WorldWideScience

Sample records for time typical examples

  1. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Gas Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Gas Shield 5 Figure 5 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Example of a Typical Gas Shield ER25MR08.004 ...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1610 - An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false An Example of a Typical Indicator Finger 4 Figure 4 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Example of a Typical Indicator Finger ER25MR08.003 ...

  3. Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example

    CERN Document Server

    Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    An intuition-based approach enables you to master time series analysis with ease Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example provides the fundamental techniques in time series analysis using various examples. By introducing necessary theory through examples that showcase the discussed topics, the authors successfully help readers develop an intuitive understanding of seemingly complicated time series models and their implications. The book presents methodologies for time series analysis in a simplified, example-based approach. Using graphics, the authors discuss each presented example in

  4. Three typical examples of activation of the international charter space and major disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, J.; Bequignon, J.; Mahmood, A.

    The purpose of the International Charter is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery for users affected by disasters, to promote co - operation between space agencies and space system operators and to allow participation in the organisation of emergency assistance or subsequent operations. The Charter which is officially in operation since November 1, 2000 was signed on June 20, 2000 by CNES (1) and ESA (2) and enlarged later on with the membership of the CSA (3) in October 2000 and of the NOAA (4) and the ISRO (5), both in September 2001. All Partner agencies undertake to co-operate on a voluntary basis with no exchange of funds between them in the event of a major natural or man-induced disaster. This paper, after a brief description of the Charter organisation and of its implementation procedures, addresses three typical cases of Charter activation and the lessons learned to date. The first example will deal with the major earthquakes in January and February 2001 in El Salvador for the benefit of the Salvadorian National Register Centre, the second concerning flooding in the North East of France early 2002 with quick delivery of flood maps to the French Civil Protection Authority and the last one will focus on the Nyiragongo volcanic eruption near the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It will include feedback from the Authorised Users concerning the usefulness of the Charter and the suggested improvements in terms of response time, sensors capability and resolution, delivered products (scale and ease of operational utilisation) and adapted scenarios.(1) Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, (2) European Space Agency, (3) Canadian Space Agency, (4) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , (5) Indian Space Research Organisation

  5. Three typical examples of activation of the International Charter ``space and major disasters''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, J.-L.; Bequignon, J.; Mahmood, A.

    This paper, after a brief description of the Charter organisation and of its implementation procedures, addresses three typical cases of Charter activation and the lessons learned to date. The first example will deal with the major earthquakes in January and February 2001 in El Salvador for the benefit of the Salvadorian National Register Centre, the second concerning flooding in the North-East and South of France in January and September 2002 with quick delivery of flood maps to the French Civil Protection Authority and the last one will focus on the Nyiragongo volcanic eruption near the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  6. Examples of in-service inspections and typical maintenance schedule for low-power research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1997-01-01

    In-service inspection methods for low-power research reactors are described which have been developed during the past 37 years of the operation of the TRIGA reactor Vienna. Special tools have been developed during this period and their application for maintenance and in-serve inspection is discussed. Two practical in-service inspections at a TRIGA reactor and at a MTR reactor are presented. Further a typical maintenance plan for a TRIGA reactor is listed in the annex. (author)

  7. The Rhetoric of Popular Science Texts. "Scientific American" Magazine as Typical Example

    OpenAIRE

    Lichański, Jakub Z.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the relationship between rhetoric and popular science texts. Scientific American magazine is taken as an example. In conclusion, the author suggests that the rhetoric of popular science texts rests on the presentation of the problem, avoiding controversy in the presentation of research issues, avoiding modal forms, the use of multiple elements of visual rhetoric. This article contains brief historical information about the development of...

  8. International Charter "Space and Major Disasters": Typical Examples of Disaster Management Including Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Castan, Eliane; Bequignon, Jerome; Mahmood, Ahmed; Lauritson, Levin; Soma, P.; Platzeck, Gabriel; Chu, Ishida

    2005-03-01

    The International Charter 'Space and Major Disaster', now entering its 5th year of operation, has been activated nearly 80 times to provide space-based data and information in response to natural disasters. The disasters ranged from volcanic eruption in Columbia, floods in Europe, Argentina, Sudan to earthquakes in Iran, from landslides in Philippines to the tragic tsunami in Asia, all resulting in major loss of life and property. The Charter provided imagery and the related information were found to be useful in disaster relief and assessment. Since July 1st 2003, a framework cooperation agreement has been allowing United Nations organizations involved in disaster response to request activation of the Charter.The purpose of the Charter is to provide assistance in situations of emergencies caused by natural and technological disasters by pooling together the space and associated ground resources of the Charter participants, which are currently the European (ESA), French (CNES), Canadian (CSA), Indian (ISRO), American (NOAA), Argentinean (CONAE) and Japanese (JAXA) space organizations.This paper will point out some of the best cases of Charter activation for different disasters leading to change detection imagery and damage assessment products which could be used for disaster reduction in close co-ordination with the end users after the crisis period.

  9. Time-lapse videos for physics education: specific examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2018-05-01

    There are many physics experiments with long time scales such that they are usually neither shown in the physics class room nor in student labs. However, they can be easily recorded with time-lapse cameras and the respective time-lapse videos allow qualitative and/or quantitative analysis of the underlying physics. Here, we present some examples from thermal physics (melting, evaporation, cooling) as well as diffusion processes

  10. Bionics by examples 250 scenarios from classical to modern times

    CERN Document Server

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Bionics means learning from the nature for the development of technology. The science of "bionics" itself is classified into several sections, from materials and structures over procedures and processes until evolution and optimization. Not all these areas, or only a few, are really known in the public and also in scientific literature. This includes the Lotus-effect, converted to the contamination-reduction of fassades and the shark-shed-effect, converted to the  resistance-reduction of airplanes. However, there are hundreds of highly interesting examples that contain the transformation of principles of the nature into technology. From the large number of these examples, 250 were selected for the present book according to "prehistory", "early-history", "classic" and "modern time". Most examples are new. Every example includes a printed page in a homogeneous arrangement. The examples from the field "modern time" are joint in blocks corresponding to the sub-disciplines of bionics.

  11. Time to discontinuation of atypical versus typical antipsychotics in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Marvin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an ongoing debate over whether atypical antipsychotics are more effective than typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. This naturalistic study compares atypical and typical antipsychotics on time to all-cause medication discontinuation, a recognized index of medication effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from a large, 3-year, observational, non-randomized, multisite study of schizophrenia, conducted in the U.S. between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Patients who were initiated on oral atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or ziprasidone or oral typical antipsychotics (low, medium, or high potency were compared on time to all-cause medication discontinuation for 1 year following initiation. Treatment group comparisons were based on treatment episodes using 3 statistical approaches (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox Proportional Hazards regression model, and propensity score-adjusted bootstrap resampling methods. To further assess the robustness of the findings, sensitivity analyses were performed, including the use of (a only 1 medication episode for each patient, the one with which the patient was treated first, and (b all medication episodes, including those simultaneously initiated on more than 1 antipsychotic. Results Mean time to all-cause medication discontinuation was longer on atypical (N = 1132, 256.3 days compared to typical antipsychotics (N = 534, 197.2 days; p Conclusion In the usual care of schizophrenia patients, time to medication discontinuation for any cause appears significantly longer for atypical than typical antipsychotics regardless of the typical antipsychotic potency level. Findings were primarily driven by clozapine and olanzapine, and to a lesser extent by risperidone. Furthermore, only clozapine and olanzapine therapy showed consistently and significantly longer treatment duration compared to perphenazine, a medium

  12. Decision-Tree Models of Categorization Response Times, Choice Proportions, and Typicality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Daniel; Lacouture, Yves; Cohen, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present 3 decision-tree models of categorization adapted from T. Trabasso, H. Rollins, and E. Shaughnessy (1971) and use them to provide a quantitative account of categorization response times, choice proportions, and typicality judgments at the individual-participant level. In Experiment 1, the decision-tree models were fit to…

  13. [Immortal time bias in pharmacoepidemiological studies: definition, solutions and examples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillie, Jean-Luc; Suissa, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Among the observational studies of drug effects in chronic diseases, many of them have found effects that were exaggerated or wrong. Among bias responsible for these errors, the immortal time bias, concerning the definition of exposure and exposure periods, is relevantly important as it usually tends to wrongly attribute a significant benefit to the study drug (or exaggerate a real benefit). In this article, we define the mechanism of immortal time bias, we present possible solutions and illustrate its consequences through examples of pharmacoepidemiological studies of drug effects. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. Housing development in the 1950s in Serbia-typical examples of residential blocks built in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović-Marić Dijana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Serbian architecture of the nineteen-fifties has not yet been more comprehensively studied albeit the fact that there are sufficient sources, data, literature, and structures built at that time. The reason for the lack of interest in architecture of that period may be found in the relationship between the non-understanding and insufficient valuation of architectural results of the modern architecture of the time, but also in the general opinion that the immediate postwar years were the time of a poor social housing development, which is also characterized by the lack of distinct architectural values. Furthermore, there has been an obvious unreadiness to analyze in more detail and in time distance the subject of the sociorealistic construction, which was also partially present in this period. After a short period of the so-called Socio-Realism 1945-1950, characterized by reconstruction of the war devastated country with extensive participation of youth brigades, the housing construction in particular got a big boost, considering the changes in population structure, as well as the fact that a significant portion of population moved from rural areas to towns. The subject decade of the newly established socialist society was, in every respect, marked with upward path of economic, political and social development, which was an important base for overall architectural and cultural construction. This was the time when Serbian architects of different generations created a great number of works, which were diverse in they contents. The architects of older generation often created their most important works, while young architects, looking into future, but also into own architectural heritage and accomplishments, achieved their first significant results, thus generating autochthonous architectural trend and expression which would soon be recognized as the Belgrade School of Architecture. In the conditions in which the Serbian architecture

  15. Time series analysis and its applications with R examples

    CERN Document Server

    Shumway, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular graduate textbook, like its predecessors, presents a balanced and comprehensive treatment of both time and frequency domain methods with accompanying theory. Numerous examples using nontrivial data illustrate solutions to problems such as discovering natural and anthropogenic climate change, evaluating pain perception experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and monitoring a nuclear test ban treaty. The book is designed as a textbook for graduate level students in the physical, biological, and social sciences and as a graduate level text in statistics. Some parts may also serve as an undergraduate introductory course. Theory and methodology are separated to allow presentations on different levels. In addition to coverage of classical methods of time series regression, ARIMA models, spectral analysis and state-space models, the text includes modern developments including categorical time series analysis, multivariate spectral methods, long memory series, nonli...

  16. Typical examples of classical novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Margherita; Selvelli, Pierluigi; Bianchini, Antonio; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the very complicated individualistic behavior of each nova, we think it necessary to review the observations of a few well-observed individuals. We have selected a few objects of different speed classes, which have been extensively observed. They are: V1500 Cygni 1975, a very fast nova; V603 Aql 1918, fast nova; CP Pup 1942, fast nova; GK Per 1901, fast nova; V 1668 Cyg 1979, moderately fast nova; FH Ser 1970, slow nova; DQ Her 1934, slow nova; T Aur 1891, slow nova; RR Pic 1925, slow nova; and HR Del 1967, very slow nova.

  17. Scale invariance in chaotic time series: Classical and quantum examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Emmanuel; Morales, Irving O.; Stránský, Pavel; Fossion, Rubén; Velázquez, Victor; López Vieyra, J. C.; Frank, Alejandro

    Important aspects of chaotic behavior appear in systems of low dimension, as illustrated by the Map Module 1. It is indeed a remarkable fact that all systems tha make a transition from order to disorder display common properties, irrespective of their exacta functional form. We discuss evidence for 1/f power spectra in the chaotic time series associated in classical and quantum examples, the one-dimensional map module 1 and the spectrum of 48Ca. A Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method is applied to investigate the scaling properties of the energy fluctuations in the spectrum of 48Ca obtained with a large realistic shell model calculation (ANTOINE code) and with a random shell model (TBRE) calculation also in the time series obtained with the map mod 1. We compare the scale invariant properties of the 48Ca nuclear spectrum sith similar analyses applied to the RMT ensambles GOE and GDE. A comparison with the corresponding power spectra is made in both cases. The possible consequences of the results are discussed.

  18. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalenderski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg day−1 and ~1.5 Tg day−1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3–4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m−2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  19. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground-and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W m-2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  20. Real-time dynamics of typical and untypical states in nonintegrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jonas; Jin, Fengping; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Gemmer, Jochen; Steinigeweg, Robin

    2018-05-01

    Understanding (i) the emergence of diffusion from truly microscopic principles continues to be a major challenge in experimental and theoretical physics. At the same time, isolated quantum many-body systems have experienced an upsurge of interest in recent years. Since in such systems the realization of a proper initial state is the only possibility to induce a nonequilibrium process, understanding (ii) the largely unexplored role of the specific realization is vitally important. Our work reports a substantial step forward and tackles the two issues (i) and (ii) in the context of typicality, entanglement as well as integrability and nonintegrability. Specifically, we consider the spin-1/2 XXZ chain, where integrability can be broken due to an additional next-nearest neighbor interaction, and study the real-time and real-space dynamics of nonequilibrium magnetization profiles for a class of pure states. Summarizing our main results, we show that signatures of diffusion for strong interactions are equally pronounced for the integrable and nonintegrable case. In both cases, we further find a clear difference between the dynamics of states with and without internal randomness. We provide an explanation of this difference by a detailed analysis of the local density of states.

  1. Nonlinear time series theory, methods and applications with R examples

    CERN Document Server

    Douc, Randal; Stoffer, David

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATIONSLinear ModelsStochastic Processes The Covariance World Linear Processes The Multivariate Cases Numerical Examples ExercisesLinear Gaussian State Space Models Model Basics Filtering, Smoothing, and Forecasting Maximum Likelihood Estimation Smoothing Splines and the Kalman Smoother Asymptotic Distribution of the MLE Missing Data Modifications Structural Component Models State-Space Models with Correlated Errors Exercises Beyond Linear ModelsNonlinear Non-Gaussian Data Volterra Series Expansion Cumulants and Higher-Order Spectra Bilinear Models Conditionally Heteroscedastic Models Thre

  2. Time-Lapse Videos for Physics Education: Specific Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2018-01-01

    There are many physics experiments with long time scales such that they are usually neither shown in the physics class room nor in student labs. However, they can be easily recorded with time-lapse cameras and the respective time-lapse videos allow qualitative and/or quantitative analysis of the underlying physics. Here, we present some examples…

  3. Quantum fields in cosmological space-times: a soluble example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, I.; Novello, M.; Svaiter, N.F.; Deruelle, N.

    1988-01-01

    The Klein-Gordon equation for a massive real scalar field in the Novello-Salim Eternal Universe, i.e., non singular spatial homogeneous and isotropic cosmological background which is tangent to Milne universes in the distant past and future (and hence asymptotically flat) and evolves between these two geometries via a phase of contraction to a point of maximum curvature followed by expansion is solved. This allows a computation of the Bogolyubov coefficients of the scalar field, usually interpreted as the rate of creation of matter by the time varying gravitational field, either when the vacuum is defined at the moment of maximum curvature (the false Big-Bang) or at the far beginning of the cosmic evolution. This new exact solution is compared to the results obtained when the geometry is that of the Milne universe. (author) [pt

  4. Typical Periods for Two-Stage Synthesis by Time-Series Aggregation with Bounded Error in Objective Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, Björn; Söhler, Theo; Hennen, Maike; Bardow, André, E-mail: andre.bardow@ltt.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2018-01-08

    Two-stage synthesis problems simultaneously consider here-and-now decisions (e.g., optimal investment) and wait-and-see decisions (e.g., optimal operation). The optimal synthesis of energy systems reveals such a two-stage character. The synthesis of energy systems involves multiple large time series such as energy demands and energy prices. Since problem size increases with the size of the time series, synthesis of energy systems leads to complex optimization problems. To reduce the problem size without loosing solution quality, we propose a method for time-series aggregation to identify typical periods. Typical periods retain the chronology of time steps, which enables modeling of energy systems, e.g., with storage units or start-up cost. The aim of the proposed method is to obtain few typical periods with few time steps per period, while accurately representing the objective function of the full time series, e.g., cost. Thus, we determine the error of time-series aggregation as the cost difference between operating the optimal design for the aggregated time series and for the full time series. Thereby, we rigorously bound the maximum performance loss of the optimal energy system design. In an initial step, the proposed method identifies the best length of typical periods by autocorrelation analysis. Subsequently, an adaptive procedure determines aggregated typical periods employing the clustering algorithm k-medoids, which groups similar periods into clusters and selects one representative period per cluster. Moreover, the number of time steps per period is aggregated by a novel clustering algorithm maintaining chronology of the time steps in the periods. The method is iteratively repeated until the error falls below a threshold value. A case study based on a real-world synthesis problem of an energy system shows that time-series aggregation from 8,760 time steps to 2 typical periods with each 2 time steps results in an error smaller than the optimality gap of

  5. Real - time Dynamic Simulation and Prediction of Groundwater in Typical Arid Area Based on SPASS Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-ming

    2018-03-01

    The establishment of traditional groundwater numerical simulation model, parameter identification and inspection process, especially the water level fitting and the actual observation of the value obtained compared to a large error. Based on the SPASS software, a large number of statistical analysis of the numerical simulation results show that the complexity of the terrain in the study area, the distribution of lithology and the influence of the parameters on the groundwater level in the study area have great influence on the groundwater level. Through the multi-factor analysis and adjustment, the simulated groundwater flow and the actual observation are similar. Then, the final result is taken as the standard value, and the groundwater in the study area is simulated and predicted in real time. The simulation results provide technical support for the further development and utilization of the local water resources.

  6. Identification of a Typical CSTR Using Optimal Focused Time Lagged Recurrent Neural Network Model with Gamma Memory Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Naikwad, S. N.; Dudul, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    A focused time lagged recurrent neural network (FTLR NN) with gamma memory filter is designed to learn the subtle complex dynamics of a typical CSTR process. Continuous stirred tank reactor exhibits complex nonlinear operations where reaction is exothermic. It is noticed from literature review that process control of CSTR using neuro-fuzzy systems was attempted by many, but optimal neural network model for identification of CSTR process is not yet available. As CSTR process includes tempora...

  7. The effects of response cost and species-typical behaviors on a daily time-place learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, Scott H; Thorpe, Christina M

    2013-03-01

    Two theories that have been hypothesized to mediate acquisition in daily time-place learning (TPL) tasks were investigated in a free operant daily TPL task: the response cost hypothesis and the species-typical behavior hypothesis. One lever at the end of one of the choice arms of a T-maze provided food in the morning, and 6 h later, a lever in the other choice arm provided food. Four groups were used to assess the effect of two possible sources of response cost: physical effort of the task and costs associated with foraging ecology. One group was used to assess the effect of explicitly allowing for species-typical behaviors. If only first arm choice data were considered, there was little evidence of learning. However, both first press and percentage of presses on the correct lever prior to the first reinforcement revealed evidence of TPL in most rats tested. Unexpectedly, the high response cost groups for both of the proposed sources did not perform better than the low response cost groups. The groups that allowed animals to display species-typical behaviors performed the worst. Skip session probe trials confirmed that the majority of the rats that acquired the task were using a circadian timing strategy. The results from the present study suggest that learning in free operant daily TPL tasks might not be dependent on response cost.

  8. Costs of travel time uncertainty and benefits of travel time information: Conceptual model and numerical examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    A negative effect of congestion that tends to be overlooked is travel time uncertainty. Travel time uncertainty causes scheduling costs due to early or late arrival. The negative effects of travel time uncertainty can be reduced by providing travellers with travel time information, which improves

  9. Time and Chronology in Modern Novels: An Example of Woolf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time and Chronology in Modern Novels: An Example of Woolf and Joyce. ... It is in this context that this article attempts to provide a brief survey of two modern ... the displacement feature of language to defamiliarize our conception of time and

  10. Identification of a Typical CSTR Using Optimal Focused Time Lagged Recurrent Neural Network Model with Gamma Memory Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Naikwad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A focused time lagged recurrent neural network (FTLR NN with gamma memory filter is designed to learn the subtle complex dynamics of a typical CSTR process. Continuous stirred tank reactor exhibits complex nonlinear operations where reaction is exothermic. It is noticed from literature review that process control of CSTR using neuro-fuzzy systems was attempted by many, but optimal neural network model for identification of CSTR process is not yet available. As CSTR process includes temporal relationship in the input-output mappings, time lagged recurrent neural network is particularly used for identification purpose. The standard back propagation algorithm with momentum term has been proposed in this model. The various parameters like number of processing elements, number of hidden layers, training and testing percentage, learning rule and transfer function in hidden and output layer are investigated on the basis of performance measures like MSE, NMSE, and correlation coefficient on testing data set. Finally effects of different norms are tested along with variation in gamma memory filter. It is demonstrated that dynamic NN model has a remarkable system identification capability for the problems considered in this paper. Thus FTLR NN with gamma memory filter can be used to learn underlying highly nonlinear dynamics of the system, which is a major contribution of this paper.

  11. Emergent semiclassical time in quantum gravity: II. Full geometrodynamics and minisuperspace examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Edward

    2007-01-01

    I apply the preceding paper's emergent semiclassical time approach to geometrodynamics. The analogy between the two papers is useful at the level of the quadratic constraints, while I document the differences between the two due to the underlying differences in their linear constraints. I find that the emergent time-dependent wave equation for the universe in general not a time-dependent Schroedinger equation but rather a more general equation containing second time derivatives, and estimate in which regime this becomes significant. I provide a specific minisuperspace example for my emergent semiclassical time scheme and compare it with the hidden York time scheme. Overall, interesting connections are shown between Newtonian, Leibniz-Mach-Barbour, Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) and cosmic times, while the Euler and York hidden dilational times are argued to be somewhat different from these

  12. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  13. Time-scale calibration by U-Pb geochronology: Examples from the Triassic Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundil, R.

    2009-05-01

    U-Pb zircon geochronology, pioneered by Tom Krogh, is a cornerstone for the calibration of the time scale. Before Krogh's innovations, U-Pb geochronology was essentially limited by laboratory blank Pb (typically hundreds of nanograms) inherent in the then existing zircon dissolution and purification methods. The introduction of high pressure HF dissolution combined with miniature ion exchange columns (1) reduced the blank by orders of magnitude and allowed mass-spectrometric analyses of minute amounts of material (picograms of Pb and U). Krogh also recognized the need for minimizing the effects of Pb loss, and the introduction of the air-abrasion technique was the method of choice for two decades (2), until the development of the combined annealing and chemical abrasion technique resulted in essentially closed system zircons (3). These are the prerequisite for obtaining precise (permil-level) and accurate radio-isotopic ages of individual zircons contained in primary volcanic ash deposits, which are primary targets for the calibration of the time scale if they occur within fossil bearing sediments. A prime example is the calibration of the Triassic time scale which improved significantly using these techniques. The ages for the base and the top of the Triassic are constrained by U-Pb ages to 252.3 (4) and 201.5 Ma (5), respectively. These dates also constrain the ages of major extinction events at the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundaries, and are statistically indistinguishable from ages obtained for the Siberian Traps and volcanic products from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively, suggesting a causal link. Ages for these continental volcanics, however, are mostly from the K-Ar (40Ar/39Ar) system which requires accounting and correcting for a systematic bias of ca 1 % between U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotopic ages (the 40Ar/39Ar ages being younger) (6). Robust U-Pb age constraints also exist for the Induan- Olenekian boundary (251.2 Ma, (7

  14. Some Examples of Residence-Time Distribution Studies in Large-Scale Chemical Processes by Using Radiotracer Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, R. M.; Johnson, P.; Whiston, J. [Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., Billingham, Co., Durham (United Kingdom)

    1967-06-15

    The application of radiotracers to determine flow patterns in chemical processes is discussed with particular reference to the derivation of design data from model reactors for translation to large-scale units, the study of operating efficiency and design attainment in established plant and the rapid identification of various types of process malfunction. The requirements governing the selection of tracers for various types of media are considered and an example is given of the testing of the behaviour of a typical tracer before use in a particular large-scale process operating at 250 atm and 200 Degree-Sign C. Information which may be derived from flow patterns is discussed including the determination of mixing parameters, gas hold-up in gas/liquid reactions and the detection of channelling and stagnant regions. Practical results and their interpretation are given in relation to an define hydroformylation reaction system, a process for the conversion of propylene to isopropanol, a moving bed catalyst system for the isomerization of xylenes and a three-stage gas-liquid reaction system. The use of mean residence-time data for the detection of leakage between reaction vessels and a heat interchanger system is given as an example of the identification of process malfunction. (author)

  15. Example of an in-plant near-real-time accountancy/process control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This session describes an existing computerized in-plant near-real-time accounting and process monitoring system at the Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Details of the system performance, objectives, hardware, plant instrumentation, and system functions are presented. Examples of actual programs for accounting and monitoring are described and system benefits will be discussed. The purpose of this session is to enable participants to: (1) identify the major computer hardware components of functional near-real-time accounting systems; (2) identify the types of process instrumentation necessary to perform near-real-time accounting; (3) describe the major nuclear material control and accounting functions of the AGNS computer system; and (4) assess the benefits to safeguards and plant operations of a computerized near-real-time accounting system

  16. Time Analysis of Building Dynamic Response Under Seismic Action. Part 2: Example of Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufimtcev, E. M.

    2017-11-01

    The second part of the article illustrates the use of the time analysis method (TAM) by the example of the calculation of a 3-storey building, the design dynamic model (DDM) of which is adopted in the form of a flat vertical cantilever rod with 3 horizontal degrees of freedom associated with floor and coverage levels. The parameters of natural oscillations (frequencies and modes) and the results of the calculation of the elastic forced oscillations of the building’s DDM - oscillograms of the reaction parameters on the time interval t ∈ [0; 131,25] sec. The obtained results are analyzed on the basis of the computed values of the discrepancy of the DDS motion equation and the comparison of the results calculated on the basis of the numerical approach (FEM) and the normative method set out in SP 14.13330.2014 “Construction in Seismic Regions”. The data of the analysis testify to the accuracy of the construction of the computational model as well as the high accuracy of the results obtained. In conclusion, it is revealed that the use of the TAM will improve the strength of buildings and structures subject to seismic influences when designing them.

  17. Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. Suggestions for leisure time activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter some examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet as well as suggestions for leisure time activities are presented. Used and recommended literature is included.

  18. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  19. English Learner Student Characteristics and Time to Reclassification: An Example from Washington State. REL 2016-128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg Motamedi, Jason; Singh, Malkeet; Thompson, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    How long does it typically take English learner students to develop English language proficiency? And how does this time vary by student characteristics such as English proficiency at entry to kindergarten, gender, and home language? The answers to these questions can provide valuable information to districts and schools. Regional Educational…

  20. Maitra-Burke example of initial-state dependence in time-dependent density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.; Balawender, R.

    2002-01-01

    In a recent paper, Maitra and Burke [Phys. Rev. A 63, 042501 (2001); 64, 039901(E) (2001)] have given an interesting and instructive example that illustrates a specific feature of the time-dependent density-functional theory--the dependence of the reconstructed time-dependent potential not only on the electron density, but also on the initial state of the system. However, a concise form of its presentation by these authors is insufficient to reveal all its peculiarities. Our paper represents a very detailed study of this valuable example, intended to facilitate a better understanding and appreciation

  1. Cuts, cancellations and the closed time path: The soft leptogenesis example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbrecht, Björn; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    By including all leading quantum-statistical effects at finite temperature, we show that no net asymmetry of leptons and sleptons is generated from soft leptogenesis, save the possible contribution from the resonant mixing of sneutrinos. This result contrasts with different conclusions appearing in the literature that are based on an incomplete inclusion of quantum statistics. We discuss vertex and wave-function diagrams as well as all different possible kinematic cuts that nominally lead to CP-violating asymmetries. The present example of soft leptogenesis may therefore serve as a paradigm in order to identify more generally applicable caveats relevant to alternative scenarios for baryogenesis and leptogenesis, and it may provide useful guidance in constructing viable models

  2. Cuts, cancellations and the closed time path: The soft leptogenesis example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrecht, Björn, E-mail: garbrecht@tum.de [Physik Department T70, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J., E-mail: mjrm@physics.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    By including all leading quantum-statistical effects at finite temperature, we show that no net asymmetry of leptons and sleptons is generated from soft leptogenesis, save the possible contribution from the resonant mixing of sneutrinos. This result contrasts with different conclusions appearing in the literature that are based on an incomplete inclusion of quantum statistics. We discuss vertex and wave-function diagrams as well as all different possible kinematic cuts that nominally lead to CP-violating asymmetries. The present example of soft leptogenesis may therefore serve as a paradigm in order to identify more generally applicable caveats relevant to alternative scenarios for baryogenesis and leptogenesis, and it may provide useful guidance in constructing viable models.

  3. Ageing and life-time management in nuclear power stations - concept and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erve, M.; Tenckhoff, E.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge, assessment and understanding of phenomena caused by ageing, together with systematic utilization and extension of the technical life-time of components and systems, are of critical importance to the safety and economy of electricity generation in nuclear power stations. Economic use can be optimized by integrated ageing and life-time management; it can also be used to improve performance characteristics. (orig.) [de

  4. Leisure Time and Recreation Services in Municipalities (Ġzmir city example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür TEZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to name the time left aside after the things on e bound to do is called leisure time and the volunteering activities people try to satisfy their bodies and souls in those free times are called recreative activities. In this frame the municipalities in local institutes are known to be the closest suffici ent institutes to help individuals and society to spend their leisure times. The research‟s aim is to investigate the municipalities‟ situations in recreational sector. The research is applied on 190 participants who use those use those recreational zones in 3 big districts united to Ġzmir City Chief Municipality. As method, the previous literature is analyzed, aquestionnaire form is formed around the collected data and expert‟s opinion is taken for the validity. The frequency and percentage values are cal culated and analyzed in data statistics programme. In the lead of the data driven, it is determined that; individuals have at most 3 - 4 hours (% 38,4 of leisure time, people between 17 - 26 participate the recreative and leisure time activities (% 57,9, 10 7 (%56.3 of those people are male and 125 (%65.8 are single, 84 are students (% 44,2 and 124 (% 65,3 of the participants‟‟ average income is 0 - 1000. As a result; the participants reveal that the leisure time and recreational zones of the municipality i s not enough and the personal for those services are insufficient. It is advised that the local administrations should develop new programmes to service young, child, old and handicapped all members and expectations of the society.

  5. Typical Toddlers' Participation in "Just-in-Time" Programming of Vocabulary for Visual Scene Display Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps on Mobile Technology: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Christine; Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice; Caron, Jessica Gosnell

    2017-08-15

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) promotes communicative participation and language development for young children with complex communication needs. However, the motor, linguistic, and cognitive demands of many AAC technologies restrict young children's operational use of and influence over these technologies. The purpose of the current study is to better understand young children's participation in programming vocabulary "just in time" on an AAC application with minimized demands. A descriptive study was implemented to highlight the participation of 10 typically developing toddlers (M age: 16 months, range: 10-22 months) in just-in-time vocabulary programming in an AAC app with visual scene displays. All 10 toddlers participated in some capacity in adding new visual scene displays and vocabulary to the app just in time. Differences in participation across steps were observed, suggesting variation in the developmental demands of controls involved in vocabulary programming. Results from the current study provide clinical insights toward involving young children in AAC programming just in time and steps that may allow for more independent participation or require more scaffolding. Technology designed to minimize motor, cognitive, and linguistic demands may allow children to participate in programming devices at a younger age.

  6. Observation of classroom social communication: do children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders spend their time differently than their typically developing peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders documented classroom social communication by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (L. B. Olswang, L. Svensson, T. E. Coggins, J. Beilinson, & A. L. Donaldson, 2006). The Social Communication Coding System consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking) that account for all verbal and nonverbal productions during a specified timeframe. The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension (as measured by proportion of time and average length of time spent performing each dimension) were recorded. Children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of passive/disengaged and irrelevant behavior, and the proportion and average length of time in these behaviors were larger and longer than those of their peers. Further, children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of prosocial/engaged behavior; however, the proportion and average length of time that they spent being prosocial were smaller and shorter than those of their peers. Implications Results suggest children with mild FASD performed differently than their peers in regard to classroom social communication, which was consistent with parent and teacher behavioral reports.

  7. Changes of flora-information over time: Examples from Ethiopia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in Flora-information over time can be divided into three different categories: (1) “Real changes” (species enter the region by natural dispersal or become extinct). (2) “Floristic changes” (species known from elsewhere are discovered). (3) “Taxonomic changes” (species are discovered and described, taxonomic ...

  8. Multi-Functional Sensing for Swarm Robots Using Time Sequence Classification: HoverBot, an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Nemitz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up robot swarms to collectives of hundreds or even thousands without sacrificing sensing, processing, and locomotion capabilities is a challenging problem. Low-cost robots are potentially scalable, but the majority of existing systems have limited capabilities, and these limitations substantially constrain the type of experiments that could be performed by robotics researchers. Instead of adding functionality by adding more components and therefore increasing the cost, we demonstrate how low-cost hardware can be used beyond its standard functionality. We systematically review 15 swarm robotic systems and analyse their sensing capabilities by applying a general sensor model from the sensing and measurement community. This work is based on the HoverBot system. A HoverBot is a levitating circuit board that manoeuvres by pulling itself towards magnetic anchors that are embedded into the robot arena. We show that HoverBot’s magnetic field readouts from its Hall-effect sensor can be associated to successful movement, robot rotation and collision measurands. We build a time series classifier based on these magnetic field readouts. We modify and apply signal processing techniques to enable the online classification of the time-variant magnetic field measurements on HoverBot’s low-cost microcontroller. We enabled HoverBot with successful movement, rotation, and collision sensing capabilities by utilising its single Hall-effect sensor. We discuss how our classification method could be applied to other sensors to increase a robot’s functionality while retaining its cost.

  9. Inferring Broad Regulatory Biology from Time Course Data: Have We Reached an Upper Bound under Constraints Typical of In Vivo Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Vashishtha

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation for the network biology that regulates the coordinated expression of molecular and cellular markers however questions persist regarding the identifiability of these networks. Here we explore some of the issues relevant to recovering directed regulatory networks from time course data collected under experimental constraints typical of in vivo studies. NetSim simulations of sparsely connected biological networks were used to evaluate two simple feature selection techniques used in the construction of linear Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE models, namely truncation of terms versus latent vector projection. Performance was compared with ODE-based Time Series Network Identification (TSNI integral, and the information-theoretic Time-Delay ARACNE (TD-ARACNE. Projection-based techniques and TSNI integral outperformed truncation-based selection and TD-ARACNE on aggregate networks with edge densities of 10-30%, i.e. transcription factor, protein-protein cliques and immune signaling networks. All were more robust to noise than truncation-based feature selection. Performance was comparable on the in silico 10-node DREAM 3 network, a 5-node Yeast synthetic network designed for In vivo Reverse-engineering and Modeling Assessment (IRMA and a 9-node human HeLa cell cycle network of similar size and edge density. Performance was more sensitive to the number of time courses than to sample frequency and extrapolated better to larger networks by grouping experiments. In all cases performance declined rapidly in larger networks with lower edge density. Limited recovery and high false positive rates obtained overall bring into question our ability to generate informative time course data rather than the design of any particular reverse engineering algorithm.

  10. Long time-series of turbid coastal water using AVHRR: an example from Florida Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Richard P.; Frayer, M. L.

