WorldWideScience

Sample records for time wage differences

  1. Majors Matter: Differences in Wages over Time in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) has developed an extensive data system that captures the wages earned by graduates of public colleges and universities, by major. The board then makes those data available, providing a highly detailed look at the wages of completers at various points between 1 and 10 years after attaining a…

  2. Gender, Parenthood and Wage Differences: The Importance of Time-Consuming Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Charlotta; Nermo, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000, 2010), we investigate how the gender wage gap varies with occupational prestige and family status and also examine the extent to which this gap is explained by time-consuming working conditions. In addition, we investigate whether there is an association between parenthood, job characteristics and wage (as differentiated by gender). The analyses indicate that there are gender differences regarding prestige-based pay-offs among parents that are partly explained by fathers' greater access to employment characterized by time-consuming conditions. Separate analyses for men and women demonstrate the presence of a marriage wage premium for both genders, although only men have a parenthood wage premium. This fatherhood premium is however only present in high-prestigious occupations. Compared with childless men, fathers are also more advantaged in terms of access to jobs with time-consuming working conditions, but the wage gap between fathers and childless men is not explained by differences in access to such working conditions.

  3. Part-time wage-gap in Germany: Evidence across the wage distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Tõnurist, Piret; Pavlopoulos, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses insights from labour-market segmentation theory to investigate the wage differences between part-time and full-time workers in Germany at different parts of the wage distribution. This is accomplished with the use of a quintile regression and panel data from the SOEP (1991-2008). To get more insight on the part-time wage-gap, we apply a counterfactual wage decomposition analysis. The results show that, in the lower end of the wage distribution, part-time workers receive lower ...

  4. Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid KUNZE

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the gender wage gap in entry wages and in the early career for German skilled workers in the period 1975-1990. We use a new administrative longitudinal data source that allows to observe complete work and skill accumulation histories from the beginning for up to 13 years in the labour market. Descriptives show an entry wage differential of 22 percent between male and female full-time workers. Furthermore, the differential stays almost constant throughout the first 8 ei...

  5. Part-time wage-gap in Germany: Evidence across the wage distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tõnurist, Piret; Pavlopoulos, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses insights from labour-market segmentation theory to investigate the wage differences between part-time and full-time workers in Germany at different parts of the wage distribution. This is accomplished with the use of a quintile regression and panel data from the SOEP (1991-2008). To

  6. 5 CFR 532.207 - Time schedule for wage surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time schedule for wage surveys. 532.207... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.207 Time schedule for wage surveys. (a) Wage... and the collection of wage data by visits to establishments. (c) A wage-change survey shall be made...

  7. Timing and Flexibility of Housework and Men and Women's wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    This paper analyses the effect of housework on men and women’s wages in Denmark by estimating quantile regressions on Danish time use survey data from 1987, merged to register information on hourly wages and other labour market variables for each of the years 1987-1991. We find, as in U.S. studies......, that housework has negative effects on the wages of women and positive effects on the wages of men, except at the high end of the conditional wage distribution. At the 90th quantile, housework has a positive effect on the wages of women and a negative effect on the wages of men, and in fact, high-wage men...... receive the largest wage penalty of doing housework. Timing and flexibility of housework turn out to be more important than the level of housework, and women, particularly at the high end of the conditional wage distribution, who time their housework immediately before or after market work or engage...

  8. Are Women Asking for Low Wages? Gender Differences in Wage Bargaining Strategies and Ensuing Bargaining Success

    OpenAIRE

    Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Men and women’s labor market outcomes differ along pay, promotion and competitiveness. This paper contributes by uncovering results in a related unexplored field using unique data on individual wage bargaining. We find striking gender differences. Women, like men, also bargain, but they submit lower wage bids and are offered lower wages than men. The adjusted gender wage gap is lower with postedwage jobs than with individual bargaining, although less is ascribable to the term associated with ...

  9. Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Employment survey data show that, although training intensity in the first three months of employment is similar for men and women, women are employed in positions with shorter training and less capital. These differences and lower market valuation for women's work experience account for much of the wage gap. (SK)

  10. Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Weeden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We assess how changes in the social organization and compensation of work hours over the last three decades are associated with changes in wage differentials among mothers, fathers, childless women, and childless men. We find that large differences between gender and parental status groups in long work hours (fifty or more per week, coupled with sharply rising hourly wages for long work hours, contributed to rising gender gaps in wages (especially among parents, motherhood wage penalties, and fatherhood wage premiums. Changes in the representation of these groups in part-time work, by contrast, is associated with a decline in the gender gap in wages among parents and in the motherhood wage penalty, but an increase in the fatherhood wage premium. These findings offer important clues into why gender and family wage differentials still persist.

  11. Progressive Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Endogenous Working Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    This paper analyses the impact of tax reforms that decrease income tax progression in an equilibrium search model with wage bargaining and endogenous individual working time. The working time is either bargained together with the hourly wage (case 1) or determined solely by workers after bargaining...... over the wage (case 2). In both cases reducing tax progression increases working time of employed and, more interestingly, increases unambiguously wages and unemployment. Wages and unemployment rise more and working time and production less in case 1 compared to case 2; probably making case 2 countries...... best suited for such tax reforms...

  12. Gender wage differences in the selected Czech public sector company

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Hedija; Petr Musil

    2012-01-01

    The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the p...

  13. Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

  14. The Phantom Gender Difference in the College Wage Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, William H. J.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…

  15. Wage Offers and Full-Time and Part-Time Employment by British Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, John F.; Wright, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of British married women's employment decisions indicates that differences in wage offers between full- and part-time employment are important determinants of working full-time. Women who work despite low earning power, husbands' high income, or discouraging family circumstances tend to work part-time. (SK)

  16. Gender wage differences in the selected Czech public sector company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Hedija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of wage disparity between men and women belongs to the current and widely discussed topics. The attention given to this subject also reflects the fact that the issue of the equality between women and men and non-discrimination by gender is incorporated in the law of the European Union. A number of studies are devoted to the gender wage disparities and the root cause of wage differences in the Czech Republic, however, only few of these deal with the gender wage differentials in the public sector. It is exactly this issue, which is discussed in this article, its aim being to identify the extent of the gender pay gap in the selected Czech public sector company. The article concentrates on finding the main causes for the existence of wage differences between men and women and determining whether the company inclines to wage discrimination against women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is used to define, which part of the gender pay gap can be attributed to the different characteristics of men and women and which part stays unexplained. It is this unexplained part that can be the result of wage discrimination against women.

  17. Performance-related pay and gender wage differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...

  18. 28 CFR 301.204 - Continuation of lost-time wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuation of lost-time wages. 301.204... ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Lost-Time Wages § 301.204 Continuation of lost-time wages. (a) Once approved, the inmate shall receive lost-time wages until the inmate: (1) Is released; (2) Is transferred to another...

  19. 28 CFR 301.203 - Payment of lost-time wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of lost-time wages. 301.203... ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Lost-Time Wages § 301.203 Payment of lost-time wages. (a) An inmate worker may receive lost-time wages for the number of regular work hours absent from work due to injury sustained in...

  20. Reasons for Low Part-Time Employment in Eastern Europe – Any Role for Low Wages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerly Krillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Eastern European countries are characterized by high wage inequalities and a relatively low proportion of labour force being employed on a part-time basis, yet there seem not be so far made any studies on the part time pay penalty. In this article we analyse whether there are any differences in the average wages of part-time and full-time employed in Estonia, a small Eastern European catching up economy. We use Estonian Labour Force Survey data from years 1997-2007; the part time wage gap is estimated by using Oaxaca-Blinder wage decompositions and propensity score matching. The results are quite different for males and females. For females the raw wage gap is in favour of part-timers. After taking into account various worker characteristics, the wage gap becomes even larger. For males the full-time raw premium exists, but it is to a large extent explained by the different labour market characteristics.

  1. Wage differences according to health status in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline

    2014-11-01

    Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Men and Women Wage Differences in Spain and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszewska-Janica

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Men and women wage differences is a widely discuss topic in the literature. Some authors point the fact that size of gender wage gap (GPG is not the same across wage distribution. GPG ratio is accelerating at the top of it. Thus, the main goal of presented study is to analyse impact of outliers (top earners on the values of GPG ratio and results of its decomposition. In addition we compare outcomes obtained for Spain and Poland. Elimination outliers from the sample will reduce values of men and women wage gap ratios not only in unadjusted form but in adjusted form as well. Study is based upon the Eurostat’s Structure of Earnings Survey (SES individual data in respect of 2014. In the paper we discuss results of Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition (in extension proposed by Oaxaca and Ransom obtained for Spain and Poland. Obtained results indicated two points above all. Firstly, although unadjusted GPG ratios for Spain and Poland differ significantly, the adjusted GPG ratios are at the same level (about 15%. Such situation shows the real men and women wage differences are at the same level in both countries. This is an additional indication that women situation on Polish labour market in similar to the Spanish one. Secondly, after elimination of outliers the values of GPG measures (in adjusted and unadjusted form decreased, as was expected. These falls came to approximately 3 p.p. It can be considered as significant change.

  3. Performance Pay and Ethnic Wage Differences in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Colin P. Green; John S. Heywood; Nikolaos Theodoropoulos

    2012-01-01

    In the first study using British data, we show that the average wage advantage of holding a performance pay job is greater for minorities than that for Whites. This generates a smaller ethnic wage gap among performance pay jobs than among time rate jobs. Yet, this pattern is driven by those receiving bonuses not those receiving performance related pay and it is evident only for Asians and for those in managerial jobs. Moreover, it is partially driven by sorting in which the more able take bon...

  4. Gender Wage Gap: Discrimination or Different Preferences of Men and Women? A Case Study of Ostrava, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Machová; Lenka Filipová

    2013-01-01

    This paper was written as a part of a research project studying problem of wage determinant measuring and wage discrimination considering different wage requirements of men and women. The wage determinants and gender wage discrimination are analyzed using a probit model. The whole analysis is methodologically based on Mincer’s Wage Regression and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of gender wage gap. The wage variables include, aside from standard personal characteristics, dummies for institution...

  5. Equal Pay Act: Wage Differentials for Time of Day Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Richard Alan

    1974-01-01

    The Supreme Court held in Corning Glass Works cases involving male only employees for night shifts that the time of day worked could constitute a factor other than sex whereby the wage differential might qualify as an exception under the Equal Pay Act. Shift differentials could be legal if proven to be nondiscriminatory. (LBH)

  6. Pharmacists' wages and salaries: The part-time versus full-time dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Popovici, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant growth in part-time work among pharmacy personnel. If preferences and outlooks of part-time and full-time workers differ, job-related incentives may not have the same effect on both groups; different management practices may be necessary to cope with rapidly evolving workforces. To compare wage-and-salary responses to the number of hours worked, human-capital stock, and job-related preferences between full-time and part-time pharmacists. The analysis focused on the pharmacist workforce because, unlike other professions, remuneration is fairly linear with respect to the amount of time worked. Data were collected from a self-reported survey of licensed pharmacists in southern Florida (U.S. State). The sample consisted of 979 full-time and 254 part-time respondents. Using ordinary least squares, a model estimated, separately for full-time and part-time pharmacists, annual wage-and-salary earnings as functions of average workweek, human-capital stock, and job-related preferences. Practitioners working less than 36 h/week were driven almost exclusively by pay, whereas practitioners working 36 h or more exhibited a more comprehensive approach to their work experience that included variables beyond monetary remuneration. Managing part-time pharmacists calls for emphasis on wage-and-salary issues. Job-security and gender- and children-related concerns, such as flexibility, should be oriented toward full-time practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Part-time Work, Wages and Productivity:Evidence from Belgian Matched Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Garnero, Andrea; Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, François

    2013-01-01

    The authors use matched employer-employee panel data on Belgian private-sector firms to estimate the relationship between wage/productivity differentials and the firm’s labor composition in terms of part-time and sex. Findings suggest that the groups of women and part-timers generate employer rents, but also that the origin of these rents differs (relatively lower wages for women, relatively higher productivity for part-timers). Interactions between gender and part-time suggest that the posit...

  8. International differences in wage and nonwage labor costs

    OpenAIRE

    Riveros, Luis A.

    1989-01-01

    The ratio of nonwage labor costs (for social security, pensions, vacation days, severence compensation, and the like) to direct wage costs is proportionately higher in Europe and Latin America than in Asia and Africa - largely because workers there are protected more by regulations. The distortionary growth of labor costs because of increasing nonwage costs is not common in the LDCs however. The author of this paper found that international differences in labor costs are attributable largely ...

  9. Reservation wages and starting wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between

  10. Gender differences in early-career wage growth

    OpenAIRE

    Napari, Sami

    2007-01-01

    In Finnish manufacturing, the gender wage gap more than doubles during the first ten years in the labor market. This paper studies the factors contributing to the gender gap in early-career wage growth. The analysis shows that the size of the gender gap in wage growth varies with mobility status the gap being much higher when changing employers compared to within-firm wage growth. Several explanations for the gender gap in wage growth based on human capital theory and theory of compensating w...

  11. The gender wage gap – due to differences in efficiency wage effects or discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Schwieren,Christiane

    2003-01-01

    Women often receive lower wages than men for comparable work. Many explanations are offered for this fact, ranging from women’s lower negotiation skills to discrimination by employers. In this paper, an experiment, which was originally conceptualized to test efficiency-wage theory, has been applied to test whether women get paid less than men in an experimental market, and if this is the case, why. The experiment is a variant of Fehr & Falk’s (1999) double auction with effort. Results are str...

  12. Discrimination or Unobserved Differences in Characteristics?-An Empirical Study on Wage Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Zheng; Sakellariou, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We apply the discrimination search model with wage-tenure contracts to NLSY79 data to study race/gender wage inequality with a focus on distinguishing unobserved productivity differences from discrimination in the labor market and also simulating the pattern of wage dynamics. Our findings suggest that the productivity differential between black and white workers is 3% of white worker productivity while productivity differences between men and women are estimated to be 3% of male productivity....

  13. Wage Inequality and Wage Mobility in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Dalgıç, Başak; Güven, Aytekin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates wage inequality and wage mobility in Turkey using the Surveys on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). This is the first paper that explores wage mobility for Turkey. It differs from the existing literature by providing analyses of wage inequality and wage mobility over various socioeconomic groups such as gender, age, education and sector of economic activity. We first present an overview of the evolution of wages and wage inequality over the period 2005-2011. Next, w...

  14. A Different Class of Care: the Benefits Crisis and Low-Wage Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Trina

    When compared to other developed nations, the United States fares poorly with regard to benefits for workers. While the situation is grim for most U.S. workers, it is worse for low-wage workers. Data show a significant benefits gap between low-wage and high-wage in terms of flexible work arrangements (FWAs), paid leave, pensions, and employer-sponsored health-care insurance, among other things. This gap exists notwithstanding the fact that FWAs and employment benefits produce positive returns for employees, employers, and society in general. Despite these returns, this Article contends that employers will be loath to extend FWAs and greater employment benefits to low-wage workers due to (1) concerns about costs, (2) a surplus of low-wage workers in the labor market, (3) negative perceptions of the skill of low-wage workers and the value of low-wage work, (4) other class-based stereotypes and biases, and (5) structural impediments in some low-wage jobs. Given the decline of unions and limited legislative action to date, the Article maintains that low-wage workers are in a "different class of care" with little hope for meaningful change on the horizon.

  15. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap. PMID:23433245

  16. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Nerina; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-02-25

    In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  17. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  18. The part-time wage penalty in European countries: how large is it for men?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dorchai, Sile Padraigin; Plasman, Robert; Rycx, François

    2007-01-01

    Economic theory advances a number of reasons for the existence of a wage gap between part-time and full-time workers. Empirical work has concentrated on the wage effects of part-time work for women. For men, much less empirical evidence exists, mainly because of lacking data. In this paper, we take advantage of access to unique harmonised matched employer-employee data (i.e. the 1995 European Structure of Earnings Survey) to investigate the magnitude and sources of the part-time wage penalty ...

  19. Wage Inequalities: A Result of Different Levels and Fields of Tertiary Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjan Petek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the impact of tertiary education on the amounts of wages in Slovenia for 2011. We use micro data from the statistical survey Structure of Earnings Statistics and micro data from the survey of graduates from tertiary education. We found out that there are significant differences in the amounts of wages as regards the level and field of education. Region and activity of the company where the person is employed also plays an important role in wage determination. Also the effects of gender and public/private sector are statistically significant. Using the average wage per hour as dependent variable gives similar results as the average annual wages.

  20. Wage employment and gender differences in work–family role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypotheses generated for the study were tested at .05 alpha levels using Pearson product Moment Correlation, Chi-Square, Multivariate Analysis and t test statistical methods. The findings of the study revealed that men and women involvement in wage employment has significantly influenced work-family role conflict.

  1. Different Times?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van den Broek; W.P. Knulst; K. Breedveld

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Naar andere tijden? The report Different times? Time use and time structuring in the Netherlands, 1975-1995 (Naar andere tijden? Tijdsbesteding en tijdsordening in Nederland, 1975-1995) paints a picture of the way in which the Dutch spend the 168 hours that are available each

  2. On Different Tracks? Gender, Professional Strategies, and Early Career Wage Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Grönlund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding notion in labor market theory is that women accommodate family responsibilities in their occupational and job choices. Utilizing a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n≈2400, the article explores whether men and women differ in their professional strategies and if such differences produce early career wage gaps. Findings based on OLS regressions show that women express dual commitment to work and family; compared with men, they value ‘family-friendly’ work-conditions higher but do not value wages and career lower. Parenthood is not related to lower levels of career focus, but neutralizes occupational differences in family focus for women. Despite the select sample, women have lower wages than men, but the wage gap is not explained by different prioritization of family/career. The findings suggest that assumptions about gendered skill investments must be empirically scrutinized and theories further developed.

  3. Changes in gender wage discrimination in the 1990s: a tale of three very different economies

    OpenAIRE

    Johnes, G; Tanaka, Y

    2008-01-01

    In this paper gender wage decompositions are performed for three very different countries, that is, Japan, Russia and the USA for the years of 1993 and 2000, using the ISSP data set. From the research of this paper, it is shown that the gender wage differential in Japan has narrowed between 1993 and 2000, and the results reveal price and characteristics effects for this country that differ markedly from those observed elsewhere, with female disadvantage being particularly marked. Also, this p...

  4. Persistent inter-industry wage differences: Rent sharing and opportunity costs

    OpenAIRE

    Abowd, John M.; Kramarz, Francis; Lengermann, Paul Lengermann; McKinney, Kevin L.; Roux, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    We reconsider the potential for explaining inter-industry wage differences by decomposing those differences into parts due to individual and employer heterogeneity, respectively. Using longitudinally linked employer-employee data, we estimate the model for the United States and France. The part arising from individual heterogeneity can be theoretically and empirically related to the worker's opportunity wage rate. The part arising from employer heterogeneity can similarly be related to produc...

  5. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  6. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian M.; Le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob Roland

    in the individual worker's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. Consistent with predictions we find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems. However, the differences across wage-setting systems......This paper studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use a detailed panel data set covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides exogenous variation...

  7. Minimum wage hikes and the wage growth of low-wage workers

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna K Swaffield

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents difference-in-differences estimates of the impact of the British minimum wage on the wage growth of low-wage employees. Estimates of the probability of low-wage employees receiving positive wage growth have been significantly increased by the minimum wage upratings or hikes. However, whether the actual wage growth of these workers has been significantly raised or not depends crucially on the magnitude of the minimum wage hike considered. Findings are consistent with employ...

  8. Growth, unemployment and wage inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Raurich, Xavier; Sorolla, Valeri

    2014-01-01

    We introduce wage setting via efficiency wages in the neoclassical one-sector growth model to study the growth effects of wage inertia. We compare the dynamic equilibrium of an economy with wage inertia with the equilibrium of an economy without wage inertia. We show that wage inertia affects the long run employment rate and that the transitional dynamics of the main economic variables will be different because wages are a state variable when wage inertia is introduced. In particular, we show...

  9. Labour Market Regulations in China: Minimum Wage Policy | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the same time, wage and income inequalities have grown significantly and wages have fallen. ... wages are set, and the wages' effects on employment and inequality. ... Impact of minimum wage on gender wage gaps in urban China.

  10. The Gender Wage Gap: Does a Gender Gap in Reservation Wages Play a Part?

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Marco; Lee, Wang-Sheng; Mahlstedt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on re-examining the gender wage gap and the potential role that reservation wages play. Based on two waves of rich data from the IZA Evaluation Dataset Survey we examine the importance of gender differences in reservation wages to explain the gender gap in realized wages for a sample of newly unemployed individuals actively searching for a full-time job in Germany. The dataset includes measures for education, socio-demographics, labor market history, psychological factors a...

  11. Should I stay or should I go? The impact of working time and wages on retention in the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Stephanie; de Vries, Daniel H; Tijdens, Kea G

    2014-04-23

    Turnover in the health workforce is a concern as it is costly and detrimental to organizational performance and quality of care. Most studies have focused on the influence of individual and organizational factors on an employee's intention to quit. Inspired by the observation that providing care is based on the duration of practices, tasks and processes (issues of time) rather than exchange values (wages), this paper focuses on the influence of working-time characteristics and wages on an employee's intention to stay. Using data from the WageIndicator web survey (N = 5,323), three logistic regression models were used to estimate health care employee's intention to stay for Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. The first model includes working-time characteristics controlling for a set of sociodemographic variables, job categories, promotion and organization-related characteristics. The second model tests the impact of wage-related characteristics. The third model includes both working-time- and wage-related aspects. Model 1 reveals that working-time-related factors significantly affect intention to stay across all countries. In particular, working part-time hours, overtime and a long commuting time decrease the intention to stay with the same employer. The analysis also shows that job dissatisfaction is a strong predictor for the intention to leave, next to being a woman, being moderately or well educated, and being promoted in the current organization. In Model 2, wage-related characteristics demonstrate that employees with a low wage or low wage satisfaction are less likely to express an intention to stay. The effect of wage satisfaction is not surprising; it confirms that besides a high wage, wage satisfaction is essential. When considering all factors in Model 3, all effects remain significant, indicating that attention to working and commuting times can complement attention to wages and wage satisfaction to increase employees' intention to stay. These

  12. The Dutch minimum wage: a radical reduction shifts the main focus to part-time jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2009-01-01

    The paper is part of a broader international project undertaken by the ILO and the European Commission. It studies the Dutch minimum wage from the perspective of country differences in minimum-pay regulations within the European Union with the aim of serving as an input into a discussion whether a

  13. The Part-Time Wage Penalty: a Career Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, G.; Hassink, W.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Part-time employment has become an extremely popular work arrangement in the Netherlands because it renders employment compatible with non-work activities. We posit that there may be a downside to part-time employment, which is related to its negative effects on workers’ career. This may be the case

  14. Mortgage Debt and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, James

    2017-01-01

    Different approaches to mortgage debt may impact wages, how homeowners engage with employers and welfare services, and economic growth.......Different approaches to mortgage debt may impact wages, how homeowners engage with employers and welfare services, and economic growth....

  15. Wage inequality, minimum wage effects and spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates possible spillover effects of the UK minimum wage. The halt in the growth in inequality in the lower half of the wage distribution (as measured by the 50:10 percentile ratio) since the mid-1990s, in contrast to the continued inequality growth in the upper half of the distribution, suggests the possibility of a minimum wage effect and spillover effects on wages above the minimum. This paper analyses individual wage changes, using both a difference-in-differences estimat...

  16. Is there evidence of a wage penalty to female part-time employment in South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrit Posel; Colette Muller

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate female part-time employment in South Africa. Using household survey data for South Africa from 1995 to 2004, we show that women are over-represented in part-time employment, and that the growth in part-time work has been an important feature of the feminisation of the labour force. In contrast to many studies of part-time work in other countries, however, we find evidence of a significant wage premium to female part-time employment. The premium is robust also to ...

  17. Gender Wage Differences in the Czech Public Sector: A Micro-level Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedija Veronika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the unexplained gender pay gap in individual departments of a Czech hospital, to find out whether this gap varies between departments and, if so, to identify the possible causes of these differences. To estimate the unexplained part of the gender pay gap, we use the average treatment effect on the treated (ATT, and to identify the causes behind differences in the unexplained gender pay gap we use a linear regression model. We find that the ATT varies significantly between departments. To explain these differences, we use selected characteristics of the departments: the department’s size, the proportion of women in the department, and the gender of the departmental head. We come to the conclusion that women’s wages increase relative to male wages as the proportion of female employees grows. On the other hand, the unexplained gender wage gap is not proven to be lower in smaller or female-led departments.

  18. Rural hospital wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Ann M.

    1989-01-01

    Average fiscal year 1982 wages from 2,302 rural American hospitals were used to test for a gradient descending from hospitals in counties adjacent to metropolitan areas to those not adjacent. Considerable variation in the ratios of adjacent to nonadjacent averages existed. No statistically significant difference was found, however. Of greater importance in explaining relative wages within States were occupational mix, mix of part-time and full-time workers, case mix, presence of medical residencies, and location in a high-rent county within the State. Medicare already adjusts payments for only two of these variables. PMID:10313454

  19. Gender differences in low pay labour mobility and the national minimum wage

    OpenAIRE

    Euan Phimister; Ioannis Theodossiou

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences in the duration of low pay employment spells prior to and after the introduction in the National Minimum Wage in 1999. The results suggest that the dynamics out of low pay differ by gender and that these differences change after 1999. These differences are driven by the differing impact of a number of covariates such as age and education on the baseline hazards. Overall, the effect of many covariates on expected duration is often less in absolute terms f...

  20. How Credible Are Shrinking Wage Elasticities of Married Women Labour Supply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Qin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper delves into the well-known phenomenon of shrinking wage elasticities for married women in the US over recent decades. The results of a novel model experimental approach via sample data ordering unveil considerable heterogeneity across different wage groups. Yet, surprisingly constant wage elasticity estimates are maintained within certain wage groups over time. In addition to those constant wage elasticity estimates, we find that the composition of working women into different wage groups has changed considerably, resulting in shrinking wage elasticity estimates at the aggregate level. These findings would be impossible to obtain had we not dismantled and discarded the instrumental variable estimation route.

  1. Time for Men to Catch up on Women? A Study of the Swedish Gender Wage Gap 1973-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Löfström, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    The Swedish gender wage gap decreased substantially from the 1960s until the beginning of the 1980s. At the same time women had been narrowing men in employment experience and education. While women continued to catch up on men the average wage gap remained almost the same as in the 1980s. The catch-up hypothesis was obviously not the sole answer to the wage-gap. The purpose here was to discuss other factors of relevance for the evolution of the average pay gap. Data for the period 1972-2012 ...

  2. The Gender Wage Gap in Croatia – Estimating the Impact of Differing Rewards by Means of Counterfactual Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Nestić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the size of, changes in, and main factors contributing to gender-based wage differentials in Croatia. It utilizes microdata from the Labor Force Surveys of 1998 and 2008 and applies both OLS and quantile regression techniques to assess the gender wage gap across the wage distribution. The average unadjusted gender wage gap is found to be relatively low and declining. This paper argues that employed women in Croatia possess higher-quality labor market characteristics than men, especially in terms of education, but receive much lower rewards for these characteristics. The Machado-Mata decomposition technique is used to estimate the gender wage gap as the sole effect of differing rewards. The results suggest that due to differing rewards the gap exceeds 20 percent on average - twice the size of the unadjusted gap - and that it increased somewhat between 1998 and 2008. The gap is found to be the highest at the lower-to-middle part of the wage distribution.

