Time-Dependent Variations of Accretion Disk
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Hye-Weon Na
1987-06-01
Full Text Available In dward nova we assume the primary star as a white dwarf and the secondary as the late type star which filled Roche lobe. Mass flow from the secondary star leads to the formation of thin accretion disk around the white dwarf. We use the α parameter as viscosity to maintain the disk form and propose that the outburst in dwarf nova cause the steep increase of source term. With these assumptions we solve the basic equations of stellar structure using Newton-Raphson method. We show the physical parameters like temperature, density, pressure, opacity, surface density, height and flux to the radius of disk. Changing the value of α, we compare several parameters when mass flow rate is constant with those of when luminosity of disk is brightest. At the same time, we obtain time-dependent variations of luminosity and mass of disk. We propose the suitable range of α is 0.15-0.18 to the difference of luminosity. We compare several parameters of disk with those of the normal late type stars which have the same molecular weight of disk is lower. Maybe the outburst in dwarf nova is due to the variation of the α value instead of increment of mass flow from the secondary star.
BEC from a time-dependent variational point of view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benarous, Mohamed
2005-01-01
We use the time-dependent variational principle of Balian and Veneroni to derive a set of equations governing the dynamics of a trapped Bose gas at finite temperature. We show that this dynamics generalizes the Gross-Pitaevskii equations in that it introduces a consistent dynamical coupling between the evolution of the condensate density, the thermal cloud, and the 'anomalous' density
Time dependent variation of carrying capacity of prestressed precast beam
Le, Tuan D.; Konečný, Petr; Matečková, Pavlína
2018-04-01
The article deals with the evaluation of the precast concrete element time dependent carrying capacity. The variation of the resistance is inherited property of laboratory as well as in-situ members. Thus the specification of highest, yet possible, laboratory sample resistance is important with respect to evaluation of laboratory experiments based on the test machine loading capabilities. The ultimate capacity is evaluated through the bending moment resistance of a simply supported prestressed concrete beam. The probabilistic assessment is applied. Scatter of random variables of compressive strength of concrete and effective height of the cross section is considered. Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to investigate the performance of the cross section of the beam with changes of tendons’ positions and compressive strength of concrete.
Skinner-Rusk approach to time-dependent mechanics
Cortés, Jorge; Martínez, Sonia; Cantrijn, Frans
2002-01-01
The geometric approach to autonomous classical mechanical systems in terms of a canonical first-order system on the Whitney sum of the tangent and cotangent bundle, developed by Skinner and Rusk, is extended to the time-dependent framework.
Derivation of an adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock formalism from a variational principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brink, D.M.; Giannoni, M.J.; Veneroni, M.
1975-10-01
A derivation of the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock formalism is given, which is based on a variational principle analogous to Hamilton's principle in classical mechanics. The method leads to a Hamiltonian for collective motion which separates into a potential and a kinetic energy and gives mass and potential parameters in terms of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The adiabatic approximation assumes slow motion but not small amplitudes and can therefore describe anharmonic effects. The RPA is a limiting case where both amplitudes and velocities are small. The variational approach provides a consistent way of extracting coordinated and momenta from the density matrix and of obtaining equations of motion when particular trial forms for this density matrix are chosen. One such choice leads to Thouless-Valatin formula. An other choice leads to irrotational hydrodynamics [fr
Theoretical information measurement in nonrelativistic time-dependent approach
Najafizade, S. A.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.
2018-02-01
The information-theoretic measures of time-dependent Schrödinger equation are investigated via the Shannon information entropy, variance and local Fisher quantities. In our calculations, we consider the two first states n = 0,1 and obtain the position Sx (t) and momentum Sp (t) Shannon entropies as well as Fisher information Ix (t) in position and momentum Ip (t) spaces. Using the Fourier transformed wave function, we obtain the results in momentum space. Some interesting features of the information entropy densities ρs (x,t) and γs (p,t), as well as the probability densities ρ (x,t) and γ (p,t) for time-dependent states are demonstrated. We establish a general relation between variance and Fisher's information. The Bialynicki-Birula-Mycielski inequality is tested and verified for the states n = 0,1.
New constraints on time-dependent variations of fundamental constants using Planck data
Hart, Luke; Chluba, Jens
2018-02-01
Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) today allow us to answer detailed questions about the properties of our Universe, targeting both standard and non-standard physics. In this paper, we study the effects of varying fundamental constants (i.e. the fine-structure constant, αEM, and electron rest mass, me) around last scattering using the recombination codes COSMOREC and RECFAST++. We approach the problem in a pedagogical manner, illustrating the importance of various effects on the free electron fraction, Thomson visibility function and CMB power spectra, highlighting various degeneracies. We demonstrate that the simpler RECFAST++ treatment (based on a three-level atom approach) can be used to accurately represent the full computation of COSMOREC. We also include explicit time-dependent variations using a phenomenological power-law description. We reproduce previous Planck 2013 results in our analysis. Assuming constant variations relative to the standard values, we find the improved constraints αEM/αEM, 0 = 0.9993 ± 0.0025 (CMB only) and me/me, 0 = 1.0039 ± 0.0074 (including BAO) using Planck 2015 data. For a redshift-dependent variation, αEM(z) = αEM(z0) [(1 + z)/1100]p with αEM(z0) ≡ αEM, 0 at z0 = 1100, we obtain p = 0.0008 ± 0.0025. Allowing simultaneous variations of αEM(z0) and p yields αEM(z0)/αEM, 0 = 0.9998 ± 0.0036 and p = 0.0006 ± 0.0036. We also discuss combined limits on αEM and me. Our analysis shows that existing data are not only sensitive to the value of the fundamental constants around recombination but also its first time derivative. This suggests that a wider class of varying fundamental constant models can be probed using the CMB.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akanda Md. Abdus Salam
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities and time dependence are fundamentally important for estimating the closed animal population parameters in capture-recapture studies. A generalized estimating equations (GEE approach accounts for linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions, and individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities in a closed population capture-recapture individual heterogeneity and time variation model. The estimated capture probabilities are used to estimate animal population parameters. Two real data sets are used for illustrative purposes. A simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of the GEE estimator. A Quasi-Likelihood Information Criterion (QIC is applied for the selection of the best fitting model. This approach performs well when the estimated population parameters depend on the individual heterogeneity and the nature of linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions.
Low Energy Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate: A Time-Dependent Variational Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Garcia, V.M.; Michinel, H.; Cirac, J.; Lewenstein, M.; Zoller, P. [Departamento de Matematicas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]|[Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E. U. Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]|[Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de CC. Quimicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)]|[Comissariat a l`Energie Atomique, DSM/DRECAM/SPAM, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
1996-12-01
We solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation by a variational ansatz to calculate the excitation spectrum of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a trap. The trial wave function is a Gaussian which allows an essentially analytical treatment of the problem. Our results reproduce numerical calculations over the whole range from small to large particle numbers, and agree exactly with the Stringari results in the strong interaction limit. Excellent agreement is obtained with the recent JILA experiment and predictions for the negative scattering length case are also made. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Carleo, Giuseppe; Cevolani, Lorenzo; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Holzmann, Markus
2017-07-01
We introduce the time-dependent variational Monte Carlo method for continuous-space Bose gases. Our approach is based on the systematic expansion of the many-body wave function in terms of multibody correlations and is essentially exact up to adaptive truncation. The method is benchmarked by comparison to an exact Bethe ansatz or existing numerical results for the integrable Lieb-Liniger model. We first show that the many-body wave function achieves high precision for ground-state properties, including energy and first-order as well as second-order correlation functions. Then, we study the out-of-equilibrium, unitary dynamics induced by a quantum quench in the interaction strength. Our time-dependent variational Monte Carlo results are benchmarked by comparison to exact Bethe ansatz results available for a small number of particles, and are also compared to quench action results available for noninteracting initial states. Moreover, our approach allows us to study large particle numbers and general quench protocols, previously inaccessible beyond the mean-field level. Our results suggest that it is possible to find correlated initial states for which the long-term dynamics of local density fluctuations is close to the predictions of a simple Boltzmann ensemble.
Fujihashi, Yuta; Wang, Lu; Zhao, Yang
2017-12-01
Recent advances in quantum optics allow for exploration of boson dynamics in dissipative many-body systems. However, the traditional descriptions of quantum dissipation using reduced density matrices are unable to capture explicit information of bath dynamics. In this work, efficient evaluation of boson dynamics is demonstrated by combining the multiple Davydov Ansatz with finite-temperature time-dependent variation, going beyond what state-of-the-art density matrix approaches are capable to offer for coupled electron-boson systems. To this end, applications are made to excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic systems, singlet fission in organic thin films, and circuit quantum electrodynamics in superconducting devices. Thanks to the multiple Davydov Ansatz, our analysis of boson dynamics leads to clear revelation of boson modes strongly coupled to electronic states, as well as in-depth description of polaron creation and destruction in the presence of thermal fluctuations.
Pricing multi-asset financial derivatives with time-dependent parameters—Lie algebraic approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. F. Lo
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We present a Lie algebraic technique for the valuation of multi-asset financial derivatives with time-dependent parameters. Exploiting the dynamical symmetry of the pricing partial differential equations of the financial derivatives, the new method enables us to derive analytical closed-form pricing formulae very straightforwardly. We believe that this new approach will provide an efficient and easy-to-use method for the valuation of financial derivatives.
A consistent approach for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards
Karlis, A. K.; Diakonos, F. K.; Constantoudis, V.
2012-06-01
The standard description of Fermi acceleration, developing in a class of time-dependent billiards, is given in terms of a diffusion process taking place in momentum space. Within this framework, the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the magnitude of particle velocities as a function of the number of collisions n is determined by the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE). In the literature, the FPE is constructed by identifying the transport coefficients with the ensemble averages of the change of the magnitude of particle velocity and its square in the course of one collision. Although this treatment leads to the correct solution after a sufficiently large number of collisions have been reached, the transient part of the evolution of the PDF is not described. Moreover, in the case of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM), if a standard simplification is employed, the solution of the FPE is even inconsistent with the values of the transport coefficients used for its derivation. The goal of our work is to provide a self-consistent methodology for the treatment of Fermi acceleration in time-dependent billiards. The proposed approach obviates any assumptions for the continuity of the random process and the existence of the limits formally defining the transport coefficients of the FPE. Specifically, we suggest, instead of the calculation of ensemble averages, the derivation of the one-step transition probability function and the use of the Chapman-Kolmogorov forward equation. This approach is generic and can be applied to any time-dependent billiard for the treatment of Fermi-acceleration. As a first step, we apply this methodology to the FUM, being the archetype of time-dependent billiards to exhibit Fermi acceleration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Nabert
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with a planetary magnetic field causes electrical currents that modify the magnetic field distribution around the planet. We present an approach to estimating the planetary magnetic field from in situ spacecraft data using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation approach. The method is developed with respect to the upcoming BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury aimed at determining the planet's magnetic field and its interior electrical conductivity distribution. In contrast to the widely used empirical models, global MHD simulations allow the calculation of the strongly time-dependent interaction process of the solar wind with the planet. As a first approach, we use a simple MHD simulation code that includes time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field parameters. The planetary parameters are estimated by minimizing the misfit of spacecraft data and simulation results with a gradient-based optimization. As the calculation of gradients with respect to many parameters is usually very time-consuming, we investigate the application of an adjoint MHD model. This adjoint MHD model is generated by an automatic differentiation tool to compute the gradients efficiently. The computational cost for determining the gradient with an adjoint approach is nearly independent of the number of parameters. Our method is validated by application to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms magnetosheath data to estimate Earth's dipole moment.
Integral equation approach to time-dependent kinematic dynamos in finite domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Mingtian; Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter
2004-01-01
The homogeneous dynamo effect is at the root of cosmic magnetic field generation. With only a very few exceptions, the numerical treatment of homogeneous dynamos is carried out in the framework of the differential equation approach. The present paper tries to facilitate the use of integral equations in dynamo research. Apart from the pedagogical value to illustrate dynamo action within the well-known picture of the Biot-Savart law, the integral equation approach has a number of practical advantages. The first advantage is its proven numerical robustness and stability. The second and perhaps most important advantage is its applicability to dynamos in arbitrary geometries. The third advantage is its intimate connection to inverse problems relevant not only for dynamos but also for technical applications of magnetohydrodynamics. The paper provides the first general formulation and application of the integral equation approach to time-dependent kinematic dynamos, with stationary dynamo sources, in finite domains. The time dependence is restricted to the magnetic field, whereas the velocity or corresponding mean-field sources of dynamo action are supposed to be stationary. For the spherically symmetric α 2 dynamo model it is shown how the general formulation is reduced to a coupled system of two radial integral equations for the defining scalars of the poloidal and toroidal field components. The integral equation formulation for spherical dynamos with general stationary velocity fields is also derived. Two numerical examples - the α 2 dynamo model with radially varying α and the Bullard-Gellman model - illustrate the equivalence of the approach with the usual differential equation method. The main advantage of the method is exemplified by the treatment of an α 2 dynamo in rectangular domains
Time-dependent evolution of rock slopes by a multi-modelling approach
Bozzano, F.; Della Seta, M.; Martino, S.
2016-06-01
This paper presents a multi-modelling approach that incorporates contributions from morpho-evolutionary modelling, detailed engineering-geological modelling and time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling to analyse the rheological evolution of a river valley slope over approximately 102 kyr. The slope is located in a transient, tectonically active landscape in southwestern Tyrrhenian Calabria (Italy), where gravitational processes drive failures in rock slopes. Constraints on the valley profile development were provided by a morpho-evolutionary model based on the correlation of marine and river strath terraces. Rock mass classes were identified through geomechanical parameters that were derived from engineering-geological surveys and outputs of a multi-sensor slope monitoring system. The rock mass classes were associated to lithotechnical units to obtain a high-resolution engineering-geological model along a cross section of the valley. Time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling reproduced the main morpho-evolutionary stages of the valley slopes. The findings demonstrate that a complex combination of eustatism, uplift and Mass Rock Creep (MRC) deformations can lead to first-time failures of rock slopes when unstable conditions are encountered up to the generation of stress-controlled shear zones. The multi-modelling approach enabled us to determine that such complex combinations may have been sufficient for the first-time failure of the S. Giovanni slope at approximately 140 ka (MIS 7), even without invoking any trigger. Conversely, further reactivations of the landslide must be related to triggers such as earthquakes, rainfall and anthropogenic activities. This failure involved a portion of the slope where a plasticity zone resulted from mass rock creep that evolved with a maximum strain rate of 40% per thousand years, after the formation of a river strath terrace. This study demonstrates that the multi-modelling approach presented herein is a useful
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annamaria Barbagallo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the variational formulation of the oligopolistic market equilibrium problem in presence of both production and demand excesses. In particular, we generalize a previous model in which the authors, instead, considered only the problem with production excesses, by allowing also the presence of demand excesses. First we examine the equilibrium conditions in terms of the well-known dynamic Cournot-Nash principle. Next, the equilibrium conditions will be expressed in terms of Lagrange multipliers by means of the infinite dimensional duality theory. Then, we show the equivalence between the two conditions that are both expressed by an appropriate evolutionary variational inequality. Moreover, thanks to the variational formulation, some existence and regularity results for equilibrium solutions are proved. At last, a numerical example, which illustrates the features of the problem, is provided.
Time-dependent approach for single trial classification of covert visuospatial attention.
Tonin, L; Leeb, R; Del R Millán, J
2012-08-01
Recently, several studies have started to explore covert visuospatial attention as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Covert visuospatial attention represents the ability to change the focus of attention from one point in the space without overt eye movements. Nevertheless, the full potential and possible applications of this paradigm remain relatively unexplored. Voluntary covert visuospatial attention might allow a more natural and intuitive interaction with real environments as neither stimulation nor gazing is required. In order to identify brain correlates of covert visuospatial attention, classical approaches usually rely on the whole α-band over long time intervals. In this work, we propose a more detailed analysis in the frequency and time domains to enhance classification performance. In particular, we investigate the contribution of α sub-bands and the role of time intervals in carrying information about visual attention. Previous neurophysiological studies have already highlighted the role of temporal dynamics in attention mechanisms. However, these important aspects are not yet exploited in BCI. In this work, we studied different methods that explicitly cope with the natural brain dynamics during visuospatial attention tasks in order to enhance BCI robustness and classification performances. Results with ten healthy subjects demonstrate that our approach identifies spectro-temporal patterns that outperform the state-of-the-art classification method. On average, our time-dependent classification reaches 0.74 ± 0.03 of the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC) value with an increase of 12.3% with respect to standard methods (0.65 ± 0.4). In addition, the proposed approach allows faster classification (time intervals. These results support the hypothesis that visual attention information is actually indexed by subject-specific α sub-bands and is time dependent.
Time-dependent approach for single trial classification of covert visuospatial attention
Tonin, L.; Leeb, R.; Millán, J. del R.
2012-08-01
Recently, several studies have started to explore covert visuospatial attention as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Covert visuospatial attention represents the ability to change the focus of attention from one point in the space without overt eye movements. Nevertheless, the full potential and possible applications of this paradigm remain relatively unexplored. Voluntary covert visuospatial attention might allow a more natural and intuitive interaction with real environments as neither stimulation nor gazing is required. In order to identify brain correlates of covert visuospatial attention, classical approaches usually rely on the whole α-band over long time intervals. In this work, we propose a more detailed analysis in the frequency and time domains to enhance classification performance. In particular, we investigate the contribution of α sub-bands and the role of time intervals in carrying information about visual attention. Previous neurophysiological studies have already highlighted the role of temporal dynamics in attention mechanisms. However, these important aspects are not yet exploited in BCI. In this work, we studied different methods that explicitly cope with the natural brain dynamics during visuospatial attention tasks in order to enhance BCI robustness and classification performances. Results with ten healthy subjects demonstrate that our approach identifies spectro-temporal patterns that outperform the state-of-the-art classification method. On average, our time-dependent classification reaches 0.74 ± 0.03 of the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC) value with an increase of 12.3% with respect to standard methods (0.65 ± 0.4). In addition, the proposed approach allows faster classification (<1 instead of 3 s), without compromising performances. Finally, our analysis highlights the fact that discriminant patterns are not stable for the whole trial period but are changing over short time
Self-consistent RPA and the time-dependent density matrix approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, Grenoble (France); Tohyama, M. [Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)
2016-10-15
The time-dependent density matrix (TDDM) or BBGKY (Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, Yvon) approach is decoupled and closed at the three-body level in finding a natural representation of the latter in terms of a quadratic form of two-body correlation functions. In the small amplitude limit an extended RPA coupled to an also extended second RPA is obtained. Since including two-body correlations means that the ground state cannot be a Hartree-Fock state, naturally the corresponding RPA is upgraded to Self-Consistent RPA (SCRPA) which was introduced independently earlier and which is built on a correlated ground state. SCRPA conserves all the properties of standard RPA. Applications to the exactly solvable Lipkin and the 1D Hubbard models show good performances of SCRPA and TDDM. (orig.)
Model of canonical profiles for time-dependent problems with variation of the total current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dnestrovskii, Yu.D.; Lysenko, S.E.
1992-01-01
The regimes in which the current varies in TFTR, JET, and ASDEX are analyzed. It is shown that the principle of profile consistency holds at the periphery of the plasma column, and the shape of the canonical profile is determined by the value of the safety factor q in the gradient region. A modified transport model is developed for the canonical profiles, which allows the time lag of the energy content of the plasma with relative to the current variation to be explained reasonably. 9 refs., 8 figs
Time-dependent variation of the neutron multiplication factor in spent fuel storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leotlela, M.J. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics; Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa). Regulations and Licensing, Koeberg Operating Unit; Olifant, T. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Nuclear Power Studies; Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, Cape Town (South Africa). Operating Dept.; Petr, I. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics
2017-12-15
After spent fuel assemblies have been discharged from the reactor, reactivity will fluctuate as the cooling period progresses because of changes in the number density of fissile nuclides and neutron absorber nuclides. The purpose of this project was (1) to quantify the contribution of each individual nuclide to the reactivity of the fissile system, (2) to identify nuclides that are responsible for the fluctuation in reactivity, and (3) to determine the effect of the number of nuclides on reactivity. This paper will present the results of the study of the behaviour of the k{sub eff} with respect to variation in the duration of the cooling period during storage.
Garcin, Matthieu
2017-10-01
Hurst exponents depict the long memory of a time series. For human-dependent phenomena, as in finance, this feature may vary in the time. It justifies modelling dynamics by multifractional Brownian motions, which are consistent with time-dependent Hurst exponents. We improve the existing literature on estimating time-dependent Hurst exponents by proposing a smooth estimate obtained by variational calculus. This method is very general and not restricted to the sole Hurst framework. It is globally more accurate and easier than other existing non-parametric estimation techniques. Besides, in the field of Hurst exponents, it makes it possible to make forecasts based on the estimated multifractional Brownian motion. The application to high-frequency foreign exchange markets (GBP, CHF, SEK, USD, CAD, AUD, JPY, CNY and SGD, all against EUR) shows significantly good forecasts. When the Hurst exponent is higher than 0.5, what depicts a long-memory feature, the accuracy is higher.
Time-Dependent Variations in Structure of Sheep Wool Irradiated by Electron Beam
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Zuzana Hanzlíková
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Wool scoured in tap water with no special degreasing and containing a balanced humidity responding to usual laboratory conditions was irradiated by accelerated electron beam in the range of 0–350 kGy dose. Time variations of the wool structure were measured using FTIR, Raman, and EPR spectroscopy. The aim was to determine whether preexposure treatment of the wool, as well as postexposure time, affects the properties of the irradiated wool. Reactive products such as S-sulfonate, cystine monoxide, cystine dioxide, cysteic acid, disulphides, and carboxylates displayed a considerable fluctuation in quantity depending on both the absorbed dose and time. Mutual transformations of S-oxidized products into cysteic acid appeared to be faster than those in dry and degreased wool assuming that the present humidity inside the fibres is decisive as an oxygen source. EPR results indicated a longer lifetime for free radicals induced by lower doses compared with the radicals generated by higher ones. The pattern of the conformational composition of the secondary structure (α-helix, β-sheet, random, and residual conformations also showed a large variability depending on absorbed dose as well as postexposure time. The most stable secondary structure was observed in nonirradiated wool but even this showed a small but observable change after a longer time, too.
On the algebraic approach to the time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urdaneta, Ines; Palma, Alejandro; Sandoval, Lourdes
2010-01-01
The unitary operator V(t) that diagonalizes the time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian (TDQH) into a time-dependent harmonic oscillator (TDHO) is obtained using a Lie algebra. The method involves a factorization of the TDQH into a TDHO through a unitary Bogoliubov transformation in terms of creation and annihilation operators with time-dependent coefficients. It is shown that this operator can be easily achieved by means of the factorization, together with the commonly known Wei-Norman theorem. We discuss the conditions under which this unitary operator converges to the evolution operator U(t) of the Schroedinger equation for the TDQH, giving then a straightforward calculation of the evolution operator with respect to the procedures published in the literature.
On the algebraic approach to the time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urdaneta, Ines; Palma, Alejandro [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Sandoval, Lourdes, E-mail: urdaneta@sirio.ifuap.buap.m [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)
2010-09-24
The unitary operator V(t) that diagonalizes the time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian (TDQH) into a time-dependent harmonic oscillator (TDHO) is obtained using a Lie algebra. The method involves a factorization of the TDQH into a TDHO through a unitary Bogoliubov transformation in terms of creation and annihilation operators with time-dependent coefficients. It is shown that this operator can be easily achieved by means of the factorization, together with the commonly known Wei-Norman theorem. We discuss the conditions under which this unitary operator converges to the evolution operator U(t) of the Schroedinger equation for the TDQH, giving then a straightforward calculation of the evolution operator with respect to the procedures published in the literature.
Time-dependent non-equilibrium dielectric response in QM/continuum approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, Feizhi; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Mennucci, Benedetta, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy)
2015-01-21
The Polarizable Continuum Models (PCMs) are some of the most inexpensive yet successful methods for including the effects of solvation in quantum-mechanical calculations of molecular systems. However, when applied to the electronic excitation process, these methods are restricted to dichotomously assuming either that the solvent has completely equilibrated with the excited solute charge density (infinite-time limit), or that it retains the configuration that was in equilibrium with the solute prior to excitation (zero-time limit). This renders the traditional PCMs inappropriate for resolving time-dependent solvent effects on non-equilibrium solute electron dynamics like those implicated in the instants following photoexcitation of a solvated molecular species. To extend the existing methods to this non-equilibrium regime, we herein derive and apply a new formalism for a general time-dependent continuum embedding method designed to be propagated alongside the solute’s electronic degrees of freedom in the time domain. Given the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the solvent, an equation of motion for the dielectric polarization is derived within the PCM framework and numerically integrated simultaneously with the time-dependent Hartree fock/density functional theory equations. Results for small molecular systems show the anticipated dipole quenching and electronic state dephasing/relaxation resulting from out-of-phase charge fluctuations in the dielectric and embedded quantum system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Carleo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We introduce the time-dependent variational Monte Carlo method for continuous-space Bose gases. Our approach is based on the systematic expansion of the many-body wave function in terms of multibody correlations and is essentially exact up to adaptive truncation. The method is benchmarked by comparison to an exact Bethe ansatz or existing numerical results for the integrable Lieb-Liniger model. We first show that the many-body wave function achieves high precision for ground-state properties, including energy and first-order as well as second-order correlation functions. Then, we study the out-of-equilibrium, unitary dynamics induced by a quantum quench in the interaction strength. Our time-dependent variational Monte Carlo results are benchmarked by comparison to exact Bethe ansatz results available for a small number of particles, and are also compared to quench action results available for noninteracting initial states. Moreover, our approach allows us to study large particle numbers and general quench protocols, previously inaccessible beyond the mean-field level. Our results suggest that it is possible to find correlated initial states for which the long-term dynamics of local density fluctuations is close to the predictions of a simple Boltzmann ensemble.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gavnholt, Jeppe; Rubio, Angel; Olsen, Thomas
2009-01-01
Using time-evolution time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the adiabatic local-density approximation, we study the interactions between single electrons and molecular resonances at surfaces. Our system is a nitrogen molecule adsorbed on a ruthenium surface. The surface is modeled...... at two levels of approximation, first as a simple external potential and later as a 20-atom cluster. We perform a number of calculations on an electron hitting the adsorbed molecule from inside the surface and establish a picture, where the resonance is being probed by the hot electron. This enables us...
Optimal control of interacting particles: a multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mundt, Michael; Tannor, David J
2009-01-01
We combine optimal control theory with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method to control the dynamics of interacting particles. We use the resulting scheme to optimize state-to-state transitions in a one-dimensional (1D) model of helium and to entangle the external degrees-of-freedom of two rubidium atoms in a 1D optical lattice. Comparisons with optimization results based on the exact solution of the Schroedinger equation show that the scheme can be used to optimize even involved processes in systems consisting of interacting particles in a reliable and efficient way.
Time-dependent viscometry study of endoglucanase action on xyloglucan: A real-time approach.
Spier, Vivian Cristina; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Ibrahim, Amid Tony; Scholze Baum, Jéssica C; Silveira, Joana Lea M; de Freitas, Rilton Alves
2015-11-01
Hydrolysis of xyloglucan from Tamarindus indica and Hymenaea courbaril seeds with endoglucanase (EGII), which randomly breaks the (1→4)-linked β-glycosidic bonds of the polymer chain, was monitored in real time using time-dependent viscometry analysis (TDV). For both samples there was a decrease in the intrinsic viscosity ([η]), viscosity average molar mass (Mv), radius de gyration (Rg) and persistence length (Lp) immediately after the addition of the enzyme. It was observed the formation of oligosaccharides and oligomers composed of ∼2 units, up to 140min. Galactose-containing side chains two positions away from the non-substituted glucose, modulated the action of EGII, and the complete hydrolysis of the XG oligomers occurred after 24h. The results demonstrate for the first time the real-time degradation of xyloglucan as well the macromolecular and oligosaccharide composition during the EGII hydrolysis process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Finite moments approach to the time-dependent neutron transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sang Hyun
1994-02-01
Currently, nodal techniques are widely used in solving the multidimensional diffusion equation because of savings in computing time and storage. Thanks to the development of computer technology, one can now solve the transport equation instead of the diffusion equation to obtain more accurate solution. The finite moments method, one of the nodal methods, attempts to represent the fluxes in the cell and on cell surfaces more rigorously by retaining additional spatial moments. Generally, there are two finite moments schemes to solve the time-dependent transport equation. In one, the time variable is treated implicitly with finite moments method in space variable (implicit finite moments method), the other method uses finite moments method in both space and time (space-time finite moments method). In this study, these two schemes are applied to two types of time-dependent neutron transport problems. One is a fixed source problem, the other a heterogeneous fast reactor problem with delayed neutrons. From the results, it is observed that the two finite moments methods give almost the same solutions in both benchmark problems. However, the space-time finite moments method requires a little longer computing time than that of the implicit finite moments method. In order to reduce the longer computing time in the space-time finite moments method, a new iteration strategy is exploited, where a few time-stepwise calculation, in which original time steps are grouped into several coarse time divisions, is performed sequentially instead of performing iterations over the entire time steps. This strategy results in significant reduction of the computing time and we observe that 2-or 3-stepwise calculation is preferable. In addition, we propose a new finite moments method which is called mixed finite moments method in this thesis. Asymptotic analysis for the finite moments method shows that accuracy of the solution in a heterogeneous problem mainly depends on the accuracy of the
Analytic approach to nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities driven by time-dependent accelerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikaelian, K O
2009-09-28
We extend our earlier model for Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities to the more general class of hydrodynamic instabilities driven by a time-dependent acceleration g(t) . Explicit analytic solutions for linear as well as nonlinear amplitudes are obtained for several g(t)'s by solving a Schroedinger-like equation d{sup 2}{eta}/dt{sup 2} - g(t)kA{eta} = 0 where A is the Atwood number and k is the wavenumber of the perturbation amplitude {eta}(t). In our model a simple transformation k {yields} k{sub L} and A {yields} A{sub L} connects the linear to the nonlinear amplitudes: {eta}{sup nonlinear} (k,A) {approx} (1/k{sub L})ln{eta}{sup linear} (k{sub L}, A{sub L}). The model is found to be in very good agreement with direct numerical simulations. Bubble amplitudes for a variety of accelerations are seen to scale with s defined by s = {integral} {radical}g(t)dt, while spike amplitudes prefer scaling with displacement {Delta}x = {integral}[{integral}g(t)dt]dt.
Time-dependent London approach: Dissipation due to out-of-core normal excitations by moving vortices
Kogan, V. G.
2018-03-01
The dissipative currents due to normal excitations are included in the London description. The resulting time-dependent London equations are solved for a moving vortex and a moving vortex lattice. It is shown that the field distribution of a moving vortex loses its cylindrical symmetry. It experiences contraction that is stronger in the direction of the motion than in the direction normal to the velocity v . The London contribution of normal currents to dissipation is small relative to the Bardeen-Stephen core dissipation at small velocities, but it approaches the latter at high velocities, where this contribution is no longer proportional to v2. To minimize the London contribution to dissipation, the vortex lattice is oriented so as to have one of the unit cell vectors along the velocity. This effect is seen in experiments and predicted within the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory.
ten Bosch, JJ; Fennis-Ie, Y; Verdenschot, EH
Recently erupted teeth are more sensitive to dental caries than teeth that have remained free from caries lesions for a few years after eruption. It has been hypothesized that this may be ascribed to differences in enamel porosity. The objective of the present work was to assess the time-dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comelli, D.; Riotto, A.
1995-06-01
Motivated by cosmological applications like electroweak baryogenesis, we develop a field theoretic approach to the computation of particle currents on a space-time dependent and CP-violating Higgs background. We consider the Standard Model model with two Higgs doublets and CP violation in the scalar sector, and compute both fermionic and Higgs currents by means of an expansion in the background fields. We discuss the gauge dependence of the results and the renormalization of the current operators, showing that in the limit of local equilibrium, no extra renormalization conditions are needed in order to specify the system completely. (orig.)
Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz; Martín de Blas, Daniel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.
2018-02-01
Loop quantum cosmology has recently been applied in order to extend the analysis of primordial perturbations to the Planck era and discuss the possible effects of quantum geometry on the cosmic microwave background. Two approaches to loop quantum cosmology with admissible ultraviolet behavior leading to predictions that are compatible with observations are the so-called hybrid and dressed metric approaches. In spite of their similarities and relations, we show in this work that the effective equations that they provide for the evolution of the tensor and scalar perturbations are somewhat different. When backreaction is neglected, the discrepancy appears only in the time-dependent mass term of the corresponding field equations. We explain the origin of this difference, arising from the distinct quantization procedures. Besides, given the privileged role that the big bounce plays in loop quantum cosmology, e.g. as a natural instant of time to set initial conditions for the perturbations, we also analyze the positivity of the time-dependent mass when this bounce occurs. We prove that the mass of the tensor perturbations is positive in the hybrid approach when the kinetic contribution to the energy density of the inflaton dominates over its potential, as well as for a considerably large sector of backgrounds around that situation, while this mass is always nonpositive in the dressed metric approach. Similar results are demonstrated for the scalar perturbations in a sector of background solutions that includes the kinetically dominated ones; namely, the mass then is positive for the hybrid approach, whereas it typically becomes negative in the dressed metric case. More precisely, this last statement is strictly valid when the potential is quadratic for values of the inflaton mass that are phenomenologically favored.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daniele, P.; Maugeri, A. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Matematica; Oettli, W. [Mannheim Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fur Mathemaik und Informatik
1998-05-01
We consider existence, characterization, and calculation of equilibria in transportation networks, when the route capacities and demand requirements depend on time. The problem is expressed in terms of a variational inequality and is situated in a Banach space setting. (authors)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the optical switching of the two-dimensional nonlinear coupler in a doped photopolymer. The coupled ... Optical switching; variational approach; Jacobi's elliptic function; surface plasmon resonance ..... [4] G P Agrawal, Applications of nonlinear fiber optics (Academic Press, New York,. 2006). [5] R G Hunsperger ...
Time-Dependent Changes in T1 during Fracture Healing in Juvenile Rats: A Quantitative MR Approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katharina Baron
Full Text Available Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI offers several advantages in imaging and determination of soft tissue alterations when compared to qualitative imaging techniques. Although applications in brain and muscle tissues are well studied, its suitability to quantify relaxation times of intact and injured bone tissue, especially in children, is widely unknown. The objective observation of a fracture including its age determination can become of legal interest in cases of child abuse or maltreatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is the determination of time dependent changes in intact and corresponding injured bones in immature rats via qMRI, to provide the basis for an objective and radiation-free approach for fracture dating. Thirty-five MR scans of 7 Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 4 weeks old, 100 ± 5 g were acquired on a 3T MRI scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany after the surgical infliction of an epiphyseal fracture in the tibia. The images were taken at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 82 post-surgery. A proton density-weighted and a T1-weighted 3D FLASH sequence were acquired to calculate the longitudinal relaxation time T1 of the fractured region and the surrounding tissues. The calculation of T1 in intact and injured bone resulted in a quantitative observation of bone development in intact juvenile tibiae as well as the bone healing process in the injured tibiae. In both areas, T1 decreased over time. To evaluate the differences in T1 behaviour between the intact and injured bone, the relative T1 values (bone-fracture were calculated, showing clear detectable alterations of T1 after fracture occurrence. These results indicate that qMRI has a high potential not only for clinically relevant applications to detect growth defects or developmental alterations in juvenile bones, but also for forensically relevant applications such as the dating of fractures in cases of child abuse or maltreatment.
Xu, T.; Zhou, G. L.; Heap, Michael J.; Zhu, W. C.; Chen, C. F.; Baud, Patrick
2017-09-01
An understanding of the influence of temperature on brittle creep in granite is important for the management and optimization of granitic nuclear waste repositories and geothermal resources. We propose here a two-dimensional, thermo-mechanical numerical model that describes the time-dependent brittle deformation (brittle creep) of low-porosity granite under different constant temperatures and confining pressures. The mesoscale model accounts for material heterogeneity through a stochastic local failure stress field, and local material degradation using an exponential material softening law. Importantly, the model introduces the concept of a mesoscopic renormalization to capture the co-operative interaction between microcracks in the transition from distributed to localized damage. The mesoscale physico-mechanical parameters for the model were first determined using a trial-and-error method (until the modeled output accurately captured mechanical data from constant strain rate experiments on low-porosity granite at three different confining pressures). The thermo-physical parameters required for the model, such as specific heat capacity, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity, were then determined from brittle creep experiments performed on the same low-porosity granite at temperatures of 23, 50, and 90 °C. The good agreement between the modeled output and the experimental data, using a unique set of thermo-physico-mechanical parameters, lends confidence to our numerical approach. Using these parameters, we then explore the influence of temperature, differential stress, confining pressure, and sample homogeneity on brittle creep in low-porosity granite. Our simulations show that increases in temperature and differential stress increase the creep strain rate and therefore reduce time-to-failure, while increases in confining pressure and sample homogeneity decrease creep strain rate and increase time-to-failure. We anticipate that the
Tokatly, I. V.
2011-11-01
It is shown that the density-potential mapping and the V-representability problems in the time-dependent current density functional theory (TDCDFT) are reduced to the solution of a certain many-body nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The derived NLSE for TDCDFT links the earlier NLSE-based formulations of the time-dependent deformation functional theory (TDDefFT) and the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). We establish a close relation between the nonlinear many-body problems which control the existence of TDCDFT, TDDFT, and TDDefFT, and thus develop a unified point of view on the whole family of the TDDFT-type theories.
Arrachea, Liliana
2007-01-01
We present an efficient method and a fast algorithm to exactly calculate spectral functions and one-body observables of open quantum systems described by lattice Hamiltonians with harmonically time-dependent terms and without many-body interactions. The theoretical treatment is based in Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism. We illustrate the implementation of the technique in a paradigmatic model of a quantum pump driven by local fields oscillating in time with one and two harmonic components.
Yamagami, Y.; Tozuka, T.
2016-12-01
The South Equatorial Current in the South Indian Ocean bifurcates at the east coast of Madagascar into the Northeast and Southeast Madagascar Currents. The dynamical mechanisms of interannual variations in the western boundary currents along Madagascar are examined using the "Time-Dependent Island Rule (TDIR)" for the first time. Since Rossby waves radiated from the Australian coast and the Indonesian Throghflow are known to play a role in oceanic variability over the southern Indian Ocean, the original TDIR is extended to incorporate these effects. Also, inertial effects are included for a more complete discussion. Using this modified TDIR, interannual variability of western boundary currents along Madagascar is shown to be predominantly a response to the meridional transport anomaly in the interior, which is a result of westward propagating Rossby waves induced by wind stress curl anomalies mainly in 60°E-90°E. On the other hand, the interannual variability is not much influenced by inertial effects and the Indonesian Throughflow. Although the damping of Rossby waves has an impact on the amplitude of the interannual variation, it does not alter the above mechanism qualitatively.
Time-dependent Landauer-Büttiker approach to charge pumping in ac-driven graphene nanoribbons
Ridley, Michael; Tuovinen, Riku
2017-11-01
We apply the recently developed partition-free time-dependent Landauer-Büttiker (TD-LB) formalism to the study of periodically driven transport in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). When an ac driving is applied, this formalism can be used to prove generic conditions for the existence of a nonzero dc component of the net current (pump current) through the molecular device. Time-reversal symmetry breaking in the driving field is investigated and found to be insufficient for a nonzero pump current. We then derive explicit formulas for the current response to a particular biharmonic bias. We calculate the pump current through different GNR configurations and find that the sign and existence of a nonzero pump current can be tuned by simple alterations to the static parameters of the TD bias. Furthermore, we investigate transient currents in different GNR configurations. We find a selection rule of even and odd harmonic response signals depending on a broken dynamical inversion symmetry in the bias.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Löfstedt Tommy
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle functions are generally assumed to affect a wide variety of conditions and activities, including pain, ischemic and neurological disorders, exercise and injury. It is therefore very desirable to obtain more information on musculoskeletal contributions to and activity during clinical processes such as the treatment of muscle injuries, post-surgery evaluations, and the monitoring of progressive degeneration in neuromuscular disorders. The spatial image resolution achievable with ultrasound systems has improved tremendously in the last few years and it is nowadays possible to study skeletal muscles in real-time during activity. However, ultrasound imaging has an inherent problem that makes it difficult to compare different measurement series or image sequences from two or more subjects. Due to physiological differences between different subjects, the ultrasound sequences will be visually different – partly because of variation in probe placement and partly because of the difficulty of perfectly reproducing any given movement. Methods Ultrasound images of the biceps and calf of a single subject were transformed to achieve congruence and then efficiently compressed and stacked to facilitate analysis using a multivariate method known as O2PLS. O2PLS identifies related and unrelated variation in and between two sets of data such that different phases of the studied movements can be analysed. The methodology was used to study the dynamics of the Achilles tendon and the calf and also the Biceps brachii and upper arm. The movements of these parts of the body are both of interest in clinical orthopaedic research. Results This study extends the novel method of multivariate analysis of congruent images (MACI to facilitate comparisons between two series of ultrasound images. This increases its potential range of medical applications and its utility for detecting, visualising and quantifying the dynamics and functions of skeletal
Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel
2015-12-15
The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chevalier, Michael W., E-mail: Michael.Chevalier@ucsf.edu; El-Samad, Hana, E-mail: Hana.El-Samad@ucsf.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California San Francisco, 1700 4th Street, San Francisco, California 94143-2542 (United States)
2014-12-07
Noise and stochasticity are fundamental to biology and derive from the very nature of biochemical reactions where thermal motion of molecules translates into randomness in the sequence and timing of reactions. This randomness leads to cell-to-cell variability even in clonal populations. Stochastic biochemical networks have been traditionally modeled as continuous-time discrete-state Markov processes whose probability density functions evolve according to a chemical master equation (CME). In diffusion reaction systems on membranes, the Markov formalism, which assumes constant reaction propensities is not directly appropriate. This is because the instantaneous propensity for a diffusion reaction to occur depends on the creation times of the molecules involved. In this work, we develop a chemical master equation for systems of this type. While this new CME is computationally intractable, we make rational dimensional reductions to form an approximate equation, whose moments are also derived and are shown to yield efficient, accurate results. This new framework forms a more general approach than the Markov CME and expands upon the realm of possible stochastic biochemical systems that can be efficiently modeled.
Peng, Daoling; Li, Shaopeng; Peng, Liang; Gu, Feng Long; Yang, Weitao
2017-09-12
The time-dependent coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock/density-functional-theory (TDHF/TDDFT) approach has been reformulated based on nonorthogonal localized molecular orbitals (NOLMOs). Based on the NOLMO Fock equation, we have derived the corresponding NOLMO-TDHF/TDDFT equations up to the third order, and the formula for the frequency-dependent (hyper)polarizabilities has been given. Our approach has been applied to calculate both static and dynamic (hyper)polarizabilities of molecules varying from small molecules to large molecules. The NOLMO-TDHF/TDDFT approach can reproduce the reference canonical molecular orbital (CMO) results for all of our testing calculations. With the help of ongoing development of optimized local virtual molecular orbitals, the NOLMO-TDHF/TDDFT approach would be a very efficient method for large system calculations and tp achieve linear scaling.
Dorner, Reinhard
2014-05-01
We will discuss experimental studies of ICD in van der Vaals dimers of rare gas atoms and small molecules using the COLTRIMS technique. The talk will cover ICD after resonant Auger excitation (Nature 505, 664 (2014)) and two studies unveiling the time dependence of ICD in the energy (PRL 111, 233004 (2013)) and in the time domain (PRL 111, 093401 (2013)). A new technique to make ultrafast movies without the use of short pulses will be discussed.
Florea, Cristina; Tanska, Petri; Mononen, Mika E; Qu, Chengjuan; Lammi, Mikko J; Laasanen, Mikko S; Korhonen, Rami K
2017-02-01
Cellular responses to mechanical stimuli are influenced by the mechanical properties of cells and the surrounding tissue matrix. Cells exhibit viscoelastic behavior in response to an applied stress. This has been attributed to fluid flow-dependent and flow-independent mechanisms. However, the particular mechanism that controls the local time-dependent behavior of cells is unknown. Here, a combined approach of experimental AFM nanoindentation with computational modeling is proposed, taking into account complex material behavior. Three constitutive models (porohyperelastic, viscohyperelastic, poroviscohyperelastic) in tandem with optimization algorithms were employed to capture the experimental stress relaxation data of chondrocytes at 5 % strain. The poroviscohyperelastic models with and without fluid flow allowed through the cell membrane provided excellent description of the experimental time-dependent cell responses (normalized mean squared error (NMSE) of 0.003 between the model and experiments). The viscohyperelastic model without fluid could not follow the entire experimental data that well (NMSE = 0.005), while the porohyperelastic model could not capture it at all (NMSE = 0.383). We also show by parametric analysis that the fluid flow has a small, but essential effect on the loading phase and short-term cell relaxation response, while the solid viscoelasticity controls the longer-term responses. We suggest that the local time-dependent cell mechanical response is determined by the combined effects of intrinsic viscoelasticity of the cytoskeleton and fluid flow redistribution in the cells, although the contribution of fluid flow is smaller when using a nanosized probe and moderate indentation rate. The present approach provides new insights into viscoelastic responses of chondrocytes, important for further understanding cell mechanobiological mechanisms in health and disease.
Solid mechanics a variational approach
Dym, Clive L
2013-01-01
Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems. Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...
Polidoro, B.; Iervolino, I.; Chioccarelli, E.; Giorgio, M.
2012-04-01
Probabilistic seismic hazard is usually computed trough a homogeneous Poisson process that even though it is a time-independent process it is widely used for its very convenient properties. However, when a single fault is of concern and/or the time scale is different from that of the long term, time-dependent processes are required. In this paper, different time-dependent models are reviewed with working examples. In fact, the Paganica fault (in central Italy) has been considered to compute both the probability of occurrence of at least one event in the lifespan of the structure, as well as the seismic hazard expressed in terms of probability of exceedance of an intensity value in a given time frame causing the collapse of the structure. Several models, well known or novel application to engineering hazard have been considered, limitation and issues in their applications are also discussed. The Brownian Passage Time (BPT) model is based on a stochastic modification of the deterministic stick-slip oscillator model for characteristic earthquakes; i.e., based on the addition of random perturbations (a Gaussian white noise) to the deterministic load path predicted by elastic rebound theory. This model assumes that the load state is at some ground level immediately after an event, increases steadly over time, reaches a failure threshold and relaxes instantaneously back to the ground level. For this model also a variable threshold has been considered to take into account the uncertainty of the threshold value. For the slip-predictable model it is assumed that the stress accumulates at a constant rate starting from some initial stress level. Stress is assumed to accumulate for a random period of time until an earthquake occurs. The size of the earthquake is governed by the stress release and it is a function of the elapsed time since the last event. In the time-predictable model stress buildup occurs at a constant rate until the accumulated stress reaches a threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2010-01-01
The quantum states of time-dependent coupled oscillator model for charged particles subjected to variable magnetic field are investigated using the invariant operator methods. To do this, we have taken advantage of an alternative method, so-called unitary transformation approach, available in the framework of quantum mechanics, as well as a generalized canonical transformation method in the classical regime. The transformed quantum Hamiltonian is obtained using suitable unitary operators and is represented in terms of two independent harmonic oscillators which have the same frequencies as that of the classically transformed one. Starting from the wave functions in the transformed system, we have derived the full wave functions in the original system with the help of the unitary operators. One can easily take a complete description of how the charged particle behaves under the given Hamiltonian by taking advantage of these analytical wave functions.
Hu, Zhongwei; Autschbach, Jochen; Jensen, Lasse
2014-09-28
Resonance hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) of molecules and metal clusters have been simulated based on a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The resonance first-order hyperpolarizability (β) is obtained by implementing damped quadratic response theory using the (2n + 1) rule. To test this implementation, the prototypical dipolar molecule para-nitroaniline (p-NA) and the octupolar molecule crystal violet are used as benchmark systems. Moreover, small silver clusters Ag 8 and Ag 20 are tested with a focus on determining the two-photon resonant enhancement arising from the strong metal transition. Our results show that, on a per atom basis, the small silver clusters possess two-photon enhanced HRS comparable to that of larger nanoparticles. This finding indicates the potential interest of using small metal clusters for designing new nonlinear optical materials.
Variational approach in transport theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panta Pazos, R. [Nucler Engineering Department, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil); Tullio de Vilhena, M. [Institute of Mathematics, UFRGS, Porto-Alegre (Brazil)
2004-07-01
In this work we present a variational approach to some methods to solve transport problems of neutral particles. We consider a convex domain X (for example the geometry of a slab, or a convex set in the plane, or a convex bounded set in the space) and we use discrete ordinates quadrature to get a system of differential equations derived from the neutron transport equation. The boundary conditions are vacuum for a subset of the boundary, and of specular reflection for the complementary subset of the boundary. Recently some different approximation methods have been presented to solve these transport problems. We introduce in this work the adjoint equations and the conjugate functions obtained by means of the variational approach. First we consider the general formulation, and then some numerical methods such as spherical harmonics and spectral collocation method. (authors)
Time-dependent transport phenomena
Stefanucci, Gianluca; Kurth, S.; Gross, E. K. U.; Rubio, Angel
2007-01-01
This chapter describes the ab initio theory of quantum transport. The Cini scheme can be combined with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). In this theory, the time-dependent density of an interacting system moving in an external, time-dependent local potential can be calculated via a fictitious system of non-interacting electrons moving in a local, effective, and time-dependent potential. Therefore this theory is well suited for the treatment of non-equilibrium transport problem...
Landau, Arie
2013-07-07
This paper presents a new method for calculating spectroscopic properties in the framework of response theory utilizing a sequence of similarity transformations (STs). The STs are preformed using the coupled cluster (CC) and Fock-space coupled cluster operators. The linear and quadratic response functions of the new similarity transformed CC response (ST-CCR) method are derived. The poles of the linear response yield excitation-energy (EE) expressions identical to the ones in the similarity transformed equation-of-motion coupled cluster (STEOM-CC) approach. ST-CCR and STEOM-CC complement each other, in analogy to the complementarity of CC response (CCR) and equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC). ST-CCR/STEOM-CC and CCR/EOM-CC yield size-extensive and size-intensive EEs, respectively. Other electronic-properties, e.g., transition dipole strengths, are also size-extensive within ST-CCR, in contrast to STEOM-CC. Moreover, analysis suggests that in comparison with CCR, the ST-CCR expressions may be confined to a smaller subspace, however, the precise scope of the truncation can only be determined numerically. In addition, reformulation of the time-independent STEOM-CC using the same parameterization as in ST-CCR, as well as an efficient truncation scheme, is presented. The shown convergence of the time-dependent and time-independent expressions displays the completeness of the presented formalism.