    1997-02-01

    The AVHRR can provide information on the reflectance of turbid case II water, permitting examination of large estuaries and plumes from major rivers. The AVHRR has been onboard several NOAA satellites, with afternoon overpasses since 1981, offering a long time-series to examine changes in coastal water. We are using AVHRR data starting in December 1989, to examine water clarity in Florida Bay, which has undergone a decline since the late 1980's. The processing involves obtaining a nominal reflectance for red light with standard corrections including those for Rayleigh and aerosol path radiances. Established relationships between reflectance and the water properties being measured in the Bay provide estimates of diffuse attenuation and light limitation for phytoplankton and seagrass productivity studies. Processing also includes monthly averages of reflectance and attenuation. The AVHRR data set describes spatial and temporal patterns, including resuspension of bottom sediments in the winter, and changes in water clarity. The AVHRR also indicates that Florida Bay has much higher reflectivity relative to attenuation than other southeastern US estuaries.

  11. Cs-137 in freshwater fish in Finland, Norway and Faroe Islands with examples of ecological half-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, R. [STUK (Finland); Liland, A.; Thoerring, H. [NRPA (Norway); Joensen, H.P. [Frodskaparsetur Foeroya (Faroe Islands)

    2005-07-01

    The deposition from Chernobyl in spring 1986 was most unevenly distributed in Finland and elevated the {sup 137}Cs contents of freshwater fishes significantly. Finland can be divided into five categories on the basis of the average deposition of {sup 137}Cs in each municipality. High activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs still occur in fish in certain Finnish lakes in the areas of the highest deposition. The observed ecological half-times of {sup 137}Cs in perch in certain Finnish lakes varied by a factor of about three. The longest halftime of {sup 137}Cs in perch was approximately 9 years and the shortest approximately 3 years, determined for the time period of 1988-2002. The Norwegian lakes differ also from each other with respect to the decrease rates of {sup 137}Cs in fish. In some cases there were clearly two components in the reduction of {sup 137}Cs. Ecological half-times of {sup 137}Cs in trout and Arctic char varied from 1.4 y to 4.7 y in 1988-1994. There is an indication of somewhat more rapid reduction of {sup 137}Cs in fish in certain Norwegian lakes compared to Finnish ones, although ecological half-times for the Norwegian and for the Finnish lakes were estimated for different time intervals in the examples, and are thus not directly comparable. (au)

  12. Pre-stack estimation of time-lapse seismic velocity changes : an example from the Sleipner CO2-sequestration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, A.; Landro, M.; Ghaderi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is being injected into a shallow sand formation at around a 1,000 metre depth at the Sleipner Field located in the North Sea. It is expected that the CO 2 injected in the bottom of the formation, will form a plume consisting of CO 2 accumulating in thin lenses during migration up through the reservoir. Several studies have been published using stacked seismic data from 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2002. A thorough analysis of post-stack seismic data from the Sleipner CO2-Sequestration Pilot Project was conducted. Interpretation of seismic data is usually done on post-stack data. For a given subsurface reflection point, seismic data are acquired for various incidence angles, typically 40 angles. These 40 seismic signals are stacked together in order to reduce noise. The term pre-stack refers to seismic data prior to this step. For hydrocarbon-related 4-dimensional seismic studies, travel time shift estimations have been used. This paper compared pre-stack and post-stack estimation of average velocity changes based on measured 4-dimensional travel time shifts. It is more practical to compare estimated velocity changes than the actual travel time changes, since the time shifts vary with offset for pre-stack time-lapse seismic analysis. It was concluded that the pre-stack method gives smaller velocity changes when estimated between two key horizons. Therefore, pre-stack travel time analysis in addition to conventional post-stack analysis is recommended. 6 refs., 12 figs

  13. Remote sensing time series analysis for crop monitoring with the SPIRITS software: new functionalities and use examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eRembold

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring crop and natural vegetation conditions is highly relevant, particularly in the food insecure areas of the world. Data from remote sensing image time series at high temporal and medium to low spatial resolution can assist this monitoring as they provide key information about vegetation status in near real-time over large areas. The Software for the Processing and Interpretation of Remotely sensed Image Time Series (SPIRITS is a stand-alone flexible analysis environment created to facilitate the processing and analysis of large image time series and ultimately for providing clear information about vegetation status in various graphical formats to crop production analysts and decision makers. In this paper we present the latest functional developments of SPIRITS and we illustrate recent applications. The main new developments include: HDF5 importer, Image re-projection, additional options for temporal Smoothing and Periodicity conversion, computation of a rainfall-based probability index (Standardized Precipitation Index for drought detection and extension of the Graph composer functionalities.In particular,. The examples of operational analyses are taken from several recent agriculture and food security monitoring reports and bulletins. We conclude with considerations on future SPIRITS developments also in view of the data processing requirements imposed by the coming generation of remote sensing products at high spatial and temporal resolution, such as those provided by the Sentinel sensors of the European Copernicus programme.

  14. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Aline Araújo; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Chor, Dora

    2017-08-17

    To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil - Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto ) have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week) spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income. The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  15. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Araújo Nobre

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. METHODS Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil – Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. RESULTS The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income CONCLUSIONS The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  16. Statistical properties of fluctuations of time series representing appearances of words in nationwide blog data and their applications: An example of modeling fluctuation scalings of nonstationary time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Sano, Yukie; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the nontrivial empirical statistical properties of fluctuations of a typical nonsteady time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, we investigated approximately 3×10^{9} Japanese blog articles over a period of six years and analyze some corresponding mathematical models. First, we introduce a solvable nonsteady extension of the random diffusion model, which can be deduced by modeling the behavior of heterogeneous random bloggers. Next, we deduce theoretical expressions for both the temporal and ensemble fluctuation scalings of this model, and demonstrate that these expressions can reproduce all empirical scalings over eight orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the model can reproduce other statistical properties of time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, such as functional forms of the probability density and correlations in the total number of blogs. As an application, we quantify the abnormality of special nationwide events by measuring the fluctuation scalings of 1771 basic adjectives.

  17. Estimating a Smooth Common Transfer Function with a Panel of Time Series - Inflow of Larvae Cod as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The annual response variable in an ecological monitoring study often relates linearly to the weighted cumulative effect of some daily covariate, after adjusting for other annual covariates. Here we consider the problem of non-parametrically estimating the weights involved in computing the aforementioned cumulative effect, with a panel of short and contemporaneously correlated time series whose responses share the common cumulative effect of a daily covariate. The sequence of (unknown daily weights constitutes the so-called transfer function. Specifically, we consider the problem of estimating a smooth common transfer function shared by a panel of short time series that are contemporaneously correlated. We propose an estimation scheme using a likelihood approach that penalizes the roughness of the common transfer function. We illustrate the proposed method with a simulation study and a biological example of indirectly estimating the spawning date distribution of North Sea cod.

  18. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  19. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  20. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  1. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  2. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Supplementary Files' section to the left of your screen. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  3. Example book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnat, Ph.; Treimany, C.; Gouedard, C.; Morice, O.

    1998-06-01

    This document presents some examples which were used for debugging the code. It seemed useful to write these examples onto a book to be sure the code would not regret; to give warranties for the code's functionality; to propose some examples to illustrate the possibilities and the limits of Miro. (author)

  4. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckon, William N., E-mail: William_Beckon@fws.gov

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A method for estimating response time in cause-effect relationships is demonstrated. • Predictive modeling is appreciably improved by taking into account this lag time. • Bioaccumulation lag is greater for organisms at higher trophic levels. • This methodology may be widely applicable in disparate disciplines. - Abstract: For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment).

  5. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckon, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for estimating response time in cause-effect relationships is demonstrated. • Predictive modeling is appreciably improved by taking into account this lag time. • Bioaccumulation lag is greater for organisms at higher trophic levels. • This methodology may be widely applicable in disparate disciplines. - Abstract: For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment).

  6. New methods to engineer and seamlessly reconfigure time triggered ethernet based systems during runtime based on the PROFINET IRT example

    CERN Document Server

    Wisniewski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to design a concept that would allow to increase the flexibility of currently available Time Triggered Ethernet based (TTEB) systems, however, without affecting their performance and robustness. The main challenges are related to scheduling of time triggered communication that may take significant amount of time and has to be performed on a powerful platform. Additionally, the reliability has to be considered and kept on the required high level. Finally, the reconfiguration has to be optimally done without affecting the currently running system.

  7. Aerospace Example

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a textbook, created example for illustration purposes. The System takes inputs of Pt, Ps, and Alt, and calculates the Mach number using the Rayleigh Pitot...

  8. [Part-time concepts in anaesthesia -example of a department of anaesthesiology at a university hospital in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltje, Maike; Osthaus, W Alexander; Koppert, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Part-time work concepts are requested for different reasons from an increasing number of employees. Despite this fact there are no systematic part-time work concepts published in the German literature, especially for physicians working in hospitals. This article describes background and circumstances of a part-time work concept which was established two years ago in a department of anaesthesiology at a university hospital in Germany. This concept considers needs of young families as well as older employees. We are convinced that a transparent part-time work concept is a good argument for job-seeking physicians when deciding for an employer. The benefit for the already employed colleagues has at least the same value. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Estimation Of Task Completion Times With The Use Of The PERT Method On The Example Of A Real Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plebankiewicz E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents briefly several methods of working time estimation. However, three methods of task duration assessment have been selected to investigate working time in a real construction project using the data collected from observing workers laying terrazzo flooring in staircases. The first estimation has been done by calculating a normal and a triangular function. The next method, which is the focus of greatest attention here, is PERT. The article presents a way to standardize the results and the procedure algorithm allowing determination of the characteristic values for the method. Times to perform every singular component sub-task as well as the whole task have been defined for the collected data with the reliability level of 85%. The completion time of the same works has also been calculated with the use of the KNR. The obtained result is much higher than the actual time needed for execution of the task calculated with the use of the previous method. The authors argue that PERT is the best method of all three, because it takes into account the randomness of the entire task duration and it can be based on the actual execution time known from research.

  10. Confirming the timing of phase-based costing in oncology studies: a case example in advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Michael; Coutinho, Anna D; Nunna, Sasikiran; Gupte-Singh, Komal; Eaddy, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of healthcare services and costs among patients with cancer is often estimated by the phase of care: initial, interim, or terminal. Although their durations are often set arbitrarily, we sought to establish data-driven phases of care using joinpoint regression in an advanced melanoma population as a case example. A retrospective claims database study was conducted to assess the costs of advanced melanoma from distant metastasis diagnosis to death during January 2010-September 2014. Joinpoint regression analysis was applied to identify the best-fitting points, where statistically significant changes in the trend of average monthly costs occurred. To identify the initial phase, average monthly costs were modeled from metastasis diagnosis to death; and were modeled backward from death to metastasis diagnosis for the terminal phase. Points of monthly cost trend inflection denoted ending and starting points. The months between represented the interim phase. A total of 1,671 patients with advanced melanoma who died met the eligibility criteria. Initial phase was identified as the 5-month period starting with diagnosis of metastasis, after which there was a sharp, significant decline in monthly cost trend (monthly percent change [MPC] = -13.0%; 95% CI = -16.9% to -8.8%). Terminal phase was defined as the 5-month period before death (MPC = -14.0%; 95% CI = -17.6% to -10.2%). The claims-based algorithm may under-estimate patients due to misclassifications, and may over-estimate terminal phase costs because hospital and emergency visits were used as a death proxy. Also, recently approved therapies were not included, which may under-estimate advanced melanoma costs. In this advanced melanoma population, optimal duration of the initial and terminal phases of care was 5 months immediately after diagnosis of metastasis and before death, respectively. Joinpoint regression can be used to provide data-supported phase of cancer care durations, but

  11. The Atlas Experiment On-Line Monitoring And Filtering As An Example Of Real-Time Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Korcyl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS detector, recording LHC particles’ interactions, produces events with rate of40 MHz and size of 1.6 MB. The processes with new and interesting physics phenomena arevery rare, thus an efficient on-line filtering system (trigger is necessary. The asynchronouspart of that system relays on few thousands of computing nodes running the filtering software.Applying refined filtering criteria results in increase of processing times what may lead tolack of processing resources installed on CERN site. We propose extension to this part ofthe system based on submission of the real-time filtering tasks into the Grid.

  12. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in

  13. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method :  An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for

  14. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method : An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in

  15. Continuous-Time Semi-Markov Models in Health Economic Decision Making : An Illustrative Example in Heart Failure Disease Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Qi; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans; Postmus, Douwe

    Continuous-time state transition models may end up having large unwieldy structures when trying to represent all relevant stages of clinical disease processes by means of a standard Markov model. In such situations, a more parsimonious, and therefore easier-to-grasp, model of a patient's disease

  16. Adding Design Elements to Improve Time Series Designs: No Child Left behind as an Example of Causal Pattern-Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Some form of a short interrupted time series (ITS) is often used to evaluate state and national programs. An ITS design with a single treatment group assumes that the pretest functional form can be validly estimated and extrapolated into the postintervention period where it provides a valid counterfactual. This assumption is problematic. Ambiguous…

  17. A formal method for identifying distinct states of variability in time-varying sources: SGR A* as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Witzel, G.; Ghez, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Longstaff, F. A. [UCLA Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1481 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Continuously time variable sources are often characterized by their power spectral density and flux distribution. These quantities can undergo dramatic changes over time if the underlying physical processes change. However, some changes can be subtle and not distinguishable using standard statistical approaches. Here, we report a methodology that aims to identify distinct but similar states of time variability. We apply this method to the Galactic supermassive black hole, where 2.2 μm flux is observed from a source associated with Sgr A* and where two distinct states have recently been suggested. Our approach is taken from mathematical finance and works with conditional flux density distributions that depend on the previous flux value. The discrete, unobserved (hidden) state variable is modeled as a stochastic process and the transition probabilities are inferred from the flux density time series. Using the most comprehensive data set to date, in which all Keck and a majority of the publicly available Very Large Telescope data have been merged, we show that Sgr A* is sufficiently described by a single intrinsic state. However, the observed flux densities exhibit two states: noise dominated and source dominated. Our methodology reported here will prove extremely useful to assess the effects of the putative gas cloud G2 that is on its way toward the black hole and might create a new state of variability.

  18. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a post?hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, con...

  19. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E; Black, Dennis M; van Munster, Barbara C

    2016-05-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, controlled trial that investigated the effect of alendronate versus placebo on fracture risk in postmenopausal women. We used SPC, a statistical method used for monitoring processes for quality control, to determine if and when the intervention group benefited significantly more than the control group. SPC discriminated between the normal variations over time in the numbers of fractures in both groups and the variations that were attributable to alendronate. The TTB was defined as the time point from which the cumulative difference in the number of clinical fractures remained greater than the upper control limit on the SPC chart. For the total group, the TTB was defined as 11 months. For patients aged ≥70 years, the TTB was 8 months [absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 1.4%]; for patients aged <70 years, it was 19 months (ARR = 0.7%). SPC is a clear and understandable graphical method to determine the TTB. Its main advantage is that there is no need to define a prespecified time point, as is the case in traditional survival analyses. Prescribing alendronate to patients who are aged ≥70 years is useful because the TTB shows that they will benefit after 8 months. Investigators should report the TTB to simplify clinical decision making.

  20. Investigation of prospects for forecasting non-linear time series by example of drilling oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, A. V.; Sizonenko, A. B.; Zhdanov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Discrete time series or mappings are proposed for describing the dynamics of a nonlinear system. The article considers the problems of forecasting the dynamics of the system from the time series generated by it. In particular, the commercial rate of drilling oil and gas wells can be considered as a series where each next value depends on the previous one. The main parameter here is the technical drilling speed. With the aim of eliminating the measurement error and presenting the commercial speed of the object to the current with a good accuracy, future or any of the elapsed time points, the use of the Kalman filter is suggested. For the transition from a deterministic model to a probabilistic one, the use of ensemble modeling is suggested. Ensemble systems can provide a wide range of visual output, which helps the user to evaluate the measure of confidence in the model. In particular, the availability of information on the estimated calendar duration of the construction of oil and gas wells will allow drilling companies to optimize production planning by rationalizing the approach to loading drilling rigs, which ultimately leads to maximization of profit and an increase of their competitiveness.

  1. Continuous-Time Semi-Markov Models in Health Economic Decision Making: An Illustrative Example in Heart Failure Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans; Postmus, Douwe

    2016-01-01

    Continuous-time state transition models may end up having large unwieldy structures when trying to represent all relevant stages of clinical disease processes by means of a standard Markov model. In such situations, a more parsimonious, and therefore easier-to-grasp, model of a patient's disease progression can often be obtained by assuming that the future state transitions do not depend only on the present state (Markov assumption) but also on the past through time since entry in the present state. Despite that these so-called semi-Markov models are still relatively straightforward to specify and implement, they are not yet routinely applied in health economic evaluation to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions. To facilitate a better understanding of this type of model among applied health economic analysts, the first part of this article provides a detailed discussion of what the semi-Markov model entails and how such models can be specified in an intuitive way by adopting an approach called vertical modeling. In the second part of the article, we use this approach to construct a semi-Markov model for assessing the long-term cost-effectiveness of 3 disease management programs for heart failure. Compared with a standard Markov model with the same disease states, our proposed semi-Markov model fitted the observed data much better. When subsequently extrapolating beyond the clinical trial period, these relatively large differences in goodness-of-fit translated into almost a doubling in mean total cost and a 60-d decrease in mean survival time when using the Markov model instead of the semi-Markov model. For the disease process considered in our case study, the semi-Markov model thus provided a sensible balance between model parsimoniousness and computational complexity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Assessing the magnitude and timing of anthropogenic warming of a shallow aquifer: example from Virginia Beach, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, John R.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater temperature measurements in a shallow coastal aquifer in Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA, suggest groundwater warming of +4.1 °C relative to deeper geothermal gradients. Observed warming is related to timing and depth of influence of two potential thermal drivers—atmospheric temperature increases and urbanization. Results indicate that up to 30 % of groundwater warming at the water table can be attributed to atmospheric warming while up to 70 % of warming can be attributed to urbanization. Groundwater temperature readings to 30-m depth correlate positively with percentage of impervious cover and negatively with percentage of tree canopy cover; thus, these two land-use metrics explain up to 70 % of warming at the water table. Analytical and numerical modeling results indicate that an average vertical groundwater temperature profile for the study area, constructed from repeat measurement at 11 locations over 15 months, is consistent with the timing of land-use change over the past century in Virginia Beach. The magnitude of human-induced warming at the water table (+4.1 °C) is twice the current seasonal temperature variation, indicating the potential for ecological impacts on wetlands and estuaries receiving groundwater discharge from shallow aquifers.

  3. Strengthening the Role of Part-Time Faculty in Community Colleges. Example Job Description for Part-Time Faculty: Valencia College--Job Description and Essential Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to support college conversations regarding strengthening the role of part-time faculty, this brief document presents the job description for a Valencia College part-time/adjunct professor (revised as of July 19, 2013). The description includes essential functions, qualifications, and knowledge, skills, and abilities. This is followed…

  4. Analytic strategies to evaluate the association of time-varying exposures to HIV-related outcomes: Alcohol consumption as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Robert L; Kelso, Natalie E; Brumback, Babette A; Chen, Xinguang

    2016-01-01

    As persons with HIV are living longer, there is a growing need to investigate factors associated with chronic disease, rate of disease progression and survivorship. Many risk factors for this high-risk population change over time, such as participation in treatment, alcohol consumption and drug abuse. Longitudinal datasets are increasingly available, particularly clinical data that contain multiple observations of health exposures and outcomes over time. Several analytic options are available for assessment of longitudinal data; however, it can be challenging to choose the appropriate analytic method for specific combinations of research questions and types of data. The purpose of this review is to help researchers choose the appropriate methods to analyze longitudinal data, using alcohol consumption as an example of a time-varying exposure variable. When selecting the optimal analytic method, one must consider aspects of exposure (e.g. timing, pattern, and amount) and outcome (fixed or time-varying), while also addressing minimizing bias. In this article, we will describe several analytic approaches for longitudinal data, including developmental trajectory analysis, generalized estimating equations, and mixed effect models. For each analytic strategy, we describe appropriate situations to use the method and provide an example that demonstrates the use of the method. Clinical data related to alcohol consumption and HIV are used to illustrate these methods.

  5. To what degree does the missing-data technique influence the estimated growth in learning strategies over time? A tutorial example of sensitivity analysis for longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal data is almost always burdened with missing data. However, in educational and psychological research, there is a large discrepancy between methodological suggestions and research practice. The former suggests applying sensitivity analysis in order to the robustness of the results in terms of varying assumptions regarding the mechanism generating the missing data. However, in research practice, participants with missing data are usually discarded by relying on listwise deletion. To help bridge the gap between methodological recommendations and applied research in the educational and psychological domain, this study provides a tutorial example of sensitivity analysis for latent growth analysis. The example data concern students' changes in learning strategies during higher education. One cohort of students in a Belgian university college was asked to complete the Inventory of Learning Styles-Short Version, in three measurement waves. A substantial number of students did not participate on each occasion. Change over time in student learning strategies was assessed using eight missing data techniques, which assume different mechanisms for missingness. The results indicated that, for some learning strategy subscales, growth estimates differed between the models. Guidelines in terms of reporting the results from sensitivity analysis are synthesised and applied to the results from the tutorial example.

  6. FINAS. Example manual. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Koji; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Ueno, Mutsuo

    2003-12-01

    FINAS is a general purpose structural analysis computer program which was developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute for the analysis of static, dynamic and thermal responses of elastic and inelastic structures by the finite element method. This manual contains typical analysis examples that illustrate applications of FINAS to a variety of structural engineering problems. The first part of this manual presents fundamental examples in which numerical solutions by FINAS are compared with some analytical reference solutions, and the second part of this manual presents more complex examples intended for practical application. All the input data images and principal results for each problem are included in this manual for beginners' convenience. All the analyses are performed by using the FINAS Version 13.0. (author)

  7. Time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectrometry using a microfabricated continuous flow mixer: application to protein conformation study using the example of ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Masaya; Hinsmann, Peter; Manz, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard

    2003-05-01

    We report on the use of time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study chemically induced conformational changes of proteins using the example of ubiquitin. For this purpose a micromachined mixer is coupled to a conventional IR transmission cell with a pathlength of 25 microm and operated in both the continuous and the stopped-flow mode. This experimental set-up allows the elucidation of reaction pathways in the time frame of about 500 milliseconds to seconds with little reagent consumption and low pressure. For continuous flow measurements employed in the time frame from 0.5 to 1.4 s the reaction time is determined by the flow rate used as the connection between the point of confluence in the micromixer and the flow cell was kept constant in all experiments. For stopped-flow experiments (>1.4 s) the time is determined by data acquisition of the rapid scanning infrared spectrometer. Ubiquitin, a small well-known protein with 76 amino acid residues, changes its conformation from native to A-state with the addition of methanol under low pH conditions. We investigated the conformational change in the time frame from 0.5 to 10 s by mixing ubiquitin (20% methanol-d(4)) with an 80% methanol-d(4) solution at pD 2 by evaluating the time dependent changes in the amide I band of the protein.

  8. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  9. Time management in radiation oncology. Development and evaluation of a modular system based on the example of rectal cancer treatment. The DEGRO-QUIRO trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietkau, R. [Erlangen Univ. Hospital, Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Budach, W. [Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zamboglou, N. [Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Thiel, H.J. [Sozialstiftung Bamberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Sack, H. [German Association for Radiooncology, Berlin (Germany); Popp, W. [Prime Networks AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-01-15

    The goal was to develop and evaluate a modular system for measurement of the work times required by the various professional groups involved in radiation oncology before, during, and after serial radiation treatment (long-term irradiation with 25-28 fractions of 1.8 Gy) based on the example of rectal cancer treatment. Materials and methods A panel of experts divided the work associated with providing radiation oncology treatment into modules (from the preparation of radiotherapy, RT planning and administration to the final examination and follow-up). The time required for completion of each module was measured by independent observers at four centers (Rostock, Bamberg, Duesseldorf, and Offenbach, Germany). Results A total of 1,769 data sets were collected from 63 patients with 10-489 data sets per module. Some modules (informed consent procedure, routine treatments, CT planning) exhibited little deviation between centers, whereas others (especially medical and physical irradiation planning) exhibited a wide range of variation (e.g., 1 h 49 min to 6 h 56 min for physical irradiation planning). The mean work time per patient was 12 h 11 min for technicians, 2 h 59 min for physicists, and 7 h 6 min for physicians. Conclusion The modular system of time measurement proved to be reliable and produced comparable data at the different centers. Therefore, the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) decided that it can be extended to other types of cancer (head and neck, prostate, and breast cancer) with appropriate modifications. (orig.)

  10. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  11. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  12. Time management in radiation oncology: development and evaluation of a modular system based on the example of rectal cancer treatment. The DEGRO-QUIRO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietkau, R; Budach, W; Zamboglou, N; Thiel, H-J; Sack, H; Popp, W

    2012-01-01

    The goal was to develop and evaluate a modular system for measurement of the work times required by the various professional groups involved in radiation oncology before, during, and after serial radiation treatment (long-term irradiation with 25-28 fractions of 1.8 Gy) based on the example of rectal cancer treatment. A panel of experts divided the work associated with providing radiation oncology treatment into modules (from the preparation of radiotherapy, RT planning and administration to the final examination and follow-up). The time required for completion of each module was measured by independent observers at four centers (Rostock, Bamberg, Düsseldorf, and Offenbach, Germany). A total of 1,769 data sets were collected from 63 patients with 10-489 data sets per module. Some modules (informed consent procedure, routine treatments, CT planning) exhibited little deviation between centers, whereas others (especially medical and physical irradiation planning) exhibited a wide range of variation (e.g., 1 h 49 min to 6 h 56 min for physical irradiation planning). The mean work time per patient was 12 h 11 min for technicians, 2 h 59 min for physicists, and 7 h 6 min for physicians. The modular system of time measurement proved to be reliable and produced comparable data at the different centers. Therefore, the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) decided that it can be extended to other types of cancer (head and neck, prostate, and breast cancer) with appropriate modifications.

  13. A Hydrological Tomography Collocated with Time-varying Gravimetry for Hydrogeology -An Example in Yun-Lin Alluvial Plain and Ming-Ju Basin in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. H.; Cheng, C. C.; Hwang, C.

    2016-12-01

    A new inversion technique featured by the collocation of hydrological modeling and gravimetry observation is presented in this report. Initially this study started from a project attempting to build a sequence of hydrodynamic models of ground water system, which was applied to identify the supplement areas of alluvial plains and basins along the west coast of Taiwan. To calibrate the decent hydro-geological parameters for the modeling, geological evolution were carefully investigated and absolute gravity observations, along with other on-site hydrological monitoring data were specially introduced. It was discovered in the data processing that the time-varying gravimetrical data are highly sensitive to certain boundary conditions in the hydrodynamic model, which are correspondent with respective geological features. A new inversion technique coined by the term "hydrological tomography" is therefore developed by reversing the boundary condition into the unknowns to be solved. An example of accurate estimate for water storage and precipitation infiltration of a costal alluvial plain Yun-Lin is presented. In the mean time, the study of an anticline structure of the upstream basin Ming-Ju is also presented to demonstrate how a geological formation is outlined when the gravimetrical data and hydrodynamic model are re-directed into an inversion.

  14. Real-Time Science on Social Media: The Example of Twitter in the Minutes, Hours, Days after the 2015 M7.8 Nepal Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, A.; Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific information on disasters such as earthquakes typically comes firstly from official organizations, news reports and interviews with experts, and later from scientific presentations and peer-reviewed articles. With the advent of the Internet and social media, this information is available in real-time from automated systems and within a dynamic, collaborative interaction between scientific experts, responders and the public. After the 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake, Twitter Tweets from earth scientists* included information, analysis, commentary and discussion on earthquake parameters (location, size, mechanism, rupture extent, high-frequency radiation, …), earthquake effects (distribution of felt shaking and damage, triggered seismicity, landslides, …), earthquake rumors (e.g. the imminence of a larger event) and other earthquake information and observations (aftershock forecasts, statistics and maps, source and regional tectonics, seismograms, GPS, InSAR, photos/videos, …).In the future (while taking into account security, false or erroneous information and identity verification), collaborative, real-time science on social media after a disaster will give earlier and better scientific understanding and dissemination of public information, and enable improved emergency response and disaster management.* A sample of scientific Tweets after the 2015 Nepal earthquake: In the first minutes: "mb5.9 Mwp7.4 earthquake Nepal 2015.04.25-06:11:25UTC", "Major earthquake shakes Nepal 8 min ago", "Epicenter between Pokhara and Kathmandu", "Major earthquake shakes Nepal 18 min ago. Effects derived from witnesses' reports". In the first hour: "shallow thrust faulting to North under Himalayas", "a very large and shallow event ... Mw7.6-7.7", "aftershocks extend east and south of Kathmandu, so likely ruptured beneath city", "Valley-blocking landslides must be a very real worry". In the first day: "M7.8 earthquake in Nepal 2hr ago: destructive in Kathmandu Valley and

  15. PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...

  16. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  17. Farmers' Water-using Association:A Successful Water Resources Management Patternof Socialized Management:A Typical Example from the Middle Reach of the Heihe River%农民用水者协会-水资源社会化管理的成功范式——来自黑河中游的典型调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘七军; 李昭楠

    2011-01-01

    水是生态与环境的控制性要素,更是人类和一切生物赖以生存与发展的最重要的物质基础。然而,在我国特别是在西北内陆干旱地区,水资源短缺已成为制约经济社会可持续发展的关键因子。农民用水户协会作为农业用水社会化管理的主要模式已在国外众多流域中被推广运用,这一模式的引进,为解决解决我国水资源短缺问题开辟了新途径。以水资源极度短缺的黑河中游地区为例,就农民用水者协会的运行状况及其绩效进行了实证调查。%Water is considered as a controlling factor to ecological environment.What's more,it is an important guarantee for the existence of human beings and animals.However,the shortage of water resources is thought to be a key factor restricting the sustainable socio-economic development in China,especially in northern China.As an important attempt,Famers' Water-using Association(WUA) is an irrigation management model which should be popularized in irrigation districts.When this model is introduced in China,it is considered as a new way to solve the problem of water shortage in China.In this paper,the authors take Zhangye City of Gansu Province as an example,a severe water-shortage region in arid northwest China,and have conducted an empirical investigation on the operation situation and performance of WUA.

  18. Tritium in some typical ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The environmental significance of 3 H releases prompted an IAEA-sponsored coordinated research programme on various aspects. Data were collected to help health physicists, radioecologists, radiobiologists and environmentalists to predict the behaviour of 3 H in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world. A common methodology was used to carry out a variety of projects in widely varying biomes, from tropical to arctic regions: in Belgium, on terrestrial food chains, with deposition of tritiated water (HTO) on crops and pasture, and incorporation of 3 H into proteins, nucleic acids, etc.; in Finland, plots of pasture and forest were labelled by HTO, and plant uptake were studied; in France, 3 H-content in water, in relation to different parts of vines, orange and olive trees in a Mediterranean climate; in the Federal Republic of Germany, contamination due to 3 H-releases; in India, mean 3 H-residence time in some tropical trees; in Mexico, 3 H-persistence as free-water 3 H and tissue-bound 3 H in crops; in the Netherlands, 3 H-metabolism in ruminants; in the Philippines, residence time in soil and in various commonly edible crops, and excretion time; in Thailand, half residence time in soil and local vegetation; in the USA, the effects of HTO vapour and liquid exposure in a wide range of climatic conditions, including organic fixation and concentration factors. An extensive bibliography is attached, and also annexes of laboratories and project titles; plant species, exposure and residence times; comparable lists for animals studied; scientific and common names of the species, and a glossary

  19. A multi-analysis approach for space-time and economic evaluation of risks related with livestock diseases: the example of FMD in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, B; Ivorra, B; Fernández-Carrión, E; Perez, A M; Medel-Herrero, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, F; Gortázar, C; Ramos, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a multi-disciplinary decision-support tool, which integrates geo-statistics, social network analysis (SNA), spatial-stochastic spread model, economic analysis and mapping/visualization capabilities for the evaluation of the sanitary and socio-economic impact of livestock diseases under diverse epidemiologic scenarios. We illustrate the applicability of this tool using foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Peru as an example. The approach consisted on a flexible, multistep process that may be easily adapted based on data availability. The first module (mI) uses a geo-statistical approach for the estimation (if needed) of the distribution and abundance of susceptible population (in the example here, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and camelids) at farm-level in the region or country of interest (Peru). The second module (mII) applies SNA for evaluating the farm-to-farm contact patterns and for exploring the structure and frequency of between-farm animal movements as a proxy for potential disease introduction or spread. The third module (mIII) integrates mI-II outputs into a spatial-stochastic model that simulates within- and between-farm FMD-transmission. The economic module (mIV) connects outputs from mI-III to provide an estimate of associated direct and indirect costs. A visualization module (mV) is also implemented to graph and map the outputs of module I-IV. After 1000 simulated epidemics, the mean (95% probability interval) number of outbreaks, infected animals, epidemic duration, and direct costs were 37 (1, 1164), 2152 (1, 13, 250), 63 days (0, 442), and US$ 1.2 million (1072, 9.5 million), respectively. Spread of disease was primarily local (Peru, in particular to inform and support the implementation of risk-based surveillance and livestock insurance systems that may help to prevent and control potential FMD virus incursions into Peru. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Methodological comparison of marginal structural model, time-varying Cox regression, and propensity score methods : the example of antidepressant use and the risk of hip fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M Sanni; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Belitser, Svetlana V; Souverein, Patrick C; Martín, Elisa; Gatto, Nicolle M; Huerta, Consuelo; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Roes, Kit C B; Hoes, Arno W; de Boer, Antonius; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies including time-varying treatments are prone to confounding. We compared time-varying Cox regression analysis, propensity score (PS) methods, and marginal structural models (MSMs) in a study of antidepressant [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)] use and

  1. Magni Reproducibility Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An example of how to use the magni.reproducibility package for storing metadata along with results from a computational experiment. The example is based on simulating the Mandelbrot set.......An example of how to use the magni.reproducibility package for storing metadata along with results from a computational experiment. The example is based on simulating the Mandelbrot set....