  3. Gender Wage Differentials in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelia Papapetrou

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies the existence of wage differentials between male and female employees in Greece employing quantile regession analysis techniques and applying a variant of the selection-adjusted Oaxaca and Ransom (1994) decomposition method to explain the components of the wage differentials. The results suggest that, in Greece, differences in wages between men and women can be identified. Decomposing the wage gap between genders, the results show that the difference in wages is attributed m...

  4. The Immigrant Wage Gap in Canada: Differences between the Public and the Private Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Nadeau

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses 2006 Canadian census data to examine patterns of wage differentials between immigrants and Canadian natives across the public and private sectors. Results reveal that the wage gap is much more a private sector issue than a public sector issue: the average wage gap is in favour of Canadian natives in the private sector but in favour of immigrants in the public sector; compared to natives, immigrants earn significantly less per year of domestic schooling and per year of domestic...

  5. Wage Differences Between Men and Women in Austria: Evidence from 1983 and 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Böheim, René; Hofer, Helmut; Zulehner, Christine

    2005-01-01

    In most OECD countries the wage gap between men and women has declined during the past two decades. Developments of the last 20 years, e.g. increased labour market attachment of women, changes in the bargaining structure, and the introduction of equal pay laws, may have reduced the gender wage gap. We investigate the extent, persistence, and socio-economic determinants of the gender wage gap in Austria, for the years 1983 and 1997. Using wage decomposition techniques, we find that the average...

  6. Gender, motivation, experience and wages

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Swaffield

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-97 this paper investigates the structure of the female wage equation and the gender wage differential. The discriminatory portion of the gender wage differential is overstated by over 40% when inadequate measures of female labour market experience are included in the wage equation. The degree of labour market motivation, aspirations and constraints are found to have a significant impact on the female wage. Moreover, the impact of time o...

  7. Evaluating the gender wage gap in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Åsa

    2007-01-01

    Using mainly quantile regressions, this paper evaluates the gender wage gap throughout the conditional wage distribution in Sweden. The gender wage is found to increase at the upper tail of the wage distribution, indicating an enforcement of the glass ceiling effect recorded in earlier studies. The results also indicate that the earlier noted trend of diminishing wage differences at the bottom of the wage distribution now is turning. The increase of overall wage inequalities coincides with a ...

  8. Male-Female Differences in Hourly Wages: The Role of Human Capital, Working Conditions, and Housework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Joni

    1991-01-01

    Data from a survey of 414 male and 217 female workers assessed the effects of human capital, household responsibilities, working conditions, and on-the-job training on wages. Household responsibilities had a negative effect on women's earnings; the presence of children positively affected wages of both sexes. (SK)

  9. Racial Differences in Access to High-Paying Jobs and the Wage Gap between Black and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah; Shapiro, David

    1996-01-01

    Data from black and white women ages 34-44 (1968-88) showed that differences in characteristics did not explain occupational segregation by race nor the racial wage gap. During the 1980s, the gap was influenced by widening differences in access to occupations and an increase in returns to education. (SK)

  10. Wage differentials of males and females in same-sex and different-sex couples in Canada, 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mueller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper utilizes five cycles of the General Social Survey in consecutive years from 2006 through 2010 to address the issue of differential wages amongst members of same-sex couples compared to their counterparts in different-sex couples. We find that men in gay couples have wages that are statistically indistinguishable from those of males in heterosexual relationships. By contrast, a sizeable and statistically significant earnings premium exists for lesbians in same-sex couples.

  11. The Impact of Gender Segregation on Male-Female Wage Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo Dorantes, Catalina; De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the role of gender segregation and pay structure in explaining gender wage differentials of full-time salaried workers in Spain. Data from the 1995 and 2002 Wage Structure Surveys reveal that raw gender wage gaps decreased from 0.24 to 0.14 over the seven-year period. Average differences in the base wage and wage complements decreased from 0.09 to 0.05 and from 0.59 to 0.40, respectively. However, the gender wage gap is still large after accounting for work...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1267 - Failure to make timely payments-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Governments If A State Fails to Make Timely Payments-for Wages Paid Prior to 1987 § 404.1267 Failure to make... to the State under the other provision of the Social Security Act. [53 FR 32976, Aug. 29, 1988, as... paid prior to 1987. 404.1267 Section 404.1267 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  13. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...

  14. The impact of the minimum wage on the wage distribution: Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Pelek, Selin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of the minimum wage on the entire wage distribution. More specifically, we address the issue of wage inequality by taking into account the potential distributional outcomes of the minimum wage legislation. We decompose the wage differences and the changes in the wage inequality before and after the sizeable minimum wage increase in 2004 following the methodology introduced by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996). We use a non-parametric reweighting appro...

  15. Always Be Closing: Experiencing and theorizing time and wage in a UK call center

    OpenAIRE

    Pitts, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the author's experience of working in telesales. Through a call center, the case study company sells home improvements. The article describes the everyday organizational life of the telesales unit. Using this autoethnographic experience, the article analyses the organization of work-timein call centers. In particular, the article probes how commission constitutes a form of piece-wage. This piece-wage assists the manipulation of working hours. It does so by masking their e...

  16. Sex Differences in Occupational Choice, Pay, and Worth: A Supply-Side Approach to Understanding the Male-Female Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, John R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored utility of adopting supply-side approach to understanding the nature of wage differentials between men and women using job applicants (N=272) as subjects. Results suggested much of the wage gap can be explained by evaluations of outcomes other than pay, and gender-related differences in expectancies, instrumentalities, and valences with…

  17. An Equilibrium Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann

    This paper develops a theory of the gender wage gap. In a general equilibrium model, spouses devide their labor between a formal sector and a home sector. Due to indivisibility effects, productivity of labor in the formal sector is negatively related to labor used in the home; at the same time...... labor inputs are complementary in home production. We show that initial beliefs about the gender wage gap are self-fulfilling, and a central result is multiplicity of equilibria. Spouses allocate their labor equally, if they expect to earn the same wage rates, which ex post reinforces equal wage rates......; whereas they allocate their labor differently, if they expect to earn different wage rates. The latter situation manifests itself in a gender wage gap. By use of numerical examples, we show that welfare is highest when spouses allocate labor equally. We relate this finding to policy recommendations...

  18. The Trend over Time of the GenderWage Gap in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mussida, C.; Picchio, M.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse gender wage inequalities in Italy in the mid-1990s and in the mid-2000s. In this period important labour market developments occurred: institutional changes have loosened the use of flexible and atypical contracts; the female employment rates and educational levels have substantially

  19. Time-Series Evidence of the Effect of the Minimum Wage on Youth Employment and Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The study finds that a 10 percent increase in the federal minimum wage (or the coverage rate) would reduce teenage (16-19) employment by about one percent, which is at the lower end of the range of estimates from previous studies. (Author/SSH)

  20. Wage Dispersion, Public Sector Wages and the Stagnating Danish Gender Wage Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Oaxaca, Ronald L.; Smith, Nina

    1998-01-01

    The gender wage gap in Denmark has virtually stagnated since the early 70s. This study examines whether this stagnation is mainly due to a changing wage dispersion or to changing prices on observed and unobserved skills. Since about half the female labour force is employed in the public sector....... These techniques are applied to a sample of Danish wage earners in the period 1983-94. The decomposition results suggest different explanations behind the stagnation of the gender wage gap in the public and private sectors. The development in average public sector wages is calculated assuming observed......, the impact of the changing wage structure between the public and private sectors is investigated. The analysis is based on the Juhn-Murphy-Pierce decomposition applied to a pooled wage regression model. The equivalence between the former and the Oaxaca-Ransom generalized wage decomposition is established...

  1. Community College Enrollment, College Major, and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Andrew M.; Leigh, Duane E.

    2000-01-01

    Independent cross-sections developed using National Longitudinal Survey data reveal a decrease in the gender wage gap from 1989-1994 due to fewer differences in tenure and full-time employment. Disaggregating education by two- and four-year providers and college major accounts for 8.5-11% of the narrower wage gap for the period. (SK)

  2. Gender wage discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris

    2016-01-01

    There are pronounced and persistent wage differences between men and women in all parts of the world. A significant element of these wage disparities can be attributed to differences in worker and workplace characteristics, which are likely to mirror differences in worker productivity. However, a large part of these differences remains unexplained, and it is common to attribute them to discrimination by the employer that is rooted in prejudice against female workers. Yet recent empirical evid...

  3. Working conditions and leisure-time physical activity among waged workers in South Korea: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungah; Cho, Youngtae

    2015-01-01

    Although waged workers' working conditions have notably diversified in South Korea, there is little research addressing this issue. This study explores the relationship between working conditions and engagement in leisure-time physical activities (LTPA) among waged workers in South Korea. Data from 19- to 64-year-old waged workers (men=2,562, women=1,627) from the 11th wave of the Korean Income and Labor Panel Study were included in this study. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between LTPA and working conditions by gender. More than 75% of employed persons did not participate in any type of LTPA. For male workers, those in manual, precarious, overtime, and non-shift positions were less likely to engage in LTPA, while for female workers, only manual and overtime work positions were significant factors influencing a low level of LTPA. Some negative work-related factors were associated with low LTPA, especially for male workers. Further studies should be conducted to clarify the pathways and barriers precluding engagement in LTPA due to work-related factors.

  4. Can the Introduction of a Minimum Wage in FYR Macedonia Decrease the Gender Wage Gap?

    OpenAIRE

    F. Angel-Urdinola, Diego

    2008-01-01

    This paper relies on a simple framework to understand the gender wage gap in Macedonia, and simulates how the gender wage gap would behave after the introduction of a minimum wage. First, it presents a new - albeit simple - decomposition of the wage gap into three factors: (i) a wage level factor, which measures the extent to which the gender gap is driven by differences in wage levels amo...

  5. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Taylor, K

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  6. Oil production, oil prices, and macroeconomic adjustment under different wage assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, C.; Maleka, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous paper one of the authors developed a simple model to try to identify the possible macroeconomic adjustment processes arising in an economy experiencing a temporary period of oil production, under alternative wage adjustment assumptions, namely nominal and real wage rigidity. Certain assumptions were made regarding the characteristics of actual production, the permanent revenues generated from that oil production, and the net exports/imports of oil. The role of the price of oil, and possible changes in that price was essentially ignored. Here we attempt to incorporate the price of oil, as well as changes in that price, in conjunction with the production of oil, the objective being to identify the contribution which the price of oil, and changes in it, make to the adjustment process itself. The emphasis in this paper is not given to a mathematical derivation and analysis of the model's dynamics of adjustment or its comparative statics, but rather to the derivation of simulation results from the model, for a specific assumed case, using a numerical algorithm program, conducive to the type of theoretical framework utilized here. The results presented suggest that although the adjustment profiles of the macroeconomic variables of interest, for either wage adjustment assumption, remain fundamentally the same, the magnitude of these adjustments is increased. Hence to derive a more accurate picture of the dimensions of adjustment of these macroeconomic variables, it is essential to include the price of oil as well as changes in that price. (Author)

  7. Occupational segregation, selection effects and gender wage differences: evidence from urban Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Guillermo Isaza Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effects of occupational segregation on the gender wage gap in urban Colombia between 1986 and 2000. The empirical methodology involves a two step procedure where by the occupational distributions ofworkers by gender aremodelled using a multinomial logit model in the first stage. In the second stage, the multinomial logit estimates are used not only to derive a counterfactual occupational distribution of women in the absence of workplace discrimination but also to correct for selectivity bias in thewage equations for each occupational category using the procedure suggested by Lee (1983. Besides the explained and unexplained components in conventional decompositions of the gender wage gap, this methodology differentiates between the justified and unjustified effects of the gender allocation ofworkers across occupational categories. The results for urban Colombia indicate that controlling for selectivity bias at the occupational category level is found to be relevant in all years reviewed in this study. They also suggest that a changing composition of the female labour supply in terms of un observables (i.e., ability and motivation is playing a role in the dramatic reduction of the observed wage gap.

  8. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Many papers have documented a wage premium in foreign-owned and large firms. However, there is very little formal theory in the literature and empirical analyses are typically not based on hypotheses which are rigorously derived from theory. This paper contributes to the theory-empirics gap...... by developing a model that allows for two "pure" explanations for the wage premium. The first is a heterogenous-worker explanation along the lines of Yeaple (2005), where firms that select more scaleintensive technologies select ex-ante more productive workers. In this case, the wage premium is a pure selection...... phenomenon. The second explanation builds on the heterogeneous-firm model of Melitz (2003) combined with on-the-job learning as in Markusen (2001). Productivity differences between firms are internalized by ex-ante homogeneous workers, so the wage premium is a pure learning phenomenon due to ex-post higher...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1042 - Wages when paid and received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages when paid and received. 404.1042... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1042 Wages when paid and received. (a) In general. Wages are received by an employee at the time they are...

  10. Interindustry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Judith; Wolff, Edward N.

    1995-01-01

    Wages of female workers differ significantly by industry. The average woman earns about 65% as much as the average man; 12%-22% of the gap is explained by differences in patterns of interindustry wage differentials and 15%-19% by differences in gender distribution of workers. Combined industry effects explain about one-third of the gender wage…

  11. Rural Hospital Wages and the Area Wage Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kathleen; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Howard, Hilda A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined data on hospital hourly wages and the prospective payment system (PPS) wage index from 1990 to 1997, to determine if incremental changes to the index have improved its precision and equity as a regional cost adjuster. The differential between average rural and urban PPS hourly wages has declined by almost one-fourth over the 8-year study period. Nearly one-half of the decrease is attributable to regulatory and reporting changes in the annual hospital wage survey. Patterns of within-market wage variation across rural-urban continuum codes identify three separate sub-markets within the State-level aggregates defining rural labor markets. Geographic reclassification decisions appear to eliminate one of the three. Remaining systematic within-market rural wage differences work to the reimbursement advantage of hospitals in the smaller and more isolated communities. PMID:12545604

  12. Random social networks, unemployment and wage inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannides, Y.M.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies of labor markets show that social contacts are an important source of job-related information. At the same time, wage differences among workers may be explained only in part by differences in individual background characteristics. Such findings motivate our model in which

  13. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...... an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  14. Inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Ilan Tojerow; François Rycx

    2002-01-01

    This paper simultaneously analyses the gender wage gap and the inter-industry wage differentials in the Belgian private sector. On the basis of the 1995 Structure of Earning Survey, we estimate the inter-industry wage differentials by gender and the gender wage gap by industry. We find significant interindustry wage differentials for men and women, even when controlling for a large number of productivity-related factors. These differentials are highly correlated but significantly different. A...

  15. Distributional and behavioral effects of the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego-Granados, Patricia; Geyer, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap is a persistent labor market phenomenon. Most research focuses on the determinants of these wage differences. We contribute to this literature by exploring a different research question: if wages of women are systematically lower than male wages, what are the distributional consequences (disposable income) and what are the labor market effects (labor supply) of the wage gap? We demonstrate how the gender gap in gross hourly wages shows up in the distribution of disposable ...

  16. "A Quantile Regression Analysis of Wages in Panama."

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos M. Falaris

    2004-01-01

    I investigate differences in the effects of worker characteristics on wages in Panama at different points of the conditional wage distribution. Public sector employment increases wages of men and of women relatively more at lower quantiles. Public sector employment increases wages of the median worker in that sector and reduces wage inequality within the sector. The existence of a labor union at a worker’s workplace increases relatively more wages of men at lower quantiles. Labor unions reduc...

  17. Wage Setting in Democratic Labour Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand...... is iso-elastic and unemployment benefits may have only a small effect on wages if the median member differs from the average. These findings are in accordance with empirical results....

  18. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  19. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  20. Own-wage labor supply elasticities: variation across time and estimation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bargain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a huge variation in the size of labor supply elasticities in the literature, which hampers policy analysis. While recent studies show that preference heterogeneity across countries explains little of this variation, we focus on two other important features: observation period and estimation method. We start with a thorough survey of existing evidence for both Western Europe and the USA, over a long period and from different empirical approaches. Then, our meta-analysis attempts to disentangle the role of time changes and estimation methods. We highlight the key role of time changes, documenting the incredible fall in labor supply elasticities since the 1980s not only for the USA but also in the EU. In contrast, we find no compelling evidence that the choice of estimation method explains variation in elasticity estimates. From our analysis, we derive important guidelines for policy simulations.

  1. This time it's different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leder, Frederic; Shapiro, Judith N.

    2008-01-01

    There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil, after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time. Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next 5-10 years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy. Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East

  2. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE STARTING WAGE OF MASTER'S VS. BACHELOR'S DEGREE GRADUATES: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE HUNGARIAN GRADUATE CAREER TRACKING SURVEY 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Istvan Kun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the wage gap between bachelor‟s and master‟s degree graduates in the Hungarian labour market by NUTS2 regions. The databases used in the study have been gained from the Hungarian Graduate Career Tracking Survey conducted in 2012 as well as from public regional data sources of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Relying on these databases independent t-tests, variance and regression analyses are performed to 1 identify the starting wage premium of those graduated at master‟s level compared to others owning only a bachelor‟s degree in the regions of Hungary, and to 2 define the role of regional factors (economic development, labour market indicators, demographic variables in the wage differences. Major conclusions of the study are that 1 obtaining a master‟s degree forecasts a significantly higher starting wage in most of the observed geographical areas, but 2 the size of this positive contribution significantly differs region by region (partly depending on economic and labour market factors.

  3. WAGE TAX ACCOUNTING IN THE AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nftaliia Bondarhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to determine the order of accounting taxation wage and directions of its improvement in the agricultural enterprise. It was identified, that the accuracy of calculation of the related to wage amounts of mandatory payments to the budget depends on the correct definition of the amount of wage and its structure. It is noted, that in our country income tax from individuals and military collection is deducted from wages. Single social contributions is charged on the labor remuneration fund. Main accounts which are used for displaying in accounting for taxation of wages and basic accounting records were shown. It was stated, that taxation of wages, which is less than the minimum, despite the simple theoretical explanation, on practice is very time-consuming process which requires a certain sequence, accuracy and attentiveness. To improve the process of wages taxation we propose to calculate the amounts of the Single social contribution charged on wage which is less than minimum, in a specially developed form, which will help to simplify calculation of the Single social contribution on wage, which is less than minimum, that will help to improve wage tax accounting. Key words: taxes, accounting, wage, taxation of wage on enterprise.

  4. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of Wage Rates. 52....222-16 Approval of Wage Rates. As prescribed in 22.407(b), insert the following clause: Approval of Wage Rates (FEB 1988) All straight time wage rates, and overtime rates based thereon, for laborers and...

  5. Estimating the effects of wages on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, DaeHwan; Leigh, John Paul

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the effects of wages on obesity and body mass. Data on household heads, aged 20 to 65 years, with full-time jobs, were drawn from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for 2003 to 2007. The Panel Study of Income Dynamics is a nationally representative sample. Instrumental variables (IV) for wages were created using knowledge of computer software and state legal minimum wages. Least squares (linear regression) with corrected standard errors were used to estimate the equations. Statistical tests revealed both instruments were strong and tests for over-identifying restrictions were favorable. Wages were found to be predictive (P low wages increase obesity prevalence and body mass.

  6. Social psychology and gender efficiency wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Our paper introduces the dimension of social psychology in a model of efficiency wages and gender diversity. In this context, we show that women earn lower wages than men but provide in return relatively less effort. Therefore in order to increase women's productivity, the firm increases their level of employment. In our efficiency-wage theory, women’s lower wages is explained by assuming that efficiency-wages function for women are believed to be different from those of men. This could be th...

  7. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob R.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use detailed panel data covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides variation in the individual worker......'s wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. We find a wage premium associated with firm-level bargaining relative to sector-level bargaining and that the return to skills is higher under the more decentralized wage-setting systems. Using quantile regression......, we also find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems....

  8. Gender Pay Differences in the European Union: Do Higher Wages Make Up For Discrimination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.F. Canton (Erik); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores the role of social interactions at the work floor for understanding gender pay differences in the EU. Using data from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey, we find that sex similarity of subordinate and supervisor decreases the pay disadvantage for women in

  9. The Effects of Minimum Wage Throughout the Wage Distribution in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Gusvina Dewi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis in 2007 followed by Indonesia’s largest labor demonstration in 2013 encouraged turmoils on Indonesia labor market. This paper examines the effect of the minimum wage on wage distribution in 2007 and 2014 and how the minimum wage increases in 2014 affected the distribution of wage differences between 2007 and 2014. This study employs recentered influence function (RIF regression method to estimate the wage function by using unconditional quantile regression. Furthermore, to measure the effect of the minimum wage increase in 2014 on the distribution of wage differences, it uses the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition method. Using balanced panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS, it found that the minimum wage mitigates wage disparity in 2007 and 2014. The minimum wage policy in 2014 leads to an increase in the wage difference between 2007 and 2014, with the largest wage difference being in the middle distribution.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.6125

  10. A comparison of average wages with age-specific wages for assessing indirect productivity losses: analytic simplicity versus analytic precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Tashjian, Cole; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Bhatt, Aomesh; Postma, Maarten J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous approaches are used to estimate indirect productivity losses using various wage estimates applied to poor health in working aged adults. Considering the different wage estimation approaches observed in the published literature, we sought to assess variation in productivity loss estimates when using average wages compared with age-specific wages. Published estimates for average and age-specific wages for combined male/female wages were obtained from the UK Office of National Statistics. A polynomial interpolation was used to convert 5-year age-banded wage data into annual age-specific wages estimates. To compare indirect cost estimates, average wages and age-specific wages were used to project productivity losses at various stages of life based on the human capital approach. Discount rates of 0, 3, and 6 % were applied to projected age-specific and average wage losses. Using average wages was found to overestimate lifetime wages in conditions afflicting those aged 1-27 and 57-67, while underestimating lifetime wages in those aged 27-57. The difference was most significant for children where average wage overestimated wages by 15 % and for 40-year-olds where it underestimated wages by 14 %. Large differences in projecting productivity losses exist when using the average wage applied over a lifetime. Specifically, use of average wages overestimates productivity losses between 8 and 15 % for childhood illnesses. Furthermore, during prime working years, use of average wages will underestimate productivity losses by 14 %. We suggest that to achieve more precise estimates of productivity losses, age-specific wages should become the standard analytic approach.

  11. The unequal distribution of unequal pay - An empirical analysis of the gender wage gap in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorothe Bonjour; Michael Gerfin

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the distribution of the gender wage gap. Using microdata for Switzerland we estimate conditional wage distribution functions and find that the total wage gap and its discrimination component are not constant over the range of wages. At low wages an overproportional part of the wage gap is due to discrimination. In a further analysis of specific individuals we examine the wage gap at different quantiles and propose a new measure to assess equal earnings opportunities. ...

  12. Wage gap between men and women in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeddi, Hela; Malouche, Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating wage differences between males and females in Tunisia by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, a technical that isolates wage gap due to characteristics, from wage gap due to discrimination against women. The data used in the analysis is obtained from the Tunisian Population and Employment Survey 2005. It is estimated that, the gender wage gap is about 19% and the results ascertain that the gender wage gap is mostly attributed to discrimination, especially t...

  13. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. Overall, results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  14. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. The results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  15. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  16. Growth with Time Zone Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Kikuchi; Sugata Marjit

    2010-01-01

    We propose a two-country growth model of intermediate business-services trade that captures the role of time zone differences. It is shown that a time-saving improvement in intermediate business-services trade involving production in different time zones can have a permanent impact on productivity.

  17. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007). ...

  18. Polarization and Rising Wage Inequality: Comparing the U.S. and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Antonczyk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1970s, wage inequality has increased strongly both in the U.S. and Germany but the trends have been different. Wage inequality increased along the entire wage distribution during the 1980s in the U.S. and since the mid 1990s in Germany. There is evidence for wage polarization in the U.S. in the 1990s, and the increase in wage inequality in Germany was restricted to the top of the distribution before the 1990s. Using an approach developed by MaCurdy and Mroz (1995 to separate age, time, and cohort effects, we find a large role played by cohort effects in Germany, while we find only small cohort effects in the U.S. Employment trends in both countries are consistent with polarization since the 1990s. The evidence is consistent with a technology-driven polarization of the labor market, but this cannot explain the country specific differences.

  19. The gender wage gap in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in the gender differences in wages and employment rates. We then review methods used to decompose the gender wage gap and the results from such decompositions. We discuss how trends and differences in ...

  20. Job Training: Costs, Returns, and Wage Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Mincer

    1989-01-01

    Using information on time costs of training and gains in wages attributable to training I computed rates of return on training investments. The range of estimates based on several data sets generally exceeds the magnitudes of rates of return usually observed for schooling investments. It is not clear, however, that the difference represents underinvestment in job training. Two methods were used to estimate total annual costs of job training in the U.S. economy, for 1958, 1976, and 1987. The "...

  1. Gender wage gap studies : consistency and decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the gender wage gap, with particular attention given to the identification of the key parameters in human capital wage regression models. This is of great importance in the literature for two main reasons. First, the main explanatory variables in the wage model, i.e., measures of work experience and the time-out-of-work, are endogenous. As a result, applying traditional estimators may lead to inconsistent parameter estimates. Secon...

  2. Female relative wages, household specialization and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Falling fertility rates have often been linked to rising female wages. However, over the last 40 years the US total fertility rate has been rather stable while female wages have continued to grow. Over the same period, women's hours spent on housework have declined, but men's have increased. I propose a model in which households are not perfectly specialized, but both men and women contribute to home production. As the gender wage gap narrows, the time allocations of men and women converge, a...

  3. Segregation and the gender wage gaps in the private and the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Larsen, Mona; Stage Thomsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between segregation and the gender wage gap in the public and the private sectors in Denmark from 2002 to 2012. The analysis shows that male–female differences in the share of females in occupations, industries,establishments and job cells (occupations within...... establishments) constitute 46% of the raw gender wage gap in the private sector, while segregation in t he public sector accounts for as much as 63 %. Segregation thus plays a substantially more important role in accounting for the gender wage gap in the public sector than in the private sector. While...... the importance of segregation for wage formation decreased substantially in the public sector over time, it only decreased slightly in the private sector. Although the remaining gender wage gap, after controlling for segregation, is close to zero in the public sector, a substantial within-job cell differential...

  4. Jobs Taken by Mothers Moving from Welfare to Work and the Effects of Minimum Wages on This Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Peter D.

    The potential effects of raising the minimum wage on the earnings of mothers moving from welfare to work were examined by analyzing the differences that existed in the late 1980s in the various states' minimum wage rates and data from three waves of the Survey of Income and Program Participation for the years 1985-1990 (during which time 13 states…

  5. The Wage Curve in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Albæk, K.; Asplund, R.

    regions in the long run. One explanation put forward for this slow speed of regional wage adjustment is the rather centralized bargaining system on the labour market in the Nordic countries. Wages are set according to the average unemployment rate for the economy as a whole, and differences in regional...... for researchers or civil servants with a deeper interest in labour market problems. The main result from this study is that the wage formation at the regional level is rather inflexible in the short run in all five Nordic countries, with no effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level......This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value...

  6. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...

  7. Between Institutions and Global Forces: Norwegian Wage Formation Since Industrialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnar Nymoen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of labour market institutions in Norway, shows how labour market regulation has been related to the macroeconomic development, and presents dynamic econometric models of nominal and real wages. Single equation and multi-equation models are reported. The econometric modelling uses a new data set with historical time series of wages and prices, unemployment and labour productivity. Impulse indicator saturation is used to achieve robust estimation of focus parameters, and the breaks are interpreted in the light of the historical overview. A relatively high degree of constancy of the key parameters of the wage setting equation is documented, over a considerably longer historical time period than earlier studies have done. The evidence is consistent with the view that the evolving system of collective labour market regulation over long periods has delivered a certain necessary level of coordination of wage and price setting. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that global forces have been at work for a long time, in a way that links real wages to productivity trends in the same way as in countries with very different institutions and macroeconomic development.

