WorldWideScience

Sample records for time step results

  1. Time step MOTA thermostat simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The report details the logic, program layout, and operating procedures for the time-step MOTA (Materials Open Test Assembly) thermostat simulation program known as GYRD. It will enable prospective users to understand the operation of the program, run it, and interpret the results. The time-step simulation analysis was the approach chosen to determine the maximum value gain that could be used to minimize steady temperature offset without risking undamped thermal oscillations. The advantage of the GYRD program is that it directly shows hunting, ringing phenomenon, and similar events. Programs BITT and CYLB are faster, but do not directly show ringing time

  2. Stepping Stones through Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Indo-European mythology is known only through written records but it needs to be understood in terms of the preliterate oral-cultural context in which it was rooted. It is proposed that this world was conceptually organized through a memory-capsule consisting of the current generation and the three before it, and that there was a system of alternate generations with each generation taking a step into the future under the leadership of a white or red king.

  3. Symplectic integrators with adaptive time steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. S.; Finn, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been many attempts to construct symplectic integrators with variable time steps, with rather disappointing results. In this paper, we identify the causes for this lack of performance, and find that they fall into two categories. In the first, the time step is considered a function of time alone, Δ = Δ(t). In this case, backward error analysis shows that while the algorithms remain symplectic, parametric instabilities may arise because of resonance between oscillations of Δ(t) and the orbital motion. In the second category the time step is a function of phase space variables Δ = Δ(q, p). In this case, the system of equations to be solved is analyzed by introducing a new time variable τ with dt = Δ(q, p) dτ. The transformed equations are no longer in Hamiltonian form, and thus do not benefit from integration methods which would be symplectic for Hamiltonian systems. We analyze two methods for integrating the transformed equations which do, however, preserve the structure of the original equations. The first is an extended phase space method, which has been successfully used in previous studies of adaptive time step symplectic integrators. The second, novel, method is based on a non-canonical mixed-variable generating function. Numerical trials for both of these methods show good results, without parametric instabilities or spurious growth or damping. It is then shown how to adapt the time step to an error estimate found by backward error analysis, in order to optimize the time-stepping scheme. Numerical results are obtained using this formulation and compared with other time-stepping schemes for the extended phase space symplectic method.

  4. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  5. Time step length versus efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Valtavirta, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Time step length largely affects efficiency of MC burnup calculations. • Efficiency of MC burnup calculations improves with decreasing time step length. • Results were obtained from SIE-based Monte Carlo burnup calculations. - Abstract: We demonstrate that efficiency of Monte Carlo burnup calculations can be largely affected by the selected time step length. This study employs the stochastic implicit Euler based coupling scheme for Monte Carlo burnup calculations that performs a number of inner iteration steps within each time step. In a series of calculations, we vary the time step length and the number of inner iteration steps; the results suggest that Monte Carlo burnup calculations get more efficient as the time step length is reduced. More time steps must be simulated as they get shorter; however, this is more than compensated by the decrease in computing cost per time step needed for achieving a certain accuracy

  6. Experimental results from a stepped frequency GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Signore

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a nationally funded project, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR has been developed by the Italian Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems (CO.RI.S.T.A.. The system was described in a previous paper (Alberti et al., 2002. As new aspects, the system is a stepped frequency GPR that can work both in gated and ungated mode, and the antennas can be moved automatically in a controlled fashion. As aspects of geophysical interest, the system is exploitable in situations wherein a high resolution and a shallow penetration in the soil (a few meters are required. Possibly, this is an example of probing a landscape. This paper completes the results of Alberti et al. (2002, wherein laboratory tests where described, by providing the main results obtained during an outdoor experimental campaign, performed fi rst in a controlled site and then in an archaeological site.

  7. Time to pause before the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy's development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ''demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...'' which are the important ingredients of ITER's objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here

  8. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  9. Diffeomorphic image registration with automatic time-step adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Klein, S.; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated Euler's time-step adjustment scheme for diffeomorphic image registration using stationary velocity fields (SVFs). The proposed variational problem aims at bounding the inverse consistency error by adaptively adjusting the number of Euler's step required to r...... accuracy as a fixed time-step scheme however at a much less computational cost....

  10. Studies on steps affecting tritium residence time in solid blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru

    1987-01-01

    For the self sustaining of CTR fuel cycle, the effective tritium recovery from blankets is essential. This means that not only tritium breeding ratio must be larger than 1.0, but also high recovering speed is required for the short residence time of tritium in blankets. Short residence time means that the tritium inventory in blankets is small. In this paper, the tritium residence time and tritium inventory in a solid blanket are modeled by considering the steps constituting tritium release. Some of these tritium migration processes were experimentally evaluated. The tritium migration steps in a solid blanket using sintered breeding materials consist of diffusion in grains, desorption at grain edges, diffusion and permeation through grain boundaries, desorption at particle edges, diffusion and percolation through interconnected pores to purging stream, and convective mass transfer to stream. Corresponding to these steps, diffusive, soluble, adsorbed and trapped tritium inventories and the tritium in gas phase are conceivable. The code named TTT was made for calculating these tritium inventories and the residence time of tritium. An example of the results of calculation is shown. The blanket is REPUTER-1, which is the conceptual design of a commercial reversed field pinch fusion reactor studied at the University of Tokyo. The experimental studies on the migration steps of tritium are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm for aerodynamic flows

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann-Tuitman, B.E.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    1997-01-01

    An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm with applications to aerodynamic flows is presented. In the algorithm, in different parts of the computational domain different time steps are taken, and the flow is synchronized at the so-called synchronization levels. The algorithm is validated for aerodynamic turbulent flows. For two-dimensional flows speedups in the order of five with respect to single time stepping are obtained.

  12. Adaptive time-stepping Monte Carlo integration of Coulomb collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkimäki, K.; Hirvijoki, E.; Terävä, J.

    2018-01-01

    We report an accessible and robust tool for evaluating the effects of Coulomb collisions on a test particle in a plasma that obeys Maxwell-Jüttner statistics. The implementation is based on the Beliaev-Budker collision integral which allows both the test particle and the background plasma to be relativistic. The integration method supports adaptive time stepping, which is shown to greatly improve the computational efficiency. The Monte Carlo method is implemented for both the three-dimensional particle momentum space and the five-dimensional guiding center phase space. Detailed description is provided for both the physics and implementation of the operator. The focus is in adaptive integration of stochastic differential equations, which is an overlooked aspect among existing Monte Carlo implementations of Coulomb collision operators. We verify that our operator converges to known analytical results and demonstrate that careless implementation of the adaptive time step can lead to severely erroneous results. The operator is provided as a self-contained Fortran 95 module and can be included into existing orbit-following tools that trace either the full Larmor motion or the guiding center dynamics. The adaptive time-stepping algorithm is expected to be useful in situations where the collision frequencies vary greatly over the course of a simulation. Examples include the slowing-down of fusion products or other fast ions, and the Dreicer generation of runaway electrons as well as the generation of fast ions or electrons with ion or electron cyclotron resonance heating.

  13. Combating cancer one step at a time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N Sugitha Nadarajah

    2016-10-01

    widespread consequences, not only in a medical sense but also socially and economically,” says Dr. Abdel-Rahman. “We need to put in every effort to combat this fatal disease,” he adds.Tackling the spread of cancer and the increase in the number of cases reported every year is not without its challenges, he asserts. “I see the key challenges as the unequal availability of cancer treatments worldwide, the increasing cost of cancer treatment, and the increased median age of the population in many parts of the world, which carries with it a consequent increase in the risk of certain cancers,” he says. “We need to reassess the current pace and orientation of cancer research because, with time, cancer research is becoming industry-oriented rather than academia-oriented — which, in my view, could be very dangerous to the future of cancer research,” adds Dr. Abdel-Rahman. “Governments need to provide more research funding to improve the outcome of cancer patients,” he explains.His efforts and hard work have led to him receiving a number of distinguished awards, namely the UICC International Cancer Technology Transfer (ICRETT fellowship in 2014 at the Investigational New Drugs Unit in the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; EACR travel fellowship in 2015 at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; and also several travel grants to Ireland, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, and many other countries where he attended medical conferences. Dr. Abdel-Rahman is currently engaged in a project to establish a clinical/translational cancer research center at his institute, which seeks to incorporate various cancer-related disciplines in order to produce a real bench-to-bedside practice, hoping that it would “change research that may help shape the future of cancer therapy”.Dr. Abdel-Rahman is also an active founding member of the clinical research unit at his institute and is a representative to the prestigious European Organization for Research and

  14. Considerations for the independent reaction times and step-by-step methods for radiation chemistry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with the water molecules of the tissues mostly by ionizations and excitations, which result in the formation of the radiation track structure and the creation of radiolytic species such as H.,.OH, H2, H2O2, and e-aq. After their creation, these species diffuse and may chemically react with the neighboring species and with the molecules of the medium. Therefore radiation chemistry is of great importance in radiation biology. As the chemical species are not distributed homogeneously, the use of conventional models of homogeneous reactions cannot completely describe the reaction kinetics of the particles. Actually, many simulations of radiation chemistry are done using the Independent Reaction Time (IRT) method, which is a very fast technique to calculate radiochemical yields but which do not calculate the positions of the radiolytic species as a function of time. Step-by-step (SBS) methods, which are able to provide such information, have been used only sparsely because these are time-consuming in terms of calculation. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry. The SBS and IRT methods are both based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). In this paper, several sampling algorithms of the GFDE and for the IRT method are presented. We show that the IRT and SBS methods are exactly equivalent for 2-particles systems for diffusion and partially diffusion-controlled reactions between non-interacting particles. We also show that the results obtained with the SBS simulation method with periodic boundary conditions are in agreement with the predictions by classical reaction kinetics theory, which is an important step towards using this method for modelling of biochemical networks and metabolic pathways involved in oxidative stress. Finally, the first simulation results obtained with the code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) are presented.

  15. An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm for aerodynamic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann-Tuitman, B.E.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    1997-01-01

    An explicit multi-time-stepping algorithm with applications to aerodynamic flows is presented. In the algorithm, in different parts of the computational domain different time steps are taken, and the flow is synchronized at the so-called synchronization levels. The algorithm is validated for

  16. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  17. Time step size selection for radiation diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to describe a time step control technique as applied to radiation diffusion. Standard practice only provides a heuristic criteria related to the relative change in the dependent variables. The authors propose an alternative based on relatively simple physical principles. This time step control applies to methods of solution that are unconditionally stable and converges nonlinearities within a time step in the governing equations. Commonly, nonlinearities in the governing equations are evaluated using existing (old time) data. The authors refer to this as the semi-implicit (SI) method. When a method converges nonlinearities within a time step, the entire governing equation including all nonlinearities is self-consistently evaluated using advance time data (with appropriate time centering for accuracy)

  18. [Collaborative application of BEPS at different time steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Fan, Wen Yi; Tian, Tian

    2016-09-01

    BEPSHourly is committed to simulate the ecological and physiological process of vegetation at hourly time steps, and is often applied to analyze the diurnal change of gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) at site scale because of its more complex model structure and time-consuming solving process. However, daily photosynthetic rate calculation in BEPSDaily model is simpler and less time-consuming, not involving many iterative processes. It is suitable for simulating the regional primary productivity and analyzing the spatial distribution of regional carbon sources and sinks. According to the characteristics and applicability of BEPSDaily and BEPSHourly models, this paper proposed a method of collaborative application of BEPS at daily and hourly time steps. Firstly, BEPSHourly was used to optimize the main photosynthetic parameters: the maximum rate of carboxylation (V c max ) and the maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J max ) at site scale, and then the two optimized parameters were introduced into BEPSDaily model to estimate regional NPP at regional scale. The results showed that optimization of the main photosynthesis parameters based on the flux data could improve the simulate ability of the model. The primary productivity of different forest types in descending order was deciduous broad-leaved forest, mixed forest, coniferous forest in 2011. The collaborative application of carbon cycle models at different steps proposed in this study could effectively optimize the main photosynthesis parameters V c max and J max , simulate the monthly averaged diurnal GPP, NPP, calculate the regional NPP, and analyze the spatial distribution of regional carbon sources and sinks.

  19. Positivity-preserving dual time stepping schemes for gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Bernard

    2018-05-01

    A new approach at discretizing the temporal derivative of the Euler equations is here presented which can be used with dual time stepping. The temporal discretization stencil is derived along the lines of the Cauchy-Kowalevski procedure resulting in cross differences in spacetime but with some novel modifications which ensure the positivity of the discretization coefficients. It is then shown that the so-obtained spacetime cross differences result in changes to the wave speeds and can thus be incorporated within Roe or Steger-Warming schemes (with and without reconstruction-evolution) simply by altering the eigenvalues. The proposed approach is advantaged over alternatives in that it is positivity-preserving for the Euler equations. Further, it yields monotone solutions near discontinuities while exhibiting a truncation error in smooth regions less than the one of the second- or third-order accurate backward-difference-formula (BDF) for either small or large time steps. The high resolution and positivity preservation of the proposed discretization stencils are independent of the convergence acceleration technique which can be set to multigrid, preconditioning, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov, block-implicit, etc. Thus, the current paper also offers the first implicit integration of the time-accurate Euler equations that is positivity-preserving in the strict sense (that is, the density and temperature are guaranteed to remain positive). This is in contrast to all previous positivity-preserving implicit methods which only guaranteed the positivity of the density, not of the temperature or pressure. Several stringent reacting and inert test cases confirm the positivity-preserving property of the proposed method as well as its higher resolution and higher computational efficiency over other second-order and third-order implicit temporal discretization strategies.

  20. Newmark local time stepping on high-performance computing architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Rietmann, Max

    2016-11-25

    In multi-scale complex media, finite element meshes often require areas of local refinement, creating small elements that can dramatically reduce the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to the CFL condition. Local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. We develop an efficient multilevel LTS-Newmark scheme and implement it in a widely used continuous finite element seismic wave-propagation package. In particular, we extend the standard LTS formulation with adaptations to continuous finite element methods that can be implemented very efficiently with very strong element-size contrasts (more than 100×). Capable of running on large CPU and GPU clusters, we present both synthetic validation examples and large scale, realistic application examples to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the method and implementation on thousands of CPU cores and hundreds of GPUs.

  1. Newmark local time stepping on high-performance computing architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietmann, Max, E-mail: max.rietmann@erdw.ethz.ch [Institute for Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland); Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Grote, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.grote@unibas.ch [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Basel (Switzerland); Peter, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.peter@kaust.edu.sa [Institute for Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland); Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Schenk, Olaf, E-mail: olaf.schenk@usi.ch [Institute for Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    In multi-scale complex media, finite element meshes often require areas of local refinement, creating small elements that can dramatically reduce the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to the CFL condition. Local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. We develop an efficient multilevel LTS-Newmark scheme and implement it in a widely used continuous finite element seismic wave-propagation package. In particular, we extend the standard LTS formulation with adaptations to continuous finite element methods that can be implemented very efficiently with very strong element-size contrasts (more than 100x). Capable of running on large CPU and GPU clusters, we present both synthetic validation examples and large scale, realistic application examples to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the method and implementation on thousands of CPU cores and hundreds of GPUs.

  2. Newmark local time stepping on high-performance computing architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Rietmann, Max; Grote, Marcus; Peter, Daniel; Schenk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    In multi-scale complex media, finite element meshes often require areas of local refinement, creating small elements that can dramatically reduce the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to the CFL condition. Local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. We develop an efficient multilevel LTS-Newmark scheme and implement it in a widely used continuous finite element seismic wave-propagation package. In particular, we extend the standard LTS formulation with adaptations to continuous finite element methods that can be implemented very efficiently with very strong element-size contrasts (more than 100×). Capable of running on large CPU and GPU clusters, we present both synthetic validation examples and large scale, realistic application examples to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the method and implementation on thousands of CPU cores and hundreds of GPUs.

  3. The importance of time-stepping errors in ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    Many ocean models use leapfrog time stepping. The Robert-Asselin (RA) filter is usually applied after each leapfrog step, to control the computational mode. However, it will be shown in this presentation that the RA filter generates very large amounts of numerical diapycnal mixing. In some ocean models, the numerical diapycnal mixing from the RA filter is as large as the physical diapycnal mixing. This lowers our confidence in the fidelity of the simulations. In addition to the above problem, the RA filter also damps the physical solution and degrades the numerical accuracy. These two concomitant problems occur because the RA filter does not conserve the mean state, averaged over the three time slices on which it operates. The presenter has recently proposed a simple modification to the RA filter, which does conserve the three-time-level mean state. The modified filter has become known as the Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) filter. When used in conjunction with the leapfrog scheme, the RAW filter eliminates the numerical damping of the physical solution and increases the amplitude accuracy by two orders, yielding third-order accuracy. The phase accuracy is unaffected and remains second-order. The RAW filter can easily be incorporated into existing models of the ocean, typically via the insertion of just a single line of code. Better simulations are obtained, at almost no additional computational expense. Results will be shown from recent implementations of the RAW filter in various ocean models. For example, in the UK Met Office Hadley Centre ocean model, sea-surface temperature and sea-ice biases in the North Atlantic Ocean are found to be reduced. These improvements are encouraging for the use of the RAW filter in other ocean models.

  4. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bescribano@bcamath.org [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); Akhmatskaya, Elena [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Reich, Sebastian [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Mathematik, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Azpiroz, Jon M. [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, Donostia (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

  5. Multi-time-step domain coupling method with energy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahjoubi, N.; Krenk, Steen

    2010-01-01

    the individual time step. It is demonstrated that displacement continuity between the subdomains leads to cancelation of the interface contributions to the energy balance equation, and thus stability and algorithmic damping properties of the original algorithms are retained. The various subdomains can...... by a numerical example using a refined mesh around concentrated forces. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  6. Sharing Steps in the Workplace: Changing Privacy Concerns Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nanna Gorm; Shklovski, Irina

    2016-01-01

    study of a Danish workplace participating in a step counting campaign. We find that concerns of employees who choose to participate and those who choose not to differ. Moreover, privacy concerns of participants develop and change over time. Our findings challenge the assumption that consumers...

  7. A parallel nearly implicit time-stepping scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Botchev, Mike A.; van der Vorst, Henk A.

    2001-01-01

    Across-the-space parallelism still remains the most mature, convenient and natural way to parallelize large scale problems. One of the major problems here is that implicit time stepping is often difficult to parallelize due to the structure of the system. Approximate implicit schemes have been suggested to circumvent the problem. These schemes have attractive stability properties and they are also very well parallelizable. The purpose of this article is to give an overall assessment of the pa...

  8. Multiple time step integrators in ab initio molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.; Markland, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we present two schemes that enable efficient time-scale separation in ab initio calculations: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynamics. This permits computational speedups of up to 4.4x, compared to standard Born-Oppenheimer ab initio molecular dynamics with a 0.5 fs time step, while maintaining the same energy conservation and accuracy

  9. Time step size limitation introduced by the BSSN Gamma Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnetter, Erik, E-mail: schnetter@cct.lsu.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, LA (United States)

    2010-08-21

    Many mesh refinement simulations currently performed in numerical relativity counteract instabilities near the outer boundary of the simulation domain either by changes to the mesh refinement scheme or by changes to the gauge condition. We point out that the BSSN Gamma Driver gauge condition introduces a time step size limitation in a similar manner as a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition, but which is independent of the spatial resolution. We give a didactic explanation of this issue, show why, especially, mesh refinement simulations suffer from it, and point to a simple remedy. (note)

  10. Some Comments on the Behavior of the RELAP5 Numerical Scheme at Very Small Time Steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiselj, Iztok; Cerne, Gregor

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of the RELAP5 code at very short time steps is described, i.e., δt [approximately equal to] 0.01 δx/c. First, the property of the RELAP5 code to trace acoustic waves with 'almost' second-order accuracy is demonstrated. Quasi-second-order accuracy is usually achieved for acoustic waves at very short time steps but can never be achieved for the propagation of nonacoustic temperature and void fraction waves. While this feature may be beneficial for the simulations of fast transients describing pressure waves, it also has an adverse effect: The lack of numerical diffusion at very short time steps can cause typical second-order numerical oscillations near steep pressure jumps. This behavior explains why an automatic halving of the time step, which is used in RELAP5 when numerical difficulties are encountered, in some cases leads to the failure of the simulation.Second, the integration of the stiff interphase exchange terms in RELAP5 is studied. For transients with flashing and/or rapid condensation as the main phenomena, results strongly depend on the time step used. Poor accuracy is achieved with 'normal' time steps (δt [approximately equal to] δx/v) because of the very short characteristic timescale of the interphase mass and heat transfer sources. In such cases significantly different results are predicted with very short time steps because of the more accurate integration of the stiff interphase exchange terms

  11. Errors in Postural Preparation Lead to Increased Choice Reaction Times for Step Initiation in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, John G.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study asked whether older adults were more likely than younger adults to err in the initial direction of their anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) prior to a step (indicating a motor program error), whether initial motor program errors accounted for reaction time differences for step initiation, and whether initial motor program errors were linked to inhibitory failure. Methods. In a stepping task with choice reaction time and simple reaction time conditions, we measured forces under the feet to quantify APA onset and step latency and we used body kinematics to quantify forward movement of center of mass and length of first step. Results. Trials with APA errors were almost three times as common for older adults as for younger adults, and they were nine times more likely in choice reaction time trials than in simple reaction time trials. In trials with APA errors, step latency was delayed, correlation between APA onset and step latency was diminished, and forward motion of the center of mass prior to the step was increased. Participants with more APA errors tended to have worse Stroop interference scores, regardless of age. Conclusions. The results support the hypothesis that findings of slow choice reaction time step initiation in older adults are attributable to inclusion of trials with incorrect initial motor preparation and that these errors are caused by deficits in response inhibition. By extension, the results also suggest that mixing of trials with correct and incorrect initial motor preparation might explain apparent choice reaction time slowing with age in upper limb tasks. PMID:21498431

  12. LHCb time-dependent results

    OpenAIRE

    Calvi, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review reports preliminary results of time-dependent measurements of decays of $B^0$ mesons and $B^0_s$ mesons coming from the analysis of about 36 pb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment during the 2010 run of the Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV.

  13. LHCb time-dependent results

    OpenAIRE

    Calvi, Marta; Collaboration, for the LHCb

    2011-01-01

    This review reports preliminary results of time-dependent measurements of decays of B^0 mesons and B^0_s mesons coming from the analysis of about 36 pb^-1 of data collected by the LHCb experiment during the 2010 run of the Large Hadron Collider at sqrt(s)=7 TeV.

  14. GOTHIC: Gravitational oct-tree code accelerated by hierarchical time step controlling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Yohei; Umemura, Masayuki

    2017-04-01

    The tree method is a widely implemented algorithm for collisionless N-body simulations in astrophysics well suited for GPU(s). Adopting hierarchical time stepping can accelerate N-body simulations; however, it is infrequently implemented and its potential remains untested in GPU implementations. We have developed a Gravitational Oct-Tree code accelerated by HIerarchical time step Controlling named GOTHIC, which adopts both the tree method and the hierarchical time step. The code adopts some adaptive optimizations by monitoring the execution time of each function on-the-fly and minimizes the time-to-solution by balancing the measured time of multiple functions. Results of performance measurements with realistic particle distribution performed on NVIDIA Tesla M2090, K20X, and GeForce GTX TITAN X, which are representative GPUs of the Fermi, Kepler, and Maxwell generation of GPUs, show that the hierarchical time step achieves a speedup by a factor of around 3-5 times compared to the shared time step. The measured elapsed time per step of GOTHIC is 0.30 s or 0.44 s on GTX TITAN X when the particle distribution represents the Andromeda galaxy or the NFW sphere, respectively, with 224 = 16,777,216 particles. The averaged performance of the code corresponds to 10-30% of the theoretical single precision peak performance of the GPU.

  15. New Results on Timed Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourke, Timothy; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we have proposed a new design theory for timed systems. This theory, building on Timed I/O Automata with game semantics, includes clas- sical operators like satisfaction, consistency, logical composition and structural composition. This paper presents a new efficient algorithm for check...

  16. Implementing a stepped-care approach in primary care: results of a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franx Gerdien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC was initiated in the Netherlands. Methods Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT. Results The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring, were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method, and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT

  17. Aggressive time step selection for the time asymptotic velocity diffusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, D.W.; Krapchev, V.B.; Hizanidis, K.; Bers, A.

    1984-12-01

    An aggressive time step selector for an ADI algorithm is preseneted that is applied to the linearized 2-D Fokker-Planck equation including an externally imposed quasilinear diffusion term. This method provides a reduction in CPU requirements by factors of two or three compared to standard ADI. More important, the robustness of the procedure greatly reduces the work load of the user. The procedure selects a nearly optimal Δt with a minimum of intervention by the user thus relieving the need to supervise the algorithm. In effect, the algorithm does its own supervision by discarding time steps made with Δt too large

  18. Steps Toward Identifying PAHs: A Child's Garden of Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.

    2005-01-01

    Based on over two decades of experimental, observational and theoretical studies by scientists around the world. It is now widely accepted that the composite emission of mixtures of vibrationally-excited PAHs and PAH ions can accommodate the general pattern of band positions, intensities, and profiles observed in the discreet IR emission features of carbon-rich interstellar dust, as well as the variations in those characteristics. These variations provide insight into the detailed nature of the emitting PAH population and reflect conditions within the emitting regions giving the population enormous potential as probes of astrophysical environments. Moreover, the ubiquity and abundance of this material has impacts that extend well beyond the IR. In this presentation we will examine recent, combined experimental, theoretical, and observational studies that indicate that nitrogen-substituted PAHs represent an important component of the interstellar dust population, and we will go on to explore some of the ramifications of this result. We will also explore the results of recent experimental studies of the strong, low-lying electronic transitions of ionized PAH ions in the Near-IR (0.7 - 2.5 microns) and explore the role that these transitions might play in pumping the PAH IR emission in regions of low-excitation.

  19. The hyperbolic step potential: Anti-bound states, SUSY partners and Wigner time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadella, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Kuru, Ş. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J., E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica and IMUVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    We study the scattering produced by a one dimensional hyperbolic step potential, which is exactly solvable and shows an unusual interest because of its asymmetric character. The analytic continuation of the scattering matrix in the momentum representation has a branch cut and an infinite number of simple poles on the negative imaginary axis which are related with the so called anti-bound states. This model does not show resonances. Using the wave functions of the anti-bound states, we obtain supersymmetric (SUSY) partners which are the series of Rosen–Morse II potentials. We have computed the Wigner reflection and transmission time delays for the hyperbolic step and such SUSY partners. Our results show that the more bound states a partner Hamiltonian has the smaller is the time delay. We also have evaluated time delays for the hyperbolic step potential in the classical case and have obtained striking similitudes with the quantum case. - Highlights: • The scattering matrix of hyperbolic step potential is studied. • The scattering matrix has a branch cut and an infinite number of poles. • The poles are associated to anti-bound states. • Susy partners using antibound states are computed. • Wigner time delays for the hyperbolic step and partner potentials are compared.

  20. The large discretization step method for time-dependent partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haras, Zigo; Taasan, Shlomo

    1995-01-01

    A new method for the acceleration of linear and nonlinear time dependent calculations is presented. It is based on the Large Discretization Step (LDS) approximation, defined in this work, which employs an extended system of low accuracy schemes to approximate a high accuracy discrete approximation to a time dependent differential operator. Error bounds on such approximations are derived. These approximations are efficiently implemented in the LDS methods for linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations, presented here. In these algorithms the high and low accuracy schemes are interpreted as the same discretization of a time dependent operator on fine and coarse grids, respectively. Thus, a system of correction terms and corresponding equations are derived and solved on the coarse grid to yield the fine grid accuracy. These terms are initialized by visiting the fine grid once in many coarse grid time steps. The resulting methods are very general, simple to implement and may be used to accelerate many existing time marching schemes.

  1. Step-2 Thai Medical Licensing Examination result: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanvarie, Samkaew; Prakunhungsit, Supavadee

    2008-12-01

    The Thai medical students sat for the Medical Licensing Examination of Thailand (MLET) Step 2 for the first time in 2008. This paper analysed the first batch of Ramathibodi students taking the MLET Steps 1 and 2 in 2006 and 2008 respectively. The scores from the MLET Steps1 and 2, and fifth-year cumulative grade point averages (GPAX) of 108 students were analysed. Only 6 (5.6%) students failed the MLET Step 2 examination. Students who failed the MLET Step1 were more likely to fail their MLET Step 2 (relative risk, 5.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-26.0). Students with low GPAX or scoring in the lowest quintile or tertile on the MLET Step1 were also at increased risk of failing the LET Step 2. The data suggest that performance on the MLET Step 1 and GPAX are important predictors of a student's chances of passing the MLET Step 2. Students with poor academic achievement or failing the MLET Step1 should be given intensive tutorials to pass the medical licensing examination.

  2. Enforcing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition in explicitly conservative local time stepping schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2018-04-01

    An optimally efficient explicit numerical scheme for solving fluid dynamics equations, or any other parabolic or hyperbolic system of partial differential equations, should allow local regions to advance in time with their own, locally constrained time steps. However, such a scheme can result in violation of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition, which is manifestly non-local. Although the violations can be considered to be "weak" in a certain sense and the corresponding numerical solution may be stable, such calculation does not guarantee the correct propagation speed for arbitrary waves. We use an experimental fluid dynamics code that allows cubic "patches" of grid cells to step with independent, locally constrained time steps to demonstrate how the CFL condition can be enforced by imposing a constraint on the time steps of neighboring patches. We perform several numerical tests that illustrate errors introduced in the numerical solutions by weak CFL condition violations and show how strict enforcement of the CFL condition eliminates these errors. In all our tests the strict enforcement of the CFL condition does not impose a significant performance penalty.

  3. Development of a real time activity monitoring Android application utilizing SmartStep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Footwear based activity monitoring systems are becoming popular in academic research as well as consumer industry segments. In our previous work, we had presented developmental aspects of an insole based activity and gait monitoring system-SmartStep, which is a socially acceptable, fully wireless and versatile insole. The present work describes the development of an Android application that captures the SmartStep data wirelessly over Bluetooth Low energy (BLE), computes features on the received data, runs activity classification algorithms and provides real time feedback. The development of activity classification methods was based on the the data from a human study involving 4 participants. Participants were asked to perform activities of sitting, standing, walking, and cycling while they wore SmartStep insole system. Multinomial Logistic Discrimination (MLD) was utilized in the development of machine learning model for activity prediction. The resulting classification model was implemented in an Android Smartphone. The Android application was benchmarked for power consumption and CPU loading. Leave one out cross validation resulted in average accuracy of 96.9% during model training phase. The Android application for real time activity classification was tested on a human subject wearing SmartStep resulting in testing accuracy of 95.4%.

  4. Elderly fallers enhance dynamic stability through anticipatory postural adjustments during a choice stepping reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Tisserand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the case of disequilibrium, the capacity to step quickly is critical to avoid falling for elderly. This capacity can be simply assessed through the choice stepping reaction time test (CSRT, where elderly fallers (F take longer to step than elderly non-fallers (NF. However, reasons why elderly F elongate their stepping time remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to assess the characteristics of anticipated postural adjustments (APA that elderly F develop in a stepping context and their consequences on the dynamic stability. 44 community-dwelling elderly subjects (20 F and 22 NF performed a CSRT where kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected. Variables were analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Results for F compared to NF showed that stepping time is elongated, due to a longer APA phase. During APA, they seem to use two distinct balance strategies, depending on the axis: in the anteroposterior direction, we measured a smaller backward movement and slower peak velocity of the center of pressure (CoP; in the mediolateral direction, the CoP movement was similar in amplitude and peak velocity between groups but lasted longer. The biomechanical consequence of both strategies was an increased margin of stability (MoS at foot-off, in the respective direction. By elongating their APA, elderly F use a safer balance strategy that prioritizes dynamic stability conditions instead of the objective of the task. Such a choice in balance strategy probably comes from muscular limitations and/or a higher fear of falling and paradoxically indicates an increased risk of fall.

  5. Coherent states for the time dependent harmonic oscillator: the step function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya-Cessa, Hector; Fernandez Guasti, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    We study the time evolution for the quantum harmonic oscillator subjected to a sudden change of frequency. It is based on an approximate analytic solution to the time dependent Ermakov equation for a step function. This approach allows for a continuous treatment that differs from former studies that involve the matching of two time independent solutions at the time when the step occurs

  6. Multi-step-prediction of chaotic time series based on co-evolutionary recurrent neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qianli; Zheng Qilun; Peng Hong; Qin Jiangwei; Zhong Tanwei

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a co-evolutionary recurrent neural network (CERNN) for the multi-step-prediction of chaotic time series, it estimates the proper parameters of phase space reconstruction and optimizes the structure of recurrent neural networks by co-evolutionary strategy. The searching space was separated into two subspaces and the individuals are trained in a parallel computational procedure. It can dynamically combine the embedding method with the capability of recurrent neural network to incorporate past experience due to internal recurrence. The effectiveness of CERNN is evaluated by using three benchmark chaotic time series data sets: the Lorenz series, Mackey-Glass series and real-world sun spot series. The simulation results show that CERNN improves the performances of multi-step-prediction of chaotic time series

  7. A coupled weather generator - rainfall-runoff approach on hourly time steps for flood risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Benjamin; Schneeberger, Klaus; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Huttenlau, Matthias; Merz, Bruno; Stötter, Johann

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of potential monetary damage of flooding is an essential part of flood risk management. One possibility to estimate the monetary risk is to analyze long time series of observed flood events and their corresponding damages. In reality, however, only few flood events are documented. This limitation can be overcome by the generation of a set of synthetic, physically and spatial plausible flood events and subsequently the estimation of the resulting monetary damages. In the present work, a set of synthetic flood events is generated by a continuous rainfall-runoff simulation in combination with a coupled weather generator and temporal disaggregation procedure for the study area of Vorarlberg (Austria). Most flood risk studies focus on daily time steps, however, the mesoscale alpine study area is characterized by short concentration times, leading to large differences between daily mean and daily maximum discharge. Accordingly, an hourly time step is needed for the simulations. The hourly metrological input for the rainfall-runoff model is generated in a two-step approach. A synthetic daily dataset is generated by a multivariate and multisite weather generator and subsequently disaggregated to hourly time steps with a k-Nearest-Neighbor model. Following the event generation procedure, the negative consequences of flooding are analyzed. The corresponding flood damage for each synthetic event is estimated by combining the synthetic discharge at representative points of the river network with a loss probability relation for each community in the study area. The loss probability relation is based on exposure and susceptibility analyses on a single object basis (residential buildings) for certain return periods. For these impact analyses official inundation maps of the study area are used. Finally, by analyzing the total event time series of damages, the expected annual damage or losses associated with a certain probability of occurrence can be estimated for

  8. Formulation of an explicit-multiple-time-step time integration method for use in a global primitive equation grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    With appropriate modifications, a recently proposed explicit-multiple-time-step scheme (EMTSS) is incorporated into the UCLA model. In this scheme, the linearized terms in the governing equations that generate the gravity waves are split into different vertical modes. Each mode is integrated with an optimal time step, and at periodic intervals these modes are recombined. The other terms are integrated with a time step dictated by the CFL condition for low-frequency waves. This large time step requires a special modification of the advective terms in the polar region to maintain stability. Test runs for 72 h show that EMTSS is a stable, efficient and accurate scheme.

  9. Two-Step Time of Arrival Estimation for Pulse-Based Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vincent Poor

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In cooperative localization systems, wireless nodes need to exchange accurate position-related information such as time-of-arrival (TOA and angle-of-arrival (AOA, in order to obtain accurate location information. One alternative for providing accurate position-related information is to use ultra-wideband (UWB signals. The high time resolution of UWB signals presents a potential for very accurate positioning based on TOA estimation. However, it is challenging to realize very accurate positioning systems in practical scenarios, due to both complexity/cost constraints and adverse channel conditions such as multipath propagation. In this paper, a two-step TOA estimation algorithm is proposed for UWB systems in order to provide accurate TOA estimation under practical constraints. In order to speed up the estimation process, the first step estimates a coarse TOA of the received signal based on received signal energy. Then, in the second step, the arrival time of the first signal path is estimated by considering a hypothesis testing approach. The proposed scheme uses low-rate correlation outputs and is able to perform accurate TOA estimation in reasonable time intervals. The simulation results are presented to analyze the performance of the estimator.

  10. Measles in Pakistan: Time to make steps towards eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Inayat Ur; Bukhsh, Allah; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    World Health Organization (WHO) measles surveillance data report a reduction in cases of measles globally from 67,524 cases in 2015 to 16,846 in 2016, and a reduction in deaths from 546,800 to 114,900 during period of 2000-14. Pakistan is among the five nations where almost a million children did not receive their first dose of measles vaccination, and outbreaks of the disease resulted in 4386 cases in 2011, 14,687 cases in 2012 with 310 deaths. In 2013, about 25,401 cases of measles were reported and 321 affected children died. The measles vaccination coverage is very low in Pakistan for both 1st dose and booster dose. To prevent outbreaks of measles in Pakistan a national vaccination program should be launched side by side with a polio eradication program in each district and township and a campaign should be launched to educate parents on measles vaccination for childrens to reduce the measles case fatality rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solving point reactor kinetic equations by time step-size adaptable numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Chaqing

    2007-01-01

    Based on the analysis of effects of time step-size on numerical solutions, this paper showed the necessity of step-size adaptation. Based on the relationship between error and step-size, two-step adaptation methods for solving initial value problems (IVPs) were introduced. They are Two-Step Method and Embedded Runge-Kutta Method. PRKEs were solved by implicit Euler method with step-sizes optimized by using Two-Step Method. It was observed that the control error has important influence on the step-size and the accuracy of solutions. With suitable control errors, the solutions of PRKEs computed by the above mentioned method are accurate reasonably. The accuracy and usage of MATLAB built-in ODE solvers ode23 and ode45, both of which adopt Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, were also studied and discussed. (authors)

  12. On an efficient multiple time step Monte Carlo simulation of the SABR model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitao Rodriguez, A.; Grzelak, L.A.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a multiple time step Monte Carlo simulation technique for pricing options under the Stochastic Alpha Beta Rho model. The proposed method is an extension of the one time step Monte Carlo method that we proposed in an accompanying paper Leitao et al. [Appl. Math.