  2. The association between rurality and return to work for workers' compensation claimants with work-related musculoskeletal injuries: An analysis of workers who failed to return to work within typical healing time frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Callum A; Voaklander, Don; Beach, Jeremy R; Gross, Douglas P

    2017-07-14

    The objectives of this study have been to: 1) describe and compare urban and rural injured worker populations in Alberta, Canada; 2) identify return-to-work outcomes in urban and rural populations; 3) examine the relationship between geographic location of residence and recovery from work-related musculoskeletal injury; and 4) investigate if this relationship is attenuated after controlling for other known risk factors. This study was a secondary analysis utilizing data of a population of musculoskeletal injury claimants who underwent clinical/RTW (return to work) assessment between December 2009 and January 2011 collected by the Workers' Compensation Board of Alberta. Descriptive statistics were computed for 32 variables and used for comparing urban and rural workers. The logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association between geographic location of residence and likelihood of return-to-work. Data on 7843 claimants was included, 70.1% of them being urban and 29.9% - rural. Rural claimants tended to have spent less time in formal education, have a blue-collar job, have no modified work available, have a diagnosed comorbidity, and not been enrolled in a specialized rehabilitation program. They were 1.43 (1.12-1.84) times the odds more likely than urban claimants to be continuing to receive full disability benefits 90 days after their RTW assessment, and 1.68 (1.06-2.67) times the odds as likely to report a recurrence of receiving disability benefits. Rural residence was associated with prolonged work disability, even after controlling for age, job type, education level, health utilization and other potential confounders. Further research is required to explore why injured workers in rural settings experience prolonged reception of disability benefits and have greater rates of recurrence of receiving disability benefits. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):715-729. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3

  3. The Leisure Time of the Young Population in Local Island Communities – the Example of the Zadar Islands (Iž, Dugi Otok, Ugljan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the problem of leisure time in local communities on the islands of the Zadar Archipelago (Iž, Dugi Otok, Ugljan. The model for the analysis was provided by an empirical survey carried out on the population of three Zadar islands in autumn 2001. In researching the migration dilemmas of the young population on the three Zadar islands, the methods used were a questionnaire and interviews (essays written by pupils. The questionnaire contained 39 questions, with possible answers provided in regard to important segments of island issues and the way in which young islanders perceived them. The questionnaire was filled out by 107 elementary and secondary school pupils from Ugljan, Iž and Dugi Otok. The following independent variables were used in the analysis of the empirical material: school (elementary – secondary, island of residence (Ugljan – Dugi Otok – Iž and gender (male – female. Leisure time is a pressing issue for people in the (postmodern epoch. How should it be utiilsed and how can one utilise it without becoming a passive recipient of exterior content, and thus an object of manipulation of powerful groups, from political groups to economical ones? Play, as a form of self-realisation in opposition to mass-media messages and contents, becomes, in this sense, one of the best solutions in utilising leisure time. This applies especially to the young population. The research results confirm that most pupils, despite their obligations (school and extra-school obligations, travelling have sufficient leisure time. Elementary school pupils are less burdened by obligations and have more leisure time. The situation is different for secondary school pupils, whose burdens and duties already significantly reduce time for play, entertainment and relaxation. The main reasons for a lack of leisure time in both groups are school obligations. The ways of spending leisure time are quite various; however passive forms (watching TV

  4. Quantitative application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to chemical systems in liquid solutions: typical examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplatre, G.

    2007-01-01

    The published works refer only to a few, although large, classes of applications. Nevertheless, the potential applications of Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy technique (PALS) are essentially limited by imagination. In the present contribution, the bases of physical particle, positronium (Ps) applications will be illustrated in two cases: first, it will be explained how equilibrium constants can be derived through PALS experiments; next, some more elaborate approaches will be shown to characterize various properties of direct micellar systems as have been developed in recent years in Strasbourg

  5. Non-typical narcocorridos in contemporary northern music. Examples and considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When Mexican Revolution ended, the need to define a national identity encouraged intellectuals like Octavio Paz to define the “prototypical Mexican”. The idea of Mexico as a country entering into Modernity and devoid of its own ancient culture motivated Mexican intellectuals to obsessively repeat two prototypical images: in one hand, a passive and distressed individual with an inferiority complex, and in the other an arrogant “macho” dressed like a “charro”.  Reaching the new century, NAFTA, the consolidation of drug trafficking as a major transnational industry, and the mass migration of Mexican families to the United States, demands a new prototype of national iodentity. Drugs ballad (“narcocorrido” might offer some answers to understand the newest representations of “lo mexicano”.

  6. Vector Autoregressive Models and Granger Causality in Time Series Analysis in Nursing Research: Dynamic Changes Among Vital Signs Prior to Cardiorespiratory Instability Events as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Eliezer; Hravnak, Marilyn; Sereika, Susan M

    Patients undergoing continuous vital sign monitoring (heart rate [HR], respiratory rate [RR], pulse oximetry [SpO2]) in real time display interrelated vital sign changes during situations of physiological stress. Patterns in this physiological cross-talk could portend impending cardiorespiratory instability (CRI). Vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling with Granger causality tests is one of the most flexible ways to elucidate underlying causal mechanisms in time series data. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the development of patient-specific VAR models using vital sign time series data in a sample of acutely ill, monitored, step-down unit patients and determine their Granger causal dynamics prior to onset of an incident CRI. CRI was defined as vital signs beyond stipulated normality thresholds (HR = 40-140/minute, RR = 8-36/minute, SpO2 time segment prior to onset of first CRI was chosen for time series modeling in 20 patients using a six-step procedure: (a) the uniform time series for each vital sign was assessed for stationarity, (b) appropriate lag was determined using a lag-length selection criteria, (c) the VAR model was constructed, (d) residual autocorrelation was assessed with the Lagrange Multiplier test, (e) stability of the VAR system was checked, and (f) Granger causality was evaluated in the final stable model. The primary cause of incident CRI was low SpO2 (60% of cases), followed by out-of-range RR (30%) and HR (10%). Granger causality testing revealed that change in RR caused change in HR (21%; i.e., RR changed before HR changed) more often than change in HR causing change in RR (15%). Similarly, changes in RR caused changes in SpO2 (15%) more often than changes in SpO2 caused changes in RR (9%). For HR and SpO2, changes in HR causing changes in SpO2 and changes in SpO2 causing changes in HR occurred with equal frequency (18%). Within this sample of acutely ill patients who experienced a CRI event, VAR modeling indicated that RR changes

  7. Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Models and Granger Causality in Time Series Analysis in Nursing Research: Dynamic Changes Among Vital Signs Prior to Cardiorespiratory Instability Events as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Eliezer; Hravnak, Marilyn; Sereika, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing continuous vital sign monitoring (heart rate [HR], respiratory rate [RR], pulse oximetry [SpO2]) in real time display inter-related vital sign changes during situations of physiologic stress. Patterns in this physiological cross-talk could portend impending cardiorespiratory instability (CRI). Vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling with Granger causality tests is one of the most flexible ways to elucidate underlying causal mechanisms in time series data. Purpose The purpose of this article is to illustrate development of patient-specific VAR models using vital sign time series (VSTS) data in a sample of acutely ill, monitored, step-down unit (SDU) patients, and determine their Granger causal dynamics prior to onset of an incident CRI. Approach CRI was defined as vital signs beyond stipulated normality thresholds (HR = 40–140/minute, RR = 8–36/minute, SpO2 < 85%) and persisting for 3 minutes within a 5-minute moving window (60% of the duration of the window). A 6-hour time segment prior to onset of first CRI was chosen for time series modeling in 20 patients using a six-step procedure: (a) the uniform time series for each vital sign was assessed for stationarity; (b) appropriate lag was determined using a lag-length selection criteria; (c) the VAR model was constructed; (d) residual autocorrelation was assessed with the Lagrange Multiplier test; (e) stability of the VAR system was checked; and (f) Granger causality was evaluated in the final stable model. Results The primary cause of incident CRI was low SpO2 (60% of cases), followed by out-of-range RR (30%) and HR (10%). Granger causality testing revealed that change in RR caused change in HR (21%) (i.e., RR changed before HR changed) more often than change in HR causing change in RR (15%). Similarly, changes in RR caused changes in SpO2 (15%) more often than changes in SpO2 caused changes in RR (9%). For HR and SpO2, changes in HR causing changes in SpO2 and changes in SpO2 causing

  8. Considering the worst-case metabolic scenario, but training to the typical-case competitive scenario: response to Amtmann (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-08-01

    This response to Amtmann's letter emphasizes that the knowledge of the typical time structure, as well as its variation, together with the main goal of the mixed martial arts athletes--to win by knock out or submission--need to be properly considered during the training sessions. Example with other combat sports are given and discussed, especially concerning the importance of adapting the physical conditioning workouts to the technical-tactical profile of the athlete and not the opposite.

  9. Improved ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry method for the rapid analysis of the chemical constituents of a typical medical formula: Liuwei Dihuang Wan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Lv, Hai tao; Zhang, Ai hua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang li; Han, Ying; Wu, Xiu hong; Wang, Xi jun

    2013-11-01

    Liuwei Dihuang Wan (LDW), a classic Chinese medicinal formula, has been used to improve or restore declined functions related to aging and geriatric diseases, such as impaired mobility, vision, hearing, cognition, and memory. It has attracted increasing attention as one of the most popular and valuable herbal medicines. However, the systematic analysis of the chemical constituents of LDW is difficult and thus has not been well established. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable ultra-performance LC with ESI quadrupole TOF high-definition MS method with automated MetaboLynx analysis in positive and negative ion mode was established to characterize the chemical constituents of LDW. The analysis was performed on a Waters UPLC™ HSS T3 using a gradient elution system. MS/MS fragmentation behavior was proposed for aiding the structural identification of the components. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 50 peaks were tentatively characterized by comparing the retention time and MS data. It is concluded that a rapid and robust platform based on ultra-performance LC with ESI quadrupole TOF high-definition MS has been successfully developed for globally identifying multiple constituents of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. This is the first report on the systematic analysis of the chemical constituents of LDW. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Methodological comparison of marginal structural model, time-varying Cox regression, and propensity score methods: the example of antidepressant use and the risk of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Sanni; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Belitser, Svetlana V; Souverein, Patrick C; Martín, Elisa; Gatto, Nicolle M; Huerta, Consuelo; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Roes, Kit C B; Hoes, Arno W; de Boer, Antonius; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-03-01

    Observational studies including time-varying treatments are prone to confounding. We compared time-varying Cox regression analysis, propensity score (PS) methods, and marginal structural models (MSMs) in a study of antidepressant [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)] use and the risk of hip fracture. A cohort of patients with a first prescription for antidepressants (SSRI or tricyclic antidepressants) was extracted from the Dutch Mondriaan and Spanish Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria (BIFAP) general practice databases for the period 2001-2009. The net (total) effect of SSRI versus no SSRI on the risk of hip fracture was estimated using time-varying Cox regression, stratification and covariate adjustment using the PS, and MSM. In MSM, censoring was accounted for by inverse probability of censoring weights. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of SSRI use versus no SSRI use on hip fracture was 1.75 (95%CI: 1.12, 2.72) in Mondriaan and 2.09 (1.89, 2.32) in BIFAP. After confounding adjustment using time-varying Cox regression, stratification, and covariate adjustment using the PS, HRs increased in Mondriaan [2.59 (1.63, 4.12), 2.64 (1.63, 4.25), and 2.82 (1.63, 4.25), respectively] and decreased in BIFAP [1.56 (1.40, 1.73), 1.54 (1.39, 1.71), and 1.61 (1.45, 1.78), respectively]. MSMs with stabilized weights yielded HR 2.15 (1.30, 3.55) in Mondriaan and 1.63 (1.28, 2.07) in BIFAP when accounting for censoring and 2.13 (1.32, 3.45) in Mondriaan and 1.66 (1.30, 2.12) in BIFAP without accounting for censoring. In this empirical study, differences between the different methods to control for time-dependent confounding were small. The observed differences in treatment effect estimates between the databases are likely attributable to different confounding information in the datasets, illustrating that adequate information on (time-varying) confounding is crucial to prevent bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Ageing and life-time management in nuclear power stations - concept and examples; Alterungs- und Lebensdauermanagement in Kernkraftwerken - Konzept und Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erve, M.; Tenckhoff, E. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Knowledge, assessment and understanding of phenomena caused by ageing, together with systematic utilization and extension of the technical life-time of components and systems, are of critical importance to the safety and economy of electricity generation in nuclear power stations. Economic use can be optimized by integrated ageing and life-time management; it can also be used to improve performance characteristics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Sicherheit und Wirtschaftlichkeit der Stromerzeugung in Kernkraftwerken sind die Kenntnis, Bewertung und Beherrschung alterungsbedingter Phaenomene und systematische Ausnutzung bzw. Verlaengerung der technischen Lebensdauer der Komponenten und Systeme von zentraler Bedeutung. Durch ganzheitliches Alterungs- und Lebensdauermanagement, das auch auf die Verbesserung von Leistungsmerkmalen abzielt, kann der wirtschaftliche Nutzen optimiert werden. (orig.)

  12. Interpolation techniques used for data quality control and calculation of technical series: an example of a Central European daily time series

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, P.; Zahradníček, P.; Huth, Radan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, 1-2 (2011), s. 87-98 ISSN 0324-6329 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : data quality control * filling missing values * interpolation techniques * climatological time series Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2011 http://www.met.hu/en/ismeret-tar/kiadvanyok/idojaras/index.php?id=34

  13. On-Line Identification of Simulation Examples for Forgetting Methods to Track Time Varying Parameters Using the Alternative Covariance Matrix in Matlab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachálek, Ján

    2011-12-01

    The paper compares the abilities of forgetting methods to track time varying parameters of two different simulated models with different types of excitation. The observed parameters in the simulations are the integral sum of the Euclidean norm, deviation of the parameter estimates from their true values and a selected band prediction error count. As supplementary information, we observe the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. In the paper we used a modified method of Regularized Exponential Forgetting with Alternative Covariance Matrix (REFACM) along with Directional Forgetting (DF) and three standard regularized methods.

  14. Climate processes shape the evolution of populations and species leading to the assembly of modern biotas - examples along a continuum from shallow to deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    California experiences droughts, so lets begin with the effects of streamflow variation on population evolution in a coastal lagoon-specialist endangered fish, the tidewater goby. Streamflow controls the closing and opening of lagoons to the sea determining genetic isolation or gene flow. Here evolution is a function of habitat preference for closing lagoons. Other estuarine fishes, with different habitat preferences, differentiate at larger spatial scales in response to longer glacio-eustatic control of estuarine habitat. Species of giraffes in Africa are a puzzle. Why do the ranges of large motile, potentially interbreeding, species occur in contact each other without hybridization? The answer resides in the timing of seasonal precipitation. Although the degree of seaonality of climate does not vary much between species, the timing of precipitation and seasonal "greenup" does. This provides a selective advantage to reproductive isolation, as reproductive timing can be coordinated in each region with seasonal browse availability for lactating females. Convective rainfall in Africa follows the sun and solar intensity is influenced by the precession cycle such that more extensive summer rains fell across the Sahara and South Asia early in the Holocene, this may also contribute to the genetic isolation and speciation of giraffes and others savanna species. But there also appears to be a correlation with rarity (CITES designation) of modern wetland birds, as the dramatic drying of the late Holocene landscape contributes to this conservation concern. Turning back to the West Coast we find the most diverse temperate coastal fauna in the world, yet this diversity evolved and is a relict of diversity accumulation during the apex of upwelling in the late Miocene, driven by the reglaciation of Antarctica. Lastly we can see that the deep-sea evolution is broadly constrained by the transitions from greenhouse to icehouse worlds over the last 90 mya as broad periods of warm

  15. Nonmarine time-stratigraphy in a rift setting: An example from the Mid-Permian lower Quanzijie low-order cycle Bogda Mountains, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Obrist-Farner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentological and stratigraphic studies of seven stratigraphic sections of Permian Hongyanchi (HYC and Quanzijie (QZJ low-order cycles (LCs in the Tarlong-Taodonggou half graben and Dalongkou area in Bogda Mountains, NW China, demonstrate effective approaches and methodology in cyclo- and time-stratigraphic analyses of complex fluvial-lacustrine deposits in an intracontinental rift setting. A new synchronous stratigraphic unit, the lower QZJ LC is defined. The lower and upper boundaries of this cycle include a regionally correlative disconformity, erosional unconformity, and conformity, across which significant and abrupt changes in palaeoenvironments and tectonic and climatic conditions occurred. The lower boundary is an erosional unconformity and disconformity with a high-relief topography that juxtaposes lacustrine deposits of the underlying HYC LC with the overlying meandering stream deposits of the lower QZJ LC, and was caused by a regional tectonic uplift. The upper boundary is a disconformity and local erosional unconformity and conformity, juxtaposing stacked paleosols developed on fluvial sediments with overlying fluvial and loessial deposits of the upper QZJ LC. The paleosols indicate landscape stability and a prolonged period of subaerial exposure and minimal deposition and suggest that climatic conditions were semi-arid with strong precipitation seasonality in the Tarlong-Taodonggou half graben and subhumid in the Dalongkou area. The fluvial-loessial deposits indicate a renewed tectonic uplift and a change in the atmospheric circulation pattern. The newly-defined lower QZJ LC facilitates accurate palaeogeographic reconstruction in the study area during a period of major tectonic and climatic changes. The interpreted tectonic and climatic conditions provide a critical data point in the mid-latitude east coast of NE Pangea during the Mid-Permian icehouse-hothouse transition. The results demonstrate that a process-response approach

  16. Specification and Compilation of Real-Time Stream Processing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the specification, compilation and corresponding temporal analysis of real-time stream processing applications that are executed on embedded multiprocessor systems. An example of such applications are software defined radio applications. These applications typically

  17. The significance and lag-time of deep through flow: an example from a small, ephemeral catchment with contrasting soil types in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VanLeeuwen

    2009-07-01

    infiltration excess overland flow. A pulse of macropore through flow was observed in the sandy soils three days after the rainfall event largely ended. The macropore water was a mixture of pre-event and event water, demonstrating the lag-time and mixing of the water masses in the sandy soil system. By contrast, the clayey soil horizons were not dominated by pre-event water, demonstrating the quicker response and shallow through flow of the clayey soil system. Thus, the sandy terrain has a greater vadose zone storage and greater lag time of through flow than the clayey terrain.

  18. Laboratory-based clinical audit as a tool for continual improvement: an example from CSF chemistry turnaround time audit in a South-African teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoh, Lucius C; Mutale, Mubanga; Parker, Christopher T; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Zemlin, Annalise E

    2016-01-01

    Timeliness of laboratory results is crucial to patient care and outcome. Monitoring turnaround times (TAT), especially for emergency tests, is important to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory services. Laboratory-based clinical audits reveal opportunities for improving quality. Our aim was to identify the most critical steps causing a high TAT for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemistry analysis in our laboratory. A 6-month retrospective audit was performed. The duration of each operational phase across the laboratory work flow was examined. A process-mapping audit trail of 60 randomly selected requests with a high TAT was conducted and reasons for high TAT were tested for significance. A total of 1505 CSF chemistry requests were analysed. Transport of samples to the laboratory was primarily responsible for the high average TAT (median TAT = 170 minutes). Labelling accounted for most delays within the laboratory (median TAT = 71 minutes) with most delays occurring after regular work hours (P audit identified sample transportation, work shift periods and use of inappropriate CSF sample tubes as drivers of high TAT for CSF chemistry in our laboratory. The results of this audit will be used to change pre-analytical practices in our laboratory with the aim of improving TAT and customer satisfaction.

  19. License renewal - an idea whose time has come. Hatch nuclear plant license renewal program: an actual example of application of the license renewal rule to the Intake Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandiwala, F.; Evans, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    After the NRC issued a revised license renewal rule in May 1995, the nuclear industry focussed on developing generic industry for implementing the rule and testing the guidance through various demonstration programs and work products in conjunction with the NRC. In addition, plant-specific programs also proceeded forward. These activities show that implementation issues continue to exist. Since the issuance of the rule, the NRC has issued a draft standard review plan for license renewal (SRP-LR), working draft, September 1997. Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC) has begun development work on a license renewal application for Plant Hatch Units 1 and 2. Plant Hatch Units 1 and 2 are BWR 4, Mark I plants whose operating licenses expire in 2014 and 2018, respectively. The Plant Hatch initiative also involves teaming with other boiling water reactors (BWRs) to develop the license renewal technology within the BWR fleet, and to support Plant Hatch by providing an oversight role for the application process. The teaming effort involved two other utilities, each being assigned to prepare a common report on a mechanical system or a structure. The common report could be presented to the NRC with modifications to suit the individual plants, thereby saving time and money, and hopefully resulting in quicker approval by the NRC. The desired license renewal process end result is a renewed license with up to a 20 year extension (10CFR 54.31(b)). (orig.)

  20. Typicality and misinformation: Two sources of distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malen Migueles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with highand low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in the original video information or additions of completely new contents. In the subsequent recognition task the post-event misinformation produced memory impairment. The participants used the underlying schema of the event to extract high-typicality information which had become integrated with episodic information, thus giving rise to more hits and false alarms for these items. However, the effect of exposure to misinformation was greater on low-typicality items. There were no differences between changed or added information, but there were more false alarms when a low-typicality item was changed to a high-typicality item

  1. Radiometric Dating of Folds: A new approach to determine the timing of deformation at shallow-crustal conditions, with examples from the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz Diaz, E.; van der Pluijm, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a robust method to obtain absolute ages of folds that were formed at shallow crustal conditions. The method takes advantage of illite neocrystallization in folded, clay-bearing layers and the ability to obtain accurate retention and total gas ages from small size fractions using encapsulated Ar analysis, analogous to prior work on fault gouge dating. We illustrate our approach in folded Cretaceous shale-bentonitic layers that are interbedded with carbonates of the Zimapán and the Tampico-Misantla cretaceous basins in central-eastern Mexico. Basinal carbonates were buried by syntectonic turbidites and inverted during the formation of the Mexican Fold-Thrust in the Late Cretaceous. Results were obtained from four chevron folds that are representative of different stages of deformation, burial/temperature conditions and location within this thin-skinned orogenic wedge: two from the Zimapán Basin (Folds 1 and 2) in the west and two from the Tampico-Misantla Basin (Folds 3 and 4) in the east. Mineralogic compositions and variations in illite-polytypes, crystallite-size (CS) and Ar/Ar ages were obtained from size fractions in limbs and hinges of folded layers. Ar retention ages produce a folding age of ~81 Ma for Fold 1 and ~69 Ma for Fold 2, which are fully consistent with stratigraphic limits from syn-orogenic turbidities and observed overprinting events in the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt. The total gas age of Fold 3, on the easternmost margin of the Tampico-Misantla Basin is similar to that of Fold 2, indicating that the second event is regional in scale. In addition to presenting a new, reliable method to constrain the timing of local deformation, we interpret folding and associated clay neo-mineralization in terms of the regional burial history, and localization and propagation of deformation within a heterogeneous orogenic wedge involving progressive deformation of two basins separated by a platform block.

  2. Precursory deformation and depths of magma storage revealed by regional InSAR time series surveys: example of the Indonesian and Mexican volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.; Aoki, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the threat posed to millions of people living in the vicinity of volcanoes, only a fraction of the worldwide ~800 potentially active arc volcanoes have geodetic monitoring. Indonesian and Mexican volcanoes are sparsely monitored with ground-based methods but especially dangerous, emphasizing the need for remote sensing monitoring. In this study we take advantage of over 1200 ALOS InSAR images to survey the entire west Sunda and Mexican volcanic arcs, covering a total of 500 000 km2. We use 2 years of data to monitor the background activity of the Indonesian arc, and 4 years of data at four volcanic edifices (Sinabung, Kerinci, Merapi, and Agung), as well as 4 years of data to survey the Mexican arc. We derive time-dependent ground deformation data using the Small Baseline technique with DEM error correction. We detect seven volcanoes with significant deformation in the west-Sunda arc: six inflating volcanoes (Sinabung, Kerinci, Slamet, Lawu, Lamongan, and Agung) and one deflating volcano (Anak Krakatau). Three of the six inflating centers erupted during or after the observation period. We detect inflation prior to Sinabung's first Holocene eruption in September 2010, followed by a small deflation of the summit area. A similar signal is observed at Kerinci before and after its April 2009 eruption. We also detect uplift prior to Slamet's eruption in April 2009. Agung, in Bali, whose last eruption was in 1964, has been inflating steadily between mid 2007 and early 2009, followed by a period with little deformation until mid-2011. Inflation not followed by eruption is also observed at Lamongan and Lawu, both historically active centers. The close relation between periods of activity and observed deformation suggests that edifice inflation is of magmatic origin and represents the pressurization of reservoirs caused by ascent of new magma. We model the observed deformation and show that the seven deforming Indonesian volcanoes have shallow magma reservoirs at ~1

  3. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  4. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  5. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  6. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  7. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210

  8. Regression analysis by example

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Samprit

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Fourth Edition: ""This book is . . . an excellent source of examples for regression analysis. It has been and still is readily readable and understandable."" -Journal of the American Statistical Association Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition has been expanded

  9. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  10. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  11. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  12. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  13. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  14. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item

  16. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  17. Automatically Extracting Typical Syntactic Differences from Corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Wybo; Nerbonne, John; Lauttamus, Timo

    We develop an aggregate measure of syntactic difference for automatically finding common syntactic differences between collections of text. With the use of this measure, it is possible to mine for differences between, for example, the English of learners and natives, or between related dialects. If

  18. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  19. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. [Typical atrial flutter: Diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Eckardt, Lars; Estner, Heidi L; Kuniss, Malte; Meyer, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; Voss, Frederik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    Typical, cavotricuspid-dependent atrial flutter is the most common atrial macroreentry tachycardia. The incidence of atrial flutter (typical and atypical forms) is age-dependent with 5/100,000 in patients less than 50 years and approximately 600/100,000 in subjects > 80 years of age. Concomitant heart failure or pulmonary disease further increases the risk of typical atrial flutter.Patients with atrial flutter may present with symptoms of palpitations, reduced exercise capacity, chest pain, or dyspnea. The risk of thromboembolism is probably similar to atrial fibrillation; therefore, the same antithrombotic prophylaxis is required in atrial flutter patients. Acutely symptomatic cases may be subjected to cardioversion or pharmacologic rate control to relieve symptoms. Catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus represents the primary choice in long-term therapy, associated with high procedural success (> 97 %) and low complication rates (0.5 %).This article represents the third part of a manuscript series designed to improve professional education in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Mechanistic and clinical characteristics as well as management of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter are described in detail. Electrophysiological findings and catheter ablation of the arrhythmia are highlighted.

  1. Neutrosophic Examples in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy can be widely applied in physics and the like. For example, one of the reasons for 2011 Nobel Prize for physics is "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae", but according to neutrosophy, there exist seven or nine states of accelerating expansion and contraction and the neutrosophic state in the universe. Another two examples are "a revision to Gödel's incompleteness theorem by neutrosophy" and "six neutral (neutrosophic fundamental interactions". In addition, the "partial and temporary unified theory so far" is discussed (including "partial and temporary unified electromagnetic theory so far", "partial and temporary unified gravitational theory so far", "partial and temporary unified theory of four fundamental interactions so far", and "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far".

  2. Maple by example

    CERN Document Server

    Abell, Martha L

    2005-01-01

    Maple by Example, Third Edition, is a reference/text with CD for beginning and experienced students, professional engineers, and other Maple users. This new edition has been updated to be compatible with the most recent release of the Maple software. Coverage includes built-in Maple commands used in courses and practices that involve calculus, linear algebra, business mathematics, ordinary and partial differential equations, numerical methods, graphics and more. The CD-ROM provides updated Maple input and all text from the book.* Updated coverage of Maple features and functions * Backwards compatible for all versions* New applications from a variety of fields, including biology, physics and engineering* Expanded topics with many additional examples

  3. Examples of plasma horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the plasma horizon, defined as the boundary of the region in which an infinitely thin plasma can be supported against Coulomb attraction by a magnetic field, shows that the argument of selective accretion does not rule out the existence of charged black holes embedded in a conducting plasma. A detailed account of the covariant definition of plasma horizon is given and some examples of plasma horizons are presented. 7 references

  4. Robust Programming by Example

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop , Matt; Elliott , Chip

    2011-01-01

    Part 2: WISE 7; International audience; Robust programming lies at the heart of the type of coding called “secure programming”. Yet it is rarely taught in academia. More commonly, the focus is on how to avoid creating well-known vulnerabilities. While important, that misses the point: a well-structured, robust program should anticipate where problems might arise and compensate for them. This paper discusses one view of robust programming and gives an example of how it may be taught.

  5. The Power of Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests that for negotiation studies, the well-researched role of cognitive closure in decision-making should be supplemented with specific research on what sort of information is seized on as unambiguous, salient and easily processable by negotiators. A study of email negotiation...... is reported that suggests that negotiators seize on concrete examples as building blocks that produce immediate positive feedback and consequent utilization in establishing common ground....

  6. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  7. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in the context under consideration, than those lower down. For any given class C, we assume that all objects in the appli- cation domain that are in (the interpretation of) C are more typical of C than those not in C. This is a technical construction which... to be modular partial orders, i.e. reflexive, transitive, anti- symmetric relations such that, for all a, b, c in ∆I , if a and b are incomparable and a is strictly below c, then b is also strictly below c. Modular partial orders have the effect...

  9. Benchmark calculation programme concerning typical LMFBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, J.; Ferrari, G.; Grossetie, J.C.; Terzaghi, A.

    1982-01-01

    This programme, which is part of a comprehensive activity aimed at resolving difficulties encountered in using design procedures based on ASME Code Case N-47, should allow to get confidence in computer codes which are supposed to provide a realistic prediction of the LMFBR component behaviour. The calculations started on static analysis of typical structures made of non linear materials stressed by cyclic loads. The fluid structure interaction analysis is also being considered. Reasons and details of the different benchmark calculations are described, results obtained are commented and future computational exercise indicated

  10. Typical skeletal changes due to metastasising neuroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerath, A.; Persigehl, M.; Mertens, R.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1983-01-01

    Compared with other solid tumours in childhood, neuroblastomas show a marked tendency to metastasise to the skeleton. The differentiation of these lesions from inflammatory and other malignant bone lesions in this age group is often difficult. The radiological findings in ten patients with metastasing and histologically confirmed neuroblastomas have been reviewed and the typical appearances in the skeleton are described. The most important features in the differential diagnosies are discussed and the significance of bone changes in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma have been evaluated. (orig.) [de

  11. Aristotle's Example: The Rhetorical Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William Lyon

    1980-01-01

    Examines the concept of example in Aristotle's inventional theory. Rejects recent claims that the example reasons from part to part, without a mediating generalization, and then explicates Aristotle's view of the example. (JMF)

  12. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  13. Example of feedstock optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boustros, E.

    1991-01-01

    An example of feedstock optimization at an olefins plant which has the flexibility to process different kinds of raw materials while maintaining the same product slate, is presented. Product demand and prices, and the number of units in service as well as the required resources to operate these units are considered to be fixed. The plant profitability is a function of feedstock choice, plus constant costs which are the non-volume related costs. The objective is to find a set or combination of feedstocks that could match the client product demands and fall within the unit's design and capacity, while maximizing the financial operating results

  14. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  15. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  16. Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2013-09-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Typical and atypical presentations of aspergilloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villajos, M.; Darnell, A.; Gallardo, X.; Castaner, E.; Mata, J. M.; Paedavila, E.

    1999-01-01

    To show the different forms of radiological presentations of aspergilloma, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the atypical forms. The explorations of 11 patients with aspergilloma were examined retrospectively between 1993 and 1997. These patients were studied using conventional X-rays and computed tomography (CT): Typical and atypical radiological findings were observed. In two patients, who presented recurrent hemoptysis, a percutaneous installation of amphotericin B was carried out with tomographic control. Out of the 11 patients, two were female and nine male. In eight of the cases the radiological findings showed an intercavity injury with different evolutionary forms, while in three of the cases there was a progressive pleural swelling. In the two patients treated pertinaciously, no significant radiological changes were observed, however, neither of them showed hemoptysis again. The pleural swelling adjacent to the cavity and/or the swelling of the cavity wall are atypical radiological presentations of the aspergilloma, that can accompany or precede the appearance of this illness. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  19. Example and Non-Example Pada Pembelajaran Matematika

    OpenAIRE

    Yunarto, Wanda Nugroho

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak Example and Non-Example Learning Model merupakan model pembelajaran yang menggunakan gambar sebagai media pembelajaran yang bertujuan mendorong mahasiswa untuk belajar berfikir kritis dengan jalan memecahkan permasalahan-permasalahan yang terkandung dalam contoh-contoh permasalahan/ konsep yang disajikan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan gambaran mengenai bagaimana penerapan model pembelajaran Example and non-Example pada mahasiswa program studi Pendidikan Matematika Univ...

  20. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  1. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  2. Newly Homeless Youth Typically Return Home

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.

  3. Corrosimetry: examples of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, D.; Ritti, D.; Plante, G.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion rate of materials in industrial plants are often measured by weighing and examination of specimens. For real time determination of corrosion rate of metallic structures, two kinds of techniques are examined in this paper: continuous measurement of resistivity increase produced by corrosion of a specimen and electrochemical polarization of a corrosion electrode. Applications are briefly presented for corrosion of stainless steel by nitric acid in reprocessing plants, corrosion of ordinary steel by geothermal fluids and corrosion in marine environment

  4. Risperidone versus typical antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H; Joy, C B; Kennedy, E; Gilbody, S M; Song, F

    2003-01-01

    found in long-term studies (n=859, 2RCTs RR not 20% improved 0.51 CI 0.38 to 0.67 NNT 4;n=675 1RCT, RR not improved 40% 0.75 CI 0.66 to 0.84 NNT 5; n=675, 1 RCT, RR not 60% improved 0.90 CI 0.84 to 0.96, NNT 11). Risperidone was also more likely to reduce relapse at one year follow up, compared with haloperidol (n=367, 1 RCT, RR 0.64 CI 0.41 to 0.99, NNT 7). Less people allocated risperidone left studies before completion, both for short-term (n=3066, 16 RCTs, RR 0.76 CI 0.63 to 0.92, NNT 6) and long-term trials (n=1270, 4RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.42 to 0.73 NNT 4). For general movement disorders results favoured risperidone. People given risperidone had significantly fewer general movement disorders (including extrapyramidal side effects) than those receiving older typical antipsychotics (n=2702, 10 RCTs, RR 0.63 CI 0.56 to 0.71, NNT 3). Significantly fewer people given risperidone used antiparkinsonian drugs (n=2524, 11 RCTs, RR 0.66 CI 0.58 to 0.74, NNT 4). As regards body weight, however, four studies (n=1708) found people were more likely to gain weight if allocated risperidone compared to typical antipsychotics (RR 1.55 CI 1.25 to 1.93, NNH 3). Risperidone was no more or less likely than haloperidol to cause sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction (n=106, 2 RCTs, RR 1.55 CI 0.58 to 4.20). Finally, some results found risperidone was more likely to cause rhinitis than conventional antipsychotics (n=656, 3 RCTs, RR1.99 CI 1.24 to 3.19, NNH 3). Risperidone may be more acceptable to those with schizophrenia than older antipsychotics and have marginal benefits in terms of limited clinical improvement. Its adverse effect profile may be better than haloperidol. With the addition of more studies to this review, the publication bias evident in previous versions is no longer a significant issue. Any marginal benefits this drug may have have to be balanced against its greater cost and increased tendency to cause side effects such as weight gain. Recent important longer term

  5. Continuum modeling an approach through practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Muntean, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This book develops continuum modeling skills and approaches the topic from three sides: (1) derivation of global integral laws together with the associated local differential equations, (2) design of constitutive laws and (3) modeling boundary processes. The focus of this presentation lies on many practical examples covering aspects such as coupled flow, diffusion and reaction in porous media or microwave heating of a pizza, as well as traffic issues in bacterial colonies and energy harvesting from geothermal wells. The target audience comprises primarily graduate students in pure and applied mathematics as well as working practitioners in engineering who are faced by nonstandard rheological topics like those typically arising in the food industry.

  6. The power of example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliana Gheorghian, Mariana

    2014-05-01

    beginning of the XXI century" with the participation of several schools in the country in 2009 and 2011. The papers presented were diverse and gave examples of various teaching experiences and scientific information. Topics by the teachers: The impact of tourism on the environment, Tornadoes, Natural science and environmental education in school, Air Pollution and health, Ecological education of children from primary school, The effects of electromagnetic radiation, Formation of an ecological mentality using chemistry, Why should we protect water, Environmental education, Education for the future, SOS Nature, Science in the twenty-first century, etc. Topics by students: Nature- the palace of thermal phenomena, Life depends on heat, Water Mysteries, Global Heating, The Mysterious universe, etc. In March 2013 our school hosted an interesting exchange of ideas on environmental issues between our students and those from Bulgaria, Poland and Turkey, during a symposium of the Comenius multilateral project "Conserving Nature". In order to present the results of protecting nature in their communities, two projects "Citizen" qualified in the Program Civitas in the autumn of 2013. "The Battle" continues both in nature and in classrooms, in order to preserve the environment.