  8. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The non......Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001....... The nonstationary wage sorting pattern is not due to compositional changes in the labor market, primarily occurs among high wage workers, and comprises 41 percent of the increase in the standard deviation of log real wages between 1980 and 2006. We show that the wage sorting trend is associated with worker...

  9. THE GENDER WAGE GAP IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2016-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages.Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. Weconcentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Althoughwomen earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entirewage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distribution. Moresurpris...

  10. A Way to Resolve the Gender Inequality in Wage: Economic irrationality of statistical discrimination (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes gender inequality in hourly wage that is still quite sizable in Japan. It does so first by breaking down the gender wage gap to its components: the gap within each type of employment, the gap arising from the gender difference in the distribution of employment types, and the gap arising from the gender difference in the age distribution of employees. I observe that gender wage gap among full-time regular employees is the largest contributing factor to this inequality, and ...

  11. Minimum Wages and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...

  12. Gender wage differentials in China's urban labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meiyan; Cai, Fang

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes and decomposes wage differences between female and male workers. The results indicate that females receive low wages because of unequal pay within sectors, and that the wage gap caused by the difference in sectoral attainment is small. The results also reveal that a lion’s share of the wage differential between females and males is attributable to discrimination rather than to the human capital difference between the genders. Eliminating discriminations against females wi...

  13. Perceived Wages and the Gender Gap in STEM Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Osikominu, Aderonke; Pfeifer, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    We estimate gender differences in elicited wage expectations among German Uni- versity students applying for STEM and non-STEM fields. Descriptively, women expect to earn less than men and also have lower expectations about wages of average graduates across different fields. Using a two-step estimation procedure accounting for self-selection, we find that the gender gap in own expected wages can be explained to the extent of 54-69% by wage expectations for average graduates across different f...

  14. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  15. Leadership Skills and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Peter; Weinberger, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    American business is devoting a growing share of resources to identifying and developing a worker characteristic called ³leadership skill². Is there such a thing, and is it rewarded in labor markets? Using the Project Talent, NLS72 and High School and Beyond datasets, we show that men who occupied leadership positions in high school earn more as adults, even when cognitive skills are held constant. The pure leadership-wage effect varies, depending on definitions and time period, from four p...

  16. The impact of the minimum wage on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Elena; Ukert, Benjamin

    2018-03-07

    This study evaluates the effect of minimum wage on risky health behaviors, healthcare access, and self-reported health. We use data from the 1993-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and employ a difference-in-differences strategy that utilizes time variation in new minimum wage laws across U.S. states. Results suggest that the minimum wage increases the probability of being obese and decreases daily fruit and vegetable intake, but also decreases days with functional limitations while having no impact on healthcare access. Subsample analyses reveal that the increase in weight and decrease in fruit and vegetable intake are driven by the older population, married, and whites. The improvement in self-reported health is especially strong among non-whites, females, and married.

  17. Tethered lives: A couple-based perspective on the consequences of parenthood for time use, occupation, and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; García-Manglano, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Prior research on parenthood effects has typically used single-sex models and estimated average effects. By contrast, we estimate population-level variability in partners' changes in housework hours, paid work hours, occupation traits, and wages after becoming parents, and we explore whether one partner's adjustment offsets or supplements the other's. We find tradeoffs between spouses on paid work adjustments to parenthood, but complementarity in adjustments to housework hours, occupation traits, and wages. The effect of parenthood on wives' behaviors is larger and more variable than on husbands' behaviors in every domain. The modest variation between husbands in work responses to parenthood explains little of the variation in the motherhood penalty, while variation in wives' own behaviors plays a larger role. We refer to this pattern as tethered autonomy: variation across American couples in work responses to parenthood is shaped primarily by variation in wives' adjustments, while husbands' work acts largely as a fixed point. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Youth Employment in Canada: A Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Terence

    2003-01-01

    Canadian panel data 1988-90 were used to compare estimates of minimum-wage effects based on a low-wage/high-worker sample and a low-wage-only sample. Minimum-wage effect for the latter is nearly zero. Different results for low-wage subgroups suggest a significant effect for those with longer low-wage histories. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  19. Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Juan; Cobb-Clark, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    We use HILDA data from 2001 - 2006 to analyse the source of the gender wage gap across public- and private-sector wage distributions in Australia. We are particularly interested in the role of gender segregation within sector-specific occupations in explaining relative wages. We find that, irrespective of labour market sector, the gender wage gap among low-paid, Australian workers is more than explained by differences in wage-related characteristics. The gender wage gap among high-wage worker...

  20. Occupational Experience, Mobility, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane

    In this paper we present how occupational tenure relates to wage growth and occupational mobility in Danish data. We show that the Danish data produces qualitatively similar results as found in U.S. data with respect to an increase in average wages when experience in an occupation increases. In a...... also is true for workers switching occupation and rm. After ve years of experience in an occupation the average probability of switching any type of occupation, including occupation and rm switches, has fallen from 25% to 12%........ In a sample of full time private employed, the first five years of experience in an occupation increases average wages with 8% to 15%, conditional on rm and industry tenure. We further show that the probability of switching occupation declines with experience in the occupation and that the declining hazard...

  1. A Distributional Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Ahmed; Pushkar Maitra

    2011-01-01

    This paper decomposes the gender wage gap along the entire wage distribution into an endowment effect and a discrimination effect, taking into account possible selection into full-time employment. Applying a new decomposition approach to the Bangladesh Labour Force Survey (LFS) data we find that women are paid less than men every where on the wage distribution and the gap is higher at the lower end of the distribution. Discrimination against women is the primary determinant of the wage gap. W...

  2. Is Productivity Linked To Wages? An Empirical Investigation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Soo Khoon

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between real wages, labor productivity and unemployment in Malaysia at the macroeconomic level, using time-series econometric techniques. The study found a long-term equilibrium relationship between labor productivity and real wages, but that unemployment was apparently unconnected to the system. The results suggested that labor productivity is positively related to real wage in the long run. However, the increase in real wage exceeds the increase in ...

  3. The association of minimum wage change on child nutritional status in LMICs: A quasi-experimental multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Ninez; Shimkhada, Riti; Raub, Amy; Daoud, Adel; Nandi, Arijit; Richter, Linda; Heymann, Jody

    2017-08-02

    There is recognition that social protection policies such as raising the minimum wage can favourably impact health, but little evidence links minimum wage increases to child health outcomes. We used multi-year data (2003-2012) on national minimum wages linked to individual-level data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 23 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that had least two DHS surveys to establish pre- and post-observation periods. Over a pre- and post-interval ranging from 4 to 8 years, we examined minimum wage growth and four nutritional status outcomes among children under 5 years: stunting, wasting, underweight, and anthropometric failure. Using a differences-in-differences framework with country and time-fixed effects, a 10% increase in minimum wage growth over time was associated with a 0.5 percentage point decline in stunting (-0.054, 95% CI (-0.084,-0.025)), and a 0.3 percentage point decline in failure (-0.031, 95% CI (-0.057,-0.005)). We did not observe statistically significant associations between minimum wage growth and underweight or wasting. We found similar results for the poorest households working in non-agricultural and non-professional jobs, where minimum wage growth may have the most leverage. Modest increases in minimum wage over a 4- to 8-year period might be effective in reducing child undernutrition in LMICs.

  4. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...... by the adjustment of the minimum wages from 2011to 2012 that levelled the minimum wage across economic sectors....

  6. Inequality-adjusted gender wage differentials in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Selezneva, Ekaterina; Van Kerm, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This paper exploits data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to re-examine the gender wage gap in Germany on the basis of inequality-adjusted measures of wage differentials which fully account for gender differences in pay distributions. The inequality-adjusted gender pay gap measures are significantly larger than suggested by standard indicators, especially in East Germany. Women appear penalized twice, with both lower mean wages and greater wage inequality. A hypothetical risky inve...

  7. 42 CFR 413.231 - Adjustment for wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment for wages. 413.231 Section 413.231... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.231 Adjustment for wages. (a) CMS adjusts the labor-related portion of the base rate to account for geographic differences in the area wage levels...

  8. The Impact Of Minimum Wage On Employment Level And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work has been carried out to analyze the critical impact of minimum wage of employment level and productivity in Nigeria. A brief literature on wage and its determination was highlighted. Models on minimum wage effect are being look into. This includes research work done by different economist analyzing it ...

  9. Wage Differentials between Women and Men in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LIsbeth; Deding, Mette

    In this working paper we present the first male/female analysis carried out on new wage statistical data from Statistics Denmark. The purpose of the analysis is to uncover factors of importance to the differences of men’s and women’s hourly wages and furthermore to make up any wage differential...

  10. Employment Duration and Resistance to Wage Reductions : Experimental Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burda, M.; Güth, W.; Kirchsteiger, G.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1998-01-01

    One of the long-standing puzzles in economics is why wages do not fall sufficiently in recessions so as to avoid increases in unemployment. Put differently, if the competitive market wage declines, why don't employers simply force their employees to accept lower wages as well? As an alternative to

  11. Curriculum Choice, Educational Performance, and Wages within Stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders; Walldorf, Jeanette

    to graduates specialized in Science (S), graduates specialized in Mathematics (M) have a starting wage that is 20 percent higher, and graduates specialized in Technology (T) have a starting wage that is approximately 15 percent higher; graduates specialized in Engineering (E) have a similar starting wage. Wage...... variation within the specific education program is of comparable importance to the wage variations between broad types and different lengths of education. Moreover, large variations in wages exist within the four STEM areas, which can be partly explained by course choice. Specifically, courses in M...... are associated with higher wages in most areas of specialization, which indicates that M is a general-purpose skill. In contrast, S, T and E are to a higher extent specific-purpose skills, as courses in these fields are not associated with higher wages if completed outside the area of specialization. In addition...

  12. Intrafirm Information Transfer and Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    Technical and other information may be a firm s most important asset.To benefit from its information, however, a firm has to reveal it to one or more employees.Better informed employees produce more, but at the same time they demand higher wages to prevent them from joining a business competitor or

  13. Is there a Double-Negative Effect? Gender and Ethnic Wage Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Piazzalunga

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the gender and ethnic wage differentials for female Immigrants, applying the Oaxaca ecomposition to estimate the level of discrimination. The gender pay gap is quite small (7.42%), but it's not explained by observable differences, whilst the ethnic wage gap is larger (27.11%), but the explained components account for about 30%. Ultimately, we will evaluate how the multiple levels of discrimination (due to being a woman and a foreigner at the same time) intersect, follo...

  14. Improving the conditions of workers? Minimum wage legilsation and anit-sweatshop activism

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Ann; Scorse, Jason

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, anti-sweatshop activists increased their efforts to improve working conditions and raise wages for workers in developing countries. Indonesia, home to dozens of Nike, Reebok, and Adidas subcontractors, was a primary target for these activists. At the same time, the Indonesian government (prompted by the U.S. government) greatly increased the minimum wage throughout Indonesia. This article analyzed the impact of these two different types of interventions on labor market ou...

  15. The Wage Premium of Globalization: Evidence from European Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Oberhofer, Harald; Stöckl, Matthias; Winner, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    We provide evidence on the impact of globalization on labor market outcomes analyzing pay differences between foreign-acquired and domestically-owned firms. For this purpose, we use firm level data from 16 European countries over the time period 1999 to 2006. Applying propensity score matching techniques we estimate positive wage premia of cross-boarder merger and acquisitions (M&As), suggesting that foreign acquired firms exhibit higher short-run (post-acquisition) wages than their domestic ...

  16. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  17. Specialization, outsourcing and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. We argue that if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains arising from an increase in the division...... of labor, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsourcing affect wages as predicted....

  18. Specialization, Outsourcing and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. By using a simple theoretical model, we argue that, if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains...... arising from an increase in the extent of the market for intermediate goods, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsurcing affect wages as predicted...... by the theory.Keywords: Outsourcing, Comparative advantage, Specialization, Wages.JEL Classification: F16, J31, C23....

  19. Wages and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Ommeren, Jos N. van; Pilegaard, Ninette

    2011-01-01

    We examine the causal effect of commuting distance on workers' wages in a quasi-natural experiments setting using information on all workers in Denmark. We account for endogeneity of distance by using changes in distance that are due to firms’ relocations. For the range of commuting distances where...... income tax reductions associated with commuting do not apply, one kilometre increase in commuting distance induces a wage increase of about 0.42%, suggesting an hourly compensation of about half of the hourly net wage. Our findings are consistent with wage bargaining theory and suggest a bargaining power...

  20. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Adolescent Fertility: A Nationwide Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Lindsey Rose

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effect of minimum wage laws on adolescent birth rates in the United States. I used a difference-in-differences approach and vital statistics data measured quarterly at the state level from 2003 to 2014. All models included state covariates, state and quarter-year fixed effects, and state-specific quarter-year nonlinear time trends, which provided plausibly causal estimates of the effect of minimum wage on adolescent birth rates. A $1 increase in minimum wage reduces adolescent birth rates by about 2%. The effects are driven by non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adolescents. Nationwide, increasing minimum wages by $1 would likely result in roughly 5000 fewer adolescent births annually.

  1. Great expectations: Reservation wages and the minimum wage reform

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorets, Alexandra; Filatov, Alexey; Shupe, Cortnie

    2018-01-01

    We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to show that introducing a high-impact statutory minimum wage causes an increase in reservation wages of approximately 4 percent at the low end of the distribution. The shifts in reservation wages and observed wages due to the minimum wage reform are comparable in their magnitude. Additional results show that German citizens adjust their reservation wages more than immigrants. Moreover, suggestive evidence points to a compensation mechanism in which immi...

  2. 75 FR 4099 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-06] Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional Classification and Wage Rate AGENCY: Office of... proposal. The information is used by HUD to determine or adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance...

  3. 75 FR 37457 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-54] Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional Classification and Wage Rate AGENCY: Office of... proposal. The information is used by HUD to determine or adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance...

  4. 27 CFR 70.162 - Levy and distraint on salary and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... salary and wages. 70.162 Section 70.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... § 70.162 Levy and distraint on salary and wages. (a) Notice of intent to levy. Levy may be made for any... salary or wages. A levy on salary or wages is continuous from the time of the levy until the liability...

  5. Do minimum wages improve early life health? Evidence from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-06-01

    The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Employment effects of minimum wages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

  7. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  8. Wage compression and the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Kahn

    2015-01-01

    There are large international differences in the gender pay gap. In some developed countries in 2010–2012, women were close to earnings parity with men, while in others large gaps remained. Since women and men have different average levels of education and experience and commonly work in different industries and occupations, multiple factors can influence the gender pay gap. Among them are skill supply and demand, unions, and minimum wages, which influence the economywide wage returns to educ...

  9. The gender wage GAP ın Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Arda; UYSAL, Gokce

    2017-01-01

    The most prominent form of gender discrimination in the labor market is the gender gap in wages. Using the Wage Structure Survey, a firm-level data set, we study the gender wage gap in Turkey. We concentrate on formal employment as this is the jurisdiction of the Labor Code in Turkey. Although women earn 3% less than men on average, a wider look reveals important differences along the entire wage distribution. There is virtually no gender gap at the lower end of the wage distr...

  10. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The two key predictions of hedonic wage theory are that there is a trade-off between wages and nonmonetary rewards and that the latter can be used as a sorting device by firms to attract and retain the kind of employees they desire. We use the vignettes method to estimate individuals' willingness...

  11. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)

  12. The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further......We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period...

  13. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    to the firm?s productivity. Foreign-owned firms have, on average, higher productivity in equilibrium due to entry costs, which means that low-productivity foreign firms cannot enter. Foreign firms have higher wage growth and, with some exceptions, pay higher average wages, but not when compared to similarly...... large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment...

  14. Quantile regression analysis of body mass and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Meliyanni; Katayama, Hajime

    2012-05-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the relationship between body mass and wages. We use quantile regression to provide a broad description of the relationship across the wage distribution. We also allow the relationship to vary by the degree of social skills involved in different jobs. Our results find that for female workers body mass and wages are negatively correlated at all points in their wage distribution. The strength of the relationship is larger at higher-wage levels. For male workers, the relationship is relatively constant across wage distribution but heterogeneous across ethnic groups. When controlling for the endogeneity of body mass, we find that additional body mass has a negative causal impact on the wages of white females earning more than the median wages and of white males around the median wages. Among these workers, the wage penalties are larger for those employed in jobs that require extensive social skills. These findings may suggest that labor markets reward white workers for good physical shape differently, depending on the level of wages and the type of job a worker has. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Wage flexibility and local labour markets: a test on the homogeneity of the wage curve in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse wage flexibility in Spain and its regional differences, departing from the estimation of wage curves. Using data from the Structure of Earnings Survey for 1995, 2002 and 2006, we estimate regional wage equations, relating the observed wage received by workers to a group of personal and job characteristics, as well as to the regional unemployment rate. This analysis allows us to test for the existence of regional differences in the degree of wage flexibility, which may have an important influence on the evolution of regional unemployment, given its impact on the ability of the local labour market to absorb negative shocks. Estimated results indicate that regions suffering from higher unemployment rates exhibit lower wage flexibility. Collective bargaining reforms should pursue greater wage flexibility, especially in regions with high rates of joblessness.

  16. Physician assistant wages and employment, 2000-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quella, Alicia; Brock, Douglas M; Hooker, Roderick S

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to assess physician assistant (PA) wages, make comparisons with other healthcare professionals, and project their earnings to 2025. The Bureau of Labor Statistics PA employment datasets were probed, and 2013 wages were used to explore median wage differences between large employer categories and 14 years of historical data (2000-2013). Median wages of PAs, family physicians and general practitioners, pharmacists, registered nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physical therapists were compared. Linear regression was used to project the PA median wage to 2025. In 2013, the median hourly wage for a PA employed in a clinical role was $44.70. From 2000 to 2013, PA wages increased by 40% compared with the cumulative inflation rate of 35.3%. This suggests that demand exceeds supply, a finding consistent with similar clinicians such as family physicians. A predictive model suggests that PA employment opportunities and remuneration will remain high through 2025.

  17. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Kristensen, Nicolai

    The two key predictions of hedonic wage theory are that there is a trade-o¤ between wages and nonmonetary rewards and that the latter can be used as a sorting device by firms to attract and retain the kind of employees they desire. Empirical analysis of these topics are scarce as they require...... negative wage-fringe trade-offs, con-siderable heterogeneity in willingness to pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting. The findings imply that personnel economics models can be applied also to the analysis of nonmonetary rewards....

  18. Entrepreneurship, Job Creation, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper analyses the importance of entrepreneurs for job creation and wage growth. Relying on unique data that cover all establishments, firms and individuals in the Danish private sector, we are able to distil a number of different subsets from the total set of new establishments - subsets wh...... are to a large extent low-wage jobs, as they are not found to contribute to the growth in average wages.......This paper analyses the importance of entrepreneurs for job creation and wage growth. Relying on unique data that cover all establishments, firms and individuals in the Danish private sector, we are able to distil a number of different subsets from the total set of new establishments - subsets...

  19. Entrepreneurship, job creation and wage growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; Sørensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

      This paper analyses the importance of entrepreneurs for job creation and wage growth. Relying on unique data that cover all establishments, firms and individuals in the Danish private sector, we are able to distil a number of different subsets from the total set of new establishments - subsets ...... are to a large extent low-wage jobs, as they are not found to contribute to the growth in average wages.......  This paper analyses the importance of entrepreneurs for job creation and wage growth. Relying on unique data that cover all establishments, firms and individuals in the Danish private sector, we are able to distil a number of different subsets from the total set of new establishments - subsets...

  20. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  1. Wage determination and discrimination among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J F

    1979-09-01

    In this study, the determinants of the wage rates of a large sample of individuals aged 58 to 63 are first analyzed. Second, an explanation for the large discrepancies existing between the average wage rates earned by whites and nonwhites and by men and women is attempted. Human capital and geographic variables were found to be important wage determinants. Education, vocational training, years of job tenure, health, region of residence and local cost of living were significant explanators, especially for whites. Differences in these variables, however, cannot completely explain the wage differentials that exist by race and sex. There is a large unexplained component (especially in the male-female comparison) offering evidence of race and sex discrimination among older workers. In the case of sex discrimination, much of the problem appears to be occupational segregation--the crowding of women into low paying industries and occupations.

  2. International Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.

  3. The Racial Wage Gap: The Importance of Labor Force Attachment Differences across Black, Mexican, and White Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antecol, Heather; Bedard, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Labor market attachment differs significantly across young black, Mexican, and white men. Although it has long been agreed that potential experience is a poor proxy for actual experience for women, many view it as an acceptable approximation for men. Using the NLSY, this paper documents the substantial difference between potential and actual…

  4. Estimating wage equations for Hungarian higher-education graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Galasi, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates the wage determination of Hungarian highereducation graduates with using two samples of Hungarian careerbeginners, applying IV techniques and the multiple indicator solution so as to diminish potential estimation biases due to endogeneity of independent variables (especially the education variable) and the simultaneity of wages and working time. The results show that university education yields considerable wage premium as compared to college education, and that the ret...

  5. Wage differentials between college graduates with and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L

    2002-01-01

    Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues.

  6. Asking about wages: Results from the Bank of Canada's Wage Setting Survey of Canadian companies

    OpenAIRE

    Amirault, David; Fenton, Paul; Laflèche, Thérèse

    2013-01-01

    The Bank of Canada conducted a Wage Setting Survey with a sample of 200 private sector firms from mid-October 2007 to May 2008. Results indicate that wage adjustments for the Canadian non-union private workforce are overwhelmingly time dependent, with a fixed duration of one year, and are clustered in the first four months of the year, suggesting that wage stickiness may not be constant over the year. Ad hoc adjustments between these fixed dates are rare, but when they do occur they are almos...

  7. Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William Wascher

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...

  8. Mobility for care workers: job changes and wages for nurse aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Vanesa; Dill, Janette S; Cohen, Philip N

    2012-12-01

    The long-term care industry in the United States faces serious recruitment and retention problems among nurse aides. At the same time, these low-wage workers may feel trapped in poorly-paid jobs from which they would do well to leave. Despite this tension, not enough is known about how workers fare when they leave (or stay in) such care work. Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation for the years 1996-2003, we examine the relationship between different job and occupational mobility patterns and wage outcomes for nurse aides, focusing on which job transitions offer better opportunities to earn higher wages and on whether job transition patterns differ by race. Our results confirm high turnover among nurse aides, with 73 percent of the sample working in occupations other than nurse aide at some point during the survey time frame. About half of respondents that transition out of nurse aide work move into higher-paying occupations, although the percentage of transitions to higher paying occupations drops to 35 percent when nurse aides that become RNs are excluded. Among black workers especially, wage penalties for moving into other jobs in the low-wage labor market appear to be rather small, likely a factor in high turnover among nurse aides. The findings illustrate the importance of occupation-specific mobility trajectories and their outcomes for different groups of workers, and for understanding the constrained decisions these workers make. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Education, cost of living and regional wage inequality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana M.S. Servo; Carlos R. Azzoni

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze wage inequality among the 10 largest metropolitan regions in Brazil in the 1990s. We assess the extent to which worker characteristics (education, age, gender, race, position in the family) and job characteristics (occupational position, sector, experience) can explain wage inequality. The analysis is made both with regional-nominal and with regional-real wage data. In the second case regional price indexes are used to control for differences in cos...

  10. Cohort Effects on the Gender Wage Gap in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naur, Michèle; Smith, Nina

    1996-01-01

    In this study the gender wage gap within three birth cohorts is analysed on the basis of a panel sample of Danish workers covering the period 1979-1990. During the latest decades there has been a considerable change in the female participat ion rate, the part time frequency and the educational...... level of women. The changed position of women and the building up of the welfare state have made women less dependent on the income of a husband and changed the division of labour within the households. These changes may, to a large extent, be caused by differences between older and younger cohorts....... Traditional human capital wage functions are estimated in order to investigate to what extent these changes are reflected in cohort differences with respect to the influence that children, marriage, labour market experience and educational level may have on the earning capacity...

  11. INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND UNEXPLAINED GENDER WAGE GAPS: EVIDENCE FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Jorge Molina Tejerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has the objective of showing evidence that there would be a reduction on wage differences between men and women in agriculture if they participate in international trade. The methodology that will be used is based on Molina[Mol10], who used Becker [Bec71] as a knowledge base for his study. This methodology consists on showing that wage difference occurs because of a taste for discrimination. This means that companies are willing to pay a higher salary to men just because they want to. But because international trade brings new competence to the markets, local companies need to be more competitive to survive. Therefore they wouldn’t be able to pay higher wages to men; this would reduce the wage difference by gender. Agriculture shows a different behavior from other sectors due to the strong agricultural subsidies governments give, De la Dehesa[Del03]. Using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition an estimate wage can be found for both men and women in tradable and non-tradable sectors of agriculture. At the same time two components will be found, one of them shows the difference produced by factors that affect the productivity of an individual. The second component shows the difference that cannot be explained, this is where discrimination is shown. Once these results are found they will be compared to find out if they are different in tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results that have been found show consistency with Molina’s study for the year 2002. Agriculture shows a behavioral difference from other economic sectors and different from Becker’s idea. As there is no unexplained wage difference by gender between tradable and non-tradable sectors. The results show that the difference is that these two sectors are the same. Thus international trade doesn’t result in a reduction of inequality in agriculture.

  12. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...

  13. Wages in Rwanda. WageIndicator survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Ngeh Tingum, E.; Mbassana, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Rwanda, conducted between the 27th of October and the 3rd of December 2012. The survey aimed to measure in detail the wages earned by Rwandan workers. In total 2,074 persons were interviewed in towns in

  14. Interpreting Minimum Wage Effects on Wage Distributions: A Cautionary Tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Flinn

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile it is tempting to infer the welfare effects of minimum wage changes from empirical observations on pre- and post-change wage distributions, in this exercise we have attempted to point out the hazards of doing so. We have focused on wage distributions in this paper, but this

  15. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007. The aim of this article is to present selected results of two researches of acceptance of the statutory minimum wage by Czech enterprises. The first research makes use of the data collected by questionnaire research in 83 small and medium-sized enterprises in the South Moravia Region in 2005, the second one the data of 116 enterprises in the entire Czech Republic (in 2007. The data have been processed by means of the standard methods of descriptive statistics and of the appropriate methods of the statistical analyses (Spearman correlation coefficient of sequential correlation, Kendall coefficient, χ2 - independence test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and others.

  16. Employer Sanctions and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brownell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.

  17. Performance pay and the gender wage gap : evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rica, Sara de la; Dolado, Juan José; Vegas Sánchez, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses detailed information from a large wage survey in 2006 to analyze the gender wage gap in the performance-pay (PP) component of total hourly wages and its contribution to the overall gender gap in Spain. Under the assumption that PP is determined in a more competitive fashion than the other wage components, one would expect, in principle, to find a low gender gap in PP. However, this is not what we find. After controlling for observable differences in individual and job characte...

  18. Swimming with the tide: solidarity wage policy and the gender earnings gap

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Per-Anders; Richardson, Katarina

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of wage compression for the gender wage gap in Sweden during the period 1968-1991. We find that the effects of changes in the wage structure on women’s wages have varied over time and have had partly counteracting effects. Changes in industry wage differentials have systematically worked against women, while the changes in the returns to human capital and unobserved characteristics have contributed to reductions in the gender wage gap. Changes ...