  13. An adaptive time-stepping strategy for solving the phase field crystal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengru; Ma, Yuan; Qiao, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we will propose an adaptive time step method for simulating the dynamics of the phase field crystal (PFC) model. The numerical simulation of the PFC model needs long time to reach steady state, and then large time-stepping method is necessary. Unconditionally energy stable schemes are used to solve the PFC model. The time steps are adaptively determined based on the time derivative of the corresponding energy. It is found that the use of the proposed time step adaptivity cannot only resolve the steady state solution, but also the dynamical development of the solution efficiently and accurately. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the CPU time is significantly saved for long time simulations

  14. Effect of the processing steps on compositions of table olive since harvesting time to pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Nasim; Sahari, Mohammad A; Vanak, Zahra Piravi; Safafar, Hamed; Boland-nazar, Seyed A

    2013-08-01

    Weight, oil, fatty acids, tocopherol, polyphenol, and sterol properties of 5 olive cultivars (Zard, Fishomi, Ascolana, Amigdalolia, and Conservalia) during crude, lye treatment, washing, fermentation, and pasteurization steps were studied. Results showed: oil percent was higher and lower in Ascolana (crude step) and in Fishomi (pasteurization step), respectively; during processing steps, in all cultivars, oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were higher; the highest changes in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were in fermentation step; the highest and the lowest ratios of ω3 / ω6 were in Ascolana (washing step) and in Zard (pasteurization step), respectively; the highest and the lowest tocopherol were in Amigdalolia and Fishomi, respectively, and major damage occurred in lye step; the highest and the lowest polyphenols were in Ascolana (crude step) and in Zard and Ascolana (pasteurization step), respectively; the major damage among cultivars occurred during lye step, in which the polyphenol reduced to 1/10 of first content; sterol did not undergo changes during steps. Reviewing of olive patents shows that many compositions of fruits such as oil quality, fatty acids, quantity and its fraction can be changed by alteration in cultivar and process.

  15. Adaptive Time Stepping for Transient Network Flow Simulation in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; Ravindran, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid and thermal transients found in rocket propulsion systems such as propellant feedline system is a complex process involving fast phases followed by slow phases. Therefore their time accurate computation requires use of short time step initially followed by the use of much larger time step. Yet there are instances that involve fast-slow-fast phases. In this paper, we present a feedback control based adaptive time stepping algorithm, and discuss its use in network flow simulation of fluid and thermal transients. The time step is automatically controlled during the simulation by monitoring changes in certain key variables and by feedback. In order to demonstrate the viability of time adaptivity for engineering problems, we applied it to simulate water hammer and cryogenic chill down in pipelines. Our comparison and validation demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this adaptive strategy.

  16. Imaginary Time Step Method to Solve the Dirac Equation with Nonlocal Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Liang Haozhao; Meng Jie

    2009-01-01

    The imaginary time step (ITS) method is applied to solve the Dirac equation with nonlocal potentials in coordinate space. Taking the nucleus 12 C as an example, even with nonlocal potentials, the direct ITS evolution for the Dirac equation still meets the disaster of the Dirac sea. However, following the recipe in our former investigation, the disaster can be avoided by the ITS evolution for the corresponding Schroedinger-like equation without localization, which gives the convergent results exactly the same with those obtained iteratively by the shooting method with localized effective potentials.

  17. Rigid Body Sampling and Individual Time Stepping for Rigid-Fluid Coupling of Fluid Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient and simple rigid-fluid coupling scheme with scientific programming algorithms for particle-based fluid simulation and three-dimensional visualization. Our approach samples the surface of rigid bodies with boundary particles that interact with fluids. It contains two procedures, that is, surface sampling and sampling relaxation, which insures uniform distribution of particles with less iterations. Furthermore, we present a rigid-fluid coupling scheme integrating individual time stepping to rigid-fluid coupling, which gains an obvious speedup compared to previous method. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  18. The enhancement of time-stepping procedures in SYVAC A/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarises the work carried out an SYVAC A/C between February and May 1985 aimed at improving the way in which time-stepping procedures are handled. The majority of the work was concerned with three types of problem, viz: i) Long vault release, short geosphere response ii) Short vault release, long geosphere response iii) Short vault release, short geosphere response The report contains details of changes to the logic and structure of SYVAC A/C, as well as the results of code implementation tests. It has been written primarily for members of the UK SYVAC development team, and should not be used or referred to in isolation. (author)

  19. Combined Effects of Numerical Method Type and Time Step on Water Stressed Actual Crop ET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ghahraman

    2016-02-01

    .7. Therefore, nine different classes were formed by combination of three crop types and three soil class types. Then, the results of numerical methods were compared to the analytical solution of the soil moisture differential equation as a datum. Three factors (time step, initial soil water content, and maximum evaporation, ETc were considered as influencing variables. Results and Discussion: It was clearly shown that as the crops becomes more sensitive, the dependency of Eta to ETc increases. The same is true as the soil becomes fine textured. The results showed that as water stress progress during the time step, relative errors of computed ET by different numerical methods did not depend on initial soil moisture. On overall and irrespective to soil tpe, crop type, and numerical method, relative error increased by increasing time step and/or increasing ETc. On overall, the absolute errors were negative for implicit Euler and third order Heun, while for other methods were positive. There was a systematic trend for relative error, as it increased by sandier soil and/or crop sensitivity. Absolute errors of ET computations decreased with consecutive time steps, which ensures the stability of water balance predictions. It was not possible to prescribe a unique numerical method for considering all variables. For comparing the numerical methods, however, we took the largest relative error corresponding to 10-day time step and ETc equal to 12 mm.d-1, while considered soil and crop types as variable. Explicit Euler was unstable and varied between 40% and 150%. Implicit Euler was robust and its relative error was around 20% for all combinations of soil and crop types. Unstable pattern was governed for modified Euler. The relative error was as low as 10% only for two cases while on overall it ranged between 20% and 100%. Although the relative errors of third order Heun were the smallest among the all methods, its robustness was not as good as implicit Euler method. Excluding one large

  20. Molecular dynamics based enhanced sampling of collective variables with very large time steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yang; Tuckerman, Mark E.

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced sampling techniques that target a set of collective variables and that use molecular dynamics as the driving engine have seen widespread application in the computational molecular sciences as a means to explore the free-energy landscapes of complex systems. The use of molecular dynamics as the fundamental driver of the sampling requires the introduction of a time step whose magnitude is limited by the fastest motions in a system. While standard multiple time-stepping methods allow larger time steps to be employed for the slower and computationally more expensive forces, the maximum achievable increase in time step is limited by resonance phenomena, which inextricably couple fast and slow motions. Recently, we introduced deterministic and stochastic resonance-free multiple time step algorithms for molecular dynamics that solve this resonance problem and allow ten- to twenty-fold gains in the large time step compared to standard multiple time step algorithms [P. Minary et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150201 (2004); B. Leimkuhler et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 3579-3594 (2013)]. These methods are based on the imposition of isokinetic constraints that couple the physical system to Nosé-Hoover chains or Nosé-Hoover Langevin schemes. In this paper, we show how to adapt these methods for collective variable-based enhanced sampling techniques, specifically adiabatic free-energy dynamics/temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics, unified free-energy dynamics, and by extension, metadynamics, thus allowing simulations employing these methods to employ similarly very large time steps. The combination of resonance-free multiple time step integrators with free-energy-based enhanced sampling significantly improves the efficiency of conformational exploration.

  1. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

  2. Five-step neck lift: integrating anatomy with clinical practice to optimize results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kailash; Stuzin, James M; Rohrich, Rod J

    2013-08-01

    A harmonious and youthful appearing neckline is arguably the most vital aspect of a successful facial rejuveation. Without sound principles, the neck appears skeletonized, tethered, and hollow. The anatomical studies that the authors have performed regarding the neck, jowl, and subplatysmal elements have influenced the techniques that they now use. The authors' approach modifies the classic techniques of the past, and seeks a nuanced approach to each patient by resuspension and reshaping of deeper neck elements. In this article, the authors apply their anatomical research and cadaveric studies to demonstrate and support their neck-lift techniques. The authors integrate their knowledge to describe how the technique of one of the senior authors (R.J.R.) has evolved over time. The main tenets of the authors' approach have evolved into a sequence that involves skin undermining over the neck and cheek, submental access to the neck, with possible excision of fat and midline plication of the platysma with release of the muscle inferiorly, platysmal window suspension laterally, precise release of the mandibular septum and ligament if needed, and finally redraping of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) by plication or SMASecomy. These five steps ensure correction of jowling, a smooth jawline, and a well-shaped neck. The five-step neck lift helps to optimize results in creating the ideal neck contour. The authors provide four points that should be considered in any neck-lift procedure. The end result is a well-defined, well-contoured neck, with an approach grounded in sound anatomical principles.

  3. Discrete maximal regularity of time-stepping schemes for fractional evolution equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bangti; Li, Buyang; Zhou, Zhi

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we establish the maximal [Formula: see text]-regularity for several time stepping schemes for a fractional evolution model, which involves a fractional derivative of order [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], in time. These schemes include convolution quadratures generated by backward Euler method and second-order backward difference formula, the L1 scheme, explicit Euler method and a fractional variant of the Crank-Nicolson method. The main tools for the analysis include operator-valued Fourier multiplier theorem due to Weis (Math Ann 319:735-758, 2001. doi:10.1007/PL00004457) and its discrete analogue due to Blunck (Stud Math 146:157-176, 2001. doi:10.4064/sm146-2-3). These results generalize the corresponding results for parabolic problems.

  4. Implementation of Real-Time Machining Process Control Based on Fuzzy Logic in a New STEP-NC Compatible System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementing real-time machining process control at shop floor has great significance on raising the efficiency and quality of product manufacturing. A framework and implementation methods of real-time machining process control based on STEP-NC are presented in this paper. Data model compatible with ISO 14649 standard is built to transfer high-level real-time machining process control information between CAPP systems and CNC systems, in which EXPRESS language is used to define new STEP-NC entities. Methods for implementing real-time machining process control at shop floor are studied and realized on an open STEP-NC controller, which is developed using object-oriented, multithread, and shared memory technologies conjunctively. Cutting force at specific direction of machining feature in side mill is chosen to be controlled object, and a fuzzy control algorithm with self-adjusting factor is designed and embedded in the software CNC kernel of STEP-NC controller. Experiments are carried out to verify the proposed framework, STEP-NC data model, and implementation methods for real-time machining process control. The results of experiments prove that real-time machining process control tasks can be interpreted and executed correctly by the STEP-NC controller at shop floor, in which actual cutting force is kept around ideal value, whether axial cutting depth changes suddenly or continuously.

  5. A multi-time-step noise reduction method for measuring velocity statistics from particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicoane, Nathanaël; López-Caballero, Miguel; Bourgoin, Mickael; Aliseda, Alberto; Volk, Romain

    2017-10-01

    We present a method to improve the accuracy of velocity measurements for fluid flow or particles immersed in it, based on a multi-time-step approach that allows for cancellation of noise in the velocity measurements. Improved velocity statistics, a critical element in turbulent flow measurements, can be computed from the combination of the velocity moments computed using standard particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques for data sets that have been collected over different values of time intervals between images. This method produces Eulerian velocity fields and Lagrangian velocity statistics with much lower noise levels compared to standard PIV or PTV measurements, without the need of filtering and/or windowing. Particle displacement between two frames is computed for multiple different time-step values between frames in a canonical experiment of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The second order velocity structure function of the flow is computed with the new method and compared to results from traditional measurement techniques in the literature. Increased accuracy is also demonstrated by comparing the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy measured from this function against previously validated measurements.

  6. One-step electrodeposition process of CuInSe2: Deposition time effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CuInSe2 thin films were prepared by one-step electrodeposition process using a simplified two- electrodes system. ... homojunctions or heterojunctions (Rincon et al 1983). Efficiency of ... deposition times onto indium thin oxide (ITO)-covered.

  7. Stability analysis and time-step limits for a Monte Carlo Compton-scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jeffery D.; Warsa, James S.; Lowrie, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method for simulating Compton scattering in high energy density applications has been presented that models the photon-electron collision kinematics exactly [E. Canfield, W.M. Howard, E.P. Liang, Inverse Comptonization by one-dimensional relativistic electrons, Astrophys. J. 323 (1987) 565]. However, implementing this technique typically requires an explicit evaluation of the material temperature, which can lead to unstable and oscillatory solutions. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of this Monte Carlo method and develop two time-step limits that avoid undesirable behavior. The first time-step limit prevents instabilities, while the second, more restrictive time-step limit avoids both instabilities and nonphysical oscillations. With a set of numerical examples, we demonstrate the efficacy of these time-step limits.

  8. Intake flow and time step analysis in the modeling of a direct injection Diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zancanaro Junior, Flavio V.; Vielmo, Horacio A. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.], E-mails: zancanaro@mecanica.ufrgs.br, vielmoh@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses the effects of the time step on turbulence flow structure in the intake and in-cylinder systems of a Diesel engine during the intake process, under the motored condition. The three-dimensional modeling of a reciprocating engine geometry comprising a bowl-in-piston combustion chamber, intake port of shallow ramp helical type and exhaust port of conventional type. The equations are numerically solved, including a transient analysis, valves and piston movements, for engine speed of 1500 rpm, using a commercial Finite Volumes CFD code. A parallel computation is employed. For the purpose of examining the in-cylinder turbulence characteristics two parameters are observed: the discharge coefficient and swirl ratio. This two parameters quantify the fluid flow characteristics inside cylinder in the intake stroke, therefore, it is very important their study and understanding. Additionally, the evolution of the discharge coefficient and swirl ratio, along crank angle, are correlated and compared, with the objective of clarifying the physical mechanisms. Regarding the turbulence, computations are performed with the Eddy Viscosity Model k-u SST, in its Low-Reynolds approaches, with standard near wall treatment. The system of partial differential equations to be solved consists of the Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations with the constitutive relations for an ideal gas, and using a segregated solution algorithm. The enthalpy equation is also solved. A moving hexahedral trimmed mesh independence study is presented. In the same way many convergence tests are performed, and a secure criterion established. The results of the pressure fields are shown in relation to vertical plane that passes through the valves. Areas of low pressure can be seen in the valve curtain region, due to strong jet flows. Also, it is possible to note divergences between the time steps, mainly for the smaller time step. (author)

  9. Error Analysis of a Fractional Time-Stepping Technique for Incompressible Flows with Variable Density

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J.-L.; Salgado, Abner J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the convergence properties of a new fractional time-stepping technique for the solution of the variable density incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main feature of this method is that, contrary to other existing algorithms, the pressure is determined by just solving one Poisson equation per time step. First-order error estimates are proved, and stability of a formally second-order variant of the method is established. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  10. The superomedial thigh flap in scrotal reconstruction: Technical steps to improve cosmetic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayat Allah Oufkir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The superomedial thigh flap is a reliable and easy method for scrotal reconstruction described in 1980 and infrequently reported in the literature since its description. We used it for four patients presenting scrotal defects after Fournier′s gangrene with some technical modifications to improve the esthetic results and to facilitate the closure of the donor area. We describe the technical steps and the results.

  11. Dissolvable fluidic time delays for programming multi-step assays in instrument-free paper diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Barry; Liang, Tinny; Fu, Elain; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Kauffman, Peter; Yager, Paul

    2013-07-21

    Lateral flow tests (LFTs) are an ingenious format for rapid and easy-to-use diagnostics, but they are fundamentally limited to assay chemistries that can be reduced to a single chemical step. In contrast, most laboratory diagnostic assays rely on multiple timed steps carried out by a human or a machine. Here, we use dissolvable sugar applied to paper to create programmable flow delays and present a paper network topology that uses these time delays to program automated multi-step fluidic protocols. Solutions of sucrose at different concentrations (10-70% of saturation) were added to paper strips and dried to create fluidic time delays spanning minutes to nearly an hour. A simple folding card format employing sugar delays was shown to automate a four-step fluidic process initiated by a single user activation step (folding the card); this device was used to perform a signal-amplified sandwich immunoassay for a diagnostic biomarker for malaria. The cards are capable of automating multi-step assay protocols normally used in laboratories, but in a rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-use format.

  12. Time step rescaling recovers continuous-time dynamical properties for discrete-time Langevin integration of nonequilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David A; Chodera, John D; Crooks, Gavin E

    2014-06-19

    When simulating molecular systems using deterministic equations of motion (e.g., Newtonian dynamics), such equations are generally numerically integrated according to a well-developed set of algorithms that share commonly agreed-upon desirable properties. However, for stochastic equations of motion (e.g., Langevin dynamics), there is still broad disagreement over which integration algorithms are most appropriate. While multiple desiderata have been proposed throughout the literature, consensus on which criteria are important is absent, and no published integration scheme satisfies all desiderata simultaneously. Additional nontrivial complications stem from simulating systems driven out of equilibrium using existing stochastic integration schemes in conjunction with recently developed nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Here, we examine a family of discrete time integration schemes for Langevin dynamics, assessing how each member satisfies a variety of desiderata that have been enumerated in prior efforts to construct suitable Langevin integrators. We show that the incorporation of a novel time step rescaling in the deterministic updates of position and velocity can correct a number of dynamical defects in these integrators. Finally, we identify a particular splitting (related to the velocity Verlet discretization) that has essentially universally appropriate properties for the simulation of Langevin dynamics for molecular systems in equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and path sampling contexts.

  13. Avoid the tsunami of the Dirac sea in the imaginary time step method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Haozhao; Meng, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The discrete single-particle spectra in both the Fermi and Dirac sea have been calculated by the imaginary time step (ITS) method for the Schroedinger-like equation after avoiding the "tsunami" of the Dirac sea, i.e. the diving behavior of the single-particle level into the Dirac sea in the direct application of the ITS method for the Dirac equation. It is found that by the transform from the Dirac equation to the Schroedinger-like equation, the single-particle spectra, which extend from the positive to the negative infinity, can be separately obtained by the ITS evolution in either the Fermi sea or the Dirac sea. Identical results with those in the conventional shooting method have been obtained via the ITS evolution for the equivalent Schroedinger-like equation, which demonstrates the feasibility, practicality and reliability of the present algorithm and dispels the doubts on the ITS method in the relativistic system. (author)

  14. Detection and Correction of Step Discontinuities in Kepler Flux Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Morris, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    PDC 8.0 includes an implementation of a new algorithm to detect and correct step discontinuities appearing in roughly one of every 20 stellar light curves during a given quarter. The majority of such discontinuities are believed to result from high-energy particles (either cosmic or solar in origin) striking the photometer and causing permanent local changes (typically -0.5%) in quantum efficiency, though a partial exponential recovery is often observed [1]. Since these features, dubbed sudden pixel sensitivity dropouts (SPSDs), are uncorrelated across targets they cannot be properly accounted for by the current detrending algorithm. PDC detrending is based on the assumption that features in flux time series are due either to intrinsic stellar phenomena or to systematic errors and that systematics will exhibit measurable correlations across targets. SPSD events violate these assumptions and their successful removal not only rectifies the flux values of affected targets, but demonstrably improves the overall performance of PDC detrending [1].

  15. Time dependent theory of two-step absorption of two pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebane, Inna, E-mail: inna.rebane@ut.ee

    2015-09-25

    The time dependent theory of two step-absorption of two different light pulses with arbitrary duration in the electronic three-level model is proposed. The probability that the third level is excited at the moment t is found in depending on the time delay between pulses, the spectral widths of the pulses and the energy relaxation constants of the excited electronic levels. The time dependent perturbation theory is applied without using “doorway–window” approach. The time and spectral behavior of the spectrum using in calculations as simple as possible model is analyzed. - Highlights: • Time dependent theory of two-step absorption in the three-level model is proposed. • Two different light pulses with arbitrary duration is observed. • The time dependent perturbation theory is applied without “door–window” approach. • The time and spectral behavior of the spectra is analyzed for several cases.

  16. Comparison between time-step-integration and probabilistic methods in seismic analysis of a linear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeberger, B.; Breuleux, R.

    1977-01-01

    Assuming that earthquake ground motion is a stationary time function, the seismic analysis of a linear structure can be done by probailistic methods using the 'power spectral density function' (PSD), instead of applying the more traditional time-step-integration using earthquake time histories (TH). A given structure was analysed both by PSD and TH methods computing and comparing 'floor response spectra'. The analysis using TH was performed for two different TH and different frequency intervals for the 'floor-response-spectra'. The analysis using PSD first produced PSD functions of the responses of the floors and these were then converted into 'foor-response-spectra'. Plots of the resulting 'floor-response-spectra' show: (1) The agreement of TH and PSD results is quite close. (2) The curves produced by PSD are much smoother than those produced by TH and mostly form an enelope of the latter. (3) The curves produced by TH are quite jagged with the location and magnitude of the peaks depending on the choice of frequencies at which the 'floor-response-spectra' were evaluated and on the choice of TH. (Auth.)

  17. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2014-10-31

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

  18. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Lee, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

  19. Interacting steps with finite-range interactions: Analytical approximation and numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Diego Felipe; Téllez, Gabriel; González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.

    2013-05-01

    We calculate an analytical expression for the terrace-width distribution P(s) for an interacting step system with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions. Our model is derived by mapping the step system onto a statistically equivalent one-dimensional system of classical particles. The validity of the model is tested with several numerical simulations and experimental results. We explore the effect of the range of interactions q on the functional form of the terrace-width distribution and pair correlation functions. For physically plausible interactions, we find modest changes when next-nearest neighbor interactions are included and generally negligible changes when more distant interactions are allowed. We discuss methods for extracting from simulated experimental data the characteristic scale-setting terms in assumed potential forms.

  20. Optimal order and time-step criterion for Aarseth-type N-body integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Junichiro

    1991-01-01

    How the selection of the time-step criterion and the order of the integrator change the efficiency of Aarseth-type N-body integrators is discussed. An alternative to Aarseth's scheme based on the direct calculation of the time derivative of the force using the Hermite interpolation is compared to Aarseth's scheme, which uses the Newton interpolation to construct the predictor and corrector. How the number of particles in the system changes the behavior of integrators is examined. The Hermite scheme allows a time step twice as large as that for the standard Aarseth scheme for the same accuracy. The calculation cost of the Hermite scheme per time step is roughly twice as much as that of the standard Aarseth scheme. The optimal order of the integrators depends on both the particle number and the accuracy required. The time-step criterion of the standard Aarseth scheme is found to be inapplicable to higher-order integrators, and a more uniformly reliable criterion is proposed. 18 refs

  1. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second

  2. Displacement in the parameter space versus spurious solution of discretization with large time step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Eduardo; Letellier, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate a possible correspondence between differential and difference equations, it is important to possess discretization of ordinary differential equations. It is well known that when differential equations are discretized, the solution thus obtained depends on the time step used. In the majority of cases, such a solution is considered spurious when it does not resemble the expected solution of the differential equation. This often happens when the time step taken into consideration is too large. In this work, we show that, even for quite large time steps, some solutions which do not correspond to the expected ones are still topologically equivalent to solutions of the original continuous system if a displacement in the parameter space is considered. To reduce such a displacement, a judicious choice of the discretization scheme should be made. To this end, a recent discretization scheme, based on the Lie expansion of the original differential equations, proposed by Monaco and Normand-Cyrot will be analysed. Such a scheme will be shown to be sufficient for providing an adequate discretization for quite large time steps compared to the pseudo-period of the underlying dynamics

  3. Multi-Step Time Series Forecasting with an Ensemble of Varied Length Mixture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yicun; Yin, Hujun

    2018-05-01

    Many real-world problems require modeling and forecasting of time series, such as weather temperature, electricity demand, stock prices and foreign exchange (FX) rates. Often, the tasks involve predicting over a long-term period, e.g. several weeks or months. Most existing time series models are inheritably for one-step prediction, that is, predicting one time point ahead. Multi-step or long-term prediction is difficult and challenging due to the lack of information and uncertainty or error accumulation. The main existing approaches, iterative and independent, either use one-step model recursively or treat the multi-step task as an independent model. They generally perform poorly in practical applications. In this paper, as an extension of the self-organizing mixture autoregressive (AR) model, the varied length mixture (VLM) models are proposed to model and forecast time series over multi-steps. The key idea is to preserve the dependencies between the time points within the prediction horizon. Training data are segmented to various lengths corresponding to various forecasting horizons, and the VLM models are trained in a self-organizing fashion on these segments to capture these dependencies in its component AR models of various predicting horizons. The VLM models form a probabilistic mixture of these varied length models. A combination of short and long VLM models and an ensemble of them are proposed to further enhance the prediction performance. The effectiveness of the proposed methods and their marked improvements over the existing methods are demonstrated through a number of experiments on synthetic data, real-world FX rates and weather temperatures.

  4. Measuring border delay and crossing times at the US-Mexico border : part II. Step-by-step guidelines for implementing a radio frequency identification (RFID) system to measure border crossing and wait times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of these step-by-step guidelines is to assist in planning, designing, and deploying a system that uses radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to measure the time needed for commercial vehicles to complete the northbound border c...

  5. On an adaptive time stepping strategy for solving nonlinear diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Baines, M.J.; Sweby, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    A new time step selection procedure is proposed for solving non- linear diffusion equations. It has been implemented in the ASWR finite element code of Lorenz and Svoboda [10] for 2D semiconductor process modelling diffusion equations. The strategy is based on equi-distributing the local truncation errors of the numerical scheme. The use of B-splines for interpolation (as well as for the trial space) results in a banded and diagonally dominant matrix. The approximate inverse of such a matrix can be provided to a high degree of accuracy by another banded matrix, which in turn can be used to work out the approximate finite difference scheme corresponding to the ASWR finite element method, and further to calculate estimates of the local truncation errors of the numerical scheme. Numerical experiments on six full simulation problems arising in semiconductor process modelling have been carried out. Results show that our proposed strategy is more efficient and better conserves the total mass. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Multi-Time Step Service Restoration for Advanced Distribution Systems and Microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bo; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jianhui; Butler-Purry, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Modern power systems are facing increased risk of disasters that can cause extended outages. The presence of remote control switches (RCSs), distributed generators (DGs), and energy storage systems (ESS) provides both challenges and opportunities for developing post-fault service restoration methodologies. Inter-temporal constraints of DGs, ESS, and loads under cold load pickup (CLPU) conditions impose extra complexity on problem formulation and solution. In this paper, a multi-time step service restoration methodology is proposed to optimally generate a sequence of control actions for controllable switches, ESSs, and dispatchable DGs to assist the system operator with decision making. The restoration sequence is determined to minimize the unserved customers by energizing the system step by step without violating operational constraints at each time step. The proposed methodology is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model and can adapt to various operation conditions. Furthermore, the proposed method is validated through several case studies that are performed on modified IEEE 13-node and IEEE 123-node test feeders.

  7. Comparing an Annual and a Daily Time-Step Model for Predicting Field-Scale Phosphorus Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Carl H; Forsberg, Adam; Mittelstet, Aaron; Radcliffe, David E; Storm, Daniel; Ramirez-Avila, John; Sharpley, Andrew N; Osmond, Deanna

    2017-11-01

    A wide range of mathematical models are available for predicting phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural fields, ranging from simple, empirically based annual time-step models to more complex, process-based daily time-step models. In this study, we compare field-scale P-loss predictions between the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE), an empirically based annual time-step model, and the Texas Best Management Practice Evaluation Tool (TBET), a process-based daily time-step model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool. We first compared predictions of field-scale P loss from both models using field and land management data collected from 11 research sites throughout the southern United States. We then compared predictions of P loss from both models with measured P-loss data from these sites. We observed a strong and statistically significant ( loss between the two models; however, APLE predicted, on average, 44% greater dissolved P loss, whereas TBET predicted, on average, 105% greater particulate P loss for the conditions simulated in our study. When we compared model predictions with measured P-loss data, neither model consistently outperformed the other, indicating that more complex models do not necessarily produce better predictions of field-scale P loss. Our results also highlight limitations with both models and the need for continued efforts to improve their accuracy. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Development and evaluation of a real-time one step Reverse-Transcriptase PCR for quantitation of Chandipura Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandale Babasaheb V

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chandipura virus (CHPV, a member of family Rhabdoviridae was attributed to an explosive outbreak of acute encephalitis in children in Andhra Pradesh, India in 2003 and a small outbreak among tribal children from Gujarat, Western India in 2004. The case-fatality rate ranged from 55–75%. Considering the rapid progression of the disease and high mortality, a highly sensitive method for quantifying CHPV RNA by real-time one step reverse transcriptase PCR (real-time one step RT-PCR using TaqMan technology was developed for rapid diagnosis. Methods Primers and probe for P gene were designed and used to standardize real-time one step RT-PCR assay for CHPV RNA quantitation. Standard RNA was prepared by PCR amplification, TA cloning and run off transcription. The optimized real-time one step RT-PCR assay was compared with the diagnostic nested RT-PCR and different virus isolation systems [in vivo (mice in ovo (eggs, in vitro (Vero E6, PS, RD and Sand fly cell line] for the detection of CHPV. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time one step RT-PCR assay was evaluated with diagnostic nested RT-PCR, which is considered as a gold standard. Results Real-time one step RT-PCR was optimized using in vitro transcribed (IVT RNA. Standard curve showed linear relationship for wide range of 102-1010 (r2 = 0.99 with maximum Coefficient of variation (CV = 5.91% for IVT RNA. The newly developed real-time RT-PCR was at par with nested RT-PCR in sensitivity and superior to cell lines and other living systems (embryonated eggs and infant mice used for the isolation of the virus. Detection limit of real-time one step RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR was found to be 1.2 × 100 PFU/ml. RD cells, sand fly cells, infant mice, and embryonated eggs showed almost equal sensitivity (1.2 × 102 PFU/ml. Vero and PS cell-lines (1.2 × 103 PFU/ml were least sensitive to CHPV infection. Specificity of the assay was found to be 100% when RNA from other viruses or healthy

  9. Steps of Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Natural Products and Their Characteristic Times

    OpenAIRE

    Sovová, H. (Helena)

    2012-01-01

    Kinetics of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) from plants is variable due to different micro-structure of plants and their parts, different properties of extracted substances and solvents, and different flow patterns in the extractor. Variety of published mathematical models for SFE of natural products corresponds to this diversification. This study presents simplified equations of extraction curves in terms of characteristic times of four single extraction steps: internal diffusion, exter...

  10. Multiple Time-Step Dual-Hamiltonian Hybrid Molecular Dynamics - Monte Carlo Canonical Propagation Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunjie; Kale, Seyit; Weare, Jonathan; Dinner, Aaron R; Roux, Benoît

    2016-04-12

    A multiple time-step integrator based on a dual Hamiltonian and a hybrid method combining molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) is proposed to sample systems in the canonical ensemble. The Dual Hamiltonian Multiple Time-Step (DHMTS) algorithm is based on two similar Hamiltonians: a computationally expensive one that serves as a reference and a computationally inexpensive one to which the workload is shifted. The central assumption is that the difference between the two Hamiltonians is slowly varying. Earlier work has shown that such dual Hamiltonian multiple time-step schemes effectively precondition nonlinear differential equations for dynamics by reformulating them into a recursive root finding problem that can be solved by propagating a correction term through an internal loop, analogous to RESPA. Of special interest in the present context, a hybrid MD-MC version of the DHMTS algorithm is introduced to enforce detailed balance via a Metropolis acceptance criterion and ensure consistency with the Boltzmann distribution. The Metropolis criterion suppresses the discretization errors normally associated with the propagation according to the computationally inexpensive Hamiltonian, treating the discretization error as an external work. Illustrative tests are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  11. Real-time, single-step bioassay using nanoplasmonic resonator with ultra-high sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ellman, Jonathan A; Chen, Fanqing Frank; Su, Kai-Hang; Wei, Qi-Huo; Sun, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    A nanoplasmonic resonator (NPR) comprising a metallic nanodisk with alternating shielding layer(s), having a tagged biomolecule conjugated or tethered to the surface of the nanoplasmonic resonator for highly sensitive measurement of enzymatic activity. NPRs enhance Raman signals in a highly reproducible manner, enabling fast detection of protease and enzyme activity, such as Prostate Specific Antigen (paPSA), in real-time, at picomolar sensitivity levels. Experiments on extracellular fluid (ECF) from paPSA-positive cells demonstrate specific detection in a complex bio-fluid background in real-time single-step detection in very small sample volumes.

  12. Impact of first-step potential and time on the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods on ITO substrate by two-step electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Gyoum; Jang, Jin-Tak; Ryu, Hyukhyun; Lee, Won-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We grew vertical ZnO nanorods on ITO substrate using a two-step continuous potential process. •The nucleation for the ZnO nanorods growth was changed by first-step potential and duration. •The vertical ZnO nanorods were well grown when first-step potential was −1.2 V and 10 s. -- Abstract: In this study, we analyzed the growth of ZnO nanorods on an ITO (indium doped tin oxide) substrate by electrochemical deposition using a two-step, continuous potential process. We examined the effect of changing the first-step potential as well as the first-step duration on the morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods, measured via using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL), respectively. As a result, vertical ZnO nanorods were grown on ITO substrate without the need for a template when the first-step potential was set to −1.2 V for a duration of 10 s, and the second-step potential was set to −0.7 V for a duration of 1190 s. The ZnO nanorods on this sample showed the highest XRD (0 0 2)/(1 0 0) peak intensity ratio and the highest PL near band edge emission to deep level emission peak intensity ratio (NBE/DLE). In this study, the nucleation for vertical ZnO nanorod growth on an ITO substrate was found to be affected by changes in the first-step potential and first-step duration

  13. 3 Steps to Great Coaching: A Simple but Powerful Instructional Coaching Cycle Nets Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jim; Elford, Marti; Hock, Michael; Dunekack, Devona; Bradley, Barbara; Deshler, Donald D.; Knight, David

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors describe a three-step instructional coaching cycle that can helps coaches become more effective. The article provides the steps and related components to: (1) Identify; (2) Learn; and (3) Improve. While the instructional coaching cycle is only one effective coaching program, coaches also need professional learning that…

  14. Scalable explicit implementation of anisotropic diffusion with Runge-Kutta-Legendre super-time stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Bhargav; Prasad, Deovrat; Mignone, Andrea; Sharma, Prateek; Rickler, Luca

    2017-12-01

    An important ingredient in numerical modelling of high temperature magnetized astrophysical plasmas is the anisotropic transport of heat along magnetic field lines from higher to lower temperatures. Magnetohydrodynamics typically involves solving the hyperbolic set of conservation equations along with the induction equation. Incorporating anisotropic thermal conduction requires to also treat parabolic terms arising from the diffusion operator. An explicit treatment of parabolic terms will considerably reduce the simulation time step due to its dependence on the square of the grid resolution (Δx) for stability. Although an implicit scheme relaxes the constraint on stability, it is difficult to distribute efficiently on a parallel architecture. Treating parabolic terms with accelerated super-time-stepping (STS) methods has been discussed in literature, but these methods suffer from poor accuracy (first order in time) and also have difficult-to-choose tuneable stability parameters. In this work, we highlight a second-order (in time) Runge-Kutta-Legendre (RKL) scheme (first described by Meyer, Balsara & Aslam 2012) that is robust, fast and accurate in treating parabolic terms alongside the hyperbolic conversation laws. We demonstrate its superiority over the first-order STS schemes with standard tests and astrophysical applications. We also show that explicit conduction is particularly robust in handling saturated thermal conduction. Parallel scaling of explicit conduction using RKL scheme is demonstrated up to more than 104 processors.

  15. Rotor cascade shape optimization with unsteady passing wakes using implicit dual time stepping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Seok

    2000-10-01

    An improved aerodynamics performance of a turbine cascade shape can be achieved by an understanding of the flow-field associated with the stator-rotor interaction. In this research, an axial gas turbine airfoil cascade shape is optimized for improved aerodynamic performance by using an unsteady Navier-Stokes solver and a parallel genetic algorithm. The objective of the research is twofold: (1) to develop a computational fluid dynamics code having faster convergence rate and unsteady flow simulation capabilities, and (2) to optimize a turbine airfoil cascade shape with unsteady passing wakes for improved aerodynamic performance. The computer code solves the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. It is based on the explicit, finite difference, Runge-Kutta time marching scheme and the Diagonalized Alternating Direction Implicit (DADI) scheme, with the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic and k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Improvements in the code focused on the cascade shape design capability, convergence acceleration and unsteady formulation. First, the inverse shape design method was implemented in the code to provide the design capability, where a surface transpiration concept was employed as an inverse technique to modify the geometry satisfying the user specified pressure distribution on the airfoil surface. Second, an approximation storage multigrid method was implemented as an acceleration technique. Third, the preconditioning method was adopted to speed up the convergence rate in solving the low Mach number flows. Finally, the implicit dual time stepping method was incorporated in order to simulate the unsteady flow-fields. For the unsteady code validation, the Stokes's 2nd problem and the Poiseuille flow were chosen and compared with the computed results and analytic solutions. To test the code's ability to capture the natural unsteady flow phenomena, vortex shedding past a cylinder and the shock oscillation over a bicircular airfoil were simulated and compared with

  16. Perturbed Strong Stability Preserving Time-Stepping Methods For Hyperbolic PDEs

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis

    2017-09-30

    A plethora of physical phenomena are modelled by hyperbolic partial differential equations, for which the exact solution is usually not known. Numerical methods are employed to approximate the solution to hyperbolic problems; however, in many cases it is difficult to satisfy certain physical properties while maintaining high order of accuracy. In this thesis, we develop high-order time-stepping methods that are capable of maintaining stability constraints of the solution, when coupled with suitable spatial discretizations. Such methods are called strong stability preserving (SSP) time integrators, and we mainly focus on perturbed methods that use both upwind- and downwind-biased spatial discretizations. Firstly, we introduce a new family of third-order implicit Runge–Kuttas methods with arbitrarily large SSP coefficient. We investigate the stability and accuracy of these methods and we show that they perform well on hyperbolic problems with large CFL numbers. Moreover, we extend the analysis of SSP linear multistep methods to semi-discretized problems for which different terms on the right-hand side of the initial value problem satisfy different forward Euler (or circle) conditions. Optimal perturbed and additive monotonicity-preserving linear multistep methods are studied in the context of such problems. Optimal perturbed methods attain augmented monotonicity-preserving step sizes when the different forward Euler conditions are taken into account. On the other hand, we show that optimal SSP additive methods achieve a monotonicity-preserving step-size restriction no better than that of the corresponding non-additive SSP linear multistep methods. Furthermore, we develop the first SSP linear multistep methods of order two and three with variable step size, and study their optimality. We describe an optimal step-size strategy and demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods on various one- and multi-dimensional problems. Finally, we establish necessary conditions

  17. Smart Wireless Power Transfer Operated by Time-Modulated Arrays via a Two-Step Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Masotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a novel method for agile and precise wireless power transmission operated by a time-modulated array. The unique, almost real-time reconfiguration capability of these arrays is fully exploited by a two-step procedure: first, a two-element time-modulated subarray is used for localization of tagged sensors to be energized; the entire 16-element TMA then provides the power to the detected tags, by exploiting the fundamental and first-sideband harmonic radiation. An investigation on the best array architecture is carried out, showing the importance of the adopted nonlinear/full-wave computer-aided-design platform. Very promising simulated energy transfer performance of the entire nonlinear radiating system is demonstrated.

