new digital commons, a utopia of collaborative expression and constant connection, actually constitutes a strategy of vitalist post-hegemonic power, which moves to dominate immanently and intensively, organizing our affective political involvements, instituting new modes of enclosure, and, crucially, colonizing the future through a new temporality of control. The virtual is often claimed as a realm of invention through which capitalism might be cracked, but it is precisely here that power now thrives. Cloud time, in service of security and profit, assumes all is knowable. We bear witness to the collapse of both past and future virtuals into a present dedicated to the exploitation of the spectres of both.

  9. Use of Optical and Thermal Sights in Daylight Target Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    having an impact on target detection (see, e.g., Maxey, Ton, War- nick, & Kubala , 1976). Figure 5 provides a clearer indication of target detection... Kubala , A. L. (1976, October). Target presentation methodology for tactical field evaluations. ARI Re- search Problem Review No. 76-11. Mulligan, R

  10. Infrared Methods for Daylight Acquisition of LEO Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Raven is an award-winning optical system design paradigm that couples commercially available hardware and software along with custom data analysis and control software to produce low-cost, autonomous...

  11. The dioxins in broad daylight; Les dioxines au grand jour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claveri, B.; Mersch, J. [BioMonitor, 57 - Florange (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of the Eco-Industries 2000 meeting, the ATEE organized a colloquium on the dioxins in the environment. This book presents the seven papers proposed at this colloquium bringing information on the dioxins and the furans molecular structure, their biological impacts on the environment, the monitoring and regulations in the domain and some example of remedial actions in the metal and wood industry. (A.L.B.)

  12. Dynamic Lighting Concept in Danish Office Environment with Daylight Contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta; Christoffersen, Jens

    positioned ~2 respectively ~4 meters from the window. Both the general lighting and desk lamp could be adjusted in correlated colour temperature (CCT) while the general lighting could also be adjusted in intensity. The study was an extension of previous studies conducted without a desk lamp and with subjects...

  13. Energy consumption of buildings depends on the daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce energy consumption in heated buildings and thus fossil fuels, there is a need for proper modernization of existing buildings and new construction with reduced energy demand. The size and the insulation of windows have a decisive influence on the amount of heat loss. The study looks into the impact of decreased power consumption through optimal use of sunlight through the selection of the size of windows, type of windows, and adjusting the light intensity using an automatic control of lighting according to the amount of sunlight reaching the room. The research related to the differences between the six types of windows in relations to the energy consumption of the building.

  14. Intelligent building envelopes. Architectural concept and applications for daylighting quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyckmans, Annemie

    2005-11-15

    How does an intelligent building envelope manage the variable and sometimes conflictive occupant requirements that arise in a day lit indoor environment. This is the research question that provides the basis for this Ph.D. work. As it touches upon several fields of application, the research question is untangled into four steps, each of which corresponds to a chapter of the thesis. 1) What characterises intelligent behaviour for a building envelope. 2) What characterises indoor day lighting quality. 3) Which functions can an intelligent building envelope be expected to perform in the context of day lighting quality. 4) How are the materials, components and composition of an intelligent building envelope designed to influence this performance. The emphasis is on design, environmental aspects, energy conservation, functional analysis and physical applications.

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis responds to daylight-activated photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enk, C D; Nasereddin, A; Alper, R

    2015-01-01

    : The overall cure rate for DA-PDT was 89% (intention-to-treat cure rate 77%); this was 86% for the hospital-based treatment group and 92% for the self-administered group. CONCLUSIONS: DA-PDT proved to be effective in the treatment of CL caused by L. major and L. tropica. More patients were treated according...... as outcome measures. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with CL (11 Leishmania major and 20 Leishmania tropica) underwent DA-PDT. Fourteen patients were treated in the hospital garden under professional supervision and 17 patients underwent DA-PDT as a self-administered treatment modality at home. Following...

  16. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings

  17. Daylighting Digital Dimmer SBIR Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Morgan [MoJo Labs Inc., Longmont, CO (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The primary focus of the Phase II Development is the implementation of two key technologies, Task To Wall (TTW) Control, and Wand Gesture light dimming control into an easy to use remote for SSL light control, the MoJo Remote. The MoJo Remote product family includes a battery powered wireless remote, a WiFi gateway as well as Mobile Applications for iOS and Android. Specific accomplishments during the second reporting period include: 1. Finalization and implementation of MoJo Remote Accelerometer and capacitive-touch based UI/UX, referred to as the Wand Gesture UI. 2. Issuance of Patent for Wand Gesture UI. 3. Industrial and Mechanical Design for MoJo Remote and MoJo Gateway. 4. Task To Wall implementation and testing in MoJo Remote. 5. Zooming User Interface (ZUI) for the Mobile App implemented on both iOS and Andriod. 6. iOS Mobile app developed to beta level functionality. 7. Initial Development of the Android Mobile Application. 8. Closed loop color control at task (demonstrated at 2016 SSL R&D Workshop). 9. Task To Wall extended to Color Control, working in simulation. 10. Beta testing begun in Late 2017/Early 2018. The MoJo Remote integrates the Patented TTW Control and the Wand Gesture innovative User Interface, and is currently in Beta testing and on the path to commercialization.

  18. Daylight performance assessment of an innovative energy efficient building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Casquero Modrego, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are considered to be one of the primary contributors to the socioeconomic development of a country. However, they use a large portion of energy and available natural resources. With the industrialization leading to an increase in urban population, the number of urban buildings which has major effects on energy consumption, has significantly increased. Even with the implementation of energy efficient policies, energy consumption in buildings has regularly grown over the last decad...

  19. Pink Cricket Balls Through Rose-Tinted Glasses: Enhancing Interceptive Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Joshua M; Arnold, Derek H

    2017-01-01

    Cricket is a popular but potentially dangerous sport. It is played with a hard ball that can travel at great speeds. Serious injuries, including fatalities, have occurred when balls have struck participants. The game is traditionally played during daylight with a dark red ball, but recent games have been played during the day and at night using a 'pink' ball. We have reported data that seemed to justify concerns raised regarding the visibility of these new pink balls, as they were revealed to have a very low luminance contrast against pertinent backgrounds during twilight. Here, we report on the findings of a psychophysical experiment, wherein we mimicked twilight lighting conditions in an interceptive timing experiment using a pink moving disc as an analogue for pink cricket balls. We show that interceptive timing performance is diminished in conditions that mimic twilight. More importantly, we show that wearing glasses with a rose-tinted filter can alleviate this adverse impact by enhancing the luminance contrast of the pink 'ball' relative to pertinent backgrounds.

  20. Association of Light Exposure on Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aggio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate whether light exposure was associated with objectively measured physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviour in young people. Methods: Participants (n = 229, 46.7% female were young people (mean 8.8 years [SD ± 2.2] from the borough of Camden, UK. Daily sedentary time, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA and light exposure were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer with an ambient light sensor during the summer. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between average daily light exposure, sedentary time and time in MVPA. Models were repeated investigating weekdays and weekend days separately. Analyses were adjusted for pre-specified covariables, including age, sex, device wear time, ethnic group, school and body fat. Results: There were significant associations between average daily light exposure and time sedentary (β coefficient = −11.2, 95% CI, −19.0 to −3.4 and in MVPA (β coefficient = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.9. Light exposure was significantly associated with weekend sedentary time (β coefficient = −10.0, 95% CI, −17.6, −2.4, weekend MVPA (β coefficient = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.7, 5.7, weekday sedentary time (β coefficient = −15.0, 95% CI, −22.7 to −7.2, but not weekday MVPA (β coefficient = 2.0, 95% CI, −0.5 to 4.5. Conclusion: Average daily light exposure is positively associated with time in MVPA and negatively associated with sedentary time. Increasing daylight exposure may be a useful intervention strategy for promoting physical activity.