  19. Decomposition of the Gender Wage Gap Using Matching: An Application for Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dragana Djurdjevic; Sergiy Radyakin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the gender wage differentials for Switzerland. Using micro data from the Swiss Labour Force Survey, we apply a matching method to decompose the wage gap in Switzerland. Compared to the traditional Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, this nonparametric technique does not require any estimation of wage equations and accounts for wage differences that can be due to differences in the support. Our estimation results show that the problem of gender differences in the suppor...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-2 - Wages; when paid and received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages; when paid and received. 31.3121(a)-2... § 31.3121(a)-2 Wages; when paid and received. (a) In general, wages are received by an employee at the time that they are paid by the employer to the employee. Wages are paid by an employer at the time that...

  1. Body composition and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship between body composition and wages in the United States. We develop measures of body composition--body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM)--using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research uses body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside the human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying...

  3. Profiles of fertility, labour supply and wages of married women: a complete life-cycle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, R

    1984-01-01

    Trends in fertility and female labor supply have changed dramatically since World War II. Fertility rates rose steadily from the 1940's until the early 1960's and thereafter declined, while female laborforce participation rates have continually grown since the 1950's. These 2 rates are closely linked. Labor supply and fertility decisions are also life-cycle decisions. In addition, wage and job prospects are related to job choice and in turn to fertility decisions. Labor supply, fertility, and wages are linked in an econometric model which takes into account the problems of heterogeneity of tastes, the problem of missing wage rates through nonworking, and the problem of simultaneous-equations bias. Past works are critiqued, mainly on the basis that few analyses recognize the interrelatedness of fertility and labor supply in any sense--static or dynamic. Nor do most researchers consider age-specific fertility equations in analyzing female labor supply. Moffitt's model is a beginning analysis of fertility and labor supply as a joint consumer-demand choice. Patterns of a couple's future consumption, wife's labor supply, and births are assumed to be planned at the beginning of marriage. These patterns depend on the constraints of budget, fertility, and of inverse production (the differing amounts of time it takes to care for a child as the child matures) as well as wage accumulation. Exogenous wealth and beginning wages are considered as well. This model does not account for a woman's work experience prior to marriage. According to the model, fertility rates rise in the 1st year of marriage and subsequently fall off. Employment rates drop off at an accelerating rate until the 6th year of marriage and then increase. A rise in wage level decreases the probability of birth and increases the probability ow working. Also, changes in fertility rates have more to do with wage changes than with a woman's cohort.

  4. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  5. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Sbardella

    Full Text Available Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  6. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country’s economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990–2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990–2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States. PMID:28926577

  7. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Angelica; Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  8. Effect of different planting time on different varieties of strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yue; Luo, Ya; Ge, Cong; Mo, Qin; Lin, Yajie; Luo, Shu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    The experiment chose two strawberry varieties which planted in two periods of September 10 and September 20, in order to identify the optimum planting time of strawberries by exploring the effects of different planting time on strawberry quality and flowering initially. The results showed that different planting time will affect the growth and quality of strawberry, and the quality of September 10 planting strawberries is better than September 20 planting strawberries while there do exist some differences between strawberry varieties. In summary, the preliminary determination is that in Hanyuan area, the Hong Yan and Zhang Ji's optimum planting time is 10 September.

  9. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

    in a general equilibrium framework. For the empirical analysis we employ the IABS, a two percent sample of the German labor force. We find that the elasticity of the wage curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with a university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers......  Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  10. THE ROLE OF LOCATION IN EVALUATING RACIAL WAGE DISPARITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2013-05-01

    A standard object of empirical analysis in labor economics is a modified Mincer wage function in which an individual's log wage is specified to be a function of education, experience, and an indicator variable identifying race. We analyze this approach in a context in which individuals live and work in different locations (and thus face different housing prices and wages). Our model provides a justification for the traditional approach, but with the important caveat that the regression should include location-specific fixed effects. Empirical analyses of men in U.S. labor markets demonstrate that failure to condition on location causes us to (i) overstate the decline in black-white wage disparity over the past 60 years, and (ii) understate racial and ethnic wage gaps that remain after taking into account measured cognitive skill differences that emerge when workers are young.

  11. THE ROLE OF LOCATION IN EVALUATING RACIAL WAGE DISPARITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Kolesnikova, Natalia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    A standard object of empirical analysis in labor economics is a modified Mincer wage function in which an individual’s log wage is specified to be a function of education, experience, and an indicator variable identifying race. We analyze this approach in a context in which individuals live and work in different locations (and thus face different housing prices and wages). Our model provides a justification for the traditional approach, but with the important caveat that the regression should include location-specific fixed effects. Empirical analyses of men in U.S. labor markets demonstrate that failure to condition on location causes us to (i) overstate the decline in black-white wage disparity over the past 60 years, and (ii) understate racial and ethnic wage gaps that remain after taking into account measured cognitive skill differences that emerge when workers are young. PMID:25798025

  12. Wage Differentials by Field of Study--The Case of German University Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Barbara S.; Goerlitz, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Using data on German university graduates, this paper analyzes wage differentials by field of study at labor market entry and five to six years later. At both points of time, graduates from arts/humanities have lower average monthly wages compared to other fields. Blinder-Oaxaca decompositions show that these wage differentials can be explained…

  13. A comparison of average wages with age-specific wages for assessing indirect productivity losses : Analytic simplicity versus analytic precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P; Tashjian, Cole; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Bhatt, Aomesh; Postma, Maarten J

    Objectives: Numerous approaches are used to estimate indirect productivity losses using various wage estimates applied to poor health in working aged adults. Considering the different wage estimation approaches observed in the published literature, we sought to assess variation in productivity loss

  14. Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in STEM: Does Field Sex Composition Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Michelmore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the National Science Foundation's SESTAT data, we examine the gender wage gap by race among those working in computer science, life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. We find that in fields with a greater representation of women (the life and physical sciences, the gender wage gap can largely be explained by differences in observed characteristics between men and women working in those fields. In the fields with the lowest concentration of women (computer science and engineering, gender wage gaps persist even after controlling for observed characteristics. In assessing how this gap changes over time, we find evidence of a narrowing for more recent cohorts of college graduates in the life sciences and engineering. The computer sciences and physical sciences, however, show no clear pattern in the gap across cohorts of graduates.

  15. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  16. Time perception and time perspective differences between adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Nicolson Y F; Lam, Heidi H Y; Le, Jacqueline J Y; Przepiorka, Aneta M

    2014-09-01

    The present experiment aimed to investigate the differences in time perception and time perspective between subjects representing two developmental stages, namely adolescence and middle adulthood. Twenty Chinese adolescents aged 15-25 and twenty Chinese adults aged 35-55 participated in the study. A time discrimination task and a time reproduction task were implemented to measure the accuracy of their time perception. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (Short-Form) was adopted to assess their time orientation. It was found that adolescents performed better than adults in both the time discrimination task and the time reproduction task. Adolescents were able to differentiate different time intervals with greater accuracy and reproduce the target duration more precisely. For the time reproduction task, it was also found that adults tended to overestimate the duration of the target stimuli while adolescents were more likely to underestimate it. As regards time perspective, adults were more future-oriented than adolescents, whereas adolescents were more present-oriented than adults. No significant relationship was found between time perspective and time perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decomposing wage distributions on a large data set - a quantile regression analysis of the gender wage gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Brink Thomsen, Lars

    This paper presents and implements a procedure that makes it possible to decompose wage distributions on large data sets. We replace bootstrap sampling in the standard Machado-Mata procedure with ‘non-replacement subsampling’, which is more suitable for the linked employer-employee data applied i...... in gender wage differences in the lower part of the wage distribution.......This paper presents and implements a procedure that makes it possible to decompose wage distributions on large data sets. We replace bootstrap sampling in the standard Machado-Mata procedure with ‘non-replacement subsampling’, which is more suitable for the linked employer-employee data applied...... in this paper. Decompositions show that most of the glass ceiling is related to segregation in the form of either composition effects or different returns to males and females. A counterfactual wage distribution without differences in the constant terms (or ‘discrimination’) implies substantial changes...

  18. Varieties of Inequality: Allocation, Distribution, and the Wage Disadvantages of Immigrant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kesler, Christel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I ask how immigrant/native-born wage gaps differ in two institutionally distinct receiving societies in Western Europe: Sweden, with a comparatively equal wage structure, and the United Kingdom, with a comparatively unequal wage structure. Using large, nationally representative data sets and focusing on 30 immigrant groups that reside in both countries, I document two distinct kinds of inequality between immigrant and native-born workers. In terms of wage percentiles, immigrant...

  19. Does Manager Gender Matter? : The Association between Female Manager and Wages of Male and Female Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Hultqvist, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Women in the Swedish labor market have lower wage than men on average. There are multiple reasons for this gender wage differential. Among other things, processes at the organizational level have been stressed. Some researchers argue that the gender of the manager has an effect on wages and that this effect might differ for men and women. Prior studies have analyzed the potential effect of manager gender on wages, but few empirical studies have scrutinized the question. The studies that exist...

  20. Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...... with detailed case studies of five industries to explore why low-end jobs are so different in Denmark. Some jobs that are low-paying in the United States, including hotel maids and meat processors, though still demanding, are much more highly compensated in Denmark. And Danes, unlike American workers, do...

  1. Transferring the Cost of Wage Rigidity to Subcontracting Firms: The Case of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangho Woo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We select a Korean case with ample subcontracting practices and a rigid wage system. Workplaces with subcontract transactions would have reason to impute the additional wage incremental costs associated with the seniority-based wage system (Hobong in Korea to subcontractors. Our empirical results identify the cost-transferring mechanism under which the cost of wage rigidity for contractors is transferred to subcontracting firms and aggravates the wage inequality among workers in contracting and subcontracting firms. We analyze the industrial difference in the intensity of this transferring mechanism and probe policy directions considering the improvement of both the subcontracting structure and pay system simultaneously. For the sustainability of firms, they need to reform a seniority-based wage system, an incentive-based wage system or a job-based wage system and the exploited subcontracting structure for creating share value.

  2. Reservation Wages, Search Duration, and Accepted Wages in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Centeno, Mário; Portugal, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses data from the European Community Household Panel, 1994-99, to investigate the arrival rate of job offers, the determinants of reservation wages, transitions out of unemployment, and accepted wages. In this exploratory treatment, we report that the arrival rate of job offers declines precipitously with jobless duration and age; that reservation wages do decline with the jobless spell (and aggregate unemployment); that transitions out of unemployment exhibit strong negative dura...

  3. Same Hours, Different Time Distribution: Any Difference in EFL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Raquel; Munoz, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the distribution of instructional time on the acquisition of a second or foreign language are still not well known. This paper will analyze the performance of adult students enrolled in three different types of EFL programs in which the distribution of time varies. The first one, called "extensive", distributes a total of 110 h in 7…

  4. Using normalized equations to solve the indetermination problem in the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition: an application to the gender wage gap in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Scorzafave,Luiz Guilherme; Pazello,Elaine Toldo

    2007-01-01

    There are hundreds of works that implement the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. However, this decomposition is not invariant to the choice of reference group when dummy variables are used. This paper applies the solution proposed by Yun (005a,b) for this identification problem to Brazilian gender wage gap estimation. Our principal finding is the increasing difference in part-time work coefficients between men and women, which contributes to narrow the gender wage gap. Other studies in Brazil not...

  5. Low-Wage Counties Face Locational Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Robert; Cromartie, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Small populations and remoteness are the most salient features of low-wage counties. These locational attributes coincide with fewer high-wage jobs, yet low wages within industries define low-wage counties more than industry composition. Although adults in low-wage counties have less education and labor force participation overall, the role played…

  6. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  7. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. [45 FR 85664, Dec. 30, 1980] ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section 551.311...

  8. Wages in Labour Market Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryńska Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Already classical economists took interest in the role of wages and wage formation mechanisms, as well as in their influence on other components of the labour market. This article aims to systematise contemporary approaches to wages as one of the labour market components that have been developed within major economic theories. The systemization will serve as a basis for identifying main interactions between wages and other labour market components, such as labour supply and demand and labour market disequilibrium. The article presents major concepts formulated within neo-classical and Keynesian theories, labour market segmentation theories, efficiency wage theory, rent-sharing and rent-extraction theories, theory of job search, and search-and-matching models. One of the conclusions arising from the discussion is that the evolution of contemporary labour markets is a challenge for researchers seeking wage formation models adequately describing the real-life circumstances.

  9. Time-dependent problems and difference methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Oliger, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . fills a considerable gap in the numerical analysis literature by providing a self-contained treatment . . . this is an important work written in a clear style . . . warmly recommended to any graduate student or researcher in the field of the numerical solution of partial differential equations."" -SIAM Review Time-Dependent Problems and Difference Methods, Second Edition continues to provide guidance for the analysis of difference methods for computing approximate solutions to partial differential equations for time-de

  10. The Wage Gap: Briefing Paper #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    Women have made slow, steady progress in the labor market since 1979, but the wage gap has not narrowed significantly. This briefing paper updates a September 1987 paper based on "Male-Female Differences in Work Experience, Occupations, and Earnings: 1984" (Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 10, issued in…

  11. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  12. Employee Referrals and Efficiency Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, Adriana D.

    2002-01-01

    Many workers believe that personal contacts are crucial for obtaining jobs in high-wage sectors. On the other hand, firms in high-wage sectors report using employee referrals because they help provide screening and monitoring of new employees. This Paper develops a matching model that can explain the link between inter-industry wage differentials and the use of employee referrals. Referrals lower monitoring costs because high-effort referees can exert peer pressure on co-workers, allowing fir...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1247 - When to report wages-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When to report wages-for wages paid prior to... Report Wages and Contributions-for Wages Paid Prior to 1987 § 404.1247 When to report wages—for wages paid prior to 1987. A State shall report wages for the calendar year in which they were actually paid...

  14. Implementation Of The Local Minimum Wage In Malang City (A Case Study in Malang City 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhea Candra Dewi Candra Dewi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wage system in a framework of how wages set and defined in order to improve the welfare of worker. The Indonesian government attempt to set a minimum wage in accordance with the eligibility standard of living. The study intend to analize the policy of Local Minimum Wage in Malang City in 2014, its implementation and constraining factors of those Local Minimum Wages. The research uses interactive model analysis as introduced by Miles and Hubermann [6] that consist of data collection, data reduction, data display, and conclusion. Constraining factors seen at the respond given by relevant actors to the policy such as employer organizations, worker unions, wage councils, and local government. Firstly, company as employer organization does not use wage scale system as suggested by the policy. Secondly, lack of communication forum between company and worker union sounds very high. Thirdly, inability of small and big companies to pay minimum standard wages. Lastly, disagreement and different opinion about wage scale applied between local wage council, employer organization and workers union that often occurs in tripartite communication forum.     Keywords: Employers Organization, Local Minimum Wage, Local Wage Council, Policy Implementation, Tripartite Communication forum, Workers Union.

  15. Economic policy and the double burden of malnutrition: cross-national longitudinal analysis of minimum wage and women's underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Crespi, Catherine M; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2018-04-01

    To examine changes in minimum wage associated with changes in women's weight status. Longitudinal study of legislated minimum wage levels (per month, purchasing power parity-adjusted, 2011 constant US dollar values) linked to anthropometric and sociodemographic data from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys (2000-2014). Separate multilevel models estimated associations of a $10 increase in monthly minimum wage with the rate of change in underweight and obesity, conditioning on individual and country confounders. Post-estimation analysis computed predicted mean probabilities of being underweight or obese associated with higher levels of minimum wage at study start and end. Twenty-four low-income countries. Adult non-pregnant women (n 150 796). Higher minimum wages were associated (OR; 95 % CI) with reduced underweight in women (0·986; 0·977, 0·995); a decrease that accelerated over time (P-interaction=0·025). Increasing minimum wage was associated with higher obesity (1·019; 1·008, 1·030), but did not alter the rate of increase in obesity prevalence (P-interaction=0·8). A $10 rise in monthly minimum wage was associated (prevalence difference; 95 % CI) with an average decrease of about 0·14 percentage points (-0·14; -0·23, -0·05) for underweight and an increase of about 0·1 percentage points (0·12; 0·04, 0·20) for obesity. The present longitudinal multi-country study showed that a $10 rise in monthly minimum wage significantly accelerated the decline in women's underweight prevalence, but had no association with the pace of growth in obesity prevalence. Thus, modest rises in minimum wage may be beneficial for addressing the protracted underweight problem in poor countries, especially South Asia and parts of Africa.

  16. Wages and commuting: quasi-natural experiments' evidence from firms that relocate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; van Ommeren, Jos N.

    We examine the causal effect of commuting distance on workers' wages in a quasi-natural experiments setting using information on all workers in Denmark. We account for endogeneity of distance by using changes in distance that are due to firms’ relocations. A one kilometre increase in commuting...... distance induces a wage increase of about 0.42%, suggesting an hourly commuting time compensation of 49% of the hourly net wage. Our findings are consistent with wage bargaining theory and due to the experimental setup we are able to exclude many competing explanations of the wage-distance relationship....

  17. The US Finance Wage Premium Before and After the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capuano, Stella; Lai, Tat-kei; Schmerer, Hans-Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Does the recent financial crisis change the wage structures of the US finance and nonfinance sectors? In this article, we study the wage gap between workers in these two sectors between 1990 and 2011. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we find that the finance wage premium increased...... over time and only dropped modestly during the crisis. Using the Oaxaca–Blinder method to decompose the wage gap into ‘explained’ and ‘unexplained’ parts, we also find that the wage gap was entirely driven by unexplained factors....

  18. EXPLAINING THE MOTHERHOOD WAGE PENALTY DURING THE EARLY OCCUPATIONAL CAREER

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAFF, JEREMY; MORTIMER, JEYLAN T.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Youth Development Study, we find that accumulated months not in the labor force and not enrolled in school explain the residual pay gap between mothers and other women. PMID:22037996

  19. Age, wage, and job placement: older women's experiences entering the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality.

  20. Qualifications, Discrimination, or Assimilation? An Extended Framework for Analysing Immigrant Wage Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    2001-01-01

    separate wage equations for natives and a number of immigrant groups using panel data sample selection models. Based on the estimations, we find that the immigrant wage gap is caused by a lack of qualifications and incomplete assimilation, and that a large fraction of that gap would disappear if only......In this paper, we analyze immigrant wage gaps and propose an extension of the traditional wage decomposition technique, which is a synthesis from two strains of literature on ethnic/immigrant wage differences, namely the 'assimilation literature' and the 'discrimination literature'. We estimate...

  1. Qualifications, Discrimination, or Assimilation? An Extended Framework for Analysing Immigrant Wage Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    separate wage equations for natives and a number of immigrant groups using panel data sample selection models. Based on the estimations, we find that the immigrant wage gap is caused by a lack of qualifications and incomplete assimilation, and that a large fraction of that gap would disappear if only......In this paper, we analyze immigrant wage gaps and propose an extension of the traditional wage decomposition technique, which is a synthesis from two strains of literature on ethnic/immigrant wage differences, namely the 'assimilation literature' and the 'discrimination literature'. We estimate...

  2. On Globalisation, Trade and Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.

    1997-01-01

    Low skilled workers have been facing declining real wages during the 80s in the US, while high skilled workers gained in the same period.This decrease in the relative wage of the low skilled provoked a lively debate on the causes of the observed decline.A lot of academic authors have opposed to the

  3. Gender, race & the veteran wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wage Inequality and Return to Education in Indonesia: Quantile Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restuning Dyah Widyanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to the government to recognize the factors causing the increasing trend of income inequality in Indonesia since the Gini coefficient increased between 1996 and 2016. Moreover, wage inequality, which represented by high percentile and low percentile of income, also shows widening gap since 2003. This study focuses on the factors of wage inequality acceleration through the supply side approach that follows the Mincerian wage equation model. Specifically, this paper aims to investigate the association between the return to education and wage inequality in Indonesia. The quantile regression method is applied to compute the return on the investment at different points of the wage distribution. The main finding is that education contributes to an increasing wage inequality due to the significant variation in the rate of return to education in different quantile and as increasing wage dispersion within the same education.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i1.6071

  5. Young people's leisure time: Gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Videnović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, topics relating to young peoples leisure time have become increasingly more present in academic literature. Among the numerous studies that delve into this subject, results point towards a relationship between the way teenagers spend their leisure time and their gender. In this study we wanted to answer the question if gender differences were evident in the way secondary school students in Serbia spent their leisure time. This problem was not looked into in more detail among secondary school students in Serbia. We conducted a survey on a sample of 922 secondary school teenagers from the 1st to 4th grade(ages 15–19 from nine Serbian towns. Research in this field commonly uses the rating scale. In this paper we have constructed an instrument that represents a methodological innovation in approaching a particular set of problems. It was a questionnaire. The task was to name all the activities they participated in, and the time frame in which the activities took place, over the course of one weekday and the Saturday of the previous week. The activities which best differentiate these two groups of surveyed teenagers are: sports, studying, computer use, spending time at friends’ homes and grooming. We did not discover differences in participating in creative activities while foreign studies show that such activities are more typical for girls.

  6. The gender wage gap and the overcrowding theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo Bru, María

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau. Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2016-2017 “The gender wage gap and the overcrowding theory” is a study based on the obstacles of the female gender when they try to get a job, besides to promote and obtain senior positions. In order to understand the situation as well as the effect and context of the wage gap, we have analyzed different theories and documents. We have emphasized in concepts like overcrowding and wage gap as the most im...

  7. Roma Women in Athenian Firms: Do They Face Wage Bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Drydakis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we analyze the effect of having a Roma background on women's wages. By utilizing the Athens Area Study random sample (2007-08) drawn from 16 multiethnic municipalities in which Roma live, we estimate that 66.1% of the wage differential between Roma and non-Roma female workers cannot be explained by differences in observed characteristics. Prejudices against Roma women are discussed and appear to explain the wage gap found here. The occupational segregation of the Roma in...

  8. The informal sector wage gap among Vietnamese micro-firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth; Rand, John

    2012-01-01

    Based on unique firm survey data from 2009, this paper examines the wage differential between formal and informal manufacturing household enterprises in Vietnam. Using the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method, we investigate whether the wage gap is attributed mostly to differences in observable...... characteristics (the endowments) between formal and informal firms, or to variations in the returns to these characteristics (the unexplained component). The results show that average wages are 10%–20% higher in formal firms and that the majority of this gap is due to observable characteristics, in particular...

  9. Dimensions of the Wage-Unemployment Relationship in the Nordic Countries: Wage Flexibility without Wage Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Asplund, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses wage formation in the Nordic countries at the regional level by the use of micro-data. Our results deviate systematically from the main conclusions drawn by Blanchflower and Oswald (1994). We find no stable negative relation between wages and unemployment across regions in the...

  10. Causality between Prices and Wages: VECM Analysis for EU-27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriatik Hoxha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on causality as well as the empirical evidence clearly shows that there are two opposing groups of economists, who support different hypotheses with respect to the flow of causality in the price-wage causal relationship. The first group argues that causality runs from wages to prices, whereas the second argues that effect flows from prices to wages. Nonetheless, the literature review suggeststhat there is at least some consensus in that researcher’s conclusions may be contingent on the type of data employed, applied econometric model, or even that relationship may alter with economic cycles. This paper empirically examines theprice-wage causal relationship in EU-27, by using the OLS and VECM analysis, and it also provides robust evidence in support of a bilateral causal relationship between prices and wages, both in long-run as well as in the shortrun.Prior to designing and estimating the econometric model we have performed stationarity tests for the employed price, wage and productivity variables. Additionally, we have also specified the model taking into account the lag order as well as the rank of co-integration for the co-integrated variables. Furthermore, we have also applied respective restrictions on the parameters of estimatedVECM. The evidence resulting from model robustness checks indicates that results are statistically robust. Although far from closing the issue of causality between prices and wages, this paper at least provides some fresh evidence in the case of EU-27.

  11. Motherhood and the Wages of Women in Professional Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Claudia; McDaniel, Anne

    2016-08-01

    It is well established that mothers are paid less than childless women and that fathers tend to earn higher wages relative to childless men, but we do not know whether these findings apply to workers in all occupations. Using IPUMS and ACS data from 1980 and 2010, we examine the family wage gap for highly educated professionals, the most advantaged sector of the occupational distribution. Results indicate that the size of the negative wage differential for motherhood has declined over time in all professions. Moreover, in the traditionally male-dominated professions of STEM, medicine, and law, women with children experience a positive wage differential, whereas their counterparts in female-dominated professions continue to experience a negative one. The positive differential for fatherhood has remained stable over time. These findings underscore the growing heterogeneity of women's experiences in combining work and family and raise important questions for further research.

  12. Motherhood and the Wages of Women in Professional Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Buchmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that mothers are paid less than childless women and that fathers tend to earn higher wages relative to childless men, but we do not know whether these findings apply to workers in all occupations. Using IPUMS and ACS data from 1980 and 2010, we examine the family wage gap for highly educated professionals, the most advantaged sector of the occupational distribution. Results indicate that the size of the negative wage differential for motherhood has declined over time in all professions. Moreover, in the traditionally male-dominated professions of STEM, medicine, and law, women with children experience a positive wage differential, whereas their counterparts in female-dominated professions continue to experience a negative one. The positive differential for fatherhood has remained stable over time. These findings underscore the growing heterogeneity of women's experiences in combining work and family and raise important questions for further research.

  13. Motherhood and the Wages of Women in Professional Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUCHMANN, CLAUDIA; MCDANIEL, ANNE

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that mothers are paid less than childless women and that fathers tend to earn higher wages relative to childless men, but we do not know whether these findings apply to workers in all occupations. Using IPUMS and ACS data from 1980 and 2010, we examine the family wage gap for highly educated professionals, the most advantaged sector of the occupational distribution. Results indicate that the size of the negative wage differential for motherhood has declined over time in all professions. Moreover, in the traditionally male-dominated professions of STEM, medicine, and law, women with children experience a positive wage differential, whereas their counterparts in female-dominated professions continue to experience a negative one. The positive differential for fatherhood has remained stable over time. These findings underscore the growing heterogeneity of women’s experiences in combining work and family and raise important questions for further research. PMID:29177191

  14. The Male-Female Wage Gap: Lifetime Earnings Losses. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Currently, the median full-time woman worker earns 74.4 percent of the annual earnings of the median man. Over their lifetime, young women stand to lose a great deal of money due to differences in the wages for women and men. Estimates are that the average 25-year-old woman who works full time year round for 40 years will earn $523,000 less than…

  15. 46 CFR 282.21 - Wages of officers and crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salaries are in the same job during the year, the base wages of the rating carried most of the time shall... Netherlands United States Norway Crew Complement 35 35 35 23 22 35 28 Base Wages 1 53,687 1 24,779 1 53,687 1...,246 51,251 182,124 62,566 Unweighted Percentage FC to WC 33.99% 33.78% 28.27% 34.35% Competition...

  16. An Equilibrium Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of the gender wage gap. In a general equilibrium model, spouses devide their labor between a formal sector and a home sector. Due to indivisibility effects, productivity of labor in the formal sector is negatively related to labor used in the home; at the same time labor inputs are complementary in home production. We show that initial beliefs about the gender wage gap are self-fulfilling, and a central result is multiplicity of equilibria. Spouses allocate their ...

  17. New Workplace Practices and the Gender Wage Gap:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    We estimate the effect of introducing new workplace practices on the gender gap in wages in the manufacturing sector. We use a unique 1999 survey on work and compensation practices of Danish private sector firms merged to a large matched employer-employee database. Self-managed teams, project...... organisation and job rotation schemes are the most widely implemented work practices. Our estimates from a difference-in-differences model of wages and work practices show that the wage gains from adopting new workplace practices accrue mainly to males so that the gender gap in pay increases at the level...... of the firm, in particular among hourly-paid workers. Considering practices individually, however, a few exceptions are seen: the gender wage gap among salaried workers is significantly reduced in firms which offer project organisation, while the gap in pay among workers paid by the hour is significantly...