Eslami, M.; Mirzazadeh, M.; Biswas, Anjan
2013-11-01
In this paper, the resonant nonlinear Schrödinger's equation is studied with four forms of nonlinearity. This equation is also considered with time-dependent coefficients. The simplest equation method is applied to solve the governing equations and then exact 1-soliton solutions are obtained. It is shown that this method provides us with a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations with time-dependent coefficients in mathematical physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrovici, A.; Schmid, K.W.; Faessler, A.; Baktash, C.; Shashi, P.
1999-01-01
For a unified description of the structure of medium mass proton-rich nuclei at low as well as high angular momenta we used the complex version of the Excited Vampir approach. We employed chains of variational calculations based on symmetry-projected essentially complex Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) vacua which include neutron-proton pairing and unnatural-parity correlations. Since the Vampir approaches allow the use of rather large model spaces and of general two-body interactions, large-scale nuclear structure studies going far beyond the abilities of the conventional shell-model configuration-mixing approach are possible. Furthermore, since these approaches provide detailed spectroscopic information for the lowest few states for each spin and parity, they also have considerable advantages with respect to the shell-model Monte Carlo method in which only expectation values of operators in the thermodynamic ensembles or the ground state can be calculated. Our previous investigations on microscopic aspects of shape coexistence in N∼Z nuclei in the A∼70 mass region indicated the presence of a strong competition between particular configurations based on large and small oblate and prolate quadrupole deformations. Furthermore, since in N = Z nuclei neutrons and protons fill the same single particle orbits, the isovector neutron-proton and the like-nucleon pairing correlations were found to be strongly competitive in even-even systems. In addition, the neutron and proton alignments with increasing angular momentum occur simultaneously in these nuclei. On the other hand the theoretical results suggest that certain properties of these nuclei are extremely sensitive to small variations of particular parts of the effective Hamiltonian. Thus, our results indicate that the oblate-prolate coexistence and mixing at low spins depend on the strengths of the neutron-proton T = 0 matrix elements involving nucleons occupying f 5/2 (f 7/2 ) and g 9/2 single particle orbits
Amazing variational approach to chemical reactions
Fernández, Francisco M.
2009-01-01
In this letter we analyse an amazing variational approach to chemical reactions. Our results clearly show that the variational expressions are unsuitable for the analysis of empirical data obtained from chemical reactions.
Time-dependent multimode structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edgu, E.
1991-01-01
In a previous paper, the authors sought to display the multimode kinetics structure and step changes were considered. In this paper, a similar study is undertaken in which ramp changes are considered. Throughout the previous study, a rather simple model of a bare, cylindrical, initially critical nuclear system was the focus. This system had a central region into which a control rod was suddenly inserted, or from which a control rod was suddenly ejected. (A rod follower concept was then adopted.) The mentioned transients were modeled by a two-mode synthesis approach that displayed, rather rigorously, the space-dependency behavior of the time- and space-dependent flux in question. It is useful to complete the picture previously drawn by a study within the authors' framework, where time-dependent changes now take place instead of step changes. In this paper, they consider a ramp rod drop in a bare cylindrical nuclear system as well as a ramp rod ejection from this system (still with a rod follower concept). The effect of a feedback mechanism is not taken into account
Gerndt, Andreas M.; Engelke, Wito; Giuranna, Marco; Vandaele, Ann C.; Neary, Lori; Aoki, Shohei; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Garcia, Arturo; Fernando, Terrence; Roberts, David; CROSS DRIVE Team
2016-10-01
Atmospheric phenomena of Mars can be highly dynamic and have daily and seasonal variations. Planetary-scale wavelike disturbances, for example, are frequently observed in Mars' polar winter atmosphere. Possible sources of the wave activity were suggested to be dynamical instabilities and quasi-stationary planetary waves, i.e. waves that arise predominantly via zonally asymmetric surface properties. For a comprehensive understanding of these phenomena, single layers of altitude have to be analyzed carefully and relations between different atmospheric quantities and interaction with the surface of Mars have to be considered. The CROSS DRIVE project tries to address the presentation of those data with a global view by means of virtual reality techniques. Complex orbiter data from spectrometer and observation data from Earth are combined with global circulation models and high-resolution terrain data and images available from Mars Express or MRO instruments. Scientists can interactively extract features from those dataset and can change visualization parameters in real-time in order to emphasize findings. Stereoscopic views allow for perception of the actual 3D behavior of Mars's atmosphere. A very important feature of the visualization system is the possibility to connect distributed workspaces together. This enables discussions between distributed working groups. The workspace can scale from virtual reality systems to expert desktop applications to web-based project portals. If multiple virtual environments are connected, the 3D position of each individual user is captured and used to depict the scientist as an avatar in the virtual world. The appearance of the avatar can also scale from simple annotations to complex avatars using tele-presence technology to reconstruct the users in 3D. Any change of the feature set (annotations, cutplanes, volume rendering, etc.) within the VR is immediately exchanged between all connected users. This allows that everybody is always
Time dependent resonating Hartree-Bogoliubov theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishiyama, Seiya; Fukutome, Hideo.
1989-01-01
Very recently, we have developed a theory of excitations in superconducting Fermion systems with large quantum fluctuations that can be described by resonance of time dependent non-orthogonal Hartree-Bogoliubov (HB) wave functions with different correlation structures. We have derived a new kind of variation equation called the time dependent Resonating HB equation, in order to determine both the time dependent Resonating HB wave functions and coefficients of a superposition of the HB wave functions. Further we have got a new approximation for excitations from time dependent small fluctuations of the Resonating HB ground state, i.e., the Resonating HB RPA. The Res HB RPA equation is represented in a given single particle basis. It, however, has drawbacks that the constraints for the Res HB RPA amplitudes are not taken into account and the equation contains equations which are not independent. We shall derive another form of the Res HB RPA equation eliminating these drawbacks. The Res HB RPA gives a unified description of the vibrons and resonons and their interactions. (author)
Medical practice variations: changing the theoretical approach.
Westert, G.P.; Groenewegen, P.P.
1999-01-01
Variations in medical practice are well documented, but there has been less progress in explaining these variations. This paper discusses the existing theories and hypotheses and concludes that a change in theoretical approach is required, to one that more directly highlights the social context
A variational approach to niche construction.
Constant, Axel; Ramstead, Maxwell J D; Veissière, Samuel P L; Campbell, John O; Friston, Karl J
2018-04-01
In evolutionary biology, niche construction is sometimes described as a genuine evolutionary process whereby organisms, through their activities and regulatory mechanisms, modify their environment such as to steer their own evolutionary trajectory, and that of other species. There is ongoing debate, however, on the extent to which niche construction ought to be considered a bona fide evolutionary force, on a par with natural selection. Recent formulations of the variational free-energy principle as applied to the life sciences describe the properties of living systems, and their selection in evolution, in terms of variational inference. We argue that niche construction can be described using a variational approach. We propose new arguments to support the niche construction perspective, and to extend the variational approach to niche construction to current perspectives in various scientific fields. © 2018 The Authors.
Betweenness in time dependent networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alsayed, Ahmad; Higham, Desmond J.
2015-01-01
The concept of betweenness has given rise to a very useful class of network centrality measures. Loosely, betweenness quantifies the level of importance of a node in terms of its propensity to act as an intermediary when messages are passed around the network. In this work we generalize a walk-based betweenness measure to the case of time-dependent networks, such as those arising in telecommunications and on-line social media. We also introduce a new kind of betweenness measure, temporal betweenness, which quantifies the importance of a time-point. We illustrate the effectiveness of these new measures on synthetic examples, and also give results on real data sets involving voice call, email and Twitter
Network-timing-dependent plasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincent eDelattre
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Bursts of activity in networks of neurons are thought to convey salient information and drive synaptic plasticity. Here we report that network bursts also exert a profound effect on Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP. In acute slices of juvenile rat somatosensory cortex we paired a network burst, which alone induced long-term depression (LTD, with STDP-induced long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD. We observed that STDP-induced LTP was either unaffected, blocked or flipped into LTD by the network burst, and that STDP-induced LTD was either saturated or flipped into LTP, depending on the relative timing of the network burst with respect to spike coincidences of the STDP event. We hypothesized that network bursts flip STDP-induced LTP to LTD by depleting resources needed for LTP and therefore developed a resource-dependent STDP learning rule. In a model neural network under the influence of the proposed resource-dependent STDP rule, we found that excitatory synaptic coupling was homeostatically regulated to produce power law distributed burst amplitudes reflecting self-organized criticality, a state that ensures optimal information coding.
Time-dependent projected Hartree-Fock.
Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy
2015-03-28
Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) has recently emerged as an alternative approach to describing degenerate systems where static correlation is abundant, when the spin-symmetry is projected. Here, we derive a set of linearized time-dependent equations for PHF in order to be able to access excited states. The close connection of such linear-response time-dependent PHF (TDPHF) to the stability condition of a PHF wave function is discussed. Expanding this analysis also makes it possible to give analytical expressions for the projected coupling terms of Hamiltonian and overlaps between excited Slater determinants. TDPHF with spin-projection (TDSUHF) and its Tamm-Dancoff approximation are benchmarked for several electronically degenerate molecules including the dissociating H2, F2 and O3 at equilibrium, and the distorted ethylene. It is shown that they give consistently better descriptions of excited states than does time-dependent HF (TDHF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that they offer not only singly but also doubly excited states, which naturally arise upon spin-projection. We also address the thermodynamic limit of TDSUHF, using non-interacting He gas. While TDPHF singly excited states tend to converge to those of HF with the size of the system due to the lack of size-extensivity of PHF, doubly excited states remain reasonable even at the thermodynamic limit. We find that the overall performance of our method is systematically better than the regular TDHF in many cases at the same computational scaling.
Variational approach to the dilute Bose gas
Bijlsma, M.; Stoof, H.T.C.
1997-01-01
We study the weakly interacting Bose gas in both two and three dimensions using a variational approach. In particular we construct the thermodynamic potential of the gas to within ladder approximation and find by minimization an accurate mean-field description of the dilute Bose gas. Using
Variational approach to nuclear fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Providencia, J.P.; Holzwarth, G.
1983-01-01
A variational derivation of a fluid-dynamical formalism for finite Fermi systems is presented which is based on a single determinant as variational function and does not exclude the possibility of transverse flow. Therefore the explicit specification of the time-odd part has to go beyond the local chi-approximation, while the time-even part is taken in the generalized scaling form. The necessary boundary conditions are derived from the variation of the lagrangian. The results confirm previous simplified approaches to a remarkable degree for quadrupole modes; for other multipolarities the deviations are much less than might be expected according to a sizeable change in the transverse sound speed. (orig.)
Variational approaches to conservation laws for a nonlinear ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The conservation laws of a nonlinear evolution equation of time dependent variable coefficients of damping and dispersion is studied. The equation under consideration is not derivable from a variational principle which means that one cannot appeal to the Noether theorem to determine the conservation laws. We utilize the ...
Time-dependent Autler-Townes spectroscopy
Qamar, S; Zubairy, M S
2003-01-01
Autler-Townes spontaneous emission spectroscopy is revisited for a time-dependent case. We report the results of spontaneous emission spectra for nonstationary scattered light signals using the definition of the time-dependent physical spectrum. This is a rare example of problems where time-dependent spectra can be calculated exactly.
Holographic complexity for time-dependent backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)
2016-11-10
In this paper, we will analyze the holographic complexity for time-dependent asymptotically AdS geometries. We will first use a covariant zero mean curvature slicing of the time-dependent bulk geometries, and then use this co-dimension one spacelike slice of the bulk spacetime to define a co-dimension two minimal surface. The time-dependent holographic complexity will be defined using the volume enclosed by this minimal surface. This time-dependent holographic complexity will reduce to the usual holographic complexity for static geometries. We will analyze the time-dependence as a perturbation of the asymptotically AdS geometries. Thus, we will obtain time-dependent asymptotically AdS geometries, and we will calculate the holographic complexity for such time-dependent geometries.
Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.L.; Weisbin, C.R.
1978-04-01
An approach to extend the present ORNL sensitivity program to include functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field is developed. An adjoint equation for the nuclide field was derived previously by using generalized perturbation theory; the present derivation makes use of a variational principle and results in the same equation. The physical significance of this equation is discussed and compared to that of the time-dependent neutron adjoint equation. Computational requirements for determining sensitivity profiles and uncertainties for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density vector are developed within the framework of the existing FORSS system; in this way the current capability is significantly extended. The development, testing, and use of an adjoint version of the ORIGEN isotope generation and depletion code are documented. Finally, a sample calculation is given which estimates the uncertainty in the plutonium inventory at shutdown of a PWR due to assumed uncertainties in uranium and plutonium cross sections. 8 figures, 4 tables
Time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Chen; Libisch, Florian; Peng, Qing; Carter, Emily A.
2014-01-01
We introduce a time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory (TD-PFET), in which atoms are grouped into subsystems. In TD-PFET, subsystems can be propagated by different suitable time-dependent quantum mechanical methods and their interactions can be treated in a seamless, first-principles manner. TD-PFET is formulated based on the time-dependent quantum mechanics variational principle. The action of the total quantum system is written as a functional of the time-dependent embedding potential, i.e., a potential-functional formulation. By exploiting the Runge-Gross theorem, we prove the uniqueness of the time-dependent embedding potential under the constraint that all subsystems share a common embedding potential. We derive the integral equation that such an embedding potential needs to satisfy. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate TD-PFET for a Na 4 cluster, in which each Na atom is treated as one subsystem and propagated by time-dependent Kohn-Sham density functional theory (TDDFT) using the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA). Our results agree well with a direct TDDFT calculation on the whole Na 4 cluster using ALDA. We envision that TD-PFET will ultimately be useful for studying ultrafast quantum dynamics in condensed matter, where key regions are solved by highly accurate time-dependent quantum mechanics methods, and unimportant regions are solved by faster, less accurate methods
Time-dependent behavior of concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfeiffer, P.A.; Tanabe, Tada-aki
1992-01-01
This paper is a condensed version of the material presented at the International Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, Session 4 -- Time Dependent Behavior, held at Columbia University, New York on June 3--6, 1991. Dr. P.A. Pfeiffer presented recent developments in time-dependent behavior of concrete and Professor T. Tanabe presented a review of research in Japan on time-dependent behavior of concrete. The paper discusses the recent research of time-dependent behavior of concrete in the past few years. 6 refs
Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.
2009-10-16
The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.
Variational approach for static mirror structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuznetsov, E. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Space Research Institute RAS, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya str., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2 Kosygin str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L. [UNS, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Ruban, V. P. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 2 Kosygin str., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-04-15
Anisotropic static plasma equilibria where the parallel and perpendicular pressures are only functions of the amplitude of the local magnetic field are shown to be amenable to a variational principle with a free energy density given by the parallel tension. This approach is used to demonstrate that two-dimensional small-amplitude static magnetic holes constructed from a Grad-Shafranov type equation slightly below the (subcritical) mirror instability threshold identify with lump solitons of KPII equation, but turn out to be unstable. Differently, large-amplitude magnetic structures, which are stable as they realize a minimum of the free energy, are computed using a gradient method within two-dimensional numerical simulations where the regularizing effect of finite Larmor radius corrections is retained. Interestingly, these structures transform from stripes to bubbles when the angle of the magnetic field with the coordinate plane is increased.
A variational approach to nucleation simulation.
Piaggi, Pablo M; Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele
2016-12-22
We study by computer simulation the nucleation of a supersaturated Lennard-Jones vapor into the liquid phase. The large free energy barriers to transition make the time scale of this process impossible to study by ordinary molecular dynamics simulations. Therefore we use a recently developed enhanced sampling method [Valsson and Parrinello, Phys. Rev. Lett.113, 090601 (2014)] based on the variational determination of a bias potential. We differ from previous applications of this method in that the bias is constructed on the basis of the physical model provided by the classical theory of nucleation. We examine the technical problems associated with this approach. Our results are very satisfactory and will pave the way for calculating the nucleation rates in many systems.
Time-dependent fracture of cementitious materials
Van Zijl, G.P.A.G.; De Borst, R.; Rots, J.G.
2000-01-01
The response of cementitious materials is highly time dependent. On the one hand, it can lead to delayed collapse of structures fabricated of such materials. On the other hand, the time dependence is associated with the relaxation of peak stresses, which avoids, or postpones damage. A finite element
Time-dependent correlations in electricity markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Escarela-Perez, Rafael
2010-01-01
In the last years, many electricity markets were subjected to deregulated operation where prices are set by the action of market participants. In this form, producers and consumers rely on demand and price forecasts to decide their bidding strategies, allocate assets, negotiate bilateral contracts, hedge risks, and plan facility investments. A basic feature of efficient market hypothesis is the absence of correlations between price increments over any time scale leading to random walk-type behavior of prices, so arbitrage is not possible. However, recent studies have suggested that this is not the case and correlations are present in the behavior of diverse electricity markets. In this paper, a temporal quantification of electricity market correlations is made by means of detrended fluctuation and Allan analyses. The approach is applied to two Canadian electricity markets, Ontario and Alberta. The results show the existence of correlations in both demand and prices, exhibiting complex time-dependent behavior with lower correlations in winter while higher in summer. Relatively steady annual cycles in demand but unstable cycles in prices are detected. On the other hand, the more significant nonlinear effects (measured in terms of a multifractality index) are found for winter months, while the converse behavior is displayed during the summer period. In terms of forecasting models, our results suggest that nonlinear recursive models (e.g., feedback NNs) should be used for accurate day-ahead price estimation. In contrast, linear models can suffice for demand forecasting purposes. (author)
Construction of an exact solution of time-dependent Ginzburg ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A new approach is taken to calculate the speed of front propagation at which the interface moves from a superconducting to a normal region in a superconducting sample. Using time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) equations we have calculated the speed by constructing a new exact solution. This approach is based ...
Construction of an exact solution of time-dependent Ginzburg ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A new approach is taken to calculate the speed of front propagation at which the interface moves from a superconducting to a normal region in a superconducting sample. Using time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) equations we have calculated the speed by constructing a new exact solution. This approach ...
Topic 5: Time-Dependent Behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfeiffer, P.A.; Tanabe, Tada-aki
1991-01-01
This chapter is a report of the material presented at the International Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, Session 4 -- Time Dependent Behavior, held at Columbia University, New York on June 3--6, 1991. Dr. P.A. Pfeiffer presented recent developments in time-dependent behavior of concrete and Professor T. Tanabe presented a review of research in Japan on time-dependent behavior of concrete. The chapter discusses the recent research of time-dependent behavior of concrete in the past few years in both the USA-European and Japanese communities. The author appreciates the valuable information provided by Zdenek P. Bazant in preparing the USA-European Research section
Variational Approaches to the Evolution and Control of Strongly Driven Quantum Systems.
Widmayer, C. Clay
Ongoing experimental advances, especially the advent of high intensity pulsed lasers, have produced the need for theoretical methods for modelling the behavior of quantum systems under the influence of strong driving fields. Despite decades of effort developing approaches adapted to strong driving, no single method enjoys the position of preeminence held by lowest order perturbation theory in the weak field regime. Three methods well suited to the time evolution of strongly driven systems are discussed and illustrated through numerical calculation. The impulse representation in which the time dependent Schrodinger equation is solved by switching to a shifted momentum space representation is described and applied to the problem of a hydrogen atom driven by a Stark kick for which the approach yields an exact solution. Using this result convenient exact closed form expressions for exctitation probabilities from the ground state are derived. Secondly, the time dependent variational method (TDVM) for obtaining approximate solutions to the Schrodinger equation by stationarizing an appropriately defined variational functional is discussed. A simple form of the equations of motion for time dependent variational parameters is derived and applied to the calculation of the radial wavefunction following the beta decay of tritium. Accurate values for time dependent observables are obtained by approximating the wavefunction as a superposition of the ground states of the Z = 1 and Z = 2 hydrogenic atoms. Finally, the control of quantum dynamics is considered and two methods are presented for deriving external fields for the purpose of driving a quantum system into a desired behavior. With the inverse control method a procedure is described for producing exact tracking of a time dependent observable. The method is applied to a two-level atom and is shown to lead to non-unique values of the driving field which exhibit undesirable numerical anomalies. The more robust method of
Competing risks and time-dependent covariates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cortese, Giuliana; Andersen, Per K
2010-01-01
cumulative incidences at different subintervals of the entire study period. The final strategy is to extend the competing risks model by considering all the possible combinations between internal covariate levels and cause-specific events as final states. In all of those proposals, it is possible to estimate......Time-dependent covariates are frequently encountered in regression analysis for event history data and competing risks. They are often essential predictors, which cannot be substituted by time-fixed covariates. This study briefly recalls the different types of time-dependent covariates......, as classified by Kalbfleisch and Prentice [The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data, Wiley, New York, 2002] with the intent of clarifying their role and emphasizing the limitations in standard survival models and in the competing risks setting. If random (internal) time-dependent covariates...
Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J
2002-09-30
The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.
Time-dependent Dyson orbital theory
Gritsenko, O.V.; Baerends, E.J.
2016-01-01
Although time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has become the tool of choice for real-time propagation of the electron density ρN(t) of N-electron systems, it also encounters problems in this application. The first problem is the neglect of memory effects stemming from the, in TDDFT
Time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buijs, F.A.; Hall, J.W.; Sayers, P.B.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van
2009-01-01
This paper describes the underlying theory and a practical process for establishing time-dependent reliability models for components in a realistic and complex flood defence system. Though time-dependent reliability models have been applied frequently in, for example, the offshore, structural safety and nuclear industry, application in the safety-critical field of flood defence has to date been limited. The modelling methodology involves identifying relevant variables and processes, characterisation of those processes in appropriate mathematical terms, numerical implementation, parameter estimation and prediction. A combination of stochastic, hierarchical and parametric processes is employed. The approach is demonstrated for selected deterioration mechanisms in the context of a flood defence system. The paper demonstrates that this structured methodology enables the definition of credible statistical models for time-dependence of flood defences in data scarce situations. In the application of those models one of the main findings is that the time variability in the deterioration process tends to be governed the time-dependence of one or a small number of critical attributes. It is demonstrated how the need for further data collection depends upon the relevance of the time-dependence in the performance of the flood defence system.
Semiclassical approximation to time-dependent Hartree--Fock theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dworzecka, M.; Poggioli, R.
1976-01-01
Working within a time-dependent Hartree-Fock framework, one develops a semiclassical approximation appropriate for large systems. It is demonstrated that the standard semiclassical approach, the Thomas-Fermi approximation, is inconsistent with Hartree-Fock theory when the basic two-body interaction is short-ranged (as in nuclear systems, for example). However, by introducing a simple extension of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, one overcomes this problem. One also discusses the infinite nuclear matter problem and point out that time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory yields collective modes of the zero sound variety instead of ordinary hydrodynamic (first) sound. One thus emphasizes that one should be extremely circumspect when attempting to cast the equations of motion of time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory into a hydrodynamic-like form
Owens, Alec; Yachmenev, Andrey
2018-03-01
In this paper, a general variational approach for computing the rovibrational dynamics of polyatomic molecules in the presence of external electric fields is presented. Highly accurate, full-dimensional variational calculations provide a basis of field-free rovibrational states for evaluating the rovibrational matrix elements of high-rank Cartesian tensor operators and for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The effect of the external electric field is treated as a multipole moment expansion truncated at the second hyperpolarizability interaction term. Our fully numerical and computationally efficient method has been implemented in a new program, RichMol, which can simulate the effects of multiple external fields of arbitrary strength, polarization, pulse shape, and duration. Illustrative calculations of two-color orientation and rotational excitation with an optical centrifuge of NH3 are discussed.
Time dependent policy-based access control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vasilikos, Panagiotis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2017-01-01
Access control policies are essential to determine who is allowed to access data in a system without compromising the data's security. However, applications inside a distributed environment may require those policies to be dependent on the actual content of the data, the flow of information, while...... also on other attributes of the environment such as the time. In this paper, we use systems of Timed Automata to model distributed systems and we present a logic in which one can express time-dependent policies for access control. We show how a fragment of our logic can be reduced to a logic...... that current model checkers for Timed Automata such as UPPAAL can handle and we present a translator that performs this reduction. We then use our translator and UPPAAL to enforce time-dependent policy-based access control on an example application from the aerospace industry....
Time-dependent 2-stream particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corngold, Noel
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We consider time-dependent transport in the 2-stream or “rod” model via an attractive matrix formalism. • After reviewing some classical problems in homogeneous media we discuss transport in materials with whose density may vary. • There we achieve a significant contraction of the underlying Telegrapher’s equation. • We conclude with a discussion of stochastics, treated by the “first-order smoothing approximation.” - Abstract: We consider time-dependent transport in the 2-stream or “rod” model via an attractive matrix formalism. After reviewing some classical problems in homogeneous media we discuss transport in materials whose density may vary. There we achieve a significant contraction of the underlying Telegrapher’s equation. We conclude with a discussion of stochastics, treated by the “first-order smoothing approximation.”
Evolution in time-dependent fitness landscapes
Wilke, Claus O.
1998-01-01
Evolution in changing environments is an important, but little studied aspect of the theory of evolution. The idea of adaptive walks in fitness landscapes has triggered a vast amount of research and has led to many important insights about the progress of evolution. Nevertheless, the small step to time-dependent fitness landscapes has most of the time not been taken. In this work, some elements of a theory of adaptive walks on changing fitness landscapes are proposed, and are subsequently app...
Time-dependent problems and difference methods
Gustafsson, Bertil; Oliger, Joseph
2013-01-01
Praise for the First Edition "". . . fills a considerable gap in the numerical analysis literature by providing a self-contained treatment . . . this is an important work written in a clear style . . . warmly recommended to any graduate student or researcher in the field of the numerical solution of partial differential equations."" -SIAM Review Time-Dependent Problems and Difference Methods, Second Edition continues to provide guidance for the analysis of difference methods for computing approximate solutions to partial differential equations for time-de
Time-dependent fracture toughness of cornea.
Tonsomboon, Khaow; Koh, Ching Theng; Oyen, Michelle L
2014-06-01
The fracture and time-dependent properties of cornea are very important for the development of corneal scaffolds and prostheses. However, there has been no systematic study of cornea fracture; time-dependent behavior of cornea has never been investigated in a fracture context. In this work, fracture toughness of cornea was characterized by trouser tear tests, and time-dependent properties of cornea were examined by stress-relaxation and uniaxial tensile tests. Control experiments were performed on a photoelastic rubber sheet. Corneal fracture resistance was found to be strain-rate dependent, with values ranging from 3.39±0.57 to 5.40±0.48kJm(-2) over strain rates from 3 to 300mmmin(-1). Results from stress-relaxation tests confirmed that cornea is a nonlinear viscoelastic material. The cornea behaved closer to a viscous fluid at small strain but became relatively more elastic at larger strain. Although cornea properties are greatly dependent on time, the stress-strain responses of cornea were found to be insensitive to the strain rate when subjected to tensile loading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stability of the Filter Equation for a Time-Dependent Signal on Rd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stannat, Wilhelm
2005-01-01
Stability of the pathwise filter equation for a time-dependent signal process induced by a d-dimensional stochastic differential equation and a linear observation is studied, using a variational approach. A lower bound for the rate of stability is identified in terms of the mass-gap of a parabolic ground state transform associated with the generator of the signal process and the square of the observation. The lower bound can be easily calculated a priori and provides hints on how precisely to measure the signal in order to reach a certain rate of stability. Ergodicity of the signal process is not needed
Murakami, Mitsuko; Zhang, G. P.; Chu, Shih-I.
2017-05-01
We present the photoelectron momentum distributions (PMDs) of helium, neon, and argon atoms driven by a linearly polarized, visible (527-nm) or near-infrared (800-nm) laser pulse (20 optical cycles in duration) based on the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) under the local-density approximation with a self-interaction correction. A set of time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations for all electrons in an atom is numerically solved using the generalized pseudospectral method. An effect of the electron-electron interaction driven by a visible laser field is not recognizable in the helium and neon PMDs except for a reduction of the overall photoelectron yield, but there is a clear difference between the PMDs of an argon atom calculated with the frozen-core approximation and TDDFT, indicating an interference of its M -shell wave functions during the ionization. Furthermore, we find that the PMDs of degenerate p states are well separated in intensity when driven by a near-infrared laser field, so that the single-active-electron approximation can be adopted safely.
Examining the time dependence of DAMA's modulation amplitude
Kelso, Chris; Savage, Christopher; Sandick, Pearl; Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo
2018-03-01
If dark matter is composed of weakly interacting particles, Earth's orbital motion may induce a small annual variation in the rate at which these particles interact in a terrestrial detector. The DAMA collaboration has identified at a 9.3σ confidence level such an annual modulation in their event rate over two detector iterations, DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA, each with ˜ 7 years of observations. This data is well fit by a constant modulation amplitude for the two iterations of the experiment. We statistically examine the time dependence of the modulation amplitudes, which "by eye" appear to be decreasing with time in certain energy ranges. We perform a chi-squared goodness of fit test of the average modulation amplitudes measured by the two detector iterations which rejects the hypothesis of a consistent modulation amplitude at greater than 80, 96, and 99.6% for the 2-4, 2-5 and 2-6 keVee energy ranges, respectively. We also find that among the 14 annual cycles there are three ≳ 3σ departures from the average in our estimated data in the 5-6 keVee energy range. In addition, we examined several phenomenological models for the time dependence of the modulation amplitude. Using a maximum likelihood test, we find that descriptions of the modulation amplitude as decreasing with time are preferred over a constant modulation amplitude at anywhere between 1σ and 3σ , depending on the phenomenological model for the time dependence and the signal energy range considered. A time dependent modulation amplitude is not expected for a dark matter signal, at least for dark matter halo morphologies consistent with the DAMA signal. New data from DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 will certainly aid in determining whether any apparent time dependence is a real effect or a statistical fluctuation.
Variational Approach in the Theory of Liquid-Crystal State
Gevorkyan, E. V.
2018-03-01
The variational calculus by Leonhard Euler is the basis for modern mathematics and theoretical physics. The efficiency of variational approach in statistical theory of liquid-crystal state and in general case in condensed state theory is shown. The developed approach in particular allows us to introduce correctly effective pair interactions and optimize the simple models of liquid crystals with help of realistic intermolecular potentials.
Time-dependent studies of multiphoton processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulander, K.C.; Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.
1992-01-01
Interest in intense-field laser-atom interactions has undergone very rapid growth over the past decade due to a number of very surprising observations made during short-pulse (much-lt 1 ns) excitation of atoms and molecules. Extensive results have been reported for electron and photon emission from atoms subject to high-intensity lasers. This wealth of data has greatly increased our detailed knowledge of the effects of electromagnetic radiation on the electrons in these systems. The richness of these results has encouraged the development of new theoretical methods to provide an understanding of the observations. This paper reports that one of the major techniques being used to study the dynamics of excitation and ionization is the direct solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for an atom or molecule in a pulse laser field. The time-dependent methods allow the exact calculation of above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra for real (three-dimensional) hydrogenic systems and of photon emission from atoms excited by lasers. Recently the possibility of high-frequency, high-intensity suppression of ionization has also been addressed
Stress and Syllable Structure in English: Approaches to Phonological Variations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
San Duanmu
2005-12-01
Full Text Available We use phonological variation to refer to alternative forms that are available in a language, such as different syllable structures or word stress patterns in English. We discuss several approaches to such variations and argue for a new approach, in which all alternative forms observe a set of inviolable constraints. In particular, we propose that all English words observe four constraints: (a a foot must be disyllabic, (b stressed syllables must be heavy, (c heavy syllables must have stress, and (d the maximal syllable is CVX. We discuss the implications of our proposal for Optimality Theory and for the analysis of linguistic variation in general.
Neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajad Abbar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A dense neutrino medium such as that inside a core-collapse supernova can experience collective flavor conversion or oscillations because of the neutral-current weak interaction among the neutrinos. This phenomenon has been studied in a restricted, stationary supernova model which possesses the (spatial spherical symmetry about the center of the supernova and the (directional axial symmetry around the radial direction. Recently it has been shown that these spatial and directional symmetries can be broken spontaneously by collective neutrino oscillations. In this letter we analyze the neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model. Our results show that collective neutrino oscillations start at approximately the same radius in both the stationary and time-dependent supernova models unless there exist very rapid variations in local physical conditions on timescales of a few microseconds or shorter. Our results also suggest that collective neutrino oscillations can vary rapidly with time in the regimes where they do occur which need to be studied in time-dependent supernova models.
Measurement of the Time Dependence of Neutron Slowing-Down and Therma in Heavy Water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moeller, E.
1966-03-15
The behaviour of neutrons during their slowing-down and thermalization in heavy water has been followed on the time scale by measurements of the time-dependent rate of reaction between the flux and the three spectrum indicators indium, cadmium and gadolinium. The space dependence of the reaction rate curves has also been studied. The time-dependent density at 1.46 eV is well reproduced by a function, given by von Dardel, and a time for the maximum density of 7.1 {+-} 0.3 {mu}s has been obtained for this energy in deuterium gas in agreement with the theoretical value of 7.2 {mu}s. The spatial variation of this time is in accord with the calculations by Claesson. The slowing- down time to 0.2 eV has been found to be 16.3 {+-}2.4 {mu}s. The approach to the equilibrium spectrum takes place with a time constant of 33 {+-}4 {mu}s, and the equilibrium has been established after about 200 {mu}s. Comparison of the measured curves for cadmium and gadolinium with multigroup calculations of the time-dependent flux and reaction rate show the superiority of the scattering models for heavy water of Butler and of Brown and St. John over the mass 2 gas model. The experiment has been supplemented with Monte Carlo calculations of the slowing down time.
Measurement of the Time Dependence of Neutron Slowing-Down and Therma in Heavy Water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, E.
1966-03-01
The behaviour of neutrons during their slowing-down and thermalization in heavy water has been followed on the time scale by measurements of the time-dependent rate of reaction between the flux and the three spectrum indicators indium, cadmium and gadolinium. The space dependence of the reaction rate curves has also been studied. The time-dependent density at 1.46 eV is well reproduced by a function, given by von Dardel, and a time for the maximum density of 7.1 ± 0.3 μs has been obtained for this energy in deuterium gas in agreement with the theoretical value of 7.2 μs. The spatial variation of this time is in accord with the calculations by Claesson. The slowing- down time to 0.2 eV has been found to be 16.3 ±2.4 μs. The approach to the equilibrium spectrum takes place with a time constant of 33 ±4 μs, and the equilibrium has been established after about 200 μs. Comparison of the measured curves for cadmium and gadolinium with multigroup calculations of the time-dependent flux and reaction rate show the superiority of the scattering models for heavy water of Butler and of Brown and St. John over the mass 2 gas model. The experiment has been supplemented with Monte Carlo calculations of the slowing down time
Reyes, Jonathan; Shadwick, B. A.
2016-10-01
Modeling the evolution of a short, intense laser pulse propagating through an underdense plasma is of particular interest in the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Numerical models are typically created by first discretizing the equations of motion and then imposing boundary conditions. Using the variational principle of Chen and Sudan, we spatially discretize the Lagrangian density to obtain discrete equations of motion and a discrete energy conservation law which is exactly satisfied regardless of the spatial grid resolution. Modifying the derived equations of motion (e.g., enforcing boundary conditions) generally ruins energy conservation. However, time-dependent terms can be added to the Lagrangian which force the equations of motion to have the desired boundary conditions. Although some foresight is needed to choose these time-dependent terms, this approach provides a mechanism for energy to exit the closed system while allowing the conservation law to account for the loss. An appropriate time discretization scheme is selected based on stability analysis and resolution requirements. We present results using this variational approach in a co-moving coordinate system and compare such results to those using traditional second-order methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY- 1104683.
Variational Wigner-Kirkwood approach to relativistic mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Estal, M.; Centelles, M.; Vinas, X.
1997-01-01
The recently developed variational Wigner-Kirkwood approach is extended to the relativistic mean field theory for finite nuclei. A numerical application to the calculation of the surface energy coefficient in semi-infinite nuclear matter is presented. The new method is contrasted with the standard density functional theory and the fully quantal approach. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
A variational approach to estimate incompressible fluid flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A variational approach is used to recover fluid motion governed by Stokes and Navier–Stokes equations. Unlike previous approaches where optical flow method is used to track rigid body motion, this new framework aims at investigating incompressible flows using optical flow techniques. We formulate a minimization ...
A variational approach to nonlinear evolution equations in optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
practical application of the approach is demonstrated by some illustrative examples in connection with the nonlinear ... and creative use of the variational approach to solve more or less complicated problems. No attempt towards a ...... Dispersion-management is an attractive way to increase the capacity of optical communi-.
Pathak, Savita; Mondal, Seema Sarkar
2010-10-01
A multi-objective inventory model of deteriorating item has been developed with Weibull rate of decay, time dependent demand, demand dependent production, time varying holding cost allowing shortages in fuzzy environments for non- integrated and integrated businesses. Here objective is to maximize the profit from different deteriorating items with space constraint. The impreciseness of inventory parameters and goals for non-integrated business has been expressed by linear membership functions. The compromised solutions are obtained by different fuzzy optimization methods. To incorporate the relative importance of the objectives, the different cardinal weights crisp/fuzzy have been assigned. The models are illustrated with numerical examples and results of models with crisp/fuzzy weights are compared. The result for the model assuming them to be integrated business is obtained by using Generalized Reduced Gradient Method (GRG). The fuzzy integrated model with imprecise inventory cost is formulated to optimize the possibility necessity measure of fuzzy goal of the objective function by using credibility measure of fuzzy event by taking fuzzy expectation. The results of crisp/fuzzy integrated model are illustrated with numerical examples and results are compared.
Effect of a time-dependent field on subdiffusing particles.
Shushin, A I
2008-11-01
We analyze the effect of a time-dependent external field on non-Markovian migration described by the continuous time random walk (CTRW) approach. The rigorous method of treating the problem is proposed which is based on the Markovian representations of the CTRW approach and field modulation. With the use of this method we derive the non-Markovian stochastic Liouville equation (SLE), that describes the effect of this field, and thoroughly analyze the relation of the derived SLE with equations proposed earlier. This SLE is applied to the case of subdiffusive migration in which the exact formulas for the first and second moments of spatial distribution are obtained. In the case of oscillating external field they predict unusual dependence of the first moment on oscillation phase and anomalous time behavior of field dependent contribution to the dispersion which agree with results of earlier works. Anomalous time dependence is also found in the case of a fluctuating field. The specific features of this time dependence are analyzed in detail.
Time dependent non-extinction probability for prompt critical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregson, M. W.; Prinja, A. K.
2009-01-01
The time dependent non-extinction probability equation is presented for slab geometry. Numerical solutions are provided for a nested inner/outer iteration routine where the fission terms (both linear and non-linear) are updated and then held fixed over the inner scattering iteration. Time dependent results are presented highlighting the importance of the injection position and angle. The iteration behavior is also described as the steady state probability of initiation is approached for both small and large time steps. Theoretical analysis of the nested iteration scheme is shown and highlights poor numerical convergence for marginally prompt critical systems. An acceleration scheme for the outer iterations is presented to improve convergence of such systems. Theoretical analysis of the acceleration scheme is also provided and the associated decrease in computational run time addressed. (authors)
Energetic Variational Approach to Multi-Component Fluid Flows
Kirshtein, Arkadz; Liu, Chun; Brannick, James
2017-11-01
In this talk I will introduce the systematic energetic variational approach for dissipative systems applied to multi-component fluid flows. These variational approaches are motivated by the seminal works of Rayleigh and Onsager. The advantage of this approach is that we have to postulate only energy law and some kinematic relations based on fundamental physical principles. The method gives a clear, quick and consistent way to derive the PDE system. I will compare different approaches to three-component flows using diffusive interface method and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The diffusive interface method is an approach for modeling interactions among complex substances. The main idea behind this method is to introduce phase field labeling functions in order to model the contact line by smooth change from one type of material to another. The work of Arkadz Kirshtein and Chun Liu is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-141200 and DMS-1216938.
Tunable Time-Dependent Colloidal Interactions
Bergman, Andrew M.; Rogers, W. Benjamin; Manoharan, Vinothan N.
Self-assembly of colloidal particles can be driven by changes in temperature, density, or the concentration of solutes, and it is even possible to program the thermal response and equilibrium phase transitions of such systems. It is still difficult, however, to tune how the self-assembly process varies in time. We demonstrate control over the time-dependence of colloidal interactions, using DNA-functionalized colloidal particles with binding energies that are set by the concentration of a free linker strand in solution. We control the rate at which this free strand is consumed using a catalytic DNA reaction, whose rate is governed by the concentration of a catalyst strand. Varying the concentration of the linker, its competitor, and the catalyst at a fixed temperature, we can tune the rate and degree of the formation of colloidal aggregates and their following disassembly. Close to the colloidal melting point, the timescales of these out-of-equilibrium assembly and disassembly processes are determined by the rate of the catalytic reaction. Far below the colloidal melting point, however, the effects from varying our linker and competitor concentrations dominate.
Time dependent mean-field games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-01-06
We consider time dependent mean-field games (MFG) with a local power-like dependence on the measure and Hamiltonians satisfying both sub and superquadratic growth conditions. We establish existence of smooth solutions under a certain set of conditions depending both on the growth of the Hamiltonian as well as on the dimension. In the subquadratic case this is done by combining a Gagliardo-Nirenberg type of argument with a new class of polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of LrLp- norms of DpH. These techniques do not apply to the superquadratic case. In this setting we recur to a delicate argument that combines the non-linear adjoint method with polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of L1L1-norms of DpH. Concerning the subquadratic case, we substantially improve and extend the results previously obtained. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, the superquadratic case has not been addressed in the literature yet. In fact, it is likely that our estimates may also add to the current understanding of Hamilton-Jacobi equations with superquadratic Hamiltonians.
System reliability time-dependent models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debernardo, H.D.
1991-06-01
A probabilistic methodology for safety system technical specification evaluation was developed. The method for Surveillance Test Interval (S.T.I.) evaluation basically means an optimization of S.T.I. of most important system's periodically tested components. For Allowed Outage Time (A.O.T.) calculations, the method uses system reliability time-dependent models (A computer code called FRANTIC III). A new approximation, which was called Independent Minimal Cut Sets (A.C.I.), to compute system unavailability was also developed. This approximation is better than Rare Event Approximation (A.E.R.) and the extra computing cost is neglectible. A.C.I. was joined to FRANTIC III to replace A.E.R. on future applications. The case study evaluations verified that this methodology provides a useful probabilistic assessment of surveillance test intervals and allowed outage times for many plant components. The studied system is a typical configuration of nuclear power plant safety systems (two of three logic). Because of the good results, these procedures will be used by the Argentine nuclear regulatory authorities in evaluation of technical specification of Atucha I and Embalse nuclear power plant safety systems. (Author) [es
A Variational approach to thin film hydrodynamics of binary mixtures
Xu, Xinpeng
2015-02-04
In order to model the dynamics of thin films of mixtures, solutions, and suspensions, a thermodynamically consistent formulation is needed such that various coexisting dissipative processes with cross couplings can be correctly described in the presence of capillarity, wettability, and mixing effects. In the present work, we apply Onsager\\'s variational principle to the formulation of thin film hydrodynamics for binary fluid mixtures. We first derive the dynamic equations in two spatial dimensions, one along the substrate and the other normal to the substrate. Then, using long-wave asymptotics, we derive the thin film equations in one spatial dimension along the substrate. This enables us to establish the connection between the present variational approach and the gradient dynamics formulation for thin films. It is shown that for the mobility matrix in the gradient dynamics description, Onsager\\'s reciprocal symmetry is automatically preserved by the variational derivation. Furthermore, using local hydrodynamic variables, our variational approach is capable of introducing diffusive dissipation beyond the limit of dilute solute. Supplemented with a Flory-Huggins-type mixing free energy, our variational approach leads to a thin film model that treats solvent and solute in a symmetric manner. Our approach can be further generalized to include more complicated free energy and additional dissipative processes.
Time-dependent fatigue--phenomenology and life prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coffin, L.F.
1979-01-01
The time-dependent fatigue behavior of materials used or considered for use in present and advanced systems for power generation is outlined. A picture is first presented to show how basic mechanisms and phenomenological information relate to the performance of the component under consideration through the so-called local strain approach. By this means life prediction criteria and design rules can be formulated utilizing laboratory test information which is directly translated to predicting the performance of a component. The body of phenomenological information relative to time-dependent fatigue is reviewed. Included are effects of strain range, strain rate and frequency, environment and wave shape, all of which are shown to be important in developing both an understanding and design base for time dependent fatigue. Using this information, some of the current methods being considered for the life prediction of components are reviewed. These include the current ASME code case, frequency-modified fatigue equations, strain range partitioning, the damage function method, frequency separation and damage rate equations. From this review, it is hoped that a better perspective on future directions for basic material science at high temperature can be achieved
Time-Dependent-Asymmetric-Linear-Parsimonious Ancestral State Reconstruction.
Didier, Gilles
2017-10-01
The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is an ancestral state reconstruction method which extends the standard linear parsimony (a.k.a. Wagner parsimony) approach by taking into account both branch lengths and asymmetric evolutionary costs for reconstructing quantitative characters (asymmetric costs amount to assuming an evolutionary trend toward the direction with the lowest cost). A formal study of the influence of the asymmetry parameter shows that the time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony infers states which are all taken among the known states, except for some degenerate cases corresponding to special values of the asymmetry parameter. This remarkable property holds in particular for the Wagner parsimony. This study leads to a polynomial algorithm which determines, and provides a compact representation of, the parametric reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree, that is for all the unknown nodes, the set of all the possible reconstructed states associated with the asymmetry parameters leading to them. The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is finally illustrated with the parametric reconstruction of the body size of cetaceans.
Smirnova, Alexandra; deCamp, Linda; Chowell, Gerardo
2017-05-02
Deterministic and stochastic methods relying on early case incidence data for forecasting epidemic outbreaks have received increasing attention during the last few years. In mathematical terms, epidemic forecasting is an ill-posed problem due to instability of parameter identification and limited available data. While previous studies have largely estimated the time-dependent transmission rate by assuming specific functional forms (e.g., exponential decay) that depend on a few parameters, here we introduce a novel approach for the reconstruction of nonparametric time-dependent transmission rates by projecting onto a finite subspace spanned by Legendre polynomials. This approach enables us to effectively forecast future incidence cases, the clear advantage over recovering the transmission rate at finitely many grid points within the interval where the data are currently available. In our approach, we compare three regularization algorithms: variational (Tikhonov's) regularization, truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), and modified TSVD in order to determine the stabilizing strategy that is most effective in terms of reliability of forecasting from limited data. We illustrate our methodology using simulated data as well as case incidence data for various epidemics including the 1918 influenza pandemic in San Francisco and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa.
Shapes and dynamics from the time-dependent mean field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevenson, P.D.; Goddard, P.M.; Rios, A.
2015-01-01
Explaining observed properties in terms of underlying shape degrees of freedom is a well-established prism with which to understand atomic nuclei. Self-consistent mean-field models provide one tool to understand nuclear shapes, and their link to other nuclear properties and observables. We present examples of how the time-dependent extension of the mean-field approach can be used in particular to shed light on nuclear shape properties, particularly looking at the giant resonances built on deformed nuclear ground states, and at dynamics in highly-deformed fission isomers. Example calculations are shown of 28 Si in the first case, and 240 Pu in the latter case
A Variational Approach to Perturbed Discrete Anisotropic Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amjad Salari
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We continue the study of discrete anisotropic equations and we will provide new multiplicity results of the solutions for a discrete anisotropic equation. We investigate the existence of infinitely many solutions for a perturbed discrete anisotropic boundary value problem. The approach is based on variational methods and critical point theory.
Statistical mechanics of learning: A variational approach for real data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malzahn, Doerthe; Opper, Manfred
2002-01-01
Using a variational technique, we generalize the statistical physics approach of learning from random examples to make it applicable to real data. We demonstrate the validity and relevance of our method by computing approximate estimators for generalization errors that are based on training data alone
TIME-DEPENDENT MODELS OF FLARES FROM SAGITTARIUS A*
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodds-Eden, Katie; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sharma, Prateek; Quataert, Eliot; Porquet, Delphine
2010-01-01
The emission from Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center, shows order of magnitude variability ('flares') a few times a day that is particularly prominent in the near-infrared (NIR) and X-rays. We present a time-dependent model for these flares motivated by the hypothesis that dissipation of magnetic energy powers the flares. We show that episodic magnetic reconnection can occur near the last stable circular orbit in time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of black hole accretion-the timescales and energetics of these events are broadly consistent with the flares from Sgr A*. Motivated by these results, we present a spatially one-zone time-dependent model for the electron distribution function in flares, including energy loss due to synchrotron cooling and adiabatic expansion. Synchrotron emission from transiently accelerated particles can explain the NIR/X-ray light curves and spectra of a luminous flare observed on 2007 April 4. A significant decrease in the magnetic field strength during the flare (coincident with the electron acceleration) is required to explain the simultaneity and symmetry of the simultaneous light curves. Our models predict that the NIR and X-ray spectral indices are related by Δα ≅ 0.5 (where νF ν ∝ ν α ) and that there is only modest variation in the spectral index during flares. We also explore implications of this model for longer wavelength (radio-submillimeter) emission seemingly associated with X-ray and NIR flares; we argue that a few hour decrease in the submillimeter emission is a more generic consequence of large-scale magnetic reconnection than delayed radio emission from adiabatic expansion.
On the analysis of line profile variations: A statistical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCandliss, S.R.
1988-01-01
This study is concerned with the empirical characterization of the line profile variations (LPV), which occur in many of and Wolf-Rayet stars. The goal of the analysis is to gain insight into the physical mechanisms producing the variations. The analytic approach uses a statistical method to quantify the significance of the LPV and to identify those regions in the line profile which are undergoing statistically significant variations. Line positions and flux variations are then measured and subject to temporal and correlative analysis. Previous studies of LPV have for the most part been restricted to observations of a single line. Important information concerning the range and amplitude of the physical mechanisms involved can be obtained by simultaneously observing spectral features formed over a range of depths in the extended mass losing atmospheres of massive, luminous stars. Time series of a Wolf-Rayet and two of stars with nearly complete spectral coverage from 3940 angstrom to 6610 angstrom and with spectral resolution of R = 10,000 are analyzed here. These three stars exhibit a wide range of both spectral and temporal line profile variations. The HeII Pickering lines of HD 191765 show a monotonic increase in the peak rms variation amplitude with lines formed at progressively larger radii in the Wolf-Rayet star wind. Two times scales of variation have been identified in this star: a less than one day variation associated with small scale flickering in the peaks of the line profiles and a greater than one day variation associated with large scale asymmetric changes in the overall line profile shapes. However, no convincing period phenomena are evident at those periods which are well sampled in this time series
Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon
Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.