  18. Associations of office workers' objectively assessed occupational sitting, standing and stepping time with musculoskeletal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Pieter; Healy, Genevieve N; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville; Moodie, Marj; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Eakin, Elizabeth A; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Straker, Leon M

    2018-04-22

    We examined the association of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) with workplace sitting, standing and stepping time, as well as sitting and standing time accumulation (i.e. usual bout duration of these activities), measured objectively with the activPAL3 monitor. Using baseline data from the Stand Up Victoria trial (216 office workers, 14 workplaces), cross-sectional associations of occupational activities with self-reported MSS (low-back, upper and lower extremity symptoms in the last three months) were examined using probit regression, correcting for clustering and adjusting for confounders. Sitting bout duration was significantly (p < 0.05) associated, non-linearly, with MSS, such that those in the middle tertile displayed the highest prevalence of upper extremity symptoms. Other associations were non-significant but sometimes involved large differences in symptom prevalence (e.g. 38%) by activity. Though causation is unclear, these non-linear associations suggest that sitting and its alternatives (i.e. standing and stepping) interact with MSS and this should be considered when designing safe work systems. Practitioner summary: We studied associations of objectively assessed occupational activities with musculoskeletal symptoms in office workers. Workers who accumulated longer sitting bouts reported fewer upper extremity symptoms. Total activity duration was not significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms. We underline the importance of considering total volumes and patterns of activity time in musculoskeletal research.

  19. A one-step, real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of rhinovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duc H; Laus, Stella; Leber, Amy; Marcon, Mario J; Jordan, Jeanne A; Martin, Judith M; Wadowsky, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    One-step, real-time PCR assays for rhinovirus have been developed for a limited number of PCR amplification platforms and chemistries, and some exhibit cross-reactivity with genetically similar enteroviruses. We developed a one-step, real-time PCR assay for rhinovirus by using a sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems; Foster City, CA). The primers were designed to amplify a 120-base target in the noncoding region of picornavirus RNA, and a TaqMan (Applied Biosystems) degenerate probe was designed for the specific detection of rhinovirus amplicons. The PCR assay had no cross-reactivity with a panel of 76 nontarget nucleic acids, which included RNAs from 43 enterovirus strains. Excellent lower limits of detection relative to viral culture were observed for the PCR assay by using 38 of 40 rhinovirus reference strains representing different serotypes, which could reproducibly detect rhinovirus serotype 2 in viral transport medium containing 10 to 10,000 TCID(50) (50% tissue culture infectious dose endpoint) units/ml of the virus. However, for rhinovirus serotypes 59 and 69, the PCR assay was less sensitive than culture. Testing of 48 clinical specimens from children with cold-like illnesses for rhinovirus by the PCR and culture assays yielded detection rates of 16.7% and 6.3%, respectively. For a batch of 10 specimens, the entire assay was completed in 4.5 hours. This real-time PCR assay enables detection of many rhinovirus serotypes with the Applied Biosystems reagent-instrument platform.

  20. Modelling of Sub-daily Hydrological Processes Using Daily Time-Step Models: A Distribution Function Approach to Temporal Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, D. D.; Western, A. W.; Grayson, R. B.

    2004-12-01

    Mismatches in scale between the fundamental processes, the model and supporting data are a major limitation in hydrologic modelling. Surface runoff generation via infiltration excess and the process of soil erosion are fundamentally short time-scale phenomena and their average behaviour is mostly determined by the short time-scale peak intensities of rainfall. Ideally, these processes should be simulated using time-steps of the order of minutes to appropriately resolve the effect of rainfall intensity variations. However, sub-daily data support is often inadequate and the processes are usually simulated by calibrating daily (or even coarser) time-step models. Generally process descriptions are not modified but rather effective parameter values are used to account for the effect of temporal lumping, assuming that the effect of the scale mismatch can be counterbalanced by tuning the parameter values at the model time-step of interest. Often this results in parameter values that are difficult to interpret physically. A similar approach is often taken spatially. This is problematic as these processes generally operate or interact non-linearly. This indicates a need for better techniques to simulate sub-daily processes using daily time-step models while still using widely available daily information. A new method applicable to many rainfall-runoff-erosion models is presented. The method is based on temporal scaling using statistical distributions of rainfall intensity to represent sub-daily intensity variations in a daily time-step model. This allows the effect of short time-scale nonlinear processes to be captured while modelling at a daily time-step, which is often attractive due to the wide availability of daily forcing data. The approach relies on characterising the rainfall intensity variation within a day using a cumulative distribution function (cdf). This cdf is then modified by various linear and nonlinear processes typically represented in hydrological and

  1. Time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions: Basic formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolterfoht, N.

    1993-01-01

    The semiclassical approximation is applied in second order to describe time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions. Emphasis is given to the conditions for interferences between first- and second-order terms. In systems with two active electrons, time ordering gives rise to a pair of associated paths involving a second-order process and its time-inverted process. Combining these paths within the independent-particle frozen orbital model, time ordering is lost. It is shown that the loss of time ordering modifies the second-order amplitude so that its ability to interfere with the first-order amplitude is essentially reduced. Time ordering and the capability for interference is regained, as one path is blocked by means of the Pauli exclusion principle. The time-ordering formalism is prepared for papers dealing with collision experiments of single excitation [Stolterfoht et al., following paper, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2986 (1993)] and double excitation [Stolterfoht et al. (unpublished)

  2. OPEC 1991 results reflect hard times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that low crude oil prices and economic tough times in industrial countries cause a lean 1991 for members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC's 1991 annual report the member countries reported an overall loss of $12 billion in 1991 on oil revenues that fell 16.2%. Iraq and Kuwait were not included because of their unusual circumstances in the wake of the Persian Gulf war. Reduced oil revenues reflected a slide to $18.66/bbl in 1991 from $22.26/bbl in 1990 for the average price of OPEC basket crudes. As of last June 5 OPEC's basket crude price has averaged only $17.42/bbl this year, OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported. First quarter 1992 prices averaged $16.77/bbl, compared wit $19.31/bbl in fourth quarter 1991. The average price jumped 52 cent/bbl the first week in June this year to $19.93/bbl, bouyed by Saudi Arabia's move at the end of May to shift its policy from price moderation to one in favor of higher prices, Opecna the. OPEC members increased production 1% in 1991 to an average 23.28 million b/d in spite of negligible production from Iraq and Kuwait and reduced production from Qatar

  3. Enquiry time as part of turnaround time: when do our clinicians really consult our results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Borja, Enrique; Villalba-Martínez, C; Carratalá-Calvo, A

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, laboratories' turnaround times (TAT) have been calculated by only considering analytical or intralaboratory steps. The measure of the postanalytical impact in TAT has barely been studied and, more specifically, the running time from when finalised results are available to when clinicians make their first enquiry with an electronic medical record. During May-June of 2013, two 'Times' were collected from our laboratory information system for all the priority requests coming from our day hospitals: 'Validation time' (TV), as the request report time with full verified results and 'Enquiry time' (TQ), as the time when the first consult was made via electronic medical record. We classified requests in groups depending on time results, and TQ-TV (percentiles) were calculated for each group. 654 (69%) requests were consulted by clinicians before 15 : 00 on the same day with available results. 191 (20%) were consulted after 15 : 00 and had complete results as well (p50 (TQ-TV): 5 days) while 61 (7%) were never consulted (up to 31/12/2013). 39 (4%) requests were finally consulted before 15 : 00 h with no available results, but the average time difference between validation and enquiry was 31 min. The results obtained lead us to reconsider the TAT established with our day hospitals in order to know if priority has to be reviewed or if there are failures in follow-up results. 'Enquiry time' appears to be a powerful tool in detecting these issues and shows that TATs are no longer just a 'laboratory problem'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Stability of the high-order finite elements for acoustic or elastic wave propagation with high-order time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    De Basabe, Joná s D.; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2010-01-01

    popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM

  5. Sharp Penalty Term and Time Step Bounds for the Interior Penalty Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Linear Hyperbolic Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geevers, Sjoerd; van der Vegt, J.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    We present sharp and sucient bounds for the interior penalty term and time step size to ensure stability of the symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin (SIPDG) method combined with an explicit time-stepping scheme. These conditions hold for generic meshes, including unstructured

  6. Intraindividual Stepping Reaction Time Variability Predicts Falls in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, David; Haynes, Becky I; Lord, Stephen R; Gschwind, Yves J; Kochan, Nicole A; Reppermund, Simone; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder S; Delbaere, Kim

    2017-06-01

    Reaction time measures have considerable potential to aid neuropsychological assessment in a variety of health care settings. One such measure, the intraindividual reaction time variability (IIV), is of particular interest as it is thought to reflect neurobiological disturbance. IIV is associated with a variety of age-related neurological disorders, as well as gait impairment and future falls in older adults. However, although persons diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are at high risk of falling, the association between IIV and prospective falls is unknown. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in cognitively intact (n = 271) and MCI (n = 154) community-dwelling adults aged 70-90 years. IIV was assessed through a variety of measures including simple and choice hand reaction time and choice stepping reaction time tasks (CSRT), the latter administered as a single task and also with a secondary working memory task. Logistic regression did not show an association between IIV on the hand-held tasks and falls. Greater IIV in both CSRT tasks, however, did significantly increase the risk of future falls. This effect was specific to the MCI group, with a stronger effect in persons exhibiting gait, posture, or physiological impairment. The findings suggest that increased stepping IIV may indicate compromised neural circuitry involved in executive function, gait, and posture in persons with MCI increasing their risk of falling. IIV measures have potential to assess neurobiological disturbance underlying physical and cognitive dysfunction in old age, and aid fall risk assessment and routine care in community and health care settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F.; Murari, A.; Barana, O.; Albanese, R.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D.; Arena, P.; Bruno, M.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Crisanti, F.; Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with internal transport barriers. Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  8. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, A.; Barana, O.; Murari, A.; Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D.; Albanese, R.; Arena, P.; Bruno, M.; Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Crisanti, F.; Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with ITBs (internal thermal barriers). Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  9. Development of real time diagnostics and feedback algorithms for JET in view of the next step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, A.; Barana, O. [Consorzio RFX Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padua (Italy); Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Piccolo, F.; Sartori, F. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Laborde, L.; Moreau, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Albanese, R. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Mediterranea RC (Italy); Arena, P.; Bruno, M. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ.di Catania (Italy); Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. Napoli Federico Napoli (Italy); Crisanti, F. [Associazone EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati (Italy); Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J. [Associacion EURATOM CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Real time control of many plasma parameters will be an essential aspect in the development of reliable high performance operation of Next Step Tokamaks. The main prerequisites for any feedback scheme are the precise real-time determination of the quantities to be controlled, requiring top quality and highly reliable diagnostics, and the availability of robust control algorithms. A new set of real time diagnostics was recently implemented on JET to prove the feasibility of determining, with high accuracy and time resolution, the most important plasma quantities. With regard to feedback algorithms, new model-based controllers were developed to allow a more robust control of several plasma parameters. Both diagnostics and algorithms were successfully used in several experiments, ranging from H-mode plasmas to configuration with ITBs (internal thermal barriers). Since elaboration of computationally heavy measurements is often required, significant attention was devoted to non-algorithmic methods like Digital or Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Networks. The real time hardware and software adopted architectures are also described with particular attention to their relevance to ITER. (authors)

  10. Demand for Skills : Main Results of the Azerbaijan STEP Employer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    This note summarizes the main findings of the STEP Employer Skills Survey carried out in Azerbaijan in 2013. The note argues that there is a skills shortage in Azerbaijan. Azeri employers claim that it is difficult to find workers with required skills. The shortage is particularly pronounced in the case of modern, innovative firms, which tend to required more advanced skills. The education...

  11. Towards a comprehensive framework for cosimulation of dynamic models with an emphasis on time stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepfer, Matthias

    co-simulation approach to modeling and simulation. It lays out the general approach to dynamic system co-simulation, and gives a comprehensive overview of what co-simulation is and what it is not. It creates a taxonomy of the requirements and limits of co-simulation, and the issues arising with co-simulating sub-models. Possible solutions towards resolving the stated problems are investigated to a certain depth. A particular focus is given to the issue of time stepping. It will be shown that for dynamic models, the selection of the simulation time step is a crucial issue with respect to computational expense, simulation accuracy, and error control. The reasons for this are discussed in depth, and a time stepping algorithm for co-simulation with unknown dynamic sub-models is proposed. Motivations and suggestions for the further treatment of selected issues are presented.

  12. Effect of moisture and drying time on the bond strength of the one-step self-etching adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate the effect of dentin moisture degree and air-drying time on dentin-bond strength of two different one-step self-etching adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Twenty-four human third molars were used for microtensile bond strength testing of G-Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond. The dentin surface was either blot-dried or air-dried before applying these adhesive agents. After application of the adhesive agent, three different air drying times were evaluated: 1, 5, and 10 sec. Composite resin was build up to 4 mm thickness and light cured for 40 sec with 2 separate layers. Then the tooth was sectioned and trimmed to measure the microtensile bond strength using a universal testing machine. The measured bond strengths were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and regression analysis was done (p = 0.05. Results All three factors, materials, dentin wetness and air drying time, showed significant effect on the microtensile bond strength. Clearfil S3 Bond, dry dentin surface and 10 sec air drying time showed higher bond strength. Conclusions Within the limitation of this experiment, air drying time after the application of the one-step self-etching adhesive agent was the most significant factor affecting the bond strength, followed by the material difference and dentin moisture before applying the adhesive agent.

  13. Issues in measure-preserving three dimensional flow integrators: Self-adjointness, reversibility, and non-uniform time stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012

  14. Achieving Actionable Results from Available Inputs: Metamodels Take Building Energy Simulations One Step Further

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsey, Henry; Fleming, Katherine; Ball, Brian; Long, Nicholas

    2016-08-26

    Modeling commercial building energy usage can be a difficult and time-consuming task. The increasing prevalence of optimization algorithms provides one path for reducing the time and difficulty. Many use cases remain, however, where information regarding whole-building energy usage is valuable, but the time and expertise required to run and post-process a large number of building energy simulations is intractable. A relatively underutilized option to accurately estimate building energy consumption in real time is to pre-compute large datasets of potential building energy models, and use the set of results to quickly and efficiently provide highly accurate data. This process is called metamodeling. In this paper, two case studies are presented demonstrating the successful applications of metamodeling using the open-source OpenStudio Analysis Framework. The first case study involves the U.S. Department of Energy's Asset Score Tool, specifically the Preview Asset Score Tool, which is designed to give nontechnical users a near-instantaneous estimated range of expected results based on building system-level inputs. The second case study involves estimating the potential demand response capabilities of retail buildings in Colorado. The metamodel developed in this second application not only allows for estimation of a single building's expected performance, but also can be combined with public data to estimate the aggregate DR potential across various geographic (county and state) scales. In both case studies, the unique advantages of pre-computation allow building energy models to take the place of topdown actuarial evaluations. This paper ends by exploring the benefits of using metamodels and then examines the cost-effectiveness of this approach.

  15. Computer experiments of the time-sequence of individual steps in multiple Coulomb-excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Dannhaueser, G.

    1982-01-01

    The way in which the multiple E2 steps in the Coulomb-excitation of a rotational band of a nucleus follow one another is elucidated for selected examples using semiclassical computer experiments. The role a given transition plays for the excitation of a given final state is measured by a quantity named ''importance function''. It is found that these functions, calculated for the highest rotational state, peak at times forming a sequence for the successive E2 transitions starting from the ground state. This sequential behaviour is used to approximately account for the effects on the projectile orbit of the sequential transfer of excitation energy and angular momentum from projectile to target. These orbits lead to similar deflection functions and cross sections as those obtained from a symmetrization procedure approximately accounting for the transfer of angular momentum and energy. (Auth.)

  16. Improving stability of stabilized and multiscale formulations in flow simulations at small time steps

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Ming-Chen

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that use of the element-vector-based definition of stabilization parameters, introduced in [T.E. Tezduyar, Computation of moving boundaries and interfaces and stabilization parameters, Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 43 (2003) 555-575; T.E. Tezduyar, Y. Osawa, Finite element stabilization parameters computed from element matrices and vectors, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. 190 (2000) 411-430], circumvents the well-known instability associated with conventional stabilized formulations at small time steps. We describe formulations for linear advection-diffusion and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and test them on three benchmark problems: advection of an L-shaped discontinuity, laminar flow in a square domain at low Reynolds number, and turbulent channel flow at friction-velocity Reynolds number of 395. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Iteratively improving Hi-C experiments one step at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golloshi, Rosela; Sanders, Jacob T; McCord, Rachel Patton

    2018-04-30

    The 3D organization of eukaryotic chromosomes affects key processes such as gene expression, DNA replication, cell division, and response to DNA damage. The genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) approach can characterize the landscape of 3D genome organization by measuring interaction frequencies between all genomic regions. Hi-C protocol improvements and rapid advances in DNA sequencing power have made Hi-C useful to study diverse biological systems, not only to elucidate the role of 3D genome structure in proper cellular function, but also to characterize genomic rearrangements, assemble new genomes, and consider chromatin interactions as potential biomarkers for diseases. Yet, the Hi-C protocol is still complex and subject to variations at numerous steps that can affect the resulting data. Thus, there is still a need for better understanding and control of factors that contribute to Hi-C experiment success and data quality. Here, we evaluate recently proposed Hi-C protocol modifications as well as often overlooked variables in sample preparation and examine their effects on Hi-C data quality. We examine artifacts that can occur during Hi-C library preparation, including microhomology-based artificial template copying and chimera formation that can add noise to the downstream data. Exploring the mechanisms underlying Hi-C artifacts pinpoints steps that should be further optimized in the future. To improve the utility of Hi-C in characterizing the 3D genome of specialized populations of cells or small samples of primary tissue, we identify steps prone to DNA loss which should be considered to adapt Hi-C to lower cell numbers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PHISICS/RELAP5-3D Adaptive Time-Step Method Demonstrated for the HTTR LOFC#1 Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Robin Ivey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Balestra, Paolo [Univ. of Rome (Italy); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A collaborative effort between Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as part of the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group is underway to model the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) loss of forced cooling (LOFC) transient that was performed in December 2010. The coupled version of RELAP5-3D, a thermal fluids code, and PHISICS, a neutronics code, were used to model the transient. The focus of this report is to summarize the changes made to the PHISICS-RELAP5-3D code for implementing an adaptive time step methodology into the code for the first time, and to test it using the full HTTR PHISICS/RELAP5-3D model developed by JAEA and INL and the LOFC simulation. Various adaptive schemes are available based on flux or power convergence criteria that allow significantly larger time steps to be taken by the neutronics module. The report includes a description of the HTTR and the associated PHISICS/RELAP5-3D model test results as well as the University of Rome sub-contractor report documenting the adaptive time step theory and methodology implemented in PHISICS/RELAP5-3D. Two versions of the HTTR model were tested using 8 and 26 energy groups. It was found that most of the new adaptive methods lead to significant improvements in the LOFC simulation time required without significant accuracy penalties in the prediction of the fission power and the fuel temperature. In the best performing 8 group model scenarios, a LOFC simulation of 20 hours could be completed in real-time, or even less than real-time, compared with the previous version of the code that completed the same transient 3-8 times slower than real-time. A few of the user choice combinations between the methodologies available and the tolerance settings did however result in unacceptably high errors or insignificant gains in simulation time. The study is concluded with recommendations on which methods to use for this HTTR model. An important caveat is that these findings

  19. Distribution of Steps with Finite-Range Interactions: Analytic Approximations and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    GonzáLez, Diego Luis; Jaramillo, Diego Felipe; TéLlez, Gabriel; Einstein, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    While most Monte Carlo simulations assume only nearest-neighbor steps interact elastically, most analytic frameworks (especially the generalized Wigner distribution) posit that each step elastically repels all others. In addition to the elastic repulsions, we allow for possible surface-state-mediated interactions. We investigate analytically and numerically how next-nearest neighbor (NNN) interactions and, more generally, interactions out to q'th nearest neighbor alter the form of the terrace-width distribution and of pair correlation functions (i.e. the sum over n'th neighbor distribution functions, which we investigated recently.[2] For physically plausible interactions, we find modest changes when NNN interactions are included and generally negligible changes when more distant interactions are allowed. We discuss methods for extracting from simulated experimental data the characteristic scale-setting terms in assumed potential forms.

  20. Detection of Tomato black ring virus by real-time one-step RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Scott J; Delmiglio, Catia; Ward, Lisa I; Clover, Gerard R G

    2011-01-01

    A TaqMan-based real-time one-step RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid detection of Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), a significant plant pathogen which infects a wide range of economically important crops. Primers and a probe were designed against existing genomic sequences to amplify a 72 bp fragment from RNA-2. The assay amplified all isolates of TBRV tested, but no amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepovirus species or healthy host plants. The detection limit of the assay was estimated to be around nine copies of the TBRV target region in total RNA. A comparison with conventional RT-PCR and ELISA, indicated that ELISA, the current standard test method, lacked specificity and reacted to all nepovirus species tested, while conventional RT-PCR was approximately ten-fold less sensitive than the real-time RT-PCR assay. Finally, the real-time RT-PCR assay was tested using five different RT-PCR reagent kits and was found to be robust and reliable, with no significant differences in sensitivity being found. The development of this rapid assay should aid in quarantine and post-border surveys for regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food by Step One real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochop, Jaroslav; Kačániová, Miroslava; Hleba, Lukáš; Lopasovský, L'ubomír; Bobková, Alica; Zeleňáková, Lucia; Stričík, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow contamination of ready-to-eat food with Listeria monocytogenes by using the Step One real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and MicroSEQ® Listeria monocytogenes Detection Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In 30 samples of ready-to-eat milk and meat products without incubation we detected strains of Listeria monocytogenes in five samples (swabs). Internal positive control (IPC) was positive in all samples. Our results indicated that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food without incubation.

  2. Steps to Health employee weight management randomized control trial: short-term follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Stroo, Marissa; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Peterson, Bercedis L; Eisenstein, Eric L; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joyner, Julie; Gulley, Libby; Dement, John M

    2015-02-01

    To present the short-term follow-up findings of the Steps to Health study, a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two employee weight management programs offered within Duke University and the Health System. A total of 550 obese (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m2) employees were randomized 1:1 between January 2011 and June 2012 to the education-based Weight Management (WM) or the WM+ arm, which focused on behavior modification. Employees were contacted to complete a follow-up visit approximately 14 months after baseline. There were no clinically, or statistically, meaningful differences between arms, but there were modest reductions in body mass index, and positive, meaningful changes in diet and physical activity for both arms. The modest positive effects observed in this study may suggest that to achieve weight loss through the workplace more intensive interventions may be required.

  3. OPTIFER, a further step in development of Low Activation Martensitic Steels. Results of Characterization Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.P.; Lapena, J.; Hernandez, M.T.; Schirra, M.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of low activation structural materials to be used in nuclear fusion reactors four martensitic Fe-9,5 Cr alloys were conceived with different contentsof tungsten-tantalum and/or germanium as substitutions for Mo, Ni, Nb and Al. As a result of recent activation calculations, the maximum concentrations of all accompanying elements, which are not desirable under radiological aspects, were determined for the first time for these OPTIFER steels, and laid down in specifications for the manufacturers of the alloys. After double-vacuum melting, only the real alloys with some of these accompanying elements added are within the specifications. For the majority of alloys the gap between request in radiological terms and the metallurgical/analytical reality is still considerable. The behavior during transformation and heat treatment roughly corresponds to that of conventional martensitic 9-12degree centigree Cr steels. Progress has been conspicuous as regards the notch impact tougness behavior. Both at upper shelf level and in ductile brittle transition (DBTT) the W(Ce) alloyed OPTIFER variant exhibits more favorable values than the conventional MANET-II steel from the fusion program, with better strength characteristics above 500 degree centigree. With only a moderate decrease in strenght values (compared to MANET-II), the Ge (Ce) variant excels by a distinct improvement in notch impact tougness values and, theoretically, a stronger reduction in dose rate than the W(Ce) variant and comes close to the decay curve of pure iron

  4. OPTIFER, a further step in development of Low Activation Martensitic Steels. Results of Characterization Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.P.; Lapena, J.; Hernandez, M.T.; Schirra, M.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of low activation structural materials to be used in nuclear fusion reactors four martensitic Fe-9,5 Cr alloys were conceived with different contents of tungsten-tantalum and/or germanium as substitutions for Mo, Ni, Nb and Al. As a result of recent activation calculations, the maximum concentrations of all accompanying elements, which are not desirable under radiological aspects, were determined for the first time for these OPTIFER steels, and laid down in specifications for the manufacturers of the alloys, after double-vacuum melting, only the real alloys with some of these accompanying elements added are within the specifications. For the majority of alloys the gap between request in radiological terms and the metallurgical/analytical reality is still considerable. The behavior during transformation and heat treatment roughly corresponds to that of conventional martensitic 9-12%Cr steels. Progress has been conspicuous as regards the notch impact toughness behavior, both at upper shelf level and in ductile brittle transition (DBTT) the W(Ce) alloyed OPTIFER variant exhibits more favorable values than the conventional MANET-II steel from the fusion program, with better strength characteristics above 500 degree centigree. With only a moderate decrease in strength values (compared to MANET-II), the Ge (Ce) variant excels by a distinct improvement in notch impact toughness values and, theoretically, a stronger reduction in dose rate than the W(Ce) variant and comes close to the decay curve of pure iron. (Author) 21 refs

  5. Effects of the lateral amplitude and regularity of upper body fluctuation on step time variability evaluated using return map analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidori, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the lateral amplitude and regularity of upper body fluctuation on step time variability. Return map analysis was used to clarify the relationship between step time variability and a history of falling. Eleven healthy, community-dwelling older adults and twelve younger adults participated in the study. All of the subjects walked 25 m at a comfortable speed. Trunk acceleration was measured using triaxial accelerometers attached to the third lumbar vertebrae (L3) and the seventh cervical vertebrae (C7). The normalized average magnitude of acceleration, the coefficient of determination ($R^2$) of the return map, and the step time variabilities, were calculated. Cluster analysis using the average fluctuation and the regularity of C7 fluctuation identified four walking patterns in the mediolateral (ML) direction. The participants with higher fluctuation and lower regularity showed significantly greater step time variability compared with the others. Additionally, elderly participants who had fallen in the past year had higher amplitude and a lower regularity of fluctuation during walking. In conclusion, by focusing on the time evolution of each step, it is possible to understand the cause of stride and/or step time variability that is associated with a risk of falls.

  6. Stepping reaction time and gait adaptability are significantly impaired in people with Parkinson's disease: Implications for fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-02-01

    Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Calibration and Evaluation of Different Estimation Models of Daily Solar Radiation in Seasonally and Annual Time Steps in Shiraz Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Fooladmand

    2017-06-01

    2006 to 2008 were used for calibrating fourteen estimated models of solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps and the measured data of years 2009 and 2010 were used for evaluating the obtained results. The equations were used in this study divided into three groups contains: 1 The equations based on only sunshine hours. 2 The equations based on only air temperature. 3 The equations based on sunshine hours and air temperature together. On the other hand, statistical comparison must be done to select the best equation for estimating solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps. For this purpose, in validation stage the combination of statistical equations and linear correlation was used, and then the value of mean square deviation (MSD was calculated to evaluate the different models for estimating solar radiation in mentioned time steps. Results and Discussion: The mean values of mean square deviation (MSD of fourteen models for estimating solar radiation were equal to 24.16, 20.42, 4.08 and 16.19 for spring to winter respectively, and 15.40 in annual time step. Therefore, the results showed that using the equations for autumn enjoyed high accuracy, however for other seasons had low accuracy. So, using the equations for annual time step were appropriate more than the equations for seasonally time steps. Also, the mean values of mean square deviation (MSD of the equations based on only sunshine hours, the equations based on only air temperature, and the equations based on the combination of sunshine hours and air temperature for estimating solar radiation were equal to 14.82, 17.40 and 14.88, respectively. Therefore, the results indicated that the models based on only air temperature were the worst conditions for estimating solar radiation in Shiraz region, and therefore, using the sunshine hours for estimating solar radiation is necessary. Conclusions: In this study for estimating solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps in Shiraz region

  8. A simple test of choice stepping reaction time for assessing fall risk in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijsma, Mylou; Vister, Eva; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen R

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To determine (a) the discriminant validity for established fall risk factors and (b) the predictive validity for falls of a simple test of choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method People with MS (n = 210, 21-74y) performed the CSRT, sensorimotor, balance and neuropsychological tests in a single session. They were then followed up for falls using monthly fall diaries for 6 months. Results The CSRT test had excellent discriminant validity with respect to established fall risk factors. Frequent fallers (≥3 falls) performed significantly worse in the CSRT test than non-frequent fallers (0-2 falls). With the odds of suffering frequent falls increasing 69% with each SD increase in CSRT (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.27-2.26, p = falls in people with MS. This test may prove useful in documenting longitudinal changes in fall risk in relation to MS disease progression and effects of interventions. Implications for rehabilitation Good choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is required for maintaining balance. A simple low-tech CSRT test has excellent discriminative and predictive validity in relation to falls in people with MS. This test may prove useful documenting longitudinal changes in fall risk in relation to MS disease progression and effects of interventions.

  9. Implications of fusion results for a reactor: a proposed next step device-JIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Simulations with a critical-temperature model have been made of proposed future devices (NET, ITER, JIT, etc.). These show that only machines with a current capability of ∼ 30MA have a sufficient ignition domain to cope with more realistic operating conditions (i.e. taking into account sawteeth effects, impurity dilution and semi-continuous operation). The importance of dilution and Bremsstrahlung radiation are clearly demonstrated; a mean temperature > 7keV is required for ignition. This prevents higher field, lower current devices from reaching ignition. Transient operations with monster sawteeth or H-mode allow such devices (>30MA) to reach ignition at lower density without additional heating. To investigate the problems of a controlled burning plasma for days in semi-continuous operation, the plasma of the next-step tokamak should be similar in size and performance to an energy producing reactor. The scientific and technical aims of such a machine should be to study burning plasma, test wall technology, provide a test-bed for breeding blankets and most importantly to demonstrate the potential and viability of fusion as an energy source. The main design characteristics of a Thermonuclear Furnace-JIT-dedicated to these objectives are presented. Watercooled copper magnets are used to benefit from proven technology. A single-null divertor configuration ensures helium exhaust and possibly benefits from an H-mode to reach the ignition domain. The X-point position relative to the dump plates would be swept to limit wall loading

  10. Effect of different air-drying time on the microleakage of single-step self-etch adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horieh Moosavi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three different air-drying times on microleakage of three self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Class I cavities were prepared for 108 extracted sound human premolars. The teeth were divided into three main groups based on three different adhesives: Opti Bond All in One (OBAO, Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB, Bond Force (BF. Each main group divided into three subgroups regarding the air-drying time: without application of air stream, following the manufacturer's instruction, for 10 sec more than manufacturer's instruction. After completion of restorations, specimens were thermocycled and then connected to a fluid filtration system to evaluate microleakage. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-test (α = 0.05. Results The microleakage of all adhesives decreased when the air-drying time increased from 0 sec to manufacturer's instruction (p < 0.001. The microleakage of BF reached its lowest values after increasing the drying time to 10 sec more than the manufacturer's instruction (p < 0.001. Microleakage of OBAO and CSB was significantly lower compared to BF in all three drying time (p < 0.001. Conclusions Increasing in air-drying time of adhesive layer in one-step self-etch adhesives caused reduction of microleakage, but the amount of this reduction may be dependent on the adhesive components of self-etch adhesives.

  11. Correlates of pedometer use: Results from a community-based physical activity intervention trial (10,000 Steps Rockhampton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedometers have become common place in physical activity promotion, yet little information exists on who is using them. The multi-strategy, community-based 10,000 Steps Rockhampton physical activity intervention trial provided an opportunity to examine correlates of pedometer use at the population level. Methods Pedometer use was promoted across all intervention strategies including: local media, pedometer loan schemes through general practice, other health professionals and libraries, direct mail posted to dog owners, walking trail signage, and workplace competitions. Data on pedometer use were collected during the 2-year follow-up telephone interviews from random population samples in Rockhampton, Australia, and a matched comparison community (Mackay. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent influence of interpersonal characteristics and program exposure variables on pedometer use. Results Data from 2478 participants indicated that 18.1% of Rockhampton and 5.6% of Mackay participants used a pedometer in the previous 18-months. Rockhampton pedometer users (n = 222 were more likely to be female (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.23, aged 45 or older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.46 and to have higher levels of education (university degree OR = 4.23, 95% CI: 1.86, 9.6. Respondents with a BMI > 30 were more likely to report using a pedometer (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.54 than those in the healthy weight range. Compared with those in full-time paid work, respondents in 'home duties' were significantly less likely to report pedometer use (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53. Exposure to individual program components, in particular seeing 10,000 Steps street signage and walking trails or visiting the website, was also significantly associated with greater pedometer use. Conclusion Pedometer use varies between population subgroups, and alternate strategies need to be investigated to engage men, people with lower levels

  12. Timing of the steps in transformation of C3H 10T1/2 cells by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Cairns, J.; Little, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Transformation of cells in culture by chemical carcinogens or X-rays seems to require at least two steps. The initial step is a frequent event; for example, after transient exposure to either methylcholanthrene or X-rays. It has been hypothesized that the second step behaves like a spontaneous mutation in having a constant but small probability of occurring each time an initiated cell divides. We show here that the clone size distribution of transformed cells in growing cultures initiated by X-rays, is, indeed, exactly what would be expected on that hypothesis. (author)

  13. Stability of the high-order finite elements for acoustic or elastic wave propagation with high-order time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    De Basabe, Jonás D.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the stability of some high-order finite element methods, namely the spectral element method and the interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (IP-DGM), for acoustic or elastic wave propagation that have become increasingly popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM allows for a time step 73 per cent larger than that of the leap-frog method; the computational cost is approximately double per time step, but the larger time step partially compensates for this additional cost. Necessary, but not sufficient, stability conditions are given for the mentioned methods for orders up to 10 in space and time. The stability conditions for IP-DGM are approximately 20 and 60 per cent more restrictive than those for SEM in the acoustic and elastic cases, respectively. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

  14. Integration of FULLSWOF2D and PeanoClaw: Adaptivity and Local Time-Stepping for Complex Overland Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Unterweger, K.

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. We propose to couple our adaptive mesh refinement software PeanoClaw with existing solvers for complex overland flows that are tailored to regular Cartesian meshes. This allows us to augment them with spatial adaptivity and local time-stepping without altering the computational kernels. FullSWOF2D—Full Shallow Water Overland Flows—here is our software of choice though all paradigms hold for other solvers as well.We validate our hybrid simulation software in an artificial test scenario before we provide results for a large-scale flooding scenario of the Mecca region. The latter demonstrates that our coupling approach enables the simulation of complex “real-world” scenarios.

  15. Third-order-accurate numerical methods for efficient, large time-step solutions of mixed linear and nonlinear problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    There is an increasing need for more accurate numerical methods for large-scale nonlinear magneto-fluid turbulence calculations. These methods should not only increase the current state of the art in terms of accuracy, but should also continue to optimize other desired properties such as simplicity, minimized computation, minimized memory requirements, and robust stability. This includes the ability to stably solve stiff problems with long time-steps. This work discusses a general methodology for deriving higher-order numerical methods. It also discusses how the selection of various choices can affect the desired properties. The explicit discussion focuses on third-order Runge-Kutta methods, including general solutions and five examples. The study investigates the linear numerical analysis of these methods, including their accuracy, general stability, and stiff stability. Additional appendices discuss linear multistep methods, discuss directions for further work, and exhibit numerical analysis results for some other commonly used lower-order methods.