  18. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  19. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...

  20. A Theory of Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Nordman, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce uncertainty of the labour productivity of women in a competitive model of wage determination. We demonstrate that more qualified women are then offered much lower wages than men at the equilibrium. This result is consistent with the glass ceiling hypothesis according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution.

  1. Financing Educational Facility Construction: Prevailing Wage Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Steven M.; Wood, R. Craig

    This chapter presents an up-to-date analysis of prevailing state wage laws that affect educational facility construction or renovation and highlights relevant prevailing wage litigation in many states. Currently, 13 states have no prevailing wage laws for public works. The other 37 states and the District of Columbia do have prevailing wage laws…

  2. The Role of Education Pathways in the Relationship between Job Mismatch, Wages and Job Satisfaction: A Panel Estimation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromaras, Kostas; Sloane, Peter; Wei, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the outcome of over-skilling and over-education on wages and job satisfaction of full-time employees in Australia between 2001 and 2008. We employ a random effects probit model with Mundlak corrections. We find differences by type of mismatch, education pathway, and gender. We categorise reported mismatches as genuine…

  3. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wage payments-deductions from wages paid. 4.168 Section 4... Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.168 Wage payments—deductions from wages paid. (a) The wage requirements of the Act will not be met where unauthorized deductions, rebates, or refunds reduce...

  4. 29 CFR 779.17 - Wage and wage payments to tipped employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.17 Wage and wage... per centum of the applicable minimum wage rate, except that in the case of an employee who (either... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage and wage payments to tipped employees. 779.17 Section...

  5. A living wage for research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  6. Wage differentials between Permanent and Temporal Contracts: Further Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara; Felgueroso, Florentino

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to estimate wage differentials between permanent and temporal workers for different qualification levels and decompose such differentials to see which factors contribute more to explain them. The data we use is the "Encuesta de Estructura Salarial", a survey carried out in 1995 in all countries of the European Union, which contains very detailed information on wages and other characteristics for about 180.000 workers. The empirical results indicate that (a)...

  7. ANALYSIS OF WAGE INEQUALITY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Acun, Serdar

    2018-01-01

    Discussion of the notion of wages has consistently taken place in economicliterature. The way in which wages come to exist and are defined, and what theequilibrium point is have been the center of this discussion. The significant share of wages in total income hasraised its importance further. According to Turkey income and livingconditions data for 2015, wages and salaries held the proportion with 52.5 % oftotal income. As a consequence of that, the effect of wage inequality on incomeinequal...

  8. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Ferro-Luzzi

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Swiss inter-industry wage structure in the light of the current debate on the efficiency wage hypothesis. Results clearly indicate the presence of an industry component in the determinants of earnings in Switzerland. No definite conclusion emerges though as to the source of wage variation. The stability of the wage structure and the role of tenure point to the existence of "wage rents". However, these results may be severely biased if unobserved ability is used by firm...

  9. New evidence on the motherhood wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Kimmel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we assess the role of employment-based health insurance offers in explaining the motherhood wage gap. Researchers have been aware of the existence of a motherhood gap for many years; yet, the literature has failed to address the role of non-wage compensation in explaining the motherhood wage gap despite the increasing importance of non-wage benefits in total compensation packages. As hedonic wage theory suggests, mothers might vi...

  10. The effect of unions on the distribution of wages of hospital-employed registered nurses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Ash, Michael; Konstantinidis, Charalampos; Herrera, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the impact of unionisation on the wage structure of hospital-employed registered nurses in the USA. We examine whether unions have an effect on wage differences associated with race, gender, immigration status, education and experience, as well as whether there is less unexplained wage variation among unionised nurses. In the past decade, there has been resurgence in union activity in the health care industry in the USA, particularly in hospitals. Numerous studies have found that unions are associated with higher wages. Unions may also affect the structure of wages paid to workers, by compressing the wage structure and reducing unexplained variation in wages. Cross-sectional analysis of pooled secondary data from the United States Current Population Survey, 2003-2006. Multivariate regression analysis of factors that predict wages, with models derived from labour economics. There are no wage differences associated with gender, race or immigration status among unionised nurses, but there are wage penalties for black and immigrant nurses in the non-union sector. For the most part, the pay structures of the union and non-union sectors do not significantly differ. The wage penalty associated with diploma education for non-union nurses disappears among unionised nurses. Unionised nurses receive a lower return to experience, although the difference is not statistically significant. There is no evidence that unexplained variation in wages is lower among unionised nurses. While in theory unions may rationalise wage-setting and reduce wage dispersion, we found no evidence to support this hypothesis. The primary effect of hospital unions is to raise wages. Unionisation does not appear to have other important wage effects among hospital-employed nurses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. State-level minimum wage and heart disease death rates in the United States, 1980-2015: A novel application of marginal structural modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Miriam E; Komro, Kelli A; Shah, Monica P; Livingston, Melvin D; Kramer, Michael R

    2018-07-01

    Despite substantial declines since the 1960's, heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States (US) and geographic disparities in heart disease mortality have grown. State-level socioeconomic factors might be important contributors to geographic differences in heart disease mortality. This study examined the association between state-level minimum wage increases above the federal minimum wage and heart disease death rates from 1980 to 2015 among 'working age' individuals aged 35-64 years in the US. Annual, inflation-adjusted state and federal minimum wage data were extracted from legal databases and annual state-level heart disease death rates were obtained from CDC Wonder. Although most minimum wage and health studies to date use conventional regression models, we employed marginal structural models to account for possible time-varying confounding. Quasi-experimental, marginal structural models accounting for state, year, and state × year fixed effects estimated the association between increases in the state-level minimum wage above the federal minimum wage and heart disease death rates. In models of 'working age' adults (35-64 years old), a $1 increase in the state-level minimum wage above the federal minimum wage was on average associated with ~6 fewer heart disease deaths per 100,000 (95% CI: -10.4, -1.99), or a state-level heart disease death rate that was 3.5% lower per year. In contrast, for older adults (65+ years old) a $1 increase was on average associated with a 1.1% lower state-level heart disease death rate per year (b = -28.9 per 100,000, 95% CI: -71.1, 13.3). State-level economic policies are important targets for population health research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Automation: is it really different this time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajcman, Judy

    2017-03-01

    This review examines several recent books that deal with the impact of automation and robotics on the future of jobs. Most books in this genre predict that the current phase of digital technology will create massive job loss in an unprecedented way, that is, that this wave of automation is different from previous waves. Uniquely digital technology is said to automate professional occupations for the first time. This review critically examines these claims, puncturing some of the hyperbole about automation, robotics and Artificial Intelligence. The review argues for a more nuanced analysis of the politics of technology and provides some critical distance on Silicon Valley's futurist discourse. Only by insisting that futures are always social can public bodies, rather than autonomous markets and endogenous technologies, become central to disentangling, debating and delivering those futures. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  13. HIV, wages, and the skill premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Ioana

    2014-09-01

    The HIV epidemic has dramatically decreased labor supply among prime-age adults in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using within-country variation in regional HIV prevalence and a synthetic panel, I find that HIV significantly increases the capital-labor ratio in urban manufacturing firms. The impact of HIV on average wages is positive but imprecisely estimated. In contrast, HIV has a large positive impact on the skill premium. The impact of HIV on the wages of low skilled workers is insignificantly different from 0, and is strongly dampened by competition from rural migrants. The HIV epidemic disproportionately increases the incomes of high-skilled survivors, thus increasing inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. New workplace practices and the gender wage gap: can the new economy be the great equalizer?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Eriksson, Tor

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the effect of introducing new workplace practices on the gender gap in wages in the manufacturing sector. We use a unique 1999 survey on work and compensation practices of Danish private sector firms merged to a large matched employer-employee database. Self-managed teams, project organisation and job rotation schemes are the most widely implemented work practices. Our estimates from a difference-in-differences model of wages and work practices show that the wage gains from adopti...

  15. Gender and caste-based wage discrimination in India : some recent evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    "This paper examines gender and social groups wage discrimination in India using a nationally representative survey. We examine the wage gaps between different sub-groups of population separately in the rural and urban sectors using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. To account for possibility of the sample selection bias, the Heckman correction model is employed. We find a large wage differential between gender groups and between different social groups. The decomposition analysis reve...

  16. Gender and caste-based wage discrimination in India: some recent evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines gender and social groups wage discrimination in India using a nationally representative survey. We examine the wage gaps between different sub-groups of population separately in the rural and urban sectors using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. To account for possibility of the sample selection bias, the Heckman correction model is employed. We find a large wage differential between gender groups and between different social groups. The decomposition analysis revea...

  17. Interpreting wage gaps of disabled men: the roles of productivity and discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Simonetta; Nicoletti, Cheti; Platt, Lucinda

    2010-01-01

    Using the UK Labour Force Survey, we study wage gaps for disabled men after the introduction of the Disability Discrimination Act. We estimate wage gaps at the mean and at different quantiles of the wage distribution, and decompose them into the part explained by differences in workers' and job characteristics, the part that can be ascribed to health-related reduced productivity, and a residual part which we can more confidently interpret as discrimination. For physically disabled workers, mo...

  18. The Relation Between Skill Levels and the Cyclical Variability of Employment, Hours, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Keane; Eswar S Prasad

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses micro data to examine differences in the cyclical variability of employment, hours, and wages for skilled and unskilled workers. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that, at the aggregate level, skilled and unskilled workers are subject to essentially the same degree of cyclical variation in wages. That is, relative offer wage differentials between skilled and unskilled workers are acyclical. However, we do find important differences in the patterns of employment and hour...

  19. The Wage Bargaining Structure in Norway and Sweden and its Influenceon Real Wage Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Alun H. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants of wages in the tradables and service sectors in Norway and Sweden. Tradables wages are determined by their own productivity growth whereas service sector wages are influenced by wage growth in the tradables sector. The traditional strong sensitivity of the real wage to changes in the unemployment rate has been virtually eliminated since the recessionary period in the early 1990s in Sweden, and real wages have grown faster than macroeconomic factors alo...

  20. Are low wages risk factors for hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Du, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages-the largest category within income-are risk factors. We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25-65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25-44 and 45-65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25-44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables-obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities-were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25-30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25-44 years. The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25-44 years.

  1. Is the minimum enough? Affordability of a nutritious diet for minimum wage earners in Nova Scotia (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G

    2014-05-09

    This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.

  2. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G; Taylor, Lowell J

    2008-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women-non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian-using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have "high labor force attachment" (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading.

  3. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. college-educated women earn approximately 30 percent less than their non-Hispanic white male counterparts. We conduct an empirical examination of this wage disparity for four groups of women—non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian—using the National Survey of College Graduates, a large data set that provides unusually detailed information on higher-level education. Nonparametric matching analysis indicates that among men and women who speak English at home, between 44 and 73 percent of the gender wage gaps are accounted for by such pre-market factors as highest degree and major. When we restrict attention further to women who have “high labor force attachment” (i.e., work experience that is similar to male comparables) we account for 54 to 99 percent of gender wage gaps. Our nonparametric approach differs from familiar regression-based decompositions, so for the sake of comparison we conduct parametric analyses as well. Inferences drawn from these latter decompositions can be quite misleading. PMID:26097255

  4. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  5. Wage Slavery or Creative Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirowsky, John

    2011-07-01

    Western philosophical and scientific traditions often view human work as inherently onerous, wearisome, and degrading. Adam Smith, writing in the eighteenth century, saw work as the toil and trouble that is the real price humans pay for everything they need or want. Karl Marx, writing in the nineteenth century, considered wage labor alienating, but saw the possibility of self-expressive work. Dupré and Gagnier, a philosopher and a critic writing near the end of the twentieth century, agreed that work could be self-fulfilling, but only for an elite minority. This article summarizes the Western philosophical views of work from ancient to modern times. It reframes the philosophical positions as empirical questions and addresses them with statistics and models drawn from a 1995 U.S. survey. Observations suggest that work, in modern America, is not usually alienated. The great majority of Americans rate their paid work or other main daily activities (mostly unpaid work) as more autonomous and creative than not. Emotional well-being and the sense of control over one's own life increase with the degree of autonomy and creativity. The employed report less autonomous but more creative activity than do the nonemployed. Emotional well-being and perceived control correlate more strongly with creativity than with autonomy. The overall association thus favors employment, especially for the poorly educated, even though they give up more autonomy when employed. On the whole, work in modern America seems more self-fulfilling than onerous, alienating, or degrading.

  6. Increasing Wage Gap, Spatial Structure and Market Access: Evidence from Swedish Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nabavi, Pardis

    2015-01-01

    The new economic geography predicts that the wage gap will increase with accessibility to markets but does not consider the impact of spatial proximity. In contrast, urban economic theory explains wage differences by density without accounting for accessibility. Using a rich Swedish micro-panel, we empirically examine the two rival theories for males and females separately, controlling for individual, firm and regional characteristics. The regression results indicate that wage dispersion is c...

  7. Occupational Segregation and Its Impact on Gender Wage Discrimination in China's Rural Industrial Sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xin; Miller, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines gender wage discrimination in China's newly developed rural industrial sector. The different occupational distributions of men and women are shown to be partly due to discrimination in occupational assignment by the community authorities, but the impact on the gender wage differential of this form of discrimination is not as important as wage discrimination within each occupation. Moreover, it is found that relative to intraoccupational discrimination, interoccupational wa...

  8. Association of Wage With Employee Participation in Health Assessments and Biometric Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Bruce W; Addy, Carol

    2018-02-01

    To understand differences in health risk assessment (HRA) and biometric screening participation rates among benefits-enrolled employees in association with wage category. Cross-sectional analysis of employee eligibility file and health benefits (wellness and claims) data. Data from self-insured employers participating in the RightOpt private exchange (Conduent HR Services) during 2014. Active employees from 4 companies continuously enrolled in health insurance for which wage data were available. Measures included HRA and biometric screening participation rates and wage status, with employee age, sex, employer, job tenure, household income, geographic location, and health benefits deductible as a percentage of total wages serving as covariates. Employees were separated into 5 groups based on wage status. Logistic regression analysis incorporated other measures as covariates to adjust for differences between groups, with HRA and biometric screening participation rates determined as binary outcomes. Participation rates for HRA and biometric screening were 90% and 87%, respectively, in the highest wage category, decreasing to 67% and 60%, respectively, among the lowest wage category. Employee wage status is associated with significant differences in HRA and biometric participation rates. Generalizing the results generated by modest participation in these offerings to entire populations may risk misinterpretation of results based on variable participation rates across wage categories.

  9. Manufacturing real wages in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López V Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the recent evolution and determinants of real wages in Mexico?s manufacturing sector, using theories based on the assumption of imperfect competition both in the product and in the labour markets, especially wage-bargain theory, insider-outsider and mark-up models. We show evidence that the Mexican labour market does not behave as a traditional competitive market. The proposed explanation for this fact is that some workers benefit from advantages when compared with others, so that they can get a greater share of the proceedings of the productive process. Also, we find that changes in the degree of competition in the market for output influence the behaviour of real wages.

  10. Regional differences in waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Svend; Karmaus, W; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    of the pregnancies were planned (64%) and approximately 14% were the result of contraceptive failures. The study shows that smoking, body mass index, age and parity did not explain the differences in fecundity found between the centres. Regional differences in fecundity exist and the causes may be genetic or due...

  11. Wage Discrimination in the Reemployment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromaras, Kostas G.; Rudolph, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    Wage discrimination by gender in reemployment was examined by decomposing the wage gap upon reemployment. Results suggest that employers are using discriminatory hiring practices that are less likely to be detected and harder to prove in court. (SK)

  12. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer–employee dataset from Vietnam the authors find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job...... through an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, they show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories, and different worker...

  13. Stall in Women's Real Wage Growth Slows Progress in Closing the Wage Gap. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Since 1979, the wage gap between women and men has narrowed significantly, falling by more than 10 percent overall. The closing of the wage gap has slowed considerably in the 1990's, however, with women's real wages (adjusted for inflation) stagnating in recent year and men's wages continuing to decline. The lack of growth in both women's and…

  14. The impact of the UK National Minimum Wage on mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kronenberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an emerging literature, there is still sparse and mixed evidence on the wider societal benefits of Minimum Wage policies, including their effects on mental health. Furthermore, causal evidence on the relationship between earnings and mental health is limited. We focus on low-wage earners, who are at higher risk of psychological distress, and exploit the quasi-experiment provided by the introduction of the UK National Minimum Wage (NMW to identify the causal impact of wage increases on mental health. We employ difference-in-differences models and find that the introduction of the UK NMW had no effect on mental health. Our estimates do not appear to support earlier findings which indicate that minimum wages affect mental health of low-wage earners. A series of robustness checks accounting for measurement error, as well as treatment and control group composition, confirm our main results. Overall, our findings suggest that policies aimed at improving the mental health of low-wage earners should either consider the non-wage characteristics of employment or potentially larger wage increases.

  15. The impact of the UK National Minimum Wage on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Christoph; Jacobs, Rowena; Zucchelli, Eugenio

    2017-12-01

    Despite an emerging literature, there is still sparse and mixed evidence on the wider societal benefits of Minimum Wage policies, including their effects on mental health. Furthermore, causal evidence on the relationship between earnings and mental health is limited. We focus on low-wage earners, who are at higher risk of psychological distress, and exploit the quasi-experiment provided by the introduction of the UK National Minimum Wage (NMW) to identify the causal impact of wage increases on mental health. We employ difference-in-differences models and find that the introduction of the UK NMW had no effect on mental health. Our estimates do not appear to support earlier findings which indicate that minimum wages affect mental health of low-wage earners. A series of robustness checks accounting for measurement error, as well as treatment and control group composition, confirm our main results. Overall, our findings suggest that policies aimed at improving the mental health of low-wage earners should either consider the non-wage characteristics of employment or potentially larger wage increases.

  16. How Wage Compression Affects Job Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    I use Swedish establishment-level panel data to test Bertola and Rogerson’s (1997) hypothesis of a positive relation between the degree of wage compression and job reallocation. Results indicate that the effect of wage compression on job turnover is positive and significant in the manufacturing sector. The wage compression effect is stronger on job destruction than on job creation, consistent with downward wage rigidity. Further results include a strong positive relationship between the fract...

  17. Tax Morality and Progressive Wage Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Simonovits

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of tax morality on progressive income (wage) taxation. We assume that transfers (cash-back) and public expenditures are financed from linear wage taxes. We derive the reported wages from individual utility maximization, when individuals obtain partial satisfaction from reporting wages (depending on their tax morality), and cannot be excluded from the use of public services. The government maximizes a utilitarian social welfare function, also taking into account the utili...

  18. A NOTE ON FRANCHISING AND WAGE BARGAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Grandner

    2004-01-01

    A franchise contract relocates distributable rent between franchisor and franchisee. With decentralized wage bargaining this modifies the position of the union in wage bargaining. If the rent is relocated to the franchisor completely, then even a strong union is not able to raise the wage above reservation level in the franchisee's firm. If franchisor and franchisee negotiate on rent division, there is an incentive to increase franchise fee with the consequence that franchisee's wage is pushe...

  19. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Khitarishvili

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  20. Measuring wage effects of plant size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Arai, Mahmood; Asplund, Rita

    1998-01-01

    There are large plant size–wage effects in the Nordic countries after taking into account individual and job characteristics as well as systematical sorting of the workers into various plant-sizes. The plant size–wage elasticities we obtain are, in contrast to other dimensions of the wage distrib......–wage elasticity. Our results indicate that using size–class midpoints yields essentially the same results as using exact measures of plant size...

  1. Same but Different: Space, Time and Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I give an account of the ways in which narratives and identities change over space and time. I give an account of a mobile and changing human subject, one who does not simply express or represent her- or himself through narrative, but is constructed and reconstructed through narrative. I draw on Paul Ricoeur's concepts of "narrative…

  2. Adiposity and different types of screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbe, Jennifer; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Hu, Frank B; Field, Alison E

    2013-12-01

    Few prospective studies have examined separate forms of screen time in relation to adiposity. Our objective was to assess independent relations of television, electronic games (video/computer), and digital versatile disc (DVD)/videos and total screen time with change in adolescent BMI. Using data from the 2004, 2006, and 2008 waves of the ongoing Growing up Today Study II, we assessed baseline and 2-year change in reported screen time in relation to concurrent change in BMI among 4287 girls and 3505 boys aged 9 to 16 years in 2004. Gender-specific models adjusted for previous BMI, age, race/ethnicity, growth/development, months between questionnaires, and physical activity. Among girls and boys, each hour per day increase in reported television viewing was associated with a 0.09 increase in BMI (Ps food advertising, was most consistently associated with BMI gains. Among girls, electronic games and DVDs/videos were also related to increased BMI, possibly due to influences of product placements and advergames on diet and/or distracted eating. Adolescents, especially overweight adolescents, may benefit from reduced time with multiple types of media.

  3. Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Antonczyk, Dirk; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Sommerfeld, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the increase in wage inequality, the decline in collective bargaining, and the development of the gender wage gap in West Germany between 2001 and 2006. Based on detailed linked employer-employee data, we show that wage inequality is rising strongly – driven not only by real wage increases at the top of the wage distribution, but also by real wage losses below the median. Coverage by collective wage bargaining plummets by 16.5 (19.1) percentage points for male (female)...

  4. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  5. Age, wage and productivity in Dutch manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  6. Return to Experience and Initial Wage Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to nonparametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationship...

  7. Return to experience and initial wage level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.L.; Vejlin, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to non-parametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationshi...

  8. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  9. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  10. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  11. This time it's different

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, Frederic [2742 Sturges Highway, Westport, CT 06880 (United States)], E-mail: fredleder@optonline.net; Shapiro, Judith N. [796 Sport Hill Road, Easton, CT 06612 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil, after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time. Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next 5-10 years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy. Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East.

  12. Liquidity crises on different time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Francesco; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    We present an empirical analysis of the microstructure of financial markets and, in particular, of the static and dynamic properties of liquidity. We find that on relatively large time scales (15 min) large price fluctuations are connected to the failure of the subtle mechanism of compensation between the flows of market and limit orders: in other words, the missed revelation of the latent order book breaks the dynamical equilibrium between the flows, triggering the large price jumps. On smaller time scales (30 s), instead, the static depletion of the limit order book is an indicator of an intrinsic fragility of the system, which is related to a strongly nonlinear enhancement of the response. In order to quantify this phenomenon we introduce a measure of the liquidity imbalance present in the book and we show that it is correlated to both the sign and the magnitude of the next price movement. These findings provide a quantitative definition of the effective liquidity, which proves to be strongly dependent on the considered time scales.

  13. Seattle's minimum wage ordinance did not affect supermarket food prices by food processing category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoden, Amanda L; Buszkiewicz, James H; Drewnowski, Adam; Long, Mark C; Otten, Jennifer J

    2018-06-01

    To examine the impacts of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance on food prices by food processing category. Supermarket food prices were collected for 106 items using a University of Washington Center for Public Health Nutrition market basket at affected and unaffected supermarket chain stores at three times: March 2015 (1-month pre-policy enactment), May 2015 (1-month post-policy enactment) and May 2016 (1-year post-policy enactment). Food items were categorized into four food processing groups, from minimally to ultra-processed. Data were analysed across time using a multilevel, linear difference-in-differences model at the store and price level stratified by level of food processing. Six large supermarket chain stores located in Seattle ('intervention') affected by the policy and six same-chain but unaffected stores in King County ('control'), Washington, USA. One hundred and six food and beverage items. The largest change in average price by food item was +$US 0·53 for 'processed foods' in King County between 1-month post-policy and 1-year post-policy enactment (P food processing level strata in Seattle v. King County stores at 1-month or 1-year post-policy enactment. Supermarket food prices do not appear to be differentially impacted by Seattle's minimum wage ordinance by level of the food's processing. These results suggest that the early implementation of a city-level minimum wage policy does not alter supermarket food prices by level of food processing.

  14. An examination of pharmacists' labor supply and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Mott, David A; Doucette, William R

    2011-12-01

    For the last decade, there has been a shortage of pharmacists for most of the United States. This shortage is in part because of demand-side phenomena (eg, increasing prescription drug use, increases in the complexity of drug regimens, and an aging population). However, there also may be supply-side causes. Although the number of pharmacy school graduates has increased, most graduates are women, many of whom may choose to work part-time. Because of the change in sex composition of the workforce, some researchers conclude that pharmacist shortages will be even more critical in the future. The goals of this article are to model pharmacists' decisions to work, estimate pharmacists' wages, and identify influences on the number of hours worked by pharmacists in the United States. Pharmacist labor supply is examined using a static, 3-step, empirical labor supply model that estimates the decision to work, hourly wages, and number of hours worked for U.S. pharmacists. Pharmacists have high starting wages but flat wage trajectories. Although many pharmacists are working part-time, this is true for women and men. Income effects do not dominate substitution effects, even at the high level of compensation found here. Results indicate that previous predictions brought about by the changing sex composition of the pharmacist labor force might not come to pass, and additional pharmacists may be attracted to the profession by higher wages and flexible schedules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How do marital status, work effort, and wage rates interact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahituv, Avner; Lerman, Robert I

    2007-08-01

    How marital status interacts with men's earnings is an important analytic and policy issue, especially in the context of debates in the United States over programs that encourage healthy marriage. This paper generates new findings about the earnings-marriage relationship by estimating the linkages among flows into and out of marriage, work effort, and wage rates. The estimates are based on National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel data, covering 23 years of marital and labor market outcomes, and control for unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate marriage effects on hours worked (our proxy for work effort) and on wage rates for all men and for black and low-skilled men separately. The estimates reveal that entering marriage raises hours worked quickly and substantially but that marriage's effect on wage rates takes place more slowly while men continue in marriage. Together; the stimulus to hours worked and wage rates generates an 18%-19% increase in earnings, with about one-third to one-half of the marriage earnings premium attributable to higher work effort. At the same time, higher wage rates and hours worked encourage men to marry and to stay married. Thus, being married and having high earnings reinforce each other over time.

  16. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  17. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  18. Trabajo remunerado, trabajo doméstico y salud: las diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas entre mujeres y varones Wage labor, housewifery, and health: qualitative and quantitative differences between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cecilia Cruz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea la relación entre trabajo remunerado, trabajo doméstico y salud, desde la perspectiva de género. La relación entre ambos tipos de trabajo determina las características y el significado de la vida cotidiana. La metodología utilizada conjuntó técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas. Se aplicó un cuestionario individual a 256 trabajadores y 121 trabajadoras (n = 377 de una moderna industria farmacéutica en México. También se hicieron siete entrevistas en profundidad entre trabajadores seleccionados por conveniencia. Los hallazgos principales muestran que a pesar de las enormes similitudes encontradas en el trabajo asalariado entre mujeres y varones, las diferencias pueden resumirse en dos conjuntos: por un lado, las distintas formas de segregación de género en el mercado de trabajo y, por el otro, en las formas de enfrentar la vida cotidiana. Se puede decir que los determinantes sociales que han cobijado esta desigual situación son resultado de la complejidad de las relaciones de género y dan lugar a diferentes perfiles patológicos y concepciones sobre la salud.This article presents the relationship between wage labor, housewifery, and health from a gender perspective. The relationship between the two types of work determines the characteristics and meaning of daily life. The methodology combined quantitative and qualitative techniques. An individual questionnaire was applied to 256 male and 121 female workers (n = 377 in a modern pharmaceutical factory in Mexico. In addition, seven in-depth interviews were performed with selected employees. Despite important similarities between female and male wage-earners, there were two key differences: gender segregation in the workplace and the division of household work. The social determinants of this uneven situation result from a complex gender relationship, leading to different disease profiles and health concepts.