This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness meridional tendons This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent Upon inflation and pressurization the instantaneous i e linear-elastic strain and stress distributions in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction However over time and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the gore material the em hoop strains increase and the em meridional stresses decrease whereas the em remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature The results show good correlation with a numerical study using the ABAQUS finite-element package that includes a widely used model of
Electron-nuclear coupling in time-dependent multicomponent density functional theory
Butriy, Olena O.
2008-01-01
In this thesis we developed the time-dependent version of the multicomponent density functional approach to treat time-dependent electron-nuclear systems. The method enables to describe the electron-nuclear coupling fully quantum mechanically. No Born-Oppenheimer approximation is involved in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhargava, Kapilesh; Mori, Yasuhiro; Ghosh, A.K.
2011-01-01
This paper forms the third part of a study which addresses time-dependent reliability analyses of reinforced concrete (RC) beams affected by reinforcement corrosion. Parts 1 and 2 of the reliability study are presented in companion papers. Part 1 of the reliability study presents evaluation of probabilistic descriptions for time-dependent strengths of a typical simply supported corrosion-affected RC beam. These probabilistic descriptions, i.e., mean and coefficient of variation (c.o.v.) for the time-dependent strengths are presented for two limit states: (a) flexural failure; and (b) shear failure. Part 2 of the reliability study presents evaluation of time-dependent failure probability for the considered RC beam by utilizing the information on probabilistic descriptions for time-dependent strengths available in Part 1. Evaluation of time-dependent failure probability considering the variability in time-dependent strengths and/or time-dependent degradation functions is also presented. This paper investigates the effects of time to corrosion initiation and its variability on failure probability of the same RC beam presented in companion papers. By considering variability in the identified variables that could affect the expected time of first corrosion, simple estimations are presented for mean time to corrosion initiation and variability associated with time to corrosion initiation. Evaluation of time-dependent failure probability for the beam is presented by considering estimated probabilistic descriptions, i.e., mean and c.o.v. for time to corrosion initiation. Parametric analyses show that failure probability for the beam is sensitive to the mode of strength degradation and time to corrosion initiation.
Usage labels network: an approach to lexical variation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danko Šipka
1994-12-01
Full Text Available The Problem of lexical variation is frequently addressed within the linguistic community. Its complexity and the broad implications of any possible solution have considerable appeal among theoretical linguists. Lexicographers, in their turn, have been forced to address it in order to provide dictionary usage information, which is normally done by means of dictionary labels such as: American English, obsolete, slang , etc. An insightful overview of the relevant lexicological approaches, as well as some lexicographis projects is provided in Lipka (1990. The most exhaustive sociolinguistic classification, however, can be found in Preston (1986. Lexicographis treatments of lexical variation have been addressed in numerous papers listed in Zgusta (1988.
Fundamental Constants in Physics and their Time Dependence
CERN. Geneva
2008-01-01
In the Standard Model of Particle Physics we are dealing with 28 fundamental constants. In the experiments these constants can be measured, but theoretically they are not understood. I will discuss these constants, which are mostly mass parameters. Astrophysical measurements indicate that the finestructure constant is not a real constant, but depends on time. Grand unification then implies also a time variation of the QCD scale. Thus the masses of the atomic nuclei and the magnetic moments of the nuclei will depend on time. I proposed an experiment, which is currently done by Prof. Haensch in Munich and his group. The first results indicate a time dependence of the QCD scale. I will discuss the theoretical implications.
STUDY OF THE TIME DEPENDENCE OF RADIOACTIVITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E Bellotti
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The activity of a 137Cs source was measured using a germanium detector installed deep underground in the Gran Sasso Laboratory. In total about 5100 energy spectra, one hour measuring time each, were collected and used to search for time variations of the decay constant with periods from a few hours to 1 year. No signal with amplitude larger than 9.6 × 10−5 at 95% C.L. was detected. These limits are more than one order of magnitude lower than the values on the oscillation amplitude reported in the literature. The same data give a value of 29.96±0.08 years for the 137Cs half life, which is in good agreement with the world mean value of 30.05 ± 0.08 years.
Variational Approach to Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculations
Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele
2014-08-01
The ability of widely used sampling methods, such as molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations, to explore complex free energy landscapes is severely hampered by the presence of kinetic bottlenecks. A large number of solutions have been proposed to alleviate this problem. Many are based on the introduction of a bias potential which is a function of a small number of collective variables. However constructing such a bias is not simple. Here we introduce a functional of the bias potential and an associated variational principle. The bias that minimizes the functional relates in a simple way to the free energy surface. This variational principle can be turned into a practical, efficient, and flexible sampling method. A number of numerical examples are presented which include the determination of a three-dimensional free energy surface. We argue that, beside being numerically advantageous, our variational approach provides a convenient and novel standpoint for looking at the sampling problem.
Time-dependent constrained Hamiltonian systems and Dirac brackets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leon, Manuel de [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Marrero, Juan C. [Departamento de Matematica Fundamental, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Martin de Diego, David [Departamento de Economia Aplicada Cuantitativa, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UNED, Madrid (Spain)
1996-11-07
In this paper the canonical Dirac formalism for time-dependent constrained Hamiltonian systems is globalized. A time-dependent Dirac bracket which reduces to the usual one for time-independent systems is introduced. (author)
GNSS imaging of time-dependent variable deformation in a Chilean subduction zone
Baez, J. C., Sr.; Felipe, L., Sr.; DelCampo, F., Sr.; Pineda, D., Sr.; Barrientos, S. E.; Tassara, A.; Moreno, M.
2016-12-01
Using data from a large continuous GNSS network, composed of more than 130 stations located in continental Chile, we detected time-dependent deformation. We concentrate on removing the seasonal variations and recovering the interseismic, postseismic, and coseismic deformation. This enables us to model and estimate the locking rate, stress accumulation, and slip deficiency, in a short and long term approach. The inversion procedure to obtain the locking rate from the interseismic velocities makes a strong simplification: the medium is an elastic homogeneous half-space (e.g. Okada, 1985). The slip rate is restricted between zero up to the plate convergence velocity. Hence, besides this restriction, this inversion is the same as a coseismic slip inversion. The resulting from this study will improve our understanding of the seismic cycle in the Andean subduction environment.
Miranda, R P; Fisher, A J; Stella, L; Horsfield, A P
2011-06-28
The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for systems of interacting electrons is generally a prohibitive task, for which approximate methods are necessary. Popular approaches, such as the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) approximation and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), are essentially single-configurational schemes. TDHF is by construction incapable of fully accounting for the excited character of the electronic states involved in many physical processes of interest; TDDFT, although exact in principle, is limited by the currently available exchange-correlation functionals. On the other hand, multiconfigurational methods, such as the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) approach, provide an accurate description of the excited states and can be systematically improved. However, the computational cost becomes prohibitive as the number of degrees of freedom increases, and thus, at present, the MCTDHF method is only practical for few-electron systems. In this work, we propose an alternative approach which effectively establishes a compromise between efficiency and accuracy, by retaining the smallest possible number of configurations that catches the essential features of the electronic wavefunction. Based on a time-dependent variational principle, we derive the MCTDHF working equation for a multiconfigurational expansion with fixed coefficients and specialise to the case of general open-shell states, which are relevant for many physical processes of interest.
2-D CFD time-dependent thermal-hydraulic simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehdi Zadeh, Foad [Department of Engineering Physics/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Étienne, Stéphane [Department of Mechanical Engineering/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Teyssedou, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.teyssedou@polymtl.ca [Department of Engineering Physics/Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada)
2016-12-01
Highlights: • 2-D time-dependent CFD simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows are presented. • A thermal-hydraulic code using thermal physical fluid properties is used. • The numerical approach and convergence is validated against available data. • Flow configurations are correlated using Richardson’s number. • Frequency components indicate moderator flow oscillations vs. Richardson numbers. - Abstract: The distribution of the fluid temperature and mass density of the moderator flow in CANDU-6 nuclear power reactors may affect the reactivity coefficient. For this reason, any possible moderator flow configuration and consequently the corresponding temperature distributions must be studied. In particular, the variations of the reactivity may result in major safety issues. For instance, excessive temperature excursions in the vicinity of the calandria tubes nearby local flow stagnation zones, may bring about partial boiling. Moreover, steady-state simulations have shown that for operating condition, intense buoyancy forces may be dominant, which can trigger a thermal stratification. Therefore, the numerical study of the time-dependent flow transition to such a condition, is of fundamental safety concern. Within this framework, this paper presents detailed time-dependent numerical simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flow for a wide range of flow conditions. To get a better insight of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, the simulations were performed by covering long physical-time periods using an open-source code (Code-Saturne V3) developed by Électricité de France. The results show not only a region where the flow is characterized by coherent structures of flow fluctuations but also the existence of two limit cases where fluid oscillations disappear almost completely.
Time-Dependent Thermal Transport Theory.
Biele, Robert; D'Agosta, Roberto; Rubio, Angel
2015-07-31
Understanding thermal transport in nanoscale systems presents important challenges to both theory and experiment. In particular, the concept of local temperature at the nanoscale appears difficult to justify. Here, we propose a theoretical approach where we replace the temperature gradient with controllable external blackbody radiations. The theory recovers known physical results, for example, the linear relation between the thermal current and the temperature difference of two blackbodies. Furthermore, our theory is not limited to the linear regime and goes beyond accounting for nonlinear effects and transient phenomena. Since the present theory is general and can be adapted to describe both electron and phonon dynamics, it provides a first step toward a unified formalism for investigating thermal and electronic transport.
Interacting particle systems in time-dependent geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A; Ball, R C; Grosskinsky, S; Somfai, E
2013-01-01
Many complex structures and stochastic patterns emerge from simple kinetic rules and local interactions, and are governed by scale invariance properties in combination with effects of the global geometry. We consider systems that can be described effectively by space–time trajectories of interacting particles, such as domain boundaries in two-dimensional growth or river networks. We study trajectories embedded in time-dependent geometries, and the main focus is on uniformly expanding or decreasing domains for which we obtain an exact mapping to simple fixed domain systems while preserving the local scale invariance properties. This approach was recently introduced in Ali et al (2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 020102(R)) and here we provide a detailed discussion on its applicability for self-affine Markovian models, and how it can be adapted to self-affine models with memory or explicit time dependence. The mapping corresponds to a nonlinear time transformation which converges to a finite value for a large class of trajectories, enabling an exact analysis of asymptotic properties in expanding domains. We further provide a detailed discussion of different particle interactions and generalized geometries. All our findings are based on exact computations and are illustrated numerically for various examples, including Lévy processes and fractional Brownian motion. (paper)
FRANTIC: a computer code for time dependent unavailability analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.
1977-03-01
The FRANTIC computer code evaluates the time dependent and average unavailability for any general system model. The code is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM 370 computer. Non-repairable components, monitored components, and periodically tested components are handled. One unique feature of FRANTIC is the detailed, time dependent modeling of periodic testing which includes the effects of test downtimes, test overrides, detection inefficiencies, and test-caused failures. The exponential distribution is used for the component failure times and periodic equations are developed for the testing and repair contributions. Human errors and common mode failures can be included by assigning an appropriate constant probability for the contributors. The output from FRANTIC consists of tables and plots of the system unavailability along with a breakdown of the unavailability contributions. Sensitivity studies can be simply performed and a wide range of tables and plots can be obtained for reporting purposes. The FRANTIC code represents a first step in the development of an approach that can be of direct value in future system evaluations. Modifications resulting from use of the code, along with the development of reliability data based on operating reactor experience, can be expected to provide increased confidence in its use and potential application to the licensing process
A unified approach to variational derivatives of modified gravitational actions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baykal, Ahmet; Delice, Oezguer
2011-01-01
Our main aim in this paper is to promote the coframe variational method as a unified approach to derive field equations for any given gravitational action containing the algebraic functions of the scalars constructed from the Riemann curvature tensor and its contractions. We are able to derive a master equation which expresses the variational derivatives of the generalized gravitational actions in terms of the variational derivatives of its constituent curvature scalars. Using the Lagrange multiplier method relative to an orthonormal coframe, we investigate the variational procedures for modified gravitational Lagrangian densities in spacetime dimensions n ≥ 3. We study the well-known gravitational actions such as those involving the Gauss-Bonnet and Ricci-squared, Kretchmann scalar, Weyl-squared terms and their algebraic generalizations similar to generic f(R) theories and the algebraic generalization of sixth order gravitational Lagrangians. We put forth a new model involving the gravitational Chern-Simons term and also give three-dimensional new massive gravity equations in a new form in terms of the Cotton 2-form.
On the time-dependent radiative transfer in photospheric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schultz, A.L.; Schweizer, M.A.
1987-01-01
The paper is the second of a series investigating time-dependent radiative transfer processes of x-rays in photospheric plasmas. A quantitative discussion is presented of analytical results derived earlier along with a comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. The geometry considered is a homogeneous plasma ball with radius R. The source is concentrated on a concentric shell with radius r 0 < R. Point sources at the centre of the ball or semi-infinite geometries are discussed as limiting cases. Diffusion profiles are given for every scattering order and the total profile appears as the sum over these individual profiles. The comparison with Monte Carlo results is used to test the accuracy of the analytical approach and to adjust the time profiles of the first few scattering orders. The analytical theory yields good results over a wide range of situations. (author)
Speckle reduction via higher order total variation approach.
Wensen Feng; Hong Lei; Yang Gao
2014-04-01
Multiplicative noise (also known as speckle) reduction is a prerequisite for many image-processing tasks in coherent imaging systems, such as the synthetic aperture radar. One approach extensively used in this area is based on total variation (TV) regularization, which can recover significantly sharp edges of an image, but suffers from the staircase-like artifacts. In order to overcome the undesirable deficiency, we propose two novel models for removing multiplicative noise based on total generalized variation (TGV) penalty. The TGV regularization has been mathematically proven to be able to eliminate the staircasing artifacts by being aware of higher order smoothness. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm is developed for solving the TGV-based optimization problems. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our proposed methods achieve state-of-the-art results, both visually and quantitatively. In particular, when the image has some higher order smoothness, our methods outperform the TV-based algorithms.
A variational approach to relaxation in ultrametric spaces
Appignanesi, Gustavo; Fernández, Ariel
We investigate the relaxation behavior of complex systems endowed with a rugged free energy landscape from a variational perspective. We focus first on the dynamics in generic ultrametric spaces and then we specialize our generic results to a coarse-grained description of RNA folding, where ultrametricity holds as a limit description of conformation space. Using variational calculus in the generic context, we obtain the brachistochrone or fastest relaxation pathway for the ultrametric distance as a function of the barrier size and conclude that the brachistochrone may only be realized by those systems that follow the exponential or Debye law. Our approach not only reproduces the phenomenological generic relaxation law in the ultrametric limit, but is also justified a posteriori in specialized contexts: It reproduces meaningful folding pathways for the search in conformational space performed by renaturing RNA molecules which are targets of natural selection, reflecting a maximization in the efficiency of the folding process.
A variational approach to understanding white dwarf evolution
Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.
1989-01-01
A variational approach is used to map out the effects that uncertainties in the theoretical model parameters have upon the derived ages near the observed cutoff in the white dwarf luminosity function. Two representative sequences are assessed, simulating a white dwarf with a 50/50 C/O mixture in the core and an outer helium layer and a white dwarf with a C/O convective overshooting profile. The differential effects that the variation of selected model input quantities has on the ages are reported, and it is concluded that internal theoretical uncertainties are small and getting smaller with time, and the results underscore the power of using the observed white dwarf luminosity function for studying the history of star formation in the Galaxy.
Time-series analysis of foreign exchange rates using time-dependent pattern entropy
Ishizaki, Ryuji; Inoue, Masayoshi
2013-08-01
Time-dependent pattern entropy is a method that reduces variations to binary symbolic dynamics and considers the pattern of symbols in a sliding temporal window. We use this method to analyze the instability of daily variations in foreign exchange rates, in particular, the dollar-yen rate. The time-dependent pattern entropy of the dollar-yen rate was found to be high in the following periods: before and after the turning points of the yen from strong to weak or from weak to strong, and the period after the Lehman shock.
On a Variational Approach to Optimization of Hybrid Mechanical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim Azhmyakov
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with multiobjective optimization techniques for a class of hybrid optimal control problems in mechanical systems. We deal with general nonlinear hybrid control systems described by boundary-value problems associated with hybrid-type Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. The variational structure of the corresponding solutions makes it possible to reduce the original “mechanical” problem to an auxiliary multiobjective programming reformulation. This approach motivates possible applications of theoretical and computational results from multiobjective optimization related to the original dynamical optimization problem. We consider first order optimality conditions for optimal control problems governed by hybrid mechanical systems and also discuss some conceptual algorithms.
On the time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Jing
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The Aharonov–Bohm effect in the background of a time-dependent vector potential is re-examined for both non-relativistic and relativistic cases. Based on the solutions to the Schrodinger and Dirac equations which contain the time-dependent magnetic vector potential, we find that contrary to the conclusions in a recent paper (Singleton and Vagenas 2013 [4], the interference pattern will be altered with respect to time because of the time-dependent vector potential.
THE EVOLUATION OF APPROACH OF LINGUISTIC VARIATION IN ENEM ASSESSMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sammela Rejane de Jesus Andrade
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In order to observe how are treated the concepts about linguistic variation as preconized by official guidelines, e.g. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais and Programa Nacional do LivroDidático, we analyze the questions in Linguagem, Códigos e suas Tecnologias related of sociolinguiostic in exam of Enem assessment between 2000-2012, with the aim of correlate the information contained in this material to public policies directed to basic education, more effectively to high school, and mainly discussing the treatment of linguistic variation through the propositions of continuous Bortoni-Ricardo (2004. Considering the language from the sociolinguistic conception as heterogeneous, multiple and in permanent construction we raised the questioning of how to treat this heterogeneity and mutation, in a closed and limited space in the case a selection examination (objective test of Enem, which stipulates skills to be achieved and the means for this to occur. The analysis showed that there is a congruence as the requirements of official documents and the guiding rulers of the test, however, the observation of the questions showed how we still need to change for it to happen more effective variational approach in the Enem and in the Portuguese language teaching.
A reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation
Altaf, Muhammad
2013-02-01
The adjoint method has been used very often for variational data assimilation. The computational cost to run the adjoint model often exceeds several original model runs and the method needs significant programming efforts to implement the adjoint model code. The work proposed here is variational data assimilation based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) which avoids the implementation of the adjoint of the tangent linear approximation of the original nonlinear model. An ensemble of the forward model simulations is used to determine the approximation of the covariance matrix and only the dominant eigenvectors of this matrix are used to define a model subspace. The adjoint of the tangent linear model is replaced by the reduced adjoint based on this reduced space. Thus the adjoint model is run in reduced space with negligible computational cost. Once the gradient is obtained in reduced space it is projected back in full space and the minimization process is carried in full space. In the paper the reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation is introduced. The characteristics and performance of the method are illustrated with a number of data assimilation experiments in a ground water subsurface contaminant model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Delay differential equations and the dose-time dependence of early radiotherapy reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fenwick, John D.
2006-01-01
The dose-time dependence of early radiotherapy reactions impacts on the design of accelerated fractionation schedules--oral mucositis, for example, can be dose limiting for short treatments designed to avoid tumor repopulation. In this paper a framework for modeling early reaction dose-time dependence is developed. Variation of stem cell number with time after the start of a radiation schedule is modeled using a first-order delay differential equation (DDE), motivated by experimental observations linking the speed of compensatory proliferation in early reacting tissues to the degree of tissue damage. The modeling suggests that two types of early reaction radiation response are possible, stem cell numbers either monotonically approaching equilibrium plateau levels or overshooting before returning to equilibrium. Several formulas have been derived from the delay differential equation, predicting changes in isoeffective total radiation dose with schedule duration for different types of fractionation scheme. The formulas have been fitted to a wide range of published animal early reaction data, the fits all implying a degree of overshoot. Results are presented illustrating the scope of the delay differential model: most of the data are fitted well, although the model struggles with a few datasets measured for schedules with distinctive dose-time patterns. Ways of extending the current model to cope with these particular dose-time patterns are briefly discussed. The DDE approach is conceptually more complex than earlier descriptive dose-time models but potentially more powerful. It can be used to study issues not addressed by simpler models, such as the likely effects of increasing or decreasing the dose-per-day over time, or of splitting radiation courses into intense segments separated by gaps. It may also prove useful for modeling the effects of chemoirradiation
Delay differential equations and the dose-time dependence of early radiotherapy reactions.
Fenwick, John D
2006-09-01
The dose-time dependence of early radiotherapy reactions impacts on the design of accelerated fractionation schedules--oral mucositis, for example, can be dose limiting for short treatments designed to avoid tumor repopulation. In this paper a framework for modeling early reaction dose-time dependence is developed. Variation of stem cell number with time after the start of a radiation schedule is modeled using a first-order delay differential equation (DDE), motivated by experimental observations linking the speed of compensatory proliferation in early reacting tissues to the degree of tissue damage. The modeling suggests that two types of early reaction radiation response are possible, stem cell numbers either monotonically approaching equilibrium plateau levels or overshooting before returning to equilibrium. Several formulas have been derived from the delay differential equation, predicting changes in isoeffective total radiation dose with schedule duration for different types of fractionation scheme. The formulas have been fitted to a wide range of published animal early reaction data, the fits all implying a degree of overshoot. Results are presented illustrating the scope of the delay differential model: most of the data are fitted well, although the model struggles with a few datasets measured for schedules with distinctive dose-time patterns. Ways of extending the current model to cope with these particular dose-time patterns are briefly discussed. The DDE approach is conceptually more complex than earlier descriptive dose-time models but potentially more powerful. It can be used to study issues not addressed by simpler models, such as the likely effects of increasing or decreasing the dose-per-day over time, or of splitting radiation courses into intense segments separated by gaps. It may also prove useful for modeling the effects of chemoirradiation.
Time-series analysis of multiple foreign exchange rates using time-dependent pattern entropy
Ishizaki, Ryuji; Inoue, Masayoshi
2018-01-01
Time-dependent pattern entropy is a method that reduces variations to binary symbolic dynamics and considers the pattern of symbols in a sliding temporal window. We use this method to analyze the instability of daily variations in multiple foreign exchange rates. The time-dependent pattern entropy of 7 foreign exchange rates (AUD/USD, CAD/USD, CHF/USD, EUR/USD, GBP/USD, JPY/USD, and NZD/USD) was found to be high in the long period after the Lehman shock, and be low in the long period after Mar 2012. We compared the correlation matrix between exchange rates in periods of high and low of the time-dependent pattern entropy.
Time dependent analysis of concrete in SAP2000
Varona Moya, Francisco de Borja
2018-01-01
This document presents an example of time-dependent analysis of a concrete column using SAP2000. In order to understand the parameters required by the software to run the analysis, the formulation of time dependent properties of concrete according to Model Code 1990 is included.
Thermal state of the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Harmonic oscillator that has time-dependent mass or frequency may be a good example of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems. Although a large number of dynamical systems have been investigated using approximation and perturbation method in the literature [2,3], we confine our concern to the exact quantum solution ...
Space-time discontinuous Galerkin method for parabolic problems in time-dependent domains
Janivita Joto Sudirham, J.J.S.; Sudirham, J.J.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.
2004-01-01
In this report a space-time discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method for the solution of the advection-diffusion-reaction equation in time-dependent domains is presented and analyzed. The variational formulation is based on a combination of the space-time DG method developed by van der Vegt
A new approximation method for time-dependent problems in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; Fernandez, Francisco M.; Jones, Hugh
2005-01-01
We propose an approximate solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation using the method of stationary states combined with a variational matrix method for finding the energies and eigenstates. We illustrate the effectiveness of the method by applying it to the time development of the wave-function in the quantum-mechanical version of the inflationary slow-roll transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdullaev, F.Kh.; Kamchatnov, A.M.; Konotop, V.V.; Brazhnyi, V.A.
2003-01-01
Evolution of periodic matter waves in one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with time-dependent scattering length is described. It is shown that variation of the effective nonlinearity is a powerful tool for controlled generation of bright and dark solitons starting with periodic waves
The Limit Behavior of a Stochastic Logistic Model with Individual Time-Dependent Rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yilun Shang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate a variant of the stochastic logistic model that allows individual variation and time-dependent infection and recovery rates. The model is described as a heterogeneous density dependent Markov chain. We show that the process can be approximated by a deterministic process defined by an integral equation as the population size grows.
A variational approach to bone segmentation in CT images
Calder, Jeff; Tahmasebi, Amir M.; Mansouri, Abdol-Reza
2011-03-01
We present a variational approach for segmenting bone structures in Computed Tomography (CT) images. We introduce a novel functional on the space of image segmentations, and subsequently minimize this functional through a gradient descent partial differential equation. The functional we propose provides a measure of similarity of the intensity characteristics of the bone and tissue regions through a comparison of their cumulative distribution functions; minimizing this similarity measure therefore yields the maximal separation between the two regions. We perform the minimization of our proposed functional using level set partial differential equations; in addition to numerical stability, this yields topology independence, which is especially useful in the context of CT bone segmentation where a bone region may consist of several disjoint pieces. Finally, we present an extensive validation of our method against expert manual segmentation on CT images of the wrist, ankle, foot, and pelvis.
A Variational Approach to Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculations
Parrinello, Michele
2015-03-01
The presence of kinetic bottlenecks severely hampers the ability of widely used sampling methods like molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo to explore complex free energy landscapes. One of the most popular methods for addressing this problem is umbrella sampling which is based on the addition of an external bias which helps overcoming the kinetic barriers. The bias potential is usually taken to be a function of a restricted number of collective variables. However constructing the bias is not simple, especially when the number of collective variables increases. Here we introduce a functional of the bias which, when minimized, allows us to recover the free energy. We demonstrate the usefulness and the flexibility of this approach on a number of examples which include the determination of a six dimensional free energy surface. Besides the practical advantages, the existence of such a variational principle allows us to look at the enhanced sampling problem from a rather convenient vantage point.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Wensen
2004-01-01
A time-dependent closed-form formulation of the linear unitary transformation for harmonic-oscillator annihilation and creation operators is presented in the Schroedinger picture using the Lie algebraic approach. The time evolution of the quantum mechanical system described by a general time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian is investigated by combining this formulation with the time evolution equation of the system. The analytic expressions of the evolution operator and propagator are found. The motion of a charged particle with variable mass in the time-dependent electric field is considered as an illustrative example of the formalism. The exact time evolution wave function starting from a Gaussian wave packet and the operator expectation values with respect to the complicated evolution wave function are obtained readily
Time-dependent reliability sensitivity analysis of motion mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Pengfei; Song, Jingwen; Lu, Zhenzhou; Yue, Zhufeng
2016-01-01
Reliability sensitivity analysis aims at identifying the source of structure/mechanism failure, and quantifying the effects of each random source or their distribution parameters on failure probability or reliability. In this paper, the time-dependent parametric reliability sensitivity (PRS) analysis as well as the global reliability sensitivity (GRS) analysis is introduced for the motion mechanisms. The PRS indices are defined as the partial derivatives of the time-dependent reliability w.r.t. the distribution parameters of each random input variable, and they quantify the effect of the small change of each distribution parameter on the time-dependent reliability. The GRS indices are defined for quantifying the individual, interaction and total contributions of the uncertainty in each random input variable to the time-dependent reliability. The envelope function method combined with the first order approximation of the motion error function is introduced for efficiently estimating the time-dependent PRS and GRS indices. Both the time-dependent PRS and GRS analysis techniques can be especially useful for reliability-based design. This significance of the proposed methods as well as the effectiveness of the envelope function method for estimating the time-dependent PRS and GRS indices are demonstrated with a four-bar mechanism and a car rack-and-pinion steering linkage. - Highlights: • Time-dependent parametric reliability sensitivity analysis is presented. • Time-dependent global reliability sensitivity analysis is presented for mechanisms. • The proposed method is especially useful for enhancing the kinematic reliability. • An envelope method is introduced for efficiently implementing the proposed methods. • The proposed method is demonstrated by two real planar mechanisms.
Simulation of time-dependent Heisenberg models in one dimension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Volosniev, A. G.; Hammer, H. -W.; Zinner, N. T.
2016-01-01
constants can be manipulated by time-dependent driving of the shape of the external confinement. As illustrative examples, we consider a harmonic trapping potential with a variable frequency and an infinite square well potential with a time-dependent barrier in the middle.......In this Letter, we provide a theoretical analysis of strongly interacting quantum systems confined by a time-dependent external potential in one spatial dimension. We show that such systems can be used to simulate spin chains described by Heisenberg Hamiltonians in which the exchange coupling...
Time-dependent deterministic transport on parallel architectures using PARTISN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.
1998-01-01
In addition to the ability to solve the static transport equation, the authors have also incorporated time dependence into the parallel S N code PARTISN. Using a semi-implicit scheme, PARTISN is capable of performing time-dependent calculations for both fissioning and pure source driven problems. They have applied this to various types of problems such as shielding and prompt fission experiments. This paper describes the form of the time-dependent equations implemented, their solution strategies in PARTISN including iteration acceleration, and the strategies used for time-step control. Results are presented for a iron-water shielding calculation and a criticality excursion in a uranium solution configuration
A variational approach to the analysis of dissipative electromechanical systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Allison
Full Text Available We develop a method for systematically constructing Lagrangian functions for dissipative mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical systems. We derive the equations of motion for some typical electromechanical systems using deterministic principles that are strictly variational. We do not use any ad hoc features that are added on after the analysis has been completed, such as the Rayleigh dissipation function. We generalise the concept of potential, and define generalised potentials for dissipative lumped system elements. Our innovation offers a unified approach to the analysis of electromechanical systems where there are energy and power terms in both the mechanical and electrical parts of the system. Using our novel technique, we can take advantage of the analytic approach from mechanics, and we can apply these powerful analytical methods to electrical and to electromechanical systems. We can analyse systems that include non-conservative forces. Our methodology is deterministic, and does does require any special intuition, and is thus suitable for automation via a computer-based algebra package.
A Variational Approach to Video Registration with Subspace Constraints.
Garg, Ravi; Roussos, Anastasios; Agapito, Lourdes
2013-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of non-rigid video registration, or the computation of optical flow from a reference frame to each of the subsequent images in a sequence, when the camera views deformable objects. We exploit the high correlation between 2D trajectories of different points on the same non-rigid surface by assuming that the displacement of any point throughout the sequence can be expressed in a compact way as a linear combination of a low-rank motion basis. This subspace constraint effectively acts as a trajectory regularization term leading to temporally consistent optical flow. We formulate it as a robust soft constraint within a variational framework by penalizing flow fields that lie outside the low-rank manifold. The resulting energy functional can be decoupled into the optimization of the brightness constancy and spatial regularization terms, leading to an efficient optimization scheme. Additionally, we propose a novel optimization scheme for the case of vector valued images, based on the dualization of the data term. This allows us to extend our approach to deal with colour images which results in significant improvements on the registration results. Finally, we provide a new benchmark dataset, based on motion capture data of a flag waving in the wind, with dense ground truth optical flow for evaluation of multi-frame optical flow algorithms for non-rigid surfaces. Our experiments show that our proposed approach outperforms state of the art optical flow and dense non-rigid registration algorithms.
Recovery of time-dependent volatility in option pricing model
Deng, Zui-Cha; Hon, Y. C.; Isakov, V.
2016-11-01
In this paper we investigate an inverse problem of determining the time-dependent volatility from observed market prices of options with different strikes. Due to the non linearity and sparsity of observations, an analytical solution to the problem is generally not available. Numerical approximation is also difficult to obtain using most of the existing numerical algorithms. Based on our recent theoretical results, we apply the linearisation technique to convert the problem into an inverse source problem from which recovery of the unknown volatility function can be achieved. Two kinds of strategies, namely, the integral equation method and the Landweber iterations, are adopted to obtain the stable numerical solution to the inverse problem. Both theoretical analysis and numerical examples confirm that the proposed approaches are effective. The work described in this paper was partially supported by a grant from the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Project No. CityU 101112) and grants from the NNSF of China (Nos. 11261029, 11461039), and NSF grants DMS 10-08902 and 15-14886 and by Emylou Keith and Betty Dutcher Distinguished Professorship at the Wichita State University (USA).
Transient fluctuation relations for time-dependent particle transport
Altland, Alexander; de Martino, Alessandro; Egger, Reinhold; Narozhny, Boris
2010-09-01
We consider particle transport under the influence of time-varying driving forces, where fluctuation relations connect the statistics of pairs of time-reversed evolutions of physical observables. In many “mesoscopic” transport processes, the effective many-particle dynamics is dominantly classical while the microscopic rates governing particle motion are of quantum-mechanical origin. We here employ the stochastic path-integral approach as an optimal tool to probe the fluctuation statistics in such applications. Describing the classical limit of the Keldysh quantum nonequilibrium field theory, the stochastic path integral encapsulates the quantum origin of microscopic particle exchange rates. Dynamically, it is equivalent to a transport master equation which is a formalism general enough to describe many applications of practical interest. We apply the stochastic path integral to derive general functional fluctuation relations for current flow induced by time-varying forces. We show that the successive measurement processes implied by this setup do not put the derivation of quantum fluctuation relations in jeopardy. While in many cases the fluctuation relation for a full time-dependent current profile may contain excessive information, we formulate a number of reduced relations, and demonstrate their application to mesoscopic transport. Examples include the distribution of transmitted charge, where we show that the derivation of a fluctuation relation requires the combined monitoring of the statistics of charge and work.
Time-dependent, multimode interaction analysis of the gyroklystron amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swati, M. V., E-mail: swati.mv.ece10@iitbhu.ac.in; Chauhan, M. S.; Jain, P. K. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)
2016-08-15
In this paper, a time-dependent multimode nonlinear analysis for the gyroklystron amplifier has been developed by extending the analysis of gyrotron oscillators by employing the self-consistent approach. The nonlinear analysis developed here has been validated by taking into account the reported experimental results for a 32.3 GHz, three cavity, second harmonic gyroklystron operating in the TE{sub 02} mode. The analysis has been used to estimate the temporal RF growth in the operating mode as well as the nearby competing modes. Device gain and bandwidth have been computed for different drive powers and frequencies. The effect of various beam parameters, such as beam voltage, beam current, and pitch factor, has also been studied. The computational results have estimated the gyroklystron saturated RF power ∼319 kW at 32.3 GHz with efficiency ∼23% and gain ∼26.3 dB with device bandwidth ∼0.027% (8 MHz) for a 70 kV, 20 A electron beam. The computed results are found to be in agreement with the experimental values within 10%.
Long-lifetime Martian orbit selection using a time-dependent model of the Martian atmosphere
Culp, R. D.; Stewart, A. I.; Chow, C.-C.; Uphoff, C.
1984-01-01
A mathematical model of the time-dependent Martian atmosphere has been developed in order to accurately calculate the effects of aerodynamic drag on a low altitude satellite. The time-dependent properties of the model include solar activity effects, dust storm effects, seasonal and diurnal variations, and annual motion effects. Position effects are accounted for through Martian latitude and longitude. Expected values of mass density, temperature, scale height, and the estimated standard deviation of the mass density are provided. An example of the use of the model in selecting an orbit for the Mars Geochemical/Climatology Orbiter is given.
Long-lifetime Martian orbit selection using a time-dependent model of the Martian atmosphere
Culp, R. D.; Stewart, A. I.; Chow, C.-C.; Uphoff, C.
1984-08-01
A mathematical model of the time-dependent Martian atmosphere has been developed in order to accurately calculate the effects of aerodynamic drag on a low altitude satellite. The time-dependent properties of the model include solar activity effects, dust storm effects, seasonal and diurnal variations, and annual motion effects. Position effects are accounted for through Martian latitude and longitude. Expected values of mass density, temperature, scale height, and the estimated standard deviation of the mass density are provided. An example of the use of the model in selecting an orbit for the Mars Geochemical/Climatology Orbiter is given.
Solving the time dependent vehicle routing problem by metaheuristic algorithms
Johar, Farhana; Potts, Chris; Bennell, Julia
2015-02-01
The problem we consider in this study is Time Dependent Vehicle Routing Problem (TDVRP) which has been categorized as non-classical VRP. It is motivated by the fact that multinational companies are currently not only manufacturing the demanded products but also distributing them to the customer location. This implies an efficient synchronization of production and distribution activities. Hence, this study will look into the routing of vehicles which departs from the depot at varies time due to the variation in manufacturing process. We consider a single production line where demanded products are being process one at a time once orders have been received from the customers. It is assumed that order released from the production line will be loaded into scheduled vehicle which ready to be delivered. However, the delivery could only be done once all orders scheduled in the vehicle have been released from the production line. Therefore, there could be lateness on the delivery process from awaiting all customers' order of the route to be released. Our objective is to determine a schedule for vehicle routing that minimizes the solution cost including the travelling and tardiness cost. A mathematical formulation is developed to represent the problem and will be solved by two metaheuristics; Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) and Tabu Search (TS). These algorithms will be coded in C ++ programming and run using 56's Solomon instances with some modification. The outcome of this experiment can be interpreted as the quality criteria of the different approximation methods. The comparison done shown that VNS gave the better results while consuming reasonable computational efforts.
Time-dependent 2-D modeling of edge plasma transport with high intermittency due to blobs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.
2012-01-01
The results on time-dependent 2-D fluid modeling of edge plasmas with non-diffusive intermittent transport across the magnetic field (termed cross-field) based on the novel macro-blob approach are presented. The capability of this approach to simulate the long temporal evolution (∼0.1 s) of the background plasma and simultaneously the fast spatiotemporal dynamics of blobs (∼10 −4 s) is demonstrated. An analysis of a periodic sequence of many macro-blobs (PSMB) is given showing that the resulting plasma attains a dynamic equilibrium. Plasma properties in the dynamic equilibrium are discussed. In PSMB modeling, the effect of macro-blob generation frequency on edge plasma parameters is studied. Comparison between PSMB modeling and experimental profile data is given. The calculations are performed for the same plasma discharge using two different models for anomalous cross-field transport: time-average convection and PSMB. Parametric analysis of edge plasma variation with transport coefficients in these models is presented. The capability of the models to accurately simulate enhanced transport due to blobs is compared. Impurity dynamics in edge plasma with macro-blobs is also studied showing strong impact of macro-blob on profiles of impurity charge states caused by enhanced outward transport of high-charge states and simultaneous inward transport of low-charge states towards the core. Macro-blobs cause enhancement of sputtering rates, increase radiation and impurity concentration in plasma, and change erosion/deposition patterns.
Functional differentiability in time-dependent quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Penz, Markus, E-mail: markus.penz@uibk.ac.at; Ruggenthaler, Michael, E-mail: michael.ruggenthaler@uibk.ac.at [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
2015-03-28
In this work, we investigate the functional differentiability of the time-dependent many-body wave function and of derived quantities with respect to time-dependent potentials. For properly chosen Banach spaces of potentials and wave functions, Fréchet differentiability is proven. From this follows an estimate for the difference of two solutions to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that evolve under the influence of different potentials. Such results can be applied directly to the one-particle density and to bounded operators, and present a rigorous formulation of non-equilibrium linear-response theory where the usual Lehmann representation of the linear-response kernel is not valid. Further, the Fréchet differentiability of the wave function provides a new route towards proving basic properties of time-dependent density-functional theory.
Ambiguities in the Lagrangians formalism: the time-dependent case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreira, D.T.
1986-01-01
An intrinsic formulation of the equivalence problem for time-dependent Lagrangians is given. A new demostration of a theorem derived by Henneaux (1982) is obtained. The relationship to transformation groups is discussed. (Author) [pt
Time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose hydrogel.
Gao, Xing; Shi, Zhijun; Kuśmierczyk, Piotr; Liu, Changqing; Yang, Guang; Sevostianov, Igor; Silberschmidt, Vadim V
2016-01-01
This work focuses on time-dependent rheological behaviour of bacterial cellulose (BC) hydrogel. Due to its ideal biocompatibility, BC hydrogel could be employed in biomedical applications. Considering the complexity of loading conditions in human body environment, time-dependent behaviour under relevant conditions should be understood. BC specimens are produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582 at static-culture conditions. Time-dependent behaviour of specimens at several stress levels is experimentally determined by uniaxial tensile creep tests. We use fraction-exponential operators to model the rheological behaviour. Such a representation allows combination of good accuracy in analytical description of viscoelastic behaviour of real materials and simplicity in solving boundary value problems. The obtained material parameters allow us to identify time-dependent behaviour of BC hydrogel at high stress level with sufficient accuracy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Time dependent density functional calculation of plasmon response in clusters
Wang, Feng; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Eric, Suraud
2003-02-01
We have introduced a theoretical scheme for the efficient description of the optical response of a cluster based on the time-dependent density functional theory. The practical implementation is done by means of the fully fledged time-dependent local density approximation scheme, which is solved directly in the time domain without any linearization. As an example we consider the simple Na2 cluster and compute its surface plasmon photoabsorption cross section, which is in good agreement with the experiments.
Zheng, Xiao; Yam, ChiYung; Wang, Fan; Chen, GuanHua
2011-08-28
We present the time-dependent holographic electron density theorem (TD-HEDT), which lays the foundation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for open electronic systems. For any finite electronic system, the TD-HEDT formally establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the electron density inside any finite subsystem and the time-dependent external potential. As a result, any electronic property of an open system in principle can be determined uniquely by the electron density function inside the open region. Implications of the TD-HEDT on the practicality of TDDFT are also discussed.
Time-Dependent Networks as Models to Achieve Fast Exact Time-Table Queries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gert Stølting; Jacob, Rico
2003-01-01
We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries for travelers using a train system. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models.......We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries for travelers using a train system. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models....
Time-dependent Networks as Models to Achieve Fast Exact Time-table Queries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jacob, Rico
2001-01-01
We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models.......We consider efficient algorithms for exact time-table queries, i.e. algorithms that find optimal itineraries. We propose to use time-dependent networks as a model and show advantages of this approach over space-time networks as models....
Low-energy fusion dynamics of weakly bound nuclei: A time dependent perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diaz-Torres A.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Recent dynamical fusion models for weakly bound nuclei at low incident energies, based on a time-dependent perspective, are briefly presented. The main features of both the PLATYPUS model and a new quantum approach are highlighted. In contrast to existing timedependent quantum models, the present quantum approach separates the complete and incomplete fusion from the total fusion. Calculations performed within a toy model for 6Li + 209Bi at near-barrier energies show that converged excitation functions for total, complete and incomplete fusion can be determined with the time-dependent wavepacket dynamics.
Low-energy fusion dynamics of weakly bound nuclei: A time dependent perspective
Diaz-Torres, A.; Boselli, M.
2016-05-01
Recent dynamical fusion models for weakly bound nuclei at low incident energies, based on a time-dependent perspective, are briefly presented. The main features of both the PLATYPUS model and a new quantum approach are highlighted. In contrast to existing timedependent quantum models, the present quantum approach separates the complete and incomplete fusion from the total fusion. Calculations performed within a toy model for 6Li + 209Bi at near-barrier energies show that converged excitation functions for total, complete and incomplete fusion can be determined with the time-dependent wavepacket dynamics.
van Meer, R; Gritsenko, O V; Baerends, E J
2017-01-28
Straightforward interpretation of excitations is possible if they can be described as simple single orbital-to-orbital (or double, etc.) transitions. In linear response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT), the (ground state) Kohn-Sham orbitals prove to be such an orbital basis. In contrast, in a basis of natural orbitals (NOs) or Hartree-Fock orbitals, excitations often employ many orbitals and are accordingly hard to characterize. We demonstrate that it is possible in these cases to transform to natural excitation orbitals (NEOs) which resemble very closely the KS orbitals and afford the same simple description of excitations. The desired transformation has been obtained by diagonalization of a submatrix in the equations of linear response time-dependent 1-particle reduced density matrix functional theory (LR-TDDMFT) for the NO transformation, and that of a submatrix in the linear response time-dependent Hartree-Fock (LR-TDHF) equations for the transformation of HF orbitals. The corresponding submatrix is already diagonal in the KS basis in the LR-TDDFT equations. While the orbital shapes of the NEOs afford the characterization of the excitations as (mostly) simple orbital-to-orbital transitions, the orbital energies provide a fair estimate of excitation energies.
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Time-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics : Theory and Experiment
Lathouwers, L
1992-01-01
From March 30th to April 3rd, 1992, a NATO Advanced Research workshop entitled "Time Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Experiment" was held at Snowbird, Utah. The organizing committee consisted of J. BROECKHOVE (Antwerp, Belgium), L. CEDERBAUM (Heidelberg, Germany), L. LATHOUWERS (Antwerp, Belgium), N. OHRN (Gainesville, Florida) and J. SIMONS (Salt Lake City, Utah). Fifty-two participants from eleven different countries attended the meeting at which thirty-three talks and one poster session were held. Twenty-eight participants submitted contributions to the proceedings of the meeting, which are reproduced in this volume. The workshop brought together experts in different areas 0 f molecular quantum dynamics, all adhering to the time dependent approach. The aim was to discuss and compare methods and applications. The ~amiliarityo~ the aUdience with the concepts o~ time dependent approaches greatly facilitated topical discussions and probing towards new applications. A broad area of subject matt...
On the variational approach to axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreussi, T.; Pegoraro, F.
2008-01-01
The variational formulation of the axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium equations with plasma flows is addressed and a more comprehensive method is presented that allows, in particular, for open boundary conditions and discontinuous (shock) solutions. A numerical procedure based on the variational formulation is described and a validation test for an open conical geometry, including also hydrodynamic shocks, is investigated.
Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Zhang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.
The nonlinear time-dependent response of isotactic polypropylene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drozdov, Aleksey D.; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville
2002-01-01
Tensile creep tests, tensile relaxation tests and a tensile test with a constant strain rate are performed on injection-molded isotactic polypropylene at room temperature. A constitutive model is derived for the time-dependent behavior of semicrystalline polymers. A polymer is treated as an equiv......Tensile creep tests, tensile relaxation tests and a tensile test with a constant strain rate are performed on injection-molded isotactic polypropylene at room temperature. A constitutive model is derived for the time-dependent behavior of semicrystalline polymers. A polymer is treated...
Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Bo, E-mail: zhangbolfrc@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Zhi-meng; Hong, Wei; He, Shu-Kai; Teng, Jian [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Gu, Yu-qiu, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)
2017-04-10
Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED) will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.
Wave equations with time-dependent dissipation II. Effective dissipation
Wirth, Jens
This article is intended to present a construction of structural representations of solutions to the Cauchy problem for wave equations with time-dependent dissipation above scaling. These representations are used to give estimates of the solution and its derivatives based on L(R), q⩾2. The article represents the second part within a series. In [Jens Wirth, Wave equations with time-dependent dissipation I. Non-effective dissipation, J. Differential Equations 222 (2) (2006) 487-514] weak dissipations below scaling were discussed.
Modelling Faculty Replacement Strategies Using a Time-Dependent Finite Markov-Chain Process.
Hackett, E. Raymond; Magg, Alexander A.; Carrigan, Sarah D.
1999-01-01
Describes the use of a time-dependent Markov-chain model to develop faculty-replacement strategies within a college at a research university. The study suggests that a stochastic modelling approach can provide valuable insight when planning for personnel needs in the immediate (five-to-ten year) future. (MSE)
One-dimensional multiple-well oscillators: A time-dependent ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) is solved numerically to calculate the ground- and first three excited-state ... tum mechanical approach is employed here for the first time to calculate the energy eigen- values, expectation values x2j (j = 1,2,... ..... Delhi, for financial support. References. [1] E Magyari, Phys. Lett.
New numerical methods for solving the time-dependent Maxwell equations
De Raedt, H; Kole, JS; Michielsen, KFL; Figge, MT; Berz, M; Makino, K
2005-01-01
We review some recent developments in numerical algorithms to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations for systems with spatially varying permittivity and permeabilitly. We show that the Suzuki product-formula approach can be used to construct a family of unconditionally stable algorithms, the
The importance of three dimensional dune morphology on the time dependent flow field
Hardy, Richard; Parsons, Dan; Reesink, Arnold; Best, Jim
2017-04-01
The flow field over dunes has been extensively studied and there is general understanding of the nature of the flow over dunes formed over two dimensional dunes under equilibrium flow conditions. This model is typically used to explain flow fields over all dunes fields. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly reorganizing to form complex three-dimensional morphologies (ripples, dunes and bar forms). Here we investigate how flow over natural three dimensional dunes differs from the accepted model of flow of two dimensional dunes. A series of experiments were undertaken in a flume where fine sand was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. On four occasions, the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models (DEM). Here to demonstrate the approach we choose the DEM with the greatest topographic variation and apply a new Large Eddy Simulation model with an wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) turbulence model and a non-linear higher-order numerical differencing scheme. This provided a three dimensional time dependent prediction of the flow field over the static three-dimensional dune morphology at millimeter and hertz scale resolution. The numerically predicted flows were analyzed by standard Reynolds decomposition approaches and Eulerian and Lagrangian coherent flow structure identification methods. The results show that the superimposed bed forms can cause changes in the nature of the classical separated flow regions, in particularly the number of locations where vortices are shed and the points of flow reattachment. Coalescence of vortices generated downstream and can be seen to move to the free surface and form kolk signatures. These structures also correlate in space and time showing a clear flow morphology feedback. The modified flow field
Theory of time-dependent intense-field collisional resonance fluorescence
Kleiber, P. D.; Cooper, J.; Burnett, K.; Kunasz, C. V.; Raymer, M. G.
1983-01-01
The time-dependent theory of Courtens and Szoke (1977) is generalized using the approach of Burnett et al. (1982) to derive time-dependent spectral intensities of resonance fluorescence from atoms driven by a pulsed laser in the presence of collisions. These results are valid both for laser detunings inside and outside the usual impact region of the spectrum, including Zeeman degeneracy effects. This theory is applied to a simple but important example (J = 0 to J = 1) to obtain quantitative predictions for the observable scattered-light spectrum which can be directly compared with recent experiments.
A nodal method for solving the time-depending diffusion equation in the IQS approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidovsky, I.; Kereszturi, A.
1991-11-01
The fast and slow variation of the neutron flux shape needed for the dynamical description of nuclear reactor cores can be described advantageously in the Improved Quasistatic (IQS) model where the flux is factorized by a fast changing space-independent amplitude and a slow changing shape function. The basic equations of a time-dependent nodal approximation using the IQS method is presented.The calculational procedure of the response matrices is also described. (R.P.) 2 refs
A probabilistic approach to second order variational inequalities with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. Under certain conditions we show the existence of a unique viscosity solution of these variational inequalities and give a stochastic representation to this solution. As an application, we study a stochastic game with stopping times and show ...