  7. Typicality aids search for an unspecified target, but only in identification and not in attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Monica S; Pollatsek, Alexander; Cave, Kyle R

    2008-08-01

    Participants searched for a picture of an object, and the object was either a typical or an atypical category member. The object was cued by either the picture or its basic-level category name. Of greatest interest was whether it would be easier to search for typical objects than to search for atypical objects. The answer was"yes," but only in a qualified sense: There was a large typicality effect on response time only for name cues, and almost none of the effect was found in the time to locate (i.e., first fixate) the target. Instead, typicality influenced verification time-the time to respond to the target once it was fixated. Typicality is thus apparently irrelevant when the target is well specified by a picture cue; even when the target is underspecified (as with a name cue), it does not aid attentional guidance, but only facilitates categorization.

  8. Evolutionary Algorithms for the Detection of Structural Breaks in Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Detecting structural breaks is an essential task for the statistical analysis of time series, for example, for fitting parametric models to it. In short, structural breaks are points in time at which the behavior of the time series changes. Typically, no solid background knowledge of the time...

  9. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of worked examples, example-problem, and problem-example pairs on novices’ learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., & Paas, F. (2011). Effects of worked examples, example-problem, and problem-example pairs on novices’ learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(3), 212-218. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.10.004

  11. Facilitating complex shape drawing in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) produce drawings that are disorganised, likely due to an inability to replicate numerous spatial relations between parts. This study attempted to circumvent these drawing deficits in WS when copying complex combinations of one, two and three shapes. Drawing decisions were reduced by introducing a number of facilitators, for example, by using distinct colours and including facilitatory cues on the response sheet. Overall, facilitation improved drawing in the WS group to a comparable level of accuracy as typically developing participants (matched for non-verbal ability). Drawing accuracy was greatest in both groups when planning demands (e.g. starting location, line lengths and changes in direction) were reduced by use of coloured figures and providing easily distinguished and clearly grouped facilitatory cues to form each shape. This study provides the first encouraging evidence to suggest that drawing of complex shapes in WS can be facilitated; individuals with WS might be receptive to remediation programmes for drawing and handwriting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent

    2017-12-01

    We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.

  13. Typical effects of laser dazzling CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianmin; Shao, Bibo; Cheng, Deyan; Ye, Xisheng; Feng, Guobin

    2015-05-01

    In this article, an overview of laser dazzling effect to buried channel CCD camera is given. The CCDs are sorted into staring and scanning types. The former includes the frame transfer and interline transfer types. The latter includes linear and time delay integration types. All CCDs must perform four primary tasks in generating an image, which are called charge generation, charge collection, charge transfer and charge measurement. In camera, the lenses are needed to input the optical signal to the CCD sensors, in which the techniques for erasing stray light are used. And the electron circuits are needed to process the output signal of CCD, in which many electronic techniques are used. The dazzling effects are the conjunct result of light distribution distortion and charge distribution distortion, which respectively derive from the lens and the sensor. Strictly speaking, in lens, the light distribution is not distorted. In general, the lens are so well designed and fabricated that its stray light can be neglected. But the laser is of much enough intensity to make its stray light obvious. In CCD image sensors, laser can induce a so large electrons generation. Charges transfer inefficiency and charges blooming will cause the distortion of the charge distribution. Commonly, the largest signal outputted from CCD sensor is restricted by capability of the collection well of CCD, and can't go beyond the dynamic range for the subsequent electron circuits maintaining normal work. So the signal is not distorted in the post-processing circuits. But some techniques in the circuit can make some dazzling effects present different phenomenon in final image.

  14. Some examples of geomorphodiversity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    2014-05-01

    important geoheritage that can be considered a field laboratory for research on volcanic geomorphology. At a regional level, intrinsic geomorphodiversity includes typical examples ascribable to lahars, relief inversion and pseudo-karst morphology.

  15. Far-infrared irradiation drying behavior of typical biomass briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.N.; Chen, M.Q.; Fu, B.A.; Song, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared radiation drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes (populus tomentosa leaves, cotton stalk, spent coffee grounds and eucalyptus bark) were investigated based on a lab-scale setup. The effect of radiation source temperatures (100–200 °C) on the far-infrared drying kinetics and heat transfer of the samples was addressed. As the temperature went up from 100 °C to 200 °C, the time required for the four biomass briquettes drying decreased by about 59–66%, and the average values of temperature for the four biomass briquettes increased by about 33–39 °C, while the average radiation heat transfer fluxes increased by about 3.3 times (3.7 times only for the leaves). The specific energy consumptions were 0.622–0.849 kW h kg"−"1. The Modified Midilli model had the better representing for the moisture ratio change of the briquettes. The values of the activation energy for the briquettes in the first falling rate stage were between 20.35 and 24.83 kJ mol"−"1, while those in the second falling rate stage were between 17.89 and 21.93 kJ mol"−"1. The activation energy for the eucalyptus bark briquette in two falling rate stages was the least one, and that for the cotton stalk briquette was less than that for the rest two briquettes. - Highlights: • Far infrared drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes were addressed. • The effect of radiation source temperatures on IR drying kinetics was stated. • Radiation heat transfer flux between the sample and heater was evaluated. • Midilli model had the better representing for the drying process of the samples.

  16. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  17. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  18. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  19. Radionuclides for process analysis problems and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.; Koennecke, H.G.; Luther, D.; Hecht, P.

    1986-01-01

    Both practical problems of the application of the tracer techniques for residence time measurements and the advantages of the methods are discussed. In this paper selected examples for tracer experiments carried out in a drinking water generator, a caprolactam production plant and a cokery are given. In all cases the efficiency of the processes investigated could be improved. (author)

  20. Returnable containers: an example of reverse logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G.M.C. Vrijens

    1996-01-01

    textabstractConsiders the application of returnable containers as an example of reverse logistics. A returnable container is a type of secondary packaging that can be used several times in the same form, in contrast with traditional cardboard boxes. For this equipment to be used, a system for the

  1. Learning and Understanding System Stability Using Illustrative Dynamic Texture Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Hongyan; Sun, Fuchun

    2014-01-01

    System stability is a basic concept in courses on dynamic system analysis and control for undergraduate students with computer science backgrounds. Typically, this was taught using a simple simulation example of an inverted pendulum. Unfortunately, many difficult issues arise in the learning and understanding of the concepts of stability,…

  2. Investigating the probability of detection of typical cavity shapes through modelling and comparison of geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P.

    2011-12-01

    With a growing need for housing in the U.K., the government has proposed increased development of brownfield sites. However, old mine workings and natural cavities represent a potential hazard before, during and after construction on such sites, and add further complication to subsurface parameters. Cavities are hence a limitation to certain redevelopment and their detection is an ever important consideration. The current standard technique for cavity detection is a borehole grid, which is intrusive, non-continuous, slow and expensive. A new robust investigation standard in the detection of cavities is sought and geophysical techniques offer an attractive alternative. Geophysical techniques have previously been utilised successfully in the detection of cavities in various geologies, but still has an uncertain reputation in the engineering industry. Engineers are unsure of the techniques and are inclined to rely on well known techniques than utilise new technologies. Bad experiences with geophysics are commonly due to the indiscriminate choice of particular techniques. It is imperative that a geophysical survey is designed with the specific site and target in mind at all times, and the ability and judgement to rule out some, or all, techniques. To this author's knowledge no comparative software exists to aid technique choice. Also, previous modelling software limit the shapes of bodies and hence typical cavity shapes are not represented. Here, we introduce 3D modelling software (Matlab) which computes and compares the response to various cavity targets from a range of techniques (gravity, gravity gradient, magnetic, magnetic gradient and GPR). Typical near surface cavity shapes are modelled including shafts, bellpits, various lining and capping materials, and migrating voids. The probability of cavity detection is assessed in typical subsurface and noise conditions across a range of survey parameters. Techniques can be compared and the limits of detection distance

  3. Evaluation of hazards from industrial activity near nuclear power plants. Study of typical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Gobert, T.; Granier, J.P.

    1981-08-01

    The design and dimensioning of nuclear power plant structures necessitate the evaluation of risks due to industrial activity. Among these risks, those due to the storage or transport of dangerous products merit special attention. They result, inter alia, in the explosion of flammable gas clouds. Such clouds can drift before igniting and, once alight, the resulting pressure wave can cause serious damage, even at a distance. A methodology both deterministic and probabilistic enabling this risk to be quantified has therefore been developed. It is based in part on an analysis of the statistics of actual accidents that have occurred. After briefly recalling the probabilistic model, the typical accidents selected are described and for three usual cases (storage under pressure, rail tank cars and road units) the main characteristics of the rupture are explicited. The deterministic models that have been worked out to calculate the consequences of such an accident: flow rate at the bursting point, evaporation, drift and atmospheric dispersion of the cloud formed, explosion of this cloud, are then described. At the present time the overpressure wave is quantified against a TNT equivalent of the explosive mixture. Some data are given as examples for three commonly employed hydrocarbons (butane, propane, propylene) [fr

  4. Acoustical conditions of typical classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Ming; Lam, Coriolanus C. L.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of the acoustical environments of local schools in Hong Kong. In the measurements, several acoustical aspects that affect verbal communication in classrooms have been studied. These conditions include outdoor and indoor ambient noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, reverberation time and the speech transmission index. Typical classrooms in many different schools and other higher-education institutions have been selected in the present study. Experimental results are compared with such national standards as USA (ANSI S 12.60 V 2002), Australian/New Zealand (AS/NZS 2107:2000), China (GB/T 15508 V 1995) and other national and industrial standards. This study will form the basis of devising acceptable standards for use in Hong Kong. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council of the SAR Government, the Research Committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Architectural Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  5. Aeroelastic Calculations Using CFD for a Typical Business Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Two time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were used to compute several flutter points for a typical business jet model. The model consisted of a rigid fuselage with a flexible semispan wing and was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center where experimental flutter data were obtained from M(sub infinity) = 0.628 to M(sub infinity) = 0.888. The computational results were computed using CFD codes based on the inviscid TSD equation (CAP-TSD) and the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations (CFL3D-AE). Comparisons are made between analytical results and with experiment where appropriate. The results presented here show that the Navier-Stokes method is required near the transonic dip due to the strong viscous effects while the TSD and Euler methods used here provide good results at the lower Mach numbers.

  6. Advanced software tool for the creation of a typical meteorological year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeiker, Kamal; Ghani, Bashar Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The generation of a typical meteorological year is of great importance for calculations concerning many applications in the field of thermal engineering. In this context, method that has been proposed by Hall et al. is selected for generating typical data, and an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month (TMM) was demonstrated. The final selection of the most representative year was done by examining a composite score S. The composite score was calculated as the weighed sum of the scores of the four meteorological parameters used. These parameters are air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and global solar radiation intensity. Moreover, a new modern software tool using Delphi 6.0 has been developed, utilizing the Filkenstein-Schafer statistical method for the creation of a typical meteorological year for any site of concern. Whereas, an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month was employed. Such tool allows the user to perform this task without an intimate knowledge of all of the computational details. The final alphanumerical and graphical results are presented on screen, and can be saved to a file or printed as a hard copy. Using this software tool, a typical meteorological year was generated for Damascus, capital of Syria, as a test run example. The data processed used were obtained from the Department of Meteorology and cover a period of 10 years (1991-2000)

  7. Extended asymptotic functions - some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several examples of extended asymptotic functions of two variables are given. This type of asymptotic functions has been introduced as an extension of continuous ordinary functions. The presented examples are realizations of some Schwartz distributions delta(x), THETA(x), P(1/xsup(n)) and can be multiplied in the class of the asymptotic functions as opposed to the theory of Schwartz distributions. The examples illustrate the method of construction of extended asymptotic functions similar to the distributions. The set formed by the extended asymptotic functions is also considered. It is shown, that this set is not closed with respect to addition and multiplication

  8. From Utterance to Example Sentence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard

    This poster will address some of the problems on excerption of example sentences for the online dictionary of Danish Sign Language (DTS) from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues. In the Danish Sign Language Dictionary every meaning is illustrated by one or more sentences showing the sign...... lexicographers. The sentences were excerpted by hand from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues – given to us by our group of consultants. The poster describes the process from utterance in a corpus in a larger context to an example sentence in a dictionary, where the purpose of having examples sentences...... for use in the dictionary consists of 11 stages in the DTS dictionary project. Special focus will be on the stage in the process where the sentence is judged suitable for dictionary use. A set of guidelines for what makes up a good example sentence has been developed for the DTS dictionary project...

  9. Introduction: The Power of Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Lars; Bandak, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    It is the contention of this introduction that examples are important prisms through which both reality and anthropological analysis are thought and, equally importantly, reconfigured. The aim of the introduction is to redress the theoretical disregard for exemplification by exploring the persuas....... The introduction further proposes that the example serves to confuse ontological divides, such as the one between theory and ethnography, and also draws attention to the fact that theory is as much suggestive as descriptive....

  10. Learning Probabilistic Logic Models from Probabilistic Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José

    2008-10-01

    We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples.

  11. Autoshuttle: Concept and Commercial Example Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Steingrover

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The transport system AUTOSHUTTLE integrates roadand track guided traffic using and combining the specific advantagesof each of these means of transportation. Conventionalroad vehicles are transported including their passengersand freight in individual cabins. The operational concept ofA UTOSHUTTLE provides operation of the cabins without intermediatestops at almost constant travelling speed. During thejourney convoys with low aerodynamic drag are formed in orderto lower the energy consumption and increase traffic capacity.Approaching a station only those cabins that have reachedtheir destination leave the convoy on a passive switch and decelerateon a brake track, while other cabins close the gap in theconvoy and travel on at the usual cruising speed. This paper describesthe planning and economical aspects of a proposedcommercia/line along the motorway A3 in Germany betweenthe cities of Duisburg and Cologne as a typical example formany other applications.

  12. Creep strain accumulation in a typical LMFBR piperun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis described allows the strain concentrations in typical LMFBR two anchor point uniplanar piperuns to be calculated. Account is taken of the effect of pipe elbows in attracting creep strain to themselves as well as possible movements of the thrust line due to strain redistribution. The influence of the initial load conditions is also examined. The stress relaxation analysis is facilitated by making the assumption that a cross-sectional stress distribution determined by the asymptotic fully developed state of creep exists at all times. Use is then made of Hoff(s) analogy between materials with a creep law of the Norton type and those with a corresponding non-linear elastic stress strain law, to determine complementary strain energy rates for straight pipes and bends. Ovalisation of the latter produces an increased strain energy rate which can be simply calculated by comparison with an equal length of straight pipe through employing a creep flexibility factor due to Spence. Deflection rates at any location in the pipework can then be evaluated in terms of the thermal restraint forces at that location by an application of Castigliano's principle. In particular for an anchor point the deflection rates are identically zero and this leads to the generation of 3 simultaneous differential equations determining the relaxation of the anchor reactions. Indicative results are presented for the continuous relaxation at 570 deg C of the thermally induced stress in a planar approximation to a typical LMFBR pipe run chosen to have peak elbow stresses close to the code maximum. The results indicate a ratio, after 10 5 hours, of 3 for creep strain concentration relative to initial peak strain (calculated on the assumption of fully elastic behavior) in the most severely affected elbow, when either austenitic 316 or 321 creep properties are employed

  13. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with…

  15. Foods Inducing Typical Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jung Wan; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Several specific foods are known to precipitate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and GERD patients are usually advised to avoid such foods. However, foods consumed daily are quite variable according to regions, cultures, etc. This study was done to elucidate the food items which induce typical GERD symptoms in Korean patients. Methods One hundred and twenty-six Korean patients with weekly typical GERD symptoms were asked to mark all food items that induced typic...

  16. A quantitative evaluation of seismic margin of typical sodium piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki

    1999-05-01

    It is widely recognized that the current seismic design methods for piping involve a large amount of safety margin. From this viewpoint, a series of seismic analyses and evaluations with various design codes were made on typical LMFBR main sodium piping systems. Actual capability against seismic loads were also estimated on the piping systems. Margins contained in the current codes were quantified based on these results, and potential benefits and impacts to the piping seismic design were assessed on possible mitigation of the current code allowables. From the study, the following points were clarified; 1) A combination of inelastic time history analysis and true (without margin)strength capability allows several to twenty times as large seismic load compared with the allowable load with the current methods. 2) The new rule of the ASME is relatively compatible with the results of inelastic analysis evaluation. Hence, this new rule might be a goal for the mitigation of seismic design rule. 3) With this mitigation, seismic design accommodation such as equipping with a large number of seismic supports may become unnecessary. (author)

  17. Whole Class Laboratories: More Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon

    2016-01-01

    Typically, introductory physics courses are taught with a combination of lectures and laboratories in which students have opportunities to discover the natural laws through hands-on activities in small groups. This article reports the use of Google Drive, a free online document-sharing tool, in physics laboratories for pooling experimental data…

  18. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  19. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3-36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4-39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  20. Examples of safety culture practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared to illustrate the concepts and principles of safety culture produced in 1991 by the International Safety Advisory Group as 75-INSAG-4. It provides a small selection of examples taken from a worldwide collection of safety performance evaluations (e.g. IAEA safety series, national regulatory inspections, utility audits and a plant assessments). These documented evaluations collectively provide a database of safety performance strengths and weakness, and related safety culture observations. The examples which have been selected for inclusion in this report are those which are considered worthy of special mention and which illustrate a specific attribute of safety culture given in 75-INSAG-4

  1. Concept typicality responses in the semantic memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Andrea; Raposo, Ana; Frade, Sofia; Marques, J Frederico

    2016-12-01

    For decades concept typicality has been recognized as critical to structuring conceptual knowledge, but only recently has typicality been applied in better understanding the processes engaged by the neurological network underlying semantic memory. This previous work has focused on one region within the network - the Anterior Temporal Lobe (ATL). The ATL responds negatively to concept typicality (i.e., the more atypical the item, the greater the activation in the ATL). To better understand the role of typicality in the entire network, we ran an fMRI study using a category verification task in which concept typicality was manipulated parametrically. We argue that typicality is relevant to both amodal feature integration centers as well as category-specific regions. Both the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) and ATL demonstrated a negative correlation with typicality, whereas inferior parietal regions showed positive effects. We interpret this in light of functional theories of these regions. Interactions between category and typicality were not observed in regions classically recognized as category-specific, thus, providing an argument against category specific regions, at least with fMRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3...

  3. Measuring Erosion and Deposition During the World's Largest Dam Removal in Near-Real-Time: An Example of 4-Dimensional SfM from the Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A.; Bountry, J.; Randle, T. J.; Warrick, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The stepwise removal of two dams on the Elwha River beginning in September 2011 exposed 21 million cubic meters of sediment to fluvial erosion and created an unprecedented opportunity to monitor reservoir sediment erosion and river evolution during base level adjustment and a pulsed sediment release. We conduct repeat aerial surveys with a Cessna 172 using a simple custom wing-mount for consumer grade cameras and SfM photogrammetry to produce orthoimagery and digital elevation models in near-real-time at sub-weekly to monthly time intervals, depending on hydrology. Multiple lidar flights and ground survey campaigns provide estimates of both systematic and random error for this uniquely dense dataset. Co-registration of multiple SfM surveys during processing reduces systematic error and allows boot-strapping of ephemeral ground control points to earlier or later flights. Measurements of reservoir erosion volumes, delta growth, channel braiding, and bank erosion illustrate the reservoir and river channel responses to dam removal at resolutions comparable to hydrologic forcing events, allowing us to quantify reservoir sediment budgets on a per-storm basis. This allows for the analysis of sediment transported relative to rates of reservoir drawdown and river stream power for dozens of time intervals. Temporal decoupling of peak sediment flux and bank erosion rates is noted from these analyses. This dataset illustrates both challenges and opportunities emerging with the advent of big data in remote sensing of earth surface processes. Digital AbstractErosion and deposition by year in former Lake Mills reservoir measured using SfM-derived photogrammetry and LiDAR for WY2011 through 2016 (partial). Approximately 70% of available sediment has been eroded.

  4. Shaping Discourse and Setting Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    around an issue. By using Tuomas Forsberg's framework of four different mechanisms of normative power: persuasion, invoking norms, shaping the discourse and the power of example on three important case studies from the conflict (EC/EU's declaratory diplomacy on the need for a just peace in the conflict...

  5. Learning Algebra from Worked Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Karin E.; Booth, Julie L.; Newton, Kristie J.

    2014-01-01

    For students to be successful in algebra, they must have a truly conceptual understanding of key algebraic features as well as the procedural skills to complete a problem. One strategy to correct students' misconceptions combines the use of worked example problems in the classroom with student self-explanation. "Self-explanation" is the…

  6. Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua

    2018-06-01

    A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.

  7. Aqueous-chlorine leaching of typical Canadian uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale aqueous-chlorine leaches were conducted on quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatite and vein-type ores. Optimum leach temperatures, pulp density and retention times were determined. Uranium extraction of 98 per cent was obtained from the Elliot Lake, Madawaska Mines of Bancroft and Rabbit Lake ores, 96 per cent from the Key Lake ore and 86 per cent from the Agnew Lake ore. However, tailings containing 15-20 pCi g -1 of radium-226 were obtained only from the Elliot Lake and Agnew lake quartz-pebble conglomerates and Bancroft pegmatite-type ores by second-stage leaches with HCl. The second-stage leach results indicate that multistage (3 or 4) acid-chloride or salt-chloride leaches might be effective to obtain tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the high-grade vein-type ores. Comparative reagent-cost estimates show that the sulphuric-acid leach process is far less expensive than aqueous chlorine leaching. Nevertheless, only the aqueous chlorine and acid-chloride leaches in stages are effective in producing tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the typical Canadian uranium ores. (Auth.)

  8. The CEA nuclear microprobe. Description, possibilities, application examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, C.; Bardy, J.

    1986-05-01

    The nuclear microprobe installed on one of the beam lines of a 4 MV Van de Graaff located in the Research Center of Bruyeres-le-Chatel is described. The various possibilities, particularly the imaging system, and the performances of the instrument are exposed. Two typical application examples concerning, the first, the determination of the deuterium and tritium in glass microballons, the second, the detection and the localization of carbon and oxygen in the superficial layer of lithium hydride pellets, are given. Preliminary results of some other application examples are also presented. The advantages of the nuclear microprobe over the other ponctual analysis techniques are emphasized. 7 refs, 19 figs [fr

  9. Narrative versus style: Effect of genre-typical events versus genre-typical filmic realizations on film viewers’ genre recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genre-typical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  10. Generation of typical meteorological year for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of building energy performance requires precise information of the local climate. Typical weather year files like typical meteorological year (TMY) are commonly used in building simulation. They are also essential for numerical analysis of sustainable and renewable energy systems. The present paper presents the generation of typical meteorological year (TMY) for eight typical cities representing the major climate zones of China. The data set, which includes global solar radiation data and other meteorological parameters referring to dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, has been analyzed. The typical meteorological year is generated from the available meteorological data recorded during the period 1995-2004, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year is compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years are selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 typical months selected from the different years are used for the formulation of a TMY.

  11. Tracking down the origins of Advanced LIGO noise: 2 examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Beverly K.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    For Advanced LIGO to reach design sensitivity various sources of instrumental and environmental noise must be identified and ameliorated. We discuss 2 efforts to search for the origin of noise bursts (glitches) at LIGO Hanford. Advanced LIGO monitors thousands of channels in addition to the gravitational wave channel. These can be studied to find correlations between the gravitational wave channel and other sensor signals. The first type of glitch had a frequency of 50 Hz and a rate of 1 per minute. It was found that the glitches were correlated with ground motion in the end station of the X-arm where the offending air compressor was tracked down and turned off. The second example manifests itself as a sudden, but brief, drop in the range occurring, typically, several times per day at LIGO Hanford and less frequently at LIGO Livingston. These range-drop glitches appear in the gravitational-wave channel. Although correlations with these glitches can be seen in many channels, it cannot be easily determined whether these channels are responding as an effect of this type of very strong glitch or whether they might be related to their cause or causes. To date, the cause of the range-drop glitches is not known.

  12. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  13. Reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for metabolic profiling of vegetables: Lactuca sativa as an example of its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Reidah, I M; Contreras, M M; Arráez-Román, D; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-10-25

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), a leafy vegetal widely consumed worldwide, fresh cut or minimally processed, constitutes a major dietary source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds. In this study, reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of polar and semi-polar metabolites from three lettuce cultivars (baby, romaine, and iceberg). The UHPLC systems allowed the use of a small-particle-size C18 column (1.8 μm), with very fine resolution for the separation of up to seven isomers, and the QTOF mass analyzer enabled sensitive detection with high mass resolution and accuracy in full scan. Thus, a total of 171 compounds were tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals and suggested molecular formula with those previously reported in family Asteraceae. Afterwards, their structures were also corroborated by the MS/MS data provided by the QTOF analyzer. Well-known amino acids, organic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterized, e.g. lactucin, lactucopicrin, caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeoylmalic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid A, luteolin, and quercetin glycosides. For this plant species, this is the first available report of several isomeric forms of the latter polyphenols and other types of components such as nucleosides, peptides, and tryptophan-derived alkaloids. Remarkably, 10 novel structures formed by the conjugation of known amino acids and sesquiterpene lactones were also proposed. Thus, the methodology applied is a useful option to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling of plants that helps to explain their potential biological activities and folk uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  15. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  16. 12 CFR 222.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 222.2 Section 222.2 Banks and Banking... (REGULATION V) General Provisions § 222.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a...

  17. 12 CFR 334.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 334.2 Section 334.2 Banks and Banking... General Provisions § 334.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a paragraph...

  18. 12 CFR 571.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 571.2 Section 571.2 Banks and Banking... Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a paragraph illustrate only the issue described in the...

  19. 12 CFR 717.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 717.2 Section 717.2 Banks and Banking... Provisions § 717.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a paragraph illustrate only the...

  20. Effects of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Cupples, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to investigate the influence of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification of disyllabic English words by native and non-native speakers. Trochaic nouns and iambic gram verbs were considered to be typically stressed, whereas iambic nouns and trochaic verbs were considered to be atypically stressed. Experiments 1a and 2a showed that while native speakers classified typically stressed words individual more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during differences reading, there were no overall effects during classification of spoken stimuli. However, a subgroup of native speakers with high error rates did show a significant effect during classification of spoken stimuli. Experiments 1b and 2b showed that non-native speakers classified typically stressed words more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during reading. Typically stressed words were classified more accurately than atypically stressed words when the stimuli were spoken. Importantly, there was a significant relationship between error rates, vocabulary size and the size of the stress typicality effect in each experiment. We conclude that participants use information about lexical stress to help them distinguish between disyllabic nouns and verbs during speeded grammatical classification. This is especially so for individuals with a limited vocabulary who lack other knowledge (e.g., semantic knowledge) about the differences between these grammatical categories.

  1. Toddlers' categorization of typical and scrambled dolls and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated discrimination of scrambled from typical human body shapes at 15-18 months of age [Slaughter, V., & Heron, M. (2004). Origins and early development of human body knowledge. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69]. In the current study 18-, 24- and 30-month-old infants were presented with four typical and four scrambled dolls in a sequential touching procedure, to assess the development of explicit categorization of human body shapes. Infants were also presented with typical and scrambled cars, allowing comparison of infants' categorization of scrambled and typical exemplars in a different domain. Spontaneous comments regarding category membership were recorded. Girls categorized dolls and cars as typical or scrambled at 30 months, whereas boys only categorized the cars. Earliest categorization was for typical and scrambled cars, at 24 months, but only for boys. Language-based knowledge, coded from infants' comments, followed the same pattern. This suggests that human body knowledge does not have privileged status in infancy. Gender differences in performance are discussed.

  2. Example-based learning: Integrating cognitive and social-cognitive research perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); N. Rummel (Nikol)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExample-based learning has been studied from different perspectives. Cognitive research has mainly focused on worked examples, which typically provide students with a written worked-out didactical solution to a problem to study. Social-cognitive research has mostly focused on modeling

  3. Example-Based Learning: Effects of Model Expertise in Relation to Student Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Paul; van Gog, Tamara; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Gerards-Last, Dorien; Geraets, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Background: Worked examples are very effective for novice learners. They typically present a written-out ideal (didactical) solution for learners to study. Aims: This study used worked examples of patient history taking in physiotherapy that presented a "non"-didactical solution (i.e., based on actual performance). The effects of model expertise…

  4. Example-based learning: Effects of model expertise in relation to student expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Boekhout (Teun); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); M.W.J. van de Wiel (Margje); D. Gerards-Last (Dorien); F. Geraets (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Worked examples are very effective for novice learners. They typically present a written-out ideal (didactical) solution for learners to study. nAims. This study used worked examples of patient history taking in physiotherapy that presented a non-didactical solution (i.e.,

  5. Aging Management Plan for a Typical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mahsa; Nazififard, Mohammad; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Development of an aging management plan (AMP) is a crucial contributor to maintaining the reactor safety and controlling the risk of degradation of the concrete reactor building of a nuclear power plant. The design, operation and utilization of a research reactor (RR) fundamentally differ from those of power reactors. The AMP should nonetheless be present on account of radioactive materials and radiation risks involved. This is mainly because the RR is deemed to be used as an experiment itself or to conduct separate experiments during its operation. The AMP aims to determine the requisites for specific structural concrete components of the reactor building that entail regular inspections and maintenance to ensure safe and reliable operation of the plant. The safety of a RR necessitates the provision which is made in its design to facilitate aging management. Aging management of RR's structures is one of the vital factors to safety, to ensure continued adequacy of the safety level, reliable operation of the reactor, and compliance with the operational limits and conditions.Moreover, engineering systems should be qualified to meet the functional requirements for which they were designed with aging and environmental conditions for all situations and at all times taken into account. This study aims to present an integrated methodology for the application of an AMP for the concrete of the reactor building of a typical RR. For the purpose of safety analysis, geometry and ambient conditions were taken from a 5 MW pool-type, light-water moderated, heterogeneous, solid fuel RR in which the water is also used for cooling and shielding (Fig. 1). The reactor core is immersed in either section of a two-section concrete pool filled with water. This paper makes available background information regarding the document and the strategy developed to manage potential degradation of the reactor building concrete as well as specific programs and preventive and corrective

  6. Projector Method: theory and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Projector Method technique for numerically analyzing lattice gauge theories was developed to take advantage of certain simplifying features of gauge theory models. Starting from a very general notion of what the Projector Method is, the techniques are applied to several model problems. After these examples have traced the development of the actual algorithm from the general principles of the Projector Method, a direct comparison between the Projector and the Euclidean Monte Carlo is made, followed by a discussion of the application to Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Some methods for improving the efficiency of the Projector in various circumstances are outlined. 10 refs., 7 figs

  7. Application examples of EFPACS series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Yasunori; Aoki, Makoto; Yamahata, Noboru

    1989-01-01

    This paper introduces some application examples of picture archiving and communications system EFPACS series which achieves efficient management of a volume of image data generated in a hospital, and powerfully support image diagnosis using multi-modality. EFPACS can be applied to various objectives of system installation, and can meet the scale of a hospital and the way of image filing. EFPACS has been installed in a middle-scale hospital for image conference, in a general hospital for long-term archiving of MRI data and for referring in the outpatient clinic, in a dental hospital for dental image processing, and so on. (author)

  8. AN EXAMPLE IN SURFACE AREA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Casper

    1969-01-01

    For length and area, a central fact is that the value of the length of a curve or the area of a surface, as given by the Lebesgue theory, is at least as great as that given by the classical formula, whenever the latter has meaning. This is now found not to be valid in higher dimensions. We give an example of a continuous mapping of the unit cube into itself for which the value given by the formula exceeds the three-dimensional Lebesgue area of the corresponding suface. PMID:16591750

  9. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  10. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  11. Generation of a typical meteorological year for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Chow, T.T.; Fong, Square K.F.; Lin, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Weather data can vary significantly from year to year. There is a need to derive typical meteorological year (TMY) data to represent the long-term typical weather condition over a year, which is one of the crucial factors for successful building energy simulation. In this paper, various types of typical weather data sets including the TMY, TMY2, WYEC, WYEC2, WYEC2W, WYEC2T and IWEC were reviewed. The Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze the hourly measured weather data of a 25-year period (1979-2003) in Hong Kong and select representative typical meteorological months (TMMs). The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year was compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period for four major weather indices including dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 TMMs selected from the different years were used for formulation of a TMY for Hong Kong

  12. Effects of temperature and mass conservation on the typical chemical sequences of hydrogen oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R.

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopic properties of reacting mixtures are necessary to design synthetic strategies, determine yield, and improve the energy and atom efficiency of many chemical processes. The set of time-ordered sequences of chemical species are one representation of the evolution from reactants to products. However, only a fraction of the possible sequences is typical, having the majority of the joint probability and characterizing the succession of chemical nonequilibrium states. Here, we extend a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation over a range of temperatures. We demonstrate an information-theoretic methodology to identify typical sequences under the constraints of mass conservation. Including these constraints leads to an improved ability to learn the chemical sequence mechanism from experimentally accessible data. From these typical sequences, we show that two quantities defining the variational typical set of sequences—the joint entropy rate and the topological entropy rate—increase linearly with temperature. These results suggest that, away from explosion limits, data over a narrow range of thermodynamic parameters could be sufficient to extrapolate these typical features of combustion chemistry to other conditions.

  13. Ecological Forecasting Project Management with Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, J. W.; Schmidt, Cindy; Estes, Maury; Turner, Woody

    2017-01-01

    Once scientists publish results of their projects and studies, all too often they end up on the shelf and are not otherwise used. The NASA Earth Science Division established its Applied Sciences Program (ASP) to apply research findings to help solve and manage real-world problems and needs. ASP-funded projects generally produce decision support systems for operational applications which are expected to last beyond the end of the NASA funding. Because of NASAs unique perspective of looking down on the Earth from space, ASP studies involve the use of remotely sensed information consisting of satellite data and imagery as well as information from sub-orbital platforms. ASP regularly solicits Earth science proposals that address one or more focus areas; disasters mitigation, ecological forecasting, health and air quality, and water resources. Reporting requirements for ASP-funded projects are different from those typical for research grants from NASA and other granting agencies, requiring management approaches different from other programs. This presentation will address the foregoing in some detail and give examples of three ASP-funded ecological forecasting projects that include: 1) the detection and survey of chimpanzee habitat in Africa from space, 2) harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the California Current System affecting aquaculture facilities and marine mammal populations, and 3) a call for the public to identify North America wildlife in Wisconsin using trail camera photos. Contact information to propose to ASP solicitations for those PIs interested is also provided.