  19. Wives' Relative Wages, Husbands' Paid Work Hours, and Wives' Labor-Force Exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2011-01-01

    Economic theories predict that women are more likely to exit the labor force if their partners' earnings are higher and if their own wage rate is lower. In this article, I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 2,254) and discrete-time event-history analysis to show that wives' relative wages are more predictive of their exit than are…

  20. Decomposing the Education Wage Gap: Everything but the Kitchen Sink. Working Paper 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Shiferaw, Menbere

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to a large literature concerned with identifying the source of the widening wage gap between high school and college graduates by providing a comprehensive, multidimensional decomposition of wages across both time and educational status. Data from a multitude of sources are brought to bear on the question of the relative…

  1. Gender Wage Differentials in a Competitive Labor Market : The Household Interaction Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, P.; van Ours, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    We present a theoretical explanation of the gender wage gap which turns on the interaction between men and women in households.In equilibria where men are over-represented in full-time work, we show that firms rationally choose to hire women only at strictly lower wages than men.The model developed

  2. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  3. Occupational Gender Composition and Wages in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jörgen; Wahlberg, Roger

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the relationship between wages and occupational gender segregation in Sweden. Because of high wage equality in Sweden compared to the U.S., we expect a lower wage penalty of job femaleness in Sweden than in the U.S. Our results supports this hypothesis. We also investigate how the unexplained gender wage gap vary across occupations and find that this gap is smallest in male dominated jobs and largest in female dominated jobs. Finally, we investigate whether the female wage-experie...

  4. Obesity, Self-esteem and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Naci H. Mocan; Erdal Tekin

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with serious health problems, and it can generate adverse economic outcomes. We analyze a nationally-representative sample of young American adults to investigate the interplay between obesity, wages and self-esteem. Wages can be impacted directly by obesity, and they can be influenced by obesity indirectly through the channel of obesity to self-esteem to wages. We find that female wages are directly influenced by body weight, and self-esteem has an impact on wages in ca...

  5. Minimum wage development in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsheva, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the minimum wage policy at the national level in Russia and its impact on living standards in the country. The analysis showed that the national minimum wage in Russia does not serve its original purpose of protecting the lowest wage earners and has no substantial effect on poverty reduction. The national subsistence minimum is too low and cannot be considered an adequate criterion for the setting of the minimum wage. The minimum wage d...

  6. Cost minimization analysis of different growth hormone pen devices based on time-and-motion simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jaewhan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous pen devices are available to administer recombinant Human Growth Hormone (rhGH, and both patients and health plans have varying issues to consider when selecting a particular product and device for daily use. Therefore, the present study utilized multi-dimensional product analysis to assess potential time involvement, required weekly administration steps, and utilization costs relative to daily rhGH administration. Methods Study objectives were to conduct 1 Time-and-Motion (TM simulations in a randomized block design that allowed time and steps comparisons related to rhGH preparation, administration and storage, and 2 a Cost Minimization Analysis (CMA relative to opportunity and supply costs. Nurses naïve to rhGH administration and devices were recruited to evaluate four rhGH pen devices (2 in liquid form, 2 requiring reconstitution via TM simulations. Five videotaped and timed trials for each product were evaluated based on: 1 Learning (initial use instructions, 2 Preparation (arrange device for use, 3 Administration (actual simulation manikin injection, and 4 Storage (maintain product viability between doses, in addition to assessment of steps required for weekly use. The CMA applied micro-costing techniques related to opportunity costs for caregivers (categorized as wages, non-drug medical supplies, and drug product costs. Results Norditropin® NordiFlex and Norditropin® NordiPen (NNF and NNP, Novo Nordisk, Inc., Bagsværd, Denmark took less weekly Total Time (p ® Pen (GTP, Pfizer, Inc, New York, New York or HumatroPen® (HTP, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. Time savings were directly related to differences in new package Preparation times (NNF (1.35 minutes, NNP (2.48 minutes GTP (4.11 minutes, HTP (8.64 minutes, p Conclusions Time-and-motion simulation data used to support a micro-cost analysis demonstrated that the pen device with the greater time demand has highest net costs.

  7. From VET School to the Labour Market in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Expected versus Actual Wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovic, Nina; Oruc, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the differences between expected and actual wages of VET students and graduates. It uses a survey of VET students enrolled in schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and data about employed VET graduates from the Labour Force Survey. The model of determinants of wages, expected or actual, estimated separately on each dataset,…

  8. Wage mobility in Europe. A comparative analysis using restricted multinomial logit regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlopoulos, D.; Muffels, R.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-country differences in wage mobility in Europe using the European Community Household Panel. The paper is particularly focused on examining the impact of economic conditions, welfare state regimes and employment regulation on wage mobility. We apply a log-linear

  9. The Measured Black-White Wage Gap among Women Is Too Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Existing work suggests that black-white gaps in potential wages are much larger among men than women and further that black-white differences in patterns of female labor supply are unimportant. However, panel data on wages and income sources demonstrate that the modal young black woman who does not engage in market work is a single mother…

  10. Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Employment Status of Youths. An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Alison J.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 1954-86, including the 1980s period of relative decline in the value of the minimum wage, a study found that a 10 percent increase in minimum wage reduced teen unemployment by less than 1 percent. In addition, no apparent effect on employment of adults aged 20-24 was found, and minimal differences appeared for sex and race. (SK)

  11. Great expectations: Past wages and unemployment durations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böheim, Renè; Horvath, Gerard Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing wages into worker and firm wage components, we find that firm-fixed components are sizeable parts of workers' wages. If workers can only imperfectly observe the extent of firm-fixed components in their wages, they might be misled about the overall wage distribution. Such misperceptions may lead to unjustified high reservation wages, resulting in overly long unemployment durations. We examine the influence of previous wages on unemployment durations for workers after exogenous lay-offs and, using Austrian administrative data, we find that younger workers are, in fact, unemployed longer if they profited from high firm-fixed components in the past. We interpret our findings as evidence for overconfidence generated by imperfectly observed productivity. PMID:22211003

  12. LABOR FLEXICURITY IN THE WAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, economists and specialists in human resources have shown a growing interest for more efficient wage policy, one that proves to be judiciously developed and in accordance with the specific activity of each entity. Therefore, an effective wage policy should be part of the general policy of the firm and should answer, on the one hand to the general requirements of increasing the efficiency of the activity and on the other hand to provide stimulation and motivation for the staff so to achieve not only individual performance but bring along added value to the overall business performance. This article is part of a broader research conducted by authors in the field of wages and labor market flexicurity. In elaborating this article we have appealed to an exhaustive analysis of EU law regarding remuneration of labor, in general, and labor flexicurity, in particular, the opinions of experts in the field were considered and their opinions, or some legal texts, the most significant ones, were presented in this work in a summary form. A critical documentary work on Community regulations and Romanian legislation, foreign specialized literature and the one published in our country was performed while conducting the research. The theoretical approach of flexicurity is different from state to state within the European Union in relation to the development and diversification of the labor market of each state. In some countries the efforts can focus on the firms for retraining, requalification, while in others the focus should be put on training during periods of inactivity or unemployment.

  13. Compensating wage differentials and the impact of health insurance in the public sector on wages and hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Paige; Chernew, Michael

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the trade-off between wages and employer spending on health insurance for public sector workers, and the relationship between coverage and hours worked. Our primary approach compares trends in wages and hours for public employees with and without state/local government provided health insurance using individual-level micro-data from the 1992-2011 CPS. To adjust for differences between insured and uninsured public sector employees, we create a matched sample based on an employee's propensity to receive health insurance. We assess the relationship between state contribution to the health plan premium, state-level healthcare spending, and the wages and hours of state and local government employees. We find modest reductions in wages are associated with having employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI), although this effect is not precisely measured. The reduction in wages associated with having ESHI is larger among non-unionized workers. Further, we find little evidence that provision of health insurance increases hours worked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analyzing Trends in the U.S. and Danish Gender Wage Gaps in the 1980s and 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in US and Danish gender wage gaps in the 1980s and 1990s are analysed within the framework of simple auto-regressive time-series models. Results show a saturation effect in the wage progress of women in Denmark at a level of 85% but no similar signs of stabilization in the USA. Also......, no evidence is found that business cycle variables can explain the development of the gender wage gap in either country during this time period....

  15. Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson

    2014-07-01

    Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Part-time and full-time medical specialists, are there differences in allocation of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenewegen Peter P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of medical specialists prefer to work part-time. This development can be found worldwide. Problems to be faced in the realization of part-time work in medicine include the division of night and weekend shifts, as well as communication between physicians and continuity of care. People tend to think that physicians working part-time are less devoted to their work, implying that full-time physicians complete a greater number of tasks. The central question in this article is whether part-time medical specialists allocate their time differently to their tasks than full-time medical specialists. Methods A questionnaire was sent by mail to all internists (N = 817, surgeons (N = 693 and radiologists (N = 621 working in general hospitals in the Netherlands. Questions were asked about the actual situation, such as hours worked and night and weekend shifts. The response was 53% (n = 411 for internists, 52% (n = 359 for surgeons, and 36% (n = 213 for radiologists. Due to non-response on specific questions there were 367 internists, 316 surgeons, and 71 radiologists included in the analyses. Multilevel analyses were used to analyze the data. Results Part-time medical specialists do not spend proportionally more time on direct patient care. With respect to night and weekend shifts, part-time medical specialists account for proportionally more or an equal share of these shifts. The number of hours worked per FTE is higher for part-time than for full-time medical specialists, although this difference is only significant for surgeons. Conclusion In general, part-time medical specialists do their share of the job. However, we focussed on input only. Besides input, output like the numbers of services provided deserves attention as well. The trend in medicine towards more part-time work has an important consequence: more medical specialists are needed to get the work done. Therefore, a greater number of medical specialists

  17. The Wage Is Right!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Lori

    2004-01-01

    As they work to master the supply-and-demand model, high school economics students spend considerable time studying competitive markets for such goods as wheat, apples, and corn. They usually spend less time studying markets for labor. That is a shame, because high school students have a vital interest in understanding why some jobs pay more than…

  18. THE LEVEL OF WAGE AND LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN HOTEL INDUSTRY: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanda Karina Astari Fatma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wage a phenomenon that happen today is high wage and high competitiveness. Wage theory that was developed by Rees (1973 and Katz (1980 explain that wage cannot only be seen only as a production cost but also as a part of an effort to increase the labor prosperity and motivation. This theory is a wage efficiency theory, which stated that company’s revenue can increase despite paying wage above the market wage equilibrium. Even though here the two experts had calculated the problem of labor’s quality but they have not reach empirical testing by developing certain model. Therefore, the researchers saw this gap as an opportunity to unravel the phenomena happening to labor and make an effort to develop an empirical model to see the influence of wage to productivity and variable that can measure the quality of labor and other variables that affect wage and productivity simultaneously. The factors used are the difference in individual characteristic, human capital, and quality of work life. The approach of this research is constructivism approach through quantitative analysis technique with simultaneous equation system. Analysis unit in this research is labor in hospitality industry. Estimation results of research shows that education, training, experience, work hour and productivity have significant positive influence to wage, while age and work status is not significant. Quality of work life, and wage have significant positive influence to productivity, while education, experience, age and work status have no significant influence. Important finding from research that training has significant influence to productivity but negatively. Overall, findings of this research show that positive effect of training to productivity will be bigger in organization that willing to invest in work environment that support the labor.

  19. Wages Paid in Kind in Self-Replacing Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez Sánchez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the two systems of production equations corresponding respectively to wages paid entirely or partialy in kind in Sraffa's self-replacing economies. Regarding the first system, the paper introduces the concept of ρ-shaped matrix, which is relevant to the subject and allows also for the addition of a complementary remark to the theory of semi-positive square matrices. In relation to the second system, it points out some differences between the cases studied here and those where the whole wage is paid in value.

  20. The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Buszkiewicz, James; Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Long, Mark; Vigdor, Jacob; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-09

    Background : Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods : Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy enactment (May 2016). Unpaired t-tests were used to detect price differences by location at fixed time while paired t-tests were used to detect price difference across time with fixed store chain. A multi-level, linear differences-in-differences model, was used to detect the changes in the average market basket item food prices over time across regions, overall and by food group. Results : There were no significant differences in overall market basket or item-level costs at one-month (-$0.01, SE = 0.05, p = 0.884) or one-year post-policy enactment (-$0.02, SE = 0.08, p = 0.772). No significant increases were observed by food group. Conclusions : There is no evidence of change in supermarket food prices by market basket or increase in prices by food group in response to the implementation of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance.

  1. Immigration, Wages, and Compositional Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Christian Dustmann; Ian Preston

    2009-01-01

    Economists are often puzzled by the stronger public opposition to immigration than trade, since the two policies have symmetric effects on wages. Unlike trade, however, immigration changes the composition of the local population, imposing potential externalities on natives. While previous studies have focused on fiscal spillovers, a broader class of externalities arise because people value the "compositional amenities" associated with the characteristics of their neighbors and co-workers. In ...

  2. Labor Market Institutions and the Dispersion of Wage Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Checchi, D.; Atkinson, A.B.; Bourguignon, F.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the contribution of the distribution of individual wages and earnings to that of household incomes we find two separate literatures that should be brought together, and bring “new institutions” into play. Growing female employment, rising dual-earnership and part-time employment

  3. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  4. Türkiye’de Kamu ve Özel Sektör Ücret Farklılıklarının Kantil Regresyon Yaklaşımı ile Analizi(Analysis of Public-Private Sector Wage Differentials In Turkey By Quantile Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun ÇELİK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The topic of wage differentials is a frequently problem in the labor markets of developing countries such as Turkey. These wage differentials can arise from the market imperfections as well as the individual quality differences. Individual wage differences are arise from the differences at the rural and urban areas employees’ access to the education, the health services and the level of development and the other reasons. Wage differences arising from the individual quality differences find a large place in The Human Capital Theory. These quality differences reflect on wages over time and lead to income differences between the individuals. The aim of this study is to analyze income differences between male and female employees for public and private sector in rural and urban areas in Turkey. Ordinary Least Squares and Quantile Regression Models results by using TURKSTAT’s Household Labor Force Survey micro data set of 2011 are comparatively discussed. Number of studies that have been made in the literature under the QR model and wage differentials in the labor market has limited. This study will contribute to the limited literature in terms of basic human capital as well as the extended models.

  5. How Will Higher Minimum Wages Affect Family Life and Children's Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather D; Romich, Jennifer

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, new national and regional minimum wage laws have been passed in the United States and other countries. The laws assume that benefits flow not only to workers but also to their children. Adolescent workers will most likely be affected directly given their concentration in low-paying jobs, but younger children may be affected indirectly by changes in parents' work conditions, family income, and the quality of nonparental child care. Research on minimum wages suggests modest and mixed economic effects: Decreases in employment can offset, partly or fully, wage increases, and modest reductions in poverty rates may fade over time. Few studies have examined the effects of minimum wage increases on the well-being of families, adults, and children. In this article, we use theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence concerning the effects on children of parental work and family income to suggest hypotheses about the effects of minimum wage increases on family life and children's well-being.

  6. The Wage Determination Process in Turkey: An Empirical Analysis in Kaleckian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Gül AKTAKAS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox economists generally think about labor market that the price stability and low unemployment cannot be achieved at the same time. In this sense, the Orthodox argument discusses that a decline in the aggregate demand will decrease the money wages and real wages proportionally, and increase the volume of employment. Michal Kalecki denies such a wage policy which is consistently determined by this idea. Wages reflect the price-money wage relation in real terms. Prices set in regard to the degree of monopoly. In this context, it is assumed real wages is determined depending upon the degree of monopoly, labor productivity and price of import goods. According to Kalecki, Orthodoxian view which relates a decrease in real wages with an increase in production based on increasing marginal cost assumption and Kalecki does not accept this perspective. Kaleckian PostKeynesian labor market will be theoretically discussed and the determination process of the real wage will be empirically analyzed for Turkish economy over the period 1989:1 to 2012:4.

  7. Public Sector Wage Growth in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Boessenkool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Alberta’s fiscal stance has shifted from large surpluses to deficits, and a large part of the blame appears to be due to rising public sector salaries. Since 2000, the province’s public sector wage bill has shot up by 119 percent — almost double the rate of growth in the rest of Canada. Wages, previously roughly at par with the rest of the country, are now higher (in many cases very substantially across all public sector categories, including health care, social services, education and government, consuming 95 percent of the increase in provincial revenues over the past decade. At the same time, the number of public sector employees has grown faster than the overall population; it is difficult to attribute this sharp uptick to a rise in productivity, or the need to compete with private industry for skilled workers. This paper breaks down the increases in every category, arguing that if the provincial government is looking to trim expenditures, public sector salaries are a good place to start. The authors make their case using detailed Statistics Canada data, throwing down the gauntlet to defenders of the status quo and challenging them to justify these disparate increases.

  8. Inequalities in the distribution of pharmacists' wage-and-salary earnings: indicators and their development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in wages and salaries can be viewed as the dispersion of a statistical distribution that responds to observed and unobserved characteristics, and reflects socioeconomic phenomena such as the interplay of supply and demand, availability of information, and efficiency of markets in their search for equilibrium. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of inequality in the distribution of pharmacists' wage-and-salary earnings and establish the extent to which inequality primarily occurred because of variation between/among groups or within groups of pharmacists in several classifications of human-capital and job-related preference variables. Data were collected through the use of a survey questionnaire mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, USA. Five indicators of inequality (the log earnings variance, the coefficient of variation, the lower median share, the 90-10 decile ratio, and the Gini coefficient) were estimated for eight human-capital classifications and eight job-related classifications. A one-way ANOVA model was applied to the groups in each classification to compare variation between/among versus within pharmacy groups. Pharmacists' wage-and-salary earnings were more evenly distributed than most income distributions discussed in the literature. They were more equitably distributed for full-time pharmacists than for all pharmacists in the data set. All five-inequality indicators behaved similarly. Notable differences were observed between/among groups within the gender, age group, marital status, number of children, academic degree, and type of primary pharmacy activity classifications. Inequalities in wages and salaries have been identified both between/among and within pharmacist groups in several classifications using five commonly accepted indicators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of wages in the migration of health care professionals from developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Orvill

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several countries are increasingly relying on immigration as a means of coping with domestic shortages of health care professionals. This trend has led to concerns that in many of the source countries – especially within Africa – the outflow of health care professionals is adversely affecting the health care system. This paper examines the role of wages in the migration decision and discusses the likely effect of wage increases in source countries in slowing migration flows. This paper uses data on wage differentials in the health care sector between source country and receiving country (adjusted for purchasing power parity to test the hypothesis that larger wage differentials lead to a larger supply of health care migrants. Differences in other important factors affecting migration are discussed and, where available, data are presented. There is little correlation between the supply of health care migrants and the size of the wage differential between source and destination country. In cases where data are available on other factors affecting migration, controlling for these factors does not affect the result. At current levels, wage differentials between source and destination country are so large that small increases in health care wages in source countries are unlikely to affect significantly the supply of health care migrants. The results suggest that non-wage instruments might be more effective in altering migration flows.

  10. 20 CFR 404.1237 - Wage reports and contribution returns-general-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0960-0425) [53 FR 32976, Aug. 29, 1988...) excludes as wages the cash remuneration an employer pays employees for agricultural labor which is less... less than 20 days during a calendar year, the cash remuneration computed on a time basis. If a State...

  11. Efficiency-wage competition and nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrazzi, Marco; Sodini, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we develop a nonlinear version of the efficiency-wage competition model pioneered by Hahn (1987) [27]. Under the assumption that the strategic relationship among optimal wage bids put forward by competing firms is non-monotonic, we show that market wage offers can actually display persistent fluctuations described by a piece-wise non-invertible map. Thereafter, assuming that employers are never constrained in the labour market, we give evidence that in the parameter region of chaotic dynamics, the model is able to reproduce the business cycle regularity according to which in the short-run average wages fluctuate less than aggregate employment. In addition, we show that the efficiency-wage competition among firms leads to some inefficiencies in the wage setting process.

  12. Gender segregation and wage gap: an East-West comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-3 (2005), s. 598-607 ISSN 1542-4766 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender segregation * wage differences * East-West comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.jstor.org/stable/40005002

  13. Is the gender wage gap declining in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I try to answer the question whether the gender wage gap in the Netherlands is declining. I posed this question because on several other indicators labour market differences between men and women in the Netherlands declined or disappeared altogether. First of all the labour market

  14. Researching the Minimum Wage: A Moral Economy for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverow-Turk, Vara

    1991-01-01

    Describes a writing assignment that requires students to research and report on what it would be like to live on minimum wage. Explains that this assignment is not really any different than the traditional assignment, it is simply more obvious about its political content because it involves an inquiry into economics rather than literature or…

  15. Implementing a voluntary wage policy: Lessons from the Irish and Spanish wages policies before the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the relevance given by the Post-Keynesian thought to wage and incomes policies, little attention has been paid to the institutional elements that would favour the unions’ acceptance of a voluntary moderation of wage claims. Recent wage policies have been implemented in European countries, like Ireland and Spain, which do not fulfil the requirements assumed by corporatist analysis for a successful implementation of wage policies. The success of wage policies in Ireland and Spain, in terms of economic performance and the length of current wage policies, offers a valuable insight on how wages policies can be implemented as a key piece of macroeconomic policy: It also helps our understanding of the institutional framework that favours the implementation of voluntary wages policies.

  16. Wage-productivity gap in OECD economies

    OpenAIRE

    Elgin, Ceyhun; Kuzubas, Tolga Umut

    2013-01-01

    The Walrasian theory of labor market equilibrium predicts that in the absence of any market frictions, workers earn a wage rate equal to their marginal productivity. However, this observation is not supported empirically for various economies. Based on the neoclassical tradition, the ratio of the marginal product of labor to real wages is generally defined as the Pigouvian exploitation rate. In this paper, the authors calculate this specific wage-productivity gap for the manufacturing sector ...

  17. A Simple Model of Service Trade with Time Zone Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toru; Iwasa, Kazumichi

    2008-01-01

    This note proposes a two-country monopolistic competition model of service trade that captures the role of time zone differences as a determinant of trade patterns. It is shown that the utilization of time zone differences induces drastic change in trade patterns: Due to taking advantage of time zone differences, service firms learve larger countries for smaller countries.

  18. Changes in the Austrian structure of wages, 1996-2002: evidence from linked employer-employee data

    OpenAIRE

    Pointner, Wolfgang; Stiglbauer, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the Structure of Earnings Surveys we find that wage dispersion in Austria increased marginally between 1996 and 2002. There was an increase in the returns to education which accrued only to male workers. The positive effects of tenure and especially of experience on wages decreased over time. We adopt the Machado-Mata (2005) counterfactual decomposition technique which allows to attribute changes in each wage decile to changes in worker and workplace characteristics and in...

  19. Decomposing the Gender Wage Gap Across the Wage Distribution: South Korea in 2003 vs. 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Tromp, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    I analyze the gender wage gap in South Korea across the wage distribution in 2003 vs. 2013. Gaps are decomposed into composition and structural effects using a semi-parametric framework. I find a "glass ceiling" effect in both years with larger wage gaps at the upper end of the wage distribution. Decompositions show that the structural effect decreases, and composition effect increases, in importance as we move up the distribution. Between 2003 and 2013, a fall in the composition effect driv...

  20. Training and minimum wages: first evidence from the introduction of the minimum wage in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bellmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyze the short-run impact of the introduction of the new statutory minimum wage in Germany on further training at the workplace level. Applying difference-in-difference methods to data from the IAB Establishment Panel, we do not find a reduction in the training incidence but a slight reduction in the intensity of training at treated establishments. Effect heterogeneities reveal that the negative impact is mostly driven by employer-financed training. On the worker level, we observe a reduction of training for medium- and high-skilled employees but no significant effects on the training of low-skilled employees.

  1. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  2. Do Immigrants Affect Firm-Specific Wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2012-01-01

    We propose and test a novel effect of immigration on wages. Existing studies have focused on the wage effects that result from changes in the aggregate labour supply in a competitive labour market. We argue that if labour markets are not fully competitive, immigrants might also affect wage...... formation at the most disaggregate level – the workplace. Using linked employer-employee data, we find that an increased use of low-skilled immigrant workers has a significantly negative effect on the wages of native workers at the workplace – also when controlling for potential endogeneity of the immigrant...

  3. A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Eliav Danziger; Leif Danziger

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...

  4. Quantile regression and the gender wage gap: Is there a glass ceiling in the Turkish labor market?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Ezgi

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from different countries suggest that the gender gap is not constant across the wage distribution and the average wage gap provides limited information on women’s relative position in the labour market. Using micro level data from official statistics, this study explores the gender wage‐gap in Turkey across the wage distribution. The quantile regression and counterfactual decomposition analysis results reveal three striking features of the Turkish labour market. The first is th...

  5. The effects of savings on reservation wages and search effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations among wealth, reservation wages and search effort. A theoretical job search model predicts wealth to affect reservation wages positively, and search effort negatively. Subsequently, reduced form equations for reservation wages and search intensity take these

  6. Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions and the Gender Gap.

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, N.M.; Lemieux, T.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we model the interactions between the distribution of male and female wages under the assumption that any change in the wage distribution of women must be offset by an opposite change in the wage distribution of men.

  7. The gender wage gap in an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Plasman, Robert; Sissoko Ndeye, Salimata

    2005-01-01

    Using a rich and comparable matched employer-employee data set, we analyse international differences in gender pay gaps in the private sector for a sample of five European economies: Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Italy and Spain. Using different methods, we examine how wage structure, differences in the distribution of measured characteristics and occupational segregation contribute to explain the pattern of international differences. Furthermore, we take account of the fact that indirect discri...

  8. Higher education, wages, and polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Valletta, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The earnings gap between people with a college degree and those with no education beyond high school has been growing since the late 1970s. Since 2000, however, the gap has grown more for those who have earned a post-graduate degree as well. The divergence between workers with college degrees and those with graduate degrees may be one manifestation of rising labor market polarization, which benefits those earning the highest and the lowest wages relatively more than those in the middle of the...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1265 - Addition of interest to contributions-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Governments If A State Fails to Make Timely Payments-for Wages Paid Prior to 1987 § 404.1265 Addition of interest to contributions—for wages paid prior to 1987. (a) Contributions not paid timely. If a State fails... by the Social Security Administration, a notification of underpayment shall be forwarded to the State...

  10. Wage flexibility in Britain: some micro and macro evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mark E Schweitzer

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the British New Earnings Survey (NES) to derive both macro and micro measures of wage rigidities. The data set spans the 1975-2000 period, with wage observations covering approximately 1% of the British workforce. Using this data set, we consider whether wages have become more flexible in recent years. Evidence drawn from macroeconomic wage equation estimates suggests that, while the relationship between wages and unemployment seems to have changed, the responsiveness of wages...

  11. Industry wage differentials, rent sharing and gender: three empirical essays

    OpenAIRE

    Tojerow, Ilan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the industry wage differentials, rent-sharing and the gender wage gap. I empirically investigate: i) the interaction between inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap in six European countries, ii) how rent sharing interacts with the gender wage gap in the Belgian private sector and iii) the existence of inter-industry wage differentials in Belgium, through the unobserved ability hypothesis.The first chapter is devoted to the analysis of the interaction ...

  12. Finite difference time domain analysis of a chiro plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Silva, H.; Obligado, A.; Reggiani, N.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method is one of the most widely used computational methods in electromagnetics. Using FDTD, Maxwell's equations are solved directly in the time domain via finite differences and time stepping. The basic approach is relatively easy to understand and is an alternative to the more usual frequency-domain approaches. (author). 5 refs

  13. Effects of Air Pollution and Other Environmental Variables on Offered Wages (1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to construct some exploratory estimates of the effect of changes in air pollution levels on offered wage rates. Repercussions on the work time choice are not explicitly considered.

  14. Fighting Greed with Money: How Wage Levels Impact Corruption in the Private Purchasing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela de la Torre Campos; Katharina Radler; Bramantio Utomo Saptoadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to see whether different wage levels in the private purchasing sector relate to the level of corruptibility. An experiment was conducted that put participants in the role of employees of a purchasing department of a multinational enterprise. The employees were allotted to different wage levels and had to choose between options with different levels of corruption. The research is of a deductive nature and complemented by a descriptive quanti...

  15. New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Atal, Juan Pablo; Nopo, Hugo; Winder, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys gender and ethnic wage gaps in 18 Latin American countries, decomposing differences using matching comparisons as a non-parametric alternative to the Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition. It is found that men earn 9-27 percent more than women, with high cross-country heterogeneity. The unexplained pay gap is higher among older, informal and self-employed workers and those in small firms. Ethnic wage differences are greater than gender differences, and educational attainment di...

  16. Green tax reform, marginal revenue of wage income taxes, and the wage curve. A brief note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesemer, T.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown elsewhere (Schneider, 1997) that the success of a green tax reform depends crucially on a small slope of the wage curve of an efficiency wage model in which production occurs using a second factor E, energy or emissions. Also elsewhere (Scholz, 1998) it was revealed that there is a second necessary condition that the marginal revenue of the wage income tax is negative. In this note we show that (1) these two conditions are not independent, but rather depend both on the slope of the wage curve; and (2) if Schneider's condition of a sufficiently flat wage curve is fulfilled, marginal revenue of wage income taxes must be negative. By implication, both the green tax reform and the sign of the marginal revenue of wage income taxes depend on the slope of the wage curve which allows to distinguish three cases of a tax reform: (a) a double dividend for a very small slope of the wage curve (Schneider's case); (b) failure of unemployment reduction (Scholz' case) for a very steep wage curve; (c) failure of emission reduction for an intermediate case of a wage curve slope

  17. The Transition in East Germany: When Is a Ten-Point Fall in the Gender Wage Gap Bad News?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Hunt

    2002-01-01

    Since monetary union with western Germany on 1 July 1990, eastern female monthly wages have risen by 10 percentage points relative to male wages, but female employment has fallen 5 percentage points more than male employment. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel to study the years 1990-1994, I show that along with age, the wage of a worker in 1990 is the most important determinant of the hazard rate from employment. Differences in mean 1990 wages explain more than half of the gender gap in t...

  18. The Effect of Overskilling Dynamics on Wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromaras, Kostas; Mahuteau, Stephane; Sloane, Peter; Wei, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    We use a random-effects dynamic probit model to estimate the effect of overskilling dynamics on wages. We find that overskilling mismatch is common and more likely among those who have been overskilled in the past. It is also highly persistent, in a manner that is inversely related to educational level. Yet, the wages of university graduates are…

  19. 24 CFR 574.655 - Wage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage rates. 574.655 Section 574.655 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Other Federal Requirements § 574.655 Wage...

  20. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  1. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  2. Gender, Productivity, and the Marital Wage Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    Explanations for married men's wage premium often emphasize greater market productivity due to a gendered division of household labor, though this "specialization thesis" has been insufficiently interrogated. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 972), this paper examines the relationship between wages and…

  3. Workplace Education for Low-Wage Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrand, Amanda L.; Bassi, Laurie J.; McMurrer, Daniel P.

    The training being provided to low-wage workers, factors affecting the availability and effectiveness of such training, and training outcomes were examined. The major research activities were as follows: (1) identification of 192 employers that invested most heavily in training for low-wage workers; (2) telephone interviews with 40 of the 192…

  4. Human Right for Fair Wage: sociological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomareva T. M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of sociological research devoted to the analysis of the fair wage problem. The authors analyze the dynamics of labor load and the level of wages in the economic market conditions taking as an example the Omsk Region

  5. Intersectionopoly: A Simulation of the Wage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paino, Maria; May, Matthew; Burrington, Lori A.; Becker, Jacob H.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a simulation activity designed to teach students about the wage gap. The wage gap is an important topic in many sociology classrooms, but it can be difficult to convey the accumulated disadvantage experienced by women and racial/ethnic minorities to students using in-class discussions, lectures, or assigned readings alone.…

  6. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  7. The Wage Gap and Comparable Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P.

    The typical working woman is thought to make 60% of a man's wage, despite increased job skills. Facts prove this perception incorrect. Lack of progress is an artifact of changing labor market characteristics associated with the rapid growth in the numbers of women in the labor market. Low skills, low wage female entrants tend to hold down the…

  8. Efficiency Wages and the Business Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, E.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a simple efficiency wage model to explain the transmission from exogenous productivity shocks to levels of economic activity. Higher real wages and rising unemployment induce workers to increase their effort. The disciplining effect of unemployment on the effort level has an

  9. Signalling, wage controls and monetary disinflation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Persson, T.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on wage control and monetary disinflation policy. How the crucial variable to control is the money supply and wage and price controls should be avoided because of their macroeconomic costs; The two types of government as being low-inflation governments and high-inflation governments; How

  10. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  11. Differences in the Distribution of High School Achievement: The Role of Class-Size and Time-in-Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corak, Miles; Lauzon, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This paper adopts the technique of [DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996). "Labour market institutions and the distribution of wages 1973-1992: A semiparametric approach." "Econometrica, 64"(5), 1001-1044.] to decompose differences in the distribution of PISA reading scores in Canada, and assesses the relative contribution of…

  12. The Czech Wage Distribution and the Minimum Wage Impacts: the Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Duspivová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-fi tting wage distribution is a crucial precondition for economic modeling of the labour market processes.In the fi rst part, this paper provides the evidence that – as for wages in the Czech Republic – the most oft enused log-normal distribution failed and the best-fi tting one is the Dagum distribution. Th en we investigatethe role of wage distribution in the process of the economic modeling. By way of an example of the minimumwage impacts on the Czech labour market, we examine the response of Meyer and Wise’s (1983 model to theDagum and log-normal distributions. Th e results suggest that the wage distribution has important implicationsfor the eff ects of the minimum wage on the shape of the lower tail of the measured wage distribution andis thus an important feature for interpreting the eff ects of minimum wages.

  13. Smith’s theory of wages and its impact on the theory of wages in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith has not accepted subsistence theory of wages as an explanation of wages. He can be marked not only as a founder of wages-fund theory, but also of the bargaining theory of wages. Wage-fund doctrine dominated the next hundred years of English economics. Besides, Smith’s explanation of the differentials in wage rates among occupations were accepted by his successors for a century. That was the first step into direction of human capital theory.

  14. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared by the bargained wage. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I demonstrate that, under collective wage bargaining, the worker...... share is endogenous and countercyclical. Consequently, when the economy is hit by a shock, the dynamics of the worker share partially counteract the dynamics of the match surplus and this mechanism delivers endogenous wage rigidity. The model thus sheds new insights into two business cycle features...

  15. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Osing a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  16. WAGE FLEXIBILITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TECULESCU Silviu Alexandru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows to offer the most efficient solutions for the attainment by Romania of the economic development level associated to the Western European countries. It proposes the division of the flexibility of labour market in three components, namely: internal flexibility, external flexibility and wage flexibility. The analysis performed within the present study will emphasize the wage flexibility. Wage flexibility can be classified in four components: a plans of individual and group incentives; b plans of assigning wages out of productivity; c plans of distribution of profits and, respectively, d plans of suggestions. The labour market flexibility, in general, and especially the wage flexibility contributes to the increase of employee motivation at the workplace, aspect which leeds to the growth of labour productivity, through this one being put the bases of the medium- and long-term economic development.

  17. The migratory impact of minimum wage legislation: Puerto Rico, 1970-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, C E

    1993-01-01

    "This study examines the impact of minimum wage setting on labor migration. A multiple time series framework is applied to monthly data for Puerto Rico from 1970-1987. The results show that net emigration from Puerto Rico to the United States fell in response to significant changes in the manner in which minimum wage policy was conducted, particularly after 1974. The extent of commuter type labor migration between Puerto Rico and the United States is influenced by minimum wage policy, with potentially important consequences for human capital investment and long-term standards of living." excerpt

  18. Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? : Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Arulampalam, Wiji; Booth, Alison L.; Bryan, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Using harmonised data from the European Union Household Panel, we analyse gender pay gaps by sector across the wages distribution for ten countries. We find that the mean gender pay gap in the raw data typically hides large variations in the gap across the wages distribution. We use quantile regression (QR) techniques to control for the effects of individual and job characteristics at different points of the distribution, and calculate the part of the gap attributable to differing returns bet...

  19. Are Female Workers Less Productive Than Male Workers? Productivity and the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Meyerson, Eva M.; Petersen, Trond; Snartland, Vemund

    1998-01-01

    It is extraordinarily difficult to determine the extent to which the gender wage gap reflects discriminatory behaviors by employers or differences in productive capacities between men and women. We note that where piece-rate work is performed, wages should in principle reflect productivity differences and that it is more difficult to discriminate on the basis of gender because one is paid for what one produces. With this as our point of departure, we compared men and women working in the same...

  20. The nonlinear link between height and wages in Germany, 1985-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübler, Olaf

    2009-07-01

    Based on data of the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article investigates the relationship between height and wages by gender. Unlike previous investigations, which have been limited to an examination of linear effects, this one finds that height influences on wages are curvilinear, and more so for men than for women. More specifically, it finds that women who are shorter than average and men who are somewhat taller than average, but not among the tallest, enjoy significant wage advantages. Furthermore, using Blinder's decomposition to determine two components of wage differences, we find that these differences can be partitioned into an endowment component and unexplained influences (discrimination). There is a difference between the public and private sectors and between men and women as to the degree of the latter effect. This investigation supports the hypothesis that short and very tall men employed in the private sector are disadvantaged the most. The outcome for women is less robust than for men.

  1. Fighting Greed with Money: How Wage Levels Impact Corruption in the Private Purchasing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de la Torre Campos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to see whether different wage levels in the private purchasing sector relate to the level of corruptibility. An experiment was conducted that put participants in the role of employees of a purchasing department of a multinational enterprise. The employees were allotted to different wage levels and had to choose between options with different levels of corruption. The research is of a deductive nature and complemented by a descriptive quantitative approach containing the Chi-Square analysis. The results show that there is no association between the wage level and the level of corruptibility of employees in the private purchasing sector. This outcome contributes to the underresearched field of corruption in the private sector and gives further insight into the influence of wages on corruptibility, as well as the usability of the principal-agent theory in the field of corruption.

  2. Monetary policy and wage bargaining in the EMU: restrictive ECB policies, high unemployment, nominal wage restraint and inflation above the target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Hein

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the effects of monetary policy and wage bargaining on employment andinflation in the European Monetary Union (EMU, the first step sees development of a Post-Keynesian competitive claims model of inflation with endogenous money. In this model the NAIRU is considered to be a short-run limit to employment enforced by independent and conservative central banks. In the long run, however, the NAIRU will follow actual unemployment and is therefore also dependent on the forces determining aggregate demand, including monetary policies. But the NAIRU may also be reduced through effectively co-ordinated wage bargaining, as has been shown by institutional political economists. Applying these considerations to the economic performance of the EMU, different scenarios determined by wage bargainingcoordination and the European Central Bank's (ECB monetary policies are developed. It is shown that the first phase of the EMU was dominated by uncoordinated wage bargaining across the EMU and an "anti-growth-bias" of theECB. Thus the euro area was plagued with nominal wage restraint, highunemployment and inflation above the ECB target. Economic performance will improve if the ECB abandons its asymmetric monetary strategy. This may be facilitated by a higher degree of effective wage bargaining co-ordination across the EMU.

  3. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices.

  4. The impact of education on wage determination between workers in southern and central-northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agovino Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the earnings dynamic in Italy, in order to explain earnings differences between southern Italy and centralnorthern Italy. In our analysis we use different techniques: ordinary least squares (OLS, quantile regression models and the algorithm developed by Machado and Mata (2005. In particular, the Machado and Mata (2005 algorithm allows us to examine the relative importance of both differences in workers’ characteristics and in their returns in explaining southern, central and northern Italy earnings differences at a point in time, as well as across time within each macro-area. We focus on the role of differences in educational endowment and returns to education, one of the most important components of human capital in the stylised literature. The level of education determines the substantial disparities in terms of wage returns. However, this holds only for levels of education related to compulsory education.

  5. Revisiting the relationship between wages and sleep duration: The role of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedigh, Golnaz; Devlin, Rose Anne; Grenier, Gilles; Deri Armstrong, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    This paper uses the 2005 and 2010 Canadian General Social Surveys (Time Use) to investigate the effect of wages on the sleep duration of individuals in the labour force. The endogeneity of wages is taken into account with an instrumental variables approach; we find that the wage rate affects sleeping time in general, corroborating Biddle and Hamermesh's (1990) main conclusion. A ten percent increase in the wage rate leads to an 11-12min decrease in sleep per week. But this number masks several effects. The responsiveness of sleep time to wage rate changes depends upon the sex of the individual, whether or not sleep problems are present and general economic conditions. By far the largest adjustment is found for insomniacs in 2010, a year of general economic downturn in Canada. We also investigate the non-randomness of insomnia in the population by using a Heckman procedure, and find that the sleep time of female non-insomniacs is even more responsive to wage rate changes once account is taken of this selection bias, but otherwise selection was not a problem in our samples. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wyoming bentonite trona and uranium: a wage and employment survey 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Labor and Statistics simultaneously initiated wage and employment surveys of the state's bentonite, trona, and uranium mining industries during February 1985. This data has been compiled in a directory which determines: (1) the number of workers in selected occupational categories, (2) the average straight-time hourly wage in each occupational category, (3) the number of workers covered by a collective bargaining agreement in each occupational category; and (4) employer paid fringe benefits

  7. Child-related Career Interruptions and the Gender Wage Gap in France

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique MEURS; Ariane PAILHE; Sophie PONTHIEUX

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the extent of the effects of children and child-related time out of the labor market on the gender wage gap in France, with special attention to its impact on the accumulation and composition of human capital. Measuring this impact requires detailed information on the individuals‟ activity history that is rarely available. The French survey "Families and Employers" (Ined, 2005) provides this information. We first look at men's and women's wage determinants, inclu...

  8. Article Review on World Bank Report, Optimal Design for a Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrachmi, Rininta; Mad-Ahin, Ashanee; Waeowanjit, Phimpaporn; Kareemarif Arif, Naz Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There are many pros and cons with the implementation of minimum wage in Malaysia, since it is the first time. This article review is to analyze the World Bank report on Malaysian minimum wage policy that will be implemented in 2013. There are strength and weakness on the report. Moreover the review will also be analyzed from Islamic perspective since majority population in Malaysia is Muslim.

  9. The Gender Wage Gap among Young Adults in the United States: The Importance of Money versus People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    Using two single-cohort longitudinal surveys, the NLS72 and the NELS88, I investigate the impact of four noncognitive traits--self-esteem, external locus of control, the importance of money/work and the importance of people/family--on wages and on the gender wage gap among these young workers. I find that gender differences in these noncognitive…

  10. Determinants of turnover among low wage earners in long term care: the role of manager-employee relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael; Carsten, Melissa K; Ayers, Douglas J; Menachemi, Nir

    2018-02-27

    The demand for Long-Term Care (LTC) is steadily increasing as Baby Boomers age and enter retirement. High turnover rates among employees in LTC creates challenges for supervisors and administrators, and can negatively impact quality of care. This study examines manager-subordinate relationship quality using Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX) as an antecedent to turnover among low-wage earners in the LTC environment. Survey data measuring LMX, job satisfaction, and demographic information was collected at time 1, and turnover data was collected 18 months later at time 2. The results reveal that all four LMX dimensions were rated significantly different among subordinates who left versus those who stayed, however, only the LMX dimension of supervisor loyalty was a significant predictor of turnover among low wage earners. Our study adds a more nuanced view of the reasons low-wage employees turnover, and presents implications for clinical managers and LTC organizations more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 20 CFR 655.120 - Offered wage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offered wage rate. 655.120 Section 655.120... the United States (H-2A Workers) Prefiling Procedures § 655.120 Offered wage rate. (a) To comply with... wage that is the highest of the AEWR, the prevailing hourly wage or piece rate, the agreed-upon...

  12. 29 CFR 783.45 - Deductions from wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deductions from wages. 783.45 Section 783.45 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Computation of Wages and Hours § 783.45 Deductions from wages. Where...

  13. 29 CFR 783.44 - Board and lodging as wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Board and lodging as wages. 783.44 Section 783.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Computation of Wages and Hours § 783.44 Board and lodging as wages...

  14. 20 CFR 616.10 - Reuse of employment and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of employment and wages. 616.10 Section 616.10 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTERSTATE ARRANGEMENT FOR COMBINING EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES § 616.10 Reuse of employment and wages. Employment and wages...

  15. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAGE PAYMENTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT OF 1938 Interpretations Payment of Wages to Tipped Employees...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3301-4 - When wages are paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When wages are paid. 31.3301-4 Section 31.3301... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-4 When wages are paid. Wages are paid when actually or constructively paid. Wages are constructively paid when they are credited to the...

  17. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-2 - Exclusions from wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions from wages. 31.3401(a)-2 Section 31... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)-2 Exclusions from wages. (a) In general. (1) The term “wages... specifically excepted from wages under section 3401(a). (2) The exception attaches to the remuneration for...

  18. Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions, and the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Lemieux, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data from 1979 and 1991 were used to decompose changes in the gender wage gap into three components: skill distribution, wage structure, and improvements in women's position. Relative wage gains by women may have been a source of increasing wage inequality among men. (SK)

  19. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  20. Body weight and wages: evidence from Add Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J; Rees, Daniel I

    2012-01-01

    This note uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the relationship between body weight and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and individual fixed effects estimates provide evidence that overweight and obese white women are paid substantially less per hour than their slimmer counterparts. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation confirms this relationship, suggesting that it is not driven by time-variant unobservables. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Has Performance Pay Increased Wage Inequality in Britain?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Mark L.; Bryson, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) we show performance pay (PP) increased earnings dispersion among men and women, and to a lesser extent among full-time working women, in the decade of economic growth which ended with the recession of 2008. PP was also associated with some compression in the lower half of the wage distribution for women. The effects were predominantly associated with a broad measure of PP that included bonuses. However, these effects were modest and th...

  2. The Wage Gap: Women's and Men's Earnings. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lois; Gish, Melinda; Braunstein, Jill; Allore, Sara

    After remaining virtually unchanged from 1995 through the 1970s, the wage gap between women and men began to decline in the 1980s. By the early 1990s, the ratio of the annual earnings of women employed full time year-round to the annual earnings of their male counterparts reached 72.0%. That ratio decreased slightly (to 71.4%) in 1995. The wage…

  3. Part-time and full-time medical specialists, are there differences in allocation of time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.D. de; Heiligers, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Hingstman, L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing number of medical specialists prefer to work part-time. This development can be found worldwide. Problems to be faced in the realization of part-time work in medicine include the division of night and weekend shifts, as well as communication between physicians and

  4. Part-time and full-time medical specialists, are there differences in allocation of time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Judith D. de; Heiligers, Phil; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Hingstman, Lammert

    2006-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of medical specialists prefer to work part-time. This development can be found worldwide. Problems to be faced in the realization of part-time work in medicine include the division of night and weekend shifts, as well as communication between physicians and

  5. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  6. Economic liberalization, gender wage inequality and welfare – a theoretical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Ujjaini; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2011-01-01

    The paper develops a 3-sector general equilibrium model appropriate for economies with female labour oriented export sector to examine the effects of economic liberalization policies on gender based wage inequality. It is assumed that there exist disparities in efficiencies between male and female labour due to skewed access to education and health, and differences in their spending patterns leading to differential effects of respective wages on their nutrition. The results indicate that tari...

  7. Economic Reforms and Gender-based Wage Inequality in the Presence of Factor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit; Roychowdhury, Somasree

    2014-01-01

    A simple three-sector general equilibrium model has been developed with both male and female labour and factor market distortions. The effects of different liberalized economic policies have been examined on the gender-based wage inequality. The analysis finds that credit market reform and tariff reform produce favourable effects on the wage inequality while the liberalized investment policy becomes counterproductive. These results have important policy implications for a small open developin...

  8. Employment and Wage Assimilation of Male First-generation immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Leif; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects...... for unobserved cohort and individual effects and panel selectivity due to missing wage information. The results show that immigrants assimilate partially to Danes, but the assimilation process differs between refugees and non-refugees....

  9. Gender Equality in the Labour Market: Women and Men Wage Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Grybaitė, Virginija

    2006-01-01

    Earnings are the fundamental determinant of economic welfare for employed individuals, as well as of the potential gain to market employment for those not currently employed. Earnings are important as a social indicator specifically in relation to gender equality. Ten years after the Beijing conference the gender wage gap still exists in the EU labour market. This paper gives a brief review of economic theories and different approaches to explain the wage gap problem and importance of legisla...

  10. Unequal Depression for Equal Work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001–2002 US nationally representati...

  11. Marital Wage Premium or Ability Selection? The Case of Taiwan 1979-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Stair

    2007-01-01

    The study of factors determining wages has been an important topic in the field of labor and family economics in the past few decades. Among different factors that account for individual wage differentials, marital status has received special attention. There are at least two competing hypotheses that explain the male marriage premium: the specialization hypothesis and the selection hypothesis. Using the Taiwan Quasi Longitudinal Data Archive (1979-2003), my estimation results support the sel...

  12. Private-public sector employment choice and wage differential in Palestine:a gender perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Daoud, Yousef; Shanti, Ruba

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates employment sector choice for Palestinian men and women, the paper analyzes wage differential by gender and sector. The paper utilizes Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) Labor Force Surveys for the years 1999, 2001, 2007, and 2010. Although returns to education by gender has been analyzed before, this paper is the first to analyze wage differential and sector choice by gender. The results indicate that there are stark differences by gender from the view point...

  13. An Empirical Model of Wage Dispersion with Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Lentz, Rasmus

    (submodular). The model is estimated on Danish matched employer-employee data. We find evidence of positive assortative matching. In the estimated equilibrium match distribution, the correlation between worker skill and firm productivity is 0.12. The assortative matching has a substantial impact on wage......This paper studies wage dispersion in an equilibrium on-the-job-search model with endogenous search intensity. Workers differ in their permanent skill level and firms differ with respect to productivity. Positive (negative) sorting results if the match production function is supermodular...... to mismatch by asking how much greater output would be if the estimated population of matches were perfectly positively assorted. In this case, output would increase by 7.7%....

  14. An Empirical Investigation of Individual Differences in Time to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1976-01-01

    Results show that student differences in time-on-task to learn to criterion are alterable and can be minimized over a sequence of learning units given appropriate adaptive learning strategies. (Author/DEP)

  15. Investigating the effect of the London living wage on the psychological wellbeing of low-wage service sector employees: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Ellen; Cummins, Steven; Wills, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Working poverty has become a major public health concern in recent times, and low-paid, insecure employment has been widely linked to poor psychological wellbeing. The London Living Wage (LLW) campaign aims to ensure employees receive adequate pay. The objective of this study is to investigate whether working for a LLW employer predicted higher levels of psychological wellbeing among low-wage service sector employees. Workplace interviews were conducted with 300 service sector employees in London; 173 of whom were in LLW workplaces. Positive psychological wellbeing was measured using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess whether working for a LLW employer was associated with greater psychological wellbeing, adjusting for hypothesised confounding and mediating factors. After adjustment, respondents working for LLW employers had wellbeing scores 3.9 units higher on average than those who did not (95% CI: 1.8, 6.0). These empirical results are complemented by methodological findings regarding the difficulties associated with accessing the study group. Those who worked for a LLW employer had significantly higher psychological wellbeing on average than those who did not. This was shown to be irrespective of any differences in the socioeconomic or demographic composition of these two groups. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Wages, wage violations, and pesticide safety experienced by migrant farmworkers in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Erin; Nguyen, Ha T; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Farmworkers have the potential to receive wages that fail to meet minimum wage standards. This analysis describes wages and minimum wage violations among farmworkers, and it determines associations of wage violations with personal characteristics and pesticide safety regulation violations. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 300 eastern North Carolina farmworkers conducted in June through August, 2009. Most farmworkers (90.0%) were paid by the hour, but 11.7 percent received piece-rate pay. Wage violations were prevalent among farmworkers: 18.3 percent of all farmworkers, 45.3 percent of farmworkers without H-2A visas, and 3.6 percent of farmworkers with H-2A visas experienced wage violations. Most farmworkers experienced numerous pesticide safety violations. Personal characteristics were not associated with wage violations among farmworkers without H-2A visas, but some pesticide safety violations were associated with wage violations. The association of violations indicates that some growers generally violate regulations. Greater enforcement of all regulations is needed.

  17. Lower wages for less hours? A simultaneous wage-hours model for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Elke

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the impact of working hours on the gross hourly wage rate of West German women is analyzed. We use a simultaneous wage-hours model which takes into account the participation decision. First, our estimates show that the hourly wage rate is strongly a¤ected by the working hours. In order to avoid any assumptions about the functional form, we estimate linear spline functions. Second, we detect di¤erent wage-hours profiles for specific groups of individuals. Despite these di¤erences...

  18. Does increasing the minimum wage reduce poverty in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gindling, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Do minimum wage policies reduce poverty in developing countries? It depends. Raising the minimum wage could increase or decrease poverty, depending on labor market characteristics. Minimum wages target formal sector workers—a minority of workers in most developing countries—many of whom do not live in poor households. Whether raising minimum wages reduces poverty depends not only on whether formal sector workers lose jobs as a result, but also on whether low-wage workers live in poor househol...

  19. Residence time determination for adsorbent beds of different configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otermat, J.E.; Wikoff, W.O.; Kovach, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    The residence time calculations of ASME AG-1 Code, Section FC, currently specify a screen surface area method, that is technically incorrect. Test data has been obtained on Type II adsorber trays of different configurations to establish residence time in the adsorber trays. These data indicate that the air volume/carbon volume ratio or the average screen area are more appropriate for the calculation of the residence time calculation than the currently used, smallest screen area basis.

  20. Educational segregation and the gender wage gap in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Livanos, Ilias; Pouliakas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose\\ud To investigate the extent to which differences in the subject of degree studied by male and female university graduates contributes to the gender pay gap in Greece, an EU country with historically large gender discrepancies in earnings and occupational segregation. In addition, to explore the reasons underlying the distinct educational choices of men and women, with particular emphasis on the role of wage uncertainty.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud Using micro-data from the ...

  1. YET ANOTHER ATTACK ON WAGES AND CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    An unobjectionable-sounding title obscures the real intent of the latest in a series of Bills which the federal Coalition government is attempting to legislate in its ongoing attempts to undermine employee wages and conditions and attack unions.

  2. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared between the worker and the firm. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I show that under collective wage bargaining, the worker...... share is endogenous and counter-cyclical. Consequently, when the economy is hit by a shock, the dynamics of the worker share partially counteract the dynamics of the match surplus, and this mechanism delivers endogenous wage rigidity. The model thus offers new insights into two business cycle features...

  3. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

    Applying administrative register data information for Danish firms in 1999, 2000, and 2001, this paper investigate how the employment of wage subsidized labour affects ordinary employment at the firm level. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric estimations are presented. Descriptive...

  4. Results-based Rewards - Leveraging Wage Increases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    A good seven years ago, as a part of a large-scale pay reform, the Danish public sector introduced results-based rewards (RBR), i.e. a pay component awarded for achieving or exceeding targets set in advance. RBR represent a possibility for combining wage-earners interests in higher wages with a g......A good seven years ago, as a part of a large-scale pay reform, the Danish public sector introduced results-based rewards (RBR), i.e. a pay component awarded for achieving or exceeding targets set in advance. RBR represent a possibility for combining wage-earners interests in higher wages...... limited use of RBR, illustrated with examples. The Danish experiences should give food for thought, given that pay systems used by the public sector are currently under transformation in practically all OECD countries....

  5. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  6. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  7. Collective bargaining on wages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    2008-01-01

    17 kapitler kommer på forskellig vis rundt om disse hovedstrømninger, men indeholder naturligvis også mange andre informationer om lønfastsættelse på det europæiske arbejdsmarked. Bogen kan købes hos ETUI i Bruxelles bl.a. via deres hjemmeside: http://www.etui-rehs.org/research/activities/Workers-representation/Books/Wages-and-wage-bargaining-in-Europe...

  8. Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...... labor market and the lessons it holds for both the United States and the rest of Europe....

  9. The Wage Effects of Personal Smoking History

    OpenAIRE

    GRAFOVA, IRINA B.; STAFFORD, FRANK P.

    2009-01-01

    Why do we observe a wage differential between smokers and non-smokers? Pooling reports of current and prior smoking activity across 15 years from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) allows the reconstruction of individual smoking histories. Dividing the sample into smoking history groups, the four largest of which are: persistent smokers, never smokers, former smokers, and future quitters reveals that there is no observed wage gap between former smokers and those who have never smoked. ...

  10. Wage Inequality in Turkey: 2002-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bakis, Ozan; Polat, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of wage inequality over the last decade in Turkey using household labor force survey between 2002 and 2010. During the period between 2002 and 2004, the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers stayed almost constant while their relative wages have decreased in the benefit of less educated workers. However, in the second period between 2004 and 2010 the relative supply of more educated workers to less educated workers had risen while t...

  11. Training, Job Security and Incentive Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Katsimi

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal level of firm-specific training by taking into account the positive effect of training on the expected duration of workers’ current employment. In the framework of an efficiency wage model, a short expected job tenure represents a disamenity that reduces the penalty from shirking. As this disamenity increases, workers have an incentive to continue providing a positive level of effort only if they are compensated by a higher wage. We endogenize the employment...

  12. Gender Wage Discrimination and Trade Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Sarra Ben Yahmed

    2012-01-01

    International trade has been expected to reduce the gender wage gap by increasing competition and thus reducing the rents that allow employers to discriminate. However, some empirical assessments find an opposite effect. We provide an explanation for the puzzling result that trade openness widens the gender wage gap under certain circumstances. This paper introduces employer taste discrimination in an open economy model with imperfect competition to shed light on the heterogeneous impacts of ...

  13. Wage inequality, the health system, and infant mortality in wealthy industrialized countries, 1970-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinko, James A; Shi, Leiyu; Starfield, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This pooled, cross-sectional, time-series study assesses the impact of health system variables on the relationship between wage inequality and infant mortality in 19 OECD countries over the period 1970-1996. Data are derived from the OECD, World Value Surveys, Luxembourg Income Study, and political economy databases. Analyses include Pearson correlation and fixed-effects multivariate regression. In year-specific and time-series analyses, the Theil measure of wage inequality (based on industrial sector wages) is positively and statistically significantly associated with infant mortality rates--even while controlling for GDP per capita. Health system variables--in particular the method of healthcare financing and the supply of physicians--significantly attenuated the effect of wage inequality on infant mortality. In fixed effects multivariate regression models controlling for GDP per capita and wage inequality, variables generally associated with better health include income per capita, the method of healthcare financing, and physicians per 1000 population. Alcohol consumption, the proportion of the population in unions, and government expenditures on health were associated with poorer health outcomes. Ambiguous effects were seen for the consumer price index, unemployment rates, the openness of the economy, and voting rates. This study provides international evidence for the impact of wage inequalities on infant mortality. Results suggest that improving aspects of the healthcare system may be one way to partially compensate for the negative effects of social inequalities on population health.

  14. Illness related wage and productivity losses: Valuing 'presenteeism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam

    2015-12-01

    One source of productivity loss due to illness is the reduced "quantity" or "quality" of labor input while working, often referred to as presenteeism. Illness-related presenteeism has been found to be potentially more costly than absenteeism. To value presenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy for marginal productivity at the firm level. However, wage may not equal marginal productivity in some scenarios. One instance is when a job involves team production and perfect substitutes for workers are not readily available. Using a Canadian linked employer-employee survey (2001-2005), we test whether relative wage equals relative marginal productivity among team workers and non-team workers with different frequencies of presenteeism (reduction at work due to illness). For the pooled cross-sectional estimates (2001, 2003, 2005) we obtain 13,755 observations with 6842 unique workplaces. There are 6490 observations for the first differences estimates from the odd years and 5263 observations for the first differences estimates from 2001 to 2002 and 2003 to 2004. We find that in both small and large firms, team workers with frequent reductions at work are less productive but earn similarly compared with non-team workers without reductions. We also find that in small firms, workers with occasional work reductions are more productive than workers without reductions, but the reverse is true in large firms. The study findings partially support the literature stating that productivity loss resulting from employee presenteeism could exceed wages if team work is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of unemployment, aggregate wages, and spatial contiguity on local wages: An investigation with German district level data

    OpenAIRE

    Thiess Buettner

    1999-01-01

    Despite spatial rigidity of collectively negotiated wages the local unemployment rate is found to have a significant negative impact on wages. This impact is shown to be consistent with both the wage-curve hypothesis and modern Phillips-curve modelling. Spatial contiguity effects are found in wages and unemployment and their neglect leads to an underestimation of the effect of local unemployment. Yet, the impact of local unemployment on wages turns out to be quite low as compared to studies f...

  16. Modelling financial markets with agents competing on different time scales and with different amount of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Johannes; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2006-05-01

    We use agent-based models to study the competition among investors who use trading strategies with different amount of information and with different time scales. We find that mixing agents that trade on the same time scale but with different amount of information has a stabilizing impact on the large and extreme fluctuations of the market. Traders with the most information are found to be more likely to arbitrage traders who use less information in the decision making. On the other hand, introducing investors who act on two different time scales has a destabilizing effect on the large and extreme price movements, increasing the volatility of the market. Closeness in time scale used in the decision making is found to facilitate the creation of local trends. The larger the overlap in commonly shared information the more the traders in a mixed system with different time scales are found to profit from the presence of traders acting at another time scale than themselves.

  17. The hidden winners of renewable energy promotion: Insights into sector-specific wage differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, Manfred; Janser, Markus; Lehmer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    In light of Germany's energy system transformation, this paper examines differences in employment structures and wage differentials between renewable energy establishments and their sector peers. To do so, we have developed a novel data set by linking company-level information from the German Renewable Energy Federation with administrative establishment-level data from the Institute for Employment Research. Descriptive evidence shows significant differences in wages and several other characteristics between renewable energy establishments and their sector peers. Our estimates give evidence that human capital and other establishment-level characteristics mostly explain the wage differential among manufacturers and energy providers. However, we find a persistent ‘renewable energy wage premium' of more than ten percent in construction/installation activities and architectural/engineering services. We interpret this premium as a positive indirect effect of the promotion of renewable energies for the benefit of employees in renewable energy establishments within these two sectors. - Highlights: • Renewable energy (RE) firms pay considerably more than their non-RE sector peers. • In manufacturing and energy supply, firm attributes explain mainly the wage gap. • In installation, planning and project management one third remains unexplained. • This unexplained rest represents a ‘RE wage premium’ of around 10 percent. • The employees in both sectors are the ‘hidden winners’ of RE promotion.

  18. The effects of prenatal testosterone on wages: Evidence from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, John V C; Bryukhanov, Maksym; Kochergina, Ekaterina; Orel, Ekaterina; Polyachenko, Sergiy; Yudkevich, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation. There is also some evidence of a potential non-linear, inverse U-effect of digit ratios on wages but this is sensitive to choice of specification. These findings are consistent with earlier work on prenatal T and success in careers (Coates et al., 2009) but inconsistent with the work of Gielen et al. (2016) who find differing effects for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time craving differences between black and white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian L; Paris, Megan M; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Traylor, Amy C; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-5).

  20. Oxalate content of different drinkable dilutions of tea infusions after different brewing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of different brewing times and diluting on oxalate content of loose-packed black teas consumed in Tabriz, Iran. The oxalate content of black teas after brewing for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes was measured in triplicate by enzymatic assay. In order to attain the most acceptable dilution of tea infusions, tea samples which were brewed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes were diluted two (120 ml), three (80 ml) and four (60 ml) times respectively. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentrations associated with increased brewing times (Pbrewing times, respectively. There were significant differences between the mean oxalate content of different dilutions after brewing for 15, 30 and 60 minutes (Pbrewing times and different dilution was below the recommended levels. Therefore, it seems that consumption of black tea several times per day would not pose significant health risk in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals.

  1. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were

  2. Wages in the food chain in Ethiopia: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; Asteraye, N.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Ethiopia, conducted between the 2rd of March and the 20th of May 2013 in all provinces of Ethiopia. In total 2,126 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 48% were under 30 years of age. The

  3. Wages in the food chain in Mozambique: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force, conducted between the 27th of May and the 1st of June 2013 in all provinces of Mozambique. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 43% were under 30 years

  4. Wages in the food chain in Burundi: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; Ndereyahaga, R.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force conducted between the 7th of April and the 29th of April 2013 in all provinces of Burundi. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 52% were men, 48% women and 43% were under 30 years of

  5. Finite-difference time-domain analysis of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Cooke, David G.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report on the numerical analysis of a time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy experiment using a modified finite-difference time-domain method. Using this method, we show that ultrafast carrier dynamics can be extracted with a time resolution smaller than the duration of the T...

  6. Time in Early Childhood: Creative Possibilities with Different Conceptions of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Time is an important driver of pedagogy which is often overlooked in the busy atmosphere of an early childhood centre. Engaging philosophically with three different concepts of time, and drawing examples from literature and art to focus attention on how time is constituted in early childhood centres, this article argues that we inhabit the…

  7. Retrieving autobiographical memories: How different retrieval strategies associated with different cues explain reaction time differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Tugba

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has shown that memories cued by concrete concepts, such as objects, are retrieved faster than those cued by more abstract concepts, such as emotions. This effect has been explained by the fact that more memories are directly retrieved from object versus emotion cues. In the present study, we tested whether RT differences between memories cued by emotion versus object terms occur not only because object cues elicit direct retrieval of more memories (Uzer, Lee, & Brown, 2012), but also because of differences in memory generation in response to emotions versus objects. One hundred university students retrieved memories in response to basic-level (e.g. orange), superordinate-level (e.g. plant), and emotion (e.g. surprised) cues. Retrieval speed was measured and participants reported whether memories were directly retrieved or generated on each trial. Results showed that memories were retrieved faster in response to basic-level versus superordinate-level and emotion cues because a) basic-level cues elicited more directly retrieved memories, and b) generating memories was more difficult when cues were abstract versus concrete. These results suggest that generative retrieval is a cue generation process in which additional cues that provide contextual information including the target event are produced. Memories are retrieved more slowly in response to emotion cues in part because emotion labels are less effective cues of appropriate contextual information. This particular finding is inconsistent with the idea that emotion is a primary organizational unit for autobiographical memories. In contrast, the difficulty of emotional memory generation implies that emotions represent low-level event information in the organization of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of informal care on work and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B; Skira, Meghan M

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional evidence in the United States finds that informal caregivers have less attachment to the labor force. The causal mechanism is unclear: do children who work less become informal caregivers, or are children who become caregivers working less? Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we identify the relationship between informal care and work in the United States, both on the intensive and extensive margins, and examine wage effects. We control for time-invariant individual heterogeneity; rule out or control for endogeneity; examine effects for men and women separately; and analyze heterogeneous effects by task and intensity. We find modest decreases-2.4 percentage points-in the likelihood of working for male caregivers providing personal care. Female chore caregivers, meanwhile, are more likely to be retired. For female care providers who remain working, we find evidence that they decrease work by 3-10hours per week and face a 3 percent lower wage than non-caregivers. We find little effect of caregiving on working men's hours or wages. These estimates suggest that the opportunity costs to informal care providers are important to consider when making policy recommendations about the design and funding of public long-term care programs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Taxation of Wage Incomes in Terms of Tax Justice in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan BAY

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While wage income is taxed in the Turkish tax system, it is observed that some taxpayer groups have been taxed in different procedures and thus a number of practices have been observed that have damaged the tax justice. Since the wage income is generally taxed by withholding, this situation causes some problems in terms of tax justice. The fact that the application of the annual declaration is limited in the taxation of the wage income makes the wage earners disadvantageous to those who earn income and revenues from the other income elements in terms of the deductions that can be utilized in reaching the net income. In addition, as a requirement of the separation principle, the wage incomes have to be taxed at a lower rate than capital gains. In this study, the regulations regarding the taxation of the wage incomes in the Turkish tax system will be examined and applications contrary to the tax justice will be presented and the necessary suggestions will be made.

  10. Mental Health Insurance Parity and Provider Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H

    2017-06-01

    Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.

  11. Cognitive componets of speech at different time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is defined as unsupervised grouping of data leading to a group structure well aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We focus here on speech at different time scales looking for possible hidden ‘cognitive structure’. Statistical regularities...

  12. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted ...

  13. Intercept Centering and Time Coding in Latent Difference Score Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Latent difference score (LDS) models combine benefits derived from autoregressive and latent growth curve models allowing for time-dependent influences and systematic change. The specification and descriptions of LDS models include an initial level of ability or trait plus an accumulation of changes. A limitation of this specification is that the…

  14. Finite difference time domain modelling of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurgens, T.G.; Harfoush, F.A.

    1989-03-01

    Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modelling has been successfully applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic scattering and interaction problems for many years. Here the method is extended to incorporate the modelling of wake fields in particle accelerators. Algorithmic comparisons are made to existing wake field codes, such as MAFIA T3. 9 refs., 7 figs

  15. Effect of different hydropriming times on the quantitative and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... characteristics and percentage of protein of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) were examined in a randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2010. Seeds of chickpea were exposed at six different hydropriming times (2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and control). The results of this experiment showed.

  16. The Dispersion of Employees' Wage Increase and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Christian; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    than the dispersion of wage levels. It is reasonable to expect greater dispersion of wage increases to be associated with higher monetary incentives, but also with increased perceptions of unfairness. The authors' analysis of linked employer-employee data from Denmark for the years 1992-97 shows......Previous studies examining intra-firm wage dispersion and firm performance have focused on wage levels. The authors of this study argue that for purposes of comparing wage dispersion's positive incentive effects with its adverse morale effects, the dispersion of wage increases is more revealing...

  17. Timing resolution performance comparison of different SiPM devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinsky, Sergei, E-mail: dolinsky@ge.com; Fu, Geng; Ivan, Adrian

    2015-11-21

    Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices with improved parameters were recently introduced by several vendors. In addition to published manufacturer performance specifications, different research groups have reported on measurements of the available SiPMs in different operating conditions and using different test setups. In this work we performed a consistent set of test procedures for SiPM devices from various vendors, with focus on Time-of-Flight (TOF) PET detectors applications. SiPMs from Hamamatsu (HPK), SensL, Ketek, and Excelitas were tested. The same experimental setup and procedures were used for comparison of timing resolution for small (3×3 mm{sup 2}) and large (6×6 mm{sup 2} or 4×6 mm{sup 2}) devices coupled to short (3×3×10 mm{sup 3}) and long (4×4×25 mm{sup 3}) LYSO crystals. The potential opportunities for TOF PET detectors are also evaluated.

  18. Fractal markets: Liquidity and investors on different time horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Ye; Nishimura, Yusaku; Men, Ming

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new agent-based model to study the source of liquidity and the “emergent” phenomenon in financial market with fractal structure. The model rests on fractal market hypothesis and agents with different time horizons of investments. What is interesting is that though the agent-based model reveals that the interaction between these heterogeneous agents affects the stability and liquidity of the financial market the real world market lacks detailed data to bring it to light since it is difficult to identify and distinguish the investors with different time horizons in the empirical approach. results show that in a relatively short period of time fractal market provides liquidity from investors with different horizons and the market gains stability when the market structure changes from uniformity to diversification. In the real world the fractal structure with the finite of horizons can only stabilize the market within limits. With the finite maximum horizons, the greater diversity of the investors and the fractal structure will not necessarily bring more stability to the market which might come with greater fluctuation in large time scale.

  19. The wage penalty for motherhood: Evidence on discrimination from panel data and a survey experiment for Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oesch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survey-based research finds a sizeable unexplained wage gap between mothers and nonmothers in affluent countries. The source of this wage gap is unclear: It can stem either from the unobserved effects of motherhood on productivity or from employer discrimination against mothers. Objective: This paper opens the black box of the motherhood wage gap by directly measuring discrimination in Switzerland based on two complementary methods. Methods: We first use two longitudinal population surveys to establish the size of the wage residual for motherhood. We then run a factorial survey experiment among HR managers (N=714 whom we asked to assign a starting wage to the résumés of fictitious job candidates. Results: The population surveys show an unexplained wage penalty per child of 4Š to 8Š. The factorial survey experiment shows that recruiters assign wages to mothers that are 2Š to 3Š below those of nonmothers. The wage penalty is larger for younger mothers, 6Š for ages 40 and less, but disappears for older mothers or mothers in a blue-collar occupation. Conclusions: The motherhood wage gap found in panel studies cannot be reduced to unobserved dimensions of work productivity. The experimental evidence shows that recruiters discriminate against mothers. Contribution: Our paper's novelty is to uncover wage discrimination against mothers by combining two different methods. Our national panel surveys mirror the supply side of the labor market and provide us with strong external validity. The factorial survey experiment on recruiters informs on the demand side of the labor market and shows a causal effect.

  20. Gender differences in leisure-time versus non-leisure-time physical activity among Saudi adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sobayel, Hana; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nanda A; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gender differences and predictors of leisure versus non-leisure time physical activities among Saudi adolescents aged 14-19 years. The multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. A sample of 1,388 males and 1,500 females enrolled in secondary schools in three major cities in Saudi Arabia was included. Anthropometric measurements were performed and Body Mass Index was calculated. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits were measured using a self-reported validated questionnaire. The total time spent in leisure and non-leisure physical activity per week was 90 and 77 minutes, respectively. The males spent more time per week in leisure-time physical activities than females. Females in private schools spent more time during the week in leisure-time physical activities, compared to females in Stateschools. There was a significant difference between genders by obesity status interaction in leisure-time physical activity. Gender, and other factors, predicted total duration spent in leisure-time and non-leisure-time physical activity. The study showed that female adolescents are much less active than males, especially in leisure-time physical activities. Programmes to promote physical activity among adolescents are urgently needed, with consideration of gender differences.

  1. Gender differences in leisure-time versus non-leisure-time physical activity among Saudi adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Al-Sobayel

    2015-05-01

    The study showed that female adolescents are much less active than males, especially in leisure-time physical activities. Programmes to promote physical activity among adolescents are urgently needed, with consideration of gender differences.

  2. Start time delays in operating room: Different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs. Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs. Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.

  3. Dynamic backcalculation with different load-time histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Stine Skov; Levenberg, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    This paper focused attention to the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) load-time history. For a commonly used device, it studied the pulse generation mechanism and the influence of different load histories on backcalculation results. In this connection, a semi-analytic impact theory was first...... for an experimental dataset that resulted from operating an FWD with different loading configurations. It was found that backcalculated parameters are sensitive to the FWD pulse features. Consequently, it is recommended that, whenever advanced pavement characterisation is sought, experimental attention should...

  4. Time Perspective and Age: A Review of Age Associated Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureiro-Martinez, Daniella; Trujillo, Carlos A; Unda, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between age and the five dimensions of time perspective measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) (past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future). Time perspective is related to well-being, decision-making, level of development, and many other psychological issues. Hence, the existence of a systematic relationship between time perspective and age should be considered in all studies for which time is a relevant variable. However, no specific research about this has been conducted. We collected 407 papers that referenced the ZTPI between 2001 and 2015. From those, 72 studies met our inclusion criteria. They included 29,815 participants from 19 countries whose age spans most phases of adulthood (from 13.5 to 75.5 years, mean 28.7). We analyzed these studies adapting meta-analytical techniques. We found that present hedonistic and past negative dimensions are negatively related to aging with partial eta squared effect sizes of roughly 0.15. Our results have implications for the design of studies related to time as our findings highlight the importance of taking into account the differences associated with age.

  5. Low Wages as Occupational Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; De Vogli, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The history of occupational medicine has been characterized by ever-widening recognition of hazards, from fires in 1911 to asbestos in the 1960s, to job strain in the 1990s. In this essay, we argue for broadening the recognition further to include low wages. We first review possible mechanisms explaining the effects of wages on health or health behaviors. Mechanisms involve self-esteem, job satisfaction, deprivation, social rank, the "full" price of bad health, patience, and the ability to purchase health-producing goods and services. Second, we discuss empirical studies that rely on large, typically national, data sets and statistical models that use either instrumental variables or natural experiments and also account for other family income. Finally, we draw implications for laws governing minimum wages and labor unions.

  6. Effects of wages on smoking decisions of current and past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-08-01

    We used longitudinal data and instrumental variables (IVs) in a prospective design to test for the causal effects of wages on smoking prevalence among current and past smokers. Nationally representative U.S. data were drawn from the 1999-2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our overall sample was restricted to full time employed persons, aged 21-65 years. We excluded part time workers and youths because smoking and wage correlations would be complicated by labor supply decisions. We excluded adult never smokers because people rarely begin smoking after the age of 20 years. IVs were created with state-level minimum wages and unionization rates. We analyzed subsamples of men, women, the less educated, the more educated, quitters, and backsliders. Validity and strength of instruments within the IV analysis were conducted with the Sargan-Hansen J statistic and F tests. We found some evidence that low wages lead to more smoking in the overall sample and substantial evidence for men, persons with high school educations or less (wages lead to 5.5 and 4.6 percentage point decreases in smoking for men and the less educated; they also increased the average chance of quitting among base-year smokers from 17.0% to 20.4%. Statistical tests suggested that IVs were strong and valid in most samples. Subjects' other family income, including spouses' wages, was entered as a control variable. Increases in an individual's wages, independent of other income, decreased the prevalence of smoking among current and past smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Downing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preschool children can spend up to 12 h a day in sedentary time and few meet current recommendations for screen time. Little is known about ecological correlates that could be targeted to decrease specific versus total sedentary behaviour. This study examined whether the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool boys and girls. Methods Parents participating in the HAPPY Study in 2008/09 in Melbourne, Australia reported their child’s usual screen time and potential individual, social and physical environment correlates. Children wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for eight days to objectively assess sedentary time (<100 counts.min−1. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed, stratified by sex and controlling for child age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment. Correlates significantly associated with screen time or sedentary time in individual models (p < 0.05 were included in final combined models. Results Children were sedentary for 301.1 (SD 34.1 minutes/day and spent 108.5 (SD 69.6 minutes/day in screen time. There were no sex differences in screen or sedentary time. In the final models, sleep duration was inversely associated with girls’ sedentary time and boys’ screen time. The only other consistent correlates for boys and girls were parental self-efficacy to limit screen time and screen time rules, which were inversely associated with screen time for both sexes. Parents reporting that they get bored watching their child play was inversely associated and maternal television viewing was positively associated with boys’ screen time. Paternal age was positively associated with boys’ sedentary time. Maternal ethnicity was inversely associated and paternal education, child preferences for sedentary behaviour, and parental concerns about child’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour were positively associated with girls’ screen time

  8. Individual differences in long-range time representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Camila S; Caetano, Marcelo S; Balci, Fuat; Claessens, Peter M E; Zana, Yossi

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of experimental data, long-range time representation has been proposed to follow a highly compressed power function, which has been hypothesized to explain the time inconsistency found in financial discount rate preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well linear and power function models explain empirical data from individual participants tested in different procedural settings. The line paradigm was used in five different procedural variations with 35 adult participants. Data aggregated over the participants showed that fitted linear functions explained more than 98% of the variance in all procedures. A linear regression fit also outperformed a power model fit for the aggregated data. An individual-participant-based analysis showed better fits of a linear model to the data of 14 participants; better fits of a power function with an exponent β > 1 to the data of 12 participants; and better fits of a power function with β discount rates in intertemporal choice to the compressed nature of subjective time must entail the characterization of subjective time on an individual-participant basis.

  9. Do you get what you ask? The gender gap in desired and realised wages

    OpenAIRE

    Jaanika Meriküll; Pille Mõtsmees

    2015-01-01

    This paper will study the gender wage gap in desired wages, realised wages and reservation wages. The notion of desired wages shows workers� first bet to potential employers during the job-search process. Two datasets are employed, the electronic job-search portal database, where individuals signal their desired wages, and the labour force survey, where realised wages and reservation wages are reported. The Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition is implemented to investigate the contribution of charac...

  10. Wage inequality and team production: an experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartling, B.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous survey studies report that human resource managers curb wage inequality with the intent to avoid detrimental effects on workers' morale. However, there exists little controlled empirical evidence demonstrating that horizontal social comparisons and wage inequality have adverse effects on

  11. Office of Child Support and Enforcement (OCSE) State Wage Alerts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The OCSE State Wage Alert is a quarterly match which detects SSI overpayments by identifying unreported wage and unemployment data provided to the Office of Child...

  12. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... Raising minimum wages has traditionally been considered a way to protect poor ... However, the effect of raising minimum wages remains an empirical question ... ​More than 70 of Vietnamese entrepreneurs choose to start a ...

  14. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  15. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until......Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...

  16. Gender wage gap in Vietnam 1993 - 98

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Y.C. Liu

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys 1992–93 and 1997–98 to examine changes in the gender wage gap. The intertemporal decomposition of Juhn et al. (1991) indicates that changes in observed variables, skill prices and wage inequality have tended to narrow the gap, but the gap effect has tended to widen it, with the net effect being one of little change. This finding is in contrast with that for the EEC but in line with the experience of China. Improving education about equity p...

  17. Health care costs, wages, and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Sheiner

    1999-01-01

    While economists generally agree that workers pay for their health insurance costs through reduced wages, there has been little thought devoted to the level at which these costs are passed on: Is each employee's wage reduced by the amount of his or her own health costs, by the average health costs of employees in the firm, or by some amount in between? This paper analyzes one dimension of the question of how firms pass health costs to workers. Using cross-city variation in health costs, I tes...

  18. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  19. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  20. Analyzing the changing gender wage gap based on multiply imputed right censored wages

    OpenAIRE

    Gartner, Hermann; Rässler, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    "In order to analyze the gender wage gap with the German IAB-employment register we have to solve the problem of censored wages at the upper limit of the social security system. We treat this problem as a missing data problem. We regard the missingness mechanism as not missing at random (NMAR, according to Little and Rubin, 1987, 2002) as well as missing by design. The censored wages are multiply imputed by draws of a random variable from a truncated distribution. The multiple imputation is b...