Existence of General Competitive Equilibria: A Variational Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Anello
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the existence of general competitive equilibria in economies with agents and goods in a finite number. We show that there exists a Walras competitive equilibrium in all ownership private economies such that, for all consumers, initial endowments do not contain free goods and utility functions are locally Lipschitz quasiconcave. The proof of the existence of competitive equilibria is based on variational methods by applying a theoretical existence result for Generalized Quasi Variational Inequalities.
Thermal state of the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Taking advantage of dynamical invariant operator, we derived quantum mechanical solution of general time-dependent harmonic oscillator. ... The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and ...
A remark on the time-dependent pair distribution
Hove, Léon van
1958-01-01
After recalling the classical work of Zernike and Prins on the pair distribution function of a liquid or gas and its role in X-ray scattering theory, one briefly discusses the time-dependent generalization of this distribution function, which is of special interest for neutron scattering. In line
Coherent states of general time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. By introducing an invariant operator, we obtain exact wave functions for a general time-dependent quadratic harmonic oscillator. The coherent states, both in x- and p-spaces, are calculated. We confirm that the uncertainty product in coherent state is always larger than Η/2 and is equal to the minimum of the ...
Approximate factorization for time-dependent partial differential equations
P.J. van der Houwen; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben)
1999-01-01
textabstractThe first application of approximate factorization in the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs) can be traced back to the celebrated papers of Peaceman and Rachford and of Douglas in 1955. For linear problems, the Peaceman-Rachford- Douglas method can
Path integral solution for some time-dependent potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storchak, S.N.
1989-12-01
The quantum-mechanical problem with a time-dependent potential is solved by the path integral method. The solution is obtained by the application of the previously derived general formula for rheonomic homogeneous point transformation and reparametrization in the path integral. (author). 4 refs
Time-dependent density functional theory for periodic systems
Kootstra, Freddie
2001-01-01
In this thesis the time-dependent version of density functional theory is described, which has been developed for crystalline non-metallic systems with periodicity in one to three dimensions. The application of this theory to the calculation of the optical reponse properties of a wide range of
Time-dependent quantum fluid density functional theory of hydrogen ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A time-dependent generalized non-linear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) of motion was earlier derived in our laboratory by combining density functional theory and quantum fluid dynamics in threedimensional space. In continuation of the work reported previously, the GNLSE is applied to provide additional knowledge on ...
Time-dependent fracture of early age concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes
2002-01-01
An experimental method suitable for the determination of the time-dependent tension softening response of early age concrete is presented. The method is based on the wedge splitting test by Tschegg, which is well known to be suited for the determination of fracture mechanical parameters, i...
Simulation of compressible viscous flow in time-dependent domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Česenek, J.; Feistauer, M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Kučera, V.; Prokopova, J.
2013-01-01
Roč. 219, č. 13 (2013), s. 7139-7150 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : time dependent domain * ALE method * semi-implicit time discretization * shock indicator Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.600, year: 2013
Time dependent critical state in disks and rings
Hemmes, Herman K.; Kuper, A.R.; Kuper, A.R.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.
1991-01-01
The authors have developed a model to calculate the response of the current distribution in disks and rings to a time-dependent applied magnetic field. In the model, the ring (or disk) is divided into concentric segments. The segments are assumed to be inductively coupled to each other and to the
Ranking paths in stochastic time-dependent networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan; Pretolani, Daniele D.
2014-01-01
In this paper we address optimal routing problems in networks where travel times are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks, the best route choice is not necessarily a path, but rather a time-adaptive strategy that assigns successors to nodes as a function of time. Nevertheless, in...
Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics
Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.
2015-01-01
The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…
Asymptotic time dependent neutron transport in multidimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, M.E.; Sawan, M.E.; Wassef, W.A.; El-Gueraly, L.A.
1983-01-01
A model which predicts the asymptotic time behavior of the neutron distribution in multi-dimensional systems is presented. The model is based on the kernel factorization method used for stationary neutron transport in a rectangular parallelepiped. The accuracy of diffusion theory in predicting the asymptotic time dependence is assessed. The use of neutron pulse experiments for predicting the diffusion parameters is also investigated
Time-Dependent Natural Convection Couette Flow of Heat ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Time-Dependent Natural Convection Couette Flow of Heat Generating/Absorbing Fluid between Vertical Parallel Plates Filled With Porous Material. ... The numerical simulation conducted for some saturated liquids reveled that at t ≥ Pr the steady and unsteady state velocities (as well as the temperature of the fluid) ...
Time-dependent effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roig, Marc; Thomas, Richard; Mang, Cameron S
2016-01-01
We present new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory can be regulated in a time-dependent manner. When the exercise stimulus is temporally coupled with specific phases of the memory formation process, a single bout of cardiovascular exercise may ...
Iterative solution of the time dependent Schrodinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiss, Zs.G.; Nagy, L.; Borbely, S.; Toekesi, K.
2011-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The most accurate theoretical method used to investigate the interaction between atoms and ultrashort (few-cycle) UV / XUV laser pulses is the direct numerical solution of the time dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE). The aim of the present work is to test various methods used for the solution of the TDSE, and to find the less resource consuming one. The recently developed iterative solution of TDSE (iTDSE model) is an extension of the momentum-space strongfield approximation (MSSFA), in which the Coulomb potential was considered only as a first order perturbation. In the iTDSE model the higher order terms were gradually introduced, until convergence was achieved. The converged iTDSE results were compared with the 'exact' results, obtained from the direct solution of the TDSE (see [2-3]). The MSSFA method provides accurate results only in the half-cycle pulse limit, and its shortcomings are revealed only in the long pulse limit. As any perturbative approach, the MSSFA time propagation is not unitary (norm of the wave function is not conserved). Beside this due to the weak Coulomb potential (i.e. first order perturbation) the ionization probability amplitude is overestimated and the Δl = ±1 selection rule is not fulfilled, which leads to erroneous wave function dynamics. The direct solution of the TDSE does not have the above presented shortcomings, but during production runs it requires a large amount of CPU power and memory even in the framework of the single active electron approach. The newly implemented extension of the MSSFA model (the iTDSE model) eliminates all the MSSFA model's shortcomings providing accurate results. The main advantage of the iTDSE model is that it requires considerably less computer resources (CPU time and memory) then the direct solution, while it provides results as accurate as the direct solution. The most critical part of the iTDSE approach is the temporal propagation, which involves the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Wu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Failure of loose gully deposits under the effect of rainfall contributes to the potential risk of debris flow. In the past decades, researches on hydraulic mechanism and time-dependent characteristics of loose deposits failure are frequently reported, however adequate measures for reducing debris flow are not available practically. In this context, a time-dependent model was established to determine the changes of water table of loose deposits using hydraulic and topographic theories. In addition, the variation in water table with elapsed time was analyzed. The formulas for calculating hydrodynamic and hydrostatic pressures on each strip and block unit of deposit were proposed, and the slope stability and failure risk of the loose deposits were assessed based on the time-dependent hydraulic characteristics of established model. Finally, the failure mechanism of deposits based on infinite slope theory was illustrated, with an example, to calculate sliding force, anti-sliding force and residual sliding force applied to each slice. The results indicate that failure of gully deposits under the effect of rainfall is the result of continuously increasing hydraulic pressure and water table. The time-dependent characteristics of loose deposit failure are determined by the factors of hydraulic properties, drainage area of interest, rainfall pattern, rainfall duration and intensity.
Stochastic time-dependent vehicle routing problem: Mathematical models and ant colony algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhengyu Duan
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This article addresses the stochastic time-dependent vehicle routing problem. Two mathematical models named robust optimal schedule time model and minimum expected schedule time model are proposed for stochastic time-dependent vehicle routing problem, which can guarantee delivery within the time windows of customers. The robust optimal schedule time model only requires the variation range of link travel time, which can be conveniently derived from historical traffic data. In addition, the robust optimal schedule time model based on robust optimization method can be converted into a time-dependent vehicle routing problem. Moreover, an ant colony optimization algorithm is designed to solve stochastic time-dependent vehicle routing problem. As the improvements in initial solution and transition probability, ant colony optimization algorithm has a good performance in convergence. Through computational instances and Monte Carlo simulation tests, robust optimal schedule time model is proved to be better than minimum expected schedule time model in computational efficiency and coping with the travel time fluctuations. Therefore, robust optimal schedule time model is applicable in real road network.
A probabilistic approach to second order variational inequalities with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
ential game with continuous control is the unique viscosity solution of the corresponding variational inequalities. Then for a special case we identify this unique viscosity solution as the value function of the stochastic game with stopping times. We now describe our problem. Let Ui,i = 1, 2, be the compact metric spaces. Let.
Toroidal bubbles with circulation in ideal hydrodynamics: A variational approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruban, V.P.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
2003-01-01
Incompressible, inviscid, irrotational, unsteady flows with circulation Gamma around a distorted toroidal bubble are considered. A general variational principle that determines the evolution of the bubble shape is formulated. For a two-dimensional (2D) cavity with a constant area A, exact...
Random matrix approach to the dynamics of stock inventory variations
Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mu, Guo-Hua; Kertész, János
2012-09-01
It is well accepted that investors can be classified into groups owing to distinct trading strategies, which forms the basic assumption of many agent-based models for financial markets when agents are not zero-intelligent. However, empirical tests of these assumptions are still very rare due to the lack of order flow data. Here we adopt the order flow data of Chinese stocks to tackle this problem by investigating the dynamics of inventory variations for individual and institutional investors that contain rich information about the trading behavior of investors and have a crucial influence on price fluctuations. We find that the distributions of cross-correlation coefficient Cij have power-law forms in the bulk that are followed by exponential tails, and there are more positive coefficients than negative ones. In addition, it is more likely that two individuals or two institutions have a stronger inventory variation correlation than one individual and one institution. We find that the largest and the second largest eigenvalues (λ1 and λ2) of the correlation matrix cannot be explained by random matrix theory and the projections of investors' inventory variations on the first eigenvector u(λ1) are linearly correlated with stock returns, where individual investors play a dominating role. The investors are classified into three categories based on the cross-correlation coefficients CV R between inventory variations and stock returns. A strong Granger causality is unveiled from stock returns to inventory variations, which means that a large proportion of individuals hold the reversing trading strategy and a small part of individuals hold the trending strategy. Our empirical findings have scientific significance in the understanding of investors' trading behavior and in the construction of agent-based models for emerging stock markets.
Random matrix approach to the dynamics of stock inventory variations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Weixing; Mu Guohua; Kertész, János
2012-01-01
It is well accepted that investors can be classified into groups owing to distinct trading strategies, which forms the basic assumption of many agent-based models for financial markets when agents are not zero-intelligent. However, empirical tests of these assumptions are still very rare due to the lack of order flow data. Here we adopt the order flow data of Chinese stocks to tackle this problem by investigating the dynamics of inventory variations for individual and institutional investors that contain rich information about the trading behavior of investors and have a crucial influence on price fluctuations. We find that the distributions of cross-correlation coefficient C ij have power-law forms in the bulk that are followed by exponential tails, and there are more positive coefficients than negative ones. In addition, it is more likely that two individuals or two institutions have a stronger inventory variation correlation than one individual and one institution. We find that the largest and the second largest eigenvalues (λ 1 and λ 2 ) of the correlation matrix cannot be explained by random matrix theory and the projections of investors' inventory variations on the first eigenvector u(λ 1 ) are linearly correlated with stock returns, where individual investors play a dominating role. The investors are classified into three categories based on the cross-correlation coefficients C VR between inventory variations and stock returns. A strong Granger causality is unveiled from stock returns to inventory variations, which means that a large proportion of individuals hold the reversing trading strategy and a small part of individuals hold the trending strategy. Our empirical findings have scientific significance in the understanding of investors' trading behavior and in the construction of agent-based models for emerging stock markets. (paper)
Tokamak power reactor ignition and time dependent fractional power operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vold, E.L.; Mau, T.K.; Conn, R.W.
1986-06-01
A flexible time-dependent and zero-dimensional plasma burn code with radial profiles was developed and employed to study the fractional power operation and the thermal burn control options for an INTOR-sized tokamak reactor. The code includes alpha thermalization and a time-dependent transport loss which can be represented by any one of several currently popular scaling laws for energy confinement time. Ignition parameters were found to vary widely in density-temperature (n-T) space for the range of scaling laws examined. Critical ignition issues were found to include the extent of confinement time degradation by alpha heating, the ratio of ion to electron transport power loss, and effect of auxiliary heating on confinement. Feedback control of the auxiliary power and ion fuel sources are shown to provide thermal stability near the ignition curve
Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models
Cuntz, Manfred
1990-01-01
Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock waves as well as a spectrum of acoustic waves are discussed, and the method is applied to the stars Arcturus, Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse. Chromospheric extent, defined as the monotonic decrease with height of the time-averaged electron densities, are found to be 1.12, 1.13, and 1.22 stellar radii for the three stars, respectively; this corresponds to a time-averaged electron density of 10 to the 7th/cu cm. Predictions of the extended chromospheric obtained using a simple scaling law agree well with those obtained by the time-dependent wave models; thus, the chromospheres of all stars for which the scaling law is valid consist of the same number of pressure scale heights.
Chromospheric extents predicted by time-dependent acoustic wave models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuntz, M. (Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA) Heidelberg Universitaet (Germany, F.R.))
1990-01-01
Theoretical models for chromospheric structures of late-type giant stars are computed, including the time-dependent propagation of acoustic waves. Models with short-period monochromatic shock waves as well as a spectrum of acoustic waves are discussed, and the method is applied to the stars Arcturus, Aldebaran, and Betelgeuse. Chromospheric extent, defined as the monotonic decrease with height of the time-averaged electron densities, are found to be 1.12, 1.13, and 1.22 stellar radii for the three stars, respectively; this corresponds to a time-averaged electron density of 10 to the 7th/cu cm. Predictions of the extended chromospheric obtained using a simple scaling law agree well with those obtained by the time-dependent wave models; thus, the chromospheres of all stars for which the scaling law is valid consist of the same number of pressure scale heights. 74 refs.
Local time dependence of turbulent magnetic fields in Saturn's magnetodisc
Kaminker, V.; Delamere, P. A.; Ng, C. S.; Dennis, T.; Otto, A.; Ma, X.
2017-04-01
Net plasma transport in magnetodiscs around giant planets is outward. Observations of plasma temperature have shown that the expanding plasma is heating nonadiabatically during this process. Turbulence has been suggested as a source of heating. However, the mechanism and distribution of magnetic fluctuations in giant magnetospheres are poorly understood. In this study we attempt to quantify the radial and local time dependence of fluctuating magnetic field signatures that are suggestive of turbulence, quantifying the fluctuations in terms of a plasma heating rate density. In addition, the inferred heating rate density is correlated with magnetic field configurations that include azimuthal bend forward/back and magnitude of the equatorial normal component of magnetic field relative to the dipole. We find a significant local time dependence in magnetic fluctuations that is consistent with flux transport triggered in the subsolar and dusk sectors due to magnetodisc reconnection.
Generalization of DT Equations for Time Dependent Sources
Neri, Lorenzo; Tudisco, Salvatore; Musumeci, Francesco; Scordino, Agata; Fallica, Giorgio; Mazzillo, Massimo; Zimbone, Massimo
2010-01-01
New equations for paralyzable, non paralyzable and hybrid DT models, valid for any time dependent sources are presented. We show how such new equations include the equations already used for constant rate sources, and how it’s is possible to correct DT losses in the case of time dependent sources. Montecarlo simulations were performed to compare the equations behavior with the three DT models. Excellent accordance between equations predictions and Montecarlo simulation was found. We also obtain good results in the experimental validation of the new hybrid DT equation. Passive quenched SPAD device was chosen as a device affected by hybrid DT losses and active quenched SPAD with 50 ns DT was used as DT losses free device. PMID:22163500
Generalization of DT Equations for Time Dependent Sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimo Mazzillo
2010-12-01
Full Text Available New equations for paralyzable, non paralyzable and hybrid DT models, valid for any time dependent sources are presented. We show how such new equations include the equations already used for constant rate sources, and how it’s is possible to correct DT losses in the case of time dependent sources. Montecarlo simulations were performed to compare the equations behavior with the three DT models. Excellent accordance between equations predictions and Montecarlo simulation was found. We also obtain good results in the experimental validation of the new hybrid DT equation. Passive quenched SPAD device was chosen as a device affected by hybrid DT losses and active quenched SPAD with 50 ns DT was used as DT losses free device.
Characterization of Models for Time-Dependent Behavior of Soils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liingaard, Morten; Augustesen, Anders; Lade, Poul V.
2004-01-01
developed for metals and steel but are, to some extent, used to characterize time effects in geomaterials. The third part is a review of constitutive laws that describe not only viscous effects but also the inviscid ( rate-independent) behavior of soils, in principle, under any possible loading condition...... Different classes of constitutive models have been developed to capture the time-dependent viscous phenomena ~ creep, stress relaxation, and rate effects ! observed in soils. Models based on empirical, rheological, and general stress-strain-time concepts have been studied. The first part....... Special attention is paid to elastoviscoplastic models that combine inviscid elastic and time-dependent plastic behavior. Various general elastoviscoplastic models can roughly be divided into two categories: Models based on the concept of overstress and models based on nonstationary flow surface theory...
Non-Perturbative Formulation of Time-Dependent String Solutions
Alexandre, J; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Alexandre, Jean; Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E.
2006-01-01
We formulate here a new world-sheet renormalization-group technique for the bosonic string, which is non-perturbative in the Regge slope alpha' and based on a functional method for controlling the quantum fluctuations, whose magnitudes are scaled by the value of alpha'. Using this technique we exhibit, in addition to the well-known linear-dilaton cosmology, a new, non-perturbative time-dependent background solution. Using the reparametrization invariance of the string S-matrix, we demonstrate that this solution is conformally invariant to alpha', and we give a heuristic inductive argument that conformal invariance can be maintained to all orders in alpha'. This new time-dependent string solution may be applicable to primordial cosmology or to the exit from linear-dilaton cosmology at large times.
Time-dependent phase error correction using digital waveform synthesis
Doerry, Armin W.; Buskirk, Stephen
2017-10-10
The various technologies presented herein relate to correcting a time-dependent phase error generated as part of the formation of a radar waveform. A waveform can be pre-distorted to facilitate correction of an error induced into the waveform by a downstream operation/component in a radar system. For example, amplifier power droop effect can engender a time-dependent phase error in a waveform as part of a radar signal generating operation. The error can be quantified and an according complimentary distortion can be applied to the waveform to facilitate negation of the error during the subsequent processing of the waveform. A time domain correction can be applied by a phase error correction look up table incorporated into a waveform phase generator.
High-temperature service and time dependent failure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swindeman, R.W.; Asada, Y.; Chang, S.J.; Todd, J.A. (eds.)
1993-01-01
Separate abstracts were prepared for the technical papers presented at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1993 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference on July 25--29 in Denver, Colorado. This volume contains twelve papers related to materials and design methods for high temperatures, eight papers related to time dependent failure evaluation and prevention in pressure vessels and piping, and five papers related to constitutive equations in high temperature design.
The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Orphal
2009-02-01
Full Text Available We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.
The time dependence of molecular iodine emission from Laminaria digitata
Dixneuf, S.; Ruth, A. A.; Vaughan, S.; Varma, R. M.; Orphal, J.
2009-02-01
We present the first in situ detection of molecular iodine emitted from the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata under natural stress conditions. We show that the release of I2 occurs in short, strong bursts with a complex time signature. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time-dependence may be based on a nonlinear autocatalytic reaction scheme which is closely linked to the production of H2O2.
Longitudinal dispersion with time-dependent source concentration ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An analytical solution is obtained to predict the contaminant concentration along unsteady ground-water ﬂow in semi-in ﬁnite aquifer. Initially,the aquifer is not supposed to be solute free ,i.e.,aquifer is not clean.A time-dependent source concentration is considered at the origin of the aquifer and at the other end of the aquifer, ...
Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator
Kinser, Jason M.
2015-01-01
A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…
Spectral methods for time dependent partial differential equations
Gottlieb, D.; Turkel, E.
1983-01-01
The theory of spectral methods for time dependent partial differential equations is reviewed. When the domain is periodic Fourier methods are presented while for nonperiodic problems both Chebyshev and Legendre methods are discussed. The theory is presented for both hyperbolic and parabolic systems using both Galerkin and collocation procedures. While most of the review considers problems with constant coefficients the extension to nonlinear problems is also discussed. Some results for problems with shocks are presented.
Rashba Effect in Presence of Time-Dependent Interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobhani, Hadi; Hassanabadi, Hassan
2016-01-01
Rashba effect in presence of a time-dependent interaction has been considered. Then time-evolution of such a system has been studied by using Lewis–Riesenfeld dynamical invariant and unitary transformation method. So appropriate dynamical invariant and unitary transformation according the considered system have been constructed as well as some special cases have come into this article which are common in physics. (paper)
The role of the CI expansion length in time-dependent studies
Ulusoy, Inga S.; Stewart, Zachary; Wilson, Angela K.
2018-01-01
With the recent advances in experimental attosecond science, theoretical predictions of electron dynamics can now be validated against experiment. Time-dependent studies of the electron motion in molecules can be used to obtain information about electronic transitions and the interaction of the electrons with electromagnetic fields. Often, these approaches rely on single-excited wave functions. Presented here is a first attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the time-dependent configuration interaction method so that the optimal representation of the electronic wave function for time-dependent studies can be assessed. A quantifier is determined that can aid in finding this optimal representation. The approach is demonstrated on a variety of molecules that include both localized and intramolecular charge transfer electron excitations. Observables including excitation energies, dipole moments, strengths, and static polarizabilities are obtained from time-independent and time-dependent calculations and are compared to experimental data. In this way, a rigorous routine is developed by which the reliability and accuracy of the CI wave function can be assessed and which represents a first step to a more quantitative description of electron dynamics in molecules.
General time-dependent formulation of quantum scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Althorpe, Stuart C.
2004-01-01
We derive and explain the key ideas behind a time-dependent formulation of quantum scattering theory, applicable generally to systems with a finite-range scattering potential. The scattering is initiated and probed by plane wave packets, which are localized just outside the range of the potential. The asymptotic limits of conventional scattering theory (initiation in the remote past; detection in the remote future) are not taken. Instead, the differential cross section (DCS) is obtained by projecting the scattered wave packet onto the probe plane wave packets. The projection also yields a time-dependent version of the DCS. Cuts through the wave packet, just as it exits the scattering potential, yield time-dependent and time-independent angular distributions that give a close-up picture of the scattering which complements the DCS. We have previously applied the theory to interpret experimental cross sections of chemical reactions [e.g., S. C. Althorpe, F. Fernandez-Alonso, B. D. Bean, J. D. Ayers, A. E. Pomerantz, R. N. Zare, and E. Wrede, Nature (London) 416, 67 (2002)]. This paper gives the derivation of the theory, and explains its relation to conventional scattering theory. For clarity, the derivation is restricted to spherical-particle scattering, though it may readily be extended to general multichannel systems. We illustrate the theory using a simple application to hard-sphere scattering
Time Dependent Geoid Constraints Upon Mantle Viscosity Stratification
Harlow, C.; Peltier, W. R.
2004-12-01
The global measurement of the time dependence of geoid height that is being provided by the GRACE satellite system that is now in space will eventually provide the basis for considerably more accurate inversions for mantle viscosity structure than are now possible. However, existing data on the time dependence of geoid height based upon the results of satellite laser ranging already provide very strong constraints upon the effective viscosity of the of the deepest mantle, especially when these are conbined with observations of the spectrum of relaxation times that characterize the process of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Such data, by themselves, very tightly constrain the viscosity structure in the upper mantle and transition zone. We will describe a series of new analyses of the expected global pattern of geoid height time dependence based upon the recently published refined model of the GIA process denoted ICE-5G(VM2), a model based upon a significant refinement of the ICE-4G(VM2) precursor ( see W.R. Peltier, Ann. Rev. Earth and Planet. Sci., 32, 111-149, 2004). The impact of the new model of surface loading upon the mantle viscosity inverse problem turns out to be both interesting and significant.
Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wright, Julie Knibloe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-06-01
Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant
Regular cell design approach considering lithography-induced process variations
Gómez Fernández, Sergio
2014-01-01
The deployment delays for EUVL, forces IC design to continue using 193nm wavelength lithography with innovative and costly techniques in order to faithfully print sub-wavelength features and combat lithography induced process variations. The effect of the lithography gap in current and upcoming technologies is to cause severe distortions due to optical diffraction in the printed patterns and thus degrading manufacturing yield. Therefore, a paradigm shift in layout design is mandatory towards ...
Inelastic material behavior and fracture mechanics a variational approach
Bruno, L
1999-01-01
A variational principle is presented, which relates the macroscopic fracture response of a mechanical component to its microscopic, inelastic material behavior. The principle allows a comparison between the crack driving force, expressed by the J-integral, and an integral expression of the fracture resistance. On this basis, the critical values of J are calculated for a Griffith crack under mixed- mode loading. The preliminary check with data available in literature shows a fairly good agreement. (8 refs).
Variational Approach to Projected Entangled Pair States at Finite Temperature
Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek
2015-01-01
The projected entangled pair state (PEPS) ansatz can represent a thermal state in a strongly correlated system. We introduce a novel variational algorithm to optimize this tensor network. Since full tensor environment is taken into account, then with increasing bond dimension the optimized PEPS becomes the exact Gibbs state. Our presentation opens with a 1D version for a matrix product state (MPS) and then generalizes to PEPS in 2D. Benchmark results in the quantum Ising model are presented.
The time dependent Hartree-Fock-theory for collective nuclear motions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeke, K.
1976-11-01
The time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory (TDHF) approximately solves the Schroedinger equation by a variational method in the space of the time-dependent Slater determinants. As the TDHF wave function, similar to the exact solution has the property of being determined completely for all times by the nucleon-nucleon interaction and by assuming initial conditions. TDHF is expected to describe collective motion of nuclei with large amplitudes, too. The subject of this paper is to formulate the TDHF theory and its adiabatic limiting case (ATDHF) suited for setting up a collective Schroedinger equation, to investigate the relations with other theories, and to show the applicability for solving practical problems. (orig./WL) [de
Extended gyrokinetic field theory for time-dependent magnetic confinement fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Nunami, M.
2013-12-01
A gyrokinetic system of equations for turbulent toroidal plasmas in time-dependent axisymmetric background magnetic fields is derived from the variational principle. Besides governing equations for gyrocenter distribution functions and turbulent electromagnetic fields, the conditions which self-consistently determine the background fields varying on a transport time scale are obtained by using the Lagrangian which includes the constraint on the background fields. Conservation laws for energy and toroidal angular momentum of the whole system in the time-dependent background fields are naturally derived by applying Noether's theorem. It is shown that the ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy and toroidal momentum given in the present work agree with the results from the conventional recursive formulation with the WKB representation except that collisional effects are disregarded here. (author)
Variational approach for spatial point process intensity estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper
is assumed to be of log-linear form β+θ⊤z(u) where z is a spatial covariate function and the focus is on estimating θ. The variational estimator is very simple to implement and quicker than alternative estimation procedures. We establish its strong consistency and asymptotic normality. We also discuss its...... finite-sample properties in comparison with the maximum first order composite likelihood estimator when considering various inhomogeneous spatial point process models and dimensions as well as settings were z is completely or only partially known....
Variational approach to projected entangled pair states at finite temperature
Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek
2015-07-01
The projected entangled pair state (PEPS) ansatz can represent a thermal state in a strongly correlated system. We introduce a variational algorithm to optimize this tensor network whose essential ingredient is an auxiliary tree tensor network (TTN). Since the full tensor environment is taken into account, with increasing bond dimension the PEPS-TTN ansatz provides the exact Gibbs state. Our presentation opens with a 1D version for a matrix product state (MPS-TTN) and then generalizes to PEPS-TTN in 2D. Benchmark results in the quantum Ising model are presented.
Characterizing time-dependent mechanics in metallic MEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geers M.G.D.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Experiments for characterization of time-dependent material properties in free-standing metallic microelectromechanical system (MEMS pose challenges: e.g. fabrication and handling (sub-μm sized specimens, control and measurement of sub-μN loads and sub-μm displacements over long periods and various temperatures [1]. A variety of experimental setups have been reported each having their pros and cons. One example is a micro-tensile tester with an ingenious electro-static specimen gripping system [2] aiding simple specimen design giving good results at μN and sub-μm levels, but without in-situ full-field observations. Other progressive examples assimilate the specimen, MEMS actuators and load cells on a single chip [3,4] yielding significant results at nN and nm levels with in-situ TEM/SEM observability, though not without complications: complex load actuator/sensor calibration per chip, measures to reduce fabrication failure and unfeasible cofabrication on wafers with commercial metallic MEMS. This work aims to overcome these drawbacks by developing experimental methods with high sensitivity, precision and in-situ full-field observation capabilities. Moreover, these should be applicable to simple free-standing metallic MEMS that can be co-fabricated with commercial devices. These methods will then serve in systematic studies into size-effects in time-dependent material properties. First a numeric-experimental method is developed. It characterizes bending deformation of onwafer μm-sized aluminum cantilevers. A specially designed micro-clamp is used to mechanically apply a constant precise deflection of the beam (zres <50 nm for a prolonged period, see fig. 1. After this period, the deflection by the micro-clamp is removed. Full-field height maps with the ensuing deformation are measured over time with confocal optical profilometry (COP. This yields the tip deflection as function of time with ~3 nm precision, see fig.2. To extract material
Time-dependent radiation dose estimations during interplanetary space flights
Dobynde, M. I.; Shprits, Y.; Drozdov, A.
2015-12-01
Time-dependent radiation dose estimations during interplanetary space flights 1,2Dobynde M.I., 2,3Drozdov A.Y., 2,4Shprits Y.Y.1Skolkovo institute of science and technology, Moscow, Russia 2University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA 3Lomonosov Moscow State University Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow, Russia4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USASpace radiation is the main restriction for long-term interplanetary space missions. It induces degradation of external components and propagates inside providing damage to internal environment. Space radiation particles and induced secondary particle showers can lead to variety of damage to astronauts in short- and long- term perspective. Contribution of two main sources of space radiation- Sun and out-of-heliosphere space varies in time in opposite phase due to the solar activity state. Currently the only habituated mission is the international interplanetary station that flights on the low Earth orbit. Besides station shell astronauts are protected with the Earth magnetosphere- a natural shield that prevents significant damage for all humanity. Current progress in space exploration tends to lead humanity out of magnetosphere bounds. With the current study we make estimations of spacecraft parameters and astronauts damage for long-term interplanetary flights. Applying time dependent model of GCR spectra and data on SEP spectra we show the time dependence of the radiation in a human phantom inside the shielding capsule. We pay attention to the shielding capsule design, looking for an optimal geometry parameters and materials. Different types of particles affect differently on the human providing more or less harm to the tissues. Incident particles provide a large amount of secondary particles while propagating through the shielding capsule. We make an attempt to find an optimal combination of shielding capsule parameters, namely material and thickness, that will effectively decrease
Timing-dependent actions of NGF required for cell differentiation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaehoon Chung
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continuous NGF stimulation induces PC12 cell differentiation. However, why continuous NGF stimulation is required for differentiation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the timing-dependent requirement of NGF action for cell differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the timing-dependency of the NGF action, we performed a discontinuous stimulation assay consisting of a first transient stimulation followed by an interval and then a second sustained stimulation and quantified the neurite extension level. Consequently, we observed a timing-dependent action of NGF on cell differentiation, and discontinuous NGF stimulation similarly induced differentiation. The first stimulation did not induce neurite extension, whereas the second stimulation induced fast neurite extension; therefore, the first stimulation is likely required as a prerequisite condition. These observations indicate that the action of NGF can be divided into two processes: an initial stimulation-driven latent process and a second stimulation-driven extension process. The latent process appears to require the activities of ERK and transcription, but not PI3K, whereas the extension-process requires the activities of ERK and PI3K, but not transcription. We also found that during the first stimulation, the activity of NGF can be replaced by PACAP, but not by insulin, EGF, bFGF or forskolin; during the second stimulation, however, the activity of NGF cannot be replaced by any of these stimulants. These findings allowed us to identify potential genes specifically involved in the latent process, rather than in other processes, using a microarray. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that NGF induces the differentiation of PC12 cells via mechanically distinct processes: an ERK-driven and transcription-dependent latent process, and an ERK- and PI3K-driven and transcription-independent extension process.
Time-Dependent Neutron and Photon Dose-Field Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wooten, Hasani Omar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
2005-08-01
A unique tool is developed that allows the user to model physical representations of complicated glovebox facilities in two dimensions and determine neutral-particle flux and ambient dose-equivalent fields throughout that geometry. The Pandemonium code, originally designed to determine flux and dose-rates only, is improved to include realistic glovebox geometries, time-dependent source and detector positions, time-dependent shielding thickness calculations, time-integrated doses, a representative criticality accident scenario based on time-dependent reactor kinetics, and more rigorous photon treatment. A primary benefit of this work has been an extensive analysis and improvement of the photon model that is not limited to the application described in this thesis. The photon model has been extended in energy range to 10 MeV to include photons from fission and new photon buildup factors have been included that account for the effects of photon buildup at slant-path thicknesses as a function of angle, where the mean free path thickness has been preserved. The overall system of codes is user-friendly and it is directly applicable to facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where high-intensity neutron and photon emitters are regularly used. The codes may be used to determine a priori doses for given work scenarios in an effort to supply dose information to process models which will in turn assist decision makers on ensuring as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) compliance. In addition, coupling the computational results of these tools with the process model visualization tools will help to increase worker safety and radiological safety awareness.
Filter frequency response of time dependent signal using Laplace transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shestakov, Aleksei I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2018-01-16
We analyze the effect a filter has on a time dependent signal x(t). If X(s) is the Laplace transform of x and H (s) is the filter Transfer function, the response in frequency space is X (s) H (s). Consequently, in real space, the response is the convolution (x*h) (t), where hi is the Laplace inverse of H. Effects are analyzed and analytically for functions such as (t/t_{c})^{2} e^{-t/t$_c$}, where t_{c} = const. We consider lowpass, highpass and bandpass filters.
Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games with Logarithmic Nonlinearities
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-10-06
In this paper, we prove the existence of classical solutions for time-dependent mean-field games with a logarithmic nonlinearity and subquadratic Hamiltonians. Because the logarithm is unbounded from below, this nonlinearity poses substantial mathematical challenges that have not been addressed in the literature. Our result is proven by recurring to a delicate argument which combines Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with estimates for the nonlinearity in suitable Lebesgue spaces. Lipschitz estimates follow from an application of the nonlinear adjoint method. These are then combined with a priori bounds for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation and a concavity argument for the nonlinearity.
Time-dependent density-functional theory concepts and applications
Ullrich, Carsten A
2011-01-01
Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) describes the quantum dynamics of interacting electronic many-body systems formally exactly and in a practical and efficient manner. TDDFT has become the leading method for calculating excitation energies and optical properties of large molecules, with accuracies that rival traditional wave-function based methods, but at a fraction of the computational cost.This book is the first graduate-level text on the concepts and applications of TDDFT, including many examples and exercises, and extensive coverage of the literature. The book begins with a s
The time-dependent prize-collecting arc routing problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Black, Dan; Eglese, Richard; Wøhlk, Sanne
2013-01-01
A new problem is introduced named the Time-Dependent Prize-Collecting Arc Routing Problem (TD-PARP). It is particularly relevant to situations where a transport manager has to choose between a number of full truck load pick-ups and deliveries on a road network where travel times change...... with the time of day. Two metaheuristic algorithms, one based on Variable Neighborhood Search and one based on Tabu Search, are proposed and tested for a set of benchmark problems, generated from real road networks and travel time information. Both algorithms are capable of finding good solutions, though...
Numerical solution of time dependent neutron transport equation. An application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barroso, Dalton Ellery Girao
2000-01-01
In this work we show a simple method to solve numerically the time-dependent neutron transport equation which is a simple extension of the numerical methods used to solve the time-independent static transport equation. This is possible because the time-discretized transport equation has the same form as the time-independent transport equation, with only some additional terms. A general outline of the method is given and used to evaluate the neutron flux in a microexplosion calculation of a highly compressed micro fissile system composed by DT-Pu-Be microsphere. (author)
Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufty, James W.
2007-01-01
This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award 'Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas'. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.
Evaluation of design safety factors for time-dependent buckling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.
1977-02-01
The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code rules concerning time-dependent (creep) buckling for Class 1 nuclear components have recently been changed. Previous requirements for a factor of ten on service life have been replaced with a factor of safety of 1.5 on loading for load-controlled buckling. This report examines the supposed equivalence of the two rules from the standpoint of materials behavior--specifically, the secondary creep strain rate exponent. The comparison is made using results obtained numerically for an axially-loaded, cylindrical shell with varying secondary creep exponents. A computationally efficient scheme for analyzing creep buckling problems is also presented
Time dependent deformation in prestressed concrete girder: Measurement and prediction
Sokal, Y. J.; Tyrer, P.
1981-11-01
Prestressed concrete girders which are intended for composite construction in bridges and other similar structures are often stored unloaded for some time before being placed in their final positions where top deck is being poured over. During that free storage the girders are subjected to creep and shrinkage which manifests itself through increased upward deformation usually defined as camber. The analytical estimation of this deformation is important as it controls the minimum thickness of the top deck. An attempt was made to correlate on site measurements with continuous computer modeling of the time-dependent behavior using data from recently adopted international standard for concrete structures.
Time dependent modeling of non-LTE plasmas: Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-06-01
During the period of performance of this contract Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has aided Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the development of an unclassified modeling tool for studying time evolution of high temperature ionizing and recombining plasmas. This report covers the numerical code developed, (D)ynamic (D)etailed (C)onfiguration (A)ccounting (DDCA), which was written to run on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center (NMFECC) network as well as the classified Livermore Computer Center (OCTOPUS) network. DDCA is a One-Dimensional (1D) time dependent hydrodynamic model which makes use of the non-LTE detailed atomic physics ionization model DCA. 5 refs
Scattering theory for explicitely time-dependent interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perusch, M.
1982-01-01
Multiple ionization of hydrogen atoms has got increased attention in recent years in connection with high-power lasers. Due to the strong external electromagnetic fields, perturbation theory is no longer valid. The expression for the multiple ionization probability contains the projections of the time-dependent Hamilton operators and the Moeller operators. The main point of the present work is a proof of existence and completeness of the Moeller operators. The proof of existence and completeness is given. The final chapter contains a physical interpretation and discussion of the multiple ionization probability. (G.Q.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
FEDOROVA,A.; ZEITLIN,M.; PARSA,Z.
2000-03-31
In this paper the authors present applications of methods from wavelet analysis to polynomial approximations for a number of accelerator physics problems. According to a variational approach in the general case they have the solution as a multiresolution (multiscales) expansion on the base of compactly supported wavelet basis. They give an extension of their results to the cases of periodic orbital particle motion and arbitrary variable coefficients. Then they consider more flexible variational method which is based on a biorthogonal wavelet approach. Also they consider a different variational approach, which is applied to each scale.
Phase space theory of Bose–Einstein condensates and time-dependent modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalton, B.J.
2012-01-01
A phase space theory approach for treating dynamical behaviour of Bose–Einstein condensates applicable to situations such as interferometry with BEC in time-dependent double well potentials is presented. Time-dependent mode functions are used, chosen so that one, two,…highly occupied modes describe well the physics of interacting condensate bosons in time dependent potentials at well below the transition temperature. Time dependent mode annihilation, creation operators are represented by time dependent phase variables, but time independent total field annihilation, creation operators are represented by time independent field functions. Two situations are treated, one (mode theory) is where specific mode annihilation, creation operators and their related phase variables and distribution functions are dealt with, the other (field theory) is where only field creation, annihilation operators and their related field functions and distribution functionals are involved. The field theory treatment is more suitable when large boson numbers are involved. The paper focuses on the hybrid approach, where the modes are divided up between condensate (highly occupied) modes and non-condensate (sparsely occupied) modes. It is found that there are extra terms in the Ito stochastic equations both for the stochastic phases and stochastic fields, involving coupling coefficients defined via overlap integrals between mode functions and their time derivatives. For the hybrid approach both the Fokker–Planck and functional Fokker–Planck equations differ from those derived via the correspondence rules, the drift vectors are unchanged but the diffusion matrices contain additional terms involving the coupling coefficients. Results are also presented for the combined approach where all the modes are treated as one set. Here both the Fokker–Planck and functional Fokker–Planck equations are exactly the same as those derived via the correspondence rules. However, although the Ito
An Adaptive Approach to Variational Nodal Diffusion Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hui; Lewis, E.E.
2001-01-01
An adaptive grid method is presented for the solution of neutron diffusion problems in two dimensions. The primal hybrid finite elements employed in the variational nodal method are used to reduce the diffusion equation to a coupled set of elemental response matrices. An a posteriori error estimator is developed to indicate the magnitude of local errors stemming from the low-order elemental interface approximations. An iterative procedure is implemented in which p refinement is applied locally by increasing the polynomial order of the interface approximations. The automated algorithm utilizes the a posteriori estimator to achieve local error reductions until an acceptable level of accuracy is reached throughout the problem domain. Application to a series of X-Y benchmark problems indicates the reduction of computational effort achievable by replacing uniform with adaptive refinement of the spatial approximations
Entanglement entropy with a time-dependent Hamiltonian
Sivaramakrishnan, Allic
2018-03-01
The time evolution of entanglement tracks how information propagates in interacting quantum systems. We study entanglement entropy in CFT2 with a time-dependent Hamiltonian. We perturb by operators with time-dependent source functions and use the replica trick to calculate higher-order corrections to entanglement entropy. At first order, we compute the correction due to a metric perturbation in AdS3/CFT2 and find agreement on both sides of the duality. Past first order, we find evidence of a universal structure of entanglement propagation to all orders. The central feature is that interactions entangle unentangled excitations. Entanglement propagates according to "entanglement diagrams," proposed structures that are motivated by accessory spacetime diagrams for real-time perturbation theory. To illustrate the mechanisms involved, we compute higher-order corrections to free fermion entanglement entropy. We identify an unentangled operator, one which does not change the entanglement entropy to any order. Then, we introduce an interaction and find it changes entanglement entropy by entangling the unentangled excitations. The entanglement propagates in line with our conjecture. We compute several entanglement diagrams. We provide tools to simplify the computation of loop entanglement diagrams, which probe UV effects in entanglement propagation in CFT and holography.
Time-dependent patterns in quasivertical cylindrical binary convection
Alonso, Arantxa; Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol
2018-02-01
This paper reports on numerical investigations of the effect of a slight inclination α on pattern formation in a shallow vertical cylindrical cell heated from below for binary mixtures with a positive value of the Soret coefficient. By using direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations with Soret effect in cylindrical geometry, we show that a slight inclination of the cell in the range α ≈0.036 rad =2∘ strongly influences pattern selection. The large-scale shear flow (LSSF) induced by the small tilt of gravity overcomes the squarelike arrangements observed in noninclined cylinders in the Soret regime, stratifies the fluid along the direction of inclination, and produces an enhanced separation of the two components of the mixture. The competition between shear effects and horizontal and vertical buoyancy alters significantly the dynamics observed in noninclined convection. Additional unexpected time-dependent patterns coexist with the basic LSSF. We focus on an unsual periodic state recently discovered in an experiment, the so-called superhighway convection state (SHC), in which ascending and descending regions of fluid move in opposite directions. We provide numerical confirmation that Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations with standard boundary conditions contain the essential ingredients that allow for the existence of such a state. Also, we obtain a persistent heteroclinic structure where regular oscillations between a SHC pattern and a state of nearly stationary longitudinal rolls take place. We characterize numerically these time-dependent patterns and investigate the dynamics around the threshold of convection.
Time-dependent penetrative mixed convection in a porous layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jendoubi, S.; Kulacki, F.A.
1997-01-01
In the last few decades, heat and mass transfer in porous media have been studied extensively by many investigators. The main motivations behind these studies were the wide range of applications and the interaction of multiple processes. Examples include geothermal energy production, drying of porous media, high level nuclear waste disposal, and energy-related engineering technologies. Here, a general two-dimensional, time-dependent model has been developed to investigate the transfer of heat and mass in a liquid saturated porous layer locally heated from above. Both free and mixed convection are considered. For mixed convection an eternal flow is assumed to enter the two-dimensional domain in the horizontal direction. At a finite segment of the top wall, two types of heat sources are applied: a constant flux heat source and a time varying heat, constant flux source. The latter is a representation of heat released by spent nuclear fuel in a mined repository located above the layer. Both time-dependent and steady solutions of the flow and temperature fields are obtained. For natural convection, the effects of Rayleigh number on the Nusselt number are obtained. For mixed convection, the effects of both Rayleigh and Peclet numbers are studied. In addition, the effects of the aspect ratio, as well as the length of the heated zone are examined
Studies of time dependence of fields in TEVATRON superconducting dipole magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanft, R.W.; Brown, B.C.; Herrup, D.A.; Lamm, M.J.; McInturff, A.D.; Syphers, M.J.
1988-01-01
The time variation in the magnetic field of a model Tevatron dipole magnet at constant excitation current has been studied. Variations in symmetry allowed harmonic components over long time ranges show a log t behavior indicative of ''flux creep.'' Both short time range and long time range behavior depend in a detailed way on the excitation history. Similar effects are seen in the remnant fields present in full-scale Tevatron dipoles following current ramping. Both magnitudes and time dependences are observed to depend on details for the ramps, such as ramp rate, flattop duration, and number of ramps. In a few magnets, variations are also seen in symmetry unallowed harmonics. 9 refs., 10 figs
Time Dependent Relative Risks in Life Insurance Medical Underwriting.
Kneepkens, Robert F
2015-01-01
Introduction .- Life insurance medicine focuses on mortality hazards in specified periods. People are free to insure their lives for shorter or longer terms. Because the chosen terms range from 1 year to a life time, life insurers have to take into account the fact that the predictive value of risk indicators can and will change over time. The time a risk indicator keeps its predictive value, will be dependent on its biological effects, volatility, and treatability. For a given applicant this implies that the relative hazard (RH) calculated for his/her medical condition should be dependent on the term of the insurance. The main objective of this study is to determine if some commonly used risk indicators - previously used to study age dependency of relative risks - have a predictive value that increases with the observation period. (1) Methods .- This population-based cohort study uses NHANES-data files from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES Linked Mortality Files 2010. Only participants aged 20 to 69 that were examined in mobile examination centers, without a history of some prevalent high risk diseases were included. The observed mortality was compared to the expected mortality in a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with Poisson error structure with two reference populations, which both can serve as preferred reference for life insurers: The United States Life Tables 2008 (USLT) and the 2008 Valuation Basic Tables (VBT) based on the insured population of 35 US Life insurers. The time dependency of the RHs of the systolic blood pressure (SBP), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin and albuminuria, was assessed, with correction for ethnicity, household income, history of diabetes mellitus, BMI and serum cholesterol. To be able to compare the results with the results of the Age Dependency Study (ADS), the same data, risk indicators, statistical analysis method, and the
Time-dependent Reliability Analysis of Flood Defence Assets Using Generic Fragility Curve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nepal Jaya
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Flood defence assets such as earth embankments comprise the vital part of linear flood defences in many countries including the UK and protect inland from flooding. The risks of flooding are likely to increase in the future due to increasing pressure on land use, increasing rainfall events and rising sea level caused by climate change also affect aging flood defence assets. Therefore, it is important that the flood defence assets are maintained at a high level of safety and serviceability. The high costs associated with preserving these deteriorating flood defence assets and the limited funds available for their maintenance require the development of systematic approaches to ensure the sustainable flood-risk management system. The integration of realistic deterioration measurement and reliabilitybased performance assessment techniques has tremendous potential for structural safety and economic feasibility of flood defence assets. Therefore, the need for reliability-based performance assessment is evident. However, investigations on time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defence assets are limited. This paper presents a novel approach for time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defence assets. In the analysis, time-dependent fragility curve is developed by using the state-based stochastic deterioration model. The applicability of the proposed approach is then demonstrated with a case study.
Variational approach to gravity field theories from Newton to Einstein and beyond
Vecchiato, Alberto
2017-01-01
This book offers a detailed and stimulating account of the Lagrangian, or variational, approach to general relativity and beyond. The approach more usually adopted when describing general relativity is to introduce the required concepts of differential geometry and derive the field and geodesic equations from purely geometrical properties. Demonstration of the physical meaning then requires the weak field approximation of these equations to recover their Newtonian counterparts. The potential downside of this approach is that it tends to suit the mathematical mind and requires the physicist to study and work in a completely unfamiliar environment. In contrast, the approach to general relativity described in this book will be especially suited to physics students. After an introduction to field theories and the variational approach, individual sections focus on the variational approach in relation to special relativity, general relativity, and alternative theories of gravity. Throughout the text, solved exercis...
The Bloch wave operator: generalizations and applications: II. The time-dependent case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jolicard, Georges [Observatoire de Besancon (UMR-CNRS 6091), Universite de Franche-Comte, 41 bis, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25000 Besancon (France); Killingbeck, John P [Observatoire de Besancon (UMR-CNRS 6091), Universite de Franche-Comte, 41 bis, Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25000 Besancon (France); Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)
2003-10-10
Part II of the review shows how the stationary Bloch wave operator of part I can be suitably modified to give a time-dependent wave operator. This operator makes it possible to use a relatively small active space in order to describe the dynamical processes which occur in quantum mechanical systems which have a time-dependent Hamiltonian. A close study is made of the links between the time-dependent and time-independent wave operators at the adiabatic limit; the analysis clarifies the way in which the wave operator formalism allows the time evolution of a system or a wave packet to be described in terms of a fast evolution inside the active space together with weak transitions out of this space which can be treated by perturbation methods. Two alternative wave operator equations of motion are derived and analysed. The first one is a non-linear differential equation in the usual Hilbert space; the second one is a differential equation in an extended Hilbert space with an extra time variable added and becomes equivalent to the usual Bloch equation when the Floquet Hamiltonian is taken in place of the ordinary Hamiltonian. A study is made of the close relationships between the time-dependent wave operator formalism, the Floquet theory and the (t, t') theory. Some original methods of solution of the two forms of wave operator equation are proposed and lead to new techniques of integration for the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (e.g., the generalized Green equation procedure). Mixed procedures involving both the time-independent and time-dependent wave operators are shown to be applicable to the internal eigenstate problem for large complex matrices. A detailed account is given of the description of inelastic and photoreactive processes by means of the time-dependent wave operator formalism, with particular attention to laser-molecule interactions. The emphasis is on projection operator techniques, with special attention being given to the method of selection
Unitarity Bounds and RG Flows in Time Dependent Quantum Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-04-05
We generalize unitarity bounds on operator dimensions in conformal field theory to field theories with spacetime dependent couplings. Below the energy scale of spacetime variation of the couplings, their evolution can strongly affect the physics, effectively shifting the infrared operator scaling and unitarity bounds determined from correlation functions in the theory. We analyze this explicitly for large-N double-trace flows, and connect these to UV complete field theories. One motivating class of examples comes from our previous work on FRW holography, where this effect explains the range of flavors allowed in the dual, time dependent, field theory.