  14. Prospective memory deficits in illicit polydrug users are associated with the average long-term typical dose of ecstasy typically consumed in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Denis T; Hadjiefthyvoulou, Florentia; Fisk, John E; Montgomery, Catharine; Robinson, Sarita J; Judge, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that ecstasy-related reductions in SERT densities relate more closely to the number of tablets typically consumed per session rather than estimated total lifetime use. To better understand the basis of drug related deficits in prospective memory (p.m.) we explored the association between p.m. and average long-term typical dose and long-term frequency of use. Study 1: Sixty-five ecstasy/polydrug users and 85 nonecstasy users completed an event-based, a short-term and a long-term time-based p.m. task. Study 2: Study 1 data were merged with outcomes on the same p.m. measures from a previous study creating a combined sample of 103 ecstasy/polydrug users, 38 cannabis-only users, and 65 nonusers of illicit drugs. Study 1: Ecstasy/polydrug users had significant impairments on all p.m. outcomes compared with nonecstasy users. Study 2: Ecstasy/polydrug users were impaired in event-based p.m. compared with both other groups and in long-term time-based p.m. compared with nonillicit drug users. Both drug using groups did worse on the short-term time-based p.m. task compared with nonusers. Higher long-term average typical dose of ecstasy was associated with poorer performance on the event and short-term time-based p.m. tasks and accounted for unique variance in the two p.m. measures over and above the variance associated with cannabis and cocaine use. The typical ecstasy dose consumed in a single session is an important predictor of p.m. impairments with higher doses reflecting increasing tolerance giving rise to greater p.m. impairment.

  15. Some examples of the utilization of autoradiography in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, H.

    1959-01-01

    Although autoradiography has been used for a long time for metallurgic studies, new possibilities are open by a full exploitation of recent progress in nuclear emulsion techniques. A few examples are presented. (author) [fr

  16. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs

  17. Determination of illuminants representing typical white light emitting diodes sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost, S.; Ngo, M.; Ferrero, A.

    2017-01-01

    is to develop LED-based illuminants that describe typical white LED products based on their Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs). Some of these new illuminants will be recommended in the update of the CIE publication 15 on colorimetry with the other typical illuminants, and among them, some could be used......Solid-state lighting (SSL) products are already in use by consumers and are rapidly gaining the lighting market. Especially, white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources are replacing banned incandescent lamps and other lighting technologies in most general lighting applications. The aim of this work...... to complement the CIE standard illuminant A for calibration use in photometry....

  18. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  19. Alfanet Worked Example: What is Greatness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Pierre Gorissen

    2004-01-01

    This document consists of an example of a Learning Design based on the What is Greatness example originally created by James Dalziel from WebMCQ using LAMS. Note: The example has been created in parallel with the actual development of the Alfanet system. So no claims can be made that the example

  20. 12 CFR 41.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING General Provisions § 41.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a paragraph illustrate only the issue described in the...

  1. 16 CFR 680.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 680.2 Section 680.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes...

  2. 42 CFR 408.26 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examples. 408.26 Section 408.26 Public Health... PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.26 Examples. Example 1. Mr. J... 10 percent greater than if he had enrolled in his initial enrollment period. Example 2. Mr. V, who...

  3. 17 CFR 248.102 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples. 248.102 Section 248... AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.102 Examples. The examples in this subpart are not exclusive. The examples in this subpart provide guidance concerning the rules' application...

  4. 29 CFR 4022.95 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples. 4022.95 Section 4022.95 Labor Regulations... IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Certain Payments Owed Upon Death § 4022.95 Examples. The following examples show how the rules in §§ 4022.91 through 4022.94 apply. For examples on how these rules...

  5. 29 CFR 4022.104 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples. 4022.104 Section 4022.104 Labor Regulations... Future Periods After Death § 4022.104 Examples. The following examples show how the rules in §§ 4022.101.... (1) Example 1: where surviving beneficiary predeceases participant. Ellen died before Charlie. As...

  6. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  7. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  8. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  9. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  10. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  11. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  13. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of....12. These actions are determined by a limited environmental assessment that reasonably identifies the... 632.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES...

  14. Characteristics of typical Pierce guns for PPM focused TWTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.; Puri, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of typical moderate perveance Pierce type electron guns which are used in periodic permanent magnet focused traveling wave tubes are described with regard to adaptation for use in electron beam ion sources. The results of detailed electron trajectory computations for one particular gun design are presented

  15. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  16. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  17. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  18. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  19. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  20. Evaluating OO example programs for CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börstler, Jürgen; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bennedsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Example programs play an important role in learning to program. They work as templates, guidelines, and inspiration for learners when developing their own programs. It is therefore important to provide learners with high quality examples. In this paper, we discuss properties of example programs...... that might affect the teaching and learning of object-oriented programming. Furthermore, we present an evaluation instrument for example programs and report on initial experiences of its application to a selection of examples from popular introductory programming textbooks....

  1. Summary of typical routine maintenance activities at Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Supplement (March, 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Typical maintenance activities, such as replacement of worn out parts and cleaning of filter elements, routinely performed during steady operation are summarized. [The Summary of Typical Routine Maintenance Activities at Tokai Reprocessing Plant] (JNC TN 8450 2001-006) was already prepared in September, 2001. The purpose of this summary is to give elementary understanding on these activities to people who are responsible for explanation them to the public. At this time, the same kind of summary is prepared as a supplement of the previous one. (author)

  2. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  3. Narrative versus Style : Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  4. A Simplified Calculation of a Continuous Flow Packed Contactor with Help of Characteristic Times

    OpenAIRE

    Sovová, Helena

    2011-01-01

    The proposed approach is illustrated on several examples of supercritical fluid extraction kinetics. Simple expressions for the calculation of characteristic times of both extraction and individual extraction steps are derived from mass balance equations and applied on experimental data from typical extractions from plants with supercritical CO2, as the extraction of oils from seeds or the extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants.

  5. The influence of thematic congruency, typicality and divided attention on memory for radio advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of the thematic congruence between ads and the programme in which they are embedded. We also studied the typicality of the to-be-remembered information (high- and low-typicality elements), and the effect of divided attention in the memory for radio ad contents. Participants listened to four radio programmes with thematically congruent and incongruent ads embedded, and completed a true/false recognition test indicating the level of confidence in their answer. Half of the sample performed an additional task (divided attention group) while listening to the radio excerpts. In general, recognition memory was better for incongruent ads and low-typicality statements. Confidence in hits was higher in the undivided attention group, although there were no differences in performance. Our results suggest that the widespread idea of embedding ads into thematic-congruent programmes negatively affects memory for ads. In addition, low-typicality features that are usually highlighted by advertisers were better remembered than typical contents. Finally, metamemory evaluations were influenced by the inference that memory should be worse if we do several things at the same time.

  6. Typical Versus Atypical Anorexia Nervosa Among Adolescents: Clinical Characteristics and Implications for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silén, Yasmina; Raevuori, Anu; Jüriloo, Elisabeth; Tainio, Veli-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-09-01

    There is scant research on the clinical utility of differentiating International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 diagnoses F50.0 anorexia nervosa (typical AN) and F50.1 atypical anorexia. We reviewed systematically records of 47 adolescents who fulfilled criteria for ICD-10 F50.0 (n = 34) or F50.1 (n = 13), assessing the impact of diagnostic subtype, comorbidity, background factors and treatment choices on recovery. Atypical AN patients were significantly older (p = 0.03), heavier (minimum body mass index 16.7 vs 15.1 kg/m(2) , p = 0.003) and less prone to comorbidities (38% vs 71%, p = 0.04) and had shorter, less intensive and less costly treatments than typical AN patients. The diagnosis of typical versus atypical AN was the sole significant predictor of treatment success: recovery from atypical AN was 4.3 times (95% confidence interval [1.1, 17.5]) as likely as recovery from typical AN. Overall, our findings indicate that a broader definition of AN may dilute the prognostic value of the diagnosis, and therefore, ICD-11 should retain its distinction between typical and atypical AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Short-term cognitive improvement in schizophrenics treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, Jens D; Borsutzky, Marthias; Huber, Thomas J; Mogk, Hannu; Seifert, Jürgen; Emrich, Hinderk M; Schneider, Udo

    2002-01-01

    Atypical neuroleptics seem to be more beneficial than typical ones with respect to long-term neuropsychological functioning. Thus, most studies focus on the long-term effects of neuroleptics. We were interested in whether atypical neuroleptic treatment is also superior to typical drugs over relatively short periods of time. We studied 20 schizophrenic patients [10 males, mean age 35.5 years, mean Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score at entry 58.9] admitted to our hospital with acute psychotic exacerbation. Nine of them were treated with typical and 11 with atypical neuroleptics. In addition, 14 healthy drug-free subjects (6 males, mean age 31.2 years) were enrolled in the study and compared to the patients. As neuropsychological tools, a divided attention test, the Vienna reaction time test, the Benton visual retention test, digit span and a Multiple Choice Word Fluency Test (MWT-B) were used during the first week after admission, within the third week and before discharge (approximately 3 months). Patients scored significantly worse than healthy controls on nearly all tests (except Vienna reaction time). Clinical ratings [BPRS and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS)] improved markedly (p divided attention task (r = 0.705, p = 0.034). Neuropsychological functioning (explicit memory, p divided attention, p < 0.05) moderately improved for both groups under treatment but without a significant difference between atypical and typical antipsychotic drugs. Over short periods of time (3 months), neuropsychological disturbances in schizophrenia seem to be moderately responsive to both typical and atypical neuroleptics. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Modeling a typical winter-time dust event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Zhao, C.

    2013-01-01

    2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ?2.4 Tg day-1 and ?1.5 Tg day-1, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical

  9. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Schewe, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic response of a typical shear structure in a commercial nuclear power plant was investigated for a series of site and foundation conditions using best estimate and design procedures. The structure selected is a part of the Zion AFT complex which is a connected group of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings, typical of nuclear power plant structures. Comparisons between best estimate responses quantified the effects of placing the structure on different sites and founding it in different manners. Calibration factors were developed by comparing simplified SSI design procedure responses to responses calculated by best estimate procedures. Nineteen basic cases were analyzed - each case was analyzed for ten earthquakes targeted to the NRC R.G. 1.60 design response spectra. The structure is a part of the Zion auxiliary-fuel handling turbine building (AFT) complex to the Zion nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  10. Analysis of typical meteorological years in different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu, Jiaping

    2007-01-01

    Typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 60 cities in the five major climatic zones (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, hot summer and warm winter, mild) in China were investigated. Long term (1971-2000) measured weather data such as dry bulb and dew point temperatures, wind speed and global solar radiation were gathered and analysed. A total of seven climatic indices were used to select the 12 typical meteorological months (TMMs) that made up the TMY for each city. In general, the cumulative distribution functions of the TMMs selected tended to follow their long term counterparts quite well. There was no persistent trend in any particular years being more representative than the others, though 1978 and 1982 tended to be picked most often. This paper presents the work and its findings. Future work on the assessment of TMYs in building energy simulation is also discussed

  11. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  12. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  13. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents the radiation shielding model of a typical PWR (CNPP-II) at Chashma, Pakistan. The model was developed using Monte Carlo N Particle code [2], equipped with ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross section libraries. This model was applied to calculate the neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in the radial direction at core mid plane. The simulated results were compared with the reference results of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI).

  14. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A. [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  15. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  16. Lipoma arborescens: Comparison of typical and atypical disease presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.M.; Wenger, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the aetiology differed between typical cases of lipoma arborescens with unilateral knee involvement and atypical cases involving joints other than the knee, polyarticular disease, and disease outside of the knee joint. Materials and methods: Cases of lipoma arborescens involving the knee joint were evaluated for the distribution of the disease and severity of degenerative arthritis. Joints other than the knee were evaluated for the presence and severity of degenerative arthritis, and the distribution was classified as either intra-articular, extra-articular, or both. Clinical history was reviewed for patient age at presentation, a history of inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and known steroid use. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Results: Lipoma arborescens was identified in 45 joints in 39 patients. Twenty-eight patients were classified as “typical” and 11 patients had “atypical” disease. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Conclusion: Twenty-eight percent of patients in the present study had atypical presentation of lipoma arborescens with multifocal lipoma arborescens or disease in joints other than the knee. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Of the 39 patients, only three had no evidence of degenerative arthritis, which suggests that many cases of lipoma arborescens are secondary to chronic reactive change in association with degenerative arthritis

  17. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....

  18. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  19. Inverse operator theory method mathematics-mechanization for the solutions of nonlinear equations and some typical applications in nonlinear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yao Weiguang

    1992-12-01

    Inverse operator theory method (IOTM) has developed rapidly in the last few years. It is an effective and useful procedure for quantitative solution of nonlinear or stochastic continuous dynamical systems. Solutions are obtained in series form for deterministic equations, and in the case of stochastic equation it gives statistic measures of the solution process. A very important advantage of the IOTM is to eliminate a number of restrictive and assumption on the nature of stochastic processes. Therefore, it provides more realistic solutions. The IOTM and its mathematics-mechanization (MM) are briefly introduced. They are used successfully to study the chaotic behaviors of the nonlinear dynamical systems for the first time in the world. As typical examples, the Lorentz equation, generalized Duffing equation, two coupled generalized Duffing equations are investigated by the use of the IOTM and the MM. The results are in good agreement with ones by the Runge-Kutta method (RKM). It has higher accuracy and faster convergence. So the IOTM realized by the MM is of potential application valuable in nonlinear science

  20. Some features of a typical house as perceived by native speakers of English and of Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from one of the two differently-designed surveys conducted among groups of both native speakers of English and native speakers of Serbian with a common general objective to obtain a picture of better candidates for a role of the whole (to be analyzed into its constituent elements in the contrastive study on the lexical field a house and its parts in English and Serbian. The specific objective of the survey presented here, however, was to build up the target picture with some of the features of the ideal example of the house category, such as the shape of the house, the key materials its principal structural elements (foundations, walls, a roof are made of, the number of residential units in the house and the type of the household that occupies it, the number of the house levels, the minimum of its interior spatial components and their functions, the types of systemic parts in the house, the status and position of the house relative to surround­ing buildings, etc. Also, taking into consideration that the demographic profiles of the survey participants reflected various cultural backgrounds (which significantly influence the formation of mental images of a typical sample of the category, the survey aimed to compare the similarities and differences between the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house, that is the features assigned to a typical house by most of the surveyed representa­tives of Anglo-American and by those of Serbian culture. Judging exclusively by the features observed and the results obtained, the study concludes that the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house look very similar in many aspect and that the two different cultures are not as distant as they may seem.

  1. Effects of Worked Examples, Example-Problem Pairs, and Problem-Example Pairs Compared to Problem Solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., & Paas, F. (2010, August). Effects of worked examples, example-problem pairs, and problem-example pairs compared to problem solving. Paper presented at the Biannual EARLI SIG meeting of Instructional design and Learning and instruction with computers, Ulm, Germany.

  2. Node.js by example

    CERN Document Server

    Tsonev, Krasimir

    2015-01-01

    If you are a JavaScript developer with no experience with Node.js or server-side web development, this book is for you. It will lead you through creating a fairly complex social network. You will learn how to work with a database and create real-time communication channels.

  3. Guiding role of typical cases in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.

  4. Apples are not the only fruit: The effects of concept typicality on semantic representation in the anterior temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Woollams

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, an apple seems a fairly good example of a fruit, whereas an avocado seems less so. The extent to which an exemplar is representative of its category, a variable known as concept typicality, has long been thought to be a key dimension determining semantic representation. Concept typicality is, however, correlated with a number of other variables, in particular age of acquisition and name frequency. Consideration of picture naming accuracy from a large case-series of semantic dementia patients demonstrated strong effects of concept typicality that were maximal in the moderately impaired patients, over and above the impact of age of acquisition and name frequency. Induction of a temporary virtual lesion to the left anterior temporal lobe, the region most commonly affected in semantic dementia, via repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation produced an enhanced effect of concept typicality in the picture naming of normal participants, but did not affect the magnitude of the age of acquisition or name frequency effects. These results indicate that concept typicality exerts its influence on semantic representations themselves, as opposed to the strength of connections outside the semantic system. To date, there has been little direct exploration of the dimension of concept typicality within connectionist models of intact and impaired conceptual representation, and these findings provide a target for future computational simulation.

  5. A holistic evaluation of a typical beach nourishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    is the primary method used by the Danish Coastal Authority for coastal protection and represents a management tool which serves a dual purpose. Beach Nourishment is protecting coastal lands as well as backshore properties (infrastructures, buildings etc.) and preserving natural heritages. Nevertheless, more...... an example of a holistic evaluation of a 721.000 m3  (155 m3 /m) Beach Nourishment done at the Danish West Coast in 2005....

  6. Are low-dimensional dynamics typical in magnetically confined plasmas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.; Dewar, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Since 1988 there have been many serious attempts to construct low-dimensional dynamical systems that model L-H transitions and associated oscillatory phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas. Such models usually consist of coupled ordinary differential equations in a few dynamical state variables and several parameters that represent physical properties or external controls. The advantages of a unified, low-dimensional approach to modelling plasma behaviour are multifold. Most importantly, the qualitative analysis of nonlinear ODE and algebraic systems is supported by a substantial body of theory. The toolkits of singularity and stability theory are well-developed and accessible, and contain the right tools for the job of charting the state and parameter space. One of the driving forces behind the development of low-dimensional dynamical models is the predictive potential of a parameter map. For example, a model that talks of the shape and extent of hysteresis in the L-H transition would help engineers who are interested in controlling access to H-mode. We can express this problem another way: given the enormous number of variables and parameters that could be varied around a hysteretic regime, it would be cheaper to know in advance which ones actually do influence the quality and quantity of the hysteresis. The quest for a low-dimensional state space that contains the qualitative dynamics of L-H transitions also introduces other problems. We need to identify the essential (few) dynamical variables and the essential (few) independent parameter groups, clarify the mechanisms for the feedback that is modelled by nonlinear terms, and identify symmetries in the physics. Before jumping the gun on these questions the fundamental issue should be addressed of whether a confined plasma, having many important length and time scales, steep gradients, strong anisotropy, and an uncountable multiplicity of states, can indeed exhibit low-dimensional dynamics. In this

  7. Examples of algebrae with equal dynamic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1988-01-01

    For given dynamical entropy we construct uncountably many examples of corresponding algebras, some of them are quantum K systems, whereas at least one explicit example is not. Consequences for cluster properties are studied. 12 refs. (Author)

  8. Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)

  9. Social engineering attack examples, templates and scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, Francois

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available that are representative of real-world examples, whilst still being general enough to encompass several different real-world examples. The proposed social engineering attack templates cover all three types of communication, namely bidirectional communication...

  10. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1368-3 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Examples. 1.1368-3 Section 1.1368-3 Internal... TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-3 Examples. The principles of §§ 1.1368-1 and 1.1368-2 are illustrated by the examples below. In each example Corporation S is a calendar...

  12. 26 CFR 7.465-5 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples. 7.465-5 Section 7.465-5 Internal... INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.465-5 Examples. The provisions of § 7.465-1 and § 7.465-2 may be illustrated by the following examples: Example (1). J and K, as equal partners...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2013-6 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples. 20.2013-6 Section 20.2013-6 Internal...; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Credits Against Tax § 20.2013-6 Examples. The application of §§ 20.2013-1 to 20.2013-5 may be further illustrated by the following examples: Example (1). (a) A...

  14. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1990-06-01

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ∼100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  15. 14 CFR Appendix - Example of SIFL Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Example of SIFL Adjustment Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS... taxes for rate purposes. Pt. 399, Subpt. C, Example Example of SIFL Adjustment [Methodology for...

  16. 48 CFR 9.508 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 9.508 Examples. The examples in paragraphs (a) through (i) following illustrate situations in which questions concerning organizational... (e.g., fire control, navigation, etc.). In this example, the system is the powerplant, not the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.851-5 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... two or more issuers which it controls. Example 2. Investment Company V at the close of a particular... controls and which are engaged in related trades or businesses. Example 4. Investment Company Y at the... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples. 1.851-5 Section 1.851-5 Internal...

  18. 48 CFR 225.504 - Evaluation examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation examples. 225.504 Section 225.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... 225.504 Evaluation examples. For examples that illustrate the evaluation procedures in 225.502(c)(ii...

  19. 48 CFR 25.504 - Evaluation Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation Examples. 25... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.504 Evaluation Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of the evaluation procedures in 25.502 and 25.503. The...

  20. 45 CFR 1170.13 - Illustrative examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illustrative examples. 1170.13 Section 1170.13... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 1170.13 Illustrative examples. (a) The following examples will illustrate the application of the foregoing provisions to some of the activities...

  1. Statistical physics of learning from examples: a brief introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeck, C. van den

    1994-01-01

    The problem of how one can learn from examples is illustrated on the case of a student perception trained by the Hebb rule on examples generated by a teacher perception. Two basic quantities are calculated: the training error and the generalization error. The obtained results are found to be typical. Other training rules are discussed. For the case of an Ising student with an Ising teacher, the existence of a first order phase transition is shown. Special effects such as dilution, queries, rejection, etc. are discussed and some results for multilayer networks are reviewed. In particular, the properties of a self-similar committee machine are derived. Finally, we discuss the statistic of generalization, with a review of the Hoeffding inequality, the Dvoretzky Kiefer Wolfowitz theorem and the Vapnik Chervonenkis theorem. (author). 29 refs, 6 figs

  2. Strategy Guideline: Quality Management in Existing Homes; Cantilever Floor Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2011-12-01

    This guideline is designed to highlight the QA process that can be applied to any residential building retrofit activity. The cantilevered floor retrofit detailed in this guideline is included only to provide an actual retrofit example to better illustrate the QA activities being presented. The goal of existing home high performing remodeling quality management systems (HPR-QMS) is to establish practices and processes that can be used throughout any remodeling project. The research presented in this document provides a comparison of a selected retrofit activity as typically done versus that same retrofit activity approached from an integrated high performance remodeling and quality management perspective. It highlights some key quality management tools and approaches that can be adopted incrementally by a high performance remodeler for this or any high performance retrofit. This example is intended as a template and establishes a methodology that can be used to develop a portfolio of high performance remodeling strategies.

  3. Query-by-example surgical activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yixin; Vedula, S Swaroop; Lee, Gyusung I; Lee, Mija R; Khudanpur, Sanjeev; Hager, Gregory D

    2016-06-01

    Easy acquisition of surgical data opens many opportunities to automate skill evaluation and teaching. Current technology to search tool motion data for surgical activity segments of interest is limited by the need for manual pre-processing, which can be prohibitive at scale. We developed a content-based information retrieval method, query-by-example (QBE), to automatically detect activity segments within surgical data recordings of long duration that match a query. The example segment of interest (query) and the surgical data recording (target trial) are time series of kinematics. Our approach includes an unsupervised feature learning module using a stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE), two scoring modules based on asymmetric subsequence dynamic time warping (AS-DTW) and template matching, respectively, and a detection module. A distance matrix of the query against the trial is computed using the SDAE features, followed by AS-DTW combined with template scoring, to generate a ranked list of candidate subsequences (substrings). To evaluate the quality of the ranked list against the ground-truth, thresholding conventional DTW distances and bipartite matching are applied. We computed the recall, precision, F1-score, and a Jaccard index-based score on three experimental setups. We evaluated our QBE method using a suture throw maneuver as the query, on two tool motion datasets (JIGSAWS and MISTIC-SL) captured in a training laboratory. We observed a recall of 93, 90 and 87 % and a precision of 93, 91, and 88 % with same surgeon same trial (SSST), same surgeon different trial (SSDT) and different surgeon (DS) experiment setups on JIGSAWS, and a recall of 87, 81 and 75 % and a precision of 72, 61, and 53 % with SSST, SSDT and DS experiment setups on MISTIC-SL, respectively. We developed a novel, content-based information retrieval method to automatically detect multiple instances of an activity within long surgical recordings. Our method demonstrated adequate recall

  4. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  5. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  6. The Compositions: Biodegradable Material - Typical Resin, as Moulding Sands’ Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.

  7. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  8. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E.; Dyck, P. James B.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Spinner, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  9. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  10. Typical IAEA operations at a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA operations performed at a typical Fuel Fabrication Plant are explained. To make the analysis less general the case of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Fabrication Plants is considered. Many of the conclusions drawn from this analysis could be extended to other types of fabrication plants. The safeguards objectives and goals at LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants are defined followed by a brief description of the fabrication process. The basic philosophy behind nuclear material stratification and the concept of Material Balance Areas (MBA's) and Key Measurement Points (KMP's) is explained. The Agency operations and verification methods used during physical inventory verifications are illustrated

  11. Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Buschkuehl, Martin; Perrig, Walter J; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether a brief cognitive training intervention results in a specific performance increase in the trained task, and whether there are transfer effects to other nontrained measures. A computerized, adaptive working memory intervention was conducted with 9- to 11-year-old typically developing children. The children considerably improved their performance in the trained working memory task. Additionally, compared to a matched control group, the experimental group significantly enhanced their reading performance after training, providing further evidence for shared processes between working memory and reading.

  12. Assessment of the quality seen in a restaurant typical theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the satisfaction of external customers it is necessary to know their needs. In this perspective, these work objectives assess the perception of quality by the customer outside of a restaurant located in the a restaurant typical theme located in the square of food “Bodódromo” the city of Petrolina/Pe. For both this was a case study, using the model servqual, Parasuraman et al (1985, for removal of information. The results indicated a need for improvement in the services provided by the restaurant.

  13. Hydrogen deflagration simulations under typical containment conditions for nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, J., E-mail: jorge.yanez@kit.edu [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kotchourko, A.; Lelyakin, A. [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lean H{sub 2}-air combustion experiments highly relevant to typical NPP simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed effect of temperature, concentration of H{sub 2}, and steam concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar conditions and H{sub 2} concentration yielded different combustion regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flame instabilities (FIs) were the effect driving divergences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model developed for acoustic FI in simulations. Agreement experiments obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of low-concentration hydrogen deflagrations performed with the recently developed KYLCOM model specially created to perform calculations in large scale domains. Three experiments carried out in THAI facility (performed in the frames of international OECD THAI experimental program) were selected to be analyzed. The tests allow studying lean mixture hydrogen combustion at normal ambient, elevated temperature and superheated and saturated conditions. The experimental conditions considered together with the facility size and shape grant a high relevance degree to the typical NPP containment conditions. The results of the simulations were thoroughly compared with the experimental data, and the comparison was supplemented by the analysis of the combustion regimes taking place in the considered tests. Results of the analysis demonstrated that despite the comparatively small difference in mixture properties, three different combustion regimes can be definitely identified. The simulations of one of the cases required of the modeling of the acoustic-parametric instability which was carefully undertaken.

  14. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  15. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  16. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  17. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  18. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  19. Unparticle Example in 2D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-01-01

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles

  20. New examples of frobenius extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Kadison, Lars

    1999-01-01

    This volume is based on the author's lecture courses to algebraists at Munich and at G�teborg. He presents, for the first time in book form, a unified approach from the point of view of Frobenius algebras/extensions to diverse topics, such as Jones' subfactor theory, Hopf algebras and Hopf subalgebras, the Yang-Baxter Equation and 2-dimensional topological quantum field theories. Other Features: Initial steps toward a theory of noncommutative ring extensions. Self-contained sections on Azumaya algebras and strongly separable algebras. Applications and generalizations of Morita theory and Azumaya algebra due to Hirata and Sugano. Understanding the text requires no prior background in Frobenius algebras or Hopf algebras. An index and a thorough list of further references are included. There is an appendix giving a brief historical guide to the literature.

  1. Inverse operator method for solutions of nonlinear dynamical equations and some typical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yao Weiguang

    1993-01-01

    The inverse operator method (IOM) is described briefly. We have realized the IOM for the solutions of nonlinear dynamical equations by the mathematics-mechanization (MM) with computers. They can then offer a new and powerful method applicable to many areas of physics. We have applied them successfully to study the chaotic behaviors of some nonlinear dynamical equations. As typical examples, the well-known Lorentz equation, generalized Duffing equation and two coupled generalized Duffing equations are investigated by using the IOM and the MM. The results are in good agreement with those given by Runge-Kutta method. So the IOM realized by the MM is of potential application valuable in nonlinear physics and many other fields

  2. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Saad, David

    2003-01-01

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models

  3. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-31

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models.

  4. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  5. Identifying typical patterns of vulnerability: A 5-step approach based on cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sietz, Diana; Lüdeke, Matthias; Kok, Marcel; Lucas, Paul; Carsten, Walther; Janssen, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Specific processes that shape the vulnerability of socio-ecological systems to climate, market and other stresses derive from diverse background conditions. Within the multitude of vulnerability-creating mechanisms, distinct processes recur in various regions inspiring research on typical patterns of vulnerability. The vulnerability patterns display typical combinations of the natural and socio-economic properties that shape a systems' vulnerability to particular stresses. Based on the identification of a limited number of vulnerability patterns, pattern analysis provides an efficient approach to improving our understanding of vulnerability and decision-making for vulnerability reduction. However, current pattern analyses often miss explicit descriptions of their methods and pay insufficient attention to the validity of their groupings. Therefore, the question arises as to how do we identify typical vulnerability patterns in order to enhance our understanding of a systems' vulnerability to stresses? A cluster-based pattern recognition applied at global and local levels is scrutinised with a focus on an applicable methodology and practicable insights. Taking the example of drylands, this presentation demonstrates the conditions necessary to identify typical vulnerability patterns. They are summarised in five methodological steps comprising the elicitation of relevant cause-effect hypotheses and the quantitative indication of mechanisms as well as an evaluation of robustness, a validation and a ranking of the identified patterns. Reflecting scale-dependent opportunities, a global study is able to support decision-making with insights into the up-scaling of interventions when available funds are limited. In contrast, local investigations encourage an outcome-based validation. This constitutes a crucial step in establishing the credibility of the patterns and hence their suitability for informing extension services and individual decisions. In this respect, working at

  6. Perfect-use and typical-use Pearl Index of a contraceptive mobile app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund Scherwitzl, E; Lundberg, O; Kopp Kallner, H; Gemzell Danielsson, K; Trussell, J; Scherwitzl, R

    2017-12-01

    The Natural Cycles application is a fertility awareness-based contraceptive method that uses dates of menstruation and basal body temperature to inform couples whether protected intercourse is needed to prevent pregnancies. Our purpose with this study is to investigate the contraceptive efficacy of the mobile application by evaluating the perfect- and typical-use Pearl Index. In this prospective observational study, 22,785 users of the application logged a total of 18,548 woman-years of data into the application. We used these data to calculate typical- and perfect-use Pearl Indexes, as well as 13-cycle pregnancy rates using life-table analysis. We found a typical-use Pearl Index of 6.9 pregnancies per 100 woman-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.5-7.2], corrected to 6.8 (95% CI: 6.4-7.2) when truncating users after 12months. We estimated a 13-cycle typical-use failure rate of 8.3% (95% CI: 7.8-8.9). We found that the perfect-use Pearl Index was 1.0 pregnancy per 100 woman-years (95% CI: 0.5-1.5). Finally, we estimated that the rate of pregnancies from cycles where the application erroneously flagged a fertile day as infertile was 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4-0.7) per 100 woman-years. We estimated a discontinuation rate over 12months of 54%. This study shows that the efficacy of a contraceptive mobile application is higher than usually reported for traditional fertility awareness-based methods. The application may contribute to reducing the unmet need for contraception. The measured typical- and perfect-use efficacies of the mobile application Natural Cycles are important parameters for women considering their contraceptive options as well as for the clinicians advising them. The large available data set in this paper allows for future studies on acceptability, for example, by studying the efficacy for different cohorts and geographic regions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Connectivity dynamics in typical development and its relationship to autistic traits and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barnaly; Blanken, Laura M E; Muetzel, Ryan L; Miller, Robyn; Damaraju, Eswar; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Erhardt, Erik B; Verhulst, Frank C; van der Lugt, Aad; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-03-30

    Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have provided significant insights into developmental trajectories of human brain function. Characterizations of typical neurodevelopment provide a framework for understanding altered neurodevelopment, including differences in brain function related to developmental disorders and psychopathology. Historically, most functional connectivity studies of typical and atypical development operate under the assumption that connectivity remains static over time. We hypothesized that relaxing stationarity assumptions would reveal novel features of both typical brain development related to children on the autism spectrum. We employed a "chronnectomic" (recurring, time-varying patterns of connectivity) approach to evaluate transient states of connectivity using resting-state functional MRI in a population-based sample of 774 6- to 10-year-old children. Dynamic connectivity was evaluated using a sliding-window approach, and revealed four transient states. Internetwork connectivity increased with age in modularized dynamic states, illustrating an important pattern of connectivity in the developing brain. Furthermore, we demonstrated that higher levels of autistic traits and ASD diagnosis were associated with longer dwell times in a globally disconnected state. These results provide a roadmap to the chronnectomic organization of the developing brain and suggest that characteristics of functional brain connectivity are related to children on the autism spectrum. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  9. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  10. Failure mode and effects analysis on typical reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisawy, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    An updated failure mode and effects analysis, FMEA , has been performed on a typical reactor trip system. This upgrade helps to avoid system damage and ,as a result, extends the system service life. It also provides for simplified maintenance and surveillance testing. The operating conditions under which the system is to carry out its function and the operational profile expected for the system have been determined. The results of the FMEA have been given in terms of operating states of the subsystem.The results are given in form of table which is set up such that for a given failure one can read across it and determine which items remain operating in the system. From this data one can identify the number of components operating in the system for monitors pressure exceeds the setpoint pressure.

  11. Typical and atypical radiological manifestations of renal oncocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaldez, P.; Iriborreu, M. A.; Rodriguez, M. L.; Martinez-Moya, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Navarro, S.

    2001-01-01

    Asses the Radiologic findings [ conventional X-ray, intravenous urography (IU), ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) ] of the renal oncocytomas and determine if there are characteristics that allow us to differentiate them from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We performed a retrospective study of eight patients diagnosed of renal oncocytoma, analyzing the characteristics found in the plain radiography and IVU, ultrasonography and CT without and with i. v. contrast. The masses were well defined in seven cases and poorly defined in one, and were homogeneous on four occasions and heterogeneous on two. The remaining two were homogeneous, except for the presence of a central scar. Two lesions showed and aggressive biological behavior, coinciding with signs suggestive of malignancy from the radiological point of view. The fibrous scar is a typical but infrequent findings in renal oncocytoma that we can only detect by CT. It is not possible to differentiate it from aggressive lesions with imaging techniques, although orientative findings exist. (Author) 17 refs

  12. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  13. [Injury patterns and typical stress situations in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E

    2005-05-01

    Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.

  14. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP 1 and WAP 2 . We show that WAP 2 , the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP 1 , however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP 1 is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning

  15. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Steven [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2006-06-21

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP{sub 1} and WAP{sub 2}. We show that WAP{sub 2}, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP{sub 1}, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP{sub 1} is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning.

  16. Numerical Simulations for a Typical Train Fire in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway is the key transport means in China including the Mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Consequent to so many big arson and accidental fires in the public transport systems including trains and buses, fire safety in passenger trains is a concern. Numerical simulations with Computational Fluid Dynamics on identified fire scenarios with typical train compartments in China will be reported in this paper. The heat release rate of the first ignited item was taken as the input parameter. The mass lost rate of fuel vapor of other combustibles was estimated to predict the resultant heat release rates by the combustion models in the software. Results on air flow, velocity vectors, temperature distribution, smoke layer height, and smoke spread patterns inside the train compartment were analyzed. The results are useful for working out appropriate fire safety measures for train vehicles and determining the design fire for subway stations and railway tunnels.

  17. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  18. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  19. DISRUPTION OF CONDITIONED REWARD ASSOCIATION BY TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, C.L.; Elmer, G.I.

    2013-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are broadly classified into typical and atypical compounds; they vary in their pharmacological profile however a common component is their antagonist effects at the D2 dopamine receptors (DRD2). Unfortunately, diminished DRD2 activation is generally thought to be associated with the severity of neuroleptic-induced anhedonia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and typical antipsychotic haloperidol in a paradigm that reflects the learned transfer of incentive motivational properties to previously neutral stimuli, namely autoshaping. In order to provide a dosing comparison to a therapeutically relevant endpoint, both drugs were tested against amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition as well. In the autoshaping task, rats were exposed to repeated pairings of stimuli that were differentially predictive of reward delivery. Conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue (sign-tracking) and to the reward (goal-tracking) increased during repeated pairings in the vehicle treated rats. Haloperidol and olanzapine completely abolished this behavior at relatively low doses (100 μg/kg). This same dose was the threshold dose for each drug to antagonize the sensorimotor gating deficits produced by amphetamine. At lower doses (3–30 μg/kg) both drugs produced a dose-dependent decrease in conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. There was no difference between drugs at this dose range which indicates that olanzapine disrupts autoshaping at a significantly lower proposed DRD2 receptor occupancy. Interestingly, neither drug disrupted conditioned approach to the reward at the same dose range that disrupted conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. Thus, haloperidol and olanzapine, at doses well below what is considered therapeutically relevant, disrupts the attribution of incentive motivational value to previously neutral cues. Drug effects on this dimension of reward

  20. Autistic traits and brain activation during face-to-face conversations in typically developed adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Masashi; Takei, Yuichi; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Sakurai, Noriko; Fukuda, Masato; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviours. The severity of these characteristics is posited to lie on a continuum that extends into the general population. Brain substrates underlying ASD have been investigated through functional neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI has methodological constraints for studying brain mechanisms during social interactions (for example, noise, lying on a gantry during the procedure, etc.). In this study, we investigated whether variations in autism spectrum traits are associated with changes in patterns of brain activation in typically developed adults. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a recently developed functional neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light, to monitor brain activation in a natural setting that is suitable for studying brain functions during social interactions. We monitored regional cerebral blood volume changes using a 52-channel NIRS apparatus over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and superior temporal sulcus (STS), 2 areas implicated in social cognition and the pathology of ASD, in 28 typically developed participants (14 male and 14 female) during face-to-face conversations. This task was designed to resemble a realistic social situation. We examined the correlations of these changes with autistic traits assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Both the PFC and STS were significantly activated during face-to-face conversations. AQ scores were negatively correlated with regional cerebral blood volume increases in the left STS during face-to-face conversations, especially in males. Our results demonstrate successful monitoring of brain function during realistic social interactions by NIRS as well as lesser brain activation in the left STS during face-to-face conversations in typically developed participants with higher levels of autistic

  1. Development of an online database of typical food portion sizes in Irish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jacqueline; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The Irish Food Portion Sizes Database (available at www.iuna.net) describes typical portion weights for an extensive range of foods and beverages for Irish children, adolescents and adults. The present paper describes the methodologies used to develop the database and some key characteristics of the portion weight data contained therein. The data are derived from three large, cross-sectional food consumption surveys carried out in Ireland over the last decade: the National Children's Food Survey (2003-2004), National Teens' Food Survey (2005-2006) and National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Median, 25th and 75th percentile portion weights are described for a total of 545 items across the three survey groups, split by age group or sex as appropriate. The typical (median) portion weights reported for adolescents and adults are similar for many foods, while those reported for children are notably smaller. Adolescent and adult males generally consume larger portions than their female counterparts, though similar portion weights may be consumed where foods are packaged in unit amounts (for example, pots of yoghurt). The inclusion of energy under-reporters makes little difference to the estimation of typical portion weights in adults. The data have wide-ranging applications in dietary assessment and food labelling, and will serve as a useful reference against which to compare future portion size data from the Irish population. The present paper provides a useful context for researchers and others wishing to use the Irish Food Portion Sizes Database, and may guide researchers in other countries in establishing similar databases of their own.

  2. Social maturity and theory of mind in typically developing children and those on the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; Slaughter, Virginia P; Paynter, Jessica

    2007-12-01

    Results of several studies using the Vineland scale to explore links between social behavior and theory of mind (ToM) have produced mixed results, especially for children on the autism spectrum. The present pair of studies developed a psychometrically sound, age-referenced measure of social maturity to explore these issues further. In Study 1, 37 typically developing preschoolers took a battery of standard false belief tests of ToM and were rated by their teachers on a newly developed age-referenced social maturity scale with 7 items. In Study 2, a further group of 43 children aged 4 to 12 years (13 with autism, 14 with Asperger's disorder and 16 with typical development) took part in the same procedure. In Study 1, ToM was found to predict typical preschoolers' social maturity independently of age and verbal maturity. In Study 2, children with autism scored below age-matched and younger typical developers in both ToM and social maturity. Those with Asperger's disorder did well on ToM but poorly on social maturity. Study 2 replicated Study 1's finding (for typical children and for the full sample) that ToM was linked with social maturity independently of age and verbal ability, although the link was not independent of autism diagnosis. Teachers are capable of rating children's social behavior with peers as advanced, on-time or delayed for their age. Suggestive links between these ratings and ToM require further investigation, especially among children on the autism spectrum.

  3. Miro V4.0: example book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morice, O.; Ribeyre, X.; Donnat, Ph.; Porcher, Th.; Treimany, C.; Nassiet, D.; Gallice, G.; Rivoire, V.; L'hullier, N.

    2000-01-01

    This manual presents an ensemble of examples related to the use of the Miro code. It can be used for leaning how to perform simulations with Miro. Furthermore the presented examples are used for checking that new routines added in Miro do not perturb the efficiency of the older ones. In that purpose most of the capabilities of Miro are covered by the examples. (authors)

  4. Analysis of radiological consequences in a typical BWR with a mark-II containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Kyoko; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    INS/NUPEC in Japan has been carrying out the Level 3 PSA program. In the program, the MACCS2 code has been extensively applied to analyze radiological consequences for typical BWR and PWR plants in Japan. The present study deals with analysis of effects of the AMs, which were implemented by industries, on radiological consequence for a typical BWR with a Mark-II containment. In the present study, source terms and their frequencies of source terms were used based on results of Level 2 PSA taking into account AM countermeasures. Radiological consequences were presented with dose risks (Sv/ry), which were multiplied doses (Sv) by containment damage frequencies (/ry), and timing of radionuclides release to the environment. The results of the present study indicated that the dose risks became negligible in most cases taking AM countermeasures and evacuations. (author)

  5. Musical Mnemonics Enhance Verbal Memory in Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Knott

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of musical mnemonics vs. spoken word in training verbal memory in children. A randomized control trial of typically-developing 9–11 year old children was conducted using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, a test measuring a participant's ability to recall a list of 15 words over multiple exposures. Members of the group who listened to words sung to them recalled an average of 20% more words after listening to and recalling an interference list than members of the control group who listened to the same words spoken. This difference persisted, though slightly smaller (17% when participants recalled words after a 15-min waiting period. Additionally, group participants who listened to words sung demonstrated a higher incidence of words recalled in correct serial order. Key findings were all statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Enhanced serial order recall points to the musical pitch/rhythm structure enhancing sequence memory as a potential mnemonic mechanism. No significant differences were found in serial position effects between groups. The findings suggest that musical mnemonic training may be more effective than rehearsal with spoken words in verbal memory learning tasks in 9–11 year olds.

  6. Physical characteristics and resistance parameters of typical urban cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengattini, Simone; Bigazzi, Alexander York

    2018-03-30

    This study investigates the rolling and drag resistance parameters and bicycle and cargo masses of typical urban cyclists. These factors are important for modelling of cyclist speed, power and energy expenditure, with applications including exercise performance, health and safety assessments and transportation network analysis. However, representative values for diverse urban travellers have not been established. Resistance parameters were measured utilizing a field coast-down test for 557 intercepted cyclists in Vancouver, Canada. Masses were also measured, along with other bicycle attributes such as tire pressure and size. The average (standard deviation) of coefficient of rolling resistance, effective frontal area, bicycle plus cargo mass, and bicycle-only mass were 0.0077 (0.0036), 0.559 (0.170) m 2 , 18.3 (4.1) kg, and 13.7 (3.3) kg, respectively. The range of measured values is wider and higher than suggested in existing literature, which focusses on sport cyclists. Significant correlations are identified between resistance parameters and rider and bicycle attributes, indicating higher resistance parameters for less sport-oriented cyclists. The findings of this study are important for appropriately characterising the full range of urban cyclists, including commuters and casual riders.

  7. Typical and atypical clinical presentation of uterine myomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiang Su

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoma is the most common benign neoplasm that can occur in the female reproductive system, most frequently seen in women in their 50s. Although the majority of myomas are asymptomatic, some patients have symptoms and/or signs of varying degrees. Typical myoma-related symptoms or signs include: (1 menstrual disturbances like menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual bleeding, (2 pelvic pain unrelated to menstruation, (3 compression symptoms, similar to a sensation of bloatedness, urinary frequency and constipation, (4 subfertility status such as recurrent abortion, preterm labor, dystocia with an increased incidence of Cesarean section, and postpartum hemorrhage, and (5 cosmetic problems due to increased abdominal girth However, there are undoubtedly some clinical presentations secondary to uterine myomas are not so specific, such as: (1 uncommon compression-related symptoms, (2 cardiac symptom and atypical symptoms secondary to vascular involvement or dissemination, (3 abdominal symptoms mimicking pelvic carcinomatosis, (4 dyspnea, (5 pruritus, (6 hiccup or internal bleeding, and (7 vaginal protruding mass or uterine inversion. Familiarization with these symptoms and awareness of other unusual or atypical presentations of uterine myomas will remind clinical practitioners of their significance, and of the necessity of follow-up examinations and individualized management to fit the needs and childbirth desires of the patients.

  8. Typical balance exercises or exergames for balance improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Malliou, Paraskevi; Batzios, Stavros; Sofokleous, Polina; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kouli, Olga; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Godolias, George

    2013-01-01

    Balance training is an effective intervention to improve static postural sway and balance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus exercises for improving balance ability in healthy collegiate students in comparison with a typical balance training program. Forty students were randomly divided into two groups, a traditional (T group) and a Nintendo Wii group (W group) performed an 8 week balance program. The "W group" used the interactive games as a training method, while the "T group" used an exercise program with mini trampoline and inflatable discs (BOSU). Pre and Post-training participants completed balance assessments. Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to determine the effect of training program. Analysis of the data illustrated that both training program groups demonstrated an improvement in Total, Anterior-posterior and Medial Lateral Stability Index scores for both limbs. Only at the test performed in the balance board with anterior-posterior motion, the improvement in balance ability was greater in the "T group" than the "W group", when the assessment was performed post-training (p=0.023). Findings support the effectiveness of using the Nintendo Wii gaming console as a balance training intervention tool.

  9. Typically Diverse: The Nature of Urban Agriculture in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Pollard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In our visions of the future, urban agriculture has long been considered an integral part of the ‘sustainable city’. Yet urban agriculture is an incredibly diverse and variable field of study, and many practical aspects remain overlooked and understudied. This paper explores the economic sustainability of urban agriculture by focusing on the physical, practical, and economic aspects of home food gardens in South Australia. New data from the Edible Gardens project online survey is presented on a broad range of current garden setups, including a figure illustrating the statistically typical South Australian food garden. The differences between the survey data and a recent optimized garden model further highlight the gap in knowledge regarding existing home food gardens. With regard to the financial accessibility and economic sustainability of home food gardens, there is also still much more work to be done. Although saving money is a top motivation, with many survey respondents believing that they do succeed in saving money, it remains to be seen whether their current gardening practices support this aspiration. Measurement of the full costs of different gardens would allow for better predictions of whether growing food can save household’s money and under what circumstances.

  10. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  11. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  12. Comparative analysis on flexibility requirements of typical Cryogenic Transfer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Mohit; Kumar, Uday; Choukekar, Ketan; Shah, Nitin; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The cryogenic systems and their applications; primarily in large Fusion devices, utilize multiple cryogen transfer lines of various sizes and complexities to transfer cryogenic fluids from plant to the various user/ applications. These transfer lines are composed of various critical sections i.e. tee section, elbows, flexible components etc. The mechanical sustainability (under failure circumstances) of these transfer lines are primary requirement for safe operation of the system and applications. The transfer lines need to be designed for multiple design constraints conditions like line layout, support locations and space restrictions. The transfer lines are subjected to single load and multiple load combinations, such as operational loads, seismic loads, leak in insulation vacuum loads etc. [1]. The analytical calculations and flexibility analysis using professional software are performed for the typical transfer lines without any flexible component, the results were analysed for functional and mechanical load conditions. The failure modes were identified along the critical sections. The same transfer line was then refurbished with the flexible components and analysed for failure modes. The flexible components provide additional flexibility to the transfer line system and make it safe. The results obtained from the analytical calculations were compared with those obtained from the flexibility analysis software calculations. The optimization of the flexible component’s size and selection was performed and components were selected to meet the design requirements as per code.

  13. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellenbach, Myriam; Zimprich, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) comprises the preference to engage in cognitively demanding activities and has been proposed as a potential explanatory variable of individual differences in cognitive abilities. Little is known, however, about the factorial structure of TIE, its relations to socio-demographic variables, and its influence on intellectual functioning in old age. In the present study, data of 364 adults (65-81 years) from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging (ZULU) were used to investigate the factorial structure of TIE and to examine the hypothesis that TIE is associated more strongly with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence in old age. A measurement model of a second order factor based on a structure of four correlated first order factors (Reading, Problem Solving, Abstract Thinking, and Intellectual Curiosity) evinced an excellent fit. After controlling for age, sex, and formal education, TIE was more strongly associated with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence, comparable to results in younger persons. More detailed analyses showed that this association is mostly defined via Reading and Intellectual Curiosity.

  14. The use of conjunctions by children with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glória, Yasmin Alves Leão; Hanauer, Letícia Pessota; Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Nóro, Letícia Arruda; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2016-07-04

    To investigate the use of conjunctions in the spontaneous speech of three years old children with typical language development, who live in Santa Maria - RS. 45 children, aged 3:0;0 - 3:11;29 (years:months;days) from the database of the Center for the Study of Language and Speech (CELF) participated of this study. The spontaneous speech of each child was transcribed and followed by analysis of the samples to identify the types of conjunctions for each age group. The samples were statistically analyzed using the R software that allowed the evaluation of the number and type of conjunctions used in each age group by comparing them with each other. The data indicated that the higher the age of the child, the greater the number of types of conjunctions used by them. The comparison between age groups showed significant differences when comparing the average number of conjunctions per age group, as well as for additive conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. At age of three the children begin to develop the grammatical use of conjunctions, early appearing additive, adversative and explanatory coordinating conjunctions, and at 3:6 they are able to use the most complex conjunctions, as subordinating conjunctions.

  15. Saving time with a computerised handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrie, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The DE/CAASE computerised engineering handbook (Desktop Engineering, Mahwah, NJ, USA) is a software tool designed to automate a wide variety of engineering tasks that are typically performed with an engineering handbook and hand calculator. It significantly reduces the time taken to perform these tasks. For example, instead of spending 60 minutes on determining section properties of composite sections in control room panels and other equipment by hand, it might take less than 5 minutes by using the computerised handbook. Similarly, mode shapes and frequencies of simple structures may take less than 10 minutes to calculate, compared with the hours it used to take. (author)

  16. Dynamic Programming: An Introduction by Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The author introduces some basic dynamic programming techniques, using examples, with the help of the computer algebra system "Maple". The emphasis is on building confidence and intuition for the solution of dynamic problems in economics. To integrate the material better, the same examples are used to introduce different techniques. One covers the…

  17. RFID Malware: Design Principles and Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, M.R.; Simpson, P.N.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of malware for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems - including RFID exploits, RFID worms, and RFID viruses. We present RFID malware design principles together with concrete examples; the highlight is a fully illustrated example of a self-replicating RFID

  18. 10 CFR 1706.9 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.9 Examples. The examples...) Guidance. Assuming the work of the oversight committee has no direct or indirect relationship with the work... work being performed for DOE to ensure no potential or actual conflict of interest would be created...

  19. Categorising Example Sentences in Dictionaries for Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    able contextual or grammatical support. I have constructed a table to classify example sentences according to different criteria. I filled in this table with randomly selected words and their examples which have been taken from five different South African school dictionaries. The goal of this research is to present characteristics ...

  20. Categorising Example Sentences in Dictionaries for Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ers the grammatical support that they provide is more important. While there is ... The goal of this research is to present characteristics of examples in a way that makes them easier to .... the headword is simple or inflected in the example. The final .... I have also included whether the sentence is a command as some teachers.

  1. Dynamical systems examples of complex behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to introduce, explain, and discuss the fundamental problems, ideas, concepts, results, and methods of the theory of dynamical systems and to show how they can be used in speci?c examples. We do not intend to give a comprehensive overview of the present state of research in the theory of dynamical systems, nor a detailed historical account of its development. We try to explain the important results, often neglecting technical re?nements 1 and, usually, we do not provide proofs. One of the basic questions in studying dynamical systems, i.e. systems that evolve in time, is the construction of invariants that allow us to classify qualitative types of dynamical evolution, to distinguish between qualitatively di?erent dynamics, and to studytransitions between di?erent types. Itis also important to ?nd out when a certain dynamic behavior is stable under small perturbations, as well as to understand the various scenarios of instability. Finally, an essential aspect of a dynamic evolution is the transformat...

  2. The Double Feature of Musical "Folkbildning": Three Swedish Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstrom, Sture; Soderman, Johan; Thorgersen, Ketil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse three case study examples of musical "folkbildning" in Sweden. The first case study is from the establishment of the state-funded Framnas Folk High Music School in the middle of the last century. The second case study, Hagstrom's music education, is from the same time but describes a music school…

  3. Changes in Typical Portion Sizes of Commonly Consumed Discretionary Foods among Australian Adults from 1995 to 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Meertens, Beth; Wu, Jason H. Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the changes in typical portion sizes of commonly consumed discretionary foods among Australian adults from 1995 to 2011–2012. Data of adults (age ≥19 years) from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey and 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Typical portion sizes (median portion) of fourteen discretionary foods that contributed the most to energy intake were determined. Ten out of fourteen food categories demonstrated a significant change in kJ per typical portion from 1995 to 2011–2012 (p ≤ 0.001). kJ per typical portion increased for pizza, cake, sausage, cereal bar, processed meat, ice cream and wine, with pizza and cake demonstrating the largest increases (+570 kJ and +950 kJ in 2011–2012, respectively; both +66% above 1995). In contrast, kJ per typical portion of pastry, snack food and potato fries decreased by 10–40% over time, and did not change for biscuit, chocolate, sugar-sweetened beverage and beer. Similar changes were observed for grams per typical portion consumed. Temporal trends in typical portion sizes were similar according to age group, gender and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that population-wide strategies that enable consumers to choose smaller portions of discretionary foods are needed to reduce the excess consumption of these products. PMID:28587276

  4. Changes in Typical Portion Sizes of Commonly Consumed Discretionary Foods among Australian Adults from 1995 to 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaobing Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the changes in typical portion sizes of commonly consumed discretionary foods among Australian adults from 1995 to 2011–2012. Data of adults (age ≥19 years from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey and 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used. Typical portion sizes (median portion of fourteen discretionary foods that contributed the most to energy intake were determined. Ten out of fourteen food categories demonstrated a significant change in kJ per typical portion from 1995 to 2011–2012 (p ≤ 0.001. kJ per typical portion increased for pizza, cake, sausage, cereal bar, processed meat, ice cream and wine, with pizza and cake demonstrating the largest increases (+570 kJ and +950 kJ in 2011–2012, respectively; both +66% above 1995. In contrast, kJ per typical portion of pastry, snack food and potato fries decreased by 10–40% over time, and did not change for biscuit, chocolate, sugar-sweetened beverage and beer. Similar changes were observed for grams per typical portion consumed. Temporal trends in typical portion sizes were similar according to age group, gender and socioeconomic status. The findings suggest that population-wide strategies that enable consumers to choose smaller portions of discretionary foods are needed to reduce the excess consumption of these products.

  5. Kleine Levin syndrome in Malaysia: first typical case

    OpenAIRE

    Bahari, Rafidah; Ahmad, Syed Hassan

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with a 2 weeks history of tearfulness, childish behaviour, separation anxiety, hypersomnia, hyperphagia and sexual disinhibition following a brief episode of fever. He had been experiencing the episodes since he was seven. The episodes lasted from a few days to 3 weeks and would normally occur once in a year. Most of the time it started with fever and resolved spontaneously. In the past he described auditory hallucination but not this time. Examination revealed a s...

  6. Time Discretization Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, S.; Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-01-01

    The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include

  7. Developments in architecture for real-time data systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.L.; Myers, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Real-time data systems typically operate at two levels: a fast-response instrument-oriented level for data acquisition and control, and a slow human-oriented level for interaction and computation. Traditional minicomputer data systems support real-time applications by implementation of background/foreground software. Recent developments in computer technology including microprocessors enable the functional organization of hardware in distributed or hierarchical form to provide new system structures for real-time requirements. Examples of systems with distributed architecture will be discussed in detail

  8. External collection of Hospital Wastes: Danish example. Recogida externa de residuos hospitalarios: el ejemplo danes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, P

    1994-01-01

    Hospital Waste not only comes from hospital, in recent years, the potential hazard and nuisance caused by similar waste categories from other sources have been focused on more and more. Typical examples of such sources are: doctor's practice, dentist's clinics, veterinary hospitals, medical and biochemical laboratories, pharmacies, nursing homes, visting nurses, private homes, public conveniences, public places in troubled areas.

  9. Cyclic Polyynes as Examples of the Quantum Mechanical Particle on a Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Many quantum mechanical models are discussed as part of the undergraduate physical chemistry course to help students understand the connection between eigenvalue expressions and spectroscopy. Typical examples covered include the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid rotor, and the hydrogen atom. This article demonstrates that…

  10. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  11. Thermal properties of typical chernozems in Kursk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Velichenko, M. V.; Tikhonravova, P. I.

    2016-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of virgin and plowed heavy loamy typical chernozems of Kursk oblast were studied. Thermal diffusivity was determined in the course of step-by-step drying of the initially capillary-saturated samples to the air-dry state. Specific heat capacity was determined for absolutely dry samples. Volumetric heat capacity was calculated according to the de Vries equation. Thermal diffusivity varied within the ranges of (1.15-3.46) × 10-7 m2/s in the Ap horizon, (1.14-3.35) × 10-7 m2/s in the A1 horizon, (1.49-3.70) × 10-7 m2/s in the AB horizon, (1.49-3.91) × 10-7 m2/s in the B1 horizon, and (1.60-3.80) × 10-7 m2/s in the Bca horizon. The thermal diffusivity vs. water content dependencies had distinct maximums and were flattened in the range of low water contents. The maximums were most pronounced for the mineral B1 and Bca horizons; for the A1 and Ap horizons, the curves were rather S-shaped. Volumetric heat capacity of the air-dry soils varied from 0.96 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 1.31 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon; in the state of capillary saturation, it varied from 2.79 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 3.28 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon. Thermal properties of topsoil horizons were higher in the plowed chernozem compared with the virgin chernozem, which is explained by an increase in the bulk density and a decrease in the organic matter content in the plowed soil.

  12. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  13. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  14. Describing Speech Usage in Daily Activities in Typical Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laine; Baylor, Carolyn R; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    "Speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to meet communication demands in life roles. The purpose of this study was to contribute to validation of the Levels of Speech Usage scale by providing descriptive data from a sample of adults without communication disorders, comparing this scale to a published Occupational Voice Demands scale and examining predictors of speech usage levels. This is a survey design. Adults aged ≥25 years without reported communication disorders were recruited nationally to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Levels of Speech Usage scale, questions about relevant occupational and nonoccupational activities (eg, socializing, hobbies, childcare, and so forth), and demographic information. Participants were also categorized according to Koufman and Isaacson occupational voice demands scale. A total of 276 participants completed the questionnaires. People who worked for pay tended to report higher levels of speech usage than those who do not work for pay. Regression analyses showed employment to be the major contributor to speech usage; however, considerable variance left unaccounted for suggests that determinants of speech usage and the relationship between speech usage, employment, and other life activities are not yet fully defined. The Levels of Speech Usage may be a viable instrument to systematically rate speech usage because it captures both occupational and nonoccupational speech demands. These data from a sample of typical adults may provide a reference to help in interpreting the impact of communication disorders on speech usage patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  16. Czech teachers’ attitudes toward typical characteristics of intellectually gifted learners with dyslexia and the issue of identifying and educating them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Portešová

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented study deals with the issue of basic school teachers’ attitudestowards selected behavioral and cognitive characteristics of intellectually gifted lear-ners with dyslexia and the issue of identifying and educating these learners. Researchis being conducted at the time as a Greek-Czech intercultural study. However, in thepresented contribution only Czech research data are analyzed and interpreted. In theresearch, we used Attitudes Toward Giftedness/Learning disability – Dyslexia Scale byGreek authors Gari, Panagiota, Nikolopoulou (2006. This method was administeredto 158 teachers from all over the Czech Republic. Based on statistical analysis, thepresented empirical examination reached some important conclusions. It became clearthat Czech teachers are good at identifying characteristics related to manifestations ofa “gifted learner” and a “learner with a learning disability”. Moreover, they are able toidentify also the so-called duality in learning abilities, i.e. the simultaneousness of abi-lity and handicap in the learning process manifested in a particular cognitive domain.However, they identify this duality especially within Czech language. The most proble-matic appears to be the accepting of the existence of this typical characteristic of thegiven population of learners in other academic subjects, for example in mathematics.It is here in particular where teachers tend to expect nothing but exceptional perfor-mance, without a possibility of partial failure (they derive it from giftedness. It seemsthat due to the refusal of the existence of duality in learning ability intervening in allacademic subjects, it can lead to a wrong identification of this minority group of thegifted. Nevertheless, this fact must be confirmed in further empiric research.

  17. The contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data: acoustic and articulatory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mota, Helena Bolli; Berti, Larissa Cristina

    2017-06-08

    This study used acoustic and articulatory analyses to characterize the contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data, comparing the parameters (acoustic and articulatory) of adults and children with typical speech development. The sample consisted of 20 adults and 15 children with typical speech development. The analyzed corpus was organized through five repetitions of each target-word (/'kap ə/, /'tapə/, /'galo/ e /'daɾə/). These words were inserted into a carrier phrase and the participant was asked to name them spontaneously. Simultaneous audio and video data were recorded (tongue ultrasound images). The data was submitted to acoustic analyses (voice onset time; spectral peak and burst spectral moments; vowel/consonant transition and relative duration measures) and articulatory analyses (proportion of significant axes of the anterior and posterior tongue regions and description of tongue curves). Acoustic and articulatory parameters were effective to indicate the contrast between alveolar and velar stops, mainly in the adult group. Both speech analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The acoustic and articulatory parameters provided signals to characterize the phonic contrast of speech. One of the main findings in the comparison between adult and child speech was evidence of articulatory refinement/maturation even after the period of segment acquisition.

  18. The emergence of typical entanglement in two-party random processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlsten, O C O; Oliveira, R; Plenio, M B

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement within a system undergoing a random, local process. We find that there is initially a phase of very fast generation and spread of entanglement. At the end of this phase the entanglement is typically maximal. In Oliveira et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 130502) we proved that the maximal entanglement is reached to a fixed arbitrary accuracy within O(N 3 ) steps, where N is the total number of qubits. Here we provide a detailed and more pedagogical proof. We demonstrate that one can use the so-called stabilizer gates to simulate this process efficiently on a classical computer. Furthermore, we discuss three ways of identifying the transition from the phase of rapid spread of entanglement to the stationary phase: (i) the time when saturation of the maximal entanglement is achieved, (ii) the cutoff moment, when the entanglement probability distribution is practically stationary, and (iii) the moment block entanglement exhibits volume scaling. We furthermore investigate the mixed state and multipartite setting. Numerically, we find that the mutual information appears to behave similarly to the quantum correlations and that there is a well-behaved phase-space flow of entanglement properties towards an equilibrium. We describe how the emergence of typical entanglement can be used to create a much simpler tripartite entanglement description. The results form a bridge between certain abstract results concerning typical (also known as generic) entanglement relative to an unbiased distribution on pure states and the more physical picture of distributions emerging from random local interactions

  19. Typical Features of Amelogenesis Imperfecta in Two Patients with Bartter’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercílio Martelli-Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is due to many inherited defects of enamel formation that affect the quantity and quality of enamel, leading to delay in tooth eruption and cosmetic consequences. AI has been described in association with nephrocalcinosis, which is called the enamel-renal syndrome. The aim of this case report is to describe typical features of AI in 2 patients with Bartter’s syndrome (BS for the first time. Methods: -Eight patients with confirmed BS were systematically screened for dental abnormalities as part of protocol. Those with suggestive clinical features of AI were submitted to panoramic X-ray and decayed teeth were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Typical features of AI were detected in 2 girls with BS. These 2 patients showed nephrocalcinosis, and diagnosis and adequate clinical control were delayed. Genetic analysis detected the mutation responsible for BS in 1 of these patients. In this case, BS was due to a homozygous mutation of exon 5 of the KCNJ1 gene resulting in a substitution of valine for alanine at the codon 214 (A214V. Conclusions: The finding of typical features of AI in BS might constitute preliminary evidence that abnormalities of the biomineralization process found in patients with renal tubular disorders might also affect calcium deposition in dental tissues.

  20. Response of Maize Plant to Phosphorus Fertilization on Typic Distrudepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the acid soil, phosphorus nutrients become critical for agricultural crops growth. At the present, price of fertilizers significantly increase and fertilizers are not available. These conditions can affect on soil productivity and crop production. The objective of these research were to study the response of maize (Zea mays L. to phosphate fertilizers on Inceptisol. The research was conducted in Cicadas Village on Typic Dystrudept. Experiment was conducted in a randomized completely block design, with 8 treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of 6 dosages of P fertilizers, which were P source is SP-36 WIKA Agro 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1. SP-36 and Tunisia rock phosphate (40 kg P ha-1 were used for standard. Pioneer 12 variety of maized was used as an indicator. Plot size was 5 m x 6 m and the maize was planting with distance of 75 cm x 20 cm with one seed per hole. The results showed that organic C and N, P (extracted by Bray 1, K and CEC on the soil were low. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased which was P extracted by HCl 25% from 24 to 67 mg P 100 g-1 soil and which were extracted by Bray 1 increased from 0,87 to 63.31 mg P kg-1 soil. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased plant height from 175.2 cm become to 221.1 cm. Plant height of maize using SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer (210.6 cm was similar to plant heigh using SP-36 fertilizer (213.4 cm but less height from Tunisia rock phosphate. The yield of maize on SP-36 WIKA Agro (4.94 t ha-1 were linely higher than SP-36 (4.69 t ha-1, significantly was higher than that of Tunisia rock phosphate. Maximum dosage of SP-36 fertilizer was 66.67 kg P ha-1, and optimum dosage was 42 kg P ha-1. Value of Relative Agronomic Effectiveness SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer was heigher than SP-36.

  1. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and

  2. HTML5 web application development by example

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafson, JM

    2013-01-01

    The best way to learn anything is by doing. The author uses a friendly tone and fun examples to ensure that you learn the basics of application development. Once you have read this book, you should have the necessary skills to build your own applications.If you have no experience but want to learn how to create applications in HTML5, this book is the only help you'll need. Using practical examples, HTML5 Web Application Development by Example will develop your knowledge and confidence in application development.

  3. Examples and problems in mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Zacks, Shelemyahu

    2013-01-01

    This book presents examples that illustrate the theory of mathematical statistics and details how to apply the methods for solving problems.  While other books on the topic contain problems and exercises, they do not focus on problem solving. This book fills an important niche in the statistical theory literature by providing a theory/example/problem approach.  Each chapter is divided into four parts: Part I provides the needed theory so readers can become familiar with the concepts, notations, and proven results; Part II presents examples from a variety of fields including engineering, mathem

  4. Generalized indices of a typical individual water-heating solar plant in the climatic conditions of Russia different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.; Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    2003-01-01

    By the example of the typical solar water-heating plant (SWP), designed for daily consumption of 100 l of heated water the calculation of the number of days in the year is accomplished, during which such a plant could provide for heating the water not below the assigned control level of 37, 45 and 55 deg C for various ratios between the solar collector square and tank-accumulator volume. The generalized dependences are obtained on the basis of processing the results of the SWP dynamic modeling with application of the typical meteoyears, generated for the climatic conditions of more than 40 populated localities in Russia both in its European and Asian part. The efficiency of the SWP operation in different regions of the country may be determined through their application [ru

  5. Attacking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    13 published papers , and 8 technical reports. All of these publications are available through password-protected access at: http...additional Ph.D. thesis on hardware hiding has been completed, together with an additional paper ; thesis preparation is in progress. In addition, this...employing microcontrollers and other real-time processors. These devices typically lack memory management and make little to no use of cache. • Dynamic

  6. Visual Scan Paths and Recognition of Facial Identity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Palermo, Romina; Brock, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have impaired facial identity recognition, and also exhibit abnormal visual scanning of faces. Here, two hypotheses accounting for an association between these observations were tested: i) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased gaze time on the Eye region; ii) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased eye-movements around the face. Methodology and Principal Findings Eye-movements of 11 children with ASD and 11 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls were recorded whilst they viewed a series of faces, and then completed a two alternative forced-choice recognition memory test for the faces. Scores on the memory task were standardized according to age. In both groups, there was no evidence of an association between the proportion of time spent looking at the Eye region of faces and age-standardized recognition performance, thus the first hypothesis was rejected. However, the ‘Dynamic Scanning Index’ – which was incremented each time the participant saccaded into and out of one of the core-feature interest areas – was strongly associated with age-standardized face recognition scores in both groups, even after controlling for various other potential predictors of performance. Conclusions and Significance In support of the second hypothesis, results suggested that increased saccading between core-features was associated with more accurate face recognition ability, both in typical development and ASD. Causal directions of this relationship remain undetermined. PMID:22666378

  7. Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example can be used as a template for technical code selection (i.e., building, electrical, plumbing, etc.) to be adopted as a comprehensive building code.

  8. Consumer Social Responsibility: Example of Cycling Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesevičiūtė-Ufartienė Laima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on consumer social responsibility based on the example of cycling service. The author analyses the tourism sector determining a relation between socially responsible behaviour of an organization and consumer behaviour.

  9. 78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...) to require the presence of two levels of controlled entities for a controlled group to exist, and... changes would add a new example to illustrate both the mechanics of the controlled group rules as applied...

  10. Example sentences in bilingual specialised dictionaries assisting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Specialised lexicography, online dictionaries, printed dictionaries, technical dictionaries, specialised communication, examples, lexicographical functions, text production, user needs, writing, translation. Voorbeeldsinne in tweetalige vakwoordeboeke help met kommunikasie in 'n vreemde taal. Praktisyns ...

  11. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humprey, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  12. PBL教学模式在全日制MPAcc培养中的应用--以《高级审计理论与实务》一堂案例课为例%The Application of PBL Mode in Full-time MPAcc Training----With a Case Study in Advanced Auditing Theories and Practice for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建勇; 刘小瑞

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning(PBL) is centered on students and problems. Master of professional accounting(MPAcc) is a kind of professional degree for developing qualified accounting talents who are applied, high-quality and high-level. Both of them pay attention to the cultivation of students’ ability to solve practical problems. Therefore, we introduce PBL mode into MPAcc training and take a case class of Advanced Auditing Theories and Practice for example to elaborate the specific application of PBL mode. Besides, this paper analyzes existing problems from three aspects:students, teachers and case questions. At the same time, this paper raises coping measures in the implementation of PBL mode.%PBL教学模式是以问题和学生为中心的教学方法,MPAcc是国家为培养应用型、高层次、高素质会计人才而设立的一种学位类型,二者都注重对学生解决实际问题的能力进行培养。基于此,本文将PBL教学模式引入到MPAcc培养中,以《高级审计理论与实务》一堂案例课为例,阐述PBL教学模式的具体应用,并从学员、教师和案例问题设置三个方面对PBL教学模式实施中存在的问题进行分析,提出对策和建议。

  13. Design and implementation of typical target image database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Kai; Zhao Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    It is necessary to provide essential background data and thematic data timely in image processing and application. In fact, application is an integrating and analyzing procedure with different kinds of data. In this paper, the authors describe an image database system which classifies, stores, manages and analyzes database of different types, such as image database, vector database, spatial database, spatial target characteristics database, its design and structure. (authors)

  14. Some illustrative examples of model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the view of model uncertainty proposed by Apostolakis. We then present several illustrative examples related to model uncertainty, some of which are not well handled by this formalism. Thus, Apostolakis' approach seems to be well suited to describing some types of model uncertainty, but not all. Since a comprehensive approach for characterizing and quantifying model uncertainty is not yet available, it is hoped that the examples presented here will service as a springboard for further discussion

  15. Regression away from the mean: Theory and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Wolf; Reike, Dennis

    2018-02-01

    Using a standard repeated measures model with arbitrary true score distribution and normal error variables, we present some fundamental closed-form results which explicitly indicate the conditions under which regression effects towards (RTM) and away from the mean are expected. Specifically, we show that for skewed and bimodal distributions many or even most cases will show a regression effect that is in expectation away from the mean, or that is not just towards but actually beyond the mean. We illustrate our results in quantitative detail with typical examples from experimental and biometric applications, which exhibit a clear regression away from the mean ('egression from the mean') signature. We aim not to repeal cautionary advice against potential RTM effects, but to present a balanced view of regression effects, based on a clear identification of the conditions governing the form that regression effects take in repeated measures designs. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Some examples of application of activation analysis to geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiltz, Jean-Claude

    1969-10-01

    For some fifteen years, activation analysis knows a considerable development. New facilities have become to be done to research workers and industrials by the fitting up of special laboratories near high flux reactors, in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and Grenoble. Other laboratories apparatus and particles sources are also used (fast neutrons generators, accelerators, etc. ). For some years, our laboratory contributed to study activation analysis applications to the field of Earth Sciences, particularly to geochemistry. Collecting here our experience and that of other laboratories, we have wished to give a glimpse of the diversity of applications and their as well economical as purely technical interest. This job, initial web of a conference done to the ADERP week in February 1969, doesn't obviously pretend to the exhaustion of the subject. We have simply chosen examples among the 'ost typical of our works and among those which have shown a bibliographical interest for us. (author) [fr

  17. Detecting and characterising ramp events in wind power time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, Cristóbal; Cuerva, Álvaro; Costa, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In order to implement accurate models for wind power ramp forecasting, ramps need to be previously characterised. This issue has been typically addressed by performing binary ramp/non-ramp classifications based on ad-hoc assessed thresholds. However, recent works question this approach. This paper presents the ramp function, an innovative wavelet- based tool which detects and characterises ramp events in wind power time series. The underlying idea is to assess a continuous index related to the ramp intensity at each time step, which is obtained by considering large power output gradients evaluated under different time scales (up to typical ramp durations). The ramp function overcomes some of the drawbacks shown by the aforementioned binary classification and permits forecasters to easily reveal specific features of the ramp behaviour observed at a wind farm. As an example, the daily profile of the ramp-up and ramp-down intensities are obtained for the case of a wind farm located in Spain

  18. Cutaneous Larga Migrans - presentation of two typical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soares

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cutaneous Larva Migrans is a dermatosis caused by nemantode parasites, mainely Ancylostoma brasiliensis and Ancylostoma caninus. It is an endemic disease in tropical countries but a rare diagnosis in the rest of the world. Case Report: We report the case of a ten-year-old child emigrated from Angola. The physical examination showed scarring injuries from previous incisions made as a form of treatment as well as a serpiginous lesion on the dorsum of the left foot, compatible with cutaneous Larva Migrans. The patient was started on albendazole and complete resolution of symptoms was obtained after one week. About that time, the patient’s brother, who had the same symptoms on both feet, was submitted to the same treatment, also with resolution of symptoms. Discussion: The authors wish to enphasize the relevance of this case due to the migration from countries with high prevalence of cutaneous Larva Migrans.

  19. Avian adaptations to the Kalahari environment: A typical continental semidesert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L Maclean

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird species adapted to the Kalahari are generally either (a sedentary, insectivorous (or carnivorous and non-gregarious, or (b nomadic, granivorous and gregarious even when breeding. Ground-dwelling birds predominate numerically and are cryptically coloured to avoid predation. Many species have nasal glands which secrete hypertonic solutions in response to the intake of fluids with high solute concentrations, as an adaptation to water conservation. Thermoregulation is discussed especially in relation to high ambient temperatures. Breeding is initiated in most species by rainfall or associated ecological effects, correlated with improved body condition of the females; lag periods between rain and egglaying are related to diet and time of year. Nest orientation is also related to season and capitalizes on maximal shade in summer. Parental care in sandgrouse is discussed.

  20. Learning and Processing Abstract Words and Concepts: Insights From Typical and Atypical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Ponari, Marta; Norbury, Courtenay

    2018-05-21

    The paper describes two plausible hypotheses concerning the learning of abstract words and concepts. According to a first hypothesis, children would learn abstract words by extracting co-occurrences among words in linguistic input, using, for example, mechanisms as described by models of Distributional Semantics. According to a second hypothesis, children would exploit the fact that abstract words tend to have more emotional associations than concrete words to infer that they refer to internal/mental states. Each hypothesis makes specific predictions with regards to when and which abstract words are more likely to be learned; also they make different predictions concerning the impact of developmental disorders. We start by providing a review of work characterizing how abstract words and concepts are learned in development, especially between the ages of 6 and 12. Second, we review some work from our group that tests the two hypotheses above. This work investigates typically developing (TD) children and children with atypical development (developmental language disorders [DLD] and autism spectrum disorder [ASD] with and without language deficits). We conclude that the use of strategies based on emotional information, or on co-occurrences in language, may play a role at different developmental stages. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society Inc.

  1. Examples from Astronomy for High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    A formal course in physics is increasingly becoming a standard requirement in the high school curriculum. With that dissemination comes the challenge of reaching and motivating a population that is more diverse in their academic abilities and intrinsic motivation. The abstract nature of pure physics is often made more accessible when motivated by examples from everyday life, and providing copious mathematical as well as conceptual examples has become standard practice in high school physics textbooks. Astronomy is a naturally captivating subject and astronomical examples are often successful in capturing the curiosity of high school students as well as the general population. This project seeks to diversify the range of pedagogical materials available to the high school physics instructor by compiling and publishing specific examples where an astronomical concept can be used to motivate the physics curriculum. This collection of examples will consist of both short problems suitable for daily homework assignments as well as longer project style activities. Collaborations are encouraged and inquiries should be directed to sdieterich at carnegiescience dot edu.This work is funded by the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship Program through NSF grant AST-1400680.

  2. Comparing Examples: WebAssign versus Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Evan; Polak, Jeff; Hardin, Ashley; Risley, John, , Dr.

    2005-11-01

    Research shows students can learn from worked examples.^1 This pilot study compared two groups of students' performance (10 each) in solving physics problems. One group had access to interactive examples^2 released in WebAssign^3, while the other group had access to the counterpart textbook examples. Verbal data from students in problem solving sessions was collected using a think aloud protocol^4 and the data was analyzed using Chi's procedures.^5 An explanation of the methodology and results will be presented. Future phases of this pilot study based upon these results will also be discussed. ^1Atkinson, R.K., Derry, S.J., Renkl A., Wortham, D. (2000). ``Learning from Examples: Instructional Principles from the Worked Examples Research'', Review of Educational Research, vol. 70, n. 2, pp. 181-214. ^2Serway, R.A. & Faughn, J.S. (2006). College Physics (7^th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole. ^3 see www.webassign.net ^4 Ericsson, K.A. & Simon, H.A. (1984). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ^5 Chi, Michelene T.H. (1997). ``Quantifying Qualitative Analyses of Verbal Data: A Practical Guide,'' The Journal of the Learning Sciences, vol. 6, n. 3, pp. 271-315.

  3. The attitudes of typically developing adolescents towards their sibling with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine van der Merwe

    2017-04-01

    Methods: Thirty typically developing adolescents who have siblings with ASD were selected to complete the survey instrument, the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale, using a cross-sectional design. Results: Results indicate that the measure has internal consistency within this sample. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests were used to test for significant differences between the mean values for the two self-reported time periods. Friedman analysis of variances (ANOVAs was used to test for significant differences in the three components of attitudes, namely affect, behaviour and cognition. Results indicate that participants held more positive attitudes towards their siblings with ASD as adolescents compared with when they were younger and that adolescents rated their current emotions towards and beliefs about their sibling with ASD to be more positive than their current interaction experiences. Conclusion: As siblings’ attitudes appear to change over time, clinicians should use a lifespan approach to sibling attitudes when designing and implementing supports for siblings of children with ASD.

  4. Television, video game and social media use among children with ASD and typically developing siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O; Wenstrup, Colleen

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the nature of television, video game, and social media use in children (ages 8-18) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 202) compared to typically developing siblings (TD, n = 179), and relative to other activities. Parents completed measures assessing children's screen-based and other extracurricular activities. Children with ASD spent approximately 62% more time watching television and playing video games than in all non-screen activities combined. Compared with TD siblings, children with ASD spent more hours per day playing video games (2.4 vs. 1.6 for boys, and 1.8 vs. 0.8 for girls), and had higher levels of problematic video game use. In contrast, children with ASD spent little time using social media or socially interactive video games.

  5. Non-linear thermal and structural analysis of a typical spent fuel silo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.M.; Mancini, G.R.; Spina, O.A.F.; Sala, G.; Paglia, F.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical method for the non-linear structural analysis of a typical reinforced concrete spent fuel silo under thermal loads is proposed. The numerical time integration was performed by means of a time explicit axisymmetric finite-difference numerical operator. An analysis was made of influences by heat, viscoelasticity and cracking upon the concrete behaviour between concrete pouring stage and the first period of the silo's normal operation. The following parameters were considered for the heat generation and transmission process: Heat generated during the concrete's hardening stage, Solar radiation effects, Natural convection, Spent-fuel heat generation. For the modelling of the reinforced concrete behaviour, use was made of a simplified formulation of: Visco-elastic effects, Thermal cracking, Steel reinforcement. A comparison between some experimental temperature characteristic values obtained from the numerical integration process and empirical data obtained from a 1:1 scaled prototype was also carried out. (author)

  6. Magnetosheath dynamic pressure enhancements: occurrence and typical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Archer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The first comprehensive statistical study of large-amplitude (> 100% transient enhancements of the magnetosheath dynamic pressure reveals events of up to ~ 15 times the ambient dynamic pressure with durations up to 3 min and an average duration of around 30 s, predominantly downstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The dynamic pressure transients are most often dominated by velocity increases along with a small fractional increase in the density, though the velocity is generally only deflected by a few degrees. Superposed wavelet transforms of the magnetic field show that, whilst most enhancements exhibit changes in the magnetosheath magnetic field, the majority are not associated with changes in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF. However, there is a minority of enhancements that do appear to be associated with solar wind discontinuities which cannot be explained simply by random events. In general, it is found that during periods of magnetosheath dynamic pressure enhancements the IMF is steadier than usual. This suggests that a stable foreshock and hence foreshock structures or processes may be important in the generation of the majority of magnetosheath dynamic pressure enhancements.

  7. Measurements of radon progeny activity on typical indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Gogolak, C.V.; Klemic, G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of studies aimed at defining how well radon progeny on surfaces can be measured, information that is needed in order to test physical/mathematical models governing indoor radon progeny behaviour, are described. One experiment compared the decomposition on to different surfaces. Only relatively small differences were found among metal, filter paper, broadcloth, corduroy fabric, vinyl wallpaper, glass, and latex paint, but polyethylene film collected two to four times as much as the others, due most likely to electrostatic charge on the plastic surface. Another experiment compared the gamma and gross alpha count methods of measuring surface activity for metal, filter paper, broadcloth and corduroy surfaces. No difference for the surfaces tested was found from which it is concluded that, even for rougher surfaces, progeny atoms deposit mainly on the outer layers. A final experiment compared in situ and surrogate-surface methods for measuring surface deposition. For most tests, the two methods agreed within 30%, and the average ratio was not significantly different from unity. 210 Po is a complication in the in situ method. An unexpected location effect was found in the experiments conducted in houses with high radon concentrations: the deposition on the ceiling was higher than on the surfaces. (author)

  8. Killer "Killer Examples" for Design Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Alphonce, Carl; Decker, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Giving students an appreciation of the benefits of using design patterns and an ability to use them effectively in developing code presents several interesting pedagogical challenges. This paper discusses pedagogical lessons learned at the "Killer Examples" for Design Patterns and Objects First s...... series of workshops held at the Object Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages and Applications (OOPSLA) conference over the past four years. It also showcases three "killer examples" which can be used to support the teaching of design patterns.......Giving students an appreciation of the benefits of using design patterns and an ability to use them effectively in developing code presents several interesting pedagogical challenges. This paper discusses pedagogical lessons learned at the "Killer Examples" for Design Patterns and Objects First...

  9. Kinetics of thermophilic acidogenesis of typical Brazilian sugarcane vinasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mirian Harumi; Araújo Júnior, Moacir Messias; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the acidogenic phase during anaerobic digestion of sugarcane vinasse in differential reactors containing immobilized cells was investigated. The maximum substrate conversion rate (r_m_a_x), substrate saturation constant (K_s) and constant of inhibition by excess substrate (K_i_s) were determined using vinasse with and without pH adjustment. Simulation and scaling-up of a thermophilic-hydrogen production system were performed. The r_m_a_x values obtained at different pH were similar and near 0.9 mg-Total carbohydrates g-VS"−"1 h"−"1. The K_s obtained from the system without pH adjustment was 10,762.3 mg-Total carbohydrates L"−"1 (i.e., 2.5 times higher than the system with pH adjustment). No inhibition by excess substrate was achieved in the system without pH adjustment, indicating that sugarcane vinasse can be used to produce hydrogen without input costs. The simulation revealed that hydrogen production is a sensitive process that requires careful balancing of various operational parameters. The payback for the investment in system implementation is 4.4 years. - Highlights: • Sugarcane vinasse can be used to produce hydrogen without pH adjustment. • Excess substrate inhibition was observed when vinasse with pH adjusted was used. • A careful balancing of operational conditions is required to produce hydrogen. • The payback for the investment in system implementation is four years.

  10. NESSIE: Network Example Source Supporting Innovative Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alan; Higham, Desmond J.

    We describe a new web-based facility that makes available some realistic examples of complex networks. NESSIE (Network Example Source Supporting Innovative Experimentation) currently contains 12 specific networks from a diverse range of application areas, with a Scottish emphasis. This collection of data sets is designed to be useful for researchers in network science who wish to evaluate new algorithms, concepts and models. The data sets are available to download in two formats (MATLAB's .mat format and .txt files readable by packages such as Pajek), and some basic MATLAB tools for computing summary statistics are also provided.

  11. Active learning techniques for librarians practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A practical work outlining the theory and practice of using active learning techniques in library settings. It explains the theory of active learning and argues for its importance in our teaching and is illustrated using a large number of examples of techniques that can be easily transferred and used in teaching library and information skills to a range of learners within all library sectors. These practical examples recognise that for most of us involved in teaching library and information skills the one off session is the norm, so we need techniques that allow us to quickly grab and hold our

  12. Multiple factor analysis by example using R

    CERN Document Server

    Pagès, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factor analysis (MFA) enables users to analyze tables of individuals and variables in which the variables are structured into quantitative, qualitative, or mixed groups. Written by the co-developer of this methodology, Multiple Factor Analysis by Example Using R brings together the theoretical and methodological aspects of MFA. It also includes examples of applications and details of how to implement MFA using an R package (FactoMineR).The first two chapters cover the basic factorial analysis methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). The

  13. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can c...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics....

  14. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can c...... a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics....

  15. Eclipse plugin development by example beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2013-01-01

    A Beginner's Guide following the ""by Example"" approach. There will be 5-8 major examples that will be used in the book to develop advanced plugins with the Eclipse IDE.This book is for Java developers who are familiar with Eclipse as a Java IDE and are interested in learning how to develop plug-ins for Eclipse. No prior knowledge of Eclipse plug-in development or OSGi is necessary, although you are expected to know how to create, run, and debug Java programs in Eclipse.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of hybrid systems: An example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacha, F.; D'Alencon, H.; Grivelet, J.; Jullien, E.; Jejcic, A.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.; Zukanovich, R.; Vergnes, J.

    1997-01-01

    Simulation of hybrid systems needs tracking of particles from the GeV (incident proton beam) range down to a fraction of eV (thermic neutrons). We show how a GEANT based Monte-Carlo program can achieve this, with a realistic computer time and accompanying tools. An example of a dedicated original actinide burner is simulated with this chain. 8 refs., 5 figs

  17. Phosphorus content in three physical fractions of typical Chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Anna; Egorova, Zoya; Sushkov, Nikolai; Matveeva, Natalia; Fastovets, Ilya; Rogova, Olga; Volkov, Dmitriy

    2017-04-01

    than 1.5 times higher than in the control, while for LF the increase in TPC was not significant, and RF TPC was practically the same as in the control. Association of phosphorus predominantly with CF suggests that phosphorus was mainly adsorbed to the surface of clay particles rather than to organic components. Therefore, despite the increase in CF TPC as a consequence of treatment with fertilizers, the increase in availability of phosphorus is questionable. In the aftereffect period no significant differences in TPC were found. In conclusion, we showed that availability of fertilizers may be dependent on fractional composition of soil. Under our experimental conditions, phosphorus tended to bind predominantly to clay particles. However, in the aftereffect period, fractionation of TPC was similar to the control, indicating the need to further investigate the fate of phosphorus in soils.

  18. Regression Analysis by Example. 5th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samprit; Hadi, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. "Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition" has been expanded and thoroughly…

  19. An example in linear quadratic optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, George; Zwart, Heiko J.

    1998-01-01

    We construct a simple example of a quadratic optimal control problem for an infinite-dimensional linear system based on a shift semigroup. This system has an unbounded control operator. The cost is quadratic in the input and the state, and the weighting operators are bounded. Despite its extreme

  20. Microstructural pavement material characterization: some examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available in the way materials respond to loading at the macro-level. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate how Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) as an example of advanced measurement techniques was used for material characterization. A range of samples...

  1. Freeform aberrations in phase space: an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babington, James

    2017-06-01

    We consider how optical propagation and aberrations of freeform systems can be formulated in phase space. As an example system, a freeform prism is analyzed and discussed. Symmetry considerations and their group theory descriptions are given some importance. Numerical aberrations are also highlighted and put into the context of the underlying aberration theory.

  2. Fluid dynamics via examples and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    "This is an excellent book for fluid dynamics students. It gives a good overview of the theory through a large set of worthy example problems. After many classical textbooks on the subject, there is finally one with solved exercises. I fully appreciate the selection of topics."-Professor Miguel Onorato, Physics Department, University of Torino.

  3. Examples of Neutrosophic Probability in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-discusses the problems of the so-called “law of nonconservation of parity” and “accelerating expansion of the universe”, and presents the examples of determining Neutrosophic Probability of the experiment of Chien-Shiung Wu et al in 1957, and determining Neutrosophic Probability of accelerating expansion of the partial universe.

  4. Exotic nuclear beta transitions astrophysical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, K

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical study of nuclear beta -transitions under various astrophysical circumstances is reviewed by illustrative examples: 1) continuum-state electron captures in a matter in the nuclear statistical equiplibrium, and ii) bound-state beta -decays in stars in connection with a cosmochronometer and with the s-process branchings. (45 refs).

  5. Collaborative Learning in Practice : Examples from Natural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 déc. 2010 ... Couverture du livre Collaborative Learning in Practice: Examples from Natural Resource Management in Asia ... Collaborative Learning in Practice saura intéresser les universitaires, les chercheurs et les étudiants des cycles supérieurs en études du développement, ... Strategic leverage on value chains.

  6. Managing Complexity in Evidence Analysis: A Worked Example in Pediatric Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, James Scott; Henry, Beverly; Thompson, Kyle L; Ziegler, Jane; Handu, Deepa

    2018-05-02

    Nutrition interventions are often complex and multicomponent. Typical approaches to meta-analyses that focus on individual causal relationships to provide guideline recommendations are not sufficient to capture this complexity. The objective of this study is to describe the method of meta-analysis used for the Pediatric Weight Management (PWM) Guidelines update and provide a worked example that can be applied in other areas of dietetics practice. The effects of PWM interventions were examined for body mass index (BMI), body mass index z-score (BMIZ), and waist circumference at four different time periods. For intervention-level effects, intervention types were identified empirically using multiple correspondence analysis paired with cluster analysis. Pooled effects of identified types were examined using random effects meta-analysis models. Differences in effects among types were examined using meta-regression. Context-level effects are examined using qualitative comparative analysis. Three distinct types (or families) of PWM interventions were identified: medical nutrition, behavioral, and missing components. Medical nutrition and behavioral types showed statistically significant improvements in BMIZ across all time points. Results were less consistent for BMI and waist circumference, although four distinct patterns of weight status change were identified. These varied by intervention type as well as outcome measure. Meta-regression indicated statistically significant differences between the medical nutrition and behavioral types vs the missing component type for both BMIZ and BMI, although the pattern varied by time period and intervention type. Qualitative comparative analysis identified distinct configurations of context characteristics at each time point that were consistent with positive outcomes among the intervention types. Although analysis of individual causal relationships is invaluable, this approach is inadequate to capture the complexity of dietetics

  7. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  8. Wildfire Risk Assessment in a Typical Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interface of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Ioannis; Mallinis, Giorgos; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess spatial wildfire risk in a typical Mediterranean wildland-urban interface (WUI) in Greece and the potential effect of three different burning condition scenarios on the following four major wildfire risk components: burn probability, conditional flame length, fire size, and source-sink ratio. We applied the Minimum Travel Time fire simulation algorithm using the FlamMap and ArcFuels tools to characterize the potential response of the wildfire risk to a range of different burning scenarios. We created site-specific fuel models of the study area by measuring the field fuel parameters in representative natural fuel complexes, and we determined the spatial extent of the different fuel types and residential structures in the study area using photointerpretation procedures of large scale natural color orthophotographs. The results included simulated spatially explicit fire risk components along with wildfire risk exposure analysis and the expected net value change. Statistical significance differences in simulation outputs between the scenarios were obtained using Tukey's significance test. The results of this study provide valuable information for decision support systems for short-term predictions of wildfire risk potential and inform wildland fire management of typical WUI areas in Greece.

  9. Multimodal imaging of temporal processing in typical and atypical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Wagley, Neelima; Hay, Jessica S F; Ugolini, Margaret; Bowyer, Susan M; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Brennan, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    New approaches to understanding language and reading acquisition propose that the human brain's ability to synchronize its neural firing rate to syllable-length linguistic units may be important to children's ability to acquire human language. Yet, little evidence from brain imaging studies has been available to support this proposal. Here, we summarize three recent brain imaging (functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)) studies from our laboratories with young English-speaking children (aged 6-12 years). In the first study (fNIRS), we used an auditory beat perception task to show that, in children, the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) responds preferentially to rhythmic beats at 1.5 Hz. In the second study (fMRI), we found correlations between children's amplitude rise-time sensitivity, phonological awareness, and brain activation in the left STG. In the third study (MEG), typically developing children outperformed children with autism spectrum disorder in extracting words from rhythmically rich foreign speech and displayed different brain activation during the learning phase. The overall findings suggest that the efficiency with which left temporal regions process slow temporal (rhythmic) information may be important for gains in language and reading proficiency. These findings carry implications for better understanding of the brain's mechanisms that support language and reading acquisition during both typical and atypical development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Wildfire risk assessment in a typical Mediterranean wildland-urban interface of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Ioannis; Mallinis, Giorgos; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess spatial wildfire risk in a typical Mediterranean wildland-urban interface (WUI) in Greece and the potential effect of three different burning condition scenarios on the following four major wildfire risk components: burn probability, conditional flame length, fire size, and source-sink ratio. We applied the Minimum Travel Time fire simulation algorithm using the FlamMap and ArcFuels tools to characterize the potential response of the wildfire risk to a range of different burning scenarios. We created site-specific fuel models of the study area by measuring the field fuel parameters in representative natural fuel complexes, and we determined the spatial extent of the different fuel types and residential structures in the study area using photointerpretation procedures of large scale natural color orthophotographs. The results included simulated spatially explicit fire risk components along with wildfire risk exposure analysis and the expected net value change. Statistical significance differences in simulation outputs between the scenarios were obtained using Tukey's significance test. The results of this study provide valuable information for decision support systems for short-term predictions of wildfire risk potential and inform wildland fire management of typical WUI areas in Greece.

  11. Analysis of the influencing factors of PAEs volatilization from typical plastic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weidong; Chi, Chenchen; Zhou, Chen; Xia, Meng; Ronda, Cees; Shen, Xueyou

    2018-04-01

    The primary emphasis of this research was to investigate the foundations of phthalate (PAEs) pollutant source researches and then firstly confirmed the concept of the coefficient of volatile strength, namely phthalate total content in per unit mass and unit surface area of pollutant sources. Through surveying and evaluating the coefficient of volatile strength of PAEs from typical plastic products, this research carried out reasonable classification of PAEs pollutant sources into three categories and then investigated the relationship amongst the coefficient of volatile strength as well as other environmental factors and the concentration level of total PAEs in indoor air measured in environment chambers. Research obtained phthalate concentration results under different temperature, humidity, the coefficient of volatile strength and the closed time through the chamber experiment. In addition, this study further explored the correlation and ratio of influencing factors that affect the concentration level of total PAEs in environment chambers, including environmental factors, the coefficient of volatile strengths of PAEs and contents of total PAEs in plastic products. The research created an improved database system of phthalate the coefficient of volatile strengths of each type of plastic goods, and tentatively revealed that the volatile patterns of PAEs from different typical plastic goods, finally confirmed that the coefficient of volatile strengths of PAEs is a major factor that affects the indoor air total PAEs concentration, which laid a solid foundation for further establishing the volatile equation of PAEs from plastic products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Three Dimensional Characterization of Typical Urban and Desert Particles: Implications to Particle Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, V.; Mishra, S.; Ahlawat, A. S.; Sharma, C.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol particles are generally considered as chemically homogeneous spheres in the retrieval techniques of ground and space borne observations which is not accurate approach and can lead to erroneous observations. For better simulation of optical and radiative properties of aerosols, a good knowledge of aerosol's morphology, chemical composition and internal structure is essential. Till date, many studies have reported the morphology and chemical composition of particles but very few of them provide internal structure and spatial distribution of different chemical species within the particle. The research on the effect of particle internal structure and its contribution to particle optics is extremely limited. In present work, we characterize the PM10 particles collected form typical arid (the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India) and typical urban (New Delhi, India) environment using microscopic techniques. The particles were milled several times to investigate their internal structure. The EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) spectra were recorded after each milling to check the variation in the chemical composition. In arid environment, Fe, Ca, C, Al, and Mg rich shell was observed over a Si rich particle whereas in urban environment, shell of Hg, Ag, C and N was observed over a Cu rich particle. Based on the observations, different model shapes [homogenous sphere and spheroid; heterogeneous sphere and spheroid; core shell] have been considered for assessing the associated uncertainties with the routine modeling of optical properties where volume equivalent homogeneous sphere approximation is considered. The details will be discussed during presentation.

  13. Traces of times past : Representations of temporal intervals in memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2011-01-01

    Theories of time perception typically assume that some sort of memory represents time intervals. This memory component is typically underdeveloped in theories of time perception. Following earlier work that suggested that representations of different time intervals contaminate each other (Grondin,

  14. Zen of cloud learning cloud computing by examples on Microsoft Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Haishi

    2014-01-01

    Zen of Cloud: Learning Cloud Computing by Examples on Microsoft Azure provides comprehensive coverage of the essential theories behind cloud computing and the Windows Azure cloud platform. Sharing the author's insights gained while working at Microsoft's headquarters, it presents nearly 70 end-to-end examples with step-by-step guidance on implementing typical cloud-based scenarios.The book is organized into four sections: cloud service fundamentals, cloud solutions, devices and cloud, and system integration and project management. Each chapter contains detailed exercises that provide readers w

  15. The easy way to metastability tunnelling time and critical configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Manzo, F; Olivieri, E; Scoppola, E

    2003-01-01

    for given energy function $H$ and symmetric Markov kernel $q$. We propose a simple approach to determine the asymptotic behavior, for large $\\beta$, of the first hitting time to the ground state starting from a particular class of local minima for $H$ called metastable states. We separate the asymptotic behavior of the transition time from the determination of the tube of typical paths realizing the transition. This approach turns out to be useful when the determination of the tube of typical paths is too difficult, as for instance in the case of conservative dynamics. We analyze the structure of the saddles introducing the notion of ``essentiality" and describing essential saddles in terms of ``gates". As an example we discuss the case of the 2D Ising Model in the degenerate case of integer $2J\\over h$.

  16. Two example applications of optimization techniques to US Department of Energy contractor radiation protection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Martin, J.B.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Six numerical examples of optimization of radiation protection are provided in the appendices of ICRP Publication 37. In each case, the calculations are based on fairly well defined parameters and assumptions that were well understood. In this paper, we have examined two numerical examples that are based on empirical data and less certain assumptions. These examples may represent typical applications of optimization principles to the evaluation of specific elements of a radiation protection program. In the first example, the optimum bioassay frequency for tritium workers was found to be once every 95 days, which compared well with ICRP Publication 10 recommendations. However, this result depended heavily on the assumption that the value of a potential undetected rem was US $1000. The second example showed that the optimum frequency for recalibrating Cutie Pie (CP) type ionization chamber survey instruments was once every 102 days, which compared well with the Hanford standard frequency of once every 90 days. This result depended largely on the assumption that an improperly operating CP instrument could lead to a serious overexposure. These examples have led us to conclude that optimization of radiation protection programs must be a very dynamic process. Examples must be recalculated as empirical data expand and improve and as the uncertainties surrounding assumptions are reduced

  17. Some problems with non-inferiority tests in psychotherapy research: psychodynamic therapies as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2018-02-14

    In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others. We conclude that non-inferiority trials have specific risks of different types of validity problems, usually favoring an (erroneous) non-inferiority conclusion. Non-inferiority trials require the definition of non-inferiority margins, and currently used thresholds have a tendency to be inflationary, not protecting sufficiently against degradation. The use of non-inferiority approaches can lead to the astonishing result that one single analysis can suggest both, superiority of the comparator (here: CBT) and non-inferiority of the other treatment (here PDT) at the same time. We provide recommendations how to improve the quality of non-inferiority trials, and we recommend to consider them among other criteria when evaluating manuscripts examining non-inferiority trials. If psychotherapeutic families (such as PDT and CBT) differ on the number of investigating trials, and in the fields of clinical applications, and in other validity aspects mentioned above, conclusions about their general non-inferiority are no more than a best guess, typically expressing the favored approach of the lead author.

  18. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  19. For Your Local Eyes Only: Culture-Specific Face Typicality Influences Perceptions of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Oikawa, Masanori; Oikawa, Haruka; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel, participants judged trustworthiness and attractiveness of faces. In Study 1, faces varied along a cross-cultural dimension ranging from a Japanese to an Israeli typical face. Own-culture typical faces were perceived as more trustworthy than other-culture typical faces, suggesting that people in both cultures employ typicality cues when judging trustworthiness, but that the cues, indicative of typicality, are culture dependent. Because perceivers may be less familiar with other-culture typicality cues, Study 2 tested the extent to which they rely on available facial information other than typicality, when judging other-culture faces. In Study 2, Japanese and Israeli faces varied from either Japanese or Israeli attractive to unattractive with the respective typical face at the midpoint. For own-culture faces, trustworthiness judgments peaked around own-culture typical face. However, when judging other-culture faces, both cultures also employed attractiveness cues, but this effect was more apparent for Japanese participants. Our findings highlight the importance of culture when considering the effect of typicality on trustworthiness judgments.

  20. Collapse of the random-phase approximation: Examples and counter-examples from the shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2009-01-01

    The Hartree-Fock approximation to the many-fermion problem can break exact symmetries, and in some cases by changing a parameter in the interaction one can drive the Hartree-Fock minimum from a symmetry-breaking state to a symmetry-conserving state (also referred to as a 'phase transition' in the literature). The order of the transition is important when one applies the random-phase approximation (RPA) to the of the Hartree-Fock wave function: if first order, RPA is stable through the transition, but if second-order, then the RPA amplitudes become large and lead to unphysical results. The latter is known as 'collapse' of the RPA. While the difference between first- and second-order transitions in the RPA was first pointed out by Thouless, we present for the first time nontrivial examples of both first- and second-order transitions in a uniform model, the interacting shell-model, where we can compare to exact numerical results.

  1. Flow velocity calculation to avoid instability in a typical research reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Flow velocity through a research reactor core composed by MTR-type fuel elements is investigated. Core cooling capacity must be available at the same time that fuel-plate collapse must be avoided. Fuel plates do not rupture during plate collapse, but their lateral deflections can close flow channels and lead to plate over-heating. The critical flow velocity is a speed at which the plates collapse by static instability type failure. In this paper, critical velocity and coolant velocity are evaluated for a typical MTR-type flat plate fuel element. Miller's method is used for prediction of critical velocity. The coolant velocity is limited to 2/3 of the critical velocity, that is a currently used criterion. Fuel plate characteristics are based on the open pool Australian light water reactor. (author)

  2. Prediction of the Electromagnetic Field Distribution in a Typical Aircraft Using the Statistical Energy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevsky, Louis; Langley, Robin S.; Caro, Stephane

    2016-05-01

    Due to the high cost of experimental EMI measurements significant attention has been focused on numerical simulation. Classical methods such as Method of Moment or Finite Difference Time Domain are not well suited for this type of problem, as they require a fine discretisation of space and failed to take into account uncertainties. In this paper, the authors show that the Statistical Energy Analysis is well suited for this type of application. The SEA is a statistical approach employed to solve high frequency problems of electromagnetically reverberant cavities at a reduced computational cost. The key aspects of this approach are (i) to consider an ensemble of system that share the same gross parameter, and (ii) to avoid solving Maxwell's equations inside the cavity, using the power balance principle. The output is an estimate of the field magnitude distribution in each cavity. The method is applied on a typical aircraft structure.

  3. An extended car-following model considering the acceleration derivative in some typical traffic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Chen, Dong; Liu, Weining

    2018-03-01

    Based on the full velocity difference and acceleration car-following model, an extended car-following model is proposed by considering the vehicle’s acceleration derivative. The stability condition is given by applying the control theory. Considering some typical traffic environments, the results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the extended model has a more actual acceleration of string vehicles than that of the previous models in starting process, stopping process and sudden brake. Meanwhile, the traffic jams more easily occur when the coefficient of vehicle’s acceleration derivative increases, which is presented by space-time evolution. The results confirm that the vehicle’s acceleration derivative plays an important role in the traffic jamming transition and the evolution of traffic congestion.

  4. Analysis and Comparison on the Flood Simulation in Typical Hilly & Semi-mountainous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Qinghua; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Jiahong; Fu, Xiaoran; Zhang, Kun; Ma, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Water-logging and flood are both serious in hilly and semi-mountainous cities of China, but the related research is rare. Lincheng Economic Development Zone (EDZ) in Hebei Province as the typical city was selected and storm water management model (SWMM) was applied for flood simulation in this study. The regional model was constructed through calibrating and verifying the runoff coefficient of different flood processes. Different designed runoff processes in five-year, ten-year and twenty-year return periods in basic scenario and in the low impact development (LID) scenario, respectively, were simulated and compared. The result shows that: LID measures have effect on peak reduction in the study area, but the effectiveness is not significant; the effectiveness of lagging peak time is poor. These simulation results provide decision support for the rational construction of LID in the study area, and provide the references for regional rain flood management.

  5. Decadal water quality variations at three typical basins of Mekong, Murray and Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Afed U.; Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng

    2018-02-01

    Decadal distribution of water quality parameters is essential for surface water management. Decadal distribution analysis was conducted to assess decadal variations in water quality parameters at three typical watersheds of Murray, Mekong and Yukon. Right distribution shifts were observed for phosphorous and nitrogen parameters at the Mekong watershed monitoring sites while left shifts were noted at the Murray and Yukon monitoring sites. Nutrients pollution increases with time at the Mekong watershed while decreases at the Murray and Yukon watershed monitoring stations. The results implied that watershed located in densely populated developing area has higher risk of water quality deterioration in comparison to thinly populated developed area. The present study suggests best management practices at watershed scale to modulate water pollution.

  6. Automotive mechatronic systems. General developments and examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik, FG Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung

    2006-08-15

    Automobiles are showing an increasing integration of mechanics with digital electronics and information processing. This integration is between the components (hardware) and by the information-driven functions (software), resulting in integrated systems called mechatronic systems. Their development involves finding an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, communication, automatic information processing and overall control. This contribution summarizes some ongoing developments for mechatronic systems in automobiles, shows design approaches and examples and considers the various embedded control functions and systems integrity. Some examples of automotive mechatronic systems are shown in more detail. Great progress can be observed in braking systems (ABS, ESP), the first brake-by-wire electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), steering systems (electrical power steering, active front steering) and active suspension systems. (orig.)

  7. The typical seismic behavior in the vicinity of a large earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, M. V.; Tikhonov, I. N.

    2016-10-01

    The Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog (GCMT) was used to construct the spatio-temporal generalized vicinity of a large earthquake (GVLE) and to investigate the behavior of seismicity in GVLE. The vicinity is made of earthquakes falling into the zone of influence of a large number (100, 300, or 1000) of largest earthquakes. The GVLE construction aims at enlarging the available statistics, diminishing a strong random component, and revealing typical features of pre- and post-shock seismic activity in more detail. As a result of the GVLE construction, the character of fore- and aftershock cascades was examined in more detail than was possible without of the use of the GVLE approach. As well, several anomalies in the behavior exhibited by a variety of earthquake parameters were identified. The amplitudes of all these anomalies increase with the approaching time of the generalized large earthquake (GLE) as the logarithm of the time interval from the GLE occurrence. Most of the discussed anomalies agree with common features well expected in the evolution of instability. In addition to these common type precursors, one earthquake-specific precursor was found. The decrease in mean earthquake depth presumably occurring in a smaller GVLE probably provides evidence of a deep fluid being involved in the process. The typical features in the evolution of shear instability as revealed in GVLE agree with results obtained in laboratory studies of acoustic emission (AE). The majority of the anomalies in earthquake parameters appear to have a secondary character, largely connected with an increase in mean magnitude and decreasing fraction of moderate size events (mw5.0-6.0) in the immediate GLE vicinity. This deficit of moderate size events could hardly be caused entirely by their incomplete reporting and can presumably reflect some features in the evolution of seismic instability.

  8. Uranium prospection methods illustrated with examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsardieu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Uranium exploration methods are briefly reviewed: aerial (radiometric, spectrometric), surface (mapping, radiometric, geophysical, geochemical), sub-surface (well logging, boring) and mining methods in the different steps of a mine project: preliminary studies, general prospecting, detailed prospecting deposit area and deposit estimation. Choice of methods depends strongly on geographic and geologic environment. Three examples are given concerning: an intragranitic deposit Limousin (France), a deposit spatially related to a discordance Athabasca (Canada) and a sedimentary deposit Manyingee (Western Australia) [fr

  9. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository

  10. Regionalism on the example of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač Terez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the processes of association with the EU in which Hungary took place, and about the demands that should have been fulfilled. It is shown, on the example of Hungary, what progress has taken place in the last 15 years in the area of establishing of regional science and what sort of conclusion can be made for Yugoslavia. The author also deals with the possible functions of sociology in regional research.

  11. Transition and Neoinstitutionalism: the Example of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Kasapović, Mirjana

    1993-01-01

    The author examines the role of neoinstitutionalism in processes of transition in post-socialist countries, the renewal of a rather orthodox institutionalistic approch to problems of political and social transformation. For many structural reasons this approach does not produce the results Expected. This is proved on the example of the implementation of western poitical institutions and institutes in Croaria since 1990. The author primarily addresses the relationship between...

  12. New examples of continuum graded Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    Several new examples of continuum graded Lie algebras which provide an additional elucidation of these algebras are given. Here, in particular, the Kac-Moody algebras, the algebra S 0 Diff T 2 of infinitesimal area-preserving diffeomorphisms of the torus T 2 , the Fairlie, Fletcher and Zachos sine-algebras, etc., are described as special cases of the cross product Lie algebras. 8 refs

  13. Planar Quantum Mechanics: an Intriguing Supersymmetric Example

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    After setting up a Hamiltonian formulation of planar (matrix) quantum mechanics, we illustrate its effectiveness in a non-trivial supersymmetric example. The numerical and analytical study of two sectors of the model, as a function of 't Hooft's coupling $\\lambda$, reveals both a phase transition at $\\lambda=1$ (disappearence of the mass gap and discontinuous jump in Witten's index) and a new form of strong-weak duality for $\\lambda \\to 1/\\lambda$.

  14. Examples of use of the database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillemot, F [Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Davies, L M [Davies Consultants, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Databases on ageing are generally used for elaboration of trend curves, and development of new steel types. Moreover they can be used for enhancing PTS evaluations. By more detailed PTS evaluation the calculated lifetime will be longer and resulting in the utilities being able to decrease the cost of life management efforts. The paper introduces three examples of database use related to PTS evaluation. (author). 4 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab.

  15. Time perception: the bad news and the good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, William J; Meck, Warren H

    2014-01-01

    Time perception is fundamental and heavily researched, but the field faces a number of obstacles to theoretical progress. In this advanced review, we focus on three pieces of ‘bad news’ for time perception research: temporal perception is highly labile across changes in experimental context and task; there are pronounced individual differences not just in overall performance but in the use of different timing strategies and the effect of key variables; and laboratory studies typically bear little relation to timing in the ‘real world’. We describe recent examples of these issues and in each case offer some ‘good news’ by showing how new research is addressing these challenges to provide rich insights into the neural and information-processing bases of timing and time perception. PMID:25210578

  16. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computer Research and Applications Group; Hush, D.R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  17. An example of the use of robotics in French nuclear power plants the ISIS robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguy, J.; Thirion, H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report how Robotics in French nuclear power plants (NPP) is used to solve maintenance problems. One of the most typical example of the use of robotics in French NPP is the ISIS robot. The first generation of this robot has performed the repair of corroded upper internal structures in Chinon A3 gaz cooled reactor. Two robots of this type have successfully welded more than 200 repair parts in the core without major failure during more than 12,000 hours

  18. Mapping of Technological Opportunities-Labyrinth Seal Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dana W., Sr.

    2006-01-01

    All technological systems evolve based on evolutionary sequences that have repeated throughout history and can be abstracted from the history of technology and patents. These evolutionary sequences represent objective patterns and provide considerable insights that can be used to proactively model future seal concepts. This presentation provides an overview of how to map seal technology into the future using a labyrinth seal example. The mapping process delivers functional descriptions of sequential changes in market/consumer demand, from today s current paradigm to the next major paradigm shift. The future paradigm is developed according to a simple formula: the future paradigm is free of all flaws associated with the current paradigm; it is as far into the future as we can see. Although revolutionary, the vision of the future paradigm is typically not immediately or completely realizable nor is it normally seen as practical. There are several reasons that prevent immediate and complete practical application, such as: 1) Some of the required technological or business resources and knowledge not being available; 2) Availability of other technological or business resources are limited; and/or 3) Some necessary knowledge has not been completely developed. These factors tend to drive the Total Cost of Ownership or Utilization out of an acceptable range and revealing the reasons for the high Total Cost of Ownership or Utilization which provides a clear understanding of research opportunities essential for future developments and defines the current limits of the immediately achievable improvements. The typical roots of high Total Cost of Ownership or Utilization lie in the limited availability or even the absence of essential resources and knowledge necessary for its realization. In order to overcome this obstacle, step-by-step modification of the current paradigm is pursued to evolve from the current situation toward the ideal future, i.e., evolution rather than

  19. Exploration of Rice Husk Compost as an Alternate Organic Manure to Enhance the Productivity of Blackgram in Typic Haplustalf and Typic Rhodustalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanium Thiyageshwari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at using cellulolytic bacterium Enhydrobacter and fungi Aspergillus sp. for preparing compost from rice husk (RH. Further, the prepared compost was tested for their effect on blackgram growth promotion along with different levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF in black soil (typic Haplustalf and red soil (typic Rhodustalf soil. The results revealed that, inoculation with lignocellulolytic fungus (LCF Aspergillus sp. @ 2% was considered as the most efficient method of composting within a short period. Characterization of composted rice husk (CRH was examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM for identifying significant structural changes. At the end of composting, N, P and K content increased with decrease in CO2 evolution, C:N and C:P ratios. In comparison to inorganic fertilization, an increase in grain yield of 16% in typic Haplustalf and 17% in typic Rhodustalf soil over 100% RDF was obtained from the integrated application of CRH@ 5 t ha−1 with 50% RDF and biofertilizers. The crude protein content was maximum with the combined application of CRH, 50% RDF and biofertilizers of 20% and 21% in typic Haplustalf and typic Rhodustalf soils, respectively. Nutrient rich CRH has proved its efficiency on crop growth and soil fertility.

  20. Example-Tracing Tutors: Intelligent Tutor Development for Non-Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.; Sewall, Jonathan; van Velsen, Martin; Popescu, Octav; Demi, Sandra; Ringenberg, Michael; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, we reported on a new Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) technology, example-tracing tutors, that can be built without programming using the Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT). Creating example-tracing tutors was shown to be 4-8 times as cost-effective as estimates for ITS development from the literature. Since 2009, CTAT and its…

  1. Impacts of warming on phytoplankton abundance and phenology in a typical tropical marine ecosystem

    KAUST Repository

    Gittings, John; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Krokos, George; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    In the tropics, thermal stratification (during warm conditions) may contribute to a shallowing of the mixed layer above the nutricline and a reduction in the transfer of nutrients to the surface lit-layer, ultimately limiting phytoplankton growth. Using remotely sensed observations and modelled datasets, we study such linkages in the northern Red Sea (NRS) - a typical tropical marine ecosystem. We assess the interannual variability (1998-2015) of both phytoplankton biomass and phenological indices (timing of bloom initiation, duration and termination) in relation to regional warming. We demonstrate that warmer conditions in the NRS are associated with substantially weaker winter phytoplankton blooms, which initiate later, terminate earlier and are shorter in their overall duration (~ 4 weeks). These alterations are directly linked with the strength of atmospheric forcing (air-sea heat fluxes) and vertical stratification (mixed layer depth [MLD]). The interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is found to be a good indicator of phytoplankton abundance, but appears to be less important for predicting bloom timing. These findings suggest that future climate warming scenarios may have a two-fold impact on phytoplankton growth in tropical marine ecosystems: 1) a reduction in phytoplankton abundance and 2) alterations in the timing of seasonal phytoplankton blooms.

  2. Impacts of warming on phytoplankton abundance and phenology in a typical tropical marine ecosystem

    KAUST Repository

    Gittings, John

    2018-01-29

    In the tropics, thermal stratification (during warm conditions) may contribute to a shallowing of the mixed layer above the nutricline and a reduction in the transfer of nutrients to the surface lit-layer, ultimately limiting phytoplankton growth. Using remotely sensed observations and modelled datasets, we study such linkages in the northern Red Sea (NRS) - a typical tropical marine ecosystem. We assess the interannual variability (1998-2015) of both phytoplankton biomass and phenological indices (timing of bloom initiation, duration and termination) in relation to regional warming. We demonstrate that warmer conditions in the NRS are associated with substantially weaker winter phytoplankton blooms, which initiate later, terminate earlier and are shorter in their overall duration (~ 4 weeks). These alterations are directly linked with the strength of atmospheric forcing (air-sea heat fluxes) and vertical stratification (mixed layer depth [MLD]). The interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is found to be a good indicator of phytoplankton abundance, but appears to be less important for predicting bloom timing. These findings suggest that future climate warming scenarios may have a two-fold impact on phytoplankton growth in tropical marine ecosystems: 1) a reduction in phytoplankton abundance and 2) alterations in the timing of seasonal phytoplankton blooms.

  3. Longitudinal Brain Development of Numerical Skills in Typically Developing Children and Children with Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Ursina; von Aster, Michael; Maurer, Urs; Martin, Ernst; O'Gorman Tuura, Ruth; Kucian, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disability affecting the acquisition of numerical-arithmetical skills. Studies report persistent deficits in number processing and aberrant functional activation of the fronto-parietal numerical network in DD. However, the neural development of numerical abilities has been scarcely investigated. The present paper provides a first attempt to investigate behavioral and neural trajectories of numerical abilities longitudinally in typically developing (TD) and DD children. During a study period of 4 years, 28 children (8-11 years) were evaluated twice by means of neuropsychological tests and a numerical order fMRI paradigm. Over time, TD children improved in numerical abilities and showed a consistent and well-developed fronto-parietal network. In contrast, DD children revealed persistent deficits in number processing and arithmetic. Brain imaging results of the DD group showed an age-related activation increase in parietal regions (intraparietal sulcus), pointing to a delayed development of number processing areas. Besides, an activation increase in frontal areas was observed over time, indicating the use of compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, results suggest a continuation in neural development of number representation in DD, whereas the neural network for simple ordinal number estimation seems to be stable or show only subtle changes in TD children over time.

  4. Longitudinal Brain Development of Numerical Skills in Typically Developing Children and Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursina McCaskey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia (DD is a learning disability affecting the acquisition of numerical-arithmetical skills. Studies report persistent deficits in number processing and aberrant functional activation of the fronto-parietal numerical network in DD. However, the neural development of numerical abilities has been scarcely investigated. The present paper provides a first attempt to investigate behavioral and neural trajectories of numerical abilities longitudinally in typically developing (TD and DD children. During a study period of 4 years, 28 children (8–11 years were evaluated twice by means of neuropsychological tests and a numerical order fMRI paradigm. Over time, TD children improved in numerical abilities and showed a consistent and well-developed fronto-parietal network. In contrast, DD children revealed persistent deficits in number processing and arithmetic. Brain imaging results of the DD group showed an age-related activation increase in parietal regions (intraparietal sulcus, pointing to a delayed development of number processing areas. Besides, an activation increase in frontal areas was observed over time, indicating the use of compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, results suggest a continuation in neural development of number representation in DD, whereas the neural network for simple ordinal number estimation seems to be stable or show only subtle changes in TD children over time.

  5. Postural control of typical developing boys during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Van Geet, Kristel; Hermans, Cedric; Lobet, Sebastien

    2017-02-01

    Literature is lacking information about postural control performance of typically developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. The purpose of the present study was therefore to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a transition task in typical developing age groups as well as to study the correlation between associated balance measures and age.Thirty-three typically developing boys aged 6-20 years performed a standard transition task from DLS to SLS with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Balance features derived from the center of pressure displacement captured by a single force platform were correlated with age on the one hand and considered for differences in the perspective of limb dominance on the other hand.All TDB (typically developing boys) were able to perform the transition task with EO. With respect to EC condition, all TDB from the age group 6-7 years and the youngest of the age group 8-12 years (N = 4) were unable to perform the task. No significant differences were observed between the balance measures of the dominant and non-dominant limbs.With respect to EO condition, correlation analyses indicated that time to new stability point (TNSP) as well as the sway measure after this TNSP were correlated with age (p postural balance of typically developing children during walking, running, sit-to-stand, and bipodal and unipodal stance has been well documented in the literature. • These reference data provided not only insight into the maturation process of the postural control system, but also served in diagnosing and managing functional repercussions of neurological and orthopedic pathologies. What is New: • Objective data regarding postural balance of typical developing children during a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance. • Insight into the role of maturation on the postural control system.

  6. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were

  7. ImageSURF MOAB2 Image Example

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mara, Aidan R; Collins, Jessica M; King, Anna E; Vickers, James C; Kirkcaldie, Matthew T K

    2017-01-01

    A set of 2000x2000 confocal fluorescence images of MOAB2-labelled cortex from APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, sparsely annotated pixel labels and reference segmentation examples. Pixels are annotated as signal (red 0xFFFF0000) and background (blue 0xFF0000FF). Images were captured as stitched 12-bit greyscale single-plane images and cropped to size. Image acquisition was performed at 561nm excitation and 615nm emission wavelengths using a Perkin Elmer Ultraview VOX ima...

  8. On two examples in linear topological spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.

    1985-11-01

    This note first gives examples of B-complete linear topological spaces, and shows that neither the closed graph theorem nor the open mapping theorem holds for linear mappings from such a space to itself. It then looks at Hausdorff linear topological spaces for which coarser Hausdorff linear topologies can be extended from hyperplanes. For B-complete spaces, those which are barrelled necessarily have countable dimension, and conversely. The paper had been motivated by two questions arising in earlier studies related to the closed graph and open mapping theorems; answers to these questions are contained therein. (author)

  9. An example of multidimensional analysis: Discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, P.

    1990-01-01

    Among the approaches on the data multi-dimensional analysis, lectures on the discriminant analysis including theoretical and practical aspects are presented. The discrimination problem, the analysis steps and the discrimination categories are stressed. Examples on the descriptive historical analysis, the discrimination for decision making, the demonstration and separation of the top quark are given. In the linear discriminant analysis the following subjects are discussed: Huyghens theorem, projection, discriminant variable, geometrical interpretation, case for g=2, classification method, separation of the top events. Criteria allowing the obtention of relevant results are included [fr

  10. ETHNIC TOURISM: AN EXAMPLE FROM ISTANBUL, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic Tourism: An Example from Istanbul, Turkey. Globalization has not only produced a trend towards economic integration and cultural homogenization but has also encouraged the preservation of local diversity and of multiculturalism. Whereas in the past ethnic or religious minorities were seen as a threat to the territorial unity of the country, today, increasingly countries are promoting ethnicities to attract tourists. Ethnic tourism is an alternative form of tourism that relies on attracting tourists to see sites connected to the cultural and historical heritage of ethnic minorities. This study explores the potential for ethnic tourism development in Istanbul, a city with a multicultural past and great heritage attractions.

  11. OpenCL programming by example

    CERN Document Server

    Banger, Ravishekhar

    2013-01-01

    This book follows an example-driven, simplified, and practical approach to using OpenCL for general purpose GPU programming.If you are a beginner in parallel programming and would like to quickly accelerate your algorithms using OpenCL, this book is perfect for you! You will find the diverse topics and case studies in this book interesting and informative. You will only require a good knowledge of C programming for this book, and an understanding of parallel implementations will be useful, but not necessary.

  12. Exploratory multivariate analysis by example using R

    CERN Document Server

    Husson, Francois; Pages, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Full of real-world case studies and practical advice, Exploratory Multivariate Analysis by Example Using R focuses on four fundamental methods of multivariate exploratory data analysis that are most suitable for applications. It covers principal component analysis (PCA) when variables are quantitative, correspondence analysis (CA) and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) when variables are categorical, and hierarchical cluster analysis.The authors take a geometric point of view that provides a unified vision for exploring multivariate data tables. Within this framework, they present the prin

  13. Three example applications of optimization techniques to Department of Energy contractor radiation protection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Martin, J.B.; Tawil, J.J.; Selby, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Six numerical examples of optimization of radiation protection are provided in the appendices of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 37 (ICRP83). In each case, the calculations are based on fairly well-defined parameters and assumptions that were well understood. In this paper, we have examined three different numerical examples that are based on empirical data and less certain assumptions. These examples are intended to represent typical applications of optimization principles to the evaluation of specific elements of a radiation protection program. In the first example, the optimum bioassay frequency for certain tritium workers was found to be once every 95 days, which compared well with the recommendations of ICRP Publication 10 (ICRP67). The second example showed that the optimum frequency for recalibrating a group of ''Cutie-Pie'' (CP)-type ionization chamber survey instruments was once every 102 days. In the third example, one continuous air monitor (CAM) was determined to be the optimum number in a workplace of a Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium facility. The optimum location of the CAM was determined from past glovebox release studies

  14. Three example applications of optimization techniques to Department of Energy contractor radiation protection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Martin, J.B.; Tawil, J.J.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Six numerical examples of optimization of radiation protection are provided in the appendices of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication No. 37 (1983). In each case, the calculations were based on well-defined parameters and assumptions. In this paper, we examined three different numerical examples that were based on empirical data and less-certain assumptions. In the first example, the optimum sampling frequency for a typical 3H bioassay program was found to be once every 2 mo. However, this result depended on assumed values for several variables that were difficult to evaluate. The second example showed that the optimum frequency for recalibrating a group of cutie pie (CP) ionization chamber survey instruments was once every 85 d. This result depended largely on the assumption that an improperly operating CP instrument could lead to a serious overexposure. In the third example, one continuous air monitor (CAM) was determined to be the optimum number in a workplace at a Department of Energy (DOE) Pu facility. The optimum location of the CAM was determined from past glove-box release studies. These examples demonstrated that cost-benefit analysis of individual elements of radiation protection programs can be useful even if limited data are available

  15. Gamma knife radiosurgery for typical trigeminal neuralgia: An institutional review of 108 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaimy, Ameer L.; Lamm, Andrew F.; Demakas, John J.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Pfeffer, Robert D.; Cooke, Barton S.; Peressini, Benjamin J.; Lee, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, we present the previously unreported pain relief outcomes of 108 patients treated at Gamma Knife of Spokane for typical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) between 2002 and 2011. Methods: Pain relief outcomes were measured using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity scale. In addition, the effects gender, age at treatment, pain laterality, previous surgical treatment, repeat Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), and maximum radiosurgery dose have on patient pain relief outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using Andersen 95% confidence intervals, approximate confidence intervals for log hazard ratios, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Results: All 108 patients included in this study were grouped into BNI class IV or V prior to GKRS. The median clinical follow-up time was determined to be 15 months. Following the first GKRS procedure, 71% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 31%; II = 3%; IIIa = 19%; IIIb = 18%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 11.8 months. New facial numbness was reported in 19% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 7% of patients after the first GKRS procedure. A total of 19 repeat procedures were performed on the 108 patients included in this study. Following the second GKRS procedure, 73% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 44%; II = 6%; IIIa = 17%, IIIb = 6%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 4.9 months. For repeat procedures, new facial numbness was reported in 22% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 6% of patients. Conclusions: GKRS is a safe and effective management approach for patients diagnosed with typical TN. However, further studies and supporting research is needed on the effects previous surgical treatment, number of radiosurgery procedures, and maximum radiosurgery dose have on GKRS clinical

  16. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968–1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981–2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007–2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981–2007 as the reference period were −81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968–1980, and −117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007–2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought

  17. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968-1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981-2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007-2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981-2007 as the reference period were -81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968-1980, and -117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007-2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought problem in the karst

  18. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Shackle in time - time in Shackle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2015-01-01

    GLS Shackle got much and the crucial inspiration from John Maynard Keynes. But that's not all. He took a number of further consequences of Keynes’ thoughts. This implies for example ideal claims to economists - having to deal with both mechanical time and expectational time. In consequence the idea...

  20. Cosmology and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbi Amedeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.

  1. Inferring time derivatives including cell growth rates using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B. N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta

    2016-12-01

    Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's growth rate is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer growth rates of microbial cells, the rate of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable.

  2. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  3. Time and man

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, L. R. B

    1978-01-01

    Time and Man focuses on the endeavors of humans to probe the mysteries of time and to elucidate its properties. The discussions are both philosophical and factual in nature and encompass science as well as the physical sciences, biology and related disciplines (for example, evolution), and the humanities (for example, religion). Factual information is presented to help the reader gain a better understanding of the concepts associated with time.Comprised of nine chapters, this volume first considers the passage of time and the experiences which humans associate with the concept of time before r

  4. The double feature of musical folkbildning:three Swedish examples

    OpenAIRE

    Brändström, Sture; Söderman, Johan; Thorgersen, Ketil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse three examples of musical folkbildning in Sweden. The first case is from the establishment of the state funded Framnäs Folk High Music School in the middle of the last century. The second case, Hagström’s music education, is from the same time but describes a music school run by a private company. The third case study concerns a contemporary expression of folkbildning, namely hip-hop. The theoretical framework that inspired this article stems from Pie...

  5. Example Work Domain Analysis for a Reference Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. Uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. This report describes how the classical Work Domain Analysis method was adapted to develop operational concept frameworks for new plants. This adaptation of the method is better able to deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method in the operational analysis of sodium-cooled reactors. Insights from this application and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of Work Domain Analysis as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  6. Practical example of the infrastructure protection against rock fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirásko, Daniel; Vaníček, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    The protection of transport infrastructures against rock falls represents for the Czech Republic one of the sensitive questions. Rock falls, similarly as other typical geo-hazards for the Czech Republic, as landslides and floods, can have negative impact on safety and security of these infrastructures. One practical example how to reduce risk of rock fall is described in the paper. Great care is devoted to the visual inspection enabling to indicate places with high potential to failure. With the help of numerical modelling the range of rock fall negative impact is estimated. Protection measures are dealing with two basic ways. The first one utilize the results of numerical modelling for the optimal design of protection measures and the second one is focused on the monitoring of the rock blocks with high potential of instability together with wire-less transfer of measured results. After quick evaluation, e.g. comparison with warning values, some protection measures, mostly connected with closure of the potential sector, can be recommended.

  7. A new method to predict the metadynamic recrystallization behavior in a typical nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ming-Song; Wen, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Ying; He, Dao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behaviors of a typical nickel-based superalloy are investigated by two-pass hot compression tests and four conventional stress-based conventional approaches (offset stress method, back-extrapolation stress method, peak stress method, and mean stress method). It is found that the conventional stress-based methods are not suitable to evaluate the MDRX softening fractions for the studied superalloy. Therefore, a new approach, 'maximum stress method', is proposed to evaluate the MDRX softening fraction. Based on the proposed method, the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, initial average grain size, and interpass time on MDRX behaviors are discussed in detail. Results show that MDRX softening fraction is sensitive to deformation parameters. The MDRX softening fraction rapidly increases with the increase of deformation temperature, strain rate, and interpass time. The MDRX softening fraction in the coarse-grain material is lower than that in the fine-grain material. Moreover, the observed microstructures indicate that the initial coarse grains can be effectively refined by MDRX. Based on the experimental results, the kinetics equations are established and validated to describe the MDRX behaviors of the studied superalloy. (orig.)

  8. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills—a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerl, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a 2-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7; 6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation) was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year). Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development. PMID:23898310

  9. Development of numerical processing in children with typical and dyscalculic arithmetic skills – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eLanderl

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerical processing has been demonstrated to be closely associated with arithmetic skills, however, our knowledge on the development of the relevant cognitive mechanisms is limited. The present longitudinal study investigated the developmental trajectories of numerical processing in 42 children with age-adequate arithmetic development and 41 children with dyscalculia over a two-year period from beginning of Grade 2, when children were 7;6 years old, to beginning of Grade 4. A battery of numerical processing tasks (dot enumeration, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison of one- and two-digit numbers, physical comparison, number line estimation was given five times during the study (beginning and middle of each school year. Efficiency of numerical processing was a very good indicator of development in numerical processing while within-task effects remained largely constant and showed low long-term stability before middle of Grade 3. Children with dyscalculia showed less efficient numerical processing reflected in specifically prolonged response times. Importantly, they showed consistently larger slopes for dot enumeration in the subitizing range, an untypically large compatibility effect when processing two-digit numbers, and they were consistently less accurate in placing numbers on a number line. Thus, we were able to identify parameters that can be used in future research to characterize numerical processing in typical and dyscalculic development. These parameters can also be helpful for identification of children who struggle in their numerical development.

  10. "Social, technological, and research responses to potential erosion and sediment disasters in the western United States, with examples from California"

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1985-01-01

    Synopsis - Examples from California are used to illustrate typical responses to erosion and debris flow disasters the United States. Political institutions leave virtually all responsibility for disaster prevention to the lowest levels of government or to individuals. Three circumstances in which disasters occur are discussed: urbanized debris cones, urbanized unstable...

  11. Social, technological, and research responses to potential erosion and sediment disasters in the western United States, with examples from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1985-01-01

    Examples from California are used to illustrate typical responses to erosion and debris flow disasters in the United States. Political institutions leave virtually all responsibility for disaster prevention to the lowest levels of government or to individuals. Three circumstances in which disasters occur are discussed: urbanized debris cones, urbanized unstable...

  12. Predictors and consequences of gender typicality: the mediating role of communality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2013-04-01

    Considerable work has shown the benefits for psychological health of being gender typed (i.e., perceiving oneself in ways that are consistent with one's sex). Nevertheless, little is known about the reasons for the link. In two studies of young adults (total N = 673), we studied (1) the ways in which gender typing is predicted from gender-related interests and personal qualities, and (2) links between gender typing and adjustment (self-esteem and negative emotionality). In the first study, gender typicality was positively predicted by a variety of gender-related characteristics and by communal traits, a female-typed characteristic; gender typicality was also positively associated with adjustment. To clarify the role of communality in predicting gender typicality and its link with adjustment, we conducted a follow-up study examining both gender typicality and "university typicality." Gender typicality was again predicted by gender-related characteristics and communality, and associated with adjustment. Further, university typicality was also predicted by communality and associated with adjustment. Mediation analyses showed that feelings of communality were partly responsible for the links between gender/university typicality and adjustment. Thus, the psychological benefits suggested to accrue from gender typicality may not be specific to gender, but rather may reflect the benefits of normativity in general. These findings were discussed in relation to the broader literature on the relation between identity and adjustment.

  13. Time Management for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Paul R.

    Time management principles can help teachers become more aware of ways in which time can be used to the greatest advantage. An exploration of personal time perspectives is a step toward establishing effective patterns of behavior. Productivity may be high in the morning and low in the late afternoon, for example, and organizing some activities to…

  14. Examples of industrial achievements. [Energy economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Several examples are presented of industrial units concerned by energy economies. The problem, the solution, the energy savings and the financial balance are given for each following case: recuperation of smoke from two glass furnaces with continuous heat and power production; a new type of heating furnace for non-ferrous ingots; heating furnace with smoke recuperation; high-power boiler for very wet barks; smokes to supply heat to buildings and for a dryer; heat pump drying of plaster squares; air-conditioning of a workshop by recuperation on a furnace; dehydration of fodder and beetroot pulp with a straw generator; microprocessor-controlled hot water recuperation in cheese-making; electronic speed regulation for electronic motors.

  15. Evaluation of integrated data sets: four examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Freeman, S.B.; Weaver, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several large data sets have been integrated and utilized for rapid evaluation on a reconnaissance scale for the Montrose 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle, Colorado. The data sets include Landsat imagery, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses, airborne geophysical data, known mineral occurrences, and a geologic map. All data sets were registered to a 179 x 119 rectangular grid and projected onto Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. A grid resolution of 1 km was used. All possible combinations of three, for most data sets, were examined for general geologic correlations by utilizing a color microfilm output. In addition, gray-level pictures of statistical output, e.g., factor analysis, have been employed to aid evaluations. Examples for the data sets dysprosium-calcium, lead-copper-zinc, and equivalent uranium-uranium in water-uranium in sediment are described with respect to geologic applications, base-metal regimes, and geochemical associations

  16. Template for safety reports with descriptive example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This report provides a template for future safety reports on long-term safety in support of important decisions and permit applications in connection with the construction of a deep repository system. The template aims at providing a uniform structure for describing long-term safety, after the repository has been closed and sealed. The availability of such a structure will simplify both preparation and review of the safety reports, and make it possible to follow how safety assessments are influenced by the progressively more detailed body of data that emerges. A separate section containing 'descriptive examples' has been appended to the template. This section illustrates what the different chapters of the template should contain. 279 refs

  17. Selected critical examples of scientometric publication analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This paper selects and outlines factors of central importance in the calculation, presentation and interpretation of publication analysis results from a scientometric perspective. The paper focuses on growth, world share analyses and the logic behind the computation of average numbers...... of authors, institutions or countries per publication indexed by Web of Science. Methodology: The paper uses examples from earlier research evaluation studies and cases based on online data to describe issues, problematic details, pitfalls and how to overcome them in publication analysis with respect...... to analytic tool application, calculation, presentation and interpretation. Results: By means of different kinds of analysis and presentation, the paper provides insight into scientometrics in the context of informetric analysis, selected cases of research productivity, publication patterns and research...

  18. Biominerals- hierarchical nanocomposites: the example of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniash, Elia

    2010-01-01

    Many organisms incorporate inorganic solids in their tissues to enhance their functional, primarily mechanical, properties. These mineralized tissues, also called biominerals, are unique organo-mineral nanocomposites, organized at several hierarchical levels, from nano- to macroscale. Unlike man made composite materials, which often are simple physical blends of their components, the organic and inorganic phases in biominerals interface at the molecular level. Although these tissues are made of relatively weak components at ambient conditions, their hierarchical structural organization and intimate interactions between different elements lead to superior mechanical properties. Understanding basic principles of formation, structure and functional properties of these tissues might lead to novel bioinspired strategies for material design and better treatments for diseases of the mineralized tissues. This review focuses on general principles of structural organization, formation and functional properties of biominerals on the example the bone tissues. PMID:20827739

  19. Intervention levels and countermeasures - philosophy and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.H.; Gjoerup, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Criteria for post-accident dose limitation should not be confused with the ICRP dose limits which only apply to normal conditions in which the radiation source is under control. Unless these limits are considerably exceeded after an accident, the risk would still be very low. Protective measures that involve other risks or undue cost should therefore not be obligatory merely because the dose limits for stochastic effects might be exceeded. Examples of intervention levels for relocation and decontamination of urban environments are derived. These are based solely on objective radiological considerations, the only ones the radiation protection society should put into the decision making process. In practice, political considerations, in addition to radiological considerations, enter the decision making process. In this case, the decision maker should realise that either a lower degree of protection will be given, or additional expenditures and social or economic disruptions may be incurred. (author)

  20. Best Practice Examples of Circular Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva

    Best practice examples of circular business models are presented in this report. The purpose is to inform and inspire interested readers, in particular companies that aspire to examine the potentials of the circular economy. Circular business models in two different sectors are examined, namely...... the textile and clothing sector as well as the durable goods sector. In order to appreciate the notion of circular business models, the basics of the circular economy are outlined along with three frameworks for categorizing the various types of circular business models. The frameworks take point of departure...... in resource loops, value bases and business model archetypes respectively, and they are applied for analysing and organizing the business models that are presented throughout the report. The investigations in the report show that circular business models are relevant to businesses because they hold...