  16. A Novel Molten Salt Reactor Concept to Implement the Multi-Step Time-Scheduled Transmutation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gyula; Feher, Sandor; Szieberthj, Mate

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the molten salt reactor (MSR) concept seems to revive as one of the most promising systems for the realization of transmutation. In the molten salt reactors and subcritical systems the fuel and material to be transmuted circulate dissolved in some molten salt. The main advantage of this reactor type is the possibility of the continuous feed and reprocessing of the fuel. In the present paper a novel molten salt reactor concept is introduced and its transmutation capabilities are studied. The goal is the development of a transmutation technique along with a device implementing it, which yield higher transmutation efficiencies than that of the known procedures and thus results in radioactive waste whose load on the environment is reduced both in magnitude and time length. The procedure is the multi-step time-scheduled transmutation, in which transformation is done in several consecutive steps of different neutron flux and spectrum. In the new MSR concept, named 'multi-region' MSR (MRMSR), the primary circuit is made up of a few separate loops, in which salt-fuel mixtures of different compositions are circulated. The loop sections constituting the core region are only neutronically and thermally coupled. This new concept makes possible the utilization of the spatial dependence of spectrum as well as the advantageous features of liquid fuel such as the possibility of continuous chemical processing etc. In order to compare a 'conventional' MSR and a proposed MRMSR in terms of efficiency, preliminary calculational results are shown. Further calculations in order to find the optimal implementation of this new concept and to emphasize its other advantageous features are going on. (authors)

  17. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  18. Multiple-step fault estimation for interval type-II T-S fuzzy system of hypersonic vehicle with time-varying elevator faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a multiple-step fault estimation algorithm for hypersonic flight vehicles that uses an interval type-II Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model. An interval type-II Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model is developed to approximate the nonlinear dynamic system and handle the parameter uncertainties of hypersonic firstly. Then, a multiple-step time-varying additive fault estimation algorithm is designed to estimate time-varying additive elevator fault of hypersonic flight vehicles. Finally, the simulation is conducted in both aspects of modeling and fault estimation; the validity and availability of such method are verified by a series of the comparison of numerical simulation results.

  19. The impact of weight classification on safety: timing steps to adapt to external constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate how weight classification influences safety by examining adults’ ability to meet a timing constraint: walking to the pace of an audio metronome. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, walking parameters were collected as 55 adults with normal (n=30) and overweight (n=25) body mass index scores walked to slow, normal, and fast audio metronome paces. Results: Between group comparisons showed that at the fast pace, those with overweight body mass index (BMI) had longer double limb support and stance times and slower cadences than the normal weight group (all psmetronome paces revealed that participants who were overweight had higher cadences at the slow and fast paces (all ps<0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggest that those with overweight BMI alter their gait to maintain biomechanical stability. Understanding how excess weight influences gait adaptation can inform interventions to improve safety for individuals with obesity. PMID:25730658

  20. Off-line real-time FTIR analysis of a process step in imipenem production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Jhansi R.; Thomas, Scott M.; Meyerhoffer, Steven M.; Staskiewicz, Steven J.; Lynch, Joseph E.; Egan, Richard S.; Ellison, Dean K.

    1992-08-01

    We have developed an FT-IR method, using a Spectra-Tech Monit-IR 400 systems, to monitor off-line the completion of a reaction in real-time. The reaction is moisture-sensitive and analysis by more conventional methods (normal-phase HPLC) is difficult to reproduce. The FT-IR method is based on the shift of a diazo band when a conjugated beta-diketone is transformed into a silyl enol ether during the reaction. The reaction mixture is examined directly by IR and does not require sample workup. Data acquisition time is less than one minute. The method has been validated for specificity, precision and accuracy. The results obtained by the FT-IR method for known mixtures and in-process samples compare favorably with those from a normal-phase HPLC method.

  1. Canadian children's and youth's pedometer-determined steps/day, parent-reported TV watching time, and overweight/obesity: The CANPLAY Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines associations between pedometer-determined steps/day and parent-reported child's Body Mass Index (BMI and time typically spent watching television between school and dinner. Methods Young people (aged 5-19 years were recruited through their parents by random digit dialling and mailed a data collection package. Information on height and weight and time spent watching television between school and dinner on a typical school day was collected from parents. In total, 5949 boys and 5709 girls reported daily steps. BMI was categorized as overweight or obese using Cole's cut points. Participants wore pedometers for 7 days and logged daily steps. The odds of being overweight and obese by steps/day and parent-reported time spent television watching were estimated using logistic regression for complex samples. Results Girls had a lower median steps/day (10682 versus 11059 for boys and also a narrower variation in steps/day (interquartile range, 4410 versus 5309 for boys. 11% of children aged 5-19 years were classified as obese; 17% of boys and girls were overweight. Both boys and girls watched, on average, Discussion Television viewing is the more prominent factor in terms of predicting overweight, and it contributes to obesity, but steps/day attenuates the association between television viewing and obesity, and therefore can be considered protective against obesity. In addition to replacing opportunities for active alternative behaviours, exposure to television might also impact body weight by promoting excess energy intake. Conclusions In this large nationally representative sample, pedometer-determined steps/day was associated with reduced odds of being obese (but not overweight whereas each parent-reported hour spent watching television between school and dinner increased the odds of both overweight and obesity.

  2. BIOMAP A Daily Time Step, Mechanistic Model for the Study of Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J. R.; Neilson, R. P.; Drapek, R. J.; Pitts, B. S.

    2010-12-01

    of both climate and ecosystems must be done at coarse grid resolutions; smaller domains require higher resolution for the simulation of natural resource processes at the landscape scale and that of on-the-ground management practices. Via a combined multi-agency and private conservation effort we have implemented a Nested Scale Experiment (NeScE) that ranges from 1/2 degree resolution (global, ca. 50 km) to ca. 8km (North America) and 800 m (conterminous U.S.). Our first DGVM, MC1, has been implemented at all 3 scales. We are just beginning to implement BIOMAP into NeScE, with its unique features, and daily time step, as a counterpoint to MC1. We believe it will be more accurate at all resolutions providing better simulations of vegetation distribution, carbon balance, runoff, fire regimes and drought impacts.

  3. Inadequacy of ethical conduct and reporting of stepped wedge cluster randomized trials: Results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljaard, Monica; Hemming, Karla; Shah, Lena; Giraudeau, Bruno; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Weijer, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Background/aims The use of the stepped wedge cluster randomized design is rapidly increasing. This design is commonly used to evaluate health policy and service delivery interventions. Stepped wedge cluster randomized trials have unique characteristics that complicate their ethical interpretation. The 2012 Ottawa Statement provides comprehensive guidance on the ethical design and conduct of cluster randomized trials, and the 2010 CONSORT extension for cluster randomized trials provides guidelines for reporting. Our aims were to assess the adequacy of the ethical conduct and reporting of stepped wedge trials to date, focusing on research ethics review and informed consent. Methods We conducted a systematic review of stepped wedge cluster randomized trials in health research published up to 2014 in English language journals. We extracted details of study intervention and data collection procedures, as well as reporting of research ethics review and informed consent. Two reviewers independently extracted data from each trial; discrepancies were resolved through discussion. We identified the presence of any research participants at the cluster level and the individual level. We assessed ethical conduct by tabulating reporting of research ethics review and informed consent against the presence of research participants. Results Of 32 identified stepped wedge trials, only 24 (75%) reported review by a research ethics committee, and only 16 (50%) reported informed consent from any research participants-yet, all trials included research participants at some level. In the subgroup of 20 trials with research participants at cluster level, only 4 (20%) reported informed consent from such participants; in 26 trials with individual-level research participants, only 15 (58%) reported their informed consent. Interventions (regardless of whether targeting cluster- or individual-level participants) were delivered at the group level in more than two-thirds of trials; nine trials (28

  4. The ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release steps control the time course of force development in rabbit skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, John; Irving, Malcolm; Burton, Kevin

    2005-03-15

    The time course of isometric force development following photolytic release of ATP in the presence of Ca(2+) was characterized in single skinned fibres from rabbit psoas muscle. Pre-photolysis force was minimized using apyrase to remove contaminating ATP and ADP. After the initial force rise induced by ATP release, a rapid shortening ramp terminated by a step stretch to the original length was imposed, and the time course of the subsequent force redevelopment was again characterized. Force development after ATP release was accurately described by a lag phase followed by one or two exponential components. At 20 degrees C, the lag was 5.6 +/- 0.4 ms (s.e.m., n = 11), and the force rise was well fitted by a single exponential with rate constant 71 +/- 4 s(-1). Force redevelopment after shortening-restretch began from about half the plateau force level, and its single-exponential rate constant was 68 +/- 3 s(-1), very similar to that following ATP release. When fibres were activated by the addition of Ca(2+) in ATP-containing solution, force developed more slowly, and the rate constant for force redevelopment following shortening-restretch reached a maximum value of 38 +/- 4 s(-1) (n = 6) after about 6 s of activation. This lower value may be associated with progressive sarcomere disorder at elevated temperature. Force development following ATP release was much slower at 5 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. The rate constant of a single-exponential fit to the force rise was 4.3 +/- 0.4 s(-1) (n = 22), and this was again similar to that after shortening-restretch in the same activation at this temperature, 3.8 +/- 0.2 s(-1). We conclude that force development after ATP release and shortening-restretch are controlled by the same steps in the actin-myosin ATPase cycle. The present results and much previous work on mechanical-chemical coupling in muscle can be explained by a kinetic scheme in which force is generated by a rapid conformational change bracketed by two

  5. The association between choice stepping reaction time and falls in older adults--a path analysis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Delbaere, K.; Sturnieks, D.L.; Lord, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is a functional measure that has been shown to significantly discriminate older fallers from non-fallers. Objective: to investigate how physiological and cognitive factors mediate the association between CSRT performance and multiple falls by use of

  6. 3D elastic wave modeling using modified high‐order time stepping schemes with improved stability conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.; Seif, Roustam

    2009-01-01

    We present two Lax‐Wendroff type high‐order time stepping schemes and apply them to solving the 3D elastic wave equation. The proposed schemes have the same format as the Taylor series expansion based schemes, only with modified temporal extrapolation coefficients. We demonstrate by both theoretical analysis and numerical examples that the modified schemes significantly improve the stability conditions.

  7. A Novel Bioinspired Vision System: A Step toward Real-Time Human-Robot Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Hafiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a human-like robot that could be involved in our daily lives is a dream of many scientists. Achieving a sophisticated robot's vision system, which can enhance the robot's real-time interaction ability with the human, is one of the main keys toward realizing such an autonomous robot. In this work, we are suggesting a bioinspired vision system that helps to develop an advanced human-robot interaction in an autonomous humanoid robot. First, we enhance the robot's vision accuracy online by applying a novel dynamic edge detection algorithm abstracted from the rules that the horizontal cells play in the mammalian retina. Second, in order to support the first algorithm, we improve the robot's tracking ability by designing a variant photoreceptors distribution corresponding to what exists in the human vision system. The experimental results verified the validity of the model. The robot could have a clear vision in real time and build a mental map that assisted it to be aware of the frontal users and to develop a positive interaction with them.

  8. Seven steps to raise world security. Op-Ed, published in the Finanical Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, three phenomena have radically altered the security landscape. They are the emergence of a nuclear black market, the determined efforts by more countries to acquire technology to produce the fissile material usable in nuclear weapons and the clear desire of terrorists to acquire weapons of mass destruction. The IAEA has been trying to solve these new problems with existing tools. But for every step forward, we have exposed vulnerabilities in the system. The system itself - the regime that implements non-proliferation treaty needs reinforcement. Some of the necessary remedies can be taken in New York at the Meeting to be held in May, but only if governments are ready to act. With seven straightforward steps, and without amending the treaty, this conference could reach a milestone in strengthening world security. The first step: put a five-year hold on additional facilities for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. Second, speed up existing efforts, led by the US global threat reduction initiative and others, to modify the research reactors worldwide operating with highly enriched uranium - particularly those with metal fuel that could be readily employed as bomb material. Third, raise the bar for inspection standards by establishing the 'additional protocol' as the norm for verifying compliance with the NPT. Fourth, call on the United Nations Security Council to act swiftly and decisively in the case of any country that withdraws from the NPT, in terms of the threat the withdrawal poses to international peace and security. Fifth, urge states to act on the Security Council's recent resolution 1540, to pursue and prosecute any illicit trading in nuclear material and technology. Sixth, call on the five nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accelerate implementation of their 'unequivocal commitment' to nuclear disarmament, building on efforts such as the 2002 Moscow treaty between Russia and the US. Last, acknowledge the volatility of

  9. A stabilized Runge–Kutta–Legendre method for explicit super-time-stepping of parabolic and mixed equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Chad D.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Aslam, Tariq D.

    2014-01-01

    Parabolic partial differential equations appear in several physical problems, including problems that have a dominant hyperbolic part coupled to a sub-dominant parabolic component. Explicit methods for their solution are easy to implement but have very restrictive time step constraints. Implicit solution methods can be unconditionally stable but have the disadvantage of being computationally costly or difficult to implement. Super-time-stepping methods for treating parabolic terms in mixed type partial differential equations occupy an intermediate position. In such methods each superstep takes “s” explicit Runge–Kutta-like time-steps to advance the parabolic terms by a time-step that is s 2 times larger than a single explicit time-step. The expanded stability is usually obtained by mapping the short recursion relation of the explicit Runge–Kutta scheme to the recursion relation of some well-known, stable polynomial. Prior work has built temporally first- and second-order accurate super-time-stepping methods around the recursion relation associated with Chebyshev polynomials. Since their stability is based on the boundedness of the Chebyshev polynomials, these methods have been called RKC1 and RKC2. In this work we build temporally first- and second-order accurate super-time-stepping methods around the recursion relation associated with Legendre polynomials. We call these methods RKL1 and RKL2. The RKL1 method is first-order accurate in time; the RKL2 method is second-order accurate in time. We verify that the newly-designed RKL1 and RKL2 schemes have a very desirable monotonicity preserving property for one-dimensional problems – a solution that is monotone at the beginning of a time step retains that property at the end of that time step. It is shown that RKL1 and RKL2 methods are stable for all values of the diffusion coefficient up to the maximum value. We call this a convex monotonicity preserving property and show by examples that it is very useful

  10. Three-step management of pneumothorax: time for a re-think on initial management†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Takahito; Taniguchi, Yohei; Saito, Tomohito; Konobu, Toshifumi; Saito, Yukihito

    2013-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a common disease worldwide, but surprisingly, its initial management remains controversial. There are some published guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax. However, they differ in some respects, particularly in initial management. In published trials, the objective of treatment has not been clarified and it is not possible to compare the treatment strategies between different trials because of inappropriate evaluations of the air leak. Therefore, there is a need to outline the optimal management strategy for pneumothorax. In this report, we systematically review published randomized controlled trials of the different treatments of primary spontaneous pneumothorax, point out controversial issues and finally propose a three-step strategy for the management of pneumothorax. There are three important characteristics of pneumothorax: potentially lethal respiratory dysfunction; air leak, which is the obvious cause of the disease; frequent recurrence. These three characteristics correspond to the three steps. The central idea of the strategy is that the lung should not be expanded rapidly, unless absolutely necessary. The primary objective of both simple aspiration and chest drainage should be the recovery of acute respiratory dysfunction or the avoidance of respiratory dysfunction and subsequent complications. We believe that this management strategy is simple and clinically relevant and not dependent on the classification of pneumothorax. PMID:23117233

  11. Rotor Cascade Shape Optimization with Unsteady Passing Wakes Using Implicit Dual-Time Stepping and a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Seok Lee

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An axial turbine rotor cascade-shape optimization with unsteady passing wakes was performed to obtain an improved aerodynamic performance using an unsteady flow, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solver that was based on explicit, finite difference; Runge-Kutta multistage time marching; and the diagonalized alternating direction implicit scheme. The code utilized Baldwin-Lomax algebraic and k-ε turbulence modeling. The full approximation storage multigrid method and preconditioning were implemented as iterative convergence-acceleration techniques. An implicit dual-time stepping method was incorporated in order to simulate the unsteady flow fields. The objective function was defined as minimization of total pressure loss and maximization of lift, while the mass flow rate was fixed during the optimization. The design variables were several geometric parameters characterizing airfoil leading edge, camber, stagger angle, and inter-row spacing. The genetic algorithm was used as an optimizer, and the penalty method was introduced for combining the constraints with the objective function. Each individual's objective function was computed simultaneously by using a 32-processor distributedmemory computer. The optimization results indicated that only minor improvements are possible in unsteady rotor/stator aerodynamics by varying these geometric parameters.

  12. Modeling Stepped Leaders Using a Time Dependent Multi-dipole Model and High-speed Video Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunarathne, S.; Marshall, T.; Stolzenburg, M.; Warner, T. A.; Orville, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    In summer of 2011, we collected lightning data with 10 stations of electric field change meters (bandwidth of 0.16 Hz - 2.6 MHz) on and around NASA/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) covering nearly 70 km × 100 km area. We also had a high-speed video (HSV) camera recording 50,000 images per second collocated with one of the electric field change meters. In this presentation we describe our use of these data to model the electric field change caused by stepped leaders. Stepped leaders of a cloud to ground lightning flash typically create the initial path for the first return stroke (RS). Most of the time, stepped leaders have multiple complex branches, and one of these branches will create the ground connection for the RS to start. HSV data acquired with a short focal length lens at ranges of 5-25 km from the flash are useful for obtaining the 2-D location of these multiple branches developing at the same time. Using HSV data along with data from the KSC Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR2) system and the Cloud to Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS), the 3D path of a leader may be estimated. Once the path of a stepped leader is obtained, the time dependent multi-dipole model [ Lu, Winn,and Sonnenfeld, JGR 2011] can be used to match the electric field change at various sensor locations. Based on this model, we will present the time-dependent charge distribution along a leader channel and the total charge transfer during the stepped leader phase.

  13. First results on photon strength functions of 78Se from the two-step γ Cascades measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Stanislav; Bečvář, František; Krtička, Milan; Tomandl, Ivo

    2017-09-01

    Two-step gamma cascades (TSCs) following the radiative capture of thermal neutrons in 77Se were measured at the research reactor at Řež near Prague. Results on photon strength functions (PSFs) of 78Se, obtained from comparison of experimental TSC spectra with outcomes of simulations under different assumptions about level density and PSFs using the DICEBOX algorithm, are presented. The main attention is paid to possible manifestation of the pygmy resonance observed recently in this nucleus in the nuclear resonance fluorescence measurement and low-energy PSF enhancement observed in Oslo-type experiments for all A ≲ 100 nuclei.

  14. Using Variable Dwell Time to Accelerate Gaze-based Web Browsing with Two-step Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhaokang; Shi, Bertram E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to avoid the "Midas Touch" problem, gaze-based interfaces for selection often introduce a dwell time: a fixed amount of time the user must fixate upon an object before it is selected. Past interfaces have used a uniform dwell time across all objects. Here, we propose an algorithm for adjusting the dwell times of different objects based on the inferred probability that the user intends to select them. In particular, we introduce a probabilistic model of natural gaze behavior while sur...

  15. A positive and multi-element conserving time stepping scheme for biogeochemical processes in marine ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, H.; Burchard, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an unconditionally positive and multi-element conserving time stepping scheme for systems of non-linearly coupled ODE's is presented. These systems of ODE's are used to describe biogeochemical transformation processes in marine ecosystem models. The numerical scheme is a positive-definite modification of the Runge-Kutta method, it can have arbitrarily high order of accuracy and does not require time step adaption. If the scheme is combined with a modified Patankar-Runge-Kutta method from Burchard et al. (2003), it also gets the ability to solve a certain class of stiff numerical problems, but the accuracy is restricted to second-order then. The performance of the new scheme on two test case problems is shown.

  16. Continuous-Time Random Walk with multi-step memory: an application to market dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubiec, Tomasz; Kutner, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    An extended version of the Continuous-Time Random Walk (CTRW) model with memory is herein developed. This memory involves the dependence between arbitrary number of successive jumps of the process while waiting times between jumps are considered as i.i.d. random variables. This dependence was established analyzing empirical histograms for the stochastic process of a single share price on a market within the high frequency time scale. Then, it was justified theoretically by considering bid-ask bounce mechanism containing some delay characteristic for any double-auction market. Our model appeared exactly analytically solvable. Therefore, it enables a direct comparison of its predictions with their empirical counterparts, for instance, with empirical velocity autocorrelation function. Thus, the present research significantly extends capabilities of the CTRW formalism. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  17. Intraindividual Stepping Reaction Time Variability Predicts Falls in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Bunce, D; Haynes, BI; Lord, SR; Gschwind, YJ; Kochan, NA; Reppermund, S; Brodaty, H; Sachdev, PS; Delbaere, K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reaction time measures have considerable potential to aid neuropsychological assessment in a variety of health care settings. One such measure, the intraindividual reaction time variability (IIV), is of particular interest as it is thought to reflect neurobiological disturbance. IIV is associated with a variety of age-related neurological disorders, as well as gait impairment and future falls in older adults. However, although persons diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)...

  18. Assessment of radiopacity of restorative composite resins with various target distances and exposure times and a modified aluminum step wedge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejeh Mir, Arash Poorsattar [Dentistry Student Research Committee (DSRC), Dental Materials Research Center, Dentistry School, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bejeh Mir, Morvarid Poorsattar [Private Practice of Orthodontics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    ANSI/ADA has established standards for adequate radiopacity. This study was aimed to assess the changes in radiopacity of composite resins according to various tube-target distances and exposure times. Five 1-mm thick samples of Filtek P60 and Clearfil composite resins were prepared and exposed with six tube-target distance/exposure time setups (i.e., 40 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.2 seconds; 30 cm, 0.16 seconds, 30 cm, 0.12 seconds; 15 cm, 0.2 seconds; 15 cm, 0.12 seconds) performing at 70 kVp and 7 mA along with a 12-step aluminum stepwedge (1 mm incremental steps) using a PSP digital sensor. Thereafter, the radiopacities measured with Digora for Windows software 2.5 were converted to absorbencies (i.e., A=-log (1-G/255)), where A is the absorbency and G is the measured gray scale). Furthermore, the linear regression model of aluminum thickness and absorbency was developed and used to convert the radiopacity of dental materials to the equivalent aluminum thickness. In addition, all calculations were compared with those obtained from a modified 3-step stepwedge (i.e., using data for the 2nd, 5th, and 8th steps). The radiopacities of the composite resins differed significantly with various setups (p<0.001) and between the materials (p<0.001). The best predicted model was obtained for the 30 cm 0.2 seconds setup (R2=0.999). Data from the reduced modified stepwedge was remarkable and comparable with the 12-step stepwedge. Within the limits of the present study, our findings support that various setups might influence the radiopacity of dental materials on digital radiographs.

  19. Potentials and Limitations of Real-Time Elastography for Prostate Cancer Detection: A Whole-Mount Step Section Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Junker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate prostate cancer (PCa detection rates of real-time elastography (RTE in dependence of tumor size, tumor volume, localization and histological type. Materials and Methods. Thirdy-nine patients with biopsy proven PCa underwent RTE before radical prostatectomy (RPE to assess prostate tissue elasticity, and hard lesions were considered suspicious for PCa. After RPE, the prostates were prepared as whole-mount step sections and were compared with imaging findings for analyzing PCa detection rates. Results. RTE detected 6/62 cancer lesions with a maximum diameter of 0–5 mm (9.7%, 10/37 with a maximum diameter of 6–10 mm (27%, 24/34 with a maximum diameter of 11–20 20 mm (70.6%, 14/14 with a maximum diameter of >20 mm (100% and 40/48 with a volume ≥0.2 cm3 (83.3%. Regarding cancer lesions with a volume ≥ 0.2 cm³ there was a significant difference in PCa detection rates between Gleason scores with predominant Gleason pattern 3 compared to those with predominant Gleason pattern 4 or 5 (75% versus 100%; P=0.028. Conclusions. RTE is able to detect PCa of significant tumor volume and of predominant Gleason pattern 4 or 5 with high confidence, but is of limited value in the detection of small cancer lesions.

  20. Effect of time step size and turbulence model on the open water hydrodynamic performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-zhi; Xiong, Ying

    2013-04-01

    A growing interest has been devoted to the contra-rotating propellers (CRPs) due to their high propulsive efficiency, torque balance, low fuel consumption, low cavitations, low noise performance and low hull vibration. Compared with the single-screw system, it is more difficult for the open water performance prediction because forward and aft propellers interact with each other and generate a more complicated flow field around the CRPs system. The current work focuses on the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers by RANS and sliding mesh method considering the effect of computational time step size and turbulence model. The validation study has been performed on two sets of contra-rotating propellers developed by David W Taylor Naval Ship R & D center. Compared with the experimental data, it shows that RANS with sliding mesh method and SST k-ω turbulence model has a good precision in the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers, and small time step size can improve the level of accuracy for CRPs with the same blade number of forward and aft propellers, while a relatively large time step size is a better choice for CRPs with different blade numbers.

  1. Monitoring result analyses of high slope of five-step ship lock in the Three Gorges Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the double-lane five-step ship lock of the Three Gorges Project (TGP was commenced in 1994, the excavation of the ship lock was completed by the end of 1999, and the ship lock was put in operation in June 2003. The side slopes of the ship lock are characterized by great height (170 m, steepness (70 m in height of upright slope, and great length (over 7000 m in total length. In association with the ship lock, the surrounding rocks in slope have a high potential to deform, with which the magnitude of deformation is restricted. Monitoring results show that the deformation of the five-step ship lock high slopes of the TGP primarily occurred in excavation period, and deformation tended to be stable and convergent during operation period, suggesting the allowable ranges of deformation. At present, the slopes and lock chambers are stable, and the ship lock works well under normal operation condition, enabling the social and economic benefits of the TGP.

  2. Seven Steps to Heaven: Time and Tide in 21st Century Contemporary Music Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Annie K.

    2018-01-01

    Throughout the time of my teaching career, the tide has exposed changes in the nature of music, students and music education. This paper discusses teaching and learning in contemporary music at seven critical stages of 21st century music education: i) diverse types of undergraduate learners; ii) teaching traditional classical repertoire and skills…

  3. Time stepping free numerical solution of linear differential equations: Krylov subspace versus waveform relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.; Oseledets, I.V.; Tyrtyshnikov, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, we propose an efficient implementation of the continuous time waveform relaxation method based on block Krylov subspaces. Second, we compare this new implementation against Krylov subspace methods combined with the shift and invert technique.

  4. Local time stepping with the discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation in 3D heterogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minisini, S.; Zhebel, E.; Kononov, A.; Mulder, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and imaging techniques for geophysics are extremely demanding in terms of computational resources. Seismic data attempt to resolve smaller scales and deeper targets in increasingly more complex geologic settings. Finite elements enable accurate simulation of time-dependent wave propagation

  5. Time Alignment as a Necessary Step in the Analysis of Sleep Probabilistic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rošt'áková, Zuzana; Rosipal, Roman

    2018-02-01

    Sleep can be characterised as a dynamic process that has a finite set of sleep stages during the night. The standard Rechtschaffen and Kales sleep model produces discrete representation of sleep and does not take into account its dynamic structure. In contrast, the continuous sleep representation provided by the probabilistic sleep model accounts for the dynamics of the sleep process. However, analysis of the sleep probabilistic curves is problematic when time misalignment is present. In this study, we highlight the necessity of curve synchronisation before further analysis. Original and in time aligned sleep probabilistic curves were transformed into a finite dimensional vector space, and their ability to predict subjects' age or daily measures is evaluated. We conclude that curve alignment significantly improves the prediction of the daily measures, especially in the case of the S2-related sleep states or slow wave sleep.

  6. First steps towards real-time radiography at the NECTAR facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücherl, T.; Wagner, F. M.; v. Gostomski, Ch. Lierse

    2009-06-01

    The beam tube SR10 at Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) provides an intense beam of fission neutrons for medical application (MEDAPP) and for radiography and tomography of technical and other objects (NECTAR). The high neutron flux of up to 9.8E+07 cm -2 s -1 (depending on filters and collimation) with a mean energy of about 1.9 MeV at the sample position at the NECTAR facility prompted an experimental feasibility study to investigate the potential for real-time (RT) radiography.

  7. First steps towards real-time radiography at the NECTAR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buecherl, T.; Wagner, F.M.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The beam tube SR10 at Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) provides an intense beam of fission neutrons for medical application (MEDAPP) and for radiography and tomography of technical and other objects (NECTAR). The high neutron flux of up to 9.8E+07 cm -2 s -1 (depending on filters and collimation) with a mean energy of about 1.9 MeV at the sample position at the NECTAR facility prompted an experimental feasibility study to investigate the potential for real-time (RT) radiography.

  8. First steps towards real-time radiography at the NECTAR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecherl, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie (RCM), Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.buecherl@radiochemie.de; Wagner, F.M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie (RCM), Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) (Germany)

    2009-06-21

    The beam tube SR10 at Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) provides an intense beam of fission neutrons for medical application (MEDAPP) and for radiography and tomography of technical and other objects (NECTAR). The high neutron flux of up to 9.8E+07 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (depending on filters and collimation) with a mean energy of about 1.9 MeV at the sample position at the NECTAR facility prompted an experimental feasibility study to investigate the potential for real-time (RT) radiography.

  9. Time-step selection considerations in the analysis of reactor transients with DIF3D-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiwo, T.A.; Khalil, H.S.; Cahalan, J.E.; Morris, E.E.

    1993-01-01

    The DIF3D-K code solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent multigroup neutron diffusion equations by using a nodal approach for spatial discretization and either the theta method or one of three space-time factorization approaches for temporal integration of the nodal equations. The three space-time factorization options (namely, improved quasistatic, adiabatic, and conventional point kinetics) were implemented because of their potential efficiency advantage for the analysis of transients in which the flux shape changes more slowly than its amplitude. In this paper, we describe the implementation of DIF3D-K as the neutronics module within the SAS-HWR accident analysis code. We also describe the neuronic-related time-step selection algorithms and their influence on the accuracy and efficiency of the various solution options

  10. Time-step selection considerations in the analysis of reactor transients with DIF3D-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiwo, T.A.; Khalil, H.S.; Cahalan, J.E.; Morris, E.E.

    1993-01-01

    The DIF3D-K code solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent multigroup neutron diffusion equations by using a nodal approach for spatial discretization and either the theta method or one of three space-time factorization approaches for temporal integration of the nodal equations. The three space-time factorization options (namely, improved quasistatic, adiabatic and conventional point kinetics) were implemented because of their potential efficiency advantage for the analysis of transients in which the flux shape changes more slowly than its amplitude. Here we describe the implementation of DIF3D-K as the neutronics module within the SAS-HWR accident analysis code. We also describe the neutronics-related time step selection algorithms and their influence on the accuracy and efficiency of the various solution options

  11. Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber : Recent R&D Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Ahlen, S.; Chernicoff, M.; Deaconu, C.; Dujmic, D.; Dushkin, A.; Fisher, P.; Henderson, S.; Inglis, A.; Kaboth, A.; Kirsch, L.; Lopez, J. P.; Monroe, J.; Ouyang, H.; Sciolla, G.; Tomita, H.; Wellenstein, H.

    2012-02-01

    The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber collaboration recently reported a dark matter limit obtained with a 10 liter time projection chamber filled with CF4 gas. The 10 liter detector was capable of 2D tracking (perpendicular to the drift direction) and 2D fiducialization, and only used information from two CCD cameras when identifying tracks and rejecting backgrounds. Since that time, the collaboration has explored the potential benefits of photomultiplier tube and electronic charge readout to achieve 3D tracking, and particle identification for background rejection. The latest results of this effort is described here.

  12. Effect of increased exposure times on amount of residual monomer released from single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Botsali, Murat Selim; Tosun, Gonca; Yasar, Ahmet

    2015-10-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure times on the amount of residual Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA and UDMA released from single-step self-etch adhesive systems. Two adhesive systems were used. The adhesives were applied to bovine dentin surface according to the manufacturer's instructions and were polymerized using an LED curing unit for 10, 20 and 40 seconds (n = 5). After polymerization, the specimens were stored in 75% ethanol-water solution (6 mL). Residual monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA and HEMA) that were eluted from the adhesives (after 10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days and 30 days) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Among the time periods, the highest amount of released residual monomers from adhesives was observed in the 10th minute. There were statistically significant differences regarding released Bis-GMA, UDMA, HEMA and TEGDMA between the adhesive systems (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among the 10, 20 and 40 second polymerization times according to their effect on residual monomer release from adhesives (p>0.05). Increasing the polymerization time did not have an effect on residual monomer release from single-step self-etch adhesives.

  13. Recent Timing Results for PSR B1259 - 63

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, N.; Johnston, S.

    The binary pulsar PSR B1259 - 63 is in a highly eccentric 3.4 yr orbit around the Be star SS 2883. Timing observations of this pulsar, made over a 7 yr period using the Parkes 64 m radio-telescope, cover two periastron passages, in 1990 August and 1994 January. The timing observations of PSR B1259 - 63 clearly show evidence for timing noise which is domina ted by a cubic term. Unfortunately, the large amplitude timing noise and data over only two complete orbits make it difficult to produce a unique timing solution for this pulsar. However, if the long term behavior of timing noise is completely modeled by a cubic term, both dot ω and dot x terms are required in the timing model which could be a result of a precessing orbit caused by the quadrupole moment of the tilted companion star. In this paper we summarise the timing observations for the PSR B1259 - 63 system; full details are given in Wex et al. (1997).

  14. In the time of significant generational diversity - surgical leadership must step up!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Samuel R; O'Donnell, Mark E; Gray, Richard J

    2014-02-01

    The diverse attitudes and motivations of surgeons and surgical trainees within different age groups present an important challenge for surgical leaders and educators. These challenges to surgical leadership are not unique, and other industries have likewise needed to grapple with how best to manage these various age groups. The authors will herein explore management and leadership for surgeons in a time of age diversity, define generational variations within "Baby-Boomer", "Generation X" and "Generation Y" populations, and identify work ethos concepts amongst these three groups. The surgical community must understand and embrace these concepts in order to continue to attract a stellar pool of applicants from medical school. By not accepting the changing attitudes and motivations of young trainees and medical students, we may disenfranchise a high percentage of potential future surgeons. Surgical training programs will fill, but will they contain the highest quality trainees? Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Imprecise results: Utilizing partial computations in real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan; Liu, Jane W.-S.

    1987-01-01

    In real-time systems, a computation may not have time to complete its execution because of deadline requirements. In such cases, no result except the approximate results produced by the computations up to that point will be available. It is desirable to utilize these imprecise results if possible. Two approaches are proposed to enable computations to return imprecise results when executions cannot be completed normally. The milestone approach records results periodically, and if a deadline is reached, returns the last recorded result. The sieve approach demarcates sections of code which can be skipped if the time available is insufficient. By using these approaches, the system is able to produce imprecise results when deadlines are reached. The design of the Concord project is described which supports imprecise computations using these techniques. Also presented is a general model of imprecise computations using these techniques, as well as one which takes into account the influence of the environment, showing where the latter approach fits into this model.

  16. Delivering stepped care for depression in general practice : Results of a survey amongst general practitioners in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, Henny; Franx, Gerdien; Spijker, Jan; Ruiter, Marijke; van Haastrecht, Harry; Verhaak, Peter; Nuyen, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Background: Revised guidelines for depression recommend a stepped care approach. Little is known about the implementation of the stepped care model by general practitioners (GPs) in daily practice. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of Dutch GPs in their general practice regarding important

  17. Unexpected perturbations training improves balance control and voluntary stepping times in older adults - a double blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Ilan; Gimmon, Yoav; Shapiro, Amir; Debi, Ronen; Snir, Yoram; Melzer, Itshak

    2016-03-04

    Falls are common among elderly, most of them occur while slipping or tripping during walking. We aimed to explore whether a training program that incorporates unexpected loss of balance during walking able to improve risk factors for falls. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial 53 community dwelling older adults (age 80.1±5.6 years), were recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 27) or a control group (n = 26). The intervention group received 24 training sessions over 3 months that included unexpected perturbation of balance exercises during treadmill walking. The control group performed treadmill walking with no perturbations. The primary outcome measures were the voluntary step execution times, traditional postural sway parameters and Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis. The secondary outcome measures were the fall efficacy Scale (FES), self-reported late life function (LLFDI), and Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Compared to control, participation in intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking led to faster Voluntary Step Execution Times under single (p = 0.002; effect size [ES] =0.75) and dual task (p = 0.003; [ES] = 0.89) conditions; intervention group subjects showed improvement in Short-term Effective diffusion coefficients in the mediolateral direction of the Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis under eyes closed conditions (p = 0.012, [ES] = 0.92). Compared to control there were no significant changes in FES, LLFDI, and POMA. An intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking can improve voluntary stepping times and balance control, both previously reported as risk factors for falls. This however, did not transferred to a change self-reported function and FES. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01439451 .

  18. A Quantitative, Time-Dependent Model of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula: Step one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, J. A.; Paquette, J. A.; Farquhar, A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable discovery that oxygen isotopes in primitive meteorites were fractionated along a line of slope I rather than along the typical slope 0,52 terrestrial fractionation line occurred almost 40 years ago, However, a satisfactory, quantitative explanation for this observation has yet to be found, though many different explanations have been proposed, The first of these explanations proposed that the observed line represented the final product produced by mixing molecular cloud dust with a nucleosynthetic component, rich in O-16, possibly resulting from a nearby supernova explosion, Donald Clayton suggested that Galactic Chemical Evolution would gradually change the oxygen isotopic composition of the interstellar grain population by steadily producing O-16 in supernovae, then producing the heavier isotopes as secondary products in lower mass stars, Thiemens and collaborators proposed a chemical mechanism that relied on the availability of additional active rotational and vibrational states in otherwise-symmetric molecules, such as CO2, O3 or SiO2, containing two different oxygen isotopes and a second, photochemical process that suggested that differential photochemical dissociation processes could fractionate oxygen , This second line of research has been pursued by several groups, though none of the current models is quantitative,

  19. Development and validation of a local time stepping-based PaSR solver for combustion and radiation modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Ivarsson, Anders; Haider, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    In the current work, a local time stepping (LTS) solver for the modeling of combustion, radiative heat transfer and soot formation is developed and validated. This is achieved using an open source computational fluid dynamics code, OpenFOAM. Akin to the solver provided in default assembly i...... library in the edcSimpleFoam solver which was introduced during the 6th OpenFOAM workshop is modified and coupled with the current solver. One of the main amendments made is the integration of soot radiation submodel since this is significant in rich flames where soot particles are formed. The new solver...

  20. Reference results for time-like evolution up to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Nocera, Emanuele R.

    2015-03-01

    We present high-precision numerical results for time-like Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution in the factorisation scheme, for the first time up to next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics. First, we scrutinise the analytical expressions of the splitting functions available in the literature, in both x and N space, and check their mutual consistency. Second, we implement time-like evolution in two publicly available, entirely independent and conceptually different numerical codes, in x and N space respectively: the already existing APFEL code, which has been updated with time-like evolution, and the new MELA code, which has been specifically developed to perform the study in this work. Third, by means of a model for fragmentation functions, we provide results for the evolution in different factorisation schemes, for different ratios between renormalisation and factorisation scales and at different final scales. Our results are collected in the format of benchmark tables, which could be used as a reference for global determinations of fragmentation functions in the future.

  1. The TAIGA timing array HiSCORE - first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tluczykont M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of gamma rays up to several 100 TeV are particularly important to spectrally resolve the cutoff regime of the long-sought Pevatrons, the cosmic-ray PeV accelerators. One component of the TAIGA hybrid detector is the TAIGA-HiSCORE timing array, which currently consists of 28 wide angle (0.6 sr air Cherenkov timing stations distributed on an area of 0.25 km2. The HiSCORE concept is based on (non-imaging air shower front sampling with Cherenkov light. First results are presented.

  2. Robust performance results for discrete-time systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Magdi S.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of robust performance and feedback control synthesis for a class of linear discrete-time systems with time-varying parametric uncertainties are addressed in this paper. The uncertainties are bound and have a linear matrix fractional form. Based on the concept of strongly robust H ∞ -performance criterion, results of robust stability and performance are developed and expressed in easily computable linear matrix inequalities. Synthesis of robust feedback controllers is carried out for several system models of interest.

  3. A method to derive fixed budget results from expected optimisation times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Jansen, Thomas; Witt, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    At last year's GECCO a novel perspective for theoretical performance analysis of evolutionary algorithms and other randomised search heuristics was introduced that concentrates on the expected function value after a pre-defined number of steps, called budget. This is significantly different from...... the common perspective where the expected optimisation time is analysed. While there is a huge body of work and a large collection of tools for the analysis of the expected optimisation time the new fixed budget perspective introduces new analytical challenges. Here it is shown how results on the expected...... optimisation time that are strengthened by deviation bounds can be systematically turned into fixed budget results. We demonstrate our approach by considering the (1+1) EA on LeadingOnes and significantly improving previous results. We prove that deviating from the expected time by an additive term of ω(n3...

  4. Fast Determination of Distribution-Connected PV Impacts Using a Variable Time-Step Quasi-Static Time-Series Approach: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, Barry

    2017-08-24

    The increasing deployment of distribution-connected photovoltaic (DPV) systems requires utilities to complete complex interconnection studies. Relatively simple interconnection study methods worked well for low penetrations of photovoltaic systems, but more complicated quasi-static time-series (QSTS) analysis is required to make better interconnection decisions as DPV penetration levels increase. Tools and methods must be developed to support this. This paper presents a variable-time-step solver for QSTS analysis that significantly shortens the computational time and effort to complete a detailed analysis of the operation of a distribution circuit with many DPV systems. Specifically, it demonstrates that the proposed variable-time-step solver can reduce the required computational time by as much as 84% without introducing any important errors to metrics, such as the highest and lowest voltage occurring on the feeder, number of voltage regulator tap operations, and total amount of losses realized in the distribution circuit during a 1-yr period. Further improvement in computational speed is possible with the introduction of only modest errors in these metrics, such as a 91 percent reduction with less than 5 percent error when predicting voltage regulator operations.

  5. The Influences of Time and Velocity of Inert Gas on the Quality of theProcessing Product of Graphite Matrix on the Baking Step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam-Dahroni; Dwi-Herwidhi; NS, Kasilani

    2000-01-01

    The research of the synthesis of matrix graphite on the step of bakingprocess was conducted, by focusing on the influence of time and velocityvariables of the inert gas. The investigation on baking times ranging from 5minutes to 55 minutes and by varying the velocity of inert gas from 0.30l/minute to 3.60 l/minute, resulted the product of different matrix.Optimizing at the time of operation and the flow rate of argon gas indicatedthat the baking time for 30 minutes and by the flow rate of argon gas of 2.60l/minute resulted best matrix graphite that has a hardness value of 11kg/mm 2 of hardness and the ductility of 1800 Newton. (author)

  6. Further Results on Extended Delivery Time for Secondary Packet Transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2017-07-10

    Cognitive radio transceiver can opportunistically access the underutilized spectrum resource of primary systems for new wireless services. With interweave cognitive implementation, secondary transmission may be interrupted by primary transmission. To facilitate the packet delay analysis of such secondary transmission, we study the extended delivery time of secondary packet transmission. In particular, we derive the exact distribution function of extended delivery time of a fixed-size secondary packet with non-work-preserving strategy, where interrupted packets must be repeated. We also analyze the effect of imperfect periodic sensing, i.e., the secondary user periodically senses the spectrum for availability, with a chance of missing an available channel on a certain sensing attempt. These results complement previous work on work-preserving strategy with perfect sensing. Selected numerical and simulation results are presented for verifying the mathematical formulation.

  7. NMR relaxation times in human brain tumors (preliminary results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, L.; Certaines, J. de; Chatel, M.; Menault, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since the early work of Damadian in 1971, proton NMR studies of tumors has been well documented. Present study concerns the spin-lattice T 1 and spin-spin T 2 relaxation times of normal dog brain according to the histological differentiation and of 35 human benignant or malignant tumors. The results principally show T 2 important variations between white and gray substance in normal brain but no discrimination between malignant and benignant tumors [fr

  8. Invited Commentary: Little Steps Lead to Huge Steps-It's Time to Make Physical Inactivity Our Number 1 Public Health Enemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Timothy S

    2016-11-01

    The analysis plan and article in this issue of the Journal by Evenson et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;184(9):621-632) is well-conceived, thoughtfully conducted, and tightly written. The authors utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set to examine the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity level and mortality and found that meeting the 2013 federal Physical Activity Guidelines resulted in a 35% reduction in risk of mortality. The timing of these findings could not be better, given the ubiquitous nature of personal accelerometer devices. The masses are already equipped to routinely quantify their activity, and now we have the opportunity and responsibility to provide evidenced-based, tailored physical activity goals. We have evidenced-based physical activity guidelines, mass distribution of devices to track activity, and now scientific support indicating that meeting the physical activity goal, as assessed by these devices, has substantial health benefits. All of the pieces are in place to make physical inactivity a national priority, and we now have the opportunity to positively affect the health of millions of Americans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Preliminary time-phased TWRS process model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orme, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the first phase of efforts to model the retrieval and processing of Hanford tank waste within the constraints of an assumed tank farm configuration. This time-phased approach simulates a first try at a retrieval sequence, the batching of waste through retrieval facilities, the batching of retrieved waste through enhanced sludge washing, the batching of liquids through pretreatment and low-level waste (LLW) vitrification, and the batching of pretreated solids through high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. The results reflect the outcome of an assumed retrieval sequence that has not been tailored with respect to accepted measures of performance. The batch data, composition variability, and final waste volume projects in this report should be regarded as tentative. Nevertheless, the results provide interesting insights into time-phased processing of the tank waste. Inspection of the composition variability, for example, suggests modifications to the retrieval sequence that will further improve the uniformity of feed to the vitrification facilities. This model will be a valuable tool for evaluating suggested retrieval sequences and establishing a time-phased processing baseline. An official recommendation on tank retrieval sequence will be made in September, 1995

  10. Small Steps: Preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of an incremental goal-setting intervention to reduce sitting time in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L K; Rowlands, A V; Gardiner, P A; Standage, M; English, C; Olds, T

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of a theory-informed program to reduce sitting time in older adults. Pre-experimental (pre-post) study. Thirty non-working adult (≥ 60 years) participants attended a one hour face-to-face intervention session and were guided through: a review of their sitting time; normative feedback on sitting time; and setting goals to reduce total sitting time and bouts of prolonged sitting. Participants chose six goals and integrated one per week incrementally for six weeks. Participants received weekly phone calls. Sitting time and bouts of prolonged sitting (≥ 30 min) were measured objectively for seven days (activPAL3c inclinometer) pre- and post-intervention. During these periods, a 24-h time recall instrument was administered by computer-assisted telephone interview. Participants completed a post-intervention project evaluation questionnaire. Paired t tests with sequential Bonferroni corrections and Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all outcomes. Twenty-seven participants completed the assessments (71.7 ± 6.5 years). Post-intervention, objectively-measured total sitting time was significantly reduced by 51.5 min per day (p=0.006; d=-0.58) and number of bouts of prolonged sitting by 0.8 per day (p=0.002; d=-0.70). Objectively-measured standing increased by 39 min per day (p=0.006; d=0.58). Participants self-reported spending 96 min less per day sitting (p<0.001; d=-0.77) and 32 min less per day watching television (p=0.005; d=-0.59). Participants were highly satisfied with the program. The 'Small Steps' program is a feasible and promising avenue for behavioral modification to reduce sitting time in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Difficulties and Problematic Steps in Teaching the Onstep Technique for Inguinal Hernia Repair, Results from a Focus Group Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    technique for inguinal hernia repair, seen from the instructor's point of view. Methods. We designed a qualitative study using a focus group to allow participants to elaborate freely and facilitate a discussion. Participants were surgeons with extensive experience in performing the Onstep technique from...... course should preferably have experience with other types of hernia repairs. If trainees are inexperienced, the training setup should be a traditional step-by-step programme. A training setup should consist of an explanation of the technique with emphasis on anatomy and difficult parts of the procedure...

  12. Long-Time Plasma Membrane Imaging Based on a Two-Step Synergistic Cell Surface Modification Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao-Ran; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Zhan; Wu, Fu-Gen

    2016-03-16

    Long-time stable plasma membrane imaging is difficult due to the fast cellular internalization of fluorescent dyes and the quick detachment of the dyes from the membrane. In this study, we developed a two-step synergistic cell surface modification and labeling strategy to realize long-time plasma membrane imaging. Initially, a multisite plasma membrane anchoring reagent, glycol chitosan-10% PEG2000 cholesterol-10% biotin (abbreviated as "GC-Chol-Biotin"), was incubated with cells to modify the plasma membranes with biotin groups with the assistance of the membrane anchoring ability of cholesterol moieties. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated avidin was then introduced to achieve the fluorescence-labeled plasma membranes based on the supramolecular recognition between biotin and avidin. This strategy achieved stable plasma membrane imaging for up to 8 h without substantial internalization of the dyes, and avoided the quick fluorescence loss caused by the detachment of dyes from plasma membranes. We have also demonstrated that the imaging performance of our staining strategy far surpassed that of current commercial plasma membrane imaging reagents such as DiD and CellMask. Furthermore, the photodynamic damage of plasma membranes caused by a photosensitizer, Chlorin e6 (Ce6), was tracked in real time for 5 h during continuous laser irradiation. Plasma membrane behaviors including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and plasma membrane vesiculation could be dynamically recorded. Therefore, the imaging strategy developed in this work may provide a novel platform to investigate plasma membrane behaviors over a relatively long time period.

  13. Result Variation and Efficiency Kinetics in Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahsiah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent monitoring of DNA amplification is the basis of real-time PCR. Absolute quantification can be achieved using a standard curve method. The standard curve is constructed by amplifying known amounts of standards under identical conditions to that of the samples.The objective of the current study is to propose a mathematical model to assess the acceptability of PCR resulys.Four commercial standards for HCV-RNA (hepatitis C virus RNA along with 6 patient samples were measured by real-time PCR, using two different RT-PCR reagents. The standard deviation of regression (Sy,x was calculated for each group of standard and compared by F-Test. The efficiency kinetics was computed by logistic regression, c2 goodness of fit test was preformed to assess the appropriateness of the efficiency curves.Calculated efficiencies were not significantly different from the value predicted by logistic regression model. Reactions with more variation showed less stable efficiency curves, with wider range of amplification efficiencies.Amplification efficiency kinetics can be computed by fitting a logistic regression curve to the gathered fluorescent data of each reaction. This model can be employed to assess the acceptability of PCR results calculated by standard curve method.

  14. FIRST RESULTS FROM THE CATALINA REAL-TIME TRANSIENT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A.; Graham, M. J.; Williams, R.; Beshore, E.; Larson, S.; Boattini, A.; Gibbs, A.; Hill, R.; Kowalski, R.; Christensen, E.; Catelan, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the results from the first six months of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS). In order to search for optical transients (OTs) with timescales of minutes to years, the CRTS analyses data from the Catalina Sky Survey which repeatedly covers 26,000 of square degrees on the sky. The CRTS provides a public stream of transients that are bright enough to be followed up using small telescopes. Since the beginning of the survey, all CRTS transients have been made available to astronomers around the world in real time using HTML tables,RSS feeds, and VOEvents. As part of our public outreach program, the detections are now also available in Keyhole Markup Language through Google Sky. The initial discoveries include over 350 unique OTs rising more than 2 mag from past measurements. Sixty two of these are classified as supernovae (SNe), based on light curves, prior deep imaging and spectroscopic data. Seventy seven are due to cataclysmic variables (CVs; only 13 previously known), while an additional 100 transients were too infrequently sampled to distinguish between faint CVs and SNe. The remaining OTs include active galactic nucleus, blazars, high-proper-motions stars, highly variable stars (such as UV Ceti stars), and transients of an unknown nature. Our results suggest that there is a large population of SNe missed by many current SN surveys because of selection biases. These objects appear to be associated with faint host galaxies. We also discuss the unexpected discovery of white dwarf binary systems through dramatic eclipses.

  15. Timing paradox of stepping and falls in ageing: not so quick and quick(er) on the trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark W; Mille, Marie-Laure

    2016-08-15

    Physiological and degenerative changes affecting human standing balance are major contributors to falls with ageing. During imbalance, stepping is a powerful protective action for preserving balance that may be voluntarily initiated in recognition of a balance threat, or be induced by an externally imposed mechanical or sensory perturbation. Paradoxically, with ageing and falls, initiation slowing of voluntary stepping is observed together with perturbation-induced steps that are triggered as fast as or faster than for younger adults. While age-associated changes in sensorimotor conduction, central neuronal processing and cognitive functions are linked to delayed voluntary stepping, alterations in the coupling of posture and locomotion may also prolong step triggering. It is less clear, however, how these factors may explain the accelerated triggering of induced stepping. We present a conceptual model that addresses this issue. For voluntary stepping, a disruption in the normal coupling between posture and locomotion may underlie step-triggering delays through suppression of the locomotion network based on an estimation of the evolving mechanical state conditions for stability. During induced stepping, accelerated step initiation may represent an event-triggering process whereby stepping is released according to the occurrence of a perturbation rather than to the specific sensorimotor information reflecting the evolving instability. In this case, errors in the parametric control of induced stepping and its effectiveness in stabilizing balance would be likely to occur. We further suggest that there is a residual adaptive capacity with ageing that could be exploited to improve paradoxical triggering and other changes in protective stepping to impact fall risk. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  16. Experimental Results of Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; Mast, Arjan; Bloom, Joost

    2010-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Both economical and social requirements are pushing the industry to even higher levels of availability, reliability and safety of installations. The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections reducing uncertainty and extending inspection intervals. Guided wave travel time tomography is a promising method to monitor the wall thickness quantitatively over large areas. Obviously the robustness and reliability of such a monitoring system is of paramount importance. Laboratory experiments have been carried out on a 10″ pipe with a nominal wall thickness of 8 mm. Multiple, inline defects have been created with a realistic morphology. The depth of the defects was increased stepwise from 0.5 mm to 2 mm. Additionally the influences of the presence of liquid inside the pipe and surface roughness have been evaluated as well. Experimental results show that this method is capable of providing quantitative wall thickness information over a distance of 4 meter, with a sufficient accuracy such that results can be used for trending. The method has no problems imaging multiple defects.

  17. Improved Undecidability Results for Reachability Games on Recursive Timed Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankara Narayanan Krishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We study reachability games on recursive timed automata (RTA that generalize Alur-Dill timed automata with recursive procedure invocation mechanism similar to recursive state machines. It is known that deciding the winner in reachability games on RTA is undecidable for automata with two or more clocks, while the problem is decidable for automata with only one clock. Ouaknine and Worrell recently proposed a time-bounded theory of real-time verification by claiming that restriction to bounded-time recovers decidability for several key decision problem related to real-time verification. We revisited games on recursive timed automata with time-bounded restriction in the hope of recovering decidability. However, we found that the problem still remains undecidable for recursive timed automata with three or more clocks. Using similar proof techniques we characterize a decidability frontier for a generalization of RTA to recursive stopwatch automata.

  18. A novel enterovirus and parechovirus multiplex one-step real-time PCR-validation and clinical experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A. C. Y.; Bottiger, B.; Midgley, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    As the number of new enteroviruses and human parechoviruses seems ever growing, the necessity for updated diagnostics is relevant. We have updated an enterovirus assay and combined it with a previously published assay for human parechovirus resulting in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay....... The multiplex assay was validated by analysing the sensitivity and specificity of the assay compared to the respective monoplex assays, and a good concordance was found. Furthermore, the enterovirus assay was able to detect 42 reference strains from all 4 species, and an additional 9 genotypes during panel...... testing and routine usage. During 15 months of routine use, from October 2008 to December 2009, we received and analysed 2187 samples (stool samples, cerebrospinal fluids, blood samples, respiratory samples and autopsy samples) were tested, from 1546 patients and detected enteroviruses and parechoviruses...

  19. Storm-time ring current: model-dependent results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Ganushkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of the paper is to investigate how much the modeled ring current depends on the representations of magnetic and electric fields and boundary conditions used in simulations. Two storm events, one moderate (SymH minimum of −120 nT on 6–7 November 1997 and one intense (SymH minimum of −230 nT on 21–22 October 1999, are modeled. A rather simple ring current model is employed, namely, the Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration model (IMPTAM, in order to make the results most evident. Four different magnetic field and two electric field representations and four boundary conditions are used. We find that different combinations of the magnetic and electric field configurations and boundary conditions result in very different modeled ring current, and, therefore, the physical conclusions based on simulation results can differ significantly. A time-dependent boundary outside of 6.6 RE gives a possibility to take into account the particles in the transition region (between dipole and stretched field lines forming partial ring current and near-Earth tail current in that region. Calculating the model SymH* by Biot-Savart's law instead of the widely used Dessler-Parker-Sckopke (DPS relation gives larger and more realistic values, since the currents are calculated in the regions with nondipolar magnetic field. Therefore, the boundary location and the method of SymH* calculation are of key importance for ring current data-model comparisons to be correctly interpreted.

  20. Multi-time-step ahead daily and hourly intermittent reservoir inflow prediction by artificial intelligent techniques using lumped and distributed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothiprakash, V.; Magar, R. B.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryIn this study, artificial intelligent (AI) techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN), Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and Linear genetic programming (LGP) are used to predict daily and hourly multi-time-step ahead intermittent reservoir inflow. To illustrate the applicability of AI techniques, intermittent Koyna river watershed in Maharashtra, India is chosen as a case study. Based on the observed daily and hourly rainfall and reservoir inflow various types of time-series, cause-effect and combined models are developed with lumped and distributed input data. Further, the model performance was evaluated using various performance criteria. From the results, it is found that the performances of LGP models are found to be superior to ANN and ANFIS models especially in predicting the peak inflows for both daily and hourly time-step. A detailed comparison of the overall performance indicated that the combined input model (combination of rainfall and inflow) performed better in both lumped and distributed input data modelling. It was observed that the lumped input data models performed slightly better because; apart from reducing the noise in the data, the better techniques and their training approach, appropriate selection of network architecture, required inputs, and also training-testing ratios of the data set. The slight poor performance of distributed data is due to large variations and lesser number of observed values.

  1. A step forward in molecular diagnostics of lyssaviruses--results of a ring trial among European laboratories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Fischer

    Full Text Available Rabies is a lethal and notifiable zoonotic disease for which diagnostics have to meet the highest standards. In recent years, an evolution was especially seen in molecular diagnostics with a wide variety of different detection methods published. Therefore, a first international ring trial specifically designed on the use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for detection of lyssavirus genomic RNA was organized. The trial focussed on assessment and comparison of the performance of conventional and real-time assays. In total, 16 European laboratories participated. All participants were asked to investigate a panel of defined lyssavirus RNAs, consisting of Rabies virus (RABV and European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and -2 RNA samples, with systems available in their laboratory. The ring trial allowed the important conclusion that conventional RT-PCR assays were really robust assays tested with a high concordance between different laboratories and assays. The real-time RT-PCR system by Wakeley et al. (2005 in combination with an intercalating dye, and the combined version by Hoffmann and co-workers (2010 showed good sensitivity for the detection of all RABV samples included in this test panel. Furthermore, all used EBLV-specific assays, real-time RT-PCRs as well as conventional RT-PCR systems, were shown to be suitable for a reliable detection of EBLVs. It has to be mentioned that differences were seen in the performance between both the individual RT-PCR systems and the laboratories. Laboratories which used more than one molecular assay for testing the sample panel always concluded a correct sample result. Due to the markedly high genetic diversity of lyssaviruses, the application of different assays in diagnostics is needed to achieve a maximum of diagnostic accuracy. To improve the knowledge about the diagnostic performance proficiency testing at an international level is recommended before using lyssavirus molecular

  2. Webinar Presentation: Environmental Exposures and Health Risks in California Child Care Facilities: First Steps to Improve Environmental Health where Children Spend Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Environmental Exposures and Health Risks in California Child Care Facilities: First Steps to Improve Environmental Health where Children Spend Time, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome.

  3. Initial results from the NSTX Real-Time Velocity diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    A new diagnostic for fast measurements of plasma rotation through active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) was installed on NSTX. The diagnostic infers toroidal rotation from carbon ions undergoing charge-exchange with neutrals from a heating Neutral Beam (NB). Each of the 4 channels, distributed along the outer major radius, includes active views intercepting the NB and background views missing the beam. Estimated uncertainties in the measured velocity are system. Signals are acquired on 2 CCD detectors, each controlled by a dedicated PC. Spectra are fitted in real-time through a C++ processing code and velocities are made available to the Plasma Control System for future implementation of feedback on velocity. Results from the initial operation during the 2011 run are discussed, emphasizing the fast dynamics of toroidal rotation, e . g . during L-H mode transition and breaking caused by instabilities and by externally-imposed magnetic perturbations. Work supported by USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. On the Convexity of Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the convexity of Step out - Step in (SoSi) sequencing games, a class of relaxed sequencing games first analyzed by Musegaas, Borm, and Quant (2015). The proof makes use of a polynomial time algorithm determining the value and an optimal processing order for an

  5. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omelyan, Igor; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2013-01-01

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics

  6. THE TIME DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: VARIABLE SELECTION AND ANTICIPATED RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; Green, Paul J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William Nielsen [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kelly, Brandon [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Badenes, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bañados, Eduardo [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Borissova, Jura [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030, and Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile); Burgett, William S. [GMTO Corp, Suite 300, 251 S. Lake Ave, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Chambers, Kenneth, E-mail: emorganson@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2015-06-20

    We present the selection algorithm and anticipated results for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). TDSS is an Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) subproject that will provide initial identification spectra of approximately 220,000 luminosity-variable objects (variable stars and active galactic nuclei across 7500 deg{sup 2} selected from a combination of SDSS and multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 photometry. TDSS will be the largest spectroscopic survey to explicitly target variable objects, avoiding pre-selection on the basis of colors or detailed modeling of specific variability characteristics. Kernel Density Estimate analysis of our target population performed on SDSS Stripe 82 data suggests our target sample will be 95% pure (meaning 95% of objects we select have genuine luminosity variability of a few magnitudes or more). Our final spectroscopic sample will contain roughly 135,000 quasars and 85,000 stellar variables, approximately 4000 of which will be RR Lyrae stars which may be used as outer Milky Way probes. The variability-selected quasar population has a smoother redshift distribution than a color-selected sample, and variability measurements similar to those we develop here may be used to make more uniform quasar samples in large surveys. The stellar variable targets are distributed fairly uniformly across color space, indicating that TDSS will obtain spectra for a wide variety of stellar variables including pulsating variables, stars with significant chromospheric activity, cataclysmic variables, and eclipsing binaries. TDSS will serve as a pathfinder mission to identify and characterize the multitude of variable objects that will be detected photometrically in even larger variability surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  7. Impossibility results for the equational theory of timed CCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aceto, L.; Ingólfsdóttir, A.; Mousavi, M.; Mossakowski, T.; Montanari, U.; Haveraaen, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the equational theory of Timed CCS as proposed by Wang Yi in CONCUR’90. Common to Wang Yi’s paper, we particularly focus on a class of linearly-ordered time domains exemplified by the positive real or rational numbers. We show that, even when the set of basic actions is a singleton, there

  8. Identification of Dobrava, Hantaan, Seoul, and Puumala viruses by one-step real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitichou, Mohamed; Saleh, Sharron S; McElroy, Anita K; Schmaljohn, C; Ibrahim, M Sofi

    2005-03-01

    We developed four assays for specifically identifying Dobrava (DOB), Hantaan (HTN), Puumala (PUU), and Seoul (SEO) viruses. The assays are based on the real-time one-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with the small segment used as the target sequence. The detection limits of DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 25, 25, 25, and 12.5 plaque-forming units, respectively. The assays were evaluated in blinded experiments, each with 100 samples that contained Andes, Black Creek Canal, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever and Sin Nombre viruses in addition to DOB, HTN, PUU and SEO viruses. The sensitivity levels of the DOB, HTN, PUU, and SEO assays were 98%, 96%, 92% and 94%, respectively. The specificity of DOB, HTN and SEO assays was 100% and the specificity of the PUU assay was 98%. Because of the high levels of sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, we believe that these assays can be useful for diagnosing and differentiating these four Old-World hantaviruses.

  9. A two-step real-time PCR assay for quantitation and genotyping of human parvovirus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, E; Lahtinen, A; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Lappalainen, M; Hedman, K; Söderlund-Venermo, M

    2014-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) of the family Parvoviridae was discovered in a plasma sample of a patient with an undiagnosed acute infection in 2005. Currently, three PARV4 genotypes have been identified, however, with an unknown clinical significance. Interestingly, these genotypes seem to differ in epidemiology. In Northern Europe, USA and Asia, genotypes 1 and 2 have been found to occur mainly in persons with a history of injecting drug use or other parenteral exposure. In contrast, genotype 3 appears to be endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where it infects children and adults without such risk behaviour. In this study, a novel straightforward and cost-efficient molecular assay for both quantitation and genotyping of PARV4 DNA was developed. The two-step method first applies a single-probe pan-PARV4 qPCR for screening and quantitation of this relatively rare virus, and subsequently, only the positive samples undergo a real-time PCR-based multi-probe genotyping. The new qPCR-GT method is highly sensitive and specific regardless of the genotype, and thus being suitable for studying the clinical impact and occurrence of the different PARV4 genotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Straightforward Convergence Method for ICCG Simulation of Multiloop and Time-Stepping FE Model of Synchronous Generators with Simultaneous AC and Rectified DC Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanming Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now electric machines integrate with power electronics to form inseparable systems in lots of applications for high performance. For such systems, two kinds of nonlinearities, the magnetic nonlinearity of iron core and the circuit nonlinearity caused by power electronics devices, coexist at the same time, which makes simulation time-consuming. In this paper, the multiloop model combined with FE model of AC-DC synchronous generators, as one example of electric machine with power electronics system, is set up. FE method is applied for magnetic nonlinearity and variable-step variable-topology simulation method is applied for circuit nonlinearity. In order to improve the simulation speed, the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG method is used to solve the state equation. However, when power electronics device switches off, the convergence difficulty occurs. So a straightforward approach to achieve convergence of simulation is proposed. At last, the simulation results are compared with the experiments.

  11. First-time whole blood donation: A critical step for donor safety and retention on first three donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, P; Rapaille, A; Benoît, A; Ceinos, M; Bertrand, O; de Bouyalsky, I; Govaerts, B; Lambermont, M

    2015-01-01

    Whole blood donation is generally safe although vasovagal reactions can occur (approximately 1%). Risk factors are well known and prevention measures are shown as efficient. This study evaluates the impact of the donor's retention in relation to the occurrence of vasovagal reaction for the first three blood donations. Our study of data collected over three years evaluated the impact of classical risk factors and provided a model including the best combination of covariates predicting VVR. The impact of a reaction at first donation on return rate and complication until the third donation was evaluated. Our data (523,471 donations) confirmed the classical risk factors (gender, age, donor status and relative blood volume). After stepwise variable selection, donor status, relative blood volume and their interaction were the only remaining covariates in the model. Of 33,279 first-time donors monitored over a period of at least 15 months, the first three donations were followed. Data emphasised the impact of complication at first donation. The return rate for a second donation was reduced and the risk of vasovagal reaction was increased at least until the third donation. First-time donation is a crucial step in the donors' career. Donors who experienced a reaction at their first donation have a lower return rate for a second donation and a higher risk of vasovagal reaction at least until the third donation. Prevention measures have to be processed to improve donor retention and provide blood banks with adequate blood supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Step training improves reaction time, gait and balance and reduces falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Schoene, Daniel; Lord, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of stepping interventions on fall risk factors and fall incidence in older people. Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, CENTRAL) and reference lists of included articles from inception to March 2015. Randomised (RCT) or clinical controlled trials (CCT) of volitional and reactive stepping interventions that included older (minimum age 60) people providing data on falls or fall risk factors. Meta-analyses of seven RCTs (n=660) showed that the stepping interventions significantly reduced the rate of falls (rate ratio=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65, prisk ratio=0.51, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.68, pfalls and proportion of fallers. A meta-analysis of two RCTs (n=62) showed that stepping interventions significantly reduced laboratory-induced falls, and meta-analysis findings of up to five RCTs and CCTs (n=36-416) revealed that stepping interventions significantly improved simple and choice stepping reaction time, single leg stance, timed up and go performance (pfalls among older adults by approximately 50%. This clinically significant reduction may be due to improvements in reaction time, gait, balance and balance recovery but not in strength. Further high-quality studies aimed at maximising the effectiveness and feasibility of stepping interventions are required. CRD42015017357. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. STEPS: a grid search methodology for optimized peptide identification filtering of MS/MS database search results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehowski, Paul D; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Sandoval, John D; Burnum, Kristin E; Kiebel, Gary R; Monroe, Matthew E; Anderson, Gordon A; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2013-03-01

    For bottom-up proteomics, there are wide variety of database-searching algorithms in use for matching peptide sequences to tandem MS spectra. Likewise, there are numerous strategies being employed to produce a confident list of peptide identifications from the different search algorithm outputs. Here we introduce a grid-search approach for determining optimal database filtering criteria in shotgun proteomics data analyses that is easily adaptable to any search. Systematic Trial and Error Parameter Selection--referred to as STEPS--utilizes user-defined parameter ranges to test a wide array of parameter combinations to arrive at an optimal "parameter set" for data filtering, thus maximizing confident identifications. The benefits of this approach in terms of numbers of true-positive identifications are demonstrated using datasets derived from immunoaffinity-depleted blood serum and a bacterial cell lysate, two common proteomics sample types. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Compact Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for in Situ Analyses of Aromatic Organics on Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie; Brickerhoff, William; Cornish, Timothy; Ecelberger, Scott; Floyd, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE A miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been adapted to demonstrate two-step laser desorption-ionization (LOI) in a compact instrument package for enhanced organics detection. Two-step LDI decouples the desorption and ionization processes, relative to traditional laser ionization-desorption, in order to produce low-fragmentation conditions for complex organic analytes. Tuning UV ionization laser energy allowed control ofthe degree of fragmentation, which may enable better identification of constituent species. METHODS A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer prototype measuring 20 cm in length was adapted to a two-laser configuration, with IR (1064 nm) desorption followed by UV (266 nm) postionization. A relatively low ion extraction voltage of 5 kV was applied at the sample inlet. Instrument capabilities and performance were demonstrated with analysis of a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, representing a class of compounds important to the fields of Earth and planetary science. RESULTS L2MS analysis of a model PAH standard, pyrene, has been demonstrated, including parent mass identification and the onset o(tunable fragmentation as a function of ionizing laser energy. Mass resolution m/llm = 380 at full width at half-maximum was achieved which is notable for gas-phase ionization of desorbed neutrals in a highly-compact mass analyzer. CONCLUSIONS Achieving two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) in a highly-miniature instrument enables a powerful approach to the detection and characterization of aromatic organics in remote terrestrial and planetary applications. Tunable detection of parent and fragment ions with high mass resolution, diagnostic of molecular structure, is possible on such a compact L2MS instrument. Selectivity of L2MS against low-mass inorganic salt interferences is a key advantage when working with unprocessed, natural samples, and a mechanism for the observed selectivity is presented.

  15. Time and Temperature Test Results for PFP Thermal Stabilization Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The national standard for plutonium storage acceptability (standard DOE-STD-3013-99, generally known as ''the 3013 standard'') has been revised to clarify the requirement for processes that will produce acceptable storage materials. The 3013 standard (Reference 1) now states that ''Oxides shall be stabilized by heating the material in an oxidizing atmosphere to a Material Temperature of at least 950 C (1742 F) for not less than 2 hours.'' The process currently in use for producing stable oxides for storage at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) heats a furnace atmosphere to 1000 C and holds it there for 2 hours. The temperature of the material being stabilized is not measured directly during this process. The Plutonium Process Support Laboratories (PPSL) were requested to demonstrate that the process currently in use at PFP is an acceptable method of producing stable plutonium dioxide consistently. A spare furnace identical to the production furnaces was set up and tested under varying conditions with non-radioactive surrogate materials. Reference 2 was issued to guide the testing program. The process currently in use at the PFP for stabilizing plutonium-bearing powders was shown to heat all the material in the furnace to at least 950 C for at least 2 hours. The current process will work for (1) relatively pure plutonium dioxide, (2) dioxide powders mixed with up to 20 weight percent magnesium oxide, and (3) dioxide powders with up to 11 weight percent magnesium oxide and 20 weight percent magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Time and temperature data were also consistent with a successful demonstration for a mixture containing 10 weight percent each of sodium and potassium chloride; however, the molten chloride salts destroyed the thermocouples in the powder and temperature data were unavailable for part of that run. These results assume that the current operating limits of no more than 2500 grams per furnace charge and a powder height of no more than 1.5 inches remain

  16. Generalized Runge-Kutta method for two- and three-dimensional space-time diffusion equations with a variable time step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboanber, A.E.; Hamada, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive knowledge of the spatial power distribution is required for the design and analysis of different types of current-generation reactors, and that requires the development of more sophisticated theoretical methods. Therefore, the need to develop new methods for multidimensional transient reactor analysis still exists. The objective of this paper is to develop a computationally efficient numerical method for solving the multigroup, multidimensional, static and transient neutron diffusion kinetics equations. A generalized Runge-Kutta method has been developed for the numerical integration of the stiff space-time diffusion equations. The method is fourth-order accurate, using an embedded third-order solution to arrive at an estimate of the truncation error for automatic time step control. In addition, the A(α)-stability properties of the method are investigated. The analyses of two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems as well as static and transient problems, demonstrate that very accurate solutions can be obtained with assembly-sized spatial meshes. Preliminary numerical evaluations using two- and three-dimensional finite difference codes showed that the presented generalized Runge-Kutta method is highly accurate and efficient when compared with other optimized iterative numerical and conventional finite difference methods

  17. A novel enterovirus and parechovirus multiplex one-step real-time PCR-validation and clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alex Christian Yde; Böttiger, Blenda; Midgley, Sofie Elisabeth; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2013-11-01

    As the number of new enteroviruses and human parechoviruses seems ever growing, the necessity for updated diagnostics is relevant. We have updated an enterovirus assay and combined it with a previously published assay for human parechovirus resulting in a multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay. The multiplex assay was validated by analysing the sensitivity and specificity of the assay compared to the respective monoplex assays, and a good concordance was found. Furthermore, the enterovirus assay was able to detect 42 reference strains from all 4 species, and an additional 9 genotypes during panel testing and routine usage. During 15 months of routine use, from October 2008 to December 2009, we received and analysed 2187 samples (stool samples, cerebrospinal fluids, blood samples, respiratory samples and autopsy samples) were tested, from 1546 patients and detected enteroviruses and parechoviruses in 171 (8%) and 66 (3%) of the samples, respectively. 180 of the positive samples could be genotyped by PCR and sequencing and the most common genotypes found were human parechovirus type 3, echovirus 9, enterovirus 71, Coxsackievirus A16, and echovirus 25. During 2009 in Denmark, both enterovirus and human parechovirus type 3 had a similar seasonal pattern with a peak during the summer and autumn. Human parechovirus type 3 was almost invariably found in children less than 4 months of age. In conclusion, a multiplex assay was developed allowing simultaneous detection of 2 viruses, which can cause similar clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Planck 2013 results. VII. HFI time response and beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bowyer, J W; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Haissinski, J; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hou, Z; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matsumura, T; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polegre, A M; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper characterizes the effective beams,the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck HFI detectors. The effective beam is the angular response including the effect of the optics,detectors,data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the CMB angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: (a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds;(b)the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic time response; and (c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determin...

  19. Time will tell: community acceptability of HIV vaccine research before and after the “Step Study” vaccine discontinuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M Frew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Paula M Frew1,2,3,4, Mark J Mulligan1,2,3, Su-I Hou5, Kayshin Chan3, Carlos del Rio1,2,3,61Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Emory Center for AIDS Research, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 3The Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center, Decatur, Georgia, USA; 4Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 5Department of Health Promotion and Behavior, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; 6Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USAObjective: This study examines whether men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM and transgender (TG persons’ attitudes, beliefs, and risk perceptions toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine research have been altered as a result of the negative findings from a phase 2B HIV vaccine study.Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM and TG persons (N = 176 recruited from community settings in Atlanta from 2007 to 2008. The first group was recruited during an active phase 2B HIV vaccine trial in which a candidate vaccine was being evaluated (the “Step Study”, and the second group was recruited after product futility was widely reported in the media.Methods: Descriptive statistics, t tests, and chi-square tests were conducted to ascertain differences between the groups, and ordinal logistic regressions examined the influences of the above-mentioned factors on a critical outcome, future HIV vaccine study participation. The ordinal regression outcomes evaluated the influences on disinclination, neutrality, and inclination to study participation.Results: Behavioral outcomes such as future recruitment, event attendance, study promotion, and community mobilization did not reveal any differences in participants’ intentions between the groups. However, we observed

  20. Age-related differences in lower-limb force-time relation during the push-off in rapid voluntary stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, I; Krasovsky, T; Oddsson, L I E; Liebermann, D G

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the force-time relationship during the push-off stage of a rapid voluntary step in young and older healthy adults, to study the assumption that when balance is lost a quick step may preserve stability. The ability to achieve peak propulsive force within a short time is critical for the performance of such a quick powerful step. We hypothesized that older adults would achieve peak force and power in significantly longer times compared to young people, particularly during the push-off preparatory phase. Fifteen young and 15 older volunteers performed rapid forward steps while standing on a force platform. Absolute anteroposterior and body weight normalized vertical forces during the push-off in the preparation and swing phases were used to determine time to peak and peak force, and step power. Two-way analyses of variance ('Group' [young-older] by 'Phase' [preparation-swing]) were used to assess our hypothesis (P ≤ 0.05). Older people exerted lower peak forces (anteroposterior and vertical) than young adults, but not necessarily lower peak power. More significantly, they showed a longer time to peak force, particularly in the vertical direction during the preparation phase. Older adults generate propulsive forces slowly and reach lower magnitudes, mainly during step preparation. The time to achieve a peak force and power, rather than its actual magnitude, may account for failures in quickly performing a preventive action. Such delay may be associated with the inability to react and recruit muscles quickly. Thus, training elderly to step fast in response to relevant cues may be beneficial in the prevention of falls. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Danish real-time SAR processor: first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Jørn Hjelm; Netterstrøm, Anders

    1993-01-01

    A real-time processor (RTP) for the Danish airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been designed and constructed at the Electromagnetics Institute. The implementation was completed in mid 1992, and since then the RTP has been operated successfully on several test and demonstration flights....... The processor is capable of focusing the entire swath of the raw SAR data into full resolution, and depending on the choice made by the on-board operator, either a high resolution one-look zoom image or a spatially multilooked overview image is displayed. After a brief design review, the paper addresses various...

  2. Real-time eSports Match Result Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yifan; Qin, Tian; Lei, Yu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we try to predict the winning team of a match in the multiplayer eSports game Dota 2. To address the weaknesses of previous work, we consider more aspects of prior (pre-match) features from individual players' match history, as well as real-time (during-match) features at each minute as the match progresses. We use logistic regression, the proposed Attribute Sequence Model, and their combinations as the prediction models. In a dataset of 78362 matches where 20631 matches contai...

  3. Evaluation of allowed outage time using PRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) different measures of risk importance can be established. These measures can be used as a basis for further evaluation and determination of allowed outage time for specific components, within safety systems of a nuclear power plant. In order to optimize the allowed outage time (AOT) stipulated in the plant's Technical Specification it is necessary to create a methodology which could incorporate existing PRA data into a quantitative extrapolation. In order to evaluate the plant risk status due to AOT in a quantitative manner, the risk achievement worth is utilized. Risk achievement worth is defined as follows: to measure the worth of a feature, in achieving the present risk, one approach is to remove the feature and then determine how much the risk has increased. Thus, the risk achievement worth is formally defined to be the increase in risk if the feature were assumed not be there or to be failed. Another parameter of interest for this analysis is the shutdown risk increase. The shutdown risk achievement worth must be incorporated into the accident sequence risk achievement worth to arrive at an optimal set of plant specific AOTs

  4. A New Quaternion-Based Kalman Filter for Real-Time Attitude Estimation Using the Two-Step Geometrically-Intuitive Correction Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kaiqiang; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shen, Chong; Bi, Yu; Zheng, Tao; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-19

    In order to reduce the computational complexity, and improve the pitch/roll estimation accuracy of the low-cost attitude heading reference system (AHRS) under conditions of magnetic-distortion, a novel linear Kalman filter, suitable for nonlinear attitude estimation, is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is the combination of two-step geometrically-intuitive correction (TGIC) and the Kalman filter. In the proposed algorithm, the sequential two-step geometrically-intuitive correction scheme is used to make the current estimation of pitch/roll immune to magnetic distortion. Meanwhile, the TGIC produces a computed quaternion input for the Kalman filter, which avoids the linearization error of measurement equations and reduces the computational complexity. Several experiments have been carried out to validate the performance of the filter design. The results demonstrate that the mean time consumption and the root mean square error (RMSE) of pitch/roll estimation under magnetic disturbances are reduced by 45.9% and 33.8%, respectively, when compared with a standard filter. In addition, the proposed filter is applicable for attitude estimation under various dynamic conditions.

  5. An application of the time-step topological model for three-phase transformer no-load current calculation considering hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrander, Claes; Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Engdahl, Göran

    2017-01-01

    In many transformer applications, it is necessary to have a core magnetization model that takes into account both magnetic and electrical effects. This becomes particularly important in three-phase transformers, where the zero-sequence impedance is generally high, and therefore affects the magnetization very strongly. In this paper, we demonstrate a time-step topological simulation method that uses a lumped-element approach to accurately model both the electrical and magnetic circuits. The simulation method is independent of the used hysteresis model. In this paper, a hysteresis model based on the first-order reversal-curve has been used. - Highlights: • A lumped-element method for modelling transformers i demonstrated. • The method can include hysteresis and arbitrarily complex geometries. • Simulation results for one power transformer are compared to measurements. • An analytical curve-fitting expression for static hysteresis loops is shown.

  6. ChromAlign: A two-step algorithmic procedure for time alignment of three-dimensional LC-MS chromatographic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadygov, Rovshan G; Maroto, Fernando Martin; Hühmer, Andreas F R

    2006-12-15

    We present an algorithmic approach to align three-dimensional chromatographic surfaces of LC-MS data of complex mixture samples. The approach consists of two steps. In the first step, we prealign chromatographic profiles: two-dimensional projections of chromatographic surfaces. This is accomplished by correlation analysis using fast Fourier transforms. In this step, a temporal offset that maximizes the overlap and dot product between two chromatographic profiles is determined. In the second step, the algorithm generates correlation matrix elements between full mass scans of the reference and sample chromatographic surfaces. The temporal offset from the first step indicates a range of the mass scans that are possibly correlated, then the correlation matrix is calculated only for these mass scans. The correlation matrix carries information on highly correlated scans, but it does not itself determine the scan or time alignment. Alignment is determined as a path in the correlation matrix that maximizes the sum of the correlation matrix elements. The computational complexity of the optimal path generation problem is reduced by the use of dynamic programming. The program produces time-aligned surfaces. The use of the temporal offset from the first step in the second step reduces the computation time for generating the correlation matrix and speeds up the process. The algorithm has been implemented in a program, ChromAlign, developed in C++ language for the .NET2 environment in WINDOWS XP. In this work, we demonstrate the applications of ChromAlign to alignment of LC-MS surfaces of several datasets: a mixture of known proteins, samples from digests of surface proteins of T-cells, and samples prepared from digests of cerebrospinal fluid. ChromAlign accurately aligns the LC-MS surfaces we studied. In these examples, we discuss various aspects of the alignment by ChromAlign, such as constant time axis shifts and warping of chromatographic surfaces.

  7. Bonding and Bridging Social Capital in Step- and First-Time Families and the Issue of Family Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Aeby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Divorce and remarriage usually imply a redefinition of family boundaries, with consequences for the production and availability of social capital. This research shows that bonding and bridging social capitals are differentially made available by families. It first hypothesizes that bridging social capital is more likely to be developed in stepfamilies, and bonding social capital in first-time families. Second, the boundaries of family configurations are expected to vary within stepfamilies and within first-time families creating a diversity of family configurations within both structures. Third, in both cases, social capital is expected to depend on the ways in which their family boundaries are set up by individuals by including or excluding ex-partners, new partner's children, siblings, and other family ties. The study is based on a sample of 300 female respondents who have at least one child of their own between 5 and 13 years, 150 from a stepfamily structure and 150 from a first-time family structure. Social capital is empirically operationalized as perceived emotional support in family networks. The results show that individuals in first-time families more often develop bonding social capital and individuals in stepfamilies bridging social capital. In both cases, however, individuals in family configurations based on close blood and conjugal ties more frequently develop bonding social capital, whereas individuals in family configurations based on in-law, stepfamily or friendship ties are more likely to develop bridging social capital.

  8. Computing the sensitivity of drag and lift in flow past a circular cylinder: Time-stepping versus self-consistent analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliga, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    We provide in-depth scrutiny of two methods making use of adjoint-based gradients to compute the sensitivity of drag in the two-dimensional, periodic flow past a circular cylinder (Re≲189 ): first, the time-stepping analysis used in Meliga et al. [Phys. Fluids 26, 104101 (2014), 10.1063/1.4896941] that relies on classical Navier-Stokes modeling and determines the sensitivity to any generic control force from time-dependent adjoint equations marched backwards in time; and, second, a self-consistent approach building on the model of Mantič-Lugo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 084501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.084501] to compute semilinear approximations of the sensitivity to the mean and fluctuating components of the force. Both approaches are applied to open-loop control by a small secondary cylinder and allow identifying the sensitive regions without knowledge of the controlled states. The theoretical predictions obtained by time-stepping analysis reproduce well the results obtained by direct numerical simulation of the two-cylinder system. So do the predictions obtained by self-consistent analysis, which corroborates the relevance of the approach as a guideline for efficient and systematic control design in the attempt to reduce drag, even though the Reynolds number is not close to the instability threshold and the oscillation amplitude is not small. This is because, unlike simpler approaches relying on linear stability analysis to predict the main features of the flow unsteadiness, the semilinear framework encompasses rigorously the effect of the control on the mean flow, as well as on the finite-amplitude fluctuation that feeds back nonlinearly onto the mean flow via the formation of Reynolds stresses. Such results are especially promising as the self-consistent approach determines the sensitivity from time-independent equations that can be solved iteratively, which makes it generally less computationally demanding. We ultimately discuss the extent to

  9. A journey of a thousand miles begins with one small step - human agency, hydrological processes and time in socio-hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, M. W.; Murphy, J. T.; Purdue, L. E.; Zhu, T.

    2014-04-01

    When simulating social action in modeling efforts, as in socio-hydrology, an issue of obvious importance is how to ensure that social action by human agents is well-represented in the analysis and the model. Generally, human decision-making is either modeled on a yearly basis or lumped together as collective social structures. Both responses are problematic, as human decision-making is more complex and organizations are the result of human agency and cannot be used as explanatory forces. A way out of the dilemma of how to include human agency is to go to the largest societal and environmental clustering possible: society itself and climate, with time steps of years or decades. In the paper, another way out is developed: to face human agency squarely, and direct the modeling approach to the agency of individuals and couple this with the lowest appropriate hydrological level and time step. This approach is supported theoretically by the work of Bruno Latour, the French sociologist and philosopher. We discuss irrigation archaeology, as it is in this discipline that the issues of scale and explanatory force are well discussed. The issue is not just what scale to use: it is what scale matters. We argue that understanding the arrangements that permitted the management of irrigation over centuries requires modeling and understanding the small-scale, day-to-day operations and personal interactions upon which they were built. This effort, however, must be informed by the longer-term dynamics, as these provide the context within which human agency is acted out.

  10. Do Comorbid Anxiety Disorders Moderate the Effects of Psychotherapy for Bipolar Disorder? Results From STEP-BD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Peters, Amy T.; Sylvia, Louisa; Urdahl, Anna; Magalhães, Pedro V.S.; Otto, Michael W.; Frank, Ellen; Miklowitz, David J.; Berk, Michael; Kinrys, Gustavo; Nierenberg, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objective At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder have a lifetime anxiety disorder. Individuals with both bipolar disorder and a co-occurring anxiety disorder experience longer illness duration, greater illness severity, and poorer treatment response. The study explored whether comorbid lifetime anxiety in bipolar patients moderates psychotherapy treatment outcome. Method In the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression, participants received up to 30 sessions of intensive psychotherapy (family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, or cognitive-behavioral therapy) or collaborative care, a three-session comparison treatment, plus pharmacotherapy. Using the number needed to treat, we computed effect sizes to analyze the relationship between lifetime anxiety disorders and rates of recovery across treatment groups after 1 year. Results A total of 269 patients (113 women) with a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=177) or without a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=92) were included in the analysis. Participants with a lifetime anxiety disorder were more likely to recover with psychotherapy than with collaborative care (66% compared with 49% recovered over 1 year; number needed to treat=5.88, small to medium effect). For patients without a lifetime anxiety disorder, there was no difference between rates of recovery in psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (64% compared with 62% recovered; number needed to treat=50, small effect). Participants with one lifetime anxiety disorder were likely to benefit from intensive psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (84% compared with 53% recovered; number needed to treat=3.22, medium to large effect), whereas patients with multiple anxiety disorders exhibited no difference in response to the two treatments (54% compared with 46% recovered; number needed to treat=12.5, small effect). Conclusions Depressed patients

  11. Associations between the Objectively Measured Office Environment and Workplace Step Count and Sitting Time: Cross-Sectional Analyses from the Active Buildings Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Abi; Ucci, Marcella; Smith, Lee; Sawyer, Alexia; Spinney, Richard; Konstantatou, Marina; Marmot, Alexi

    2018-06-01

    Office-based workers spend a large proportion of the day sitting and tend to have low overall activity levels. Despite some evidence that features of the external physical environment are associated with physical activity, little is known about the influence of the spatial layout of the internal environment on movement, and the majority of data use self-report. This study investigated associations between objectively-measured sitting time and activity levels and the spatial layout of office floors in a sample of UK office-based workers. Participants wore activPAL accelerometers for at least three consecutive workdays. Primary outcomes were steps and proportion of sitting time per working hour. Primary exposures were office spatial layout, which was objectively-measured by deriving key spatial variables: 'distance from each workstation to key office destinations', 'distance from participant's workstation to all other workstations', 'visibility of co-workers', and workstation 'closeness'. 131 participants from 10 organisations were included. Fifty-four per cent were female, 81% were white, and the majority had a managerial or professional role (72%) in their organisation. The average proportion of the working hour spent sitting was 0.7 (SD 0.15); participants took on average 444 (SD 210) steps per working hour. Models adjusted for confounders revealed significant negative associations between step count and distance from each workstation to all other office destinations (e.g., B = -4.66, 95% CI: -8.12, -1.12, p office destinations (e.g., B = -6.45, 95% CI: -11.88, -0.41, p office destinations the less they walked, suggesting that changing the relative distance between workstations and other destinations on the same floor may not be the most fruitful target for promoting walking and reducing sitting in the workplace. However, reported effect sizes were very small and based on cross-sectional analyses. The approaches developed in this study could be applied to other

  12. Introducing an experimental split-cylinder to study flows with geophysical interest: First steps and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Jesus O.; Burguete, Javier

    2017-11-01

    A new experimental setup has been developed in order to study rotating flows. Our research is derived from the experiments carried out in our group relating to this kind of flows, and the setup is inspired by the simulations performed by Lopez & Gutierrez-Castillo using a split-cylinder flow. In their work they study the different bifurcations taking place into the flow, among others, finding inertial waves in different configurations of the movement of the split-cylinder. Our setup consists in a split-cylinder in which each half can move in co-rotation or in counter-rotation. Moreover, we can set the rotation velocity of each half independently in order to study these different configurations of the flow. The aspect ratio defined as Γ = H / R can be modified, where H is the internal length of the cylinder and R is its radius. With this setup, we study the flow developed inside the split-cylinder depending on the Reynolds number like the different symmetry-breaking that should appear according to Lopez & Gutierrez-Castillo. To obtain the experimental data we use both laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The firsts results got are in the co-rotation case rotating one half faster than the other. We acknowledge support from Spanish Government Grant FIS 2014-54101-P. Jesús O. Rodríguez-García acknowledge research Grant from Asociación de Amigos de la Universidad de Navarra.

  13. Fluoroscopic-guided primary single-step percutaneous gastrostomy. Initial results using the Freka {sup registered} GastroTube; Primaere einzeitige durchleuchtungsgesteuerte perkutane Gastrostomie (PG). Erste Ergebnisse mit dem Freka {sup registered} GastroTube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahne, J.D.; Schoennagel, B.P.; Arndt, C.; Bannas, P.; Koops, A.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Radiologie; Herrmann, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Abt. Paediatrische Radiologie

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the practicability and outcome of fluoroscopic-guided primary one-step treatment of percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) with the system Freka {sup registered} Gastro Tube (Fresenius Kabi, Germany). Materials and Methods: In 39 patients (mean age 62.7 {+-} 12.0 years), primary PG was performed based on clinical indication from August 2009 to April 2010. The intervention was performed by an experienced radiologist under aseptic conditions by direct puncture with Freka {sup registered} Gastro Tube under fluoroscopic guidance. The clinical data and outcome as well as any complications originated from the electronic archive of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Results: The intervention was technically successful in all 39 patients. Within the mean follow-up time of 155.3 {+-} 73.6 days, 29 patients (74.4 %) did not experience complications. 10 patients (25.6 %) had to be revised. Complications manifested after a mean of 135.6 {+-} 61.2 days and mainly corresponded to accidental dislocation (50 %). One patient had to be surgically revised under suspicion of a malpositioned tube and suspected intestinal perforation. Clinically relevant wound infections were not detected. The total costs per patient were 553.17 Euro for our single-step treatment (OPS 5 - 431.x) vs. 963.69 Euro (OPS 5 - 431.x and OPS 8 - 123.0) for the recommended two-step treatment. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic-guided primary single-step treatment with Freka {sup registered} Gastro Tube system is feasible and not associated with an increased complication rate when compared to published literature applying a two-step treatment approach. Material costs as well as human and time resources could be significantly reduced using the single-step treatment. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of olive oil volatiles by multi-step direct thermal desorption-comprehensive gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a programmed temperature vaporizing injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, S.; Kaal, E.; Janssen, H.-G.; van Platerink, C.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of a versatile system for multi-step direct thermal desorption (DTD) coupled to comprehensive gas chromatography (GC × GC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection is studied. As an application the system is used for the characterization of fresh versus aged olive

  15. Physiological and cognitive mediators for the association between self-reported depressed mood and impaired choice stepping reaction time in older people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvelde, T.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Delbaere, K.; Close, J.C.; Lord, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to use path analysis to test a theoretical model proposing that the relationship between self-reported depressed mood and choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) is mediated by psychoactive medication use, physiological performance, and cognitive ability.A total of

  16. Nucleoside uptake in macrophages from various murine strains: a short-time and a two-step stimulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busolo, F.; Conventi, L.; Grigolon, M.; Palu, G.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetics of [3H]-uridine uptake by murine peritoneal macrophages (pM phi) is early altered after exposure to a variety of stimuli. Alterations caused by Candida albicans, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) were similar in SAVO, C57BL/6, C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice, and were not correlated with an activation process as shown by the amount of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) being released. Short-time exposure to all stimuli resulted in an increased nucleoside uptake by SAVO pM phi, suggesting that the tumoricidal function of this cell either depends from the type of stimulus or the time when the specific interaction with the cell receptor is taking place. Experiments with priming and triggering signals confirmed the above findings, indicating that the increase or the decrease of nucleoside uptake into the cell depends essentially on the chemical nature of the priming stimulus. The triggering stimulus, on the other hand, is only able to amplify the primary response

  17. Monte Carlo steps per spin vs. time in the master equation II: Glauber kinetics for the infinite-range ising model in a static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Suhk Kun [Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    As an extension of our previous work on the relationship between time in Monte Carlo simulation and time in the continuous master equation in the infinit-range Glauber kinetic Ising model in the absence of any magnetic field, we explored the same model in the presence of a static magnetic field. Monte Carlo steps per spin as time in the MC simulations again turns out to be proportional to time in the master equation for the model in relatively larger static magnetic fields at any temperature. At and near the critical point in a relatively smaller magnetic field, the model exhibits a significant finite-size dependence, and the solution to the Suzuki-Kubo differential equation stemming from the master equation needs to be re-scaled to fit the Monte Carlo steps per spin for the system with different numbers of spins.

  18. Canadian children's and youth's pedometer-determined steps/day, parent-reported TV watching time, and overweight/obesity: The CANPLAY Surveillance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Craig, Cora L; Cameron, Christine; Griffiths, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examines associations between pedometer-determined steps/day and parent-reported child's Body Mass Index (BMI) and time typically spent watching television between school and dinner. Methods Young people (aged 5-19 years) were recruited through their parents by random digit dialling and mailed a data collection package. Information on height and weight and time spent watching television between school and dinner on a typical school day was collected from parents...

  19. Effect of selenization time on the structural and morphological properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films absorber layers using two step growth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Peter C.; Dejene, Francis B.

    2018-04-01

    In this work two step growth process was used to prepare Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film for solar cell applications. The first step involves deposition of Cu-In-Ga precursor films followed by the selenization process under vacuum using elemental selenium vapor to form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film. The growth process was done at a fixed temperature of 515 °C for 45, 60 and 90 min to control film thickness and gallium incorporation into the absorber layer film. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms single-phase Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film for all the three samples and no secondary phases were observed. A shift in the diffraction peaks to higher 2θ (2 theta) values is observed for the thin films compared to that of pure CuInSe2. The surface morphology of the resulting film grown for 60 min was characterized by the presence of uniform large grain size particles, which are typical for device quality material. Photoluminescence spectra show the shifting of emission peaks to higher energies for longer duration of selenization attributed to the incorporation of more gallium into the CuInSe2 crystal structure. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) revealed a uniform distribution of the elements through the surface of the film. The elemental ratio of Cu/(In + Ga) and Se/Cu + In + Ga strongly depends on the selenization time. The Cu/In + Ga ratio for the 60 min film is 0.88 which is in the range of the values (0.75-0.98) for best solar cell device performances.

  20. Effects of Conjugate Gradient Methods and Step-Length Formulas on the Multiscale Full Waveform Inversion in Time Domain: Numerical Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youshan; Teng, Jiwen; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Liu, Qinya; Zhou, Bing

    2017-05-01

    We carry out full waveform inversion (FWI) in time domain based on an alternative frequency-band selection strategy that allows us to implement the method with success. This strategy aims at decomposing the seismic data within partially overlapped frequency intervals by carrying out a concatenated treatment of the wavelet to largely avoid redundant frequency information to adapt to wavelength or wavenumber coverage. A pertinent numerical test proves the effectiveness of this strategy. Based on this strategy, we comparatively analyze the effects of update parameters for the nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) method and step-length formulas on the multiscale FWI through several numerical tests. The investigations of up to eight versions of the nonlinear CG method with and without Gaussian white noise make clear that the HS (Hestenes and Stiefel in J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect 5:409-436, 1952), CD (Fletcher in Practical methods of optimization vol. 1: unconstrained optimization, Wiley, New York, 1987), and PRP (Polak and Ribière in Revue Francaise Informat Recherche Opertionelle, 3e Année 16:35-43, 1969; Polyak in USSR Comput Math Math Phys 9:94-112, 1969) versions are more efficient among the eight versions, while the DY (Dai and Yuan in SIAM J Optim 10:177-182, 1999) version always yields inaccurate result, because it overestimates the deeper parts of the model. The application of FWI algorithms using distinct step-length formulas, such as the direct method ( Direct), the parabolic search method ( Search), and the two-point quadratic interpolation method ( Interp), proves that the Interp is more efficient for noise-free data, while the Direct is more efficient for Gaussian white noise data. In contrast, the Search is less efficient because of its slow convergence. In general, the three step-length formulas are robust or partly insensitive to Gaussian white noise and the complexity of the model. When the initial velocity model deviates far from the real model or the

  1. STeP: A Tool for the Development of Provably Correct Reactive and Real-Time Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manna, Zohar

    1999-01-01

    This research is directed towards the implementation of a comprehensive toolkit for the development and verification of high assurance reactive systems, especially concurrent, real time, and hybrid systems...

  2. Biological effect of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy with stepping sources if short half-times of repair are present in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Jack F.; Limbergen, Erik F.M. van

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the possible increase of radiation effect in tissues irradiated by pulsed brachytherapy (PDR) for local tissue dose rates between those 'averaged over the whole pulse' and the instantaneous high dose rates close to the dwell positions. Increased effect is more likely for tissues with short half-times of repair of the order of a few minutes, similar to pulse durations. Methods and Materials: Calculations were done assuming the linear quadratic formula for radiation damage, in which only the dose-squared term is subject to exponential repair. The situation with two components of T (1(2)) is addressed. A constant overall time of 140 h and a constant total dose of 70 Gy were assumed throughout, the continuous low dose rate of 0.5 Gy/h (CLDR) providing the unitary standard effects for each PDR condition. Effects of dose rates ranging from 4 Gy/h to 120 Gy/h (HDR at 2 Gy/min) were studied, covering the gap in an earlier publication. Four schedules were examined: doses per pulse of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 Gy given at repetition frequencies of 1, 2, 3, and 4 h, respectively, each with a range of assumed half-times of repair of 4 min to 1.5 h. Results are presented for late-responding tissues, the differences from CLDR being two or three times greater than for early-responding tissues and most tumors. Results: Curves are presented relating the ratio of increased biological effect (proportional to log cell kill) calculated for PDR relative to CLDR. Ratios as high as 1.5 can be found for large doses per pulse (2 Gy) if the half-time of repair in tissues is as short as a few minutes. The major influences on effect are dose per pulse, half-time of repair in tissue, and--when T (1(2)) is short--the instantaneous dose rate. Maximum ratios of PDR/CLDR occur when the dose rate is such that pulse duration is approximately equal to T (1(2)) . As dose rate in the pulse is increased, a plateau of effect is reached, for most T (1(2)) s, above 10 to 20 Gy/h, which is

  3. Illusory conjunctions in the time domain and the resulting time-course of the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Juan; Arend, Isabel; Suero, Manuel

    2004-05-01

    Illusory conjunctions in the time domain are errors made in binding stimulus features presented In the same spatial position in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) conditions. Botella, Barriopedro, and Suero (2001) devised a model to explain how the distribution of responses originating from stimuli around the target in the series is generated. They proposed two routes consisting of two sequential attempts to make a response. The second attempt (sophisticated guessing) is only employed if the first one (focal attention) fails in producing an integrated perception. This general outline enables specific predictions to be made and tested related to the efficiency of focal attention in generating responses in the first attempt. Participants had to report the single letter in an RSVP stream of letters that was presented in a previously specified color (first target, T1) and then report whether an X (second target, T2) was or was not presented. Performance on T2 showed the typical U-shaped function across the T1-T2 lag that reflects the attentional blink phenomenon. However, as was predicted by Botella, Barriopedro, and Suero's model, the time-course of the interference was shorter for trials with a correct response to T1 than for trials with a T1 error. Furthermore, longer time-courses of interference associated with pre-target and post-target errors to the first target were indistinguishable.

  4. A non-contact time-domain scanning brain imaging system: first in-vivo results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurenka, M.; Di Sieno, L.; Boso, G.; Contini, D.; Pifferi, A.; Dalla Mora, A.; Tosi, A.; Wabnitz, H.; Macdonald, R.

    2013-06-01

    We present results of first in-vivo tests of an optical non-contact scanning imaging system, intended to study oxidative metabolism related processes in biological tissue by means of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. Our method is a novel realization of the short source-detector separation approach and based on a fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode to detect late photons only. The scanning system is built in quasi-confocal configuration and utilizes polarizationsensitive detection. It scans an area of 4×4 cm2, recording images with 32×32 pixels, thus creating a high density of source-detector pairs. To test the system we performed a range of in vivo measurements of hemodynamic changes in several types of biological tissues, i.e. skin (Valsalva maneuver), muscle (venous and arterial occlusions) and brain (motor and cognitive tasks). Task-related changes in hemoglobin concentrations were clearly detected in skin and muscle. The brain activation shows weaker, but yet detectable changes. These changes were localized in pixels near the motor cortex area (C3). However, it was found that even very short hair substantially impairs the measurement. Thus the applicability of the scanner is limited to hairless parts of body. The results of our first in-vivo tests prove the feasibility of non-contact scanning imaging as a first step towards development of a prototype for biological tissue imaging for various medical applications.

  5. Effect of different air-drying time on the microleakage of single-step self-etch adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, Horieh; Forghani, Maryam; Managhebi, Esmatsadat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three different air-drying times on microleakage of three self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Class I cavities were prepared for 108 extracted sound human premolars. The teeth were divided into three main groups based on three different adhesives: Opti Bond All in One (OBAO), Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB), Bond Force (BF). Each main group divided into three subgroups regarding the air-drying time: without application of air stream...

  6. The Next Step in Deployment of Computer Based Procedures For Field Workers: Insights And Results From Field Evaluations at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L.; Bly, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    The paper-based procedures currently used for nearly all activities in the commercial nuclear power industry have a long history of ensuring safe operation of the plants. However, there is potential to greatly increase efficiency and safety by improving how the human operator interacts with the procedures. One way to achieve these improvements is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). A CBP system offers a vast variety of improvements, such as context driven job aids, integrated human performance tools (e.g., placekeeping, correct component verification, etc.), and dynamic step presentation. The latter means that the CBP system could only display relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the operator down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the operator’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBP system for field workers, which has been evaluated from a human factors and usability perspective in four laboratory studies. Based on the results from each study revisions were made to the CBP system. However, a crucial step to get the end users' (e.g., auxiliary operators, maintenance technicians, etc.) acceptance is to put the system in their hands and let them use it as a part of their everyday work activities. In the spring 2014 the first field evaluation of the INL CBP system was conducted at a nuclear power plant. Auxiliary operators conduct a functional test of one out of three backup air compressors each week. During the field evaluation activity, one auxiliary operator conducted the test with the paper-based procedure while a second auxiliary operator

  7. Time-resolved measurements of laser-induced diffusion of CO molecules on stepped Pt(111)-surfaces; Zeitaufgeloeste Untersuchung der laser-induzierten Diffusion von CO-Molekuelen auf gestuften Pt(111)-Oberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrenz, M.

    2007-10-30

    In the present work the dynamics of CO-molecules on a stepped Pt(111)-surface induced by fs-laser pulses at low temperatures was studied by using laser spectroscopy. In the first part of the work, the laser-induced diffusion for the CO/Pt(111)-system could be demonstrated and modelled successfully for step diffusion. At first, the diffusion of CO-molecules from the step sites to the terrace sites on the surface was traced. The experimentally discovered energy transfer time of 500 fs for this process confirms the assumption of an electronically induced process. In the following it was explained how the experimental results were modelled. A friction coefficient which depends on the electron temperature yields a consistent model, whereas for the understanding of the fluence dependence and time-resolved measurements parallel the same set of parameters was used. Furthermore, the analysis was extended to the CO-terrace diffusion. Small coverages of CO were adsorbed to the terraces and the diffusion was detected as the temporal evolution of the occupation of the step sites acting as traps for the diffusing molecules. The additional performed two-pulse correlation measurements also indicate an electronically induced process. At the substrate temperature of 40 K the cross-correlation - where an energy transfer time of 1.8 ps was extracted - suggests also an electronically induced energy transfer mechanism. Diffusion experiments were performed for different substrate temperatures. (orig.)

  8. Dynamical Constants and Time Universals: A First Step toward a Metrical Definition of Ordered and Abnormal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; du Bois, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    From the point of view of the cognitive dynamicist the organization of brain circuitry into assemblies defined by their synchrony at particular (and precise) oscillation frequencies is important for the correct correlation of all independent cortical responses to the different aspects of a given complex thought or object. From the point of view of anyone operating complex mechanical systems, i.e., those comprising independent components that are required to interact precisely in time, it follows that the precise timing of such a system is essential - not only essential but measurable, and scalable. It must also be reliable over observations to bring about consistent behavior, whatever that behavior is. The catastrophic consequence of an absence of such precision, for instance that required to govern the interference engine in many automobiles, is indicative of how important timing is for the function of dynamical systems at all levels of operation. The dynamics and temporal considerations combined indicate that it is necessary to consider the operating characteristic of any dynamical, cognitive brain system in terms, superficially at least, of oscillation frequencies. These may, themselves, be forensic of an underlying time-related taxonomy. Currently there are only two sets of relevant and necessarily systematic observations in this field: one of these reports the precise dynamical structure of the perceptual systems engaged in dynamical binding across form and time; the second, derived both empirically from perceptual performance data, as well as obtained from theoretical models, demonstrates a timing taxonomy related to a fundamental operator referred to as the time quantum. In this contribution both sets of theory and observations are reviewed and compared for their predictive consistency. Conclusions about direct comparability are discussed for both theories of cognitive dynamics and time quantum models. Finally, a brief review of some experimental data

  9. Applicability of a two-step laser desorption-ionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer for determination of chemical composition of ultrafine aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, T.

    2013-11-01

    This thesis is based on the construction of a two-step laser desorption-ionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (laser AMS), which is capable of measuring 10 to 50 nm aerosol particles collected from urban and rural air at-site and in near real time. The operation and applicability of the instrument was tested with various laboratory measurements, including parallel measurements with filter collection/chromatographic analysis, and then in field experiments in urban environment and boreal forest. Ambient ultrafine aerosol particles are collected on a metal surface by electrostatic precipitation and introduced to the time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with a sampling valve. Before MS analysis particles are desorbed from the sampling surface with an infrared laser and ionized with a UV laser. The formed ions are guided to the TOF-MS by ion transfer optics, separated according to their m/z ratios, and detected with a micro channel plate detector. The laser AMS was used in urban air studies to quantify the carbon cluster content in 50 nm aerosol particles. Standards for the study were produced from 50 nm graphite particles, suspended in toluene, with 72 hours of high power sonication. The results showed the average amount of carbon clusters (winter 2012, Helsinki, Finland) in 50 nm particles to be 7.2% per sample. Several fullerenes/fullerene fragments were detected during the measurements. In boreal forest measurements, the laser AMS was capable of detecting several different organic species in 10 to 50 nm particles. These included nitrogen-containing compounds, carbon clusters, aromatics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated hydrocarbons. A most interesting event occurred during the boreal forest measurements in spring 2011 when the chemistry of the atmosphere clearly changed during snow melt. On that time concentrations of laser AMS ions m/z 143 and 185 (10 nm particles) increased dramatically. Exactly at the same time, quinoline concentrations

  10. Daily Patterns of Preschoolers' Objectively Measured Step Counts in Six European Countries: Cross-Sectional Results from the ToyBox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stappen, Vicky; Van Dyck, Delfien; Latomme, Julie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis; Socha, Piotr; Iotova, Violeta; Koletzko, Berthold; Manios, Yannis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Cardon, Greet; De Craemer, Marieke

    2018-02-07

    This study is part of the ToyBox-study, which is conducted in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain), aiming to develop a cost-effective kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent overweight and obesity in four- to six-year-old preschool children. In the current study, we aimed to examine and compare preschoolers' step count patterns, across the six European countries. A sample of 3578 preschoolers (mean age: 4.8 ± 0.4) was included. Multilevel analyses were performed to take clustering of measurements into account. Based on the average hourly steps, step count patterns for the six European countries were created for weekdays and weekend days. The step count patterns during weekdays were related to the daily kindergarten schedules. Step count patterns during weekdays showed several significant peaks and troughs ( p steps were observed during afternoon naptimes and high numbers of steps during recess. In Germany, step count patterns did not show clear peaks and troughs, which can be explained by a less structured kindergarten schedule. On weekend days, differences in step count patterns were observed in the absolute number of steps in the afternoon trough and the period in which the evening peak occurred. Differences in step count patterns across the countries can be explained by differences in (school) policy, lifestyle habits, and culture. Therefore, it might be important to respond to these step count patterns and more specifically to tackle the inactive periods during interventions to promote physical activity in preschoolers.

  11. A sensitive one-step real-time PCR for detection of avian influenza viruses using a MGB probe and an internal positive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delogu Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses (AIVs are endemic in wild birds and their introduction and conversion to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in domestic poultry is a cause of serious economic losses as well as a risk for potential transmission to humans. The ability to rapidly recognise AIVs in biological specimens is critical for limiting further spread of the disease in poultry. The advent of molecular methods such as real time polymerase chain reaction has allowed improvement of detection methods currently used in laboratories, although not all of these methods include an Internal Positive Control (IPC to monitor for false negative results. Therefore we developed a one-step reverse transcription real time PCR (RRT-PCR with a Minor Groove Binder (MGB probe for the detection of different subtypes of AIVs. This technique also includes an IPC. Methods RRT-PCR was developed using an improved TaqMan technology with a MGB probe to detect AI from reference viruses. Primers and probe were designed based on the matrix gene sequences from most animal and human A influenza virus subtypes. The specificity of RRT-PCR was assessed by detecting influenza A virus isolates belonging to subtypes from H1–H13 isolated in avian, human, swine and equine hosts. The analytical sensitivity of the RRT-PCR assay was determined using serial dilutions of in vitro transcribed matrix gene RNA. The use of a rodent RNA as an IPC in order not to reduce the efficiency of the assay was adopted. Results The RRT-PCR assay is capable to detect all tested influenza A viruses. The detection limit of the assay was shown to be between 5 and 50 RNA copies per reaction and the standard curve demonstrated a linear range from 5 to 5 × 108 copies as well as excellent reproducibility. The analytical sensitivity of the assay is 10–100 times higher than conventional RT-PCR. Conclusion The high sensitivity, rapidity, reproducibility and specificity of the AIV RRT-PCR with

  12. Standardization of a two-step real-time polymerase chain reaction based method for species-specific detection of medically important Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P; Pandey, P; Harishankar, A; Chandy, M; Bhattacharya, S; Chakrabarti, A

    2017-01-01

    Standardization of Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) poses two technical challenges (a) standardization of DNA extraction, (b) optimization of PCR against various medically important Aspergillus species. Many cases of aspergillosis go undiagnosed because of relative insensitivity of conventional diagnostic methods such as microscopy, culture or antigen detection. The present study is an attempt to standardize real-time PCR assay for rapid sensitive and specific detection of Aspergillus DNA in EDTA whole blood. Three nucleic acid extraction protocols were compared and a two-step real-time PCR assay was developed and validated following the recommendations of the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative in our setup. In the first PCR step (pan-Aspergillus PCR), the target was 28S rDNA gene, whereas in the second step, species specific PCR the targets were beta-tubulin (for Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus), gene and calmodulin gene (for Aspergillus niger). Species specific identification of four medically important Aspergillus species, namely, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger and A. terreus were achieved by this PCR. Specificity of the PCR was tested against 34 different DNA source including bacteria, virus, yeast, other Aspergillus sp., other fungal species and for human DNA and had no false-positive reactions. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was found to be 102 CFU/ml. The present protocol of two-step real-time PCR assays for genus- and species-specific identification for commonly isolated species in whole blood for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillus infections offers a rapid, sensitive and specific assay option and requires clinical validation at multiple centers.

  13. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  14. Gas flushing through hyper-acidic crater lakes: the next steps within a reframed monitoring time window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouwet, Dmitri

    2016-04-01

    Tracking variations in the chemical composition, water temperature and pH of brines from peak-activity crater lakes is the most obvious way to forecast phreatic activity. Volcano monitoring intrinsically implies a time window of observation that should be synchronised with the kinetics of magmatic processes, such as degassing and magma intrusion. To decipher "how much time ago" a variation in degassing regime actually occurred before eventually being detected in a crater lake is key, and depends on the lake water residence time. The above reasoning assumes that gas is preserved as anions in the lake water (SO4, Cl, F anions), in other words, that scrubbing of acid gases is complete and irreversible. Less is true. Recent work has confirmed, by direct MultiGas measurement from evaporative plumes, that even the strongest acid in liquid medium (i.e. SO2) degasses from hyper-acidic crater lakes. The less strong acid HCl has long been recognised as being more volatile than hydrophyle in extremely acidic solutions (pH near 0), through a long-term steady increase in SO4/Cl ratios in the vigorously evaporating crater lake of Poás volcano. We now know that acidic gases flush through hyper-acidic crater lake brines, but we don't know to which extend (completely or partially?), and with which speed. The chemical composition hence only reflects a transient phase of the gas flushing through the lake. In terms of volcanic surveillance this brings the advantage that the monitoring time window is definitely shorter than defined by the water chemistry, but yet, we do not know how much shorter. Empirical experiments by Capaccioni et al. (in press) have tried to tackle this kinetic problem for HCl degassing from a "lab-lake" on the short-term (2 days). With this state of the art in mind, two new monitoring strategies can be proposed to seek for precursory signals of phreatic eruptions from crater lakes: (1) Tracking variations in gas compositions, fluxes and ratios between species in

  15. Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry to Elucidate Organic Diversity in Planetary Surface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cornish, Timothy; Li, Xiang; Floyd, Melissa; Arevalo, Ricardo Jr.; Cook, Jamie Elsila; Callahan, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) holds promise to be a low-mass, compact in situ analytical capability for future landed missions to planetary surfaces. The ability to analyze a solid sample for both mineralogical and preserved organic content with laser ionization could be compelling as part of a scientific mission pay-load that must be prepared for unanticipated discoveries. Targeted missions for this instrument capability include Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and small icy bodies, such as asteroids and comets.

  16. When the Brain Takes 'BOLD' Steps: Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Can Further Enhance the Ability to Gradually Self-regulate Regional Brain Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, Bettina; Kamp, Tabea; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Peters, Judith Caroline; Goebel, Rainer

    2018-05-15

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) are currently explored in the context of developing alternative (motor-independent) communication and control means for the severely disabled. In such BCI systems, the user encodes a particular intention (e.g., an answer to a question or an intended action) by evoking specific mental activity resulting in a distinct brain state that can be decoded from fMRI activation. One goal in this context is to increase the degrees of freedom in encoding different intentions, i.e., to allow the BCI user to choose from as many options as possible. Recently, the ability to voluntarily modulate spatial and/or temporal blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-signal features has been explored implementing different mental tasks and/or different encoding time intervals, respectively. Our two-session fMRI feasibility study systematically investigated for the first time the possibility of using magnitudinal BOLD-signal features for intention encoding. Particularly, in our novel paradigm, participants (n=10) were asked to alternately self-regulate their regional brain-activation level to 30%, 60% or 90% of their maximal capacity by applying a selected activation strategy (i.e., performing a mental task, e.g., inner speech) and modulation strategies (e.g., using different speech rates) suggested by the experimenters. In a second step, we tested the hypothesis that the additional availability of feedback information on the current BOLD-signal level within a region of interest improves the gradual-self regulation performance. Therefore, participants were provided with neurofeedback in one of the two fMRI sessions. Our results show that the majority of the participants were able to gradually self-regulate regional brain activation to at least two different target levels even in the absence of neurofeedback. When provided with continuous feedback on their current BOLD-signal level, most

  17. Time-varying impedance of the human ankle in the sagittal and frontal planes during straight walk and turning steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficanha, Evandro M; Ribeiro, Guilherme A; Knop, Lauren; Rastgaar, Mo

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the methods and experiment protocols for estimation of the human ankle impedance during turning and straight line walking. The ankle impedance of two human subjects during the stance phase of walking in both dorsiflexion plantarflexion (DP) and inversion eversion (IE) were estimated. The impedance was estimated about 8 axes of rotations of the human ankle combining different amounts of DP and IE rotations, and differentiating among positive and negative rotations at 5 instants of the stance length (SL). Specifically, the impedance was estimated at 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of the SL. The ankle impedance showed great variability across time, and across the axes of rotation, with consistent larger stiffness and damping in DP than IE. When comparing straight walking and turning, the main differences were in damping at 50%, 70%, and 90% of the SL with an increase in damping at all axes of rotation during turning.

  18. The design of a real-time formative evaluation of the implementation process of lifestyle interventions at two worksites using a 7-step strategy (BRAVO@Work).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Debbie; Engbers, Luuk H; van Empelen, Pepijn; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2012-08-07

    Worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs) offer an attractive opportunity to improve the lifestyle of employees. Nevertheless, broad scale and successful implementation of WHPPs in daily practice often fails. In the present study, called BRAVO@Work, a 7-step implementation strategy was used to develop, implement and embed a WHPP in two different worksites with a focus on multiple lifestyle interventions.This article describes the design and framework for the formative evaluation of this 7-step strategy under real-time conditions by an embedded scientist with the purpose to gain insight into whether this this 7-step strategy is a useful and effective implementation strategy. Furthermore, we aim to gain insight into factors that either facilitate or hamper the implementation process, the quality of the implemented lifestyle interventions and the degree of adoption, implementation and continuation of these interventions. This study is a formative evaluation within two different worksites with an embedded scientist on site to continuously monitor the implementation process. Each worksite (i.e. a University of Applied Sciences and an Academic Hospital) will assign a participating faculty or a department, to implement a WHPP focusing on lifestyle interventions using the 7-step strategy. The primary focus will be to describe the natural course of development, implementation and maintenance of a WHPP by studying [a] the use and adherence to the 7-step strategy, [b] barriers and facilitators that influence the natural course of adoption, implementation and maintenance, and [c] the implementation process of the lifestyle interventions. All data will be collected using qualitative (i.e. real-time monitoring and semi-structured interviews) and quantitative methods (i.e. process evaluation questionnaires) applying data triangulation. Except for the real-time monitoring, the data collection will take place at baseline and after 6, 12 and 18 months. This is one of the few

  19. The design of a real-time formative evaluation of the implementation process of lifestyle interventions at two worksites using a 7-step strategy (BRAVO@Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierenga Debbie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs offer an attractive opportunity to improve the lifestyle of employees. Nevertheless, broad scale and successful implementation of WHPPs in daily practice often fails. In the present study, called BRAVO@Work, a 7-step implementation strategy was used to develop, implement and embed a WHPP in two different worksites with a focus on multiple lifestyle interventions. This article describes the design and framework for the formative evaluation of this 7-step strategy under real-time conditions by an embedded scientist with the purpose to gain insight into whether this this 7-step strategy is a useful and effective implementation strategy. Furthermore, we aim to gain insight into factors that either facilitate or hamper the implementation process, the quality of the implemented lifestyle interventions and the degree of adoption, implementation and continuation of these interventions. Methods and design This study is a formative evaluation within two different worksites with an embedded scientist on site to continuously monitor the implementation process. Each worksite (i.e. a University of Applied Sciences and an Academic Hospital will assign a participating faculty or a department, to implement a WHPP focusing on lifestyle interventions using the 7-step strategy. The primary focus will be to describe the natural course of development, implementation and maintenance of a WHPP by studying [a] the use and adherence to the 7-step strategy, [b] barriers and facilitators that influence the natural course of adoption, implementation and maintenance, and [c] the implementation process of the lifestyle interventions. All data will be collected using qualitative (i.e. real-time monitoring and semi-structured interviews and quantitative methods (i.e. process evaluation questionnaires applying data triangulation. Except for the real-time monitoring, the data collection will take place at baseline and

  20. Daily Patterns of Preschoolers’ Objectively Measured Step Counts in Six European Countries: Cross-Sectional Results from the ToyBox-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Van Stappen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the ToyBox-study, which is conducted in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain, aiming to develop a cost-effective kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent overweight and obesity in four- to six-year-old preschool children. In the current study, we aimed to examine and compare preschoolers’ step count patterns, across the six European countries. A sample of 3578 preschoolers (mean age: 4.8 ± 0.4 was included. Multilevel analyses were performed to take clustering of measurements into account. Based on the average hourly steps, step count patterns for the six European countries were created for weekdays and weekend days. The step count patterns during weekdays were related to the daily kindergarten schedules. Step count patterns during weekdays showed several significant peaks and troughs (p < 0.01 and clearly reflected the kindergartens’ daily schedules, except for Germany. For example, low numbers of steps were observed during afternoon naptimes and high numbers of steps during recess. In Germany, step count patterns did not show clear peaks and troughs, which can be explained by a less structured kindergarten schedule. On weekend days, differences in step count patterns were observed in the absolute number of steps in the afternoon trough and the period in which the evening peak occurred. Differences in step count patterns across the countries can be explained by differences in (school policy, lifestyle habits, and culture. Therefore, it might be important to respond to these step count patterns and more specifically to tackle the inactive periods during interventions to promote physical activity in preschoolers.

  1. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  2. A Two-Step Lyssavirus Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Degenerate Primers with Superior Sensitivity to the Fluorescent Antigen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Suin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic two-step lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, based on a nested PCR strategy, was validated for the detection of different lyssavirus species. Primers with 17 to 30% of degenerate bases were used in both consecutive steps. The assay could accurately detect RABV, LBV, MOKV, DUVV, EBLV-1, EBLV-2, and ABLV. In silico sequence alignment showed a functional match with the remaining lyssavirus species. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and the sensitivity proved to be superior to that of the fluorescent antigen test. The limit of detection was ≤1 50% tissue culture infectious dose. The related vesicular stomatitis virus was not recognized, confirming the selectivity for lyssaviruses. The assay was applied to follow the evolution of rabies virus infection in the brain of mice from 0 to 10 days after intranasal inoculation. The obtained RNA curve corresponded well with the curves obtained by a one-step monospecific RABV-qRT-PCR, the fluorescent antigen test, and virus titration. Despite the presence of degenerate bases, the assay proved to be highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible.

  3. A two-step lyssavirus real-time polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers with superior sensitivity to the fluorescent antigen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suin, Vanessa; Nazé, Florence; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; De Craeye, Stéphane; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A generic two-step lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), based on a nested PCR strategy, was validated for the detection of different lyssavirus species. Primers with 17 to 30% of degenerate bases were used in both consecutive steps. The assay could accurately detect RABV, LBV, MOKV, DUVV, EBLV-1, EBLV-2, and ABLV. In silico sequence alignment showed a functional match with the remaining lyssavirus species. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and the sensitivity proved to be superior to that of the fluorescent antigen test. The limit of detection was ≤ 1 50% tissue culture infectious dose. The related vesicular stomatitis virus was not recognized, confirming the selectivity for lyssaviruses. The assay was applied to follow the evolution of rabies virus infection in the brain of mice from 0 to 10 days after intranasal inoculation. The obtained RNA curve corresponded well with the curves obtained by a one-step monospecific RABV-qRT-PCR, the fluorescent antigen test, and virus titration. Despite the presence of degenerate bases, the assay proved to be highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible.

  4. Steps and dislocations in cubic lyotropic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, S; Pieranski, P

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown recently that lyotropic systems are convenient for studies of faceting, growth or anisotropic surface melting of crystals. All these phenomena imply the active contribution of surface steps and bulk dislocations. We show here that steps can be observed in situ and in real time by means of a new method combining hygroscopy with phase contrast. First results raise interesting issues about the consequences of bicontinuous topology on the structure and dynamical behaviour of steps and dislocations

  5. Detection of SYT-SSX mutant transcripts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sarcoma tissues using one-step reverse transcriptase real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlelawati, A T; Mohd Danial, G; Nora, H; Nadia, O; Zatur Rawihah, K; Nor Zamzila, A; Naznin, M

    2016-04-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare cancer and accounts for 5-10% of adult soft tissue sarcomas. Making an accurate diagnosis is difficult due to the overlapping histological features of SS with other types of sarcomas and the non-specific immunohistochemistry profile findings. Molecular testing is thus considered necessary to confirm the diagnosis since more than 90% of SS cases carry the transcript of t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2). The purpose of this study is to diagnose SS at molecular level by testing for t(X;18) fusion-transcript expression through One-step reverse transcriptase real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 23 cases of soft tissue sarcomas, which included 5 and 8 cases reported as SS as the primary diagnosis and differential diagnosis respectively, were retrieved from the Department of Pathology, Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan, Pahang. RNA was purified from the tissue block sections and then subjected to One-step reverse transcriptase real-time PCR using sequence specific hydrolysis probes for simultaneous detection of either SYT-SSX1 or SYT-SSX2 fusion transcript. Of the 23 cases, 4 cases were found to be positive for SYT-SSX fusion transcript in which 2 were diagnosed as SS whereas in the 2 other cases, SS was the differential diagnosis. Three cases were excluded due to failure of both amplification assays SYT-SSX and control β-2-microglobulin. The remaining 16 cases were negative for the fusion transcript. This study has shown that the application of One-Step reverse transcriptase real time PCR for the detection SYT-SSX transcript is feasible as an aid in confirming the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma.

  6. The Effect of Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times on Bonding Performance and Surface Free Energy with Single-step Self-etch Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, A; Barkmeier, W W; Takamizawa, T; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phosphoric acid pre-etching times on shear bond strength (SBS) and surface free energy (SFE) with single-step self-etch adhesives. The three single-step self-etch adhesives used were: 1) Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M ESPE), 2) Clearfil tri-S Bond (Kuraray Noritake Dental), and 3) G-Bond Plus (GC). Two no pre-etching groups, 1) untreated enamel and 2) enamel surfaces after ultrasonic cleaning with distilled water for 30 seconds to remove the smear layer, were prepared. There were four pre-etching groups: 1) enamel surfaces were pre-etched with phosphoric acid (Etchant, 3M ESPE) for 3 seconds, 2) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 5 seconds, 3) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 10 seconds, and 4) enamel surfaces were pre-etched for 15 seconds. Resin composite was bonded to the treated enamel surface to determine SBS. The SFEs of treated enamel surfaces were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the enamel surfaces and enamel-adhesive interface. The specimens with phosphoric acid pre-etching showed significantly higher SBS and SFEs than the specimens without phosphoric acid pre-etching regardless of the adhesive system used. SBS and SFEs did not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds. There were no significant differences in SBS and SFEs between the specimens with and without a smear layer. The data suggest that phosphoric acid pre-etching of ground enamel improves the bonding performance of single-step self-etch adhesives, but these bonding properties do not increase for phosphoric acid pre-etching times over 3 seconds.

  7. Performance Analysis for One-Step-Ahead Forecasting of Hybrid Solar and Wind Energy on Short Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With ever increasing demand for electricity and the huge potential of renewable energy, an increasing number of renewable-energy sources are being used to generate electricity. However, due to the intermittency of renewable-energy generation, many researchers try to overcome the variable nature of renewable energy. A hybrid renewable-energy system is one possible way to introduce smoothing of the supply. Many hybrid renewable-energy studies focus on system optimization and management. This paper mainly researches the performance prediction accuracy of a hybrid solar and wind system. Through a mixed autoregressive and dynamical system model, we test the predictability of the hybrid system and compare it with individual solar and wind series forecasting. After error analysis, the predictability of the hybrid system shows a better performance than solar or wind for Adelaide global solar radiation and Starfish Hill wind farm data. The prediction errors were reduced by 13% to more than 30% according to various error analyses. This result indicates an advantage of the hybrid solar and wind system compared to solar and wind systems taken individually.

  8. Rapid detection of Enterovirus and Coxsackievirus A10 by a TaqMan based duplex one-step real time RT-PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfang; Zhang, Rusheng; Ou, Xinhua; Yao, Dong; Huang, Zheng; Li, Linzhi; Sun, Biancheng

    2017-06-01

    A TaqMan based duplex one-step real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for the rapid detection of Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) and other enterovirus (EVs) in clinical samples. The assay was fully evaluated and found to be specific and sensitive. When applied in 115 clinical samples, a 100% diagnostic sensitivity in CV-A10 detection and 97.4% diagnostic sensitivity in other EVs were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between seasonal meteorological conditions and the daily step count of adults in Yokohama, Japan: Results of year-round pedometer measurements in a large population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Hino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People's year-round interpersonal step count variations according to meteorological conditions are not fully understood, because complete year-round data from a sufficient sample of the general population are difficult to acquire. This study examined the associations between meteorological conditions and objectively measured step counts using year-round data collected from a large cohort (N=24,625 in Yokohama, Japan from April 2015 to March 2016.Two-piece linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between the monthly median daily step count and three meteorological indices (mean values of temperature, temperature-humidity index (THI, and net effective temperature (NET.The number of steps per day peaked at temperatures between 19.4 and 20.7°C. At lower temperatures, the increase in steps per day was between 46.4 and 52.5 steps per 1°C increase. At temperatures higher than those at which step counts peaked, the decrease in steps per day was between 98.0 and 187.9 per 1°C increase. Furthermore, these effects were more obvious in elderly than non-elderly persons in both sexes. A similar tendency was seen when using THI and NET instead of temperature. Among the three meteorological indices, the highest R2 value with step counts was observed with THI in all four groups.Both high and low meteorological indices discourage people from walking and higher values of the indices adversely affect step count more than lower values, particularly among the elderly. Among the three indices assessed, THI best explains the seasonal fluctuations in step counts. Keywords: Elderly, Developed countries, Health policy, Humidity, Linear regression, Physical activity, Temperature

  10. Time-stepping approach for solving upper-bound problems: Application to two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Baole; Chini, Gregory P.; Kerswell, Rich R.; Doering, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    An alternative computational procedure for numerically solving a class of variational problems arising from rigorous upper-bound analysis of forced-dissipative infinite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, including the Navier-Stokes and Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations, is analyzed and applied to Rayleigh-Bénard convection. A proof that the only steady state to which this numerical algorithm can converge is the required global optimal of the relevant variational problem is given for three canonical flow configurations. In contrast with most other numerical schemes for computing the optimal bounds on transported quantities (e.g., heat or momentum) within the "background field" variational framework, which employ variants of Newton's method and hence require very accurate initial iterates, the new computational method is easy to implement and, crucially, does not require numerical continuation. The algorithm is used to determine the optimal background-method bound on the heat transport enhancement factor, i.e., the Nusselt number (Nu), as a function of the Rayleigh number (Ra), Prandtl number (Pr), and domain aspect ratio L in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection between stress-free isothermal boundaries (Rayleigh's original 1916 model of convection). The result of the computation is significant because analyses, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations have suggested a range of exponents α and β in the presumed Nu˜PrαRaβ scaling relation. The computations clearly show that for Ra≤1010 at fixed L =2 √{2 },Nu≤0.106 Pr0Ra5/12 , which indicates that molecular transport cannot generally be neglected in the "ultimate" high-Ra regime.

  11. Moment analysis of the time-dependent transmission of a step-function input of a radioactive gas through an adsorber bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.V.; Rothstein, D.; Madey, R.

    1986-01-01

    The time-dependent concentration of a radioactive gas at the outlet of an adsorber bed for a step change in the input concentration is analyzed by the method of moments. This moment analysis yields analytical expressions for calculating the kinetic parameters of a gas adsorbed on a porous solid in terms of observables from a time-dependent transmission curve. Transmission is the ratio of the adsorbate outlet concentration to that at the inlet. The three nonequilibrium parameters are the longitudinal diffusion coefficient, the solid-phase diffusion coefficient, and the interfacial mass-transfer coefficient. Three quantities that can be extracted in principle from an experimental transmission curve are the equilibrium transmission, the average residence (or propagation) time, and the first-moment relative to the propagation time. The propagation time for a radioactive gas is given by the time integral of one minus the transmission (expressed as a fraction of the steady-state transmission). The steady-state transmission, the propagation time, and the first-order moment are functions of the three kinetic parameters and the equilibrium adsorption capacity. The equilibrium adsorption capacity is extracted from an experimental transmission curve for a stable gaseous isotope. The three kinetic parameters can be obtained by solving the three analytical expressions simultaneously. No empirical correlations are required

  12. A new and inexpensive non-bit-for-bit solution reproducibility test based on time step convergence (TSC1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hui; Zhang, Kai; Rasch, Philip J.; Singh, Balwinder; Chen, Xingyuan; Edwards, Jim

    2017-02-01

    A test procedure is proposed for identifying numerically significant solution changes in evolution equations used in atmospheric models. The test issues a fail signal when any code modifications or computing environment changes lead to solution differences that exceed the known time step sensitivity of the reference model. Initial evidence is provided using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 5.3 that the proposed procedure can be used to distinguish rounding-level solution changes from impacts of compiler optimization or parameter perturbation, which are known to cause substantial differences in the simulated climate. The test is not exhaustive since it does not detect issues associated with diagnostic calculations that do not feedback to the model state variables. Nevertheless, it provides a practical and objective way to assess the significance of solution changes. The short simulation length implies low computational cost. The independence between ensemble members allows for parallel execution of all simulations, thus facilitating fast turnaround. The new method is simple to implement since it does not require any code modifications. We expect that the same methodology can be used for any geophysical model to which the concept of time step convergence is applicable.

  13. Long-term prediction of chaotic time series with multi-step prediction horizons by a neural network with Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaee, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    The Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm is applied for training a multilayer perception with three hidden layer each with ten neurons in order to carefully map the structure of chaotic time series such as Mackey-Glass time series. First the MLP network is trained with 1000 data, and then it is tested with next 500 data. After that the trained and tested network is applied for long-term prediction of next 120 data which come after test data. The prediction is such a way that, the first inputs to network for prediction are the four last data of test data, then the predicted value is shifted to the regression vector which is the input to the network, then after first four-step of prediction, the input regression vector to network is fully predicted values and in continue, each predicted data is shifted to input vector for subsequent prediction.

  14. Evaluation of ANSYS time history analysis results according to the input type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Yong; Kim, Tae Wan; Nam, Kung In; Park, Keun Bae

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses and analyzes the analysis reliability of dynamic analysis according to the type of input time history when using commercial FEM analysis code ANSYS. The dynamic analysis using ANSYS with displacement time history, and GT/STRUDL with displacement time history for the same model were carried out and compared. The ANSYS results with displacement time history were more conservative than that with acceleration time history, and showed an unstable characteristic depending on the input directions. The results of analysis using ANSYS with acceleration time history. To review the effect on the analysis for the NSSS structures, CEDM seismic analysis using ANSYS was done. The input time history is comprised of SSE, OBE, and BLPB cases. The comparisons are made by the acceleration floor response spectra of each case obtained after postprocessing of analysis results. The seismic analysis with displacement time history exhibited more conservative results than those with acceleration time history. In conclusion, a time history analysis using ANSYS with displacement time history may give overly conservative results. Hence displacement time history option in ANSYS requires a careful consideration, and it is recommended to use the acceleration time history option if possible. 6 tabs., 22 figs., 7 refs. (Author) .new

  15. Coronary computed tomography angiography using prospective electrocardiography-gated axial scans with 64-detector computed tomography. Evaluation of stair-step artifacts and padding time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Fumiko; Umezawa, Tatsuo; Asano, Tomonari; Chihara, Ruri; Nishi, Naoko; Nishimura, Shigeyoshi; Sakai, Fumikazu

    2010-01-01

    We compared stair-step artifacts and radiation dose between prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-gated coronary computed tomography angiography (prospective CCTA) and retrospective CCTA using 64-detector CT and determined the optimal padding time (PT) for prospective CCTA. We retrospectively evaluated 183 patients [mean heart rate (HR) <65 beats/min, maximum HR instability <5 beats/min] who had undergone CCTA. We scored stair-step artifacts from 1 (severe) to 5 (none) and evaluated the effective dose in 53 patients with retrospective CCTA and 130 with prospective CCTA (PT 200 ms, n=32; PT 50 ms, n=98). Mean artifact scores were 4.3 in both retrospective and prospective CCTAs. However, statistically more arteries scored <3 (nonassessable) on prospective CCTA (P<0.001). Mean scores for prospective CCTA with 200- and 50-ms PT were 4.1 and 4.3, respectively (no significant difference). The radiation dose of prospective CCTA was reduced by 59.1% to 80.7%. Prospective CCTA reduces the radiation dose and allows diagnostic imaging in most cases but shows more nonevaluable artifacts than retrospective CCTA. Use of 50-ms instead of 200-ms PT appears to maintain image quality in patients with a mean HR <65 beats/min and HR instability of <5 beats/min. (author)

  16. Stepping movement analysis of control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yantao; Zu Hongbiao

    2013-01-01

    Background: Control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is one of the important safety-related equipment for nuclear power plants. Purpose: The operating parameters of stepping movement, including lifting loads, step distance and step velocity, are all critical design targets. Methods: FEA and numerical simulation are used to analyze stepping movement separately. Results: The motion equations of the movable magnet in stepping movement are established by load analysis. Gravitation, magnetic force, fluid resistance and spring force are all in consideration in the load analysis. The operating parameters of stepping movement are given. Conclusions: The results, including time history curves of force, speed and etc, can positively used in the design of CRDM. (authors)

  17. Recent results from a continuous wave stepped frequency GPR system using a new ground-coupled multi-element antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Neil; Linford, Paul; Payne, Andy

    2016-04-01

    The recent availability of multi-channel GPR instrumentation has allowed high-speed acquisition of densely sampled data sets over unprecedented areas of coverage. Such instrumentation has been of particular interest for the mapping of near-surface archaeological remains where the ability to collect GPR data at very close sample spacings (<0.1m) can provide a unique insight to both image and assess the survival of historic assets at a landscape scale. This paper reviews initial results obtained with a 3d-Radar GeoScope MkIV continuous wave stepped frequency (CWSF) GPR system utilising both initial prototypes and production versions of a newly introduced ground coupled antenna array. Whilst this system originally utilised an air-coupled antenna array there remained some debate over the suitability of an air-coupled antenna for all site conditions, particularly where a conductive surface layer, typical of many archaeological sites in the UK, may impede the transfer of energy into the ground. Encouraging results obtained from an initial prototype ground-coupled antenna array led to the introduction of a full width 22 channel G1922 version in March 2014 for use with the MkIV GeoScope console, offering faster acquisition across a wider frequency bandwidth (60MHz to 3GHz) with a cross-line 0.075m spacing between the individual elements in the array. Field tests over the Roman remains at Silchester corroborated the results from the earlier prototype, demonstrating an increased depth of penetration at the site compared to the previous air-coupled array. Further field tests were conducted with the G1922 over a range of sites, including Roman villa sites, formal post-medieval garden remains and a medieval farmstead to assess the response of the ground-coupled antenna to more challenging site conditions, particularly through water saturated soils. A full production DXG1820 version of the antenna became available for field work in 2015 offering optimisation of the individual

  18. Mobile Phone-Based Measures of Activity, Step Count, and Gait Speed: Results From a Study of Older Ambulatory Adults in a Naturalistic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye Hanton, Cassia; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Aung, Thawda; Whittington, Jackie; High, Robin R; Goulding, Evan H; Schenk, A Katrin; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2017-10-03

    over a 24-hour period occurring within 1 week of the initial assessment. We identified statistically significant differences between functionally intact and frail participants in mobile phone-derived measures of percent activity (P=.002, t test), active versus inactive status (P=.02, t test), average step counts (Pphone metrics assessed aspects of functional status independent (Bland-Altman and correlation analysis) of both survey- and/or performance battery-based functional measures. In contrast, in frail individuals, the above mobile phone metrics correlated with submeasures of both SAFFE and PROMIS-GH. Continuous mobile phone-based measures of participant community activity and mobility strongly differentiate between persons with intact functional status and persons with a frailty phenotype. These measures assess dimensions of functional status independent of those measured using current validated questionnaires and physical performance assessments to identify functional compromise. Mobile phone-based gait measures may provide a more readily accessible and less-time consuming measure of gait, while further providing clinicians with longitudinal gait measures that are currently difficult to obtain. ©Cassia Rye Hanton, Yong-Jun Kwon, Thawda Aung, Jackie Whittington, Robin R High, Evan H Goulding, A Katrin Schenk, Stephen J Bonasera. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 03.10.2017.

  19. Exshall: A Turkel-Zwas explicit large time-step FORTRAN program for solving the shallow-water equations in spherical coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, I. M.; Yu, Jian

    A FORTRAN computer program is presented and documented applying the Turkel-Zwas explicit large time-step scheme to a hemispheric barotropic model with constraint restoration of integral invariants of the shallow-water equations. We then proceed to detail the algorithms embodied in the code EXSHALL in this paper, particularly algorithms related to the efficiency and stability of T-Z scheme and the quadratic constraint restoration method which is based on a variational approach. In particular we provide details about the high-latitude filtering, Shapiro filtering, and Robert filtering algorithms used in the code. We explain in detail the various subroutines in the EXSHALL code with emphasis on algorithms implemented in the code and present the flowcharts of some major subroutines. Finally, we provide a visual example illustrating a 4-day run using real initial data, along with a sample printout and graphic isoline contours of the height field and velocity fields.

  20. Does migratory distance affect fuelling in a medium-distance passerine migrant?: results from direct and step-wise simulated magnetic displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ilieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the Earth's magnetic field. However, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. In order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks (Prunella modularis and subjected them to three magnetic field conditions simulated by a system of magnetic coils: (1 local geomagnetic field of southern Sweden, (2 magnetic field corresponding to the centre of the expected wintering area, and (3 magnetic field met at the northern limit of the species' breeding distribution. We did not find a difference in mass increase between the birds kept in a local magnetic field and a field resembling their wintering area, irrespectively of the mode of magnetic displacement, i.e. direct or step-wise. However, the dunnocks magnetically displaced north showed a lower rate of fuelling in comparison to the control group, probably due to elevated activity. Compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the fuelling response to magnetic displacements during the migration period is specific to the eco-physiological situation. Future studies need to address if there is an effect of magnetic field manipulation on the level of migratory activity in dunnocks and how widespread the influence of local geomagnetic field parameters is on fuelling decisions in different bird species, which have different migratory strategies, distances and migration history.

  1. Influence of step complexity and presentation style on step performance of computerized emergency operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Song Fei; Luo Wei; Zhao Qianyi; Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    With the development of information technology, computerized emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are taking the place of paper-based ones. However, ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately since the industrial practice is quite limited yet. This study examined the influence of step complexity and presentation style of EOPs on step performance. A simulated computerized EOP system was developed in two presentation styles: Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination. Step complexity was quantified by a complexity measure model based on an entropy concept. Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. The results of data analysis on the experiment data indicate that step complexity and presentation style could significantly influence step performance (both step error rate and operation time). Regression models were also developed. The regression analysis results imply that operation time of a step could be well predicted by step complexity while step error rate could only partly predicted by it. The result of a questionnaire investigation implies that step error rate was influenced not only by the operation task itself but also by other human factors. These findings may be useful for the design and assessment of computerized EOPs.

  2. Spectrum of Slip Processes on the Subduction Interface in a Continuum Framework Resolved by Rate-and State Dependent Friction and Adaptive Time Stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrendoerfer, R.; van Dinther, Y.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    To explore the relationships between subduction dynamics and the megathrust earthquake potential, we have recently developed a numerical model that bridges the gap between processes on geodynamic and earthquake cycle time scales. In a self-consistent, continuum-based framework including a visco-elasto-plastic constitutive relationship, cycles of megathrust earthquake-like ruptures were simulated through a purely slip rate-dependent friction, albeit with very low slip rates (van Dinther et al., JGR, 2013). In addition to much faster earthquakes, a range of aseismic slip processes operate at different time scales in nature. These aseismic processes likely accommodate a considerable amount of the plate convergence and are thus relevant in order to estimate the long-term seismic coupling and related hazard in subduction zones. To simulate and resolve this wide spectrum of slip processes, we innovatively implemented rate-and state dependent friction (RSF) and an adaptive time-stepping into our continuum framework. The RSF formulation, in contrast to our previous friction formulation, takes the dependency of frictional strength on a state variable into account. It thereby allows for continuous plastic yielding inside rate-weakening regions, which leads to aseismic slip. In contrast to the conventional RSF formulation, we relate slip velocities to strain rates and use an invariant formulation. Thus we do not require the a priori definition of infinitely thin, planar faults in a homogeneous elastic medium. With this new implementation of RSF, we succeed to produce consistent cycles of frictional instabilities. By changing the frictional parameter a, b, and the characteristic slip distance, we observe a transition from stable sliding to stick-slip behaviour. This transition is in general agreement with predictions from theoretical estimates of the nucleation size, thereby to first order validating our implementation. By incorporating adaptive time-stepping based on a

  3. Recovery of forward stepping in spinal cord injured patients does not transfer to untrained backward stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Renato; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka; Molinari, Marco; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    Six spinal cord injured (SCI) patients were trained to step on a treadmill with body-weight support for 1.5-3 months. At the end of training, foot motion recovered the shape and the step-by-step reproducibility that characterize normal gait. They were then asked to step backward on the treadmill belt that moved in the opposite direction relative to standard forward training. In contrast to healthy subjects, who can immediately reverse the direction of walking by time-reversing the kinematic waveforms, patients were unable to step backward. Similarly patients were unable to perform another untrained locomotor task, namely stepping in place on the idle treadmill. Two patients who were trained to step backward for 2-3 weeks were able to develop control of foot motion appropriate for this task. The results show that locomotor improvement does not transfer to untrained tasks, thus supporting the idea of task-dependent plasticity in human locomotor networks.

  4. Time required for partial pressure of arterial oxygen equilibration during mechanical ventilation after a step change in fractional inspired oxygen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, N; Tuŏrul, M; Demirarslan, A; Nahum, A; Adams, A; Akýncý, O; Esen, F; Telci, L

    2001-04-01

    To determine the time required for the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to reach equilibrium after a 0.20 increment or decrement in fractional inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) during mechanical ventilation. A multi-disciplinary ICU in a university hospital. Twenty-five adult, non-COPD patients with stable blood gas values (PaO2/FIO2 > or = 180 on the day of the study) on pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). Following a baseline PaO2 (PaO2b) measurement at FIO2 = 0.35, the FIO2 was increased to 0.55 for 30 min and then decreased to 0.35 without any other change in ventilatory parameters. Sequential blood gas measurements were performed at 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min in both periods. The PaO2 values measured at the 30th min after a step change in FIO2 (FIO2 = 0.55, PaO2[55] and FIO2 = 0.35, PaO2[35]) were accepted as representative of the equilibrium values for PaO2. Each patient's rise and fall in PaO2 over time, PaO2(t), were fitted to the following respective exponential equations: PaO2b + (PaO2[55]-PaO2b)(1-e-kt) and PaO2[55] + (PaO2[35]-PaO2[55])(e-kt) where "t" refers to time, PaO2[55] and PaO2[35] are the final PaO2 values obtained at a new FIO2 of 0.55 and 0.35, after a 0.20 increment and decrement in FIO2, respectively. Time constant "k" was determined by a non-linear fitting curve and 90% oxygenation times were defined as the time required to reach 90% of the final equilibrated PaO2 calculated by using the non-linear fitting curves. Time constant values for the rise and fall periods were 1.01 +/- 0.71 min-1, 0.69 +/- 0.42 min-1, respectively, and 90% oxygenation times for rises and falls in PaO2 periods were 4.2 +/- 4.1 min-1 and 5.5 +/- 4.8 min-1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the rise and fall periods for the two parameters (p > 0.05). We conclude that in stable patients ventilated with PCV, after a step change in FIO2 of 0.20, 5-10 min will be adequate for obtaining a blood gas sample to measure a Pa

  5. Urban rural differences in diet, physical activity and obesity in India: are we witnessing the great Indian equalisation? Results from a cross-sectional STEPS survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising morbidity and mortality due to non-communicable diseases can be partly attributed to the urbanized lifestyle leading to unhealthy dietary practices and increasing physical levels of inactivity. The demographic and nutrition transition in India has also contributed to the emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases in this country. In this context, there is limited information in India on dietary patterns, levels of physical activity and obesity. The aim of the present study was thus to assess the urban rural differences in dietary habits, physical activity and obesity in India. Methods A household survey was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals using the WHO STEPS questionnaire. Results No rural urban difference was found in dietary practices and prevalence of overweight and obesity except the fact that a significantly higher proportion of respondents belonging to rural area (15.6 % always/often add salt before/when eating as compared to urban area (9.1 %. Overall 95.8 % (94.6–97.0 of participants took less than 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables on average per day. No significant urban rural difference was noted in both sexes in all three domains of physical activity such as work, transport and recreation. However, rural females (19.1 % were found to be engaged in vigorous activity more than the urban females (6.3 %. Males reported high levels of physical activity in both the settings. Absence of recreational activity was reported by more than 95 % of the subjects. Higher prevalence of obesity (asian cut offs used was seen among urban females (34.3 % as compared to their rural counterparts (23.2 %. Abdominal obesity was found to be significantly higher among females in both the settings compared to males (p < 0.001. Conclusions Poor dietary practices and physical inactivity seems to fuel the non-communicable disease epidemic in India. Non

  6. Two Step Acceleration Process of Electrons in the Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt by Time Domain Electric Field Bursts and Large Amplitude Chorus Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.

    2014-12-01

    A huge number of different non-linear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc) have been observed by the electric field experiment on the Van Allen Probes in conjunction with relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt. These structures, found as short duration (~0.1 msec) quasi-periodic bursts of electric field in the high time resolution electric field waveform, have been called Time Domain Structures (TDS). They can quite effectively interact with radiation belt electrons. Due to the trapping of electrons into these non-linear structures, they are accelerated up to ~10 keV and their pitch angles are changed, especially for low energies (˜1 keV). Large amplitude electric field perturbations cause non-linear resonant trapping of electrons into the effective potential of the TDS and these electrons are then accelerated in the non-homogeneous magnetic field. These locally accelerated electrons create the "seed population" of several keV electrons that can be accelerated by coherent, large amplitude, upper band whistler waves to MeV energies in this two step acceleration process. All the elements of this chain acceleration mechanism have been observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  7. New results for time reversed symplectic dynamic systems and quadratic functionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Simon Hilscher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine time scale symplectic (or Hamiltonian systems and the associated quadratic functionals which contain a forward shift in the time variable. Such systems and functionals have a close connection to Jacobi systems for calculus of variations and optimal control problems on time scales. Our results, among which we consider the Reid roundabout theorem, generalize the corresponding classical theory for time reversed discrete symplectic systems, as well as they complete the recently developed theory of time scale symplectic systems.

  8. Comparison of step-by-step kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this study was to compare kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players. Seventeen subjects performed seven 30m sprints every 30s in one session. Kinematics were measured with an infrared contact mat and laser gun, and running times with an electronic timing device. The main findings were that sprint times increased in the repeated sprint ability test. The main changes in kinematics during the repeated sprint ability test were increased contact time and decreased step frequency, while no change in step length was observed. The step velocity increased in almost each step until the 14, which occurred around 22m. After this, the velocity was stable until the last step, when it decreased. This increase in step velocity was mainly caused by the increased step length and decreased contact times. It was concluded that the fatigue induced in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players resulted in decreased step frequency and increased contact time. Employing this approach in combination with a laser gun and infrared mat for 30m makes it very easy to analyse running kinematics in repeated sprints in training. This extra information gives the athlete, coach and sports scientist the opportunity to give more detailed feedback and help to target these changes in kinematics better to enhance repeated sprint performance.

  9. X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX and particle spectrometer STEP-F of the satellite experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. Preliminary results of the joint data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Plocieniak, S.; Bakala, J.

    2012-04-01

    A joint analysis is carried out of data obtained with the help of the solar X-ray SphinX spectrophotometer and the electron and proton satellite telescope STEP-F in May 2009 in the course of the scientific space experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. In order to determine the energies and particle types, in the analysis of spectrophotometer records data are used on the intensities of electrons, protons, and secondary γ-radiation, obtained by the STEP-F telescope, which was located in close proximity to the SphinX spectrophotometer. The identical reaction of both instruments is noted at the intersection of regions of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly and the Earth's radiation belts. It is shown that large area photodiodes, serving as sensors of the X-ray spectrometer, reliably record electron fluxes of low and intermediate energies, as well as fluxes of the secondary gamma radiation from construction materials of detector modules, the TESIS instrument complex, and the spacecraft itself. The dynamics of electron fluxes, recorded by the SphinX spectrophotometer in the vicinity of a weak geomagnetic storm, supplements the information about the processes of radial diffusion of electrons, which was studied using the STEP-F telescope.

  10. Step by step parallel programming method for molecular dynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shigeo; Ohta, Toshio

    1996-07-01

    Parallel programming for a numerical simulation program of molecular dynamics is carried out with a step-by-step programming technique using the two phase method. As a result, within the range of a certain computing parameters, it is found to obtain parallel performance by using the level of parallel programming which decomposes the calculation according to indices of do-loops into each processor on the vector parallel computer VPP500 and the scalar parallel computer Paragon. It is also found that VPP500 shows parallel performance in wider range computing parameters. The reason is that the time cost of the program parts, which can not be reduced by the do-loop level of the parallel programming, can be reduced to the negligible level by the vectorization. After that, the time consuming parts of the program are concentrated on less parts that can be accelerated by the do-loop level of the parallel programming. This report shows the step-by-step parallel programming method and the parallel performance of the molecular dynamics code on VPP500 and Paragon. (author)

  11. How to statistically analyze nano exposure measurement results: Using an ARIMA time series approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Entink, R.H.; Fransman, W.; Brouwer, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement strategies for exposure to nano-sized particles differ from traditional integrated sampling methods for exposure assessment by the use of real-time instruments. The resulting measurement series is a time series, where typically the sequential measurements are not independent from each

  12. The Cherenkov correlated timing detector: beam test results from quartz and acrylic bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichimi, H.; Sugaya, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kanda, S.; Olsen, S.; Ueno, K.; Varner, G.; Bergfeld, T.; Bialek, J.; Lorenc, J.; Palmer, M.; Rudnick, G.; Selen, M.; Auran, T.; Boyer, V.; Honscheid, K.; Tamura, N.; Yoshimura, K.; Lu, C.; Marlow, D.; Mindas, C.; Prebys, E.; Asai, M.; Kimura, A.; Hayashi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Several prototypes of a Cherenkov correlated timing (CCT) detector have been tested at the KEK-PS test beam line. We describe the results for Cherenkov light yields and timing characteristics from quartz and acrylic bar prototypes. A Cherenkov angle resolution is found to be 15 mrad at a propagation distance of 100 cm with a 2 cm thick quartz bar prototype. (orig.)

  13. Diablo 2.0: A modern DNS/LES code for the incompressible NSE leveraging new time-stepping and multigrid algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglieri, Daniele; Bewley, Thomas; Mashayek, Ali

    2015-11-01

    We present a new code, Diablo 2.0, for the simulation of the incompressible NSE in channel and duct flows with strong grid stretching near walls. The code leverages the fractional step approach with a few twists. New low-storage IMEX (implicit-explicit) Runge-Kutta time-marching schemes are tested which are superior to the traditional and widely-used CN/RKW3 (Crank-Nicolson/Runge-Kutta-Wray) approach; the new schemes tested are L-stable in their implicit component, and offer improved overall order of accuracy and stability with, remarkably, similar computational cost and storage requirements. For duct flow simulations, our new code also introduces a new smoother for the multigrid solver for the pressure Poisson equation. The classic approach, involving alternating-direction zebra relaxation, is replaced by a new scheme, dubbed tweed relaxation, which achieves the same convergence rate with roughly half the computational cost. The code is then tested on the simulation of a shear flow instability in a duct, a classic problem in fluid mechanics which has been the object of extensive numerical modelling for its role as a canonical pathway to energetic turbulence in several fields of science and engineering.

  14. A 1 MHz BW 34.2 fJ/step Continuous Time Delta Sigma Modulator With an Integrated Mixer for Cardiac Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaald, Rune; Eggen, Trym; Ytterdal, Trond

    2017-02-01

    Fully digitized 2D ultrasound transducer arrays require one ADC per channel with a beamforming architecture consuming low power. We give design considerations for per-channel digitization and beamforming, and present the design and measurements of a continuous time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM) for cardiac ultrasound applications. By integrating a mixer into the modulator frontend, the phase and frequency of the input signal can be shifted, thereby enabling both improved conversion efficiency and narrowband beamforming. To minimize the power consumption, we propose an optimization methodology using a simulated annealing framework combined with a C++ simulator solving linear electrical networks. The 3rd order single-bit feedback type modulator, implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process, achieves an SNR/SNDR of 67.8/67.4 dB across 1 MHz bandwidth consuming 131 [Formula: see text] of power. The achieved figure of merit of 34.2 fJ/step is comparable with state-of-the-art feedforward type multi-bit designs. We further demonstrate the influence to the dynamic range when performing dynamic receive beamforming on recorded delta-sigma modulated bit-stream sequences.

  15. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces of intra-individual fastest sprinting in a single session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Ryu; Mizutani, Mirai; Matsuo, Akifumi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces during the acceleration phase for characterising intra-individual fastest sprinting within a single session. Step-to-step spatiotemporal variables and ground reaction forces produced by 15 male athletes were measured over a 50-m distance during repeated (three to five) 60-m sprints using a long force platform system. Differences in measured variables between the fastest and slowest trials were examined at each step until the 22nd step using a magnitude-based inferences approach. There were possibly-most likely higher running speed and step frequency (2nd to 22nd steps) and shorter support time (all steps) in the fastest trial than in the slowest trial. Moreover, for the fastest trial there were likely-very likely greater mean propulsive force during the initial four steps and possibly-very likely larger mean net anterior-posterior force until the 17th step. The current results demonstrate that better sprinting performance within a single session is probably achieved by 1) a high step frequency (except the initial step) with short support time at all steps, 2) exerting a greater mean propulsive force during initial acceleration, and 3) producing a greater mean net anterior-posterior force during initial and middle acceleration.

  16. Step-up training for colorectal and gastric ESD and the challenge of ESD training in the proximal colon: results from a German Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebigbo, Alanna; Probst, Andreas; Römmele, Christoph; Messmann, Helmut

    2018-05-01

    The endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of cancerous and precancerous lesions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an effective but difficult-to-learn procedure, especially for Western endoscopists. We developed a step-up training protocol and evaluated its outcome on a single endoscopist using specific performance measures. The training protocol included a 12-month period of 50 observational and supervised ESD cases as well as 24 animal procedures. After completion of the protocol, ESD competency was evaluated in the first 30 independent ESD cases. Majority of lesions were located in the stomach and rectum. Performance measures included R0-resection rate, complication rate and resection speed. R0 resection rate was 93 %, complication rate was 7 % and median resection speed was 6,77 cm 2 /h. 1 case of delayed perforation with subsequent hemicolectomy occurred in the descending colon. The ESD step-up training protocol used in this study on a single endoscopist showed excellent outcomes for lesions in the rectum and stomach. However, ESD training in the upper colon remains a challenge.

  17. Comment on 'Analytical results for a Bessel function times Legendre polynomials class integrals'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregg, P J; Svedlindh, P

    2007-01-01

    A result is obtained, stemming from Gegenbauer, where the products of certain Bessel functions and exponentials are expressed in terms of an infinite series of spherical Bessel functions and products of associated Legendre functions. Closed form solutions for integrals involving Bessel functions times associated Legendre functions times exponentials, recently elucidated by Neves et al (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 L293), are then shown to result directly from the orthogonality properties of the associated Legendre functions. This result offers greater flexibility in the treatment of classical Heisenberg chains and may do so in other problems such as occur in electromagnetic diffraction theory. (comment)

  18. Paradoxical results of two automated real-time PCR assays in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya E. Morales-López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of worldwide mortality. We report the case of a non-HIV-infected woman with clinical suspicion of pleural tuberculosis and contradictory results between Xpert® MTB/RIF and Abbott RealTime MTB assays from pleural fluid specimen. Liquid and solid cultures for tuberculosis were performed with negative results. The patient received treatment, and clinical improvement was observed. Both techniques detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, but they have different targets and limits of detection. Abbott RealTime MTB results correlated well with the clinical findings of the patient.

  19. Paradoxical results of two automated real-time PCR assays in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, Soraya E; Yepes, Jayr A; Anzola, Irina; Aponte, Hernán; Llerena-Polo, Claudia R

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of worldwide mortality. We report the case of a non-HIV-infected woman with clinical suspicion of pleural tuberculosis and contradictory results between Xpert ® MTB/RIF and Abbott RealTime MTB assays from pleural fluid specimen. Liquid and solid cultures for tuberculosis were performed with negative results. The patient received treatment, and clinical improvement was observed. Both techniques detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, but they have different targets and limits of detection. Abbott RealTime MTB results correlated well with the clinical findings of the patient. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  1. Comparison of Thermal Creep Strain Calculation Results Using Time Hardening and Strain Hardening Rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junehyung; Cheon, Jinsik; Lee, Byoungoon; Lee, Chanbock

    2014-01-01

    One of the design criteria for the fuel rod in PGSFR is the thermal creep strain of the cladding, because the cladding is exposed to a high temperature for a long time during reactor operation period. In general, there are two kind of calculation scheme for thermal creep strain: time hardening and strain hardening rules. In this work, thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules are compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule are compared with those by using MACSIS. Thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules were compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule were compared with those by using MACSIS. Tertiary creep started earlier in time hardening rule than in strain hardening rule. Also, calculation results by MACSIS with strain hardening and those obtained by using LIFE-METAL were almost identical to each other

  2. Profile of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Punjab, Northern India: Results of a State-Wide STEPS Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Thakur

    Full Text Available Efforts to assess the burden of non-communicable diseases risk factors has improved in low and middle-income countries after political declaration of UN High Level Meeting on NCDs. However, lack of reliable estimates of risk factors distribution are leading to delay in implementation of evidence based interventions in states of India.A STEPS Survey, comprising all the three steps for assessment of risk factors of NCDs, was conducted in Punjab state during 2014-15. A statewide multistage sample of 5,127 residents, aged 18-69 years, was taken. STEPS questionnaire version 3.1 was used to collect information on behavioral risk factors, followed by physical measurements and blood and urine sampling for biochemical profile.Tobacco and alcohol consumption were observed in 11.3% (20% men and 0.9% women and 15% (27% men and 0.3% women of the population, respectively. Low levels of physical activity were recorded among 31% (95% CI: 26.7-35.5 of the participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28.6% (95% CI: 26.3-30.9 and 12.8% (95% CI: 11.2-14.4 respectively. Central obesity was higher among women (69.3%, 95% CI: 66.5-72.0 than men (49.5%, 95% CI: 45.3-53.7. Prevalence of hypertension in population was 40.1% (95% CI: 37.3-43.0. The mean sodium intake in grams per day for the population was 7.4 gms (95% CI: 7.2-7.7. The prevalence of diabetes (hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.7-16.8, 21.6% (95% CI: 18.5-25.1 and 16.1% (95% CI: 13.1-19.2, respectively. In addition, 7% of the population aged 40-69 years had a cardiovascular risk of ≥ 30% over a period of next 10 years.We report high prevalence of risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases among adults in Punjab. There is an urgent need to implement population, individual and programme wide prevention and control interventions to lower the serious consequences of NCDs.

  3. Self-potential time series analysis in a seismic area of the Southern Apennines: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tramutoli

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-potential time series recorded during the period May 1991 - August 1992 by an automatic station, located in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, is analyzed. We deal with the spectral and the statistical features of the electrotellurie precursors: they can play a major role in the approach to seismic prediction. The time-dynamics of the experimental time series is investigated, the cyclic components and the time trends are removed. In particular we consider the influence of external noise, related to anthropic activities and meteoclimatic parameters, and pick out the anomalies from the residual series. Finally we show the preliminary results of the correlation between the anomalies in the time patterns of self-potential data and the earthquakes which occurred in the area.

  4. Carboxymethyl glycoside lactone(CMGL) synthons:Scope of the method and preliminary results on step growth polymerization of α-azide-ω-alkyne glycomonomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAMBERT; Stéphane; BERNARD; Julien; FLEURY; Etienne; QUENEAU; Yves

    2010-01-01

    Carboxymethyl glycoside lactones(CMGLs) are bicyclic synthons which open readily for accessing new types of pseudo-glycoconjugates,such as sugar-amino acid hybrids,neoglycolipids,pseudodisaccharides,and membrane imaging systems.After lactone opening,free OH-2 is available for further functionalization,leading to 1,2-bisfunctionalized derivatives.This strategy is illustrated herein with new polymerizable systems of the AB type bearing both azide and alkyne functions prepared from α or β gluco-CMGL synthons.After the reaction of lactones with propargylamine,an azido group was introduced by two different sequences leading to either the 2-manno-azido or the 6-gluco-azido products.The capability of these AB monomers to undergo step growth polymerization through copper(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition(CuAAC) and generate glycopolytriazoles was evidenced.

  5. Fractional Differential Equations in Terms of Comparison Results and Lyapunov Stability with Initial Time Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Yakar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative behavior of a perturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative that differs in initial position and initial time with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative has been investigated. We compare the classical notion of stability to the notion of initial time difference stability for fractional-order differential equations in Caputo's sense. We present a comparison result which again gives the null solution a central role in the comparison fractional-order differential equation when establishing initial time difference stability of the perturbed fractional-order differential equation with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation.

  6. Exponential stability result for discrete-time stochastic fuzzy uncertain neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiyalagan, K.; Sakthivel, R.; Marshal Anthoni, S.

    2012-01-01

    This Letter addresses the stability analysis problem for a class of uncertain discrete-time stochastic fuzzy neural networks (DSFNNs) with time-varying delays. By constructing a new Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional combined with the free weighting matrix technique, a new set of delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the robust exponential stability of the considered DSFNNs is established in terms of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Finally, numerical examples with simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the obtained theory. -- Highlights: ► Applications of neural networks require the knowledge of dynamic behaviors. ► Exponential stability of discrete-time stochastic fuzzy neural networks is studied. ► Linear matrix inequality optimization approach is used to obtain the result. ► Delay-dependent stability criterion is established in terms of LMIs. ► Examples with simulation are provided to show the effectiveness of the result.

  7. Numerical results for near surface time domain electromagnetic exploration: a full waveform approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Li, K.; Li, X., Sr.; Liu, Y., Sr.; Wen, J., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Time domain or Transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey including types with airborne, semi-airborne and ground play important roles in applicants such as geological surveys, ground water/aquifer assess [Meju et al., 2000; Cox et al., 2010], metal ore exploration [Yang and Oldenburg, 2012], prediction of water bearing structures in tunnels [Xue et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2012], UXO exploration [Pasion et al., 2007; Gasperikova et al., 2009] etc. The common practice is introducing a current into a transmitting (Tx) loop and acquire the induced electromagnetic field after the current is cut off [Zhdanov and Keller, 1994]. The current waveforms are different depending on instruments. Rectangle is the most widely used excitation current source especially in ground TEM. Triangle and half sine are commonly used in airborne and semi-airborne TEM investigation. In most instruments, only the off time responses are acquired and used in later analysis and data inversion. Very few airborne instruments acquire the on time and off time responses together. Although these systems acquire the on time data, they usually do not use them in the interpretation.This abstract shows a novel full waveform time domain electromagnetic method and our recent modeling results. The benefits comes from our new algorithm in modeling full waveform time domain electromagnetic problems. We introduced the current density into the Maxwell's equation as the transmitting source. This approach allows arbitrary waveforms, such as triangle, half-sine, trapezoidal waves or scatter record from equipment, being used in modeling. Here, we simulate the establishing and induced diffusion process of the electromagnetic field in the earth. The traditional time domain electromagnetic with pure secondary fields can also be extracted from our modeling results. The real time responses excited by a loop source can be calculated using the algorithm. We analyze the full time gates responses of homogeneous half space and two

  8. New results for global robust stability of bidirectional associative memory neural networks with multiple time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senan, Sibel; Arik, Sabri

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some new sufficient conditions for the global robust asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with multiple time delays. The results we obtain impose constraint conditions on the network parameters of neural system independently of the delay parameter, and they are applicable to all bounded continuous non-monotonic neuron activation functions. We also give some numerical examples to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of our results, and compare the results with the previous robust stability results derived in the literature.

  9. Effect of One-Step and Multi-Steps Polishing System on Enamel Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Sumali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The final procedures of orthodontic treatment are bracket debonding and cleaning the remaining adhesive. Multi-step polishing system is the most common method used. The disadvantage of that system is long working time, because of the stages that should be done. Therefore, dental material manufacturer make an improvement to the system, to reduce several stages into one stage only. This new system is known as one-step polishing system. Objective: To compare the effect of one-step and multi-step polishing system on enamel roughness after orthodontic bracket debonding. Methods: Randomized control trial was conducted included twenty-eight maxillary premolar randomized into two polishing system; one-step OptraPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent and multi-step AstroPol (Ivoclar, Vivadent. After bracket debonding, the remaining adhesive on each group was cleaned by subjective polishing system for ninety seconds using low speed handpiece. The enamel roughness was subjected to profilometer, registering two roughness parameters (Ra, Rz. Independent t-test was used to analyze the mean score of enamel roughness in each group. Results: There was no significant difference of enamel roughness between one-step and multi-step polishing system (p>0.005. Conclusion: One-step polishing system can produce a similar enamel roughness to multi-step polishing system after bracket debonding and adhesive cleaning.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.136

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF RESULTS AND TREATMENT TIMING OF DEEP DERMAL BURNS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Aleksandrovich Afonichev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Untreated deep dermal burns in children are the cause of long-term treatment and severe cicatricial deformities, resulting in poor cosmetic results and greatly impairing functional outcome. The problem of optimizing the results and timing of treatment of deep burns in children in recent years has become particularly urgent. We observed 1853 children with III-A degree burns. Some of the children's burns healed spontaneously, which led to the development of scar deformities during the first six months after injury. Risk factors for their development, depending on the patient's age and location of the lesion, are pointed out. Other children underwent early tangential excision of eschar. The analysis of the treatment results showed that the use of early surgery in children with deep dermal burns can reduce treatment time, as well as significantly to improve the cosmetic and functional outcomes of trauma.

  11. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  12. How to statistically analyze nano exposure measurement results: using an ARIMA time series approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein Entink, Rinke H.; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement strategies for exposure to nano-sized particles differ from traditional integrated sampling methods for exposure assessment by the use of real-time instruments. The resulting measurement series is a time series, where typically the sequential measurements are not independent from each other but show a pattern of autocorrelation. This article addresses the statistical difficulties when analyzing real-time measurements for exposure assessment to manufactured nano objects. To account for autocorrelation patterns, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are proposed. A simulation study shows the pitfalls of using a standard t-test and the application of ARIMA models is illustrated with three real-data examples. Some practical suggestions for the data analysis of real-time exposure measurements conclude this article.

  13. A one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of enterovirus 71, coxsackie A16 and pan-enterovirus in a single tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyin Zhang

    Full Text Available The recent, ongoing epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, which is caused by enterovirus infection, has affected millions of children and resulted in thousands of deaths in China. Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackie A16 (CA16 are the two major distinct pathogens for HFMD. However, EV71 is more commonly associated with neurologic complications and even fatalities. Therefore, simultaneously detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16 specifically from other enteroviruses for diagnosing HFMD is important. Here, we developed a one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of EV71, CA16, and pan-enterovirus (EVs in a single tube with an internal amplification control. The detection results for the serially diluted viruses indicate that the lower limit of detection for this assay is 0.001-0.04 TCID50/ml, 0.02 TCID50/ml, and 0.001 TCID50/ml for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively. After evaluating known HFMD virus stocks of 17 strains of 16 different serotypes, this assay showed a favorable detection spectrum and no obvious cross-reactivity. The results for 141 clinical throat swabs from HFMD-suspected patients demonstrated sensitivities of 98.4%, 98.7%, and 100% for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively, and 100% specificity for each virus. The application of this one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay in clinical units will contribute to HFMD surveillance and help to identify causative pathogen in patients with suspected HFMD.

  14. A one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of enterovirus 71, coxsackie A16 and pan-enterovirus in a single tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiyin; Wang, Jin; Yan, Qiang; He, Shuizhen; Zhou, Wenbin; Ge, Shengxiang; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    The recent, ongoing epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is caused by enterovirus infection, has affected millions of children and resulted in thousands of deaths in China. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackie A16 (CA16) are the two major distinct pathogens for HFMD. However, EV71 is more commonly associated with neurologic complications and even fatalities. Therefore, simultaneously detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16 specifically from other enteroviruses for diagnosing HFMD is important. Here, we developed a one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of EV71, CA16, and pan-enterovirus (EVs) in a single tube with an internal amplification control. The detection results for the serially diluted viruses indicate that the lower limit of detection for this assay is 0.001-0.04 TCID50/ml, 0.02 TCID50/ml, and 0.001 TCID50/ml for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively. After evaluating known HFMD virus stocks of 17 strains of 16 different serotypes, this assay showed a favorable detection spectrum and no obvious cross-reactivity. The results for 141 clinical throat swabs from HFMD-suspected patients demonstrated sensitivities of 98.4%, 98.7%, and 100% for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively, and 100% specificity for each virus. The application of this one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay in clinical units will contribute to HFMD surveillance and help to identify causative pathogen in patients with suspected HFMD.

  15. Impact of contrast agent viscosity on coronary balloon deflation times: bench testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogabgab, Owen; Patel, Vishal G; Michael, Tesfaldet T; Kotsia, Anna; Christopoulos, George; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2014-04-01

    To assess the impact of viscosity on angioplasty balloon deflation times. Lower contrast viscosity could result in more rapid coronary balloon deflation times. We performed a bench comparison of coronary balloon deflation times using 2 contrast agents with different viscosity (ioxaglate and iodixanol), 3 contrast dilutions, and 2 inflation syringe filling volumes. Ten identical pairs of coronary angioplasty balloons were used to conduct each comparison after balloon inflation to 12 atmospheres. Simultaneous deflations were performed under cineangiography. The time to full contrast extraction and the area of contrast remaining after 5 seconds of deflation (quantified by opaque pixel count) were compared between groups. The mean time to full contrast extraction during balloon deflation was 8.3 ± 2.5 seconds for ioxaglate (lower viscosity) versus 10.1 ± 2.9 seconds for iodixanol (higher viscosity) (17.4% decrease, P = 0.005), with a 35.6% (P = 0.004) reduction in contrast area at 5 seconds. Compared to 1:1 ioxaglate-saline mixture, 1:2 and 1:3 ioxaglate/saline mixes resulted in 26.7% (P deflation time, respectively, but at the expense of decreased balloon opacity. Filling the inflation syringe with 5 versus 15 ml of contrast/saline solution was associated with 7.5% decrease in balloon deflation time (P = 0.005), but no difference in contrast area at 5 seconds (P = 0.749). Use of a lower viscosity contrast agent and higher contrast dilution significantly reduced coronary balloon deflation times, whereas use of lower syringe filling volume had a modest effect. Rapid coronary balloon deflation could improve the safety of interventional procedures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  17. Generalized results on the role of new-time transformations in finite-dimensional Poisson systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito, E-mail: benito.hernandez@urjc.e [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-25

    The problem of characterizing all new-time transformations preserving the Poisson structure of a finite-dimensional Poisson system is completely solved in a constructive way. As a corollary, this leads to a broad generalization of previously known results. Examples are given.

  18. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-821] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from...

  19. A blood-result turn-around time survey to improve congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of a turn-around time study of blood specimens for syphilis serology in antenatal clinic attenders between 19 rural clinics and their base hospital, including a follow-up survey to assess the impact of interventions, are described. The objective of the study was to detennine how long blood samples took to get.

  20. Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Quant, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out - Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order.

  1. Step out-step in sequencing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out–Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order. First,

  2. Testbeam results of the first real-time embedded tracking system with artificial retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, N., E-mail: nicola.neri@mi.infn.it; Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Citterio, M.; Coelli, S.; Fu, J.; Merli, A.; Monti, M.; Petruzzo, M.

    2017-02-11

    We present the testbeam results of the first real-time embedded tracking system based on artificial retina algorithm. The tracking system prototype is capable of fast track reconstruction with a latency of the response below 1 μs and track parameter resolutions that are comparable with the offline results. The artificial retina algorithm was implemented in hardware in a custom data acquisition board based on commercial FPGA. The system was tested successfully using a 180 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN SPS with a maximum track rate of about 280 kHz. Online track parameters were found in good agreement with offline results and with the simulated response. - Highlights: • First real-time tracking system based on artificial retina algorithm tested on beam. • Fast track reconstruction within one microsecond latency and offline like quality. • Fast tracking algorithm implemented in commercial FPGAs.

  3. Reference results for time-like evolution up to O(α_s"3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Nocera, Emanuele R.

    2015-01-01

    We present high-precision numerical results for time-like Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution in the (MS)-bar factorisation scheme, for the first time up to next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics. First, we scrutinise the analytical expressions of the splitting functions available in the literature, in both x and N space, and check their mutual consistency. Second, we implement time-like evolution in two publicly available, entirely independent and conceptually different numerical codes, in x and N space respectively: the already existing APFEL code, which has been updated with time-like evolution, and the new MELA code, which has been specifically developed to perform the study in this work. Third, by means of a model for fragmentation functions, we provide results for the evolution in different factorisation schemes, for different ratios between renormalisation and factorisation scales and at different final scales. Our results are collected in the format of benchmark tables, which could be used as a reference for global determinations of fragmentation functions in the future.

  4. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed-Ul Islam, S M; Jahan, Munira; Tabassum, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Virological monitoring is the best predictor for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Consequently, it is important to use the most efficient, rapid and cost-effective testing systems for HBV DNA quantification. The present study compared the performance characteristics of a one-step HBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) vs the two-step HBV PCR method for quantification of HBV DNA from clinical samples. A total of 100 samples consisting of 85 randomly selected samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 15 samples from apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Of the 85 CHB clinical samples tested, HBV DNA was detected from 81% samples by one-step PCR method with median HBV DNA viral load (VL) of 7.50 × 10 3 lU/ml. In contrast, 72% samples were detected by the two-step PCR system with median HBV DNA of 3.71 × 10 3 lU/ml. The one-step method showed strong linear correlation with two-step PCR method (r = 0.89; p Tabassum S. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):11-15.

  5. New results on global exponential stability of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shengyuan; Chu Yuming; Lu Junwei

    2006-01-01

    This Letter provides new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays by employing Lyapunov functions and using the Halanay inequality. The time-varying delays are not necessarily differentiable. Both Lipschitz continuous activation functions and monotone nondecreasing activation functions are considered. The derived stability criteria are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked easily by resorting to recently developed algorithms solving LMIs. Furthermore, the proposed stability results are less conservative than some previous ones in the literature, which is demonstrated via some numerical examples

  6. New results on global exponential stability of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Shengyuan [Department of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)]. E-mail: syxu02@yahoo.com.cn; Chu Yuming [Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000 (China); Lu Junwei [School of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, 78 Bancang Street, Nanjing, 210042 (China)

    2006-04-03

    This Letter provides new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays by employing Lyapunov functions and using the Halanay inequality. The time-varying delays are not necessarily differentiable. Both Lipschitz continuous activation functions and monotone nondecreasing activation functions are considered. The derived stability criteria are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked easily by resorting to recently developed algorithms solving LMIs. Furthermore, the proposed stability results are less conservative than some previous ones in the literature, which is demonstrated via some numerical examples.

  7. Effectiveness of a Geriatric Care Model for frail older adults in primary care: Results from a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendijk, Emiel O; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; van de Ven, Peter M; Twisk, Jos W R; Deeg, Dorly J H; Frijters, Dinnus H M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; van Campen, Jos P C M; Nijpels, Giel; Jansen, Aaltje P D; van Hout, Hein P J

    2016-03-01

    Primary care-based comprehensive care programs have the potential to improve outcomes in frail older adults. We evaluated the impact of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM) on the quality of life of community-dwelling frail older adults. A 24-month stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between May 2010 and March 2013 in 35 primary care practices in the Netherlands, and included 1147 frail older adults. The intervention consisted of a geriatric in-home assessment by a practice nurse, followed by a tailored care plan. Reassessment occurred every six months. Nurses worked together with primary care physicians and were supervised and trained by geriatric expert teams. Complex patients were reviewed in multidisciplinary consultations. The primary outcome was quality of life (SF-12). Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, functional limitations, self-rated health, psychological wellbeing, social functioning and hospitalizations. Intention-to-treat analyses based on multilevel modeling showed no significant differences between the intervention group and usual care regarding SF-12 and most secondary outcomes. Only for IADL limitations we found a small intervention effect in patients who received the intervention for 18months (B=-0.25, 95%CI=-0.43 to -0.06, p=0.007), but this effect was not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. The GCM did not show beneficial effects on quality of life in frail older adults in primary care, compared to usual care. This study strengthens the idea that comprehensive care programs add very little to usual primary care for this population. The Netherlands National Trial Register NTR2160. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. First Results from the South Pole Bang Time (SPBT) Diagnostic on the NIF*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Magoon, J.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J., III; Stoeckl, C.; Macphee, A.; Bradley, D. K.; Burns, S.; Celeste, J.; Eckart, M. J.; Jones, O. S.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kimbrough, J. R.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Parker, J.; Thomas, T.

    2011-10-01

    The south pole bang time (SPBT) x-ray diagnostic has been successfully fielded on the NIF. SPBT consists of chemical-vapor-deposition diamond detectors, with different filtrations, located 3 m directly below target chamber center, viewing the implosion through the hohlraum laser entrance hole. The diamond detectors are sensitive to both x rays and neutrons. HOPG crystal mirror monochromators increase the x-ray signal to background ratio. SPBT is designed to measure the x-ray bang time with an accuracy of a few tens of picoseconds. SPBT x-ray and neutron results from NIF implosions are presented along with timing and error analysis. *This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  9. Optimizing time management after perforation by colonoscopy results in better outcome for the patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstadt, Bernhard; Schilling, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Perforation during colonoscopy is a rare but severe complication. The aim of this study was to assess the time management and laparoscopic therapy of this complication and to evaluate patient outcomes. A retrospective analysis was done on 15 patients operated for a perforation from colonoscopy between January 2000 and December 2006. Three perforations occurred during diagnostic and 12 perforations during interventional colonoscopy. Two perforations occurred as transmural thermal injury to the colon wall. Peritonitis was found in 4 cases and significantly correlated with the mean time between perforation and operation. Twelve perforations were oversewn laparoscopically and 3 perforations were oversewn by laparotomy. After laparoscopic treatment, hospital stay was significantly shorter than after laparotomy. One patient had a postoperative wound infection, mortality was 0%. Laparoscopic oversewing is a safe and effective method in the treatment of perforation from colonoscopy. Optimizing the time range between perforation and laparoscopic therapy results in a better outcome for the patients.

  10. Uncertainty and sensitivity results for pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time conducted. Although preliminary, a numbed of interesting results were obtained. Uncertainty in the ground water travel time statistics, as measured by the coefficient of variation, increases and then decrease as the modeled system transitions from matrix-dominated to fracture-dominated flow. The uncertainty analysis also suggests that the median, as opposed to the mean, may be a better indicator of performance with respect to the regulatory criterion. The sensitivity analysis shows a strong correlation between an effective fracture property, fracture porosity, and failure to meet the regulatory pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel time criterion of 1,000 years

  11. Spallative nucleosynthesis in supernova remnants. II. Time-dependent numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizot, Etienne; Drury, Luke

    1999-06-01

    We calculate the spallative production of light elements associated with the explosion of an isolated supernova in the interstellar medium, using a time-dependent model taking into account the dilution of the ejected enriched material and the adiabatic energy losses. We first derive the injection function of energetic particles (EPs) accelerated at both the forward and the reverse shock, as a function of time. Then we calculate the Be yields obtained in both cases and compare them to the value implied by the observational data for metal-poor stars in the halo of our Galaxy, using both O and Fe data. We find that none of the processes investigated here can account for the amount of Be found in these stars, which confirms the analytical results of Parizot & Drury (1999). We finally analyze the consequences of these results for Galactic chemical evolution, and suggest that a model involving superbubbles might alleviate the energetics problem in a quite natural way.

  12. Extended Follow-up Confirms Early Vaccine-Enhanced Risk of HIV Acquisition and Demonstrates Waning Effect Over Time Among Participants in a Randomized Trial of Recombinant Adenovirus HIV Vaccine (Step Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Ann; Huang, Yunda; Buchbinder, Susan; Coombs, Robert W.; Sanchez, Jorge; del Rio, Carlos; Casapia, Martin; Santiago, Steven; Gilbert, Peter; Corey, Lawrence; Robertson, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The Step Study tested whether an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)–vectored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine could prevent HIV acquisition and/or reduce viral load set-point after infection. At the first interim analysis, nonefficacy criteria were met. Vaccinations were halted; participants were unblinded. In post hoc analyses, more HIV infections occurred in vaccinees vs placebo recipients in men who had Ad5-neutralizing antibodies and/or were uncircumcised. Follow-up was extended to assess relative risk of HIV acquisition in vaccinees vs placebo recipients over time. Methods. We used Cox proportional hazard models for analyses of vaccine effect on HIV acquisition and vaccine effect modifiers, and nonparametric and semiparametric methods for analysis of constancy of relative risk over time. Results. One hundred seventy-two of 1836 men were infected. The adjusted vaccinees vs placebo recipients hazard ratio (HR) for all follow-up time was 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.92; P = .03). Vaccine effect differed by baseline Ad5 or circumcision status during first 18 months, but neither was significant for all follow-up time. The HR among uncircumcised and/or Ad5-seropositive men waned with time since vaccination. No significant vaccine-associated risk was seen among circumcised, Ad5-negative men (HR, 0.97; P = 1.0) over all follow-up time. Conclusions. The vaccine-associated risk seen in interim analysis was confirmed but waned with time from vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00095576. PMID:22561365

  13. Comparing the efficacy of metronome beeps and stepping stones to adjust gait: steps to follow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Paulina J M; Roerdink, Melvyn; Peper, C E

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic metronomes and visual targets have been used in rehabilitation practice to improve pathological gait. In addition, they may be instrumental in evaluating and training instantaneous gait adjustments. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two cue types in inducing gait adjustments, viz. acoustic temporal cues in the form of metronome beeps and visual spatial cues in the form of projected stepping stones. Twenty healthy elderly (aged 63.2 ± 3.6 years) were recruited to walk on an instrumented treadmill at preferred speed and cadence, paced by either metronome beeps or projected stepping stones. Gait adaptations were induced using two manipulations: by perturbing the sequence of cues and by imposing switches from one cueing type to the other. Responses to these manipulations were quantified in terms of step-length and step-time adjustments, the percentage correction