Modelling the time-dependent rheological behaviour of heterogeneous brittle rocks
Xu, Tao; Tang, Chun-an; Zhao, Jian; Li, Lianchong; Heap, M. J.
2012-06-01
A 2-D numerical model for brittle creep and stress relaxation is proposed for the time-dependent brittle deformation of heterogeneous brittle rock under uniaxial loading conditions. The model accounts for material heterogeneity through a stochastic local failure stress field, and local material degradation using an exponential material softening law. Importantly, the model introduces the concept of a mesoscopic renormalization to capture the co-operative interaction between microcracks in the transition from distributed to localized damage. The model also describes the temporal and spatial evolution of acoustic emissions, including their size (energy released), in the medium during the progressive damage process. The model is first validated using previously published experimental data and is then used to simulate brittle creep and stress relaxation experiments. The model accurately reproduces the classic trimodal behaviour (primary, secondary and tertiary creep) seen in laboratory brittle creep (constant stress) experiments and the decelerating stress during laboratory stress relaxation (constant strain) experiments. Brittle creep simulations also show evidence of a 'critical level of damage' before the onset of tertiary creep and the initial stages of localization can be seen as early as the start of the secondary creep phase, both of which have been previously observed in experiments. Stress relaxation simulations demonstrate that the total amount of stress relaxation increases when the level of constant axial strain increases, also corroborating with previously published experimental data. Our approach differs from previously adopted macroscopic approaches, based on constitutive laws, and microscopic approaches that focus on fracture propagation. The model shows that complex macroscopic time-dependent behaviour can be explained by the small-scale interaction of elements and material degradation. The fact that the simulations are able to capture a similar time-dependent
Maurya, Dinesh Chandra
In the present paper, we have been investigated a new dark energy model in anisotropic Bianchi-type-I (B-I) space-time with redshift-dependent equation of state (EoS) parameter. The Einstein’s field equations have been solved by applying a variation-law for hyperbolic scale factor a(t) = [sinh(αt)] 1 n which provides a time-dependent deceleration parameter and time-dependent EoS parameter. We also have been found the redshift-dependent EoS parameter. The existing range of the dark energy EoS parameter ω for derived model is found to be in good agreement with the recent observations. The cosmological constant Λ is found to be a decreasing function of time and it approaches a small positive value at the present epoch which is collaborated by results from recent supernovae Ia observations. It has also been suggested that the dark energy that explains the observed accelerating universe may arise due to the contribution to the vacuum energy of the EoS in a time-dependent background. Geometric and Kinematic properties of the model and the behavior of the anisotropy of the dark energy have been discussed.
Saturn ring temperature variations with approaching ring equinox
Spilker, L.; Leyrat, C.; Flandes, A.; Altobelli, N.; Pilorz, S.; Ferrari, C.; Edgington, S.
2009-04-01
Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has acquired a wide-ranging set of thermal measurements of Saturn's main rings (A, B, C and Cassini Division) at solar elevations ranging from less than one degree to 24 degrees. At Saturn equinox in August the solar elevation angle will reach zero as the sun traverses from the south to north side of the rings. For the data acquired to date, temperatures were retrieved for the lit and unlit rings over a variety of ring geometries that include solar elevation, as well as spacecraft elevation, phase angle and local hour angle. To first order, the largest temperature changes on the lit face of the rings are driven by variations in phase angle while differences in temperature with changing spacecraft elevation and local time are a secondary effect. Decreasing ring temperature with decreasing solar elevation are observed for both the lit and unlit faces of the rings after phase angle and local time effects are taken into account. As the solar elevation continues to decrease, the ring temperatures are decreasing in a non-linear fashion. The difference in temperature between the lit and unlit sides of the rings is decreasing also with decreasing solar elevation. Using ring thermal models developed by Leyrat we extrapolate to the expected minimum ring temperatures at equinox for our planned CIRS ring observations. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA and at CEA Saclay supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie". Copyright 2009 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.
Parametric Resonance in a Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. N. Nesterov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the phenomenon of appearance of new resonances in a timedependent harmonic oscillator under an oscillatory decreasing force. The studied equation belongs to the class of adiabatic oscillators and arises in connection with the spectral problem for the one-dimensional Schr¨odinger equation with Wigner–von Neumann type potential. We use a specially developed method for asymptotic integration of linear systems of differential equations with oscillatory decreasing coefficients. This method uses the ideas of the averaging method to simplify the initial system. Then we apply Levinson’s fundamental theorem to get the asymptotics for its solutions. Finally, we analyze the features of a parametric resonance phenomenon. The resonant frequencies of perturbation are found and the pointwise type of the parametric resonance phenomenon is established. In conclusion, we construct an example of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator (adiabatic oscillator in which the parametric resonances, mentioned in the paper, may occur.
Development of constitutive model for composites exhibiting time dependent properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pupure, L; Joffe, R; Varna, J; Nyström, B
2013-01-01
Regenerated cellulose fibres and their composites exhibit highly nonlinear behaviour. The mechanical response of these materials can be successfully described by the model developed by Schapery for time-dependent materials. However, this model requires input parameters that are experimentally determined via large number of time-consuming tests on the studied composite material. If, for example, the volume fraction of fibres is changed we have a different material and new series of experiments on this new material are required. Therefore the ultimate objective of our studies is to develop model which determines the composite behaviour based on behaviour of constituents of the composite. This paper gives an overview of problems and difficulties, associated with development, implementation and verification of such model
Monolayer phosphorene under time-dependent magnetic field
Nascimento, J. P. G.; Aguiar, V.; Guedes, I.
2018-02-01
We obtain the exact wave function of a monolayer phosphorene under a low-intensity time-dependent magnetic field using the dynamical invariant method. We calculate the quantum-mechanical energy expectation value and the transition probability for a constant and an oscillatory magnetic field. For the former we observe that the Landau level energy varies linearly with the quantum numbers n and m and the magnetic field intensity B0. No transition takes place. For the latter, we observe that the energy oscillates in time, increasing linearly with the Landau level n and m and nonlinearly with the magnetic field. The (k , l) →(n , m) transitions take place only for l = m. We investigate the (0,0) →(n , 0) and (1 , l) and (2 , l) probability transitions.
Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul
2005-01-01
A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P 1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem
Stirring inertia in time-dependent low Reynolds number flows
Yecko, Philip; Luchtenburg, Dirk Martin (Mark); Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora
2017-11-01
Diagnosis of a kinematic flow and its transport using Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) based on finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) neglects dynamical effects, such as pressure, as well as dynamically important constraints, such as potential vorticity conservation. Chaotic advection, on the other hand, often neglects inertial effects, which are prominent in LCS. We present results for very low Reynolds number laboratory flows, including a Stokes double gyre, vertically sheared strain and a four roll mill. Images of tracer (dye) and FTLE fields computed from particle image velocimetry (PIV) reveal complementary sets of flow structures, giving a more complete picture of transport in these flows. We confirm by computing FTLE of an exact time-dependent Stokes flow solution and present implications of these findings for inertial object transport in flows. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is gratefully acknoweldged.
Time-Dependent Increase in Network Response to Stimulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Franz Hamilton
Full Text Available In vitro neuronal cultures have become a popular method with which to probe network-level neuronal dynamics and phenomena in controlled laboratory settings. One of the key dynamics of interest in these in vitro studies has been the extent to which cultured networks display properties indicative of learning. Here we demonstrate the effects of a high frequency electrical stimulation signal in training cultured networks of cortical neurons. Networks receiving this training signal displayed a time-dependent increase in the response to a low frequency probing stimulation, particularly in the time window of 20-50 ms after stimulation. This increase was found to be statistically significant as compared to control networks that did not receive training. The timing of this increase suggests potentiation of synaptic mechanisms. To further investigate this possibility, we leveraged the powerful Cox statistical connectivity method as previously investigated by our group. This method was used to identify and track changes in network connectivity strength.
Fuzzy economic production quantity model with time dependent demand rate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susanta Kumar Indrajitsingha
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Background: In this paper, an economic production quantity model is considered under a fuzzy environment. Both the demand cost and holding cost are considered using fuzzy pentagonal numbers. The Signed Distance Method is used to defuzzify the total cost function. Methods: The results obtained by these methods are compared with the help of a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to explore the effect of changes in the values of some of the system parameters. Results and conclusions: The fuzzy EPQ model with time dependent demand rate was presented together with the possible implementation. The behavior of changes in parameters was analyzed. The possible extension of the implementation of this method was presented.
Observation of Broadband Time-Dependent Rabi Shifting in Microplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Compton, Ryan; Filin, Alex; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.
2009-01-01
Coherent broadband radiation in the form of Rabi sidebands is observed when a ps probe laser propagates through a weakly ionized, electronically excited microplasma generated in the focus of an intense pump beam. The sidebands arise from the interaction of the probe beam with pairs of excited states of a constituent neutral atom via the probe-induced Rabi oscillation. Sideband shifting of >90 meV from the probe carrier frequency results in an effective bandwidth of 200 meV. The sidebands are controlled by the intensity and temporal profile of the probe pulse; with amplitude and shift in agreement with the predictions of a time-dependent generalized Rabi cycling model.
Time-Dependent Topology of Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers
Li, Dan; Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat
2017-10-01
The railway sleepers are very important component of railway track structure. The sleepers can be manufactured by using timber, concrete, steel or other engineered materials. Nowadays, prestressed concrete has become most commonly used type of sleepers. Prestressed concrete sleepers have longer life-cycle and lower maintenance cost than reinforced concrete sleepers. They are expected to withstand high dynamic loads and harsh environments. However, durability and long-term performance of prestressed concrete sleepers are largely dependent on creep and shrinkage responses. This study investigates the long-term behaviours of prestressed concrete sleepers and proposes the shortening and deflection diagrams. Comparison between design codes of Eurocode 2 and AS3600-2009 provides the insight into the time-dependent performance of prestressed concrete sleepers. The outcome of this paper will improve the rail maintenance and inspection criteria in order to establish appropriate sensible remote track condition monitor network in practice.
Origin of the spike-timing-dependent plasticity rule
Cho, Myoung Won; Choi, M. Y.
2016-08-01
A biological synapse changes its efficacy depending on the difference between pre- and post-synaptic spike timings. Formulating spike-timing-dependent interactions in terms of the path integral, we establish a neural-network model, which makes it possible to predict relevant quantities rigorously by means of standard methods in statistical mechanics and field theory. In particular, the biological synaptic plasticity rule is shown to emerge as the optimal form for minimizing the free energy. It is further revealed that maximization of the entropy of neural activities gives rise to the competitive behavior of biological learning. This demonstrates that statistical mechanics helps to understand rigorously key characteristic behaviors of a neural network, thus providing the possibility of physics serving as a useful and relevant framework for probing life.
Time-dependent reliability analysis and condition assessment of structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellingwood, B.R.
1997-01-01
Structures generally play a passive role in assurance of safety in nuclear plant operation, but are important if the plant is to withstand the effect of extreme environmental or abnormal events. Relative to mechanical and electrical components, structural systems and components would be difficult and costly to replace. While the performance of steel or reinforced concrete structures in service generally has been very good, their strengths may deteriorate during an extended service life as a result of changes brought on by an aggressive environment, excessive loading, or accidental loading. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures can be developed using time-dependent structural reliability analysis methods. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process
Spin-orbit torque induced spike-timing dependent plasticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sengupta, Abhronil, E-mail: asengup@purdue.edu; Al Azim, Zubair; Fong, Xuanyao; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2015-03-02
Nanoelectronic devices that mimic the functionality of synapses are a crucial requirement for performing cortical simulations of the brain. In this work, we propose a ferromagnet-heavy metal heterostructure that employs spin-orbit torque to implement spike-timing dependent plasticity. The proposed device offers the advantage of decoupled spike transmission and programming current paths, thereby leading to reliable operation during online learning. Possible arrangement of such devices in a crosspoint architecture can pave the way for ultra-dense neural networks. Simulation studies indicate that the device has the potential of achieving pico-Joule level energy consumption (maximum 2 pJ per synaptic event) which is comparable to the energy consumption for synaptic events in biological synapses.
Time-Dependent Rock Failure in a Heterogeneous Limestone
Roth, K.; Kemeny, J.
2015-12-01
Time-dependent rock failure is an important aspect in the analysis of long-term rock stability for slopes, dam and bridge foundations, and underground storage facilities. An on-going project at the University of Arizona is using Kartchner Caverns in Benson, Arizona as a natural analog to study such failure by reconstructing the process of natural cave breakdown with subcritical crack growth modeling. Breakdown is thought to occur along joints through the time-dependent failure of rock bridges: sections of intact rock separating discontinuities in a rock mass. The Escabrosa limestone composing the caverns ranges from a more homogenous, even-grained texture to a more heterogeneous texture consisting of coarse-grained veins and solution cavities set in a fine-grained matrix. To determine if the veined regions are more susceptible to fracturing and act as the nuclei of rock bridge failure, fracture toughness tests were conducted for both textures. The subcritical crack growth parameters were calculated using the constant stress-rate method. Results indicate that the more heterogeneous limestone has a higher fracture strength, fracture toughness, and subcritical crack growth index n than the more homogeneous limestone. This is in agreement with previous studies which found that a more complex and heterogeneous microstructure produces a larger microcrack process zone, leading to higher fracture energies and lower susceptibility to subcritical crack growth. Thus, despite their solution cavities, the calcite veins do not localize failure or act as planes of weakness; instead, rock bridges fail through the more homogeneous limestone matrix.
New applications with time-dependent thermochemical simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koukkari, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laukkanen, L. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Penttilae, K. [Kemira Engineering Oy, Helsinki (Finland)
1996-12-31
A new method (RATEMIX) to calculate multicomponent chemical reaction mixtures as a series of sequential thermochemical states was recently introduced. The procedure combines multicomponent thermodynamics with chemical kinetics and may be used to simulate the multicomponent reactors as a thermochemical natural process. The method combines the desired reaction rates sequentially with constrained Gibbs energy minimization. The reactant concentrations are determined by the experimental (Arrhenius) rate laws. During the course of the given reaction the subsequent side reactions are supposed to occur reversibly. At every sequential stage of the given reaction the temperature and composition of the reaction mixture are calculated by a thermodynamic subroutine, which minimizes the Gibbs energy of the system and takes into account the heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. The extents of reaction are included as algorithmic constraints in the Gibbs energy minimization procedure. Initially, the reactants are introduced to the system as inert copies to match both the mass and energy balance of the reactive system. During the calculation the copies are sequentially interchanged to the actual reactants which allows one to simulate the time-dependent reaction route by using the thermochemical procedure. For each intermediate stage, the temperature and composition are calculated and as well numerical estimates of the thermodynamic functions are obtained. The method is applicable in processes where the core thermodynamic and kinetic data of the system are known and the time-dependent heat transfer data can either be measured or estimated by calculation. The method has been used to simulate e.g. high temperature flame reactions, zinc vapour oxidation and a counter-current rotary drum with chemical reactions. The procedure has today been tested with SOLGASMIX, CHEMSAGE and HSC programs. (author)
Time-dependent degenerative transformations in the lipidome of chalazia.
Wojtowicz, Jadwiga C; Butovich, Igor A; McMahon, Anne; Hogan, Robert N; Itani, Kamel M; Mancini, Ronald; Molai, Mike; Linsenbardt, Emily
2014-10-01
The aim of this prospective study was to conduct histopathologic and lipidomic analyses of chalazia, in order to evaluate time-dependent changes in the lesion. Samples of surgically excised chalazia were collected over a period of 12 months from 10 patients (mean age 41 years; range, 23-58) with clinically diagnosed chalazia, who underwent scheduled surgery. The ages of chalazia varied from 2 to 28 weeks. To confirm the clinical diagnoses, the morphology of collected tissue samples was evaluated histologically after hematoxylin and eosin staining. The lipids from individual chalazia were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with authentic lipid standards and with the lipids of meibum collected from normal controls. We observed gradual, lesion age-dependent transformation of the lipidome of chalazia from an almost normal meibum-like composition to a very different kind of lipidome. A rapid initial increase in the free cholesterol content was followed by a gradual replacement of extremely long chain meibomian-type lipids with a mixture of shorter-chain cholesteryl esters of the C14-C18 family, triacylglycerols, ceramides, phospholipids and sphingomyelins. In addition, a rapid disappearance of wax esters and cholesteryl esters of (1-O)-acyl-omega-hydroxy fatty acids from the lipidome of aging chalazia was observed. Our results are indicative of dramatic, time-dependent changes in the lesion that may involve cholesterol as a trigger and/or a marker of subsequent degeneration of the meibomian lipidome. We hypothesize that early inhibition of these transformations may be useful in reversing the course of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the striatum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elodie Fino
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The striatum is the major input nucleus of basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected sub-cortical nuclei associated with fundamental processes of action-selection and procedural learning and memory. The striatum receives afferents from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. In turn, it relays the integrated information towards the basal ganglia output nuclei through which it operates a selected activation of behavioral effectors. The striatal output neurons, the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, are in charge of the detection and integration of behaviorally relevant information. This property confers to the striatum the ability to extract relevant information from the background noise and select cognitive-motor sequences adapted to environmental stimuli. As long-term synaptic efficacy changes are believed to underlie learning and memory, the corticostriatal long-term plasticity provides a fundamental mechanism for the function of the basal ganglia in procedural learning. Here, we reviewed the different forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP occurring at corticostriatal synapses. Most of the studies have focused on MSNs and their ability to develop long-term plasticity. Nevertheless, the striatal interneurons (the fast-spiking GABAergic, the NO synthase and cholinergic interneurons also receive monosynaptic afferents from the cortex and tightly regulated corticostriatal information processing. Therefore, it is important to take into account the variety of striatal neurons to fully understand the ability of striatum to develop long-term plasticity. Corticostriatal STDP with various spike-timing dependence have been observed depending on the neuronal sub-populations and experimental conditions. This complexity highlights the extraordinary potentiality in term of plasticity of the corticostriatal pathway.
Implicit time-dependent finite different algorithm for quench simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment
1994-12-01
A magnet in a fusion machine has many difficulties in its application because of requirement of a large operating current, high operating field and high breakdown voltage. A cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is the best candidate to overcome these difficulties. However, there remained uncertainty in a quench event in the cable-in-conduit conductor because of a difficulty to analyze a fluid dynamics equation. Several scientists, then, developed the numerical code for the quench simulation. However, most of them were based on an explicit time-dependent finite difference scheme. In this scheme, a discrete time increment is strictly restricted by CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) condition. Therefore, long CPU time was consumed for the quench simulation. Authors, then, developed a new quench simulation code, POCHI1, which is based on an implicit time dependent scheme. In POCHI1, the fluid dynamics equation is linearlized according to a procedure applied by Beam and Warming and then, a tridiagonal system can be offered. Therefore, no iteration is necessary to solve the fluid dynamics equation. This leads great reduction of the CPU time. Also, POCHI1 can cope with non-linear boundary condition. In this study, comparison with experimental results was carried out. The normal zone propagation behavior was investigated in two samples of CIC conductors which had different hydraulic diameters. The measured and simulated normal zone propagation length showed relatively good agreement. However, the behavior of the normal voltage shows a little disagreement. These results indicate necessity to improve the treatment of the heat transfer coefficient in the turbulent flow region and the electric resistivity of the copper stabilizer in high temperature and high field region. (author).
Implicit time-dependent finite different algorithm for quench simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi
1994-12-01
A magnet in a fusion machine has many difficulties in its application because of requirement of a large operating current, high operating field and high breakdown voltage. A cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is the best candidate to overcome these difficulties. However, there remained uncertainty in a quench event in the cable-in-conduit conductor because of a difficulty to analyze a fluid dynamics equation. Several scientists, then, developed the numerical code for the quench simulation. However, most of them were based on an explicit time-dependent finite difference scheme. In this scheme, a discrete time increment is strictly restricted by CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) condition. Therefore, long CPU time was consumed for the quench simulation. Authors, then, developed a new quench simulation code, POCHI1, which is based on an implicit time dependent scheme. In POCHI1, the fluid dynamics equation is linearlized according to a procedure applied by Beam and Warming and then, a tridiagonal system can be offered. Therefore, no iteration is necessary to solve the fluid dynamics equation. This leads great reduction of the CPU time. Also, POCHI1 can cope with non-linear boundary condition. In this study, comparison with experimental results was carried out. The normal zone propagation behavior was investigated in two samples of CIC conductors which had different hydraulic diameters. The measured and simulated normal zone propagation length showed relatively good agreement. However, the behavior of the normal voltage shows a little disagreement. These results indicate necessity to improve the treatment of the heat transfer coefficient in the turbulent flow region and the electric resistivity of the copper stabilizer in high temperature and high field region. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, Adam J.; Lee, John C.
2016-01-01
A new time-dependent Method of Characteristics (MOC) formulation for nuclear reactor kinetics was developed utilizing angular flux time-derivative propagation. This method avoids the requirement of storing the angular flux at previous points in time to represent a discretized time derivative; instead, an equation for the angular flux time derivative along 1D spatial characteristics is derived and solved concurrently with the 1D transport characteristic equation. This approach allows the angular flux time derivative to be recast principally in terms of the neutron source time derivatives, which are approximated to high-order accuracy using the backward differentiation formula (BDF). This approach, called Source Derivative Propagation (SDP), drastically reduces the memory requirements of time-dependent MOC relative to methods that require storing the angular flux. An SDP method was developed for 2D and 3D applications and implemented in the computer code DeCART in 2D. DeCART was used to model two reactor transient benchmarks: a modified TWIGL problem and a C5G7 transient. The SDP method accurately and efficiently replicated the solution of the conventional time-dependent MOC method using two orders of magnitude less memory.
Time-dependent density functional theory for many-electron systems interacting with cavity photons.
Tokatly, I V
2013-06-07
Time-dependent (current) density functional theory for many-electron systems strongly coupled to quantized electromagnetic modes of a microcavity is proposed. It is shown that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic (current) density and the expectation values of photonic coordinates. The Kohn-Sham system is constructed, which allows us to calculate the above basic variables by solving self-consistent equations for noninteracting particles. We suggest possible approximations for the exchange-correlation potentials and discuss implications of this approach for the theory of open quantum systems. In particular we show that it naturally leads to time-dependent density functional theory for systems coupled to the Caldeira-Leggett bath.
Alguire, Ethan C; Ou, Qi; Subotnik, Joseph E
2015-06-18
A pseudo-wavefunction description of time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) states is proposed and used to develop an analytic expression for derivative couplings between TDHF excited states based on the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. The resulting expression includes Pulay terms associated with using an atom-centered basis as well as a correction to ensure translational invariance. We demonstrate that our formalism recovers the well-known Chernyak-Mukamel expression near a crossing and in the limit of a complete basis, and thus our approach is consistent with time-dependent response theory. In a companion paper (DOI 10.1021/jp5057682 ), we investigate these derivative couplings near conical intersections and show that they behave correctly.
Reactive scattering theory for molecular transitions in time-dependent fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, U.; Miller, W.H.
1995-01-01
A new approach is introduced for computing probabilities of molecular transitions in time-dependent fields. The method is based on the stationary (t,t') representation of the Schroedinger equation and is shown to be equivalent to infinite order time-dependent perturbation theory. Bound-to-bound (i.e., photoexcitation) and bound-to-continuum (i.e., photoreaction) transitions are regarded as reactive collisions with the ''time coordinate'' as the reaction coordinate in an extended Hilbert space. A numerical method based on imposing absorbing boundary conditions for the time coordinate in a discrete variable representation framework is introduced. A single operation of the Green's operator provides all the state-specific transition probabilities as well as partial state-resolved (inclusive) reaction probabilities. Illustrative numerical applications are given for model systems
Time-dependent amplitude analysis of $B^0 \\to K^0_S\\pi^ pi^-$
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aubert, B.
2009-05-26
In this paper we present results from a time-dependent amplitude analysis of the B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{sub s}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay. In Sec. II we describe the time-dependent DP formalism, and introduce the signal parameters that are extracted in the fit to data. In Sec. III we briefly describe the BABAR detector and the data set. In Sec. IV, we explain the selection requirements used to obtain the signal candidates and suppress backgrounds. In Sec. V we describe the fit method and the approach used to control experimental effects such as resolution. In Sec. VI we present the results of the fit, and extract parameters relevant to the contributing intermediate resonant states. In Sec. VII we discuss systematic uncertainties in the results, and finally we summarize the results in Sec. VIII.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katherine G. Akers
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In humans, hippocampal damage typically produces temporally graded retrograde amnesia, with relative sparing of remote memories compared to recent memories. This observation led to the idea that as memories age, they are reorganized in a time-dependent manner. Here, we evaluate evidence for time-dependent memory reorganization in animal models. We conclude that, although hippocampal lesions may not always produce temporal gradients under all conditions, studies using alternate experimental approaches consistently support the idea that memories reorganize over time—becoming less dependent on the hippocampus and more dependent on a cortical network. We further speculate on the processes that drive memory reorganization such as sleep, memory reactivation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagheri, Saman; Nikkar, Ali [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-11-15
This paper deals with the determination of approximate solutions for a model of column buckling using two efficient and powerful methods called He's variational approach and variational iteration algorithm-II. These methods are used to find analytical approximate solution of nonlinear dynamic equation of a model for the column buckling. First and second order approximate solutions of the equation of the system are achieved. To validate the solutions, the analytical results have been compared with those resulted from Runge-Kutta 4th order method. A good agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the numerical results and the exact solution shows that the present methods can be easily extended to other nonlinear oscillation problems in engineering. The accuracy and convenience of the proposed methods are also revealed in comparisons with the other solution techniques.
Time-Dependent Risk Estimation and Cost-Benefit Analysis for Mitigation Actions
van Stiphout, T.; Wiemer, S.; Marzocchi, W.
2009-04-01
Earthquakes strongly cluster in space and time. Consequently, the most dangerous time is right after a moderate earthquake has happened, because their is a ‘high' (i.e., 2-5 percent) probability that this event will be followed by a subsequent aftershock which happens to be as large or larger than the initiating event. The seismic hazard during this time-period exceeds the background probability significantly and by several orders of magnitude. Scientists have developed increasingly accurate forecast models that model this time-dependent hazard, and such models are currently being validated in prospective testing. However, this probabilistic information in the hazard space is difficult to digest for decision makers, the media and general public. Here, we introduce a possible bridge between seismology and decision makers (authorities, civil defense) by proposing a more objective way to estimate time-dependent risk assessment. Short Term Earthquake Risk assessment (STEER) combines aftershock hazard and loss assessments. We use site-specific information on site effects and building class distribution and combine this with existing loss models to compute site specific time-dependent risk curves (probability of exceedance for fatalities, injuries, damages etc). We show the effect of uncertainties in the different components using Monte Carlo Simulations of the input parameters. This time-dependent risk curves can act as a decision support. We extend the STEER approach by introducing a Cost-Benefit approach for certain mitigation actions after a medium-sized earthquake. Such Cost-Benefit approaches have been recently developed for volcanic risk assessment to rationalize precautionary evacuations in densely inhabitated areas threatened by volcanoes. Here we extend the concept to time-dependent probabilistic seismic risk assessment. For the Cost-Benefit analysis of mitigation actions we calculate the ratio between the cost for the mitigation actions and the cost of the
Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K
1996-01-01
storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33.......0-485.0) nmol/l at day 35 in whole blood, from 18.8 (range 8.2-38.5) to 328.5 (range 224.0-1137.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, and from 0.5 (range 0.5-1.5) to 2.2 (range 1.4-6.9) nmol/l in SAGM blood. These results show spontaneous histamine release during storage of human blood products which contain...
Investigating the time-dependent zeta potential of wood surfaces.
Muff, Livius F; Luxbacher, Thomas; Burgert, Ingo; Michen, Benjamin
2018-05-15
This work reports on streaming potential measurements through natural capillaries in wood and investigates the cause of a time-dependent zeta potential measured during the equilibration of wood cell-walls with an electrolyte solution. For the biomaterial, this equilibration phase takes several hours, which is much longer than for many other materials that have been characterized by electrokinetic measurements. During this equilibration phase the zeta potential magnitude is decaying due to two parallel mechanisms: (i) the swelling of the cell-wall which causes a dimensional change reducing the charge density at the capillary interface; (ii) the transport of ions from the electrolyte solution into the permeable cell-wall which alters the electrical potential at the interface by internal charge compensation. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of equilibration kinetics for an accurate determination of the zeta potential, especially for materials that interact strongly with the measurement electrolyte. Moreover, the change in zeta potential with time can be correlated with the bulk swelling of wood if the effect of electrolyte ion diffusion is excluded. This study shows the potential of streaming potential measurements of wood, and possibly of other hygroscopic and nanoporous materials, to reveal kinetic information about their interaction with liquids, such as swelling and ion uptake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Supersymmetric gauge theory with space-time-dependent couplings
Choi, Jaewang; Fernández-Melgarejo, José J.; Sugimoto, Shigeki
2018-01-01
We study deformations of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with couplings and masses depending on space-time. The conditions to preserve part of the supersymmetry are derived and a lot of solutions of these conditions are found. The main example is the case with ISO(1,1)× SO(3)× SO(3) symmetry, in which couplings, as well as masses and the theta parameter, can depend on two spatial coordinates. In the case in which ISO(1,1) is enhanced to ISO(1,2), it reproduces the supersymmetric Janus configuration found by Gaiotto and Witten [J. High Energy Phys. 06, 097 (2010)]. When SO(3)× SO(3) is enhanced to SO(6), it agrees with the world-volume theory of D3-branes embedded in F-theory (a background with 7-branes in type IIB string theory). We have also found the general solution of the supersymmetry conditions for the cases with ISO(1,1)× SO(2)× SO(4) symmetry. Cases with time-dependent couplings and/or masses are also considered.
Learning Probabilistic Inference through Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity123
Pecevski, Dejan
2016-01-01
Abstract Numerous experimental data show that the brain is able to extract information from complex, uncertain, and often ambiguous experiences. Furthermore, it can use such learnt information for decision making through probabilistic inference. Several models have been proposed that aim at explaining how probabilistic inference could be performed by networks of neurons in the brain. We propose here a model that can also explain how such neural network could acquire the necessary information for that from examples. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity in combination with intrinsic plasticity generates in ensembles of pyramidal cells with lateral inhibition a fundamental building block for that: probabilistic associations between neurons that represent through their firing current values of random variables. Furthermore, by combining such adaptive network motifs in a recursive manner the resulting network is enabled to extract statistical information from complex input streams, and to build an internal model for the distribution p* that generates the examples it receives. This holds even if p* contains higher-order moments. The analysis of this learning process is supported by a rigorous theoretical foundation. Furthermore, we show that the network can use the learnt internal model immediately for prediction, decision making, and other types of probabilistic inference. PMID:27419214
Learning Probabilistic Inference through Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity.
Pecevski, Dejan; Maass, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
Numerous experimental data show that the brain is able to extract information from complex, uncertain, and often ambiguous experiences. Furthermore, it can use such learnt information for decision making through probabilistic inference. Several models have been proposed that aim at explaining how probabilistic inference could be performed by networks of neurons in the brain. We propose here a model that can also explain how such neural network could acquire the necessary information for that from examples. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity in combination with intrinsic plasticity generates in ensembles of pyramidal cells with lateral inhibition a fundamental building block for that: probabilistic associations between neurons that represent through their firing current values of random variables. Furthermore, by combining such adaptive network motifs in a recursive manner the resulting network is enabled to extract statistical information from complex input streams, and to build an internal model for the distribution p (*) that generates the examples it receives. This holds even if p (*) contains higher-order moments. The analysis of this learning process is supported by a rigorous theoretical foundation. Furthermore, we show that the network can use the learnt internal model immediately for prediction, decision making, and other types of probabilistic inference.
submitter Time-dependent CP violation in charm mesons
Inguglia, Gianluca
CP violation is a well established phenomenon for B and K mesons, but for D0 mesons, bound states made up of a quark-antiquark pair containing a charm quark, a conclusive answer to the question whether there is CP vio- lation or not, has yet to be determined. I show here the phenomenology of time-dependent CP asymmetries in charm decays, and discuss the implica- tions of experimental tests aimed at the measurement of CP violation in the interference between mixing and decays of charm mesons, in particular when studying the decay channels D0 ! h+h (h = K; ). The decay channels considered can also be used to constrain quantities that are poorly measured or still to be investigated, such as MIX and c;eff , provided that the e ects of penguin pollution are ignored. I considered correlated production of D0 mesons at the SuperB experiment and its planned asymmetric run at the charm threshold and performed a study of simulated events, nding that a boost factor = 0:28 would not be su cient to produce competitive re- ...
Residual distribution for general time-dependent conservation laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricchiuto, Mario; Csik, Arpad; Deconinck, Herman
2005-01-01
We consider the second-order accurate numerical solution of general time-dependent hyperbolic conservation laws over unstructured grids in the framework of the Residual Distribution method. In order to achieve full conservation of the linear, monotone and first-order space-time schemes of (Csik et al., 2003) and (Abgrall et al., 2000), we extend the conservative residual distribution (CRD) formulation of (Csik et al., 2002) to prismatic space-time elements. We then study the design of second-order accurate and monotone schemes via the nonlinear mapping of the local residuals of linear monotone schemes. We derive sufficient and necessary conditions for the well-posedness of the mapping. We prove that the schemes obtained with the CRD formulation satisfy these conditions by construction. Thus the nonlinear schemes proposed in this paper are always well defined. The performance of the linear and nonlinear schemes are evaluated on a series of test problems involving the solution of the Euler equations and of a two-phase flow model. We consider the resolution of strong shocks and complex interacting flow structures. The results demonstrate the robustness, accuracy and non-oscillatory character of the proposed schemes. d schemes
Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darroudi M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Majid Darroudi1,2, Mansor Bin Ahmad3, Reza Zamiri4, AK Zak5, Abdul Halim Abdullah1,3, Nor Azowa Ibrahim31Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; 3Department of Chemistry, 4Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: The application of “green” chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, gelatin, green chemistry, time-dependent effect, ultraviolet-visible spectra
Time-dependent motor properties of multipedal molecular spiders.
Samii, Laleh; Blab, Gerhard A; Bromley, Elizabeth H C; Linke, Heiner; Curmi, Paul M G; Zuckermann, Martin J; Forde, Nancy R
2011-09-01
Molecular spiders are synthetic biomolecular walkers that use the asymmetry resulting from cleavage of their tracks to bias the direction of their stepping motion. Using Monte Carlo simulations that implement the Gillespie algorithm, we investigate the dependence of the biased motion of molecular spiders, along with binding time and processivity, on tunable experimental parameters, such as number of legs, span between the legs, and unbinding rate of a leg from a substrate site. We find that an increase in the number of legs increases the spiders' processivity and binding time but not their mean velocity. However, we can increase the mean velocity of spiders with simultaneous tuning of the span and the unbinding rate of a spider leg from a substrate site. To study the efficiency of molecular spiders, we introduce a time-dependent expression for the thermodynamic efficiency of a molecular motor, allowing us to account for the behavior of spider populations as a function of time. Based on this definition, we find that spiders exhibit transient motor function over time scales of many hours and have a maximum efficiency on the order of 1%, weak compared to other types of molecular motors.
When can time-dependent currents be reproduced by the Landauer steady-state approximation?
Carey, Rachel; Chen, Liping; Gu, Bing; Franco, Ignacio
2017-05-07
We establish well-defined limits in which the time-dependent electronic currents across a molecular junction subject to a fluctuating environment can be quantitatively captured via the Landauer steady-state approximation. For this, we calculate the exact time-dependent non-equilibrium Green's function (TD-NEGF) current along a model two-site molecular junction, in which the site energies are subject to correlated noise, and contrast it with that obtained from the Landauer approach. The ability of the steady-state approximation to capture the TD-NEGF behavior at each instant of time is quantified via the same-time correlation function of the currents obtained from the two methods, while their global agreement is quantified by examining differences in the average currents. The Landauer steady-state approach is found to be a useful approximation when (i) the fluctuations do not disrupt the degree of delocalization of the molecular eigenstates responsible for transport and (ii) the characteristic time for charge exchange between the molecule and leads is fast with respect to the molecular correlation time. For resonant transport, when these conditions are satisfied, the Landauer approach is found to accurately describe the current, both on average and at each instant of time. For non-resonant transport, we find that while the steady-state approach fails to capture the time-dependent transport at each instant of time, it still provides a good approximation to the average currents. These criteria can be employed to adopt effective modeling strategies for transport through molecular junctions in interaction with a fluctuating environment, as is necessary to describe experiments.
Time-dependent stratification in the Gauthami-Godavari Estuary
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Rao, T.V.N.
associated with the density driven flow. Destratification occurs around the high water slacks in the lower reaches fairly close to the mouth of the estuary. The variations in the fields of mass will strongly affect the response of the velocity field...
Nonlinear wave time dependent dynamic evolution in solar flux tubes
Fedun, V.; Erdelyi, R.
2005-12-01
The aim of the present work is to investigate the excitation, time dependent dynamic evolution and interaction of weakly nonlinear propagating (i.e. solitary) waves on vertical cylindrical magnetic flux tubes in a compressible solar atmospheric plasma. The axisymmetric flux tube has a field strength of 1000 G at its footpoint what is typical for photospheric regions. Solitons are excited by a footpoint driver. The propagation of the nonlinear signal is investigated by solving numerically a set of fully nonlinear 2D MHD equations in cylindrical coordinates. For the initial conditions the solutions of the linear dispersion relation for wave modes (in the present case we focus on the sausage mode) in a magnetic flux tube is applied. This dispersion relation is solved numerically for a range of plasma parameters. We compare our results with the works of Roberts [1], Wilson [2] (dispersion relation), Molotovshchikov [3] (nonlinear slow sausage waves) and Weisshaar [4] (numerical solutions of the Leibovich-Prichard-Roberts equation). (1) We found solitary solutions and investigate solitary propagating with external sound speed by solving the full MHD equations. (2) We also found a solitary wave propagating with the tube speed. A natural application of our studies may be spicule formation in the chromosphere, as suggested by Roberts [5], where it was demonstrated theoretically, that a solar photospheric magnetic flux tube can support the propagation of solitons governed by the Benjamin-Ono (slow mode) equations. Future possible improvements in modeling and the relevance of the photospheric chromospheric transition region coupling by spicules is suggested. [1] B. Roberts and A. Webb, Sol. Phys., 1978, v. 56, p. 5 [2] P.R. Wilson, Astron. Astrophys., 1980, v. 87, p. 121 [3] A.L. Molotovshchikov and M.S. Ruderman, Sol. Phys., 1987, v. 109, p. 247 [4] E. Weisshaar, Phys. Fluids A, 1989, v. 1(8), p. 1406 [5] B. Roberts and A. Mangeney, Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly
Spike-timing dependent plasticity and the cognitive map
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel eBush
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Since the discovery of place cells – single pyramidal neurons that encode spatial location – it has been hypothesised that the hippocampus may act as a cognitive map of known environments. This putative function has been extensively modelled using auto-associative networks, which utilise rate-coded synaptic plasticity rules in order to generate strong bi-directional connections between concurrently active place cells that encode for neighbouring place fields. However, empirical studies using hippocampal cultures have demonstrated that the magnitude and direction of changes in synaptic strength can also be dictated by the relative timing of pre- and post- synaptic firing according to a spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP rule. Furthermore, electrophysiology studies have identified persistent ‘theta-coded’ temporal correlations in place cell activity in vivo, characterised by phase precession of firing as the corresponding place field is traversed. It is not yet clear if STDP and theta-coded neural dynamics are compatible with cognitive map theory and previous rate-coded models of spatial learning in the hippocampus. Here, we demonstrate that an STDP rule based on empirical data obtained from the hippocampus can mediate rate-coded Hebbian learning when pre- and post- synaptic activity is stochastic and has no persistent sequence bias. We subsequently demonstrate that a spiking recurrent neural network that utilises this STDP rule, alongside theta-coded neural activity, allows the rapid development of a cognitive map during directed or random exploration of an environment of overlapping place fields. Hence, we establish that STDP and phase precession are compatible with rate-coded models of cognitive map development.
Time dependence of microsecond intense electron beam transport in gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucey, R.F. Jr.; Gilgenback, R.M.; Tucker, J.E.; Brake, M.L.; Enloe, C.L.; Repetti, T.E.
1987-01-01
The authors present results of long-pulse (0.5 μs) electron beam propagation in the ion focused regime (IFR). Electron beam parameters are 800 kV with several hundred amperes injected current. For injection into air (from 0.7 mTorr to 75 mTorr) and helium (from 14 mTorr to 227 mTorr) the authors observe a ''time-dependent propagation window'' in which efficient (up to 100%) propagation starts at a time comparable to the electron impact ionization time needed to achieve n/sub i/ -- (1/γ/sup 2/)n/sub eb/. The transport goes abruptly to zero about 50-150 ns after this initial propagation. This is followed by erratic propagation often consisting of numerous narrower pulses 10-40 ns wide. In these pulses the transported current can be 100% of the injected current, but is generally lower. As the fill pressure is increased, there are differences in the propagated beam pulse, which can be summarized as follows: 1) the temporal occurrence of the beam propagation window shifts to earlier times, 2) the propagated beam current has much faster risetimes, 3) a larger portion of the injected beam is propagated. Similar results are observed when the electron beam is propagated in helium. However, at a given pressure, the beam transport window occurs at later times and exhibits a slower risetime. These effects are consistent with electron beam-induced ionization. Experiments are being performed to determine if the observed beam instability is due to the ion hose instability or streaming instability
Pharmacokinetics: time-dependent changes--autoinduction of carbamazepine epoxidation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertilsson, L.; Tomson, T.; Tybring, G.
1986-01-01
Drugs labeled with stable isotopes have been useful to study time-dependent changes in kinetics. Early studies suggested that carbamazepine (CBZ) may induce its own metabolism, but this could not be proved until tetradeuterium-labeled CBZ (CBZ-D4) was synthesized and then given to patients. CBZ-D4 was administered to three children during long-term treatment of epilepsy with CBZ. After 17 to 32 days of treatment, the plasma clearance of CBZ-D4 was doubled, but during the next four months, there was no further increase, indicating that autoinduction was complete within one month. Two patients with chronic alcoholism were treated with CBZ for five days. Half of the first dose of 600 mg was comprised of CBZ-D4. The half-life of this CBZ-D4 dose in the two patients (20 and 26 hr, respectively) was similar to the post-steady-state half-life of CBZ (23 hr in both patients) measured later. A single dose of CBZ given one week after the last maintenance dose had a longer half-life (46 and 45 hr, respectively), which probably is close to the disposition of the drug before starting the treatment with CBZ. This shows that autoinduction of CBZ metabolism was completed during the very first doses of CBZ. Autoinduction also disappeared rapidly after stopping the treatment. We have shown that it is mainly the epoxide-diol pathway that is induced, both during autoinduction and after induction with other antiepileptic agents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Platt Robert W
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies of exposures that vary with time require an additional level of methodological complexity to account for the time-dependence of exposure. This study compares a nested case-control approach for the study of time-dependent exposure with cohort analysis using Cox regression including time-dependent covariates. Methods A cohort of 1340 subjects with four fixed and seven time-dependent covariates was used for this study. Nested case-control analyses were repeated 100 times for each of 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 controls per case, and point estimates were compared to those obtained using Cox regression on the full cohort. Computational efficiencies were evaluated by comparing central processing unit times required for analysis of the cohort at sizes 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 times its initial size. Results Nested case-control analyses yielded results that were similar to results of Cox regression on the full cohort. Cox regression was found to be 125 times slower than the nested case-control approach (using four controls per case. Conclusions The nested case-control approach is a useful alternative for cohort analysis when studying time-dependent exposures. Its superior computational efficiency may be particularly useful when studying rare outcomes in databases, where the ability to analyze larger sample sizes can improve the power of the study.
Temporal sensitivity. [time dependent human perception of visual stimuli
Watson, Andrew B.
1986-01-01
Human visual temporal sensitivity is examined. The stimuli used to measure temporal sensitivity are described and the linear systems theory is reviewed in terms of temporal sensitivity. A working model which represents temporal sensitivity is proposed. The visibility of a number of temporal wave forms, sinusoids, rectangular pulses, and pulse pairs, is analyzed. The relation between spatial and temporal effects is studied. Temporal variations induced by image motion and the effects of light adaptation on temporal sensitivity are considered.
Bicriterion a priori route choice in stochastic time-dependent networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lars Relund; Pretolani, D; Andersen, K A
2006-01-01
In recent years there has been a growing interest in using stochastic time-dependent (STD) networks as a modelling tool for a number of applications within such areas as transportation and telecommunications. It is known that an optimal routing policy does not necessarily correspond to a path...... route choice in STD networks, i.e. the problem of finding the set of efficient paths. Both expectation and min-max criteria are considered and a solution method based on the two-phase approach is devised. Experimental results reveal that the full set of efficient solutions can be determined on rather...
Generalized Coherent States of a Particle in a Time-Dependent Linear Potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krache, L.; Maamache, M.; Saadi, Y.; Beniaiche, A.
2009-01-01
We derive, with an invariant operator method and unitary transformation approach, that the Schrödinger equation with a time-dependent linear potential possesses an infinite string of shape-preseving wave-packet states |φα,λ(t)) having classical motion. The qualitative properties of the invariant eigenvalue spectrum (discrete or continuous) are described separately for the different values of the frequency ω of a harmonic oscillator. It is also shown that, for a discrete eigenvalue spectrum, the states |φα,n(t)) could be obtained from the coherent state |φα,0(t)). (general)
Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Maity, Chandan; Schamel, Hans
2011-04-01
Compressional waves in a magnetized plasma of arbitrary resistivity are treated with the Lagrangian fluid approach. An exact nonlinear solution with a nontrivial space and time dependence is obtained with boundary conditions as in Harris’ current sheet. The solution shows competition among hydrodynamic convection, magnetic field diffusion, and dispersion. This results in a collapse of density and the magnetic field in the absence of dispersion. The dispersion effects arrest the collapse of density but not of the magnetic field. A possible application is in the early stage of magnetic star formation.
Exact solution of the generalized time-dependent Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruver, J.L.; Aliaga, J.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Proto, A.N.
1993-04-01
A time-dependent generalization of the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian is studied using the maximum entropy formalism. The approach, related to a semi-Lie algebra, allows to find three different sets of physical relevant operators which describe the dynamics of the system for any temporal dependence. It is shown how the initial conditions of the operators are determined via the maximum entropy principle density operator, where the inclusion of the temperature turns the description of the problem into a thermodynamical one. The generalized time-independent Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian is exactly solved as a particular example. (author). 14 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rong Cheng
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The existence of multiple periodic solutions of the following differential delay equation (=−((− is established by applying variational approaches directly, where ∈ℝ, ∈(ℝ,ℝ and >0 is a given constant. This means that we do not need to use Kaplan and Yorke's reduction technique to reduce the existence problem of the above equation to an existence problem for a related coupled system. Such a reduction method introduced first by Kaplan and Yorke in (1974 is often employed in previous papers to study the existence of periodic solutions for the above equation and its similar ones by variational approaches.
Time-dependent variation of fiber Bragg grating reflectivity in PMMA-based polymer optical fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saez-Rodriguez, D.; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole
2015-01-01
In this Letter, we investigate the effects of viscoelasticity on both the strength and resonance wavelength of two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) inscribed in microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) made of undoped PMMA. Both FBGs were inscribed under a strain of 1% in order to increase...
Time-dependent spectral-feature variations of stars displaying the B[e] phenomenon
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kučerová, B.; Korčáková, D.; Polster, J.; Wolf, M.; Votruba, Viktor; Kubát, Jiří; Škoda, Petr; Šlechta, Miroslav; Křížek, M.
2013-01-01
Roč. 554, June (2013), A143/1-A143/26 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP205/09/P476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : individual star MWC 342 * emission line Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.
2008-01-01
Roč. 39, č. 1 (2008), s. 69-78 ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC aggregation * blood conductivity * low shear rate viscometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.814, year: 2008
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scherer, K.; Fahr, H.J.
1990-01-01
It is well known that the neutral component of the local interstellar medium (LISM) can effectively pass through the plasma interface ahead of the solar system and can penetrate deeply into the inner heliosphere. Here we present a newly-developed theoretical approach to describe the distribution function of LISM neutral hydrogen in the heliosphere, also taking into account time-dependent solar and interstellar boundary conditions. For this purpose we start from a Boltzmann-Vlasov equation, Fourier-transformed with respect to space and time coordinates, in connection with correspondingly transformed solar radiation forces and ionization rates, and then arrive at semi-analytic solutions for the transformed hydrogen velocity distribution function. As interstellar boundary conditions we allow for very general, non-Maxwellian and time-dependent distribution functions to account for the case that some LISM turbulence patterns or non-linear wave-like shock structures pass over the solar system. We consider this theoretical approach to be an ideal instrument for the synoptic interpretation of huge data samples on interplanetary Ly-α resonance glow intensities registered from different celestial directions over extended periods of time. In addition we feel that the theoretical approach presented here, when applied to interplanetary resonance glow data, may permit the detection of genuine fluctuations in the local interstellar medium. (author)
Time-dependent quantum fluid density functional theory of hydrogen ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
dependent density; density functional theory; quantum fluid dynamics. ... (HHG) is also examined. The present approach goes beyond the linear response formalism and, in principle, calculates the TD electron density to all orders of change.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Por, G.