  1. Effect of mobile phone proliferation on crash notification times and fatality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickles, Jimmy L; Kempema, James M; Brown, Lawrence H

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether increased proliferation of mobile telephones has been associated with decreased MVC notification times and/or decreased MVC fatality rates in the United States (US). We used World Bank annual mobile phone market penetration data and US Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) fatal MVC data for 1994-2014. For each year, phone proliferation was measured as mobile phones per 100 population. FARS data were used to calculate MVC notification time (time EMS notified - time MVC occurred) in minutes, and to determine the MVC fatality rate per billion vehicle miles traveled (BVMT). We used basic vector auto-regression modeling to explore relationships between changes in phone proliferation and subsequent changes in median and 90th percentile MVC notification times, as well as MVC fatality rates. From 1994 to 2014, larger year-over-year increases in phone proliferation were associated with larger decreases in 90th percentile notification times for MVCs occurring during daylight hours (p=0.004) and on the national highway system (p=0.046) two years subsequent, and crashes off the national highway system three years subsequent (p=0.023). There were no significant associations between changes in phone proliferation and subsequent changes in median crash notification times, nor with subsequent changes in MVC fatality rates. Between 1994 and 2014 increased mobile phone proliferation in the U.S. was associated with shorter 90th percentile EMS notification times for some subgroups of fatal MVCs, but not with decreases in median notification times or overall MVC fatality rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. UNKNOWN HISTORY: LE CORBUSIER IN FRONT OF THE ‘ACADEMISM’ OF JAN DE RANITZ IN THE PREPARATIONS FOR THE NEW UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS AT NEW YORK (1946 / Una historia desconocida: Le Corbusier frente al “Academicismo” de Jan De Ranitz (...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Molema

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Soon after the second world war the general assembly of the United Nations decreed that the seat of the organization were to be located in the United States of America. A search commission started a research of the possibilities in this country. The commission amongst others counted three experts: the Frenchman Le Corbusier, the Soviet–Russian Bassov and the Dutchman Jan de Ranitz. Le Corbusier worried about the composition of the commission: “I am obliged to inform you about the characteristic distressing situation here in NY in the commission for the Headquarters of the UN created by one of the members of the commission, that I am part of: the Jenkheer de Ramitz (sic!, who graduated from the university of Delft and tries to get a position from which he may drag down everything into the darkest academic catastrophe.”In this article I will explain what happened in New York in 1946. A fight between big ‘frames of mind’, incapable to butch an inch where it came to principles of town planning.RESUMEN Poco después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas decretó que la sede de la organización debía estar ubicada en los Estados Unidos de América. Una comisión para la búsqueda de un emplazamiento comenzó a investigar las posibilidades de este país. La comisión contó, entre otros, con tres expertos: el francés Le Corbusier, el soviético-ruso Bassov y el neerlandés Jan de Ranitz. Le Corbusier estaba preocupado por la composición de la comisión: “Me veo en la obligación de informarle sobre la angustiosa situación creada aquí en Nueva York en la comisión para la Sede de las Naciones Unidas, provocada por uno de los miembros de la comisión, y de la que yo formo parte: Jenkheer de Ramitz (¡sic!, quien se graduó de la Universidad de Delft y que trata de conseguir una posición desde la que puede arrastrar a todos a la más oscura catástrofe académica”.

  3. Process algebra with timing: Real time and discrete time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Middelburg, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present real time and discrete time versions of ACP with absolute timing and relative timing. The startingpoint is a new real time version with absolute timing, called ACPsat , featuring urgent actions and a delay operator. The discrete time versions are conservative extensions of the discrete

  4. Timing is the elusive connector of dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lones, Joe J.; Lones, Lance

    2014-12-01

    Establishing San Diego as the venue for SPIE annual meetings was an activity loaded with unusual efforts and imagination on the part Joe Yaver, his wife, Anita, and some southern California members. Of interest is the origin (and retention) of SPIE as a name for the organization. Few know the associated logo has real technical meaning. Then there was moving SPIE headquarters to Bellingham, Washington, to complicate things.

  5. REAL-TIME UAV BASED GEOSPATIAL VIDEO INTEGRATED INTO THE FIRE BRIGADES CRISIS MANAGEMENT GIS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Persie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During a fire incident live airborne video offers the fire brigade an additional means of information. Essential for the effective usage of the daylight and infra red video data from the UAS is that the information is fully integrated into the crisis management system of the fire brigade. This is a GIS based system in which all relevant geospatial information is brought together and automatically distributed to all levels of the organisation. In the context of the Dutch Fire-Fly project a geospatial video server was integrated with a UAS and the fire brigades crisis management system, so that real-time geospatial airborne video and derived products can be made available at all levels during a fire incident. The most important elements of the system are the Delftdynamics Robot Helicopter, the Video Multiplexing System, the Keystone geospatial video server/editor and the Eagle and CCS-M crisis management systems. In discussion with the Security Region North East Gelderland user requirements and a concept of operation were defined, demonstrated and evaluated. This article describes the technical and operational approach and results.

  6. Real-time mosaic - rapid response, high resolution imaging from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Curiel, A.; Wazni, M.; Boland, Lee; Davies, Phil; Eves, Stuart; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin

    2004-11-01

    An imaging constellation mission is proposed to provide near-continuous surveillance of regional activity. By introducing a multiple plane constellation of small Earth Observation satellites, it is possible to monitor selected parts of the entire globe several times during daylight. Using off-the-shelf microsatellites ensures the program is responsive in the deployment phase as well as in the operational phase. The paper describes the basic Disaster Monitoring Constellation programme as has been implemented, which already delivers daily imagery. It also describes the system trades of the regional imaging constellations, and outlines the scope of the performance that could be obtained from such a system. A cost model illustrates that the balance between launch and space segment costs must be reached by considering suitable replacement strategies, and that the system is highly sensitive to requirement creep. Finally, it is shown that the use of cost effective, small satellites leads to solutions previously thought to be out of reach of Earth Science and Government customers.

  7. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children's Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Broyles, Stephanie T; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-07-30

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children's health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June-July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5-18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score (BMIz) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth's physical activity and TV viewing.

  8. Does Enhancing Work-Time Control and Flexibility Reduce Turnover? A Naturally Occurring Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Hill, Rachelle

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the turnover effects of an organizational innovation (ROWE-Results Only Work Environment) aimed at moving away from standard time practices to focus on results rather than time spent at work. To model rates of turnover, we draw on survey data from a sample of employees at a corporate headquarters (N = 775) and institutional records of turnover over eight months following the ROWE implementation. We find the odds of turnover are indeed lower for employees participating in the ROWE initiative, which offers employees greater work-time control and flexibility, and that this is the case regardless of employees' gender, age, or family life stage. ROWE also moderates the turnover effects of organizational tenure and negative home-to-work spillover, physical symptoms, and job insecurity, with those in ROWE who report these situations generally less likely to leave the organization. Additionally, ROWE reduces turnover intentions among those remaining with the corporation. This research moves the "opting-out" argument from one of private troubles to an issue of greater employee work-time control and flexibility by showing that an organizational policy initiative can reduce turnover.

  9. Bio-Chemo-Opto-Mechanical (BioCOM) Sensors for Real-Time Characterization for D and D Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thundat, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Basic and applied research will be conducted to develop simple to use chemical and biological sensor chips utilizing bio-chemo-mechanics for real-time, in-situ, detection of technetium, mercury, uranium, and beryllium for deactivation and decommissioning applications. The bio-chemo-opto-mechanical (Bio-COM) chip involves properly fashioned arrays of micromachined silicon cantilevers containing embedded deformable diffraction gratings functionalized with chemically selective coatings. Adsorption of specific molecules on the cantilever array leads to bending, which changes the diffraction of light from the array. The bio-chemo-opto-mechanical (BioCOM) chips will be designed to contain an array of pixels, with each pixel containing an array of microcantilever springs in which one surface is derivatized with either an antibody coating or a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coating for detecting Hg, Be, U(VI), or TcO4-. The BioCOM sensor platform also offers the advantage of simultaneous measurement of many analytes using a single chip. The readout mechanism can be a reflected laser beam, producing a diffraction pattern, or in an ideal case the diffraction of daylight resulting in a change of color. In the latter case the proposed sensors would not require any external power, external or on-board electronics, or fluorescent dyes and associated optics, which will keep its fabrication and operation costs low while making it simple to use for real-time environmental monitoring

  10. Bio-Chemo-Opto-Mechanical (BioCOM) Sensors for Real-Time Characterization for DandD Applications (82799)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    2004-01-01

    Basic and applied research is being conducted to develop simple to use chemical and biological sensor chips utilizing bio-chemo-mechanics for real-time, in-situ, detection of technetium, mercury, uranium, copper, and lead for deactivation and decommissioning applications. The bio-chemo-opto-mechanical (Bio-COM) chip involves properly fashioned arrays of micromachined silicon cantilevers containing embedded deformable diffraction gratings functionalized with chemically selective coatings. Adsorption of specific molecules on the cantilever array leads to bending, which changes the diffraction of light from the array. The biochemo- opto-mechanical (BioCOM) chips will be designed to contain an array of pixels, with each pixel containing an array of microcantilever springs in which one surface is derivatized with either an antibody coating or a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coating for detecting Hg(II), Hg(0), Cu(II), Pb(II), U(VI), or TcO4 -. The BioCOM sensor platform also offers the advantage of simultaneous measurement of many analytes using a single chip. The readout mechanism can be a reflected laser beam, producing a diffraction pattern, or in an ideal case the diffraction of daylight resulting in a change of color. In the latter case the proposed sensors would not require any external power, external or on-board electronics, or fluorescent dyes and associated optics, which will keep its fabrication and operation costs low while making it simple to use for realtime environmental monitoring

  11. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children’s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E. Staiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST versus school holiday (SH: June–July and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406 from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth’s physical activity and TV viewing.

  12. Babies Need Tummy Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not only an ... of your baby’s normal growth. What Is Tummy Time? Tummy Time describes the times when you place ...

  13. REAL TIME INTEGRATION OF FIELD DATA INTO A GIS PLATFORM FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF HYDROLOGICAL EMERGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mangiameli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide series of events requires immediate availability of information and field data to be provided to decision-makers. An example is the necessity of quickly transferring the information acquired from monitoring and alerting sensors or the data of the reconnaissance of damage after a disastrous event to an Emergency Operations Center. To this purpose, we developed an integrated GIS and WebGIS system to dynamically create and populate via Web a database with spatial features. In particular, this work concerns the gathering and transmission of spatial data and related information to the desktop GIS so that they can be displayed and analyzed in real time to characterize the operational scenario and to decide the rescue interventions. As basic software, we used only free and open source: QuantumGIS and Grass as Desktop GIS, Map Server with PMapper application for the Web-Gis functionality and PostGreSQL/PostGIS as Data Base Management System (DBMS. The approach has been designed, developed and successfully tested in the management of GIS-based navigation of an autonomous robot, both to map its trajectories and to assign optimal paths. This paper presents the application of our system to a simulated hydrological event that could interest the province of Catania, in Sicily. In particular, assuming that more teams draw up an inventory of the damage, we highlight the benefits of real-time transmission of the information collected from the field to headquarters.

  14. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, John; Harbour, John; Pavey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  15. Prothrombin time (PT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PT; Pro-time; Anticoagulant-prothrombin time; Clotting time: protime; INR; International normalized ratio ... PT is measured in seconds. Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR ( ...

  16. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  17. Choosing between his time and her time?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    When adding up market work and non-market work, Danish men and women work about the same number of hours per day. While men do the major share of the market work, women do the major share of the non-market work. In this paper, we investigate the interaction between the different time use activities...... for Danish working couples. The analysis is based on the Danish Time Use Survey from 2001, which contains detailed time use information for both spouses. We analyse the time used by each spouse on market work and non-market work, taking the endogeneity of time regressors into account. Non-market work...... consists of both ordinary housework and childcare. We analyse whether these two activities are structurally different by estimating them separately and find strong evidence in favour of this hypothesis. Results show that substitution between time use activities is found both for individuals and between...

  18. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  19. Use of real-time ultrasound during central venous catheter placement: Results of an APSA survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassinger, Melvin S; Renaud, Elizabeth J; Goldin, Adam; Huang, Eunice Y; Russell, Robert T; Streck, Christian J; Tang, Xinyu; Blakely, Martin L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the attitudes and practice patterns of pediatric surgeons regarding use of RTUS with CVC placement. An analytic survey composed of 20 questions was sent via APSA headquarters to all practicing members. Answers were summarized as frequency and percentage. Distributions of answers were compared using the chi-square tests. P-values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. 361 of 1072 members chose to participate for a response rate of 34%. Most placed CVCs into the subclavian veins (SCV) of patients without coagulopathy, with the left SCV chosen approximately four times more often than the right. Conversely, RTUS use at the internal jugular vein (IJV) was significantly greater than that for the SCV (p<0.001). Coagulopathy, multiple previous catheters, and morbid obesity were identified as patient characteristics that would encourage RTUS use. The most commonly cited potential barriers to RTUS use were lack of formal ultrasound training and the belief that ultrasound is not necessary. Variability exists among pediatric surgeons regarding use of RTUS during CVC placement. Additional studies are needed to document actual frequency of use, how RTUS is implemented, and its efficacy of preventing adverse events in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving Customer Waiting Time at a DMV Center Using Discrete-Event Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Virginia's Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) serves a customer base of approximately 5.6 million licensed drivers and ID card holders and 7 million registered vehicle owners. DMV has more daily face-to-face contact with Virginia's citizens than any other state agency [1]. The DMV faces a major difficulty in keeping up with the excessively large customers' arrival rate. The consequences are queues building up, stretching out to the entrance doors (and sometimes even outside) and customers complaining. While the DMV state employees are trying to serve at their fastest pace, the remarkably large queues indicate that there is a serious problem that the DMV faces in its services, which must be dealt with rapidly. Simulation is considered as one of the best tools for evaluating and improving complex systems. In this paper, we use it to model one of the DMV centers located in Norfolk, VA. The simulation model is modeled in Arena 10.0 from Rockwell systems. The data used is collected from experts of the DMV Virginia headquarter located in Richmond. The model created was verified and validated. The intent of this study is to identify key problems causing the delays at the DMV centers and suggest possible solutions to minimize the customers' waiting time. In addition, two tentative hypotheses aiming to improve the model's design are tested and validated.

  1. Shackle in time - time in Shackle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2015-01-01

    GLS Shackle got much and the crucial inspiration from John Maynard Keynes. But that's not all. He took a number of further consequences of Keynes’ thoughts. This implies for example ideal claims to economists - having to deal with both mechanical time and expectational time. In consequence the idea...

  2. Intelligence, Inspection Time, and Decision Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C.; Eysenck, Hans J.

    1993-01-01

    Relationships among Multidimensional Aptitude Battery scores, inspection time, choice reaction time, and the odd-man procedure were investigated for 63 female and 25 male adults. No significant relationships were found for these mental speed measures and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism, and…

  3. Time crystals: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals—the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain. We shall also revisit the original Wilczek’s idea and review strategies aimed at spontaneous breaking of continuous time translation symmetry.

  4. Time in antiquity

    CERN Document Server

    Hannah, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Time in Antiquity explores the different perceptions of time from Classical antiquity, principally through the technology designed to measure, mark or tell time. The material discussed ranges from the sixth century BC in archaic Greece to the 3rd century AD in the Roman Empire, and offers fascinating insights into ordinary people's perceptions of time and time-keeping instruments.

  5. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000355.htm Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...

  6. Is Time Predictability Quantifiable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Computer architects and researchers in the realtime domain start to investigate processors and architectures optimized for real-time systems. Optimized for real-time systems means time predictable, i.e., architectures where it is possible to statically derive a tight bound of the worst......-case execution time. To compare different approaches we would like to quantify time predictability. That means we need to measure time predictability. In this paper we discuss the different approaches for these measurements and conclude that time predictability is practically not quantifiable. We can only...... compare the worst-case execution time bounds of different architectures....

  7. On Time-II: Newton's Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    A study of time in Newtonian physics is presented. Newton's laws of motion, falsifiability and physical theories, laws of motion and law of gravitation, and Laplace's demon are discussed. Short bibliographic sketches of Laplace and Karl Popper are included. (KR)

  8. Did time begin? Will time end?

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2009-01-01

    Did time begin at a Big Bang? Will the present expansion of the universe last for a finite or infinite time? These questions sound philosophical but are becoming, now in the twenty-first century, central to the scientific study of cosmology. The answers, which should become clarified in the next decade or two, could have profound implications for how we see our own role in the universe. Since the original publication of Stephen Hawking's {\\it A Brief History of Time} in 1988, the answers to these questions have progressed as a result of research by the community of active theoretical physicists including myself. To present the underlying ideas requires discussion of a wide range of topics in cosmology, especially the make up of the energy content of the universe. A brief summary of my conclusions, that of three different possibilities concerning the history and future of time, the least likely is the conventional wisdom (time began and will never end) and most likely is a cyclic model (time never begins or en...

  9. Speed Responses to Speed Humps as Affected by Time of Day and Light Conditions on a Residential Road with Light-Emitting Diode (LED Road Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika K. Jägerbrand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The speed-reducing effect of speed humps during darkness is important to ensure a consistent speed reduction and a decreased probability of accidents during darkness. This study examined the effects of speed humps, compared with a control location, on a residential road in Sweden with light-emitting diode (LED street lighting and a 30 km/h posted speed limit. Hypotheses tested were that: (I vehicle speed is higher during daylight than in darkness; (II speed at speed humps is lower than at control locations during both daylight and darkness; (III speed at humps is higher during daylight; (IV vehicle speed at humps is lower when luminance or visibility of the humps is greater; and, (V the road environment of speed humps is perceived as being similar by drivers. The results showed that vehicle speed at the control location was negligibly higher (+0.3 km/h during daylight than in darkness. Speed humps reduced driving speed by 20% when compared with the posted speed limit and the effect was not significantly different between daylight and darkness. Speed reduction for the three speed humps varied between 9% and 29% as compared with the posted speed limit. In this study, the LED road lighting that was placed directly above or in front of the hump achieved the highest luminance. This study could not reveal any significant differences in vehicle speed attributable to light conditions per se.

  10. Talk of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maybe, before we speak of time, or maybe whilst we are speaking of time, or maybe after we have spoken of time, in the various modes of time’s insistence to exist, one should give time to the talk of time. There are various different modes of time’s insistence to exist, such as quantum physics in conversation with relativity theory where time is constructed as a fourth dimension of space. Or there are the modes of time in history, religion, psychology and philosophy, and each of these modes is composed, and composes its own specific object called time, and a particular subject who understands and interprets time in that particular mode. Yet, before, whilst or after these modes of time’s insistence to exist, one should maybe give time to time’s time. Give time for the various times to articulate themselves in the various modes of existence, thereby creating both a whole plurality of differing subjects, as well as plurality of differing objects, all called ‘time’. Once time has been given time to talk its talk, to articulate itself within the various modes, it will be interrupted by the articulations of time in various modes of time still to come. These disruptions of time by time always still to come opens the door for a theological narrative – a narrative on time, but created by the coming of messianic times, interpreted in the mode of hope but also in the mode of a promise from the past.

  11. Capgras' syndrome of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, V M; Warner, N J

    2005-01-01

    The delusion that the usual passage of time has been changed and that time has been interfered with or is repeating itself is rare. Four patients with the delusion of warped time are presented and the significance of the symptom is discussed. The perception of the passage of time and its disorders is discussed.

  12. Time and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    This essay invites reflection on the phenomena of time as it impacts the day-to-day life of teachers. It also explores assumptions about time and teaching in three areas: first, beliefs about the force of time and the teacher's struggle to control it; second, beliefs about the potential of time and the benefits of its passing for teachers and…

  13. Perceptions of Time and Long Time Intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2006-01-01

    There are certainly many perspectives presented in the literature on time and time perception. This contribution has focused on perceptions of the time frames related to risk and danger of radiation from a planned Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuel. Respondents from two municipalities judged SSI's reviews of the entrepreneur's plans and work of high importance, and more important the closer to our time the estimate was given. Similarly were the consequences of potential leakage from a repository perceived as more serious the closer it would be to our time. Judgements of risks related to the storage of spent nuclear fuel were moderately large on the used measurement scales. Experts are experts because they have more knowledge, and in this context they underlined e.g. the importance of reviews of the radiation situation of time periods up to 100,000 years. It was of interest to note that 55% of the respondents from the municipalities did not believe that the future repository would leak radioactivity. They were much more pessimistic with respect to world politics, i.e. a new world war. However, with respect to the seriousness of the consequences given a leakage from the repository, the public group consistently gave high risk estimates, often significantly higher than those of the expert group. The underestimations of time estimates, as seen in the tasks of pinpointing historic events, provide examples of the difficulty of making estimations involving long times. Similar results showed that thinking of 'the future' most often involved about 30 years. On average, people reported memories of about 2.5 generations back in time, and emotional relationships stretching approximately 2.5 generations into the future; 94% of the responses, with respect to how many future generations one had an emotional relationship, were given in the range of 1-5 generations. Similarly, Svenson and Nilsson found the opinion that the current generations' general responsibility for

  14. Perceptions of Time and Long Time Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2006-09-15

    There are certainly many perspectives presented in the literature on time and time perception. This contribution has focused on perceptions of the time frames related to risk and danger of radiation from a planned Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuel. Respondents from two municipalities judged SSI's reviews of the entrepreneur's plans and work of high importance, and more important the closer to our time the estimate was given. Similarly were the consequences of potential leakage from a repository perceived as more serious the closer it would be to our time. Judgements of risks related to the storage of spent nuclear fuel were moderately large on the used measurement scales. Experts are experts because they have more knowledge, and in this context they underlined e.g. the importance of reviews of the radiation situation of time periods up to 100,000 years. It was of interest to note that 55% of the respondents from the municipalities did not believe that the future repository would leak radioactivity. They were much more pessimistic with respect to world politics, i.e. a new world war. However, with respect to the seriousness of the consequences given a leakage from the repository, the public group consistently gave high risk estimates, often significantly higher than those of the expert group. The underestimations of time estimates, as seen in the tasks of pinpointing historic events, provide examples of the difficulty of making estimations involving long times. Similar results showed that thinking of 'the future' most often involved about 30 years. On average, people reported memories of about 2.5 generations back in time, and emotional relationships stretching approximately 2.5 generations into the future; 94% of the responses, with respect to how many future generations one had an emotional relationship, were given in the range of 1-5 generations. Similarly, Svenson and Nilsson found the opinion that the current generations

  15. The Metaphysics of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m a

    2012-03-01

    Events and moments, he thinks, can occur in time in two forms and thus there are two series of time: 1 A series in which two events and moments are ordered as past, present and future, 2 B series in which the events and moments are ordered as a priori and a posterior. The A series is necessary for time because without A series time does not exist. At the same time, A series leads to contradiction and time cannot exist as a real thing. Only one real and non-temporal series, he believes, exists but it appears as time series to us by our perception.

  16. Elementary cycles of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolce Donatello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Elementary particles, i.e. the basic constituents of nature, are characterized by quantum recurrences in time. The flow of time of every physical system can be therefore decomposed in elementary cycles of time. This allows us to enforce the local nature of relativistic time, yielding interesting unified descriptions of fundamental aspects of modern physics, as shown in recent publications. Every particle can be regarded as a reference clock with time resolution of the order of the Compton time particle, many orders of magnitude more accurate than the atomic clocks. Here we report basic implications about the resulting notion of time.

  17. Time in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mayato, R; Egusquiza, I

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of time in quantum mechanics is still an important and challenging open question in the foundation of the theory. This book describes the problems, and the attempts and achievements in defining, formalizing and measuring different time quantities in quantum theory, such as the parametric (clock) time, tunneling times, decay times, dwell times, delay times, arrival times or jump times. This multiauthored book, written as an introductory guide for the non-initiated as well as a useful source of information for the expert, covers many of the open questions. A brief historical overview is to be found in the introduction. It is followed by 12 chapters devoted to conceptual and theoretical investigations as well as experimental issues in quantum-mechanical time measurements. This unique monograph should attract physicists as well as philosophers of science working in the foundations of quantum physics.

  18. Buying time promotes happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Whillans, Ashley V.; Dunn, Elizabeth W.; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I.

    2017-01-01

    Despite rising incomes, people around the world are feeling increasingly pressed for time, undermining well-being. We show that the time famine of modern life can be reduced by using money to buy time. Surveys of large, diverse samples from four countries reveal that spending money on time-saving services is linked to greater life satisfaction. To establish causality, we show that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchas...

  19. Cosmology and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbi Amedeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.

  20. Neuropharmacology of timing and time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, W H

    1996-06-01

    Time is a guiding force in the behavior of all organisms. For both a rat in an experimental setting (e.g. Skinner box) trying to predict when reinforcement will be delivered and a human in a restaurant waiting for his dinner to be served an accurate perception of time is an important determinant of behavior. Recent research has used a combination of pharmacological and behavioral manipulations to gain a fuller understanding of how temporal information is processed. A psychological model of duration discrimination that differentiates the speed of an internal clock used for the registration of current sensory input from the speed of the memory-storage process used for the representation of the durations of prior stimulus events has proven useful in integrating these findings. Current pharmacological research suggests that different stages of temporal processing may involve separate brain regions and be modified by different neurotransmitter systems. For example, the internal clock used to time durations in the seconds-to-minutes range appears linked to dopamine (DA) function in the basal ganglia, while temporal memory and attentional mechanisms appear linked to acetylcholine (ACh) function in the frontal cortex. These two systems are connected by frontal-striatal loops, thus allowing for the completion of the timing sequences involved in duration discrimination.

  1. The direction of time

    CERN Document Server

    Reichenbach, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Ever a source of philosophical conjecture and debate, the concept of time represents the beating heart of physics. This final work by the distinguished physicist Hans Reichenbach represents the culmination and integration of a lifetime's philosophical contributions and inquiries into the analysis of time. The result is an outstanding overview of such qualitative, or topological, attributes of time as order and direction.Beginning with a discussion of the emotive significance of time, Reichenbach turns to an examination of the time order of mechanics, the time direction of thermodynamics and m

  2. Physiologic time: A hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Damien; West, Bruce J.

    2013-06-01

    The scaling of respiratory metabolism with body size in animals is considered by many to be a fundamental law of nature. One apparent consequence of this law is the scaling of physiologic time with body size, implying that physiologic time is separate and distinct from clock time. Physiologic time is manifest in allometry relations for lifespans, cardiac cycles, blood volume circulation, respiratory cycle, along with a number of other physiologic phenomena. Herein we present a theory of physiologic time that explains the allometry relation between time and total body mass averages as entailed by the hypothesis that the fluctuations in the total body mass are described by a scaling probability density.

  3. Timing system observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to augment Synchronized Time Stamp Support authored by Jim Kowalkowski. This document provides additional documentation to clarify and explain software involved in timing operations of the accelerator

  4. Make Time for Breakfast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ideas Make Time for Breakfast Make Time for Breakfast By Dayle Hayes, MS, RD Published November 8, ... and are less likely to be tardy. Eating breakfast also can help children maintain a healthy weight. ...

  5. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  6. Measuring Business Cycle Time

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The business cycle analysis of Arthur F. Burns and Wesley C. Mitchell and the National Bureau of Economic Research presumed that aggregate economic variables evolve on a time scale defined by business cycle turning points rather than by months or quarters. Do macroeconomic variables appear to evolve on an economic rather than a calendar time scale? Evidence presented here suggests that they do. However, the estimated economic time scales are only weakly related to business cycle time scales, ...

  7. Successful time management

    CERN Document Server

    Forsyth, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Packed with tips and techniques, Successful Time Management serves as a guide to reviewing and assessing new work practices to improve time management. It includes great time-saving ideas, practical solutions, checklists, and advice on controlling paperwork, delegating and working with others, prioritizing to focus on key issues, and getting and staying organized. This new third edition contains new practical tips on using email in a time effective manner and dealing with other internet-based tools and apps to help productivity.

  8. Time management and procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    van Eerde, W.; Mumford, M.D.; Frese, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter combines the topics time management and procrastination. Time management is an overarching term derived from popular notions on how to be effective at work. Procrastination has been mainly researched from a personality perspective, addressing the emotional and psychological issues of the phenomenon in more detail. First, I describe time management and procrastination, and next I address interventions that may help people in overcoming procrastination. Studies on time management s...

  9. International atomic time and time transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) keep a central role in the international timekeeping. American Global Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation system that has proven itself to be a reliable source of positioning for both the military community and the civilian community. But, little known by many, is the fact that GPS has proven itself to be an important and valuabe utility to the timekeeping community (Lewandowski et al. 1999). GPS is a versatile and global tool which can be used to both distribute time to an arbitrary number of users and synchronise clocks over large distances with a high degree of precision and accuracy. Similar performance can be obtained with Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS). It is expected in the near future satellites of a new European navigation system GALILEO might bring some important opportunities for international timekeeping. This paper after a brief introduction to international timekeeping focuses on the description of recent progress in time transfer techniques using GNSS satellites.

  10. Buying time promotes happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,

  11. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain

  12. Trends in Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Koen Breedveld; Jos de Haan; Joep de Hart; Frank Huysmans

    2004-01-01

    How do the Dutch spend their time? How much time for example do they devote to remunerated work, care, reading or voluntary work? And: how is time structured in Dutch society? To what extent is Sunday still a special day? The Social and Cultural Planning Office has been participating in a

  13. Construction time of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, João M.L.; Gallinaro, Bruno; Carajilescov, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The construction time of PWRs is studied considering published data about nuclear power plants in the world. For the 268 PWRs in operation in 2010, the mode of the construction time distribution is around 5–6 years, and 80% of the plants were built in less than 120 months. To circumvent the problem of comparing plants with different size we normalized the construction time to plants with 1 GW. We restricted the analysis to 201 PWRs which suffered less from external factors that were beyond the control of the management from 1965 to 2010. The results showed that the normalized construction time did not increase over the years and nor with the plants’ gross power level. The learning rate of the industry regarding normalized construction times showed a reduction with 95% confidence level of about 0.56±0.07 months for each 10 GW of installed capacity. Over the years the normalized construction time decreased and became more predictable. The data showed that countries with more centralized regulatory, construction and operation environments were able to build PWRs in shorter times. Countries less experienced with the nuclear technology built PWRs in longer times. - Highlights: ► The construction time of PWRs is analyzed based on historical data. ► Different factors affecting construction time are considered in the analyses. ► The normalized construction time of PWRs decreased with time and gross power level. ► Countries with more centralized institutions built PWRs more quickly

  14. USAFRICOM Headquarters: The Complexity of Moving the Headquarters to the Continent of Africa and its Impact on the Army’s Organizational Design and Operational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE Strategic Studies by DEVANIE N. JOHNSON, MAJOR, U.S. ARMY B.A...partners: 1. Somalia–fighting piracy 2. South Africa–diplomatic relations 6 3. Liberia–fighting Ebola/UN mission 4. Nigeria– Boko Haram threat...USAFRICOM has five strategic imperatives according to the Army Strategic Studies Institute, they are: 1. Allocate forces to carry out short-term training

  15. Time and man

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, L. R. B

    1978-01-01

    Time and Man focuses on the endeavors of humans to probe the mysteries of time and to elucidate its properties. The discussions are both philosophical and factual in nature and encompass science as well as the physical sciences, biology and related disciplines (for example, evolution), and the humanities (for example, religion). Factual information is presented to help the reader gain a better understanding of the concepts associated with time.Comprised of nine chapters, this volume first considers the passage of time and the experiences which humans associate with the concept of time before r

  16. ITC FOR TIME MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARES VALERICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficient management of time is essential in any profession and in any activity domain. Anybody can increase his capacity to organize his time and get important benefits from it. The way in which one organizes his time will always have a direct impact on the objects of his work (resources and activities, so that it is worth allocating time for developing some instruments and techniques that could help planning and organizing time efficiently and attaining the objectives while meeting the deadlines.

  17. Buying time promotes happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I

    2017-08-08

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands ( n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.

  18. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  19. The representation of time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Olivo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary complexity has changed and conditioned the spatiality. The concept of space is more and more articulated and complex, it is attached to the concept of Time. It is necessary to research constitutives and structural elements of the contemporary Space-Time. The Contemporary needs plan of Time. In the Contemporary “the depth of Time” succeed to the “depth of Space”, and the Project became project of time in different scales, with different shaps, in different ways. In architecture and urbanistic composition everything depends on the measure of time against space. Perhaps, after music, the most perfect metrical expression of time, no other expressive activity requires as specifically characteristic a use of Time, as compositional material, as does the architecture and town-planning scheme.

  20. SNS TIMING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.R.; Oerter, B.; Shea, T.; Sibley, C.

    2001-01-01

    A modern physics facility must synchronize the operation of equipment over a wide area. The primary purpose of the site wide SNS synchronization and timing system is to synchronize the operation of the LINAC, accumulator ring and neutron choppers and to distribute appropriate timing signals to accelerator systems, including the Injector, LINAC, Accumulator Ring and Experimental Facilities. Signals to be distributed include the ring RF clock, real-time timing triggers, machine mode and other informational events. Timing triggers and clocks from the SNS synchronization and timing system are used to synchronize hardware operations including the MEBT beam chopper, RF turn on, synchronous equipment state changes, as well as data acquisition for power supplies and beam diagnostics equipment. This paper will describe the timing equipment being designed for the SNS facility and discuss the tradeoffs between conflicting demands of the accelerator and neutron chopper performance due to AC power grid frequency fluctuations

  1. On Time Performance Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda; Wichner, David; Jakey, Abegael

    2013-01-01

    Within many operations, the pressures for on-time performance are high. Each month, on-time statistics are reported to the Department of Transportation and made public. There is a natural tendency for employees under pressure to do their best to meet these objectives. As a result, pressure to get the job done within the allotted time may cause personnel to deviate from procedures and policies. Additionally, inadequate or unavailable resources may drive employees to work around standard processes that are seen as barriers. However, bypassing practices to enable on-time performance may affect more than the statistics. ASRS reports often highlight on-time performance pressures which may result in impact across all workgroups in an attempt to achieve on-time performance. Reporters often provide in-depth insights into their experiences which can be used by industry to identify and focus on the implementation of systemic fixes.

  2. Peircean diagrams of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Some very good arguments can be given in favor of the Augustinean wisdom, according to which it is impossible to provide a satisfactory definition of the concept of time. However, even in the absence of a proper definition, it is possible to deal with conceptual problems regarding time. It can...... be done in terms of analogies and metaphors. In particular, it is attractive to make use of Peirce's diagrams by means of which various kinds of conceptual experimentation can be carried out. This paper investigates how Peircean diagrams can be used within the study of time. In particular, we discuss 1......) the topological properties of time, 2) the implicative structure in tense logic, 3) the notions of open future and branching time models, and finally 4) tenselogical alternatives to branching time models....

  3. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  4. The TRISTAN timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakawa, Junji; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kawamoto, Takashi; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kikutani, Eiji

    1990-01-01

    The TRISTAN accelerator complex comprises four accelerators: a 200 MeV electron linac for positron production, a 2.5 GeV linac, an 8 GeV accumulation ring (AR) and a 30 GeV main ring (MR). The TRISTAN timing system is divided into fast and slow timing systems. The fast timing system supplies timing signals (fast timing) for devices whose operation is synchronized with bunched beams from either the linac or the AR. These signals are also used in various beam monitors and beam feedback systems. The slow timing system generates trigger signals (slow timing) in order to achieve synchronization between the magnetic field and the rf accelerating voltage of the AR or MR. These triggers are also used for the automatic operation of machines. The TRISTAN timing system fulfills the following features with the required flexibility and extensibility while in the operation mode: (1) the linac gun trigger signals and the AR revolution clock are synchronized within ≅ 100 ps in timing accuracy, and a short pulse (≅ 1.5 ns) from the linac is injected and accumulated into an arbitrarily selected bucket of AR for a long time; (2) bucket matching between the AR and MR is achieved within ±6 ps in timing accuracy and a single bunched beam from the AR is injected into an arbitrarily selected bucket of the MR; (3) the slow timing system manages the operation mode of the AR and MR with both flexibility and extensibility; (4) the synchronization signals are transmitted through coaxial cables over a circumference of 3 km from the main control room. (orig.)

  5. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dong-shan; Gao, Yu-ping; Zhao, Shu-hong

    2017-07-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observations are not evenly sampled, and the internals between two data points range from several hours to more than half a month. Further more, these data sets are sparse. All this makes it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, a cubic spline interpolation is used to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points uniform. Then, the Vondrak filter is employed to smooth the data set, and get rid of the high-frequency noises, and finally the weighted average method is adopted to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The newly released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set is used to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set includes the 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars observed by the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and the 305-meter Arecibo telescope. It is found that the algorithm used in this paper can reduce effectively the influence caused by the noises in pulsar timing residuals, and improve the long-term stability of the ensemble pulsar time scale. Results indicate that the long-term (> 1 yr) stability of the ensemble pulsar time scale is better than 3.4 × 10-15.

  6. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  7. Time functions revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Albert

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.

  8. Variable camshaft timing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfield, R.P.; Smith, F.R.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes an improvement in a variable camshaft timing system for an internal combustion engine having intake and exhaust valves and a camshaft for each of the intake and exhaust valves, an intake sprocket and an exhaust sprocket keyed to their respective camshaft, only one of the camshafts being directly driven by an engine crankshaft, and a timing chain engaging both sprockets. The improvement comprising a single bracket carrying at least one idler sprocket engaging the timing chain, the bracket being mounted for movement to alter the timing relationship between the intake and exhaust sprockets.

  9. Space, Time and Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Galilean relativity; inertial frames; Newtonian mechanics; Maxwell electromagnetism; special relativity; non Euclidean geometry; principle of equiva ence; general relativity; absolute space and time.

  10. Time-varying BRDFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  11. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  12. Socioeconomic position and childhood sedentary time: evidence from the PEACH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsford, Richard M; Griew, Pippa; Page, Angie S; Cooper, Ashley R; Hillsdon, Melvyn M

    2013-09-04

    Associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and sedentary behaviour in children are unclear. Existing studies have used aggregate measures of weekly sedentary time that could mask important differences in the relationship between SEP and sedentary time at different times of the day or between weekdays and weekend days. These studies have also employed a variety of measures of SEP which may be differentially associated with sedentary time. This paper examines associations of multiple indicators of SEP and accelerometer-measured, temporally specific, sedentary time in school children. Between 2006 and 2007 sedentary time data (minutes spent below 100 accelerometer counts per minute) for weekdays before-school (7.00-8.59AM), during school-time (9.00AM-2.59PM) and after-school (3.00PM-11.00PM), and weekend days were recorded for 629 10-11 year old children using accelerometers. Ordinary least squares regression was used to examine associations with 5 indicators of SEP (area deprivation, annual household income, car ownership, parental education and access to a private garden). Covariates were; gender, BMI, minutes of daylight, accelerometer wear time and school travel method. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Following adjustments for covariates, having a parent educated to university degree level was associated with more minutes of school (5.87 [95% CI 1.72, 10.04]) and after-school (6.04 [95% CI 0.08, 12.16]) sedentary time. Quartiles of area deprivation (most to least deprived) were positively associated with after-school (Q2: 4.30 [95% CI -6.09, 14.70]; Q3: 10.77 [95% CI 0.47, 21.06]; Q4: 12.74 [95% CI 2.65, 22.84]; P(trend) = 0.04) and weekend (Q2: 26.34 [95% CI 10.16, 42.53]; Q3: 33.28 [95% CI 16.92, 49.65]; Q4: 29.90 [95% CI 14.20, 45.60]; P(trend) = 0.002) sedentary time. Having a garden was associated with less sedentary time after-school (-14.39 [95% CI -25.14, -3.64]) and at weekends (-27.44 [95% CI -43.11, -11.78]). Associations between SEP and

  13. More Recess Time, Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rong; Coward, Fanni Liu

    2015-01-01

    Students in Shanghai, China, get much more recess time than their U.S. counterparts throughout their education. As U.S. education reform efforts seek ways of raising achievement, they have begun replacing recess with academic time. The lesson from Shanghai is that this may not be the best strategy. But whether the Shanghai system of more and…

  14. Values in Time Discounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heilmann (Conrad)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractControversies about time discounting loom large in decisions about climate change. Prominently, a particularly controversial debate about time discounting in climate change decision-making has been conducted within climate economics, between the authors of Stern et al. (Stern review on

  15. Time Here, Time There, Time Everywhere: Teaching Young Children Time through Daily Routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Lee, Joo Ok; Fox, Jill

    2009-01-01

    According to Piaget, 5- or 6-year-old children gradually acquire the concept of time based on events (Piaget, 1969). In his experiment of investigating children's time concepts, Piaget found that children of these ages were able to place pictures based on sequential events with some errors; the younger children made more errors. The National…

  16. Time management and procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, W.; Mumford, M.D.; Frese, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter combines the topics time management and procrastination. Time management is an overarching term derived from popular notions on how to be effective at work. Procrastination has been mainly researched from a personality perspective, addressing the emotional and psychological issues of

  17. Fragments of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Time travel films necessarily fragment linear narratives, as scenes are revisited with differences from the first time we saw it. Popular films such as Back to the Future mine comedy from these visitations, but there are many different approaches. One extreme is Chris Marker's La Jetée - a film...

  18. Time and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Theresa Julia; Brooks, David W.; Crippen, Kent J.; March, Joe L.

    2001-06-01

    Time management is an important issue for teachers and students. This article discusses teachers' use of time from the perspective of curriculum and instruction. Average high school students spend fewer than 5 hours per week in outside-of-class study; average college students spend about 20 hours. Procrastination, often viewed in a negative light by teachers, usually pays off so well for college students that seniors become better at it than freshmen. Three suggestions for designing instruction are: test early and often; do not waste the best students' time in an effort to improve overall performance; and use engaging activities that motivate students to give of their time. The impact of computers on curricula is a double-edged sword. Time must be devoted to teaching the use of applications, but the programs reduce busywork. Will this turn out to be a simple tradeoff, or will the programs make us much more efficient so that less time is required? Will computer programs ultimately lead to an expanded criterion for expertise, thus demanding even more time to become an expert? These issues are described and suggestions for controlling time during instruction are provided.

  19. Outwitting the Time Thieves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, Judith K.

    1985-01-01

    Tips to help music teachers develop time-management skills are presented. These include setting personal goals, keeping a time log, fighting procrastination, controlling interruptions, endorsing the art of selective omission, increasing delegation, self-pacing, practicing wastebasketry, and economizing work habits. (RM)

  20. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  1. Space, Time and Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We will try to describe these changes. ~ginning with earlier ideas ... various states of relative motion, each with a global space-time ... planetary system, provided that we neglect the perturbations due to the sun and planets". - Einstein. GENERAL I ARTICLE planet Mars are known with great accuracy, including the time of its ...

  2. Time Will Tell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2017-01-01

    in the neighbourhood, as credit credit cards are locked in a punctuated time, where dates are crucial. Using an episode that I happened to be part of as point of departure, I argue that decepção is the estrangement experienced, when a moment of trust is thrown back upon you, distorted by the process of time....

  3. Shackle in Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2016-01-01

    GLS Shackle got much and the crucial inspiration from John Maynard Keynes. But that’s not all. He took a number of further consequences of Keynes’ thoughts. This implies for example ideal claims to economists — having to deal with both mechanical time and expectational time. In consequence the idea...

  4. The metrology of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Elisa Felicitas

    2005-09-15

    Measuring time is a continuous activity, an international and restless enterprise hidden in time laboratories spread all over the planet. The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures is charged with coordinating activities for international timekeeping and it makes use of the world's capacity to produce a remarkably stable and accurate reference time-scale. Commercial atomic clocks beating the second in national laboratories can reach a stability of one part in 10(14) over a 5 day averaging time, compelling us to research the most highly performing methods of remote clock comparison. The unit of the international time-scale is the second of the International System of Units, realized with an uncertainty of the order 10(-15) by caesium fountains. Physicists in a few time laboratories are making efforts to gain one order of magnitude in the uncertainty of the realization of the second, and more refined techniques of time and frequency transfer are in development to accompany this progress. Femtosecond comb technology will most probably contribute in the near future to enhance the definition of the second with the incorporation of optical clocks. We will explain the evolution of the measuring of time, current state-of-the-art measures and future challenges.

  5. Preemption and entry timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier; Teece, D.; Augier, M.

    2013-01-01

    Entry timing research examines how firm performance varies, possibly non-monotonically, with the order (also known as order of entry) or elapsed time since first entry into a new market. While the pre-emption literature in economics focuses on assumptions for a first entrant to monopolize a market,

  6. Trauma resuscitation time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olden, G.D.J. van; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.; Goris, R.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Documenting the timing and organisation of trauma resuscitation can be utilised to assess performance standards, and to ensure a high quality of trauma resuscitation procedures. Since there is no European literature available on trauma resuscitation time (TRT) in the emergency room, the aim of this

  7. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  8. Leisure Time Invention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.; Davis, Jerome D.; Hoisl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    by adding to the discussion of how access to and exploitation of different types of resources—during work hours or during leisure time — may affect creativity. Based on survey data from more than 3,000 inventions from German employee inventors, we find that leisure time inventions are more frequently......This paper studies the contextual factors that influence whether invention occurs during work time or leisure time. Leisure time invention, a potentially important but thus far largely unexplored source of employee creativity, refers to invention where the main underlying idea occurs while...... the employee is away from the workplace. We build on existing theory in the fields of organizational creativity and knowledge recombination, especially work relating context to creativity. The paper’s main theoretical contribution is to extend our understanding of the boundaries of employee creativity...

  9. Fast timing discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The processing of pulses with very fast risetimes for timing purposes involves many problems because of the large equivalent bandwidths involved. For pulses with risetimes in the 150 ps range (and full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 400 ps) bandwidths in excess of 1GHz are required. Furthermore, these very narrow pulses with current amplitudes as small as 1 mA carry very small charges ( -12 coulomb), therefore, requiring very sensitive trigger circuits. The difficulty increases when timing characteristics in the picosecond range are sought especially when a wide input signal amplitude range causes a time-walk problem. The fast timing discriminator described has a time-walk of approximately +-75 ps over the input signal range from 80 mV to 3V. A schematic of the discriminator is included, and operation and performance are discussed

  10. Electrodynamics and Time Orientability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mark J.

    2017-06-01

    On spacetimes that are not time orientable we construct a U(1) bundle to measure the twisting of the time axis. This single assumption, and simple construction, gives rise to Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the Lorentz force law and the Einstein-Maxwell equations for electromagnetism coupled to General relativity. The derivations follow the Kaluza Klein theory, but with the constraints required for connections on a U(1) bundle rather than five spacetime dimensions. The non time orientability is seen to justify and constrain Kaluza Klein theories exactly as required to unify gravitation with electromagnetism. Unlike any other schemes, apparent net electric charges arise naturally because the direction of the electric field reverses along a time reversing path. The boundary of a time reversing region can therefore have a net electric flux and appear exactly as a region containing an electric charge. The treatment is purely classical, but motivated by links between acausal structures and quantum theory.

  11. Time-interpolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, M. de; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a time-interpolator with which time differences can be measured using digital and analog techniques. It concerns a maximum measuring time of 6.4 μs with a resolution of 100 ps. Use is made of Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) and analogues of high-frequency techniques. The difficulty which accompanies the use of ECL-logic is keeping as short as possible the mutual connections and closing properly the outputs in order to avoid reflections. The digital part of the time-interpolator consists of a continuous running clock and logic which converts an input signal into a start- and stop signal. The analog part consists of a Time to Amplitude Converter (TAC) and an analog to digital converter. (author). 3 refs.; 30 figs

  12. Time for memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    This article is a continuous dialogue on memory triggered by Brockmeier’s (2010) article. I drift away from the conventionalization of the archive as a spatial metaphor for memory in order to consider the greater possibility of “time” for conceptualizing memory. The concept of time is central...... to understanding the nature of human experience as a process in which a constant flux of change in organism, cultural and social practices is observed. Two categories of time have been explored, firstly the Aristotelian, physical time for an experimental paradigm, and secondly, the way in which we experience time...... in terms of autobiographical memory. The second category of time is discussed, drawing on Augustine and Bergson amongst others. Bergson’s notion of duration has been considered as a promising concept for a better understanding of autobiographical memory. Psychological phenomena such as autobiographical...

  13. Time, money, and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Mogilner, Cassie

    2014-02-01

    Money, a resource that absorbs much daily attention, seems to be involved in much unethical behavior, which suggests that money itself may corrupt. This research examined a way to offset such potentially deleterious effects-by focusing on time, a resource that tends to receive less attention than money but is equally ubiquitous in daily life. Across four experiments, we examined whether shifting focus onto time can salvage individuals' ethicality. We found that implicitly activating the construct of time, rather than money, leads individuals to behave more ethically by cheating less. We further found that priming time reduces cheating by making people reflect on who they are. Implications for the use of time primes in discouraging dishonesty are discussed.

  14. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  15. Forbidden time travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Nikolai; Geiß, Manuela; Merkle, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    tree T with a species trees S, relative to the reconciliation problem without prior knowledge of the event types. It is well-known that optimal reconciliations in the unlabeled case may violate time-consistency and thus are not biologically feasible. Here we investigate the mathematical structure...... of the event labeled reconciliation problem with horizontal transfer. Results: We investigate the issue of time-consistency for the event-labeled version of the reconciliation problem, provide a convenient axiomatic framework, and derive a complete characterization of time-consistent reconciliations....... This characterization depends on certain weak conditions on the event-labeled gene trees that reflect conditions under which evolutionary events are observable at least in principle. We give an O(|V (T)| log(|V (S)|))-time algorithm to decide whether a time-consistent reconciliation map exists. It does not require...

  16. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  17. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  18. Digital time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  19. Construction time of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The cost of electricity generated by nuclear power is greatly affected by the capital cost, which is dependent on the construction time of the plant. This work analyses the construction time of PWRs in several countries with different market structure and licensing experience. Countries which succeeded to establish a more collaborative environment among utilities, constructors, regulators, and energy planners through effective partnerships were able to build PWRs in shorter times. The construction time in Germany, France and Russia was around 80 months and in Japan, about 60 months. The envelope of 95% of the cases includes a range between 50 and 250 months of construction time. The evaluations show that construction time of PWRs has been longer for countries that did not hold the technology to build their own reactors, and depended on contracts with foreign suppliers. The nominal power of the reactors was considered a measure of plant size, technology complexity and standardization. Countries with standardized reactor designs (France, Japan and Russia) were able to build plants in shorter times. (author)

  20. Parallel time integration software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-01

    This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds must come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.