1999-08-01
A program package was developed to estimate the time dependent auto-correlation function (ACF) from the time signals of soft X-ray records taken along the various lines-of-sights in JET-SHOTS, and also to estimate the time dependent Decay Ratio (DR) from that. On the basis of ACF the time dependent auto-power spectral density (APSD) was also calculated. The steps and objectives of this work were: eliminating the white detection noise, trends and slow variation from the time signals, since ordinary methods can give good estimate of the time dependent ACF and DR only for 'nearly' stationary signals, developing an automatic algorithm for finding the maxima and minima of ACF, since they are the basis for DR estimation, evaluating and testing different DR estimators for JET-SHOT, with the aim of finding parts of the signals, where the oscillating character is strong, estimating time dependent ACF and APSD that can follow the relatively fast variation in the time signal. The methods that we have developed for data processing of transient signals are: White detection noise removal and preparation for trend removal - weak components, white detection noise and high frequency components are filtered from the signal using the so-called soft-threshold wavelet filter. Removal of trends and slow variation - Three-point differentiation of the pre-filtered signal is used to remove trends and slow variation. Here we made use of the DERIV function of IDL program language. This leads to a filtered signal that has zero mean value in each time step. Calculation of the time dependent ACF - The signal treated by the two previous steps is used as the input. Calculated ACF value is added in each new time step, but the previously accumulated ACF value is multiplied by a weighting factor. Thus the new sample has 100% contribution, while the contributions from the previous samples are forgotten quickly. DR calculation - DR is a measure of the decay of oscillating ACF. This parameter was shown
Pernal, Katarzyna
2012-05-14
Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in the adiabatic formulation exhibits known failures when applied to predicting excitation energies. One of them is the lack of the doubly excited configurations. On the other hand, the time-dependent theory based on a one-electron reduced density matrix functional (time-dependent density matrix functional theory, TD-DMFT) has proven accurate in determining single and double excitations of H(2) molecule if the exact functional is employed in the adiabatic approximation. We propose a new approach for computing excited state energies that relies on functionals of electron density and one-electron reduced density matrix, where the latter is applied in the long-range region of electron-electron interactions. A similar approach has been recently successfully employed in predicting ground state potential energy curves of diatomic molecules even in the dissociation limit, where static correlation effects are dominating. In the paper, a time-dependent functional theory based on the range-separation of electronic interaction operator is rigorously formulated. To turn the approach into a practical scheme the adiabatic approximation is proposed for the short- and long-range components of the coupling matrix present in the linear response equations. In the end, the problem of finding excitation energies is turned into an eigenproblem for a symmetric matrix. Assignment of obtained excitations is discussed and it is shown how to identify double excitations from the analysis of approximate transition density matrix elements. The proposed method used with the short-range local density approximation (srLDA) and the long-range Buijse-Baerends density matrix functional (lrBB) is applied to H(2) molecule (at equilibrium geometry and in the dissociation limit) and to Be atom. The method accounts for double excitations in the investigated systems but, unfortunately, the accuracy of some of them is poor. The quality of the other
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Hakimhashemi
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We apply here a forecasting model to the Italian region for the spatio-temporal distribution of seismicity based on a smoothing Kernel function, Coulomb stress variations, and a rate-and-state friction law. We tested the feasibility of this approach, and analyzed the importance of introducing time-dependency in forecasting future events. The change in seismicity rate as a function of time was estimated by calculating the Coulomb stress change imparted by large earthquakes. We applied our approach to the region of Italy, and used all of the cataloged earthquakes that occurred up to 2006 to generate the reference seismicity rate. For calculation of the time-dependent seismicity rate changes, we estimated the rate-and-state stress transfer imparted by all of the ML≥4.0 earthquakes that occurred during 2007 and 2008. To validate the results, we first compared the reference seismicity rate with the distribution of ML≥1.8 earthquakes since 2007, using both a non-declustered and a declustered catalog. A positive correlation was found, and all of the forecast earthquakes had locations within 82% and 87% of the study area with the highest seismicity rate, respectively. Furthermore, 95% of the forecast earthquakes had locations within 27% and 47% of the study area with the highest seismicity rate, respectively. For the time-dependent seismicity rate changes, the number of events with locations in the regions with a seismicity rate increase was 11% more than in the regions with a seismicity rate decrease.
Software for rapid time dependent ChIP-sequencing analysis (TDCA).
Myschyshyn, Mike; Farren-Dai, Marco; Chuang, Tien-Jui; Vocadlo, David
2017-11-25
relevant data analysis, and the uncovering of variations in the time-dependent behavior of chromatin. TDCA automates the analysis of TC ChIP-seq experiments, permitting researchers to easily obtain raw and modeled data for specific loci or groups of loci with similar behavior while also enhancing consistency of data analysis of TC data within the genomics field.
A non-convex variational approach to photometric stereo under inaccurate lighting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quéau, Yvain; Wu, Tao; Lauze, Francois Bernard
2017-01-01
This paper tackles the photometric stereo problem in the presence of inaccurate lighting, obtained either by calibration or by an uncalibrated photometric stereo method. Based on a precise modeling of noise and outliers, a robust variational approach is introduced. It explicitly accounts for self...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staff, Jan E.; Niebergal, Brian P.; Ouyed, Rachid; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Cai, Kai
2010-01-01
We perform state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations of magnetized disk winds, carried out to simulation scales of 60 AU, in order to confront optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of protostellar jets. We 'observe' the optical forbidden line emission produced by shocks within our simulated jets and compare these with actual observations. Our simulations reproduce the rich structure of time-varying jets, including jet rotation far from the source, an inner (up to 400 km s -1 ) and outer (less than 100 km s -1 ) component of the jet, and jet widths of up to 20 AU in agreement with observed jets. These simulations when compared with the data are able to constrain disk wind models. In particular, models featuring a disk magnetic field with a modest radial spatial variation across the disk are favored.
Time-Dependent Behavior of Reinforced Polymer Concrete Columns under Eccentric Axial Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentino Paolo Berardi
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Polymer concretes (PCs represent a promising alternative to traditional cementitious materials in the field of new construction. In fact, PCs exhibit high compressive strength and ultimate compressive strain values, as well as good chemical resistance. Within the context of these benefits, this paper presents a study on the time-dependent behavior of polymer concrete columns reinforced with different bar types using a mechanical model recently developed by the authors. Balanced internal reinforcements are considered (i.e., two bars at both the top and bottom of the cross-section. The investigation highlights relevant stress and strain variations over time and, consequently, the emergence of a significant decrease in concrete’s stiffness and strength over time. Therefore, the results indicate that deferred effects due to viscous flow may significantly affect the reliability of reinforced polymer concrete elements over time.
Dynamical response of the Ising model to the time dependent magnetic field with white noise
Akıncı, Ümit
2018-03-01
The effect of the white noise in time dependent magnetic field on the dynamic behavior of the Ising model has been investigated within the effective field theory based on Glauber type of stochastic process. Discrete white noise has been chosen from both Gaussian and uniform probability distributions. Detailed investigation on probability distribution of dynamical order parameter results that, both type of noise distributions yield the same probability distribution related to the dynamical order parameter, namely Gaussian probability distribution. The variation of the parameters that describe the probability distribution of dynamical order parameter (mean value and standard deviation) with temperature and strength of the noise have been inspected. Also, it has been shown that, rising strength of the noise can induce dynamical phase transition in the system.
Andrade, Xavier; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Strubbe, David A; Oliveira, Micael J T; Nogueira, Fernando; Castro, Alberto; Muguerza, Javier; Arruabarrena, Agustin; Louie, Steven G; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Rubio, Angel; Marques, Miguel A L
2012-06-13
Octopus is a general-purpose density-functional theory (DFT) code, with a particular emphasis on the time-dependent version of DFT (TDDFT). In this paper we present the ongoing efforts to achieve the parallelization of octopus. We focus on the real-time variant of TDDFT, where the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are directly propagated in time. This approach has great potential for execution in massively parallel systems such as modern supercomputers with thousands of processors and graphics processing units (GPUs). For harvesting the potential of conventional supercomputers, the main strategy is a multi-level parallelization scheme that combines the inherent scalability of real-time TDDFT with a real-space grid domain-partitioning approach. A scalable Poisson solver is critical for the efficiency of this scheme. For GPUs, we show how using blocks of Kohn-Sham states provides the required level of data parallelism and that this strategy is also applicable for code optimization on standard processors. Our results show that real-time TDDFT, as implemented in octopus, can be the method of choice for studying the excited states of large molecular systems in modern parallel architectures.
Andrade, Xavier; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Strubbe, David A.; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Nogueira, Fernando; Castro, Alberto; Muguerza, Javier; Arruabarrena, Agustin; Louie, Steven G.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Rubio, Angel; Marques, Miguel A. L.
2012-06-01
Octopus is a general-purpose density-functional theory (DFT) code, with a particular emphasis on the time-dependent version of DFT (TDDFT). In this paper we present the ongoing efforts to achieve the parallelization of octopus. We focus on the real-time variant of TDDFT, where the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are directly propagated in time. This approach has great potential for execution in massively parallel systems such as modern supercomputers with thousands of processors and graphics processing units (GPUs). For harvesting the potential of conventional supercomputers, the main strategy is a multi-level parallelization scheme that combines the inherent scalability of real-time TDDFT with a real-space grid domain-partitioning approach. A scalable Poisson solver is critical for the efficiency of this scheme. For GPUs, we show how using blocks of Kohn-Sham states provides the required level of data parallelism and that this strategy is also applicable for code optimization on standard processors. Our results show that real-time TDDFT, as implemented in octopus, can be the method of choice for studying the excited states of large molecular systems in modern parallel architectures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrade, Xavier; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Rubio, Angel; Strubbe, David A; Louie, Steven G; Oliveira, Micael J T; Nogueira, Fernando; Castro, Alberto; Muguerza, Javier; Arruabarrena, Agustin; Marques, Miguel A L
2012-01-01
Octopus is a general-purpose density-functional theory (DFT) code, with a particular emphasis on the time-dependent version of DFT (TDDFT). In this paper we present the ongoing efforts to achieve the parallelization of octopus. We focus on the real-time variant of TDDFT, where the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are directly propagated in time. This approach has great potential for execution in massively parallel systems such as modern supercomputers with thousands of processors and graphics processing units (GPUs). For harvesting the potential of conventional supercomputers, the main strategy is a multi-level parallelization scheme that combines the inherent scalability of real-time TDDFT with a real-space grid domain-partitioning approach. A scalable Poisson solver is critical for the efficiency of this scheme. For GPUs, we show how using blocks of Kohn-Sham states provides the required level of data parallelism and that this strategy is also applicable for code optimization on standard processors. Our results show that real-time TDDFT, as implemented in octopus, can be the method of choice for studying the excited states of large molecular systems in modern parallel architectures. (topical review)
Time Dependence of Collision Probabilities During Satellite Conjunctions
Hall, Doyle T.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.
2017-01-01
The NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team has recently implemented updated software to calculate the probability of collision (P (sub c)) for Earth-orbiting satellites. The algorithm can employ complex dynamical models for orbital motion, and account for the effects of non-linear trajectories as well as both position and velocity uncertainties. This “3D P (sub c)” method entails computing a 3-dimensional numerical integral for each estimated probability. Our analysis indicates that the 3D method provides several new insights over the traditional “2D P (sub c)” method, even when approximating the orbital motion using the relatively simple Keplerian two-body dynamical model. First, the formulation provides the means to estimate variations in the time derivative of the collision probability, or the probability rate, R (sub c). For close-proximity satellites, such as those orbiting in formations or clusters, R (sub c) variations can show multiple peaks that repeat or blend with one another, providing insight into the ongoing temporal distribution of risk. For single, isolated conjunctions, R (sub c) analysis provides the means to identify and bound the times of peak collision risk. Additionally, analysis of multiple actual archived conjunctions demonstrates that the commonly used “2D P (sub c)” approximation can occasionally provide inaccurate estimates. These include cases in which the 2D method yields negligibly small probabilities (e.g., P (sub c)) is greater than 10 (sup -10)), but the 3D estimates are sufficiently large to prompt increased monitoring or collision mitigation (e.g., P (sub c) is greater than or equal to 10 (sup -5)). Finally, the archive analysis indicates that a relatively efficient calculation can be used to identify which conjunctions will have negligibly small probabilities. This small-P (sub c) screening test can significantly speed the overall risk analysis computation for large numbers of conjunctions.
Peresan, Antonella; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Romashkova, Leontina; Panza, Giuliano F.
2017-04-01
Predicting earthquakes and related ground shaking is widely recognized among the most challenging scientific problems, both for societal relevance and intrinsic complexity of the problem. The development of reliable forecasting tools requires their rigorous formalization and testing, first in retrospect, and then in an experimental real-time mode, which imply a careful application of statistics to data sets of limited size and different accuracy. Accordingly, the operational issues of prospective validation and use of time-dependent neo-deterministic seismic hazard scenarios are discussed, reviewing the results in their application in Italy and surroundings. Long-term practice and results obtained for the Italian territory in about two decades of rigorous prospective testing, support the feasibility of earthquake forecasting based on the analysis of seismicity patterns at the intermediate-term middle-range scale. Italy is the only country worldwide where two independent, globally tested, algorithms are simultaneously applied, namely CN and M8S, which permit to deal with multiple sets of seismic precursors to allow for a diagnosis of the intervals of time when a strong event is likely to occur inside a given region. Based on routinely updated space-time information provided by CN and M8S forecasts, an integrated procedure has been developed that allows for the definition of time-dependent seismic hazard scenarios, through the realistic modeling of ground motion by the neo-deterministic approach (NDSHA). This scenario-based methodology permits to construct, both at regional and local scale, scenarios of ground motion for the time interval when a strong event is likely to occur within the alerted areas. CN and M8S predictions, as well as the related time-dependent ground motion scenarios associated with the alarmed areas, are routinely updated since 2006. The issues and results from real-time testing of the integrated NDSHA scenarios are illustrated, with special
Variational approach to direct and inverse problems of atmospheric pollution studies
Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey
2016-04-01
We present the development of a variational approach for solving interrelated problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry concerning air pollution transport and transformations. The proposed approach allows us to carry out complex studies of different-scale physical and chemical processes using the methods of direct and inverse modeling [1-3]. We formulate the problems of risk/vulnerability and uncertainty assessment, sensitivity studies, variational data assimilation procedures [4], etc. A computational technology of constructing consistent mathematical models and methods of their numerical implementation is based on the variational principle in the weak constraint formulation specifically designed to account for uncertainties in models and observations. Algorithms for direct and inverse modeling are designed with the use of global and local adjoint problems. Implementing the idea of adjoint integrating factors provides unconditionally monotone and stable discrete-analytic approximations for convection-diffusion-reaction problems [5,6]. The general framework is applied to the direct and inverse problems for the models of transport and transformation of pollutants in Siberian and Arctic regions. The work has been partially supported by the RFBR grant 14-01-00125 and RAS Presidium Program I.33P. References: 1. V. Penenko, A.Baklanov, E. Tsvetova and A. Mahura . Direct and inverse problems in a variational concept of environmental modeling //Pure and Applied Geoph.(2012) v.169: 447-465. 2. V. V. Penenko, E. A. Tsvetova, and A. V. Penenko Development of variational approach for direct and inverse problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 311-319, DOI: 10.1134/S0001433815030093. 3. V.V. Penenko, E.A. Tsvetova, A.V. Penenko. Methods based on the joint use of models and observational data in the framework of variational approach to forecasting weather and atmospheric composition
On the time-dependent behavior of FGM plates
Altenbach, Holm; Eremeyev, Victor,
2009-01-01
International audience; A non-classical plate theory based on the direct approach is introduced and applied to plates composed of functionally graded materials (FGM). The governing two-dimensional equations are formulated for a deformable surface, the viscoelastic stiffness parameters are identified assuming linear-viscoelastic material behavior. In addition, the material properties are changing in the thickness direction. Solving some problems of the global structural analysis it can be show...
Time-dependent density functional theory for multi-component systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiecheng Li; Peiqing Tong
1985-10-01
The Runge-Gross version of Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham's density functional theory is generalized to multi-component systems, both for arbitrary time-dependent pure states and for arbitrary time-dependent ensembles. (author)
Classification of transient behaviours in a time-dependent toggle switch model.
Verd, Berta; Crombach, Anton; Jaeger, Johannes
2014-04-04
Waddington's epigenetic landscape is an intuitive metaphor for the developmental and evolutionary potential of biological regulatory processes. It emphasises time-dependence and transient behaviour. Nowadays, we can derive this landscape by modelling a specific regulatory network as a dynamical system and calculating its so-called potential surface. In this sense, potential surfaces are the mathematical equivalent of the Waddingtonian landscape metaphor. In order to fully capture the time-dependent (non-autonomous) transient behaviour of biological processes, we must be able to characterise potential landscapes and how they change over time. However, currently available mathematical tools focus on the asymptotic (steady-state) behaviour of autonomous dynamical systems, which restricts how biological systems are studied. We present a pragmatic first step towards a methodology for dealing with transient behaviours in non-autonomous systems. We propose a classification scheme for different kinds of such dynamics based on the simulation of a simple genetic toggle-switch model with time-variable parameters. For this low-dimensional system, we can calculate and explicitly visualise numerical approximations to the potential landscape. Focussing on transient dynamics in non-autonomous systems reveals a range of interesting and biologically relevant behaviours that would be missed in steady-state analyses of autonomous systems. Our simulation-based approach allows us to identify four qualitatively different kinds of dynamics: transitions, pursuits, and two kinds of captures. We describe these in detail, and illustrate the usefulness of our classification scheme by providing a number of examples that demonstrate how it can be employed to gain specific mechanistic insights into the dynamics of gene regulation. The practical aim of our proposed classification scheme is to make the analysis of explicitly time-dependent transient behaviour tractable, and to encourage the wider
Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime.
Escartín, J M; Vincendon, M; Romaniello, P; Dinh, P M; Reinhard, P-G; Suraud, E
2015-02-28
Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.
Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escartín, J. M. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, UMR5152, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Vincendon, M.; Dinh, P. M.; Suraud, E. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, UMR5152, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Romaniello, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, IRSAMC, Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Reinhard, P.-G. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Erlangen, Staudtstraße 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2015-02-28
Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na{sub 2}. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Toledo Sesma
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We construct an effective four-dimensional model by compactifying a ten-dimensional theory of gravity coupled with a real scalar dilaton field on a time-dependent torus. This approach is applied to anisotropic cosmological Bianchi type I model for which we study the classical coupling of the anisotropic scale factors with the two real scalar moduli produced by the compactification process. Under this approach, we present an isotropization mechanism for the Bianchi I cosmological model through the analysis of the ratio between the anisotropic parameters and the volume of the Universe which in general keeps constant or runs into zero for late times. We also find that the presence of extra dimensions in this model can accelerate the isotropization process depending on the momenta moduli values. Finally, we present some solutions to the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW equation in the context of standard quantum cosmology.
The time-dependent simplified P2 equations: Asymptotic analyses and numerical experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, U.; Miller, W.F. Jr.
1998-01-01
Using an asymptotic expansion, the authors found that the modified time-dependent simplified P 2 (SP 2 ) equations are robust, high-order, asymptotic approximations to the time-dependent transport equation in a physical regime in which the conventional time-dependent diffusion equation is the leading-order approximation. Using diffusion limit analysis, they also asymptotically compared three competitive time-dependent equations (the telegrapher's equation, the time-dependent SP 2 equations, and the time-dependent simplified even-parity equation). As a result, they found that the time-dependent SP 2 equations contain higher-order asymptotic approximations to the time-dependent transport equation than the other competitive equations. The numerical results confirm that, in the vast majority of cases, the time-dependent SP 2 solutions are significantly more accurate than the time-dependent diffusion and the telegrapher's solutions. They have also shown that the time-dependent SP 2 equations have excellent characteristics such as rotational invariance (which means no ray effect), good diffusion limit behavior, guaranteed positivity in diffusive regimes, and significant accuracy, even in deep-penetration problems. Through computer-running-time tests, they have shown that the time-dependent SP 2 equations can be solved with significantly less computational effort than the conventionally used, time-dependent S N equations (for N > 2) and almost as fast as the time-dependent diffusion equation. From all these results, they conclude that the time-dependent SP 2 equations should be considered as an important competitor for an improved approximately transport equations solver. Such computationally efficient time-dependent transport models are important for problems requiring enhanced computational efficiency, such as neutronics/fluid-dynamics coupled problems that arise in the analyses of hypothetical nuclear reactor accidents
Time dependent optimal switching controls in online selling models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cohen, Albert [MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
2010-01-01
We present a method to incorporate dishonesty in online selling via a stochastic optimal control problem. In our framework, the seller wishes to maximize her average wealth level W at a fixed time T of her choosing. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann (HJB) equation is analyzed for a basic case. For more general models, the admissible control set is restricted to a jump process that switches between extreme values. We propose a new approach, where the optimal control problem is reduced to a multivariable optimization problem.
3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of ground deformation at Campi Flegrei caldera
Castaldo, R.; Tizzani, P.; Manconi, A.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, S.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.
2012-04-01
In active volcanic areas deformation signals are generally characterized by non-linear spatial and temporal variations [Tizzani P. et al., 2007]. This behaviour has been revealed in the last two decades by the so-called advanced DInSAR processing algorithms, developed to analyze surface deformation phenomena [Berardino P. et al., 2002; Ferretti C. et al., 2001]. Notwithstanding, most of the inverse modelling attempts to characterize the evolution of the volcanic sources are based on the assumption that the Earth's crust behaves as a homogeneous linear elastic material. However, the behaviour of the upper lithosphere in thermally anomalous regions (as active volcanoes are) might be well described as a non-Newtonian fluid, where some of the material proprieties of the rocks (i.e., apparent viscosities) can change over time [Pinkerton H. et al., 1995]. In this context, we considered the thermal proprieties and mechanical heterogeneities of the upper crust in order to develop a new 3D time dependent thermo-fluid dynamic model of Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera, Southern Italy. More specifically, according to Tizzani P. et al. (2010), we integrated in a FEM environment geophysical information (gravimetric, seismic, and borehole data) available for the considered area and performed two FEM optimization procedures to constrain the 3D distribution of unknown physical parameters (temperature and viscosity distributions) that might help explaining the data observed at surface (geothermal wells and DInSAR measurements). First, we searched for the heat production, the volume source distribution and surface emissivity parameters providing the best-fit of the geothermal profiles data measured at six boreholes [Agip ESGE, 1986], by solving the Fourier heat equation over time (about 40 kys). The 3D thermal field resulting from this optimization was used to calculate the 3D brittle-ductile transition. This analysis revealed the presence of a ductile region, located beneath the centre of
Exact solution of a quantum forced time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Yeon, Kyu Hwang; George, Thomas F.; Um, Chung IN
1992-01-01
The Schrodinger equation is used to exactly evaluate the propagator, wave function, energy expectation values, uncertainty values, and coherent state for a harmonic oscillator with a time dependent frequency and an external driving time dependent force. These quantities represent the solution of the classical equation of motion for the time dependent harmonic oscillator.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersen, Claudio Z. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico
2014-12-15
In the present work we solve in analytical representation the three dimensional neutron kinetic diffusion problem in rectangular Cartesian geometry for homogeneous and bounded domains for any number of energy groups and precursor concentrations. The solution in analytical representation is constructed using a hierarchical procedure, i.e. the original problem is reduced to a problem previously solved by the authors making use of a combination of the spectral method and a recursive decomposition approach. Time dependent absorption cross sections of the thermal energy group are considered with step, ramp and Chebyshev polynomial variations. For these three cases, we present numerical results and discuss convergence properties and compare our results to those available in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appel, H.
2007-05-01
In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f xc from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appel, H.
2007-05-15
In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f{sub xc} from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demetrescu, Crisan; Wilhelm, H.; Tumanian, M.
2007-01-01
The time-dependent heat budget, thermal evolution and rheology of the lithosphere in the last 13Myr, along a 120 km long profile in the foreland of the Eastern Carpathians bend is presented. The study area, a complex tectonic environment in the vicinity of the wellknown intermediate-depth seism...... The time-dependent heat budget, thermal evolution and rheology of the lithosphere in the last 13Myr, along a 120 km long profile in the foreland of the Eastern Carpathians bend is presented. The study area, a complex tectonic environment in the vicinity of the wellknown intermediate...... and geological information on structure, lithology and time evolution of the sedimentary pile have been used to model the thermal evolution by means of a 2-D finite element model which includes sedimentation history, sediment compaction, lateral and vertical variation of thermal properties of sediments...... and consolidated crust. Modelling results have been compared to measured temperatures, corrected for palaeoclimate effects, in a trial and error iterative approach. Sedimentation, palaeoclimate, undercompaction and heat refraction effects on one hand, and the heat generated in the upper crust, on the other...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faulin, Javier [Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Los Magnolios Building, First Floor, Campus Arrosadia, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Navarre (Spain)], E-mail: javier.faulin@unavarra.es; Juan, Angel A. [Department of Applied Mathematics I, Av. Doctor Maranon 44-50, Technical University of Catalonia, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: angel.alejandro.juan@upc.edu; Serrat, Carles [Department of Applied Mathematics I, Av. Doctor Maranon 44-50, Technical University of Catalonia, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: carles.serrat@upc.edu; Bargueno, Vicente [Department of Applied Mathematics I, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, 28080 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: vbargueno@ind.uned.es
2008-11-15
In this paper, we propose the use of discrete-event simulation (DES) as an efficient methodology to obtain estimates of both survival and availability functions in time-dependent real systems-such as telecommunication networks or distributed computer systems. We discuss the use of DES in reliability and availability studies, not only as an alternative to the use of analytical and probabilistic methods, but also as a complementary way to: (i) achieve a better understanding of the system internal behavior and (ii) find out the relevance of each component under reliability/availability considerations. Specifically, this paper describes a general methodology and two DES algorithms, called SAEDES, which can be used to analyze a wide range of time-dependent complex systems, including those presenting multiple states, dependencies among failure/repair times or non-perfect maintenance policies. These algorithms can provide valuable information, specially during the design stages, where different scenarios can be compared in order to select a system design offering adequate reliability and availability levels. Two case studies are discussed, using a C/C++ implementation of the SAEDES algorithms, to show some potential applications of our approach.
A GIS-based time-dependent seismic source modeling of Northern Iran
Hashemi, Mahdi; Alesheikh, Ali Asghar; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza
2017-01-01
The first step in any seismic hazard study is the definition of seismogenic sources and the estimation of magnitude-frequency relationships for each source. There is as yet no standard methodology for source modeling and many researchers have worked on this topic. This study is an effort to define linear and area seismic sources for Northern Iran. The linear or fault sources are developed based on tectonic features and characteristic earthquakes while the area sources are developed based on spatial distribution of small to moderate earthquakes. Time-dependent recurrence relationships are developed for fault sources using renewal approach while time-independent frequency-magnitude relationships are proposed for area sources based on Poisson process. GIS functionalities are used in this study to introduce and incorporate spatial-temporal and geostatistical indices in delineating area seismic sources. The proposed methodology is used to model seismic sources for an area of about 500 by 400 square kilometers around Tehran. Previous researches and reports are studied to compile an earthquake/fault catalog that is as complete as possible. All events are transformed to uniform magnitude scale; duplicate events and dependent shocks are removed. Completeness and time distribution of the compiled catalog is taken into account. The proposed area and linear seismic sources in conjunction with defined recurrence relationships can be used to develop time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Northern Iran.
Time dependent fracture growth in intact crystalline rock: new laboratory procedures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Backers, T.; Stephansson, O.
2008-01-01
Short term laboratory tests to determine the strength of rock material are commonly used to assess stability of rock excavations. However, loading the rock below its short term strength may lead to delayed failure due to slow stable fracture growth. This time-dependent phenomenon is called subcritical fracture growth. A fracture mechanics based approach is applied in this study to determine the parameters describing subcritical fracture growth under Mode Ⅰ (tensile) and Mode Ⅱ (in-plane shear) loading in terms of the stress intensity factors of saturated granodiorite from the) Aespoe HRL. A statistical method is applied to data from three-point bending (tension) and Punch-Through Shear with Confining Pressure, PTS/CP, (shear) experiments. One population of each set-up was subjected to rapid loading tests yielding a strength probability distribution. A second population was loaded up to a certain fraction of the statistical percentage for failure and the time-to-failure was determined. From these two populations the subcritical fracture growth parameters were determined successfully. Earlier studies demonstrated subcritical fracture growth under Mode I loading conditions, but this study shows that under a Mode Ⅱ load time-dependent fracture growth exists as well. (authors)
A hybrid metaheuristic for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with hard time windows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Rincon-Garcia
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This article paper presents a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to solve the time-dependent vehicle routing problem with hard time windows. Time-dependent travel times are influenced by different congestion levels experienced throughout the day. Vehicle scheduling without consideration of congestion might lead to underestimation of travel times and consequently missed deliveries. The algorithm presented in this paper makes use of Large Neighbourhood Search approaches and Variable Neighbourhood Search techniques to guide the search. A first stage is specifically designed to reduce the number of vehicles required in a search space by the reduction of penalties generated by time-window violations with Large Neighbourhood Search procedures. A second stage minimises the travel distance and travel time in an ‘always feasible’ search space. Comparison of results with available test instances shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of obtaining a reduction in the number of vehicles (4.15%, travel distance (10.88% and travel time (12.00% compared to previous implementations in reasonable time.
Electron transfer with TD-Split, a linear response time-dependent method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartell, Lizette A.; Reslan, Randa; Wall, Michael R.; Kennedy, Robert D.; Neuhauser, Daniel
2011-01-01
Graphical abstract: A simple method, time-dependent split (TD-Split) is developed for electron transfer through a TD evaluation of the lowest excitation energy from the ground state of the combined charged system. As an example, we study transfer between substituted fullerenes, primarily PCBM. Numerical linearization reduces the number of required iterations, and trends similar to experiment are found. Highlights: ► Electron transmission from charged-dimer transition-state excitation. ► Starting point: extended dimer charged (above-gap) homo, which is then excited. ► Excitation by real-time and linear response TD propagation. ► Analogous to two level system, but with full polarization included. ► TD-Split much larger than from static LUMO + 1–LUMO splitting for fullerene dimers. - Abstract: We present a simple method, time-dependent split (TD-Split) for A → B electron transfer by a TD evaluation of the lowest excitation energy from the ground state of the combined (AB) − system. As an example, we study transfer between substituted fullerenes, primarily PCBM. Electron transfer in such fullerene systems is important as it is often the bottleneck in organic solar cells. The TD-Split method is described in detail, including numerical linearization which reduces the number of required iterations, and comparison to other possible approaches. We also compare to other molecules such as C 60 Me 5 H, and find similar trends as experiment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazansky, A.K.; Selles, P.; Malegat, L.
2003-01-01
The hyperspherical time-dependent method with semiclassical outgoing waves for study of double photoionization of helium is presented. It is closely related to the hyperspherical R-matrix method with semiclassical outgoing waves [Phys. Rev. A 65, 032711 (2002)]: both split configuration space into two regions to solve the stationary inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation associated with the one-photon ionization problem, and both apply the same treatment to the outer region. However, the two methods differ radically in their treatments of the problem in the inner region: the most recent one applies a time-dependent approach for calculating the stationary wave function, while the previous one uses a R-matrix treatment. The excellent agreement observed between the triple differential cross sections obtained from these two basically different methods provides very strong support for both of them. Importantly, the very different numerical structures of both methods might make the most recent one a better candidate for investigating the near-threshold region
Time-dependent resilience assessment and improvement of urban infrastructure systems.
Ouyang, Min; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo
2012-09-01
This paper introduces an approach to assess and improve the time-dependent resilience of urban infrastructure systems, where resilience is defined as the systems' ability to resist various possible hazards, absorb the initial damage from hazards, and recover to normal operation one or multiple times during a time period T. For different values of T and its position relative to current time, there are three forms of resilience: previous resilience, current potential resilience, and future potential resilience. This paper mainly discusses the third form that takes into account the systems' future evolving processes. Taking the power transmission grid in Harris County, Texas, USA as an example, the time-dependent features of resilience and the effectiveness of some resilience-inspired strategies, including enhancement of situational awareness, management of consumer demand, and integration of distributed generators, are all simulated and discussed. Results show a nonlinear nature of resilience as a function of T, which may exhibit a transition from an increasing function to a decreasing function at either a threshold of post-blackout improvement rate, a threshold of load profile with consumer demand management, or a threshold number of integrated distributed generators. These results are further confirmed by studying a typical benchmark system such as the IEEE RTS-96. Such common trends indicate that some resilience strategies may enhance infrastructure system resilience in the short term, but if not managed well, they may compromise practical utility system resilience in the long run.
Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and its application to Hualien City, Taiwan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.-H. Chan
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Here, we propose a time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and apply it to Hualien City, Taiwan. A declustering catalog from 1940 to 2005 was used to build up a long-term seismicity rate model using a smoothing Kernel function. We also evaluated short-term seismicity rate perturbations according to the rate-and-state friction model, and the Coulomb stress changes imparted by earthquakes from 2006 to 2010. We assessed both long-term and short-term probabilistic seismic hazards by considering ground motion prediction equations for crustal and subduction earthquakes. The long-term seismic hazard in Hualien City gave a PGA (peak ground acceleration of 0.46 g for the 2.1‰ annual exceedance probability. The result is similar to the levels determined in previous studies. Seismic hazards were significantly elevated following the 2007 ML =5.8 earthquake that occurred approximately 10 km from Hualien City. This work presents an assessment of a suitable mechanism for time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard determinations using an updated earthquake catalog. Using minor model assumptions, our approach provides a suitable basis for rapid re-evaluations and will benefit decision-makers and public officials regarding seismic hazard mitigation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengpeng Jiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Time-dependent turning movement flows are very important input data for intelligent transportation systems but are impossible to be detected directly through current traffic surveillance systems. Existing estimation models have proved to be not accurate and reliable enough during all intervals. An improved way to address this problem is to develop a combined model framework that can integrate multiple submodels running simultaneously. This paper first presents a back propagation neural network model to estimate dynamic turning movements, as well as the self-adaptive learning rate approach and the gradient descent with momentum method for solving. Second, this paper develops an efficient Kalman filtering model and designs a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. Based on the Bayesian method using both historical data and currently estimated results for error calibration, this paper further integrates above two submodels into a Bayesian combined model framework and proposes a corresponding algorithm. A field survey is implemented at an intersection in Beijing city to collect both time series of link counts and actual time-dependent turning movement flows, including historical and present data. The reported estimation results show that the Bayesian combined model is much more accurate and stable than other models.
Improving the variational path integral approach to the quantum double-well potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao Jingdong; Wang Hongyu
2002-01-01
An improved variational path integral approach is developed and applied to the quantum double-well potential, in which part of the quartic term of the potential is included in the trial action. The expression of the effective classical potential (ECP) under a non-Gaussian expectation is obtained. Here the frequency and fourth-order derivative of the potential are treated as two variational parameters, determined by the minimization of the ECP at each point. We calculate the ECP, the free energy and the level splitting of a symmetrical double-well potential. It is shown that the present results are better than those of the Feynman-Kleinert Gaussian variational method. (author)
Attainable conditions and exact invariant for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guasti, Manuel Fernandez [Lab. de Optica Cuantica, Dep. de Fisica, Universidad A. Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Mexico DF, Ap. Post. 55-534 (Mexico)
2006-09-22
The time-dependent oscillator equation is solved numerically for various trajectories in amplitude and phase variables. The solutions exhibit a finite time-dependent parameter whenever the squared amplitude times the derivative of the phase is invariant. If the invariant relationship does not hold, the time-dependent parameter has divergent singularities. These observations lead to the proposition that the harmonic oscillator equation with finite time-dependent parameter must have amplitude and phase solutions fulfilling the invariant relationship. Since the time-dependent parameter or the potential must be finite for any real oscillator implementation, the invariant must hold for any such physically realizable system.
Time dependencies in the occurrences of epileptic seizures.
Iasemidis, L D; Olson, L D; Savit, R S; Sackellares, J C
1994-01-01
A new method of analysis, developed within the framework of nonlinear dynamics, is applied to patient recorded time series of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. These data exhibit broad band spectra and generally have no obvious structure. The goal is to detect hidden internal dependencies in the data without making any restrictive assumptions, such as linearity, about the structure of the underlying system. The basis of our approach is a conditional probabilistic analysis in a phase space reconstructed from the original data. The data, recorded from patients with intractable epilepsy over a period of 1-3 years, consist of the times of occurrences of hundreds of partial complex seizures. Although the epileptic events appear to occur independently, we show that the epileptic process is not consistent with the rules of a homogeneous Poisson process or generally with a random (IID) process. More specifically, our analysis reveals dependencies of the occurrence of seizures on the occurrence of preceding seizures. These dependencies can be detected in the interseizure interval data sets as well as in the rate of seizures per time period. We modeled patient's inaccuracy in recording seizure events by the addition of uniform white noise and found that the detected dependencies are persistent after addition of noise with standard deviation as great as 1/3 of the standard deviation of the original data set. A linear autoregressive analysis fails to capture these dependencies or produces spurious ones in most of the cases.
Lalonde, Trent L; Wilson, Jeffrey R; Yin, Jianqiong
2014-11-30
When analyzing longitudinal data, it is essential to account both for the correlation inherent from the repeated measures of the responses as well as the correlation realized on account of the feedback created between the responses at a particular time and the predictors at other times. As such one can analyze these data using generalized estimating equation with the independent working correlation. However, because it is essential to include all the appropriate moment conditions as you solve for the regression coefficients, we explore an alternative approach using a generalized method of moments for estimating the coefficients in such data. We develop an approach that makes use of all the valid moment conditions necessary with each time-dependent and time-independent covariate. This approach does not assume that feedback is always present over time, or if present occur at the same degree. Further, we make use of continuously updating generalized method of moments in obtaining estimates. We fit the generalized method of moments logistic regression model with time-dependent covariates using SAS PROC IML and also in R. We used p-values adjusted for multiple correlated tests to determine the appropriate moment conditions for determining the regression coefficients. We examined two datasets for illustrative purposes. We looked at re-hospitalization taken from a Medicare database. We also revisited data regarding the relationship between the body mass index and future morbidity among children in the Philippines. We conducted a simulated study to compare the performances of extended classifications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hellsten, Erik; Chu, Scally; Crump, R Trafford; Yu, Kevin; Sutherland, Jason M
2016-03-01
Develop pricing models for bundled payments that draw inputs from clinician-defined best practice standards and benchmarks set from regional variations in utilization. Health care utilization and claims data for a cohort of incident Ontario ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke episodes. Episodes of care are created by linking incident stroke hospitalizations with subsequent health service utilization across multiple datasets. Costs are estimated for episodes of care and constituent service components using setting-specific case mix methodologies and provincial fee schedules. Costs are estimated for five areas of potentially avoidable utilization, derived from best practice standards set by an expert panel of stroke clinicians. Alternative approaches for setting normative prices for stroke episodes are developed using measures of potentially avoidable utilization and benchmarks established by the best performing regions. There are wide regional variations in the utilization of different health services within episodes of stroke care. Reconciling the best practice standards with regional utilization identifies significant amounts of potentially avoidable utilization. Normative pricing models for stroke episodes result in increasingly aggressive redistributions of funding. Bundled payment pilots to date have been based on the costs of historical service patterns, which effectively 'bake in' unwarranted and inefficient variations in utilization. This study demonstrates the feasibility of novel clinically informed episode pricing approaches that leverage these variations to target reductions in potentially avoidable utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Bayesian Approach to Multistage Fitting of the Variation of the Skeletal Age Features
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Hua
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate assessment of skeletal maturity is important clinically. Skeletal age assessment is usually based on features encoded in ossification centers. Therefore, it is critical to design a mechanism to capture as much as possible characteristics of features. We have observed that given a feature, there exist stages of the skeletal age such that the variation pattern of the feature differs in these stages. Based on this observation, we propose a Bayesian cut fitting to describe features in response to the skeletal age. With our approach, appropriate positions for stage separation are determined automatically by a Bayesian approach, and a model is used to fit the variation of a feature within each stage. Our experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the traditional fitting using only one line or one curve not only in the efficiency and accuracy of fitting but also in global and local feature characterization.
Time-dependent evolution of strand transfer length in pretensioned prestressed concrete members
Caro, L. A.; Martí-Vargas, J. R.; Serna, P.
2013-11-01
For design purposes, it is generally considered that prestressing strand transfer length does not change with time. However, some experimental studies on the effect of time on transfer lengths show contradictory results. In this paper, an experimental research to study transfer length changes over time is presented. A test procedure based on the ECADA testing technique to measure prestressing strand force variation over time in pretensioned prestressed concrete specimens has been set up. With this test method, an experimental program that varies concrete strength, specimen cross section, age of release, prestress transfer method, and embedment length has been carried out. Both the initial and long-term transfer lengths of 13-mm prestressing steel strands have been measured. The test results show that transfer length variation exists for some prestressing load conditions, resulting in increased transfer length over time. The applied test method based on prestressing strand force measurements has shown more reliable results than procedures based on measuring free end slips and longitudinal strains of concrete. An additional factor for transfer length models is proposed in order to include the time-dependent evolution of strand transfer length in pretensioned prestressed concrete members.
Light rays in static spacetimes with critical asymptotic behavior: A variational approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeria Luisi
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Let $mathcal{M}=mathcal{M}_{0}imes mathbb{R}$ be a Lorentzian manifold equipped with the static metric $langle cdot ,cdot angle _{z}=langle cdot ,cdot angle -eta (xdt^{2}$. The aim of this paper is investigating the existence of lightlike geodesics joining a point $z_{0}=(x_{0},t_{0}$ to a line $gamma ={ x_{1}} imes mathbb{R}$ when coefficient $eta $ has a quadratic asymptotic behavior by means of a variational approach.
Interpretation of O K-edge EELS in zircon using a structural variation approach.
Jiang, Nan; Spence, John C H
2009-12-01
This work describes an approach to interpret the near-edge fine structure of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) of O K-edge in zircon using a structural variation method. The positions and intensities of several peaks in the O K-edge EELS spectrum are assigned to specific structural parameters. It suggests that the near-edge structures in EELS can be used to measure atomic structure changes.
Junginger, Andrej; Duvenbeck, Lennart; Feldmaier, Matthias; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2017-08-01
In chemical or physical reaction dynamics, it is essential to distinguish precisely between reactants and products for all times. This task is especially demanding in time-dependent or driven systems because therein the dividing surface (DS) between these states often exhibits a nontrivial time-dependence. The so-called transition state (TS) trajectory has been seen to define a DS which is free of recrossings in a large number of one-dimensional reactions across time-dependent barriers and thus, allows one to determine exact reaction rates. A fundamental challenge to applying this method is the construction of the TS trajectory itself. The minimization of Lagrangian descriptors (LDs) provides a general and powerful scheme to obtain that trajectory even when perturbation theory fails. Both approaches encounter possible breakdowns when the overall potential is bounded, admitting the possibility of returns to the barrier long after the trajectories have reached the product or reactant wells. Such global dynamics cannot be captured by perturbation theory. Meanwhile, in the LD-DS approach, it leads to the emergence of additional local minima which make it difficult to extract the optimal branch associated with the desired TS trajectory. In this work, we illustrate this behavior for a time-dependent double-well potential revealing a self-similar structure of the LD, and we demonstrate how the reflections and side-minima can be addressed by an appropriate modification of the LD associated with the direct rate across the barrier.
Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion
Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.
1993-01-01
The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.
Understanding the PxS Aspect of Within-Person Variation: A Variance Partitioning Approach
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Brian eLakey
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article reviews a variance partitioning approach to within-person variation based on Generalizability (G Theory and the Social Relations Model (SRM. The approach conceptualizes an important part of within-person variation as Person x Situation (PxS interactions: differences among persons in their profiles of responses across the same situations. The approach provided the first quantitative method for capturing within-person variation and demonstrated very large PxS effects for a wide range of constructs. These include anxiety, five-factor personality traits, perceived social support, leadership, and task performance. Although PxS effects are commonly very large, conceptual and analytic obstacles have thwarted consistent progress. For example, how does one develop a psychological, versus purely statistical, understanding of PxS effects? How does one forecast future behavior when the criterion is a PxS effect? How can understanding PxS effects contribute to psychological theory? This review describes potential solutions to these and other problems developed in the course of conducting research on the PxS aspect of social support. Additional problems that need resolution are identified.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, A.B.; Riley, M.E.
1997-06-01
The authors have found that the conventional exponentiated split operator procedure is subject to difficulties in energy conservation when solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for Coulombic systems. By rearranging the kinetic and potential energy terms in the temporal propagator of the finite difference equations, one can find a propagation algorithm for three dimensions that looks much like the Crank-Nicholson and alternating direction implicit methods for one- and two-space-dimensional partial differential equations. They report comparisons of this novel implicit split operator procedure with the conventional exponentiated split operator procedure on hydrogen atom solutions. The results look promising for a purely numerical approach to certain electron quantum mechanical problems
Xi, Zhankun; Khare, Swanand; Cheung, Aaron; Huang, Biao; Pan, Tianhong; Zhang, Weiping; Ibrahim, Fadi; Jin, Can; Gabos, Stephan
2014-04-01
In this paper, we present a new statistical pattern recognition method for classifying cytotoxic cellular responses to toxic agents. The advantage of the proposed method is to quickly assess the toxicity level of an unclassified toxic agent on human health by bringing cytotoxic cellular responses with similar patterns (mode of action, MoOA) into the same class. The proposed method is a model-based hierarchical classification approach incorporating principal component analysis (PCA) and functional data analysis (FDA). The cytotoxic cell responses are represented by multi-concentration time-dependent cellular response profiles (TCRPs) which are dynamically recorded by using the xCELLigence real-time cell analysis high-throughput (RTCA HT) system. The classification results obtained using our algorithm show satisfactory discrimination and are validated using biological facts by examining common chemical mechanisms of actions with treatment on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Jiayu; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H.; Krems, Roman V.
2018-04-01
Because the de Broglie wavelength of ultracold molecules is very large, the cross sections for collisions of molecules at ultracold temperatures are always computed by the time-independent quantum scattering approach. Here, we report the first accurate time-dependent wave packet dynamics calculation for reactive scattering of ultracold molecules. Wave packet dynamics calculations can be applied to molecular systems with more dimensions and provide real-time information on the process of bond rearrangement and/or energy exchange in molecular collisions. Our work thus makes possible the extension of rigorous quantum calculations of ultracold reaction properties to polyatomic molecules and adds a new powerful tool for the study of ultracold chemistry.
Vranckx, S.; Loreau, J.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.; Vaeck, N.
2013-08-01
We illustrate some of the difficulties that may be encountered when computing photodissociation and radiative association cross sections from the same time-dependent approach based on wavepacket propagation. The total and partial photodissociation cross sections from the 33 vibrational levels of the b 3Σ+ state of HeH+ towards the nine other 3Σ+ and 6 3Π n = 2, 3 higher lying electronic states are calculated, using the autocorrelation method introduced by Heller (1978 J. Chem. Phys. 68 3891) and the method based on the asymptotic behaviour of wavepackets introduced by Balint-Kurti et al (1990 J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 86 1741). The corresponding radiative association cross sections are extracted from the same calculations, and the photodissociation and radiative association rate constants are determined.
Time Dependent Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing Problem for Catering Service Delivery Problem
Azis, Zainal; Mawengkang, Herman
2017-09-01
The heterogeneous vehicle routing problem (HVRP) is a variant of vehicle routing problem (VRP) which describes various types of vehicles with different capacity to serve a set of customers with known geographical locations. This paper considers the optimal service deliveries of meals of a catering company located in Medan City, Indonesia. Due to the road condition as well as traffic, it is necessary for the company to use different type of vehicle to fulfill customers demand in time. The HVRP incorporates time dependency of travel times on the particular time of the day. The objective is to minimize the sum of the costs of travelling and elapsed time over the planning horizon. The problem can be modeled as a linear mixed integer program and we address a feasible neighbourhood search approach to solve the problem.
Bayesian techniques for fatigue life prediction and for inference in linear time dependent PDEs
Scavino, Marco
2016-01-08
In this talk we introduce first the main characteristics of a systematic statistical approach to model calibration, model selection and model ranking when stress-life data are drawn from a collection of records of fatigue experiments. Focusing on Bayesian prediction assessment, we consider fatigue-limit models and random fatigue-limit models under different a priori assumptions. In the second part of the talk, we present a hierarchical Bayesian technique for the inference of the coefficients of time dependent linear PDEs, under the assumption that noisy measurements are available in both the interior of a domain of interest and from boundary conditions. We present a computational technique based on the marginalization of the contribution of the boundary parameters and apply it to inverse heat conduction problems.
Time-Dependent Diffusion MRI in Cancer: Tissue Modeling and Applications
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Olivier Reynaud
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC has been recognized as a useful and sensitive surrogate for cell density, paving the way for non-invasive tumor staging, and characterization of treatment efficacy in cancer. However, microstructural parameters, such as cell size, density and/or compartmental diffusivities affect diffusion in various fashions, making of conventional DWI a sensitive but non-specific probe into changes happening at cellular level. Alternatively, tissue complexity can be probed and quantified using the time dependence of diffusion metrics, sometimes also referred to as temporal diffusion spectroscopy when only using oscillating diffusion gradients. Time-dependent diffusion (TDD is emerging as a strong candidate for specific and non-invasive tumor characterization. Despite the lack of a general analytical solution for all diffusion times/frequencies, TDD can be probed in various regimes where systems simplify in order to extract relevant information about tissue microstructure. The fundamentals of TDD are first reviewed (a in the short time regime, disentangling structural and diffusive tissue properties, and (b near the tortuosity limit, assuming weakly heterogeneous media near infinitely long diffusion times. Focusing on cell bodies (as opposed to neuronal tracts, a simple but realistic model for intracellular diffusion can offer precious insight on diffusion inside biological systems, at all times. Based on this approach, the main three geometrical models implemented so far (IMPULSED, POMACE, VERDICT are reviewed. Their suitability to quantify cell size, intra- and extracellular spaces (ICS and ECS and diffusivities are assessed. The proper modeling of tissue membrane permeability—hardly a newcomer in the field, but lacking applications—and its impact on microstructural estimates are also considered. After discussing general issues with tissue modeling and microstructural parameter
Time-Dependent Photoionization of Gaseous Nebulae: The Pure Hydrogen Case
Garcia, J.; Elhoussieny, E. E.; Bautista, M. A.; Kallman, Timothy R.
2013-01-01
We study the problem of time-dependent photoionization of low density gaseous nebulae subjected to sudden changes in the intensity of ionizing radiation. To this end, we write a computer code that solves the full timedependent energy balance, ionization balance, and radiation transfer equations in a self-consistent fashion for a simplified pure hydrogen case. It is shown that changes in the ionizing radiation yield ionizationthermal fronts that propagate through the cloud, but the propagation times and response times to such fronts vary widely and nonlinearly from the illuminated face of the cloud to the ionization front (IF). IFthermal fronts are often supersonic, and in slabs initially in pressure equilibrium such fronts yield large pressure imbalances that are likely to produce important dynamical effects in the cloud. Further, we studied the case of periodic variations in the ionizing flux. It is found that the physical conditions of the plasma have complex behaviors that differ from any steady-state solution. Moreover, even the time average of ionization and temperature is different from any steady-state case. This time average is characterized by overionization and a broader IF with respect to the steady-state solution for a mean value of the radiation flux. Around the time average of physical conditions there is a large dispersion in instantaneous conditions, particularly across the IF, which increases with the period of radiation flux variations. Moreover, the variations in physical conditions are asynchronous along the slab due to the combination of nonlinear propagation times for thermal frontsIFs and equilibration times.
A variational approach to environmental and climatic problems of urban agglomerations
Penenko, V. V.; Tsvetova, E. A.
2016-11-01
We discuss some aspects of the development of a variational approach to study the dynamics of climatic and ecological systems under intensive actions of natural and anthropogenic origin. The variational principle essentially represents a versatile tool to create a consistent modeling technology based on models of processes coupled with available observational data. The basic entities included in the formulation of the variational principle are models of processes; data and models of observations; target criteria for forecasting; a priori information about all the required elements of the system. We develop a set of mathematical models combined within the framework of the variational principle. They describe the dynamics of the atmosphere and water bodies in conjunction with a thermally and dynamically heterogeneous surface of the Earth; the hydrological cycle, moisture in the atmosphere and the soil; radiation transfer in the system of the atmosphere and the underlying surface; and transport and transformation of various substances in gaseous and aerosol states in the atmosphere. As an example, we demonstrate the results of calculations performed with a set of numerical models adapted to the conditions of a Novosibirsk city agglomeration. The results of scenario calculations on the formation of mesoclimates and quality of the atmosphere for the typical conditions of Siberian cities are presented.
Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory for bosonic many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lévêque, Camille; Madsen, Lars Bojer
2017-01-01
We develop an ab initio time-dependent wavefunction based theory for the description of a many-body system of cold interacting bosons. Like the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons (MCTDHB), the theory is based on a configurational interaction Ansatz for the many-body wavefunction with time-dependent self-consistent-field orbitals. The theory generalizes the MCTDHB method by incorporating restrictions on the active space of the orbital excitations. The restrictions are specified based on the physical situation at hand. The equations of motion of this time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) theory are derived. The similarity between the formal development of the theory for bosons and fermions is discussed. The restrictions on the active space allow the theory to be evaluated under conditions where other wavefunction based methods due to exponential scaling in the numerical effort cannot, and to clearly identify the excitations that are important for an accurate description, significantly beyond the mean-field approach. For ground state calculations we find it to be important to allow a few particles to have the freedom to move in many orbitals, an insight facilitated by the flexibility of the restricted-active-space Ansatz . Moreover, we find that a high accuracy can be obtained by including only even excitations in the many-body self-consistent-field wavefunction. Time-dependent simulations of harmonically trapped bosons subject to a quenching of their noncontact interaction, show failure of the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii approach within a fraction of a harmonic oscillation period. The TD-RASSCF theory remains accurate at much reduced computational cost compared to the MCTDHB method. Exploring the effect of changes of the restricted-active-space allows us to identify that even self-consistent-field excitations are mainly responsible for the accuracy of the method. (paper)
Camargo, Anyela; Papadopoulou, Dimitra; Spyropoulou, Zoi; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos; Doonan, John H; Gay, Alan P
2014-01-01
Computer-vision based measurements of phenotypic variation have implications for crop improvement and food security because they are intrinsically objective. It should be possible therefore to use such approaches to select robust genotypes. However, plants are morphologically complex and identification of meaningful traits from automatically acquired image data is not straightforward. Bespoke algorithms can be designed to capture and/or quantitate specific features but this approach is inflexible and is not generally applicable to a wide range of traits. In this paper, we have used industry-standard computer vision techniques to extract a wide range of features from images of genetically diverse Arabidopsis rosettes growing under non-stimulated conditions, and then used statistical analysis to identify those features that provide good discrimination between ecotypes. This analysis indicates that almost all the observed shape variation can be described by 5 principal components. We describe an easily implemented pipeline including image segmentation, feature extraction and statistical analysis. This pipeline provides a cost-effective and inherently scalable method to parameterise and analyse variation in rosette shape. The acquisition of images does not require any specialised equipment and the computer routines for image processing and data analysis have been implemented using open source software. Source code for data analysis is written using the R package. The equations to calculate image descriptors have been also provided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anyela Camargo
Full Text Available Computer-vision based measurements of phenotypic variation have implications for crop improvement and food security because they are intrinsically objective. It should be possible therefore to use such approaches to select robust genotypes. However, plants are morphologically complex and identification of meaningful traits from automatically acquired image data is not straightforward. Bespoke algorithms can be designed to capture and/or quantitate specific features but this approach is inflexible and is not generally applicable to a wide range of traits. In this paper, we have used industry-standard computer vision techniques to extract a wide range of features from images of genetically diverse Arabidopsis rosettes growing under non-stimulated conditions, and then used statistical analysis to identify those features that provide good discrimination between ecotypes. This analysis indicates that almost all the observed shape variation can be described by 5 principal components. We describe an easily implemented pipeline including image segmentation, feature extraction and statistical analysis. This pipeline provides a cost-effective and inherently scalable method to parameterise and analyse variation in rosette shape. The acquisition of images does not require any specialised equipment and the computer routines for image processing and data analysis have been implemented using open source software. Source code for data analysis is written using the R package. The equations to calculate image descriptors have been also provided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saito Ayumu
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background With an accumulation of in silico data obtained by simulating large-scale biological networks, a new interest of research is emerging for elucidating how living organism functions over time in cells. Investigating the dynamic features of current computational models promises a deeper understanding of complex cellular processes. This leads us to develop a method that utilizes structural properties of the model over all simulation time steps. Further, user-friendly overviews of dynamic behaviors can be considered to provide a great help in understanding the variations of system mechanisms. Results We propose a novel method for constructing and analyzing a so-called active state transition diagram (ASTD by using time-course simulation data of a high-level Petri net. Our method includes two new algorithms. The first algorithm extracts a series of subnets (called temporal subnets reflecting biological components contributing to the dynamics, while retaining positive mathematical qualities. The second one creates an ASTD composed of unique temporal subnets. ASTD provides users with concise information allowing them to grasp and trace how a key regulatory subnet and/or a network changes with time. The applicability of our method is demonstrated by the analysis of the underlying model for circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Conclusions Building ASTD is a useful means to convert a hybrid model dealing with discrete, continuous and more complicated events to finite time-dependent states. Based on ASTD, various analytical approaches can be applied to obtain new insights into not only systematic mechanisms but also dynamics.
Ko, MinHee K; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Gonzalez, Jose M; Tan, James C
2016-02-17
Actomyosin contractility modulates outflow resistance of the aqueous drainage tissues and intraocular pressure, a key pathogenic factor of glaucoma. We established methodology to reliably analyze the effect of latrunculin-B (Lat-B)-induced actin depolymerization on outflow physiology in live mice. A voltage-controlled microperfusion system for delivering drugs and simultaneously analyzing outflow resistance was tested in live C57BL/6 mice. Flow rate and perfusion pressure were reproducible within a coefficient of variation of 2%. Outflow facility for phosphate-buffered saline (0.0027 ± 0.00036 μL/min/mmHg; mean ± SD) and 0.02% ethanol perfusions (Lat-B vehicle; 0.0023 ± 0.0005 μL/min/mmHg) were similar and stable over 2 hours (p > 0.1 for change), indicating absence of a 'washout' artifact seen in larger mammals. Outflow resistance changed in graded fashion, decreasing dose- and time-dependently over 2 hours for Lat-B doses of 2.5 μM (p = 0.29), 5 μM (p = 0.039) and 10 μM (p = 0.001). Resulting outflow resistance was about 10 times lower with 10 μM Lat-B than vehicle control. The filamentous actin network was decreased and structurally altered in the ciliary muscle (46 ± 5.6%) and trabecular meshwork (37 ± 8.3%) of treated eyes relative to vehicle controls (p < 0.005; 5 μM Lat-B). Mouse actomyosin contractile mechanisms are important to modulating aqueous outflow resistance, mirroring mechanisms in primates. We describe approaches to reliably probe these mechanisms in vivo.
A variational approach to Lyapunov type inequalities from ODEs to PDEs
Cañada, Antonio
2015-01-01
This book highlights the current state of Lyapunov-type inequalities through a detailed analysis. Aimed toward researchers and students working in differential equations and those interested in the applications of stability theory and resonant systems, the book begins with an overview Lyapunov’s original results and moves forward to include prevalent results obtained in the past ten years. Detailed proofs and an emphasis on basic ideas are provided for different boundary conditions for ordinary differential equations, including Neumann, Dirichlet, periodic, and antiperiodic conditions. Novel results of higher eigenvalues, systems of equations, partial differential equations as well as variational approaches are presented. To this respect, a new and unified variational point of view is introduced for the treatment of such problems and a systematic discussion of different types of boundary conditions is featured. Various problems make the study of Lyapunov-type inequalities of interest to those in pure and ...
Accurate Ground-State Energies of Solids and Molecules from Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2014-01-01
We demonstrate that ground-state energies approaching chemical accuracy can be obtained by combining the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem with time-dependent densityfunctional theory. The key ingredient is a renormalization scheme, which eliminates the divergence of the correl......We demonstrate that ground-state energies approaching chemical accuracy can be obtained by combining the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem with time-dependent densityfunctional theory. The key ingredient is a renormalization scheme, which eliminates the divergence...... and solids. We also consider examples of barrier heights in chemical reactions, molecular adsorption, and graphene interacting with metal surfaces, which are three examples where the RPA has been successful. In these cases, the renormalized kernel provides results that are of equal quality or even slightly...
Time-dependent geminal method applied to laser-driven beryllium
Lötstedt, Erik; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2018-01-01
We introduce the time-dependent geminal method, in which the total wave function is written as an antisymmetrized product of time-dependent geminals. A geminal is a two-electron orbital depending on the coordinates of two electrons, and each geminal is expanded as a sum of products of time-dependent one-electron orbitals. The equation of motion for the geminal coefficients similar to the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation is derived. The evaluation of the largest eigenvalues of the second-order reduced density matrix is proposed as a way to measure the extent of the intergeminal correlation in a time-dependent wave function. Using the time-dependent geminal method, we simulate the evolution of the time-dependent wave function of a beryllium atom exposed to an intense laser pulse at two different wavelengths, 400 and 10 nm. The results are compared to those obtained by the time-dependent Hartree-Fock method and by the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Regnier D.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA. However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to perform calculations with more than two collective degree of freedom. Meanwhile, it is well-known from both semi-phenomenological and fully microscopic approaches that at least four or five dimensions may play a role in the dynamics of fission. To overcome this limitation, we develop the code FELIX aiming to solve the TDGCM+GOA equation for an arbitrary number of collective variables. In this talk, we report the recent progress toward this enriched description of fission dynamics. We will briefly present the numerical methods adopted as well as the status of the latest version of FELIX. Finally, we will discuss fragments yields obtained within this approach for the low energy fission of major actinides.
Simulation of time-dependent free-surface Navier-Stokes flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muldowney, G.P.
1989-01-01
Two numerical methods for simulation of time-dependent free-surface Navier-Stokes flows are developed. Both techniques are based on semi-implicit time advancement of the momentum equations, integral formulation of the spatial problem at each timestep, and spectral-element discretization to solve the resulting integral equation. Central to each algorithm is a boundary-specific solution step which permits the spatial treatment in two dimensions to be performed in O(N 3 ) operations per timestep despite the presence of deforming geometry. The first approach is a domain-integral formulation involving integrals over the entire flow domain of kernel functions which arise in time-differencing the Navier-Stokes equations. The second is a particular-solution formulation which replaces domain integration with an iterative scheme to generate particular velocity and pressure fields on individual elements, followed by a patching step to produce a particular solution continuous over the full domain. Two of the most difficult aspects of viscous free-surface flow simulations, namely time-dependent geometry and nontrivial boundary conditions, are well accommodated by these integral equation techniques. In addition the methods offer spectral accuracy in space and admit arbitrarily high-order discretization in time. For large-scale computations and/or long-term time advancement the domain-integral algorithm must be executed on a supercomputer to deliver results in reasonable processing time. A detailed simulation of gas liquid flow with full resolution of the free phase boundary requires approximately five CPU hours at 80 megaflops
Asymptotic analysis of blood flow in stented arteries: time dependency and direct simulations***
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pichon Gostaf Kirill
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This work aims to extend in two distinct directions results recently obtained in [10]. In a first step we focus on the possible extension of our results to the time dependent case. Whereas in the second part some preliminary numerical simulations aim to give orders of magnitudes in terms of numerical costs of direct 3D simulations. We consider, in the first part, the time dependent rough problem for a simplified heat equation in a straight channel that mimics the axial velocity under an oscillating pressure gradient. We derive first order approximations with respect to ϵ, the size of the roughness. In order to understand the problem and set up correct boundary layer approximations, we perform a time periodic fourier analysis and check that no frequency can interact with the roughness. We show rigorously on this toy problem that the boundary layers remain stationary in time (independent on the frequency number. Finally we perform numerical tests validating our theoretical approach. In the second part, we determine actual limits, when running three-dimensional blood flow simulations of the non-homogenized stented arteries. We solve the stationary Stokes equations for an artery containing a saccular aneurysm. Consecutive levels of uniform mesh refinement, serve to relate spatial resolution, problem scale, and required computation time. Test computations are presented for femoral side aneurysm, where a simplified ten-wire stent model was placed across the aneurysm throat. We advocate the proposed stent homogenization model, by concluding that an actual computation power is not sufficient to run accurate, direct simulations of a pulsatile flow in stented vessels.
Bronstein, Leo; Koeppl, Heinz
2018-01-01
Approximate solutions of the chemical master equation and the chemical Fokker-Planck equation are an important tool in the analysis of biomolecular reaction networks. Previous studies have highlighted a number of problems with the moment-closure approach used to obtain such approximations, calling it an ad hoc method. In this article, we give a new variational derivation of moment-closure equations which provides us with an intuitive understanding of their properties and failure modes and allows us to correct some of these problems. We use mixtures of product-Poisson distributions to obtain a flexible parametric family which solves the commonly observed problem of divergences at low system sizes. We also extend the recently introduced entropic matching approach to arbitrary ansatz distributions and Markov processes, demonstrating that it is a special case of variational moment closure. This provides us with a particularly principled approximation method. Finally, we extend the above approaches to cover the approximation of multi-time joint distributions, resulting in a viable alternative to process-level approximations which are often intractable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, Bernhard W.
2004-01-01
A time-dependent version of the Takagi-Taupin theory of X-ray diffraction is derived in a unified space-time approach, which is particularly applicable to X-ray diffraction in a crystal that is undergoing rapid change on the subpicosecond, and even few-femtosecond, time scale. The theory is applied to the proposal of a class of X-ray optical elements for the subpicosecond manipulation of X-rays
Diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity I. Two approaches to the study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sari, J.W.; Venkatesan, D.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Maclennan, C.G.
1978-01-01
The investigation has been carried out over the past two decades by either of two approaches: the traditional Fourier series method and the more recently introduced power spectral method. A comparison of the two approaches is essential to the proper understanding of the results derived from them. The present study, for the first time, adopts both approaches for investigating the data from the Sulfur Mountain super neutron monitor for the period of mid-December 1965 to April 1966 (extending over five solar rotations), when interplanetary magnetic field data from Pioneer 6 were also available. Problems relating to the analyses of both data sets on a day-to-day basis and on a statistical basis over a number of days are discussed. The power spectral analysis method cannot provide information on the phase of the diurnal variation or information on the diurnal amplitude on a day-to-day basis. This method provides excellent estimates of the diurnal anisotropy amplitude provides a measure of the ambient anisotropy amplitude. The Fourier series method can yield reliable measures of the amplitude and phase on a day-to-day basis, provided the time series is reasonably stationary. This method cannot estimate the ambient anisotropy amplitude which, for small amplitudes, contributes to large uncertainties in the Fourier coefficients. We find that there is a general agreement between the observed diurnal variation and that predicted theoretically. However, for most of the periods examined the ratio of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient to the parallel diffusion coefficient is rather small (K 1 /K < or approx. =0.1). As such the diurnal variation amplitude is generally most sensitive to the interplanetary field direction and the solar wind velocity and not to the calculated values of the diffusion coefficients. Further tests of the theory are discussed
Adaptive Second-Order Total Variation: An Approach Aware of Slope Discontinuities
Lenzen, Frank
2013-01-01
Total variation (TV) regularization, originally introduced by Rudin, Osher and Fatemi in the context of image denoising, has become widely used in the field of inverse problems. Two major directions of modifications of the original approach were proposed later on. The first concerns adaptive variants of TV regularization, the second focuses on higher-order TV models. In the present paper, we combine the ideas of both directions by proposing adaptive second-order TV models, including one anisotropic model. Experiments demonstrate that introducing adaptivity results in an improvement of the reconstruction error. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUANTUM EFFECTS IN NANOSCALE MULTIGATE MOSFETS USING VARIATIONAL APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. PALANICHAMY
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this work, the performance of multiple-gate SOI MOSFETs is analysed using variational approach including quantum effects. An analytical model is derived to accounting the quantum effects at the silicon (Si/silicon dioxide (SiO2 interface. A general procedure is used for calculating the quantum inversion charge density. Using this inversion charge density, the drain current is obtained. Our model results are compared with the simulation results and its shows very good agreement. Our results highlighted that cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET is a good candidate to obtain the high drain current compared with other two devices.
Ground state of the Hubbard model: a variational approach based on the maximum entropy principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arrachea, L. (Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)); Plastino, A. (Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)); Canosa, N. (Physik Dept. der Technischen Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Rossignoli, R. (Physik Dept. der Technischen Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany))
1993-05-17
A variational approach based on maximum entropy considerations is used to approximate the ground state of the Hubbard Hamiltonian. The evaluation of both the ground state energy and the correlation functions is performed with a trial wave function, which is parameterized in terms of a small set of variables associated with the relevant correlation operators of the problem. Results for one-dimensional case are in very good agreement with the exact ones for arbitrary interaction strengths. It is also shown that the method provides us with better evaluations of the ground state energy and correlation functions than those obtained with the Gutzwiller approximation. (orig.)
Ground state of the Hubbard model: a variational approach based on the maximum entropy principle
Arrachea, L.; Canosa, N.; Plastino, A.; Rossignoli, R.
1993-05-01
A variational approach based on maximum entropy considerations is used to approximate the ground state of the Hubbard Hamiltonian. The evaluation of both the ground state energy and the correlation functions is performed with a trial wave function, which is parameterized in terms of a small set of variables associated with the relevant correlation operators of the problem. Results for the one-dimensional case are in very good agreement with the exact ones for arbitrary interaction strengths. It is also shown that the method provides us with better evaluations of the ground state energy and correlation functions than those obtained with the Gutzwiller approximation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolangelo L Iannella
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Synapse location, dendritic active properties and synaptic plasticity are all known to play some role in shaping the different input streams impinging onto a neuron. It remains unclear however, how the magnitude and spatial distribution of synaptic efficacies emerge from this interplay. Here, we investigate this interplay using a biophysically detailed neuron model of a reconstructed layer 2/3 pyramidal cell and spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP. Specifically, we focus on the issue of how the efficacy of synapses contributed by different input streams are spatially represented in dendrites after STDP learning. We construct a simple feed forward network where a detailed model neuron receives synaptic inputs independently from multiple yet equally sized groups of afferent fibres with correlated activity, mimicking the spike activity from different neuronal populations encoding, for example, different sensory modalities. Interestingly, ensuing STDP learning, we observe that for all afferent groups, STDP leads to synaptic efficacies arranged into spatially segregated clusters effectively partitioning the dendritic tree. These segregated clusters possess a characteristic global organisation in space, where they form a tessellation in which each group dominates mutually exclusive regions of the dendrite.Put simply, the dendritic imprint from different input streams left after STDP learning effectively forms what we term a dendritic efficacy mosaic. Furthermore, we show how variations of the inputs and STDP rule affect such an organization. Our model suggests that STDP may be an important mechanism for creating a clustered plasticity engram, which shapes how different input streams are spatially represented in dendrite.
Time dependent spectrum of an X-ray irradiated accretion disc with stochastic perturbations
Maqbool, Bari; Wani, Naveel; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev
2016-07-01
The X-rays emitted by the inner regions of the accretion disk induce structural changes in the outer regions of the disk. We study here how the effective temperature and hence the corresponding spectrum of the disk is altered by stochastic perturbations in the outer regions and thereby try to study the long term variability which has been observed in some X-ray binaries. We use a time dependent global hydrodynamic code to study the variations in the effective temperature of the disk in response to sinusoidal accretion rate perturbations introduced at different radii and with different time periods. To quantify the results, we calculate the root mean square effective temperature at different radii and the root mean square flux at different frequencies. From our calculations of the time-lags in accretion rate, effective temperature and the different frequencies, we find that the time-lags in presence of X-ray irradiation is significantly smaller than the expected viscous time-scale.
Time dependence of 222Rn, 220Rn and their progenies' distributions in a diffusion chamber
Stevanovic, N.; Markovic, V. M.; Nikezic, D.
2017-11-01
Diffusion chamber with SSNTD (Solid State Nuclear Track Detector) placed inside is a passive detector for measuring the activity of 222Rn and 220Rn (radon and thoron) and their progenies. Calibration from detected alpha particle tracks to progeny activity is often acquired from theoretical models. One common assumption related to these models found in literature is that concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn at the entrance of a chamber are constant during the exposure. In this paper, concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn at the entrance of the chamber are taken to be variable with time, which is actually the case in reality. Therefore, spatial distributions of 222Rn and 220Rn and their progenies inside the diffusion chamber should be time dependent. Variation of 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations on the entrance of the chamber was modeled on the basis of true measurements. Diffusion equations in cylindrical coordinates were solved using FDM (Finite Difference Method) to obtain spatial distributions as functions of time. It was shown that concentrations of 222Rn, 220Rn and their progenies were not homogeneously distributed in the chamber. Due to variable 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations at the entrance of the chamber, steady state (the case when concentration of 222Rn, 220Rn and their progenies inside the chamber remains unchanged with time) could not be reached. Deposition of progenies on the chamber walls was considered and it was shown that distributions of deposited progenies were not uniform over walls' surface.
Su, Yonglin; Yang, Peiran; Fu, Zengliang; Jin, Zhongmin; Wang, Chengtao
2011-06-01
This work is concerned with the lubrication analysis of artificial knee joints, which plays an increasing significant role in clinical performance and longevity of components. Time-dependent elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis for normal total knee replacement is carried out under the cyclic variation in both load and speed representative of normal walking. An equivalent ellipsoid-on-plane model is adopted to represent an actual artificial knee. A full numerical method is developed to simultaneously solve the Reynolds and elasticity equations using the multigrid technique. The elastic deformation is based on the constrained column model. Results show that, under the combined effect of entraining and squeeze-film actions throughout the walking cycle, the predicted central film thickness tends to decrease in the stance phase but keeps a relatively larger value at the swing phase. Furthermore, the geometry of knee joint implant is verified to play an important role under its lubrication condition, and the length of time period is a key point to influence the lubrication performance of joint components.
The activity requirements for spike timing-dependent plasticity in the hippocampus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katherine Buchanan
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity has historically been investigated most intensely in the hippocampus and therefore it is somewhat surprising that the majority of studies on spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP have focused not in the hippocampus but on synapses in the cortex. One of the major reasons for this bias is the relative ease in obtaining paired electrophysiological recordings from synaptically coupled neurons in cortical slices, in comparison to hippocampal slices. Another less obvious reason has been the difficulty in achieving reliable STDP in the hippocampal slice preparation and confusion surrounding the conditions required. The original descriptions of STDP in the hippocampus was performed on paired recordings from neurons in dissociated or slice cultures utilising single pairs of presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes and were subsequently replicated in acute hippocampal slices. Further work in several laboratories using conditions that more closely replicate the situation in vivo revealed a requirement for multiple postsynaptic spikes that necessarily complicate the absolute timing rules for STDP. Here we review the hippocampal STDP literature focusing on data from acute hippocampal slice preparations and highlighting apparently contradictory results and the variations in experimental conditions that might account for the discrepancies. We conclude by relating the majority of the available experimental data to a model for STDP induction in the hippocampus based on a critical role for postsynaptic Ca2+ dynamics.
Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth
2016-09-07
Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.
Antarctic Rebound and the Time-Dependence of the Earth's Shape
Ivins, Erik R.; James, Thomas S.
2000-01-01
Great strides have been made during the past 30 years in refining models of the last global glaciation. The refinements draw upon a vastly expanded relative sea level and sedimentary core record. Furthermore, we now possess a sharpened understanding of the mechanisms that drive climate changes associated with deglaciation. Some 15 years ago, using only 5.5 years of ranging data, analyses of the drift in LAGEOS I node acceleration was used to infer that postglacial rebound was responsible for a secular change in the Earth's ellipsoidal shape (Yoder et al., .1983]. Today there exists a wealth of geodynamics satellite orbit data that constrain the secular time-dependence of the Earth's shape and low order gravity field, which includes mass redistribution from present-day glacier and great ice sheet imbalance and from postglacial rebound. We have shown that an unambiguous determination of the secular variation in the Earth's pear shaped harmonic (l = 3, m = 0) might provide information that bears on the present-day mass balance of Antarctica. This issue is revisited in light of new constraints on glacial loading during the late-Pleistocene and Holocene. An especially critical issue for the interpretation of secular odd degree zonal harmonics, l = 3 to 7, is the timing and magnitude of the deglaciation of Antarctica from Last Glacial Maximum. We explore ways in which the recovery of secular variation in both zonal and non-zonal harmonics for l = 2 through 7 can improve constraints on both rebound and present-day ice sheet balance.
A robust probabilistic approach for variational inversion in shallow water acoustic tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berrada, M; Badran, F; Crépon, M; Thiria, S; Hermand, J-P
2009-01-01
This paper presents a variational methodology for inverting shallow water acoustic tomography (SWAT) measurements. The aim is to determine the vertical profile of the speed of sound c(z), knowing the acoustic pressures generated by a frequency source and collected by a sparse vertical hydrophone array (VRA). A variational approach that minimizes a cost function measuring the distance between observations and their modeled equivalents is used. A regularization term in the form of a quadratic restoring term to a background is also added. To avoid inverting the variance–covariance matrix associated with the above-weighted quadratic background, this work proposes to model the sound speed vector using probabilistic principal component analysis (PPCA). The PPCA introduces an optimum reduced number of non-correlated latent variables η, which determine a new control vector and a new regularization term, expressed as η T η. The PPCA represents a rigorous formalism for the use of a priori information and allows an efficient implementation of the variational inverse method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakesh Prakash Tripathi
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In paper (2004 Chang studied an inventory model under a situation in which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay of payments if the purchaser orders a large quantity. Tripathi (2011 also studied an inventory model with time dependent demand rate under which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay in payments. This paper is motivated by Chang (2004 and Tripathi (2011 paper extending their model for exponential time dependent demand rate. This study develops an inventory model under which the vendor provides the purchaser with a credit period; if the purchaser orders large quantity. In this chapter, demand rate is taken as exponential time dependent. Shortages are not allowed and effect of the inflation rate has been discussed. We establish an inventory model for deteriorating items if the order quantity is greater than or equal to a predetermined quantity. We then obtain optimal solution for finding optimal order quantity, optimal cycle time and optimal total relevant cost. Numerical examples are given for all different cases. Sensitivity of the variation of different parameters on the optimal solution is also discussed. Mathematica 7 software is used for finding numerical examples.
Misguich, Grégoire; Mila, Frédéric
2008-04-01
After reviewing the concept of vison excitations in Z2 dimer liquids, we study the liquid-crystal transition of the quantum dimer model on the triangular lattice by means of a semiclassical spin-wave approximation to the dispersion of visons in the context of a “soft-dimer” version of the model. This approach captures some important qualitative features of the transition: continuous nature of the transition, linear dispersion at the critical point, and 12×12 symmetry-breaking pattern. In a second part, we present a variational calculation of the vison dispersion relation at the Rokhsar-Kivelson (RK) point, which reproduces the qualitative shape of the dispersion relation and the order of magnitude of the gap. This approach provides a simple but reliable approximation of the vison wave functions at the RK point.
A class of Galerkin Schemes for Time-Dependent Radiative Transfer
Egger, Herbert; Schlottbom, Matthias
2016-01-01
The numerical solution of time-dependent radiative transfer problems is challenging, due to the high dimension and to the anisotropic structure of the underlying integro-partial differential equation. In this paper we propose a general framework for designing numerical methods for time-dependent
Simulating the time-dependent behaviour of excavations in hard rock
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Malan, DF
2002-10-01
Full Text Available associated with using viscoelastic theory to simulate the time-dependent behaviour of hard rock, a viscoelastic convergence solution for the incremental enlargement of a tabular excavation is discussed. Data on the time dependent deformation of a tunnel...
Modelling time-dependent mechanical behaviour of softwood using deformation kinetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engelund, Emil Tang; Svensson, Staffan
2010-01-01
The time-dependent mechanical behaviour (TDMB) of softwood is relevant, e.g., when wood is used as building material where the mechanical properties must be predicted for decades ahead. The established mathematical models should be able to predict the time-dependent behaviour. However, these models...
Exact norm-conserving stochastic time-dependent Hartree-Fock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tessieri, Luca; Wilkie, Joshua; Cetinbas, Murat
2005-01-01
We derive an exact single-body decomposition of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for N pairwise interacting fermions. Each fermion obeys a stochastic time-dependent norm-preserving wave equation. As a first test of the method, we calculate the low energy spectrum of helium. An extension of the method to bosons is outlined
Time-dependent transport in interacting and noninteracting resonant-tunneling systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Wingreen, Ned S.; Meir, Yigal
1994-01-01
We consider a mesoscopic region coupled to two leads under the influence of external time-dependent voltages. The time dependence is coupled to source and drain contacts, the gates controlling the tunnel-barrier heights, or to the gates that define the mesoscopic region. We derive, with the Keldysh...
Time-Dependence effect in alumite recording media with perpendicular anisotropy
Phan le kim, P.L.K.; Lodder, J.C.
1999-01-01
In this paper, we will present a study of the time-dependence effect in alumite perpendicular media at different thicknesses. Important parameters of the time-dependence effect such as magnetic viscosity and activation volume are investigated. Viscosity as a function of applied field (viscosity
Time-dependent density-functional calculation of nuclear response functions
Nakatsukasa, Takashi
2017-01-01
Basic issues of the time-dependent density-functional theory are discussed, especially on the real-time calculation of the linear response functions. Some remarks on the derivation of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations and on the numerical methods are given.
Considering Time-Dependency of Social Vulnerability in Crisis Modeling and Management
Aubrecht, C.; Steinnocher, K.; Freire, S.; Loibl, W.; Peters-Anders, J.; Ungar, J.
2012-04-01
and emergency management. The vulnerability of each relevant element at risk, including human beings and society in general and its time-dependent variation is characterized both by its pre-event status and by its possible evolution during a crisis. Particularly in metropolitan areas, the spatial distribution of population is highly time-dependent due to human activities and mobility. Identifying distinct day-/nighttime population distribution characteristics is a major improvement compared to standard residence-based models, but does however only display part of reality. New technologies and data processing capabilities allow moving into the field of real-time representation of human movement. The focus of this contribution will be on illustrating, through project examples and by putting it in an emergency and crisis management context, two main categories, (1) the mapping of cell phone user activity, and (2) the use of volunteered geographic information (VGI).
Time-dependent density functional theory for nonlinear properties of open-shell systems.
Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Jha, Prakash Chandra; Oprea, Corneliu I; Vahtras, Olav; Agren, Hans
2007-09-21
This paper presents response theory based on a spin-restricted Kohn-Sham formalism for computation of time-dependent and time-independent nonlinear properties of molecules with a high spin ground state. The developed approach is capable to handle arbitrary perturbations and constitutes an efficient procedure for evaluation of electric, magnetic, and mixed properties. Apart from presenting the derivation of the proposed approach, we show results from illustrating calculations of static and dynamic hyperpolarizabilities of small Si(3n+1)H(6n+3) (n=0,1,2) clusters which mimic Si(111) surfaces with dangling bond defects. The results indicate that the first hyperpolarizability tensor components of Si(3n+1)H(6n+3) have an ordering compatible with the measurements of second harmonic generation in SiO2/Si(111) interfaces and, therefore, support the hypothesis that silicon surface defects with dangling bonds are responsible for this phenomenon. The results exhibit a strong dependence on the quality of basis set and exchange-correlation functional, showing that an appropriate set of diffuse functions is required for reliable predictions of the first hyperpolarizability of open-shell compounds.
Online Support Vector Regression with Varying Parameters for Time-Dependent Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omitaomu, Olufemi A.; Jeong, Myong K.; Badiru, Adedeji B.
2011-01-01
Support vector regression (SVR) is a machine learning technique that continues to receive interest in several domains including manufacturing, engineering, and medicine. In order to extend its application to problems in which datasets arrive constantly and in which batch processing of the datasets is infeasible or expensive, an accurate online support vector regression (AOSVR) technique was proposed. The AOSVR technique efficiently updates a trained SVR function whenever a sample is added to or removed from the training set without retraining the entire training data. However, the AOSVR technique assumes that the new samples and the training samples are of the same characteristics; hence, the same value of SVR parameters is used for training and prediction. This assumption is not applicable to data samples that are inherently noisy and non-stationary such as sensor data. As a result, we propose Accurate On-line Support Vector Regression with Varying Parameters (AOSVR-VP) that uses varying SVR parameters rather than fixed SVR parameters, and hence accounts for the variability that may exist in the samples. To accomplish this objective, we also propose a generalized weight function to automatically update the weights of SVR parameters in on-line monitoring applications. The proposed function allows for lower and upper bounds for SVR parameters. We tested our proposed approach and compared results with the conventional AOSVR approach using two benchmark time series data and sensor data from nuclear power plant. The results show that using varying SVR parameters is more applicable to time dependent data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hung, Ching Pui; Jouve, Laurène; Brun, Allan Sacha [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU Université Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Fournier, Alexandre [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot UMR 7154 CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Talagrand, Olivier [Laboratoire de météorologie dynamique, UMR 8539, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2015-12-01
We show how magnetic observations of the Sun can be used in conjunction with an axisymmetric flux-transport solar dynamo model in order to estimate the large-scale meridional circulation throughout the convection zone. Our innovative approach rests on variational data assimilation, whereby the distance between predictions and observations (measured by an objective function) is iteratively minimized by means of an optimization algorithm seeking the meridional flow that best accounts for the data. The minimization is performed using a quasi-Newton technique, which requires knowledge of the sensitivity of the objective function to the meridional flow. That sensitivity is efficiently computed via the integration of the adjoint flux-transport dynamo model. Closed-loop (also known as twin) experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the validity and accuracy of this technique for a variety of meridional flow configurations, ranging from unicellular and equatorially symmetric to multicellular and equatorially asymmetric. In this well-controlled synthetic context, we perform a systematic study of the behavior of our variational approach under different observational configurations by varying their spatial density, temporal density, and noise level, as well as the width of the assimilation window. We find that the method is remarkably robust, leading in most cases to a recovery of the true meridional flow to within better than 1%. These encouraging results are a first step toward using this technique to (i) better constrain the physical processes occurring inside the Sun and (ii) better predict solar activity on decadal timescales.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Li Huang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Super-resolution is a fusion process for reconstructing a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution images. This paper proposes a novel approach to image super-resolution based on total variation (TV regularization. We applied the Douglas-Rachford splitting technique to the constrained TV-based variational SR model which is separated into three subproblems that are easy to solve. Then, we derive an efficient and effective iterative scheme, which includes a fast iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm for denoising problem, a very simple noniterative algorithm for fusion part, and linear equation systems for deblurring process. Moreover, to speed up convergence, we provide an accelerated scheme based on precondition design of initial guess and forward-backward splitting technique which yields linear systems of equations with a nice structure. The proposed algorithm shares a remarkable simplicity together with a proven global rate of convergence which is significantly better than currently known lagged diffusivity fixed point iteration algorithm and fast decoupling algorithm by exploiting the alternating minimizing approach. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Yachmenev, Andrey; Küpper, Jochen
2017-10-01
A general algorithm for computing the quadrupole-hyperfine effects in the rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules is presented for the case of ammonia (NH3). The method extends the general variational approach TROVE [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 126-140 (2007)] by adding the extra term in the Hamiltonian that describes the nuclear quadrupole coupling, with no inherent limitation on the number of quadrupolar nuclei in a molecule. We applied the new approach to compute the nitrogen-nuclear-quadrupole hyperfine structure in the rovibrational spectrum of NH143. These results agree very well with recent experimental spectroscopic data for the pure rotational transitions in the ground vibrational and ν2 states and the rovibrational transitions in the ν1, ν3, 2ν4, and ν1 + ν3 bands. The computed hyperfine-resolved rovibrational spectrum of ammonia will be beneficial for the assignment of experimental rovibrational spectra, further detection of ammonia in interstellar space, and studies of the proton-to-electron mass variation.
Modelling long term rockslide displacements with non-linear time-dependent relationships
De Caro, Mattia; Volpi, Giorgio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico
2015-04-01
Rockslides undergoing rapid changes in behaviour pose major risks in alpine areas, and require careful characterization and monitoring both for civil protection and mitigation activities. In particular, these instabilities can undergo very slow movement with occasional and intermittent acceleration/deceleration stages of motion potentially leading to collapse. Therefore, the analysis of such instabilities remains a challenging issue. Rockslide displacements are strongly conditioned by hydrologic factors as suggested by correlations with groundwater fluctuations, snowmelt, with a frequently observed delay between perturbation and system reaction. The aim of this work is the simulation of the complex time-dependent behaviour of two case studies for which also a 2D transient hydrogeological simulation has been performed: Vajont rockslide (1960 to 1963) and the recent Mt. de La Saxe rockslide (2009 to 2012). Non-linear time-dependent constitutive relationships have been used to describe long-term creep deformation. Analyses have been performed using a "rheological-mechanical" approach that fits idealized models (e.g. viscoelastic, viscoplastic, elasto-viscoplastic, Burgers, nonlinear visco-plastic) to the experimental behaviour of specific materials by means of numerical constants. Bidimensional simulations were carried out using the finite difference code FLAC. Displacements time-series, available for the two landslides, show two superimposed deformation mechanisms: a creep process, leading to movements under "steady state" conditions (e.g. constant groundwater level), and a "dynamic" process, leading to an increase in displacement rate due to changes of external loads (e.g. groundwater level). For both cases sliding mass is considered as an elasto-plastic body subject to its self-weight, inertial and seepage forces varying with time according to water table fluctuation (due to snowmelt or changing in reservoir level) and derived from the previous hydrogeological
Guryev, V.; Cuppen, E.
2009-01-01
Rapid advances in DNA sequencing improve existing techniques and enable new approaches in genetics and functional genomics, bringing about unprecedented coverage, resolution and sensitivity. Enhanced toolsets can facilitate the untangling of connections between genomic variation, environmental
Guryev, Victor; Cuppen, Edwin
2009-01-01
Rapid advances in DNA sequencing improve existing techniques and enable new approaches in genetics and functional genomics, bringing about unprecedented coverage, resolution and sensitivity. Enhanced toolsets can facilitate the untangling of connections between genomic variation, environmental
Kreisel, Stefan H; Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Hennerici, Michael G
2017-12-21
Causal experimental evidence that physical activity prevents disability in older people is sparse. Being physically active has nonetheless been shown to be associated with disability-free survival in observational studies. Observational studies are, however, prone to bias introduced by time-dependent confounding. Time-dependent confounding occurs when an exposure (e.g. being physically active at some time-point) potentially affects the future status of a confounder (such as depression sometime later), and both variables have an effect on latter outcome (i.e. disability). "Conventional" analysis with e.g. Cox-regression is the mainstay when analyzing longitudinal observational studies. Unfortunately, it does not provide unbiased estimates in the presence of time-dependent confounding. Marginal structural models (MSM) - a relatively new class of causal models - have the potential to adequately account for time-dependent confounding. Here we analyze the effect of older people being physically active on disability, in a large long-term observational study. We address time-dependent confounding by using marginal structural models and provide a non-technical practical demonstration of how to implement this type of modeling. Data is from 639 elderly individuals ascertained in the European multi-center Leukoaraiosis and Disability study (LADIS), followed-up yearly over a period of three years. We estimated the effect of self-reported physical activity on the probability to transit to instrumental disability in the presence of a large set of potential confounders. We compare the results of "conventional" modeling approaches to those estimated using marginal structural models, highlighting discrepancies. A "conventional" Cox-regression-like adjustment for salient baseline confounders signals a significant risk reduction under physical activity for later instrumental disability (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.90). However, given MSM estimation, the effect is attenuated towards null
Variable planning margin approach to account for locoregional variations in setup uncertainties.
Yang, Jinzhong; Garden, Adam S; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Lei
2012-08-01
To develop a method for creating variable planning margins around a clinical treatment volume (CTV) and to evaluate its application in head and neck cancer radiotherapy in accounting for locoregional variations of nonrigid setup uncertainties. Ten computed tomography (CT) images (with a resolution of 0.68 × 0.68 × 2.5 mm(3)) of a head and neck cancer patient were acquired from the first two weeks of treatment for this study. Five rigid structures (the C2, C5, and caudal C7 vertebrae, mandible, and jugular notch) were used as the landmarks for creating variable local margins. At different CTV locations, local margins were calculated as the weighted average of margins determined at different landmark points from previous studies. The weight was determined by a Gaussian falloff function of the distance between the current location and each landmark point. The CTV delineated on the planning CT image, spanning from the upper portion of the mouth to the lower part of the neck, was expanded to form the planning treatment volume (PTV) with either variable or the conventional constant margins. To evaluate the target coverage, the original planning CTV was deformably mapped to each daily treatment CT using a deformable image registration method. We examined the overlap of the deformed CTV and the rigidly aligned PTV for each margin design strategy and compared the efficacy of the variable margin with the constant margin approach. For the variable margin approach with a baseline C2 margin of 2.5 mm in the left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, an average of 99.2% of the CTV was within the PTV, and for the approach with a constant 2.5 mm margin, an average of 97.9% of the CTV was within the PTV. With a baseline margin of 2.0 mm, the variable margin approach had an average coverage of 97.8%, similar to that of the constant 2.5 mm margin approach. However, its average nonoverlapped PTV proportion was 32.4%, smaller than that of the constant 2.5 mm
Time-Dependent Damage Investigation of Rock Mass in an In Situ Experimental Tunnel
Jiang, Quan; Cui, Jie; Chen, Jing
2012-01-01
In underground tunnels or caverns, time-dependent deformation or failure of rock mass, such as extending cracks, gradual rock falls, etc., are a costly irritant and a major safety concern if the time-dependent damage of surrounding rock is serious. To understand the damage evolution of rock mass in underground engineering, an in situ experimental testing was carried out in a large belowground tunnel with a scale of 28.5 m in width, 21 m in height and 352 m in length. The time-dependent damage of rock mass was detected in succession by an ultrasonic wave test after excavation. The testing results showed that the time-dependent damage of rock mass could last a long time, i.e., nearly 30 days. Regression analysis of damage factors defined by wave velocity, resulted in the time-dependent evolutional damage equation of rock mass, which corresponded with logarithmic format. A damage viscoelastic-plastic model was developed to describe the exposed time-dependent deterioration of rock mass by field test, such as convergence of time-dependent damage, deterioration of elastic modules and logarithmic format of damage factor. Furthermore, the remedial measures for damaged surrounding rock were discussed based on the measured results and the conception of damage compensation, which provides new clues for underground engineering design.
Second quantized scalar QED in homogeneous time-dependent electromagnetic fields
Kim, Sang Pyo
2014-12-01
We formulate the second quantization of a charged scalar field in homogeneous, time-dependent electromagnetic fields, in which the Hamiltonian is an infinite system of decoupled, time-dependent oscillators for electric fields, but it is another infinite system of coupled, time-dependent oscillators for magnetic fields. We then employ the quantum invariant method to find various quantum states for the charged field. For time-dependent electric fields, a pair of quantum invariant operators for each oscillator with the given momentum plays the role of the time-dependent annihilation and the creation operators, constructs the exact quantum states, and gives the vacuum persistence amplitude as well as the pair-production rate. We also find the quantum invariants for the coupled oscillators for the charged field in time-dependent magnetic fields and advance a perturbation method when the magnetic fields change adiabatically. Finally, the quantum state and the pair production are discussed when a time-dependent electric field is present in parallel to the magnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stripling, H.F.; Anitescu, M.; Adams, M.L.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We develop an abstract framework for computing the adjoint to the neutron/nuclide burnup equations posed as a system of differential algebraic equations. ► We validate use of the adjoint for computing both sensitivity to uncertain inputs and for estimating global time discretization error. ► Flexibility of the framework is leveraged to add heat transfer physics and compute its adjoint without a reformulation of the adjoint system. ► Such flexibility is crucial for high performance computing applications. -- Abstract: We develop a general framework for computing the adjoint variable to nuclear engineering problems governed by a set of differential–algebraic equations (DAEs). The nuclear engineering community has a rich history of developing and applying adjoints for sensitivity calculations; many such formulations, however, are specific to a certain set of equations, variables, or solution techniques. Any change or addition to the physics model would require a reformulation of the adjoint problem and substantial difficulties in its software implementation. In this work we propose an abstract framework that allows for the modification and expansion of the governing equations, leverages the existing theory of adjoint formulation for DAEs, and results in adjoint equations that can be used to efficiently compute sensitivities for parametric uncertainty quantification. Moreover, as we justify theoretically and demonstrate numerically, the same framework can be used to estimate global time discretization error. We first motivate the framework and show that the coupled Bateman and transport equations, which govern the time-dependent neutronic behavior of a nuclear reactor, may be formulated as a DAE system with a power constraint. We then use a variational approach to develop the parameter-dependent adjoint framework and apply existing theory to give formulations for sensitivity and global time discretization error estimates using the adjoint
Truncation scheme of time-dependent density-matrix approach II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tohyama, Mitsuru [Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Schuck, Peter [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Laboratoire de Physique et de Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)
2017-09-15
A truncation scheme of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy for reduced density matrices, where a three-body density matrix is approximated by two-body density matrices, is improved to take into account a normalization effect. The truncation scheme is tested for the Lipkin model. It is shown that the obtained results are in good agreement with the exact solutions. (orig.)
A Variational Approach to the Estimate of the Permittivity of a Composite with Dispersed Inclusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Zarubin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Composites are inhomogeneous materials (heterogeneous solid body, which fall into the matrix and inclusions. The matrix in a composite is a binder between the inclusions. The properties of the inclusions mainly determine the application of composites. Selection of the characteristics of the matrix and inclusions enables us to meet the requirements for materials to be used in various fields of technology. Composites are widely used as structural or thermal protection material and as functional materials in various electrical devices, including dielectrics. One of the most important characteristics of the composite dielectric is the relative permittivity. The latter is primarily determined by the dielectric properties of the matrix and inclusions, as well as the shape and volume concentration of inclusions.For a composite with dispersed inclusions we are able to construct adequate mathematical models which enable us to predict sufficiently reliably the dependence of its dielectric constant on these defining parameters. In this paper, among the various approaches to the construction of such models we emphasize a variational approach which allows us not only to determine this dependence, but also obtain guaranteed bilateral boundaries of the area of possible values of the dielectric constant of the composite used to estimate the highest accuracy of calculated values.The representative element of the composite structure with inclusions of spherical shape modeling the form of dispersed inclusions with dimensions close to all directions is considered. For the representative element we obtained the electrostatic potential distribution that is permissible for the minimized functional. The latter is the part of the variational form of a mathematical model which describes the dielectric properties of the considered composite. From the equality of the values of this functional on the received permissible distribution in a representative element of the
Time-dependent methods to evaluate the effects of urban sprawl on groundwater quality: a synthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefania Stevenazzi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Freshwater resources are threatened worldwide with unknown and unpredictable fate, due to non-stationarity and change of water cycle dynamics, and increasing demand resulting from population growth and economic expansion. Thus, practical actions, strategies and solutions are necessary to ensure the short-term and long-term provision of adequate, affordable, accessible and safe freshwater supply to meet the needs of the growing human population and ecosystems. Since the mid-1950s, Europe is experiencing the phenomenon of urban sprawl, characterized by an unplanned incremental urban development, no more tied with population growth (EEA 2006. Impacts of urban sprawl threaten both the natural and rural environments and the quality of life for people living in cities, with worsening of air quality, and surface- and groundwater quality and quantity. For the protection of groundwater, the European Union issued a series of Directives (Water Framework Directive, 2000/60/EC; Groundwater Directive, 2006/118/EC that require member states to achieve a good chemical status of their groundwater bodies and the identification of areas where groundwater suffers increasing trends in contaminant concentrations. In order to cope with EU Directives, a time-dependent approach for groundwater vulnerability assessment is developed to account for both the recent status of groundwater contamination and its evolution in the Po Plain area of Lombardy Region (northern Italy. Such approach takes the advantages of a Bayesian spatial statistical method to assess groundwater vulnerability and satellite scatterometer data to delineate urban areas and monitor their evolution. The proposed approach can determine potential impacts of contamination events on groundwater quality, if policies are maintained at the status quo or if new measures are implemented for safeguarding groundwater resources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1984-12-01
Reviews are presented firstly of potential events and processes which may affect the evolution of the disposal environments of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in Britain and secondly of previous studies carried out worldwide in the field of time dependent effects. From the latter review available methodologies for incorporating time dependence into radiological assessments are identified. Finally, proposals are presented for the design and development of a time dependent effects model, based on the existing far field state model (FFSM) developed for ONWI in USA. (author)
Shi, Haichen; Worden, Keith; Cross, Elizabeth J.
2018-03-01
Cointegration is now extensively used to model the long term common trends among economic variables in the field of econometrics. Recently, cointegration has been successfully implemented in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM), where it has been used to remove the confounding influences of environmental and operational variations (EOVs) that can often mask the signature of structural damage. However, restrained by its linear nature, the conventional cointegration approach has limited power in modelling systems where measurands are nonlinearly related; this occurs, for example, in the benchmark study of the Z24 Bridge, where nonlinear relationships between natural frequencies were induced during a period of very cold temperatures. To allow the removal of EOVs from SHM data with nonlinear relationships like this, this paper extends the well-established cointegration method to a nonlinear context, which is to allow a breakpoint in the cointegrating vector. In a novel approach, the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) statistic is used to find which position is most appropriate for inserting a breakpoint, the Johansen procedure is then utilised for the estimation of cointegrating vectors. The proposed approach is examined with a simulated case and real SHM data from the Z24 Bridge, demonstrating that the EOVs can be neatly eliminated.
Yurchenko, Sergei N; Yachmenev, Andrey; Ovsyannikov, Roman I
2017-09-12
We present a general, numerically motivated approach to the construction of symmetry-adapted basis functions for solving ro-vibrational Schrödinger equations. The approach is based on the property of the Hamiltonian operator to commute with the complete set of symmetry operators and, hence, to reflect the symmetry of the system. The symmetry-adapted ro-vibrational basis set is constructed numerically by solving a set of reduced vibrational eigenvalue problems. In order to assign the irreducible representations associated with these eigenfunctions, their symmetry properties are probed on a grid of molecular geometries with the corresponding symmetry operations. The transformation matrices are reconstructed by solving overdetermined systems of linear equations related to the transformation properties of the corresponding wave functions on the grid. Our method is implemented in the variational approach TROVE and has been successfully applied to many problems covering the most important molecular symmetry groups. Several examples are used to illustrate the procedure, which can be easily applied to different types of coordinates, basis sets, and molecular systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nabishahyakitash
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate Conjectural Variations elasticity in Iranians Food and Beverage industry using Iwata approach, The conjectural variation function is extracted from demand and supply information also optimization process on producers’ behavior. The experimental estimates of conjectural variation elasticities were obtained based on price elasticity of demand, cost elasticity and marginal cost elasticity for the selected industries. In this research demand function AIDS was used to obtain the price elasticity. The AIDS function was estimated using SUR and the demand price elasticity is calculated by calfent. The results show that "Vegetable oils and animal" industry with 19.37 have the most conjectural variation elasticity among the selected industries (The more divergent the conjectural variation elasticity is from zero the more likely the monopoly exists. In addition, dairy, sugar and malt industries have the most conjectural variation elasticity with 18.01, 17.18, and 10.51 respectively.
Stefano Filho, Carlos A; Attux, Romis; Castellano, Gabriela
2017-01-01
Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node. Our goal was to understand if there exists any linear correlation between variations in the synchronization patterns-that is, variations in the PSD of mu and beta bands-induced by MI and alterations in the corresponding functional networks. Moreover, we (1) explored the feasibility of using functional connectivity parameters as features for a classifier in the context of an MI-BCI; (2) investigated three different types of feature selection (FS) techniques; and (3) compared our approach to a more traditional method using the signal PSD as classifier inputs. Ten healthy subjects participated in this study. We observed significant correlations ( p classification, with mean accuracies of (90 ± 8)% and (87 ± 7)% for the mu and beta band, respectively, versus (83 ± 8)% and (83 ± 7)% for the same bands for the graph method. Moreover, the number of features for the graph method was considerably larger. However, results for both methods were relatively close, and even overlapped when the uncertainties of the accuracy rates were considered. Further investigation regarding a careful exploration of other graph metrics may provide better alternatives.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brics, Martins
2016-12-09
Intense, ultra-short laser pulses interacting with atoms, molecules, clusters, and solids give rise to many new fascinating phenomena, not at all accessible to quantum mechanics textbook perturbation theory. A full numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation (TDSE) for such strong-field problems is also impossible for more than two electrons. Hence, powerful time-dependent quantum many-body approaches need to be developed. Unfortunately, efficient methods such as time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) fail in reproducing experimental observations, in particular if strong correlations are involved. In TDDFT, the approximation not only lies in the so-called exchange correlation potential but also in the density functionals for the observables of interest. In fact, with just the single-particle density alone it is unclear how to calculate, e.g., multiple-ionization probabilities or photoelectron spectra, or, even worse, correlated photoelectron spectra, as measured in nowadays experiments. In general, the simple structure of the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation for a highly-dimensional many-body wavefunction can only be traded for more complicated equations of motion for simpler quantities. In this thesis, a theory is examined that goes one step beyond TDDFT as far as the complexity of the propagated quantity is concerned. In time-dependent renormalized natural orbital theory (TDRNOT), the basic quantities that are propagated in time are the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM). The eigenstates are called natural orbitals (NOs), the eigenvalues are the corresponding occupation numbers (ONs). Compared to TDDFT, the knowledge of the NOs and the ONs relax the problem of calculating observables in practice because they can be used to construct the 1-RDM and the two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM). After the derivation of the equations of motion for a combination of NOs and ONs, the so
Time-dependent density functional theory of open quantum systems in the linear-response regime.
Tempel, David G; Watson, Mark A; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2011-02-21
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has recently been extended to describe many-body open quantum systems evolving under nonunitary dynamics according to a quantum master equation. In the master equation approach, electronic excitation spectra are broadened and shifted due to relaxation and dephasing of the electronic degrees of freedom by the surrounding environment. In this paper, we develop a formulation of TDDFT linear-response theory (LR-TDDFT) for many-body electronic systems evolving under a master equation, yielding broadened excitation spectra. This is done by mapping an interacting open quantum system onto a noninteracting open Kohn-Sham system yielding the correct nonequilibrium density evolution. A pseudoeigenvalue equation analogous to the Casida equations of the usual LR-TDDFT is derived for the Redfield master equation, yielding complex energies and Lamb shifts. As a simple demonstration, we calculate the spectrum of a C(2 +) atom including natural linewidths, by treating the electromagnetic field vacuum as a photon bath. The performance of an adiabatic exchange-correlation kernel is analyzed and a first-order frequency-dependent correction to the bare Kohn-Sham linewidth based on the Görling-Levy perturbation theory is calculated.
Time-dependent density functional methods for Raman spectra in open-shell systems.
Aquino, Fredy W; Schatz, George C
2014-01-16
We present an implementation of a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) linear response module in NWChem for unrestricted DFT calculations and apply it to the calculation of resonant Raman spectra in open-shell molecular systems using the short-time approximation. The new source code was validated and applied to simulate Raman spectra on several doublet organic radicals (e.g., benzyl, benzosemiquinone, TMPD, trans-stilbene anion and cation, and methyl viologen) and the metal complex copper phthalocyanine. We also introduce a divide-and-conquer approach for the evaluation of polarizabilities in relatively large systems (e.g., copper phthalocyanine). The implemented tool gives comparisons with experiment that are similar to what is commonly found for closed-shell systems, with good agreement for most features except for small frequency shifts, and occasionally large deviations for some modes that depend on the molecular system studied, experimental conditions not being accounted in the modeling such as solvation effects and extra solvent-based peaks, and approximations in the underlying theory. The approximations used in the quantum chemical modeling include (i) choice of exchange-correlation functional and basis set; (ii) harmonic approximation used in the frequency analysis to determine vibrational normal modes; and (iii) short-time approximation (omission of nuclear motion effects) used in calculating resonant Raman spectra.
Alnaggar, Mohammed; Di Luzio, Giovanni; Cusatis, Gianluca
2017-04-28
Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deviren, Bayram; Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Néel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: ► The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. ► The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. ► We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. ► Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. ► We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-07-15
The dynamic phase transitions in a cylindrical Ising nanowire system under a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions are investigated within the effective-field theory with correlations and the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics approach. The effective-field dynamic equations for the average longitudinal magnetizations on the surface shell and core are derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. Temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations, the dynamic total magnetization, the hysteresis loop areas and the dynamic correlations are investigated in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as the dynamic phase transition temperatures and the compensation behaviors. The system strongly affected by the surface situations. Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, five different types of compensation behaviors in the Neel classification nomenclature exist in the system. The system also exhibits a reentrant behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic aspects of a cylindrical Ising nanowire are investigated in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetizations, hysteresis loop areas and correlations are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied both the FM and AFM interactions within the EFT with correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the interaction parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained five different types of compensation behaviors and reentrant behavior.
Time dependent ROC curves for the estimation of true prognostic capacity of microarray data.
Foucher, Yohann; Danger, Richard
2012-11-22
Microarray data can be used to identify prognostic signatures based on time-to-event data. The analysis of microarrays is often associated with overfitting and many papers have dealt with this issue. However, little attention has been paid to incomplete time-to-event data (truncated and censored follow-up). We have adapted the 0.632+ bootstrap estimator for the evaluation of time-dependent ROC curves. The interpretation of ROC-based results is well-established among the scientific and medical community. Moreover, the results do not depend on the incidence of the event, as opposed to many other prognostic statistics. Here, we have tested this methodology by simulations. We have illustrated its utility by analyzing a data set of diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma patients. Our results demonstrate the well-adapted properties of the 0.632+ ROC-based approach to evaluate the true prognostic capacity of a microarray-based signature. This method has been implemented in an R package ROCt632.
Leptokaropoulos, Konstantinos; Staszek, Monika; Cielesta, Szymon; Urban, Paweł; Olszewska, Dorota; Lizurek, Grzegorz
2017-06-01
The purpose of this study is to evaluate seismic hazard parameters in connection with the evolution of mining operations and seismic activity. The time-dependent hazard parameters to be estimated are activity rate, Gutenberg-Richter b-value, mean return period and exceedance probability of a prescribed magnitude for selected time windows related with the advance of the mining front. Four magnitude distribution estimation methods are applied and the results obtained from each one are compared with each other. Those approaches are maximum likelihood using the unbounded and upper bounded Gutenberg-Richter law and the non-parametric unbounded and non-parametric upper-bounded kernel estimation of magnitude distribution. The method is applied for seismicity occurred in the longwall mining of panel 3 in coal seam 503 in Bobrek colliery in Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Poland, during 2009-2010. Applications are performed in the recently established Web-Platform for Anthropogenic Seismicity Research, available at https://tcs.ah-epos.eu/.
Time-dependent entropy evolution in microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker-Jarvis, James
2005-01-01
This paper is a study of entropy and its evolution in the time and frequency domains upon application of electromagnetic fields to materials. An understanding of entropy and its evolution in electromagnetic interactions bridges the boundaries between electromagnetism and thermodynamics. The approach used here is a Liouville-based statistical-mechanical theory. I show that the microscopic entropy is reversible and the macroscopic entropy satisfies an H theorem. The spectral entropy development can be very useful for studying the frequency response of materials. Using a projection-operator based nonequilibrium entropy, different equations are derived for the entropy and entropy production and are applied to the polarization, magnetization, and macroscopic fields. I begin by proving an exact H theorem for the entropy, progress to application of time-dependent entropy in electromagnetics, and then apply the theory to relevant applications in electromagnetics. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relationship of the frequency-domain form of the entropy to the permittivity, permeability, and impedance
Generalized time-dependent Schrödinger equation in two dimensions under constraints
Sandev, Trifce; Petreska, Irina; Lenzi, Ervin K.
2018-01-01
We investigate a generalized two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation on a comb with a memory kernel. A Dirac delta term is introduced in the Schrödinger equation so that the quantum motion along the x-direction is constrained at y = 0. The wave function is analyzed by using Green's function approach for several forms of the memory kernel, which are of particular interest. Closed form solutions for the cases of Dirac delta and power-law memory kernels in terms of Fox H-function, as well as for a distributed order memory kernel, are obtained. Further, a nonlocal term is also introduced and investigated analytically. It is shown that the solution for such a case can be represented in terms of infinite series in Fox H-functions. Green's functions for each of the considered cases are analyzed and plotted for the most representative ones. Anomalous diffusion signatures are evident from the presence of the power-law tails. The normalized Green's functions obtained in this work are of broader interest, as they are an important ingredient for further calculations and analyses of some interesting effects in the transport properties in low-dimensional heterogeneous media.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Junhan; Marrone, Daniel P.; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Medeiros, Lia; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios, E-mail: junhankim@email.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
2016-12-01
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a millimeter-wavelength, very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment that is capable of observing black holes with horizon-scale resolution. Early observations have revealed variable horizon-scale emission in the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Comparing such observations to time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations requires statistical tools that explicitly consider the variability in both the data and the models. We develop here a Bayesian method to compare time-resolved simulation images to variable VLBI data, in order to infer model parameters and perform model comparisons. We use mock EHT data based on GRMHD simulations to explore the robustness of this Bayesian method and contrast it to approaches that do not consider the effects of variability. We find that time-independent models lead to offset values of the inferred parameters with artificially reduced uncertainties. Moreover, neglecting the variability in the data and the models often leads to erroneous model selections. We finally apply our method to the early EHT data on Sgr A*.
Bichler, Olivier; Querlioz, Damien; Thorpe, Simon J; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gamrat, Christian
2012-08-01
A biologically inspired approach to learning temporally correlated patterns from a spiking silicon retina is presented. Spikes are generated from the retina in response to relative changes in illumination at the pixel level and transmitted to a feed-forward spiking neural network. Neurons become sensitive to patterns of pixels with correlated activation times, in a fully unsupervised scheme. This is achieved using a special form of Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity which depresses synapses that did not recently contribute to the post-synaptic spike activation, regardless of their activation time. Competitive learning is implemented with lateral inhibition. When tested with real-life data, the system is able to extract complex and overlapping temporally correlated features such as car trajectories on a freeway, after only 10 min of traffic learning. Complete trajectories can be learned with a 98% detection rate using a second layer, still with unsupervised learning, and the system may be used as a car counter. The proposed neural network is extremely robust to noise and it can tolerate a high degree of synaptic and neuronal variability with little impact on performance. Such results show that a simple biologically inspired unsupervised learning scheme is capable of generating selectivity to complex meaningful events on the basis of relatively little sensory experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Population dynamics of minimally cognitive individuals. Part 2: Dynamics of time-dependent knowledge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmieder, R.W.
1995-07-01
The dynamical principle for a population of interacting individuals with mutual pairwise knowledge, presented by the author in a previous paper for the case of constant knowledge, is extended to include the possibility that the knowledge is time-dependent. Several mechanisms are presented by which the mutual knowledge, represented by a matrix K, can be altered, leading to dynamical equations for K(t). The author presents various examples of the transient and long time asymptotic behavior of K(t) for populations of relatively isolated individuals interacting infrequently in local binary collisions. Among the effects observed in the numerical experiments are knowledge diffusion, learning transients, and fluctuating equilibria. This approach will be most appropriate to small populations of complex individuals such as simple animals, robots, computer networks, agent-mediated traffic, simple ecosystems, and games. Evidence of metastable states and intermittent switching leads them to envision a spectroscopy associated with such transitions that is independent of the specific physical individuals and the population. Such spectra may serve as good lumped descriptors of the collective emergent behavior of large classes of populations in which mutual knowledge is an important part of the dynamics.
Temperature and time dependent magnetic phenomena in a nearly stoichiometric Ni2MnGa alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez-Polo, C; Perez-Landazabal, J I; Recarte, V; Sanchez-Alarcos, V; Chernenko, V A
2009-01-01
In this work, the temperature and time dependence of the magnetic properties of a polycrystalline Ni 49.7 Mn 24.1 Ga 26.2 alloy is analysed. The law of approach to magnetic saturation has been employed to estimate the magnetic anisotropy in the three structural phases of the alloy (martensitic, pre-martensitic and austenitic). The temperature dependences of magnetic parameters, such as the magnetic susceptibility and coercive field, are interpreted in terms of the changes in the magnetic anisotropy taking place with the structural transformations. The strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy is confirmed to mainly control the magnetic response of the low temperature martensitic phase. Furthermore, magnetic relaxation studies (magnetic after-effect) have been employed to analyse the main differences between the magnetization processes in the three characteristic structural phases. The time decay of the magnetization displays a distinctive response in the pre-martensitic state. The results (logarithmic time decay of the remanent magnetization and field dependence of the magnetic viscosity) indicate the thermally activated nature of the relaxation process.
Microscopic predictions of fission yields based on the time dependent GCM formalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Regnier D.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA. Previous studies reported promising results by numerically solving the TDGCM+GOA equation with a finite difference technique. However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to properly control numerical errors. In addition, it prevents one from performing calculations with more than two collective variables. To overcome these limitations, we developed the new code FELIX-1.0 that solves the TDGCM+GOA equation based on the Galerkin finite element method. In this article, we briefly illustrate the capabilities of the solver FELIX-1.0, in particular its validation for n+239Pu low energy induced fission. This work is the result of a collaboration between CEA,DAM,DIF and LLNL on nuclear fission theory.
Beyond sex differences: new approaches for thinking about variation in brain structure and function.
Joel, Daphna; Fausto-Sterling, Anne
2016-02-19
In the study of variation in brain structure and function that might relate to sex and gender, language matters because it frames our research questions and methods. In this article, we offer an approach to thinking about variation in brain structure and function that pulls us outside the sex differences formulation. We argue that the existence of differences between the brains of males and females does not unravel the relations between sex and the brain nor is it sufficient to characterize a population of brains. Such characterization is necessary for studying sex effects on the brain as well as for studying brain structure and function in general. Animal studies show that sex interacts with environmental, developmental and genetic factors to affect the brain. Studies of humans further suggest that human brains are better described as belonging to a single heterogeneous population rather than two distinct populations. We discuss the implications of these observations for studies of brain and behaviour in humans and in laboratory animals. We believe that studying sex effects in context and developing or adopting analytical methods that take into account the heterogeneity of the brain are crucial for the advancement of human health and well-being. © 2016 The Author(s).
Wang, Yean; Guo, Yingqi; Zeng, Shouchui
2018-02-02
Social work education in China is undergoing far-reaching development. However, an important issue, low professional commitment, has been identified. Why do social work graduates-especially master's level graduates-take jobs unrelated to social work? To answer this question, it is important to take into account that the professionalization of social work is happening unevenly across China as a result of uneven social and economic development. Models used in past research do not consider the possibility that the low intention for social work jobs and its potential predictors may vary across regions. To address this problem, Geographic Information Systems software is being adopted to explore the varying degrees of social work graduates' job intention, its predictors across China, and the association between job intention and predictors at both national and regional levels. Authors of this study found substantial geographic variation in predictors of social work graduates' job intention across regions. Their findings also suggest some heterogeneity in the association between job intention and specific correlates that would be masked in the traditional nationwide model. Policymakers aiming to improve the job intention of social work graduates should consider regional variation as part of their approach. © 2018 National Association of Social Workers.
Finite temperature and the Polyakov loop in the covariant variational approach to Yang-Mills Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quandt Markus
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We extend the covariant variational approach for Yang-Mills theory in Landau gauge to non-zero temperatures. Numerical solutions for the thermal propagators are presented and compared to high-precision lattice data. To study the deconfinement phase transition, we adapt the formalism to background gauge and compute the effective action of the Polyakov loop for the colour groups SU(2 and SU(3. Using the zero-temperature propagators as input, all parameters are fixed at T = 0 and we find a clear signal for a deconfinement phase transition at finite temperatures, which is second order for SU(2 and first order for SU(3. The critical temperatures obtained are in reasonable agreement with lattice data.
An efficient multiple particle filter based on the variational Bayesian approach
Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa
2015-12-07
This paper addresses the filtering problem in large-dimensional systems, in which conventional particle filters (PFs) remain computationally prohibitive owing to the large number of particles needed to obtain reasonable performances. To overcome this drawback, a class of multiple particle filters (MPFs) has been recently introduced in which the state-space is split into low-dimensional subspaces, and then a separate PF is applied to each subspace. In this paper, we adopt the variational Bayesian (VB) approach to propose a new MPF, the VBMPF. The proposed filter is computationally more efficient since the propagation of each particle requires generating one (new) particle only, while in the standard MPFs a set of (children) particles needs to be generated. In a numerical test, the proposed VBMPF behaves better than the PF and MPF.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julijana Gjorgjieva
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Spontaneous retinal activity (known as "waves" remodels synaptic connectivity to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN during development. Analysis of retinal waves recorded with multielectrode arrays in mouse suggested that a cue for the segregation of functionally distinct (ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in the LGN may be a desynchronization in their firing, where ON cells precede OFF cells by one second. Using the recorded retinal waves as input, with two different modeling approaches we explore timing-based plasticity rules for the evolution of synaptic weights to identify key features underlying ON/OFF segregation. First, we analytically derive a linear model for the evolution of ON and OFF weights, to understand how synaptic plasticity rules extract input firing properties to guide segregation. Second, we simulate postsynaptic activity with a nonlinear integrate-and-fire model to compare findings with the linear model. We find that spike-time-dependent plasticity, which modifies synaptic weights based on millisecond-long timing and order of pre- and postsynaptic spikes, fails to segregate ON and OFF retinal inputs in the absence of normalization. Implementing homeostatic mechanisms results in segregation, but only with carefully-tuned parameters. Furthermore, extending spike integration timescales to match the second-long input correlation timescales always leads to ON segregation because ON cells fire before OFF cells. We show that burst-time-dependent plasticity can robustly guide ON/OFF segregation in the LGN without normalization, by integrating pre- and postsynaptic bursts irrespective of their firing order and over second-long timescales. We predict that an LGN neuron will become ON- or OFF-responsive based on a local competition of the firing patterns of neighboring RGCs connecting to it. Finally, we demonstrate consistency with ON/OFF segregation in ferret, despite differences in the firing properties of retinal waves. Our
Systematic Observation of Time-Dependent Phenomena in the RF Output Spectrum of High Power Gyrotrons
Schlaich, Andreas; Gantenbein, Gerd; Kern, Stefan; Thumm, Manfred
2012-09-01
At IHM/KIT, high power gyrotrons with conventional cavity (e.g. 1 MW CW at 140 GHz for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X) and coaxial cavity (2 MW shortpulse at 170 GHz for ITER) for fusion applications are being developed and verified experimentally. Especially with respect to the problem of parasitic RF oscillations in the beam tunnel of some W7-X tubes, investigations of the gyrotron RF output spectrum have proved to be a valuable source of diagnostic information. Signs of transient effects in millisecond pulses, like frequency switching or intermittent low-frequency modulation, have indicated that truly time-dependent measurements with high frequency resolution and dynamic range could give deeper insight into these phenomena. In this paper, an improved measurement system is presented, which employs a fast oscilloscope as receiver. Shorttime Fourier transform (STFT) is applied to the time-domain signal, yielding time-variant spectra with frequency resolutions only limited by acquisition length and STFT segmentation choice. Typical reasonable resolutions are in the range of 100 kHz to 10 MHz with a currently memory-limited maximum acquisition length of 4 ms. A key feature of the system consists in the unambiguity of frequency measurement: The system receives through two parallel channels, each using a harmonic mixer (h = 9 - 12) to convert the signal from RF millimeter wave frequencies (full D-Band, 110 - 170 GHz) to IF (0 - 3 GHz). For each IF output signal of each individual mixer, injection side and receiving harmonic are initially not known. Using accordingly determined LO frequencies, this information is retrieved from the redundancy of the channels, yielding unambiguously reconstructed RF spectra with a total span of twice the usable receiver IF bandwidth, up to ≈ 6 GHz in our case. Using the system, which is still being improved continuously, various transient effects like cavity mode switching, parasitic oscillation frequency variation, and lowfrequency
Systematic Observation of Time-Dependent Phenomena in the RF Output Spectrum of High Power Gyrotrons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kern Stefan
2012-09-01
Full Text Available At IHM/KIT, high power gyrotrons with conventional cavity (e.g. 1 MW CW at 140 GHz for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X and coaxial cavity (2 MW shortpulse at 170 GHz for ITER for fusion applications are being developed and verified experimentally. Especially with respect to the problem of parasitic RF oscillations in the beam tunnel of some W7-X tubes, investigations of the gyrotron RF output spectrum have proved to be a valuable source of diagnostic information. Signs of transient effects in millisecond pulses, like frequency switching or intermittent low-frequency modulation, have indicated that truly time-dependent measurements with high frequency resolution and dynamic range could give deeper insight into these phenomena. In this paper, an improved measurement system is presented, which employs a fast oscilloscope as receiver. Shorttime Fourier transform (STFT is applied to the time-domain signal, yielding time-variant spectra with frequency resolutions only limited by acquisition length and STFT segmentation choice. Typical reasonable resolutions are in the range of 100 kHz to 10 MHz with a currently memory-limited maximum acquisition length of 4 ms. A key feature of the system consists in the unambiguity of frequency measurement: The system receives through two parallel channels, each using a harmonic mixer (h = 9 – 12 to convert the signal from RF millimeter wave frequencies (full D-Band, 110 – 170 GHz to IF (0 – 3 GHz. For each IF output signal of each individual mixer, injection side and receiving harmonic are initially not known. Using accordingly determined LO frequencies, this information is retrieved from the redundancy of the channels, yielding unambiguously reconstructed RF spectra with a total span of twice the usable receiver IF bandwidth, up to ≈ 6 GHz in our case. Using the system, which is still being improved continuously, various transient effects like cavity mode switching, parasitic oscillation frequency variation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Te-Wen Tu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An analytical solution for the heat transfer in hollow cylinders with time-dependent boundary condition and time-dependent heat transfer coefficient at different surfaces is developed for the first time. The methodology is an extension of the shifting function method. By dividing the Biot function into a constant plus a function and introducing two specially chosen shifting functions, the system is transformed into a partial differential equation with homogenous boundary conditions only. The transformed system is thus solved by series expansion theorem. Limiting cases of the solution are studied and numerical results are compared with those in the literature. The convergence rate of the present solution is fast and the analytical solution is simple and accurate. Also, the influence of physical parameters on the temperature distribution of a hollow cylinder along the radial direction is investigated.
Benning, Martin
2014-01-01
In recent years there has been significant developments in the reconstruction of magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. While showing a strong improvement in reconstruction quality compared to classical approaches, the vast number of different methods, and the challenges in setting them up, often leaves the user with the difficult task of choosing the correct approach, or more importantly, not selecting a poor approach. In this paper, we survey variational approaches for the reconstruction of phase-encoded magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. We are particularly interested in regularisers that correctly treat both smooth and geometric features of the image. These features are common to velocity imaging, where the flow field will be smooth but interfaces between the fluid and surrounding material will be sharp, but are challenging to represent sparsely. As an example we demonstrate the variational approaches on velocity imaging of water flowing through a packed bed of solid particles. We evaluate Wavelet regularisation against Total Variation and the relatively recent second order Total Generalised Variation regularisation. We combine these regularisation schemes with a contrast enhancement approach called Bregman iteration. We verify for a variety of sampling patterns that Morozov\\'s discrepancy principle provides a good criterion for stopping the iterations. Therefore, given only the noise level, we present a robust guideline for setting up a variational reconstruction scheme for MR velocity imaging. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villars, F.
1975-01-01
The objective of the work is to draw attention to the essential equivalence of the two apparently quite distinct ways of describing nuclear collective dyanmics, the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock method (ADTHF) on the one hand, and the Generator Coordinate (GC) method on the other hand. To demonstrate this relation, an analysis of the simplest case, in which collective motion is described by a single collective para- meter q(t) is presented. In the ATDHF approach, two self-consistency conditions are obtained; the resultant expressions for the collective potential and kinetic energies represent a special case of the more general results of Baranger and Veneroni. In the G.C. approach to the same system (with the same collective parameter q), the narrow overlap approximation must be made, as the counterpart of the adiabatic approximation in the TDHF method. In its conventional form, the G.C. method leads to a different expression for the collective kinetic energy. It is shown however, that a simple generalization of the G.C.-wave function leads to corrections determined by a variational principle. In leading order, the corrected expression for the collective kinetic energy is identical with the TDHF result In both cases, the collective inertia is determined by a self-consistent cranking formula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naeem M
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Muhammad Naeem,1 Moonjeong Choi,1 Jiafu Cao,1 Yujeong Lee,1 Muhammad Ikram,2 Sik Yoon,2 Jaewon Lee,1 Hyung Ryong Moon,1 Min-Soo Kim,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Jin-Wook Yoo11College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan, 2Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, South KoreaAbstract: Single pH-dependent drug delivery systems have been widely used for colon-targeted delivery, but their efficiency is often hampered by the variation in gut pH. To overcome the limitation of single pH-dependent delivery systems, in this study, we developed and evaluated the therapeutic potential of budesonide-loaded dual pH/time-dependent nanoparticles (NPs for the treatment of colitis. Eudragit FS30D was used as a pH-dependent polymer, and Eudragit RS100 as a time-dependent controlled release polymer. Single pH-dependent NPs (pH_NPs, single time-dependent NPs (Time_NPs, and dual pH/time-dependent NPs (pH/Time_NPs were prepared using the oil-in-water emulsion method. The physicochemical properties and drug release profiles of these NPs in gastrointestinal (GI tract conditions were investigated. The therapeutic potential and in vivo distribution of the NPs were evaluated in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis mice model. The pH/Time_NPs prevented a burst drug release in acidic pH conditions and showed sustained release at a colonic pH. The in vivo distribution study in the mice GI tract demonstrated that pH/Time_NPs were more efficiently delivered to the inflamed colon than pH_NPs were. Compared to the single pH_NPs-treated group, the pH/Time_NPs-treated group showed increased body weight and colon length and markedly decreased disease activity index, colon weight/length ratios, histological damage, and inflammatory cell infiltration in colon tissue. Our results demonstrate that the dual pH/time-dependent NPs are an effective oral colon-targeted delivery system for colitis therapy.Keywords: colon-specific delivery, dual-sensitive delivery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brics, Martins; Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)
2013-07-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture highly correlated electron dynamics such as single-photon double ionization, autoionization, or nonsequential ionization. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TDRDMFT) may remedy these problems. The key ingredients in TDRDMFT are the natural orbitals (NOs), i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM), and the occupation numbers (OCs), i.e., the respective eigenvalues. The two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is then expanded in NOs, and equations of motion for the NOs can be derived. If the expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM were known exactly, the problem at hand would be solved. In practice, approximations have to be made. We study the prospects of TDRDMFT following a top-down approach. We solve the exact two-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model Helium atom in intense laser fields in order to study highly correlated phenomena such as the population of autoionizing states or single-photon double ionization. From the exact wave function we calculate the exact NOs, OCs, the exact expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM, and the exact potentials in the equations of motion. In that way we can identify how many NOs and which level of approximations are necessary to capture such phenomena.
The time-dependent close-coupling method for atomic and molecular collision processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pindzola, M S [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Robicheaux, F [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Loch, S D [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Berengut, J C [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Topcu, T [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Colgan, J [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foster, M [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griffin, D C [Department of Physics, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL (United States); Ballance, C P [Department of Physics, Rollins College, Winter Park, FL (United States); Schultz, D R [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Minami, T [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Badnell, N R [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Witthoeft, M C [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Plante, D R [Department of Mathematics, Stetson University, Deland, FL (United States); Mitnik, D M [Department of Physics, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ludlow, J A [Department of Applied Mathematics, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom); Kleiman, U [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany)
2007-04-14
We review the development of the time-dependent close-coupling method to study atomic and molecular few body dynamics. Applications include electron and photon collisions with atoms, molecules, and their ions. (topical review)
Investigation into the mechanisms of time dependent deformation of hard rocks.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Drescher, K
2002-02-01
Full Text Available The testing undertaken for this dissertation is intended to help quantify the various time-dependant deformation processes around typical deep level hard rock tabular excavations. Three mechanisms were investigated and two different hard rock types...
The master symmetry and time dependent symmetries of the differential–difference KP equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khanizadeh, Farbod
2014-01-01
We first obtain the master symmetry of the differential–difference KP equation. Then we show how this master symmetry, through sl(2,C)-representation of the equation, can construct generators of time dependent symmetries. (paper)
Integration of the time-dependent heat equation in the fuel rod performance program IAMBUS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, G.
1982-01-01
An iterative numerical method for integration of the time-dependent heat equation is described. No presuppositions are made for the dependency of the thermal conductivity and heat capacity on space, time and temperature. (orig.) [de
Evaluation of time-dependent void nucleation theory under ion bombardment conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sprague, J.A.; Russell, K.C.; Choi, Y.H.
1975-01-01
The applicability of a steady state and time-dependent homogeneous void nucleation theory to charged-particle irradiation experiments was investigated. The steady-state theory was found to be inappropriate, since significant changes in a metal's microstructure would likely occur before the void nucleation rate could reach steady state. Two types of time dependence were examined, that of the point defect concentrations at the beginning of an irradiation and the longer-term time dependence of void nucleation. It was found that vacancy and interstitial clustering significantly reduce the relaxation time for the point defect concentrations. An efficient form of time-dependent homogeneous nucleation theory was applied to ion bombardment conditions to predict void size distributions
Experimental quantum-walk revival with a time-dependent coin.
Xue, P; Zhang, R; Qin, H; Zhan, X; Bian, Z H; Li, J; Sanders, Barry C
2015-04-10
We demonstrate a quantum walk with time-dependent coin bias. With this technique we realize an experimental single-photon one-dimensional quantum walk with a linearly ramped time-dependent coin flip operation and thereby demonstrate two periodic revivals of the walker distribution. In our beam-displacer interferometer, the walk corresponds to movement between discretely separated transverse modes of the field serving as lattice sites, and the time-dependent coin flip is effected by implementing a different angle between the optical axis of half-wave plate and the light propagation at each step. Each of the quantum-walk steps required to realize a revival comprises two sequential orthogonal coin-flip operators, with one coin having constant bias and the other coin having a time-dependent ramped coin bias, followed by a conditional translation of the walker.
Application of Trotter approximation for solving time dependent neutron transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stancic, V.
1987-01-01
A method is proposed to solve multigroup time dependent neutron transport equation with arbitrary scattering anisotropy. The recurrence relation thus obtained is simple, numerically stable and especially suitable for treatment of complicated geometries. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2010-01-01
The dynamics of the time-dependent coupled oscillator model for the motion of a charged particle subjected to a time-dependent external magnetic field is investigated. We use the canonical transformation approach for the classical treatment of the system, whereas the unitary transformation approach is used in managing the system in the framework of quantum mechanics. For both approaches, the original system is transformed into a much more simple system that is the sum of two independent harmonic oscillators with time-dependent frequencies. We therefore easily identify the wavefunctions in the transformed system with the help of an invariant operator of the system. The full wavefunctions in the original system are derived from the inverse unitary transformation of the wavefunctions associated with the transformed system.
A Realization of a Quasi-Random Walk for Atoms in Time-Dependent Optical Potentials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Torsten Hinkel
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We consider the time dependent dynamics of an atom in a two-color pumped cavity, longitudinally through a side mirror and transversally via direct driving of the atomic dipole. The beating of the two driving frequencies leads to a time dependent effective optical potential that forces the atom into a non-trivial motion, strongly resembling a discrete random walk behavior between lattice sites. We provide both numerical and analytical analysis of such a quasi-random walk behavior.
Dynamic acoustics for the STAR-100. [computer algorithms for time dependent sound waves in jet
Bayliss, A.; Turkel, E.
1979-01-01
An algorithm is described to compute time dependent acoustic waves in a jet. The method differs from previous methods in that no harmonic time dependence is assumed, thus permitting the study of nonharmonic acoustical behavior. Large grids are required to resolve the acoustic waves. Since the problem is nonstiff, explicit high order schemes can be used. These have been adapted to the STAR-100 with great efficiencies and permitted the efficient solution of problems which would not be feasible on a scalar machine.
Measuring time dependent volatility and cross-sectional correlation in Australian equity returns
Bertram, William K.
2008-05-01
In this study we examine the time-dependent nature of volatility and cross-correlation of Australian equity returns data. Volatility and correlation estimates are calculated using methods that allow for non-stationary behaviour. By averaging the estimates across the entire data set we show that the correlation in ASX stock returns displays evidence of significant time-dependent behaviour. We also find that the volatility estimates do not display similar non-stationary patterns.
Navy Operational Planner: Anti-Submarine Warfare with Time-Dependent Performance
2017-09-01
horizon . We develop three test cases with varying degrees of time- dependence in the performance data, and show that taking this new information into... account changes the operational plans generated and can lead to better employment of ASW platforms due to the more realistic representation of...ocean or atmospheric conditions that vary over the planning horizon . We develop three test cases with varying degrees of time-dependence in the
Time-dependent--S-matrix Hartree-Fock theory of complex reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffin, J.J.; Lichtner, P.C.; Dworzecka, M.
1980-01-01
Some limitations of the conventional time-dependent Hartree-Fock method for describing complex reactions are noted, and one particular ubiquitous defect is discussed in detail: the post-breakup spurious cross channel correlations which arise whenever several asymptotic reaction channels must be simultaneously described by a single determinant. A reformulated time-dependent--S-matrix Hartree-Fock theory is proposed, which obviates this difficulty. Axiomatic requirements minimal to assure that the time-dependent--S-matrix Hartree-Fock theory represents an unambiguous and physically interpretable asymptotic reaction theory are utilized to prescribe conditions upon the definition of acceptable asymptotic channels. That definition, in turn, defines the physical range of the time-dependent--S-matrix Hartree-Fock theory to encompass the collisions of mathematically well-defined ''time-dependent Hartree-Fock droplets.'' The physical properties of these objects then circumscribe the content of the Hartree-Fock single determinantal description. If their periodic vibrations occur for continuous ranges of energy then the resulting ''classical'' time-dependent Hartree-Fock droplets are seen to be intrinsically dissipative, and the single determinantal description of their collisions reduces to a ''trajectory'' theory which can describe the masses and relative motions of the fragments but can provide no information about specific asymptotic excited states beyond their constants of motion, or the average properties of the limit, if it exists, of their equilibrization process. If, on the other hand, the periodic vibrations of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock droplets are discrete in energy, then the time-dependent--S-matrix Hartree-Fock theory can describe asymptotically the time-average properties of the whole spectrum of such periodic vibrations
Understanding the Origins of Time-Dependent Inhibition by Polypeptide Deformylase Inhibitors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Totoritis, Rachel; Duraiswami, Chaya; Taylor, Amy N.; Kerrigan, John J.; Campobasso, Nino; Smith, Katherine J.; Ward, Paris; King, Bryan W.; Murrayz-Thompson, Monique; Jones, Amber D.; Van Aller, Glenn S.; Aubart, Kelly M.; Zalacain, Magdalena; Thrall, Sara H.; Meek, Thomas D.; Schwartz, Benjamin (GSKPA)
2012-03-15
The continual bacterial adaptation to antibiotics creates an ongoing medical need for the development of novel therapeutics. Polypeptide deformylase (PDF) is a highly conserved bacterial enzyme, which is essential for viability. It has previously been shown that PDF inhibitors represent a promising new area for the development of antimicrobial agents, and that many of the best PDF inhibitors demonstrate slow, time-dependent binding. To improve our understanding of the mechanistic origin of this time-dependent inhibition, we examined in detail the kinetics of PDF catalysis and inhibition by several different PDF inhibitors. Varying pH and solvent isotope led to clear changes in time-dependent inhibition parameters, as did inclusion of NaCl, which binds to the active site metal of PDF. Quantitative analysis of these results demonstrated that the observed time dependence arises from slow binding of the inhibitors to the active site metal. However, we also found several metal binding inhibitors that exhibited rapid, non-time-dependent onset of inhibition. By a combination of structural and chemical modification studies, we show that metal binding is only slow when the rest of the inhibitor makes optimal hydrogen bonds within the subsites of PDF. Both of these interactions between the inhibitor and enzyme were found to be necessary to observe time-dependent inhibition, as elimination of either leads to its loss.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Musilová Jana
2016-12-01
Full Text Available As widely accepted, justified by the historical developments of physics, the background for standard formulation of postulates of physical theories leading to equations of motion, or even the form of equations of motion themselves, come from empirical experience. Equations of motion are then a starting point for obtaining specific conservation laws, as, for example, the well-known conservation laws of momenta and mechanical energy in mechanics. On the other hand, there are numerous examples of physical laws or equations of motion which can be obtained from a certain variational principle as Euler-Lagrange equations and their solutions, meaning that the \\true trajectories" of the physical systems represent stationary points of the corresponding functionals.
Ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation: an intersectional approach.
O'Brien, Laurie T; Blodorn, Alison; Adams, Glenn; Garcia, Donna M; Hammer, Elliott
2015-04-01
Stereotypes associating men and masculine traits with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are ubiquitous, but the relative strength of these stereotypes varies considerably across cultures. The present research applies an intersectional approach to understanding ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation within an American university context. African American college women participated in STEM majors at higher rates than European American college women (Study 1, Study 2, and Study 4). Furthermore, African American women had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American women (Studies 2-4), and ethnic differences in implicit gender-STEM stereotypes partially mediated ethnic differences in STEM participation (Study 2 and Study 4). Although African American men had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American men (Study 4), ethnic differences between men in STEM participation were generally small (Study 1) or nonsignificant (Study 4). We discuss the implications of an intersectional approach for understanding the relationship between gender and STEM participation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Robust bladder image registration by redefining data-term in total variational approach
Ali, Sharib; Daul, Christian; Galbrun, Ernest; Amouroux, Marine; Guillemin, François; Blondel, Walter
2015-03-01
Cystoscopy is the standard procedure for clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer diagnosis. Bladder carcinoma in situ are often multifocal and spread over large areas. In vivo, localization and follow-up of these tumors and their nearby sites is necessary. But, due to the small field of view (FOV) of the cystoscopic video images, urologists cannot easily interpret the scene. Bladder mosaicing using image registration facilitates this interpretation through the visualization of entire lesions with respect to anatomical landmarks. The reference white light (WL) modality is affected by a strong variability in terms of texture, illumination conditions and motion blur. Moreover, in the complementary fluorescence light (FL) modality, the texture is visually different from that of the WL. Existing algorithms were developed for a particular modality and scene conditions. This paper proposes a more general on fly image registration approach for dealing with these variability issues in cystoscopy. To do so, we present a novel, robust and accurate image registration scheme by redefining the data-term of the classical total variational (TV) approach. Quantitative results on realistic bladder phantom images are used for verifying accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. This method is also qualitatively assessed with patient data mosaicing for both WL and FL modalities.
Ruuskanen, J.; Stenvall, A.; Lahtinen, V.; Pardo, E.
2017-02-01
Superconducting magnets are the most expensive series of components produced in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). When developing such magnets beyond state-of-the-art technology, one possible option is to use high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that are capable of tolerating much higher magnetic fields than low-temperature superconductors (LTS), carrying simultaneously high current densities. Significant cost reductions due to decreased prototype construction needs can be achieved by careful modelling of the magnets. Simulations are used, e.g. for designing magnets fulfilling the field quality requirements of the beampipe, and adequate protection by studying the losses occurring during charging and discharging. We model the hysteresis losses and the magnetic field nonlinearity in the beampipe as a function of the magnet’s current. These simulations rely on the minimum magnetic energy variation principle, with optimization algorithms provided by the open-source optimization library interior point optimizer. We utilize this methodology to investigate a research and development accelerator magnet prototype made of REBCO Roebel cable. The applicability of this approach, when the magnetic field dependence of the superconductor’s critical current density is considered, is discussed. We also scrutinize the influence of the necessary modelling decisions one needs to make with this approach. The results show that different decisions can lead to notably different results, and experiments are required to study the electromagnetic behaviour of such magnets further.
Legaz-Aparicio, Alvar-Ginés; Verdú-Monedero, Rafael; Larrey-Ruiz, Jorge; Morales-Sánchez, Juan; López-Mir, Fernando; Naranjo, Valery; Bernabéu, Ángela
2017-09-01
This paper addresses the functional localization of intra-patient images of the brain. Functional images of the brain (fMRI and PET) provide information about brain function and metabolism whereas anatomical images (MRI and CT) supply the localization of structures with high spatial resolution. The goal is to find the geometric correspondence between functional and anatomical images in order to complement and fuse the information provided by each imaging modality. The proposed approach is based on a variational formulation of the image registration problem in the frequency domain. It has been implemented as a C/C[Formula: see text] library which is invoked from a GUI. This interface is routinely used in the clinical setting by physicians for research purposes (Inscanner, Alicante, Spain), and may be used as well for diagnosis and surgical planning. The registration of anatomic and functional intra-patient images of the brain makes it possible to obtain a geometric correspondence which allows for the localization of the functional processes that occur in the brain. Through 18 clinical experiments, it has been demonstrated how the proposed approach outperforms popular state-of-the-art registration methods in terms of efficiency, information theory-based measures (such as mutual information) and actual registration error (distance in space of corresponding landmarks).
A Total Bounded Variation Approach to Low Visibility Estimation on Expressways
Cheng, Xiaogang; Yang, Bin; Liu, Guoqing; Olofsson, Thomas; Li, Haibo
2018-01-29
Low visibility on expressways caused by heavy fog and haze is a main reason for traffic accidents. Real-time estimation of atmospheric visibility is an effective way to reduce traffic accident rates. With the development of computer technology, estimating atmospheric visibility via computer vision becomes a research focus. However, the estimation accuracy should be enhanced since fog and haze are complex and time-varying. In this paper, a total bounded variation (TBV) approach to estimate low visibility (less than 300 m) is introduced. Surveillance images of fog and haze are processed as blurred images (pseudo-blurred images), while the surveillance images at selected road points on sunny days are handled as clear images, when considering fog and haze as noise superimposed on the clear images. By combining image spectrum and TBV, the features of foggy and hazy images can be extracted. The extraction results are compared with features of images on sunny days. Firstly, the low visibility surveillance images can be filtered out according to spectrum features of foggy and hazy images. For foggy and hazy images with visibility less than 300 m, the high-frequency coefficient ratio of Fourier (discrete cosine) transform is less than 20%, while the low-frequency coefficient ratio is between 100% and 120%. Secondly, the relationship between TBV and real visibility is established based on machine learning and piecewise stationary time series analysis. The established piecewise function can be used for visibility estimation. Finally, the visibility estimation approach proposed is validated based on real surveillance video data. The validation results are compared with the results of image contrast model. Besides, the big video data are collected from the Tongqi expressway, Jiangsu, China. A total of 1,782,000 frames were used and the relative errors of the approach proposed are less than 10%.
Leitherer, S.; Jäger, C. M.; Krause, A.; Halik, M.; Clark, T.; Thoss, M.
2017-11-01
In weakly interacting organic semiconductors, static disorder and dynamic disorder often have an important impact on transport properties. Describing charge transport in these systems requires an approach that correctly takes structural and electronic fluctuations into account. Here, we present a multiscale method based on a combination of molecular-dynamics simulations, electronic-structure calculations, and a transport theory that uses time-dependent nonequilibrium Green's functions. We apply the methodology to investigate charge transport in C60-containing self-assembled monolayers, which are used in organic field-effect transistors.
Lagrangian finite element method for 3D time-dependent non-isothermal flow of K-BKZ fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2009-01-01
A new numerical approach for the simulation of non-isothermal three-dimensional time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids is presented. The viscoelastic fluids are of the K-BKZ integral type and the method is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid flow. The K-BKZ fluid...... is assumed to be a thermorheological simple material using the extended Morland and Lee hypothesis by Crochet and Naghdi [M.J. Crochet, P.M. Naghdi, A class of non-isothermal viscoelastic fluids, International Journal of Engineering Science 10 (1972) 755–800], where the real time in the K-BKZ constitutive...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Yongfeng; Xu Wei; Li Dongxi; Xie Wenxian
2008-01-01
A stochastic dissipative dynamical system driven by non-Gaussian noise is investigated. A general approximate Fokker-Planck equation of the system is derived through a path-integral approach. Based on the definition of Shannon's information entropy, the exact time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production of the system is calculated both in the absence and in the presence of non-equilibrium constraint. The present calculation can be used to interpret the interplay of the dissipative constant and non-Gaussian noise on the entropy flux and entropy production
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leitherer, Susanne; Jager, C. M.; Krause, A.
2017-01-01
In weakly interacting organic semiconductors, static disorder and dynamic disorder often have an important impact on transport properties. Describing charge transport in these systems requires an approach that correctly takes structural and electronic fluctuations into account. Here, we present...... a multiscale method based on a combination of molecular-dynamics simulations, electronic-structure calculations, and a transport theory that uses time-dependent nonequilibrium Green's functions. We apply the methodology to investigate charge transport in C-60-containing self-assembled monolayers, which...
B. Giardine (Belinda); J. Borg (Joseph); D.R. Higgs (Douglas); K.R. Peterson (Kenneth R.); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak); D. Maglott (Donna); B.K. Singleton (Belinda K.); D.J. Anstee (David J.); A.N. Basak (Nazli); B.H. Clark (Bruce); F.C. Costa (Flavia C.); P. Faustino (Paula); H. Fedosyuk (Halyna); A.E. Felice (Alex); A. Francina (Alain); R. Galanello (Renzo); M.V.E. Gallivan (Monica V. E.); M. Georgitsi (Marianthi); R.J. Gibbons (Richard J.); P.C. Giordano (Piero Carlo); C.L. Harteveld (Cornelis); J.D. Hoyer (James D.); M. Jarvis (Martin); P. Joly (Philippe); E. Kanavakis (Emmanuel); P. Kollia (Panagoula); S. Menzel (Stephan); W.G. Miller (William); K. Moradkhani (Kamran); J. Old (John); A. Papachatzpoulou (Adamantia); M.N. Papadakis (Manoussos); P. Papadopoulos (Petros); S. Pavlovic (Sonja); L. Perseu (Lucia); M. Radmilovic (Milena); C. Riemer (Cathy); S. Satta (Stefania); I.A. Schrijver (Ingrid); M. Stojiljkovic (Maja); S.L. Thein; J. Traeger-Synodinos (Joanne); R. Tully (Ray); T. Wada (Takahito); J.S. Waye (John); C. Wiemann (Claudia); B. Zukic (Branka); D.H.K. Chui (David H. K.); H. Wajcman (Henri); R. Hardison (Ross); G.P. Patrinos (George)
2011-01-01
textabstractWe developed a series of interrelated locus-specific databases to store all published and unpublished genetic variation related to hemoglobinopathies and thalassemia and implemented microattribution to encourage submission of unpublished observations of genetic variation to these public
A variational approach to closed bosonic strings on bordered Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohrndorf, T.
1987-01-01
Polyakov's path integral for bosonic closed strings defined on a bordered Riemann surface is investigated by variational methods. It is demonstrated that boundary variations are generated by the Virasoro operators. The investigation is performed for both, simply connected Riemann surfaces as well as ringlike domains. It is shown that the form of the variational operator is the same on both kinds of surfaces. The Virasoro algebra arises as a consistency condition for the variation. (orig.)
Moreno-Betancur, Margarita; Carlin, John B; Brilleman, Samuel L; Tanamas, Stephanie K; Peeters, Anna; Wolfe, Rory
2017-10-12
Modern epidemiological studies collect data on time-varying individual-specific characteristics, such as body mass index and blood pressure. Incorporation of such time-dependent covariates in time-to-event models is of great interest, but raises some challenges. Of specific concern are measurement error, and the non-synchronous updating of covariates across individuals, due for example to missing data. It is well known that in the presence of either of these issues the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach traditionally used leads to bias. Joint models of longitudinal and time-to-event outcomes, developed recently, address these complexities by specifying a model for the joint distribution of all processes and are commonly fitted by maximum likelihood or Bayesian approaches. However, the adequate specification of the full joint distribution can be a challenging modeling task, especially with multiple longitudinal markers. In fact, most available software packages are unable to handle more than one marker and offer a restricted choice of survival models. We propose a two-stage approach, Multiple Imputation for Joint Modeling (MIJM), to incorporate multiple time-dependent continuous covariates in the semi-parametric Cox and additive hazard models. Assuming a primary focus on the time-to-event model, the MIJM approach handles the joint distribution of the markers using multiple imputation by chained equations, a computationally convenient procedure that is widely available in mainstream statistical software. We developed an R package "survtd" that allows MIJM and other approaches in this manuscript to be applied easily, with just one call to its main function. A simulation study showed that MIJM performs well across a wide range of scenarios in terms of bias and coverage probability, particularly compared with LOCF, simpler two-stage approaches, and a Bayesian joint model. The Framingham Heart Study is used to illustrate the approach. © The Author 2017
Mellem, Daniel; Fischer, Frank; Jaspers, Sören; Wenck, Horst; Rübhausen, Michael
2016-01-01
Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Mellem
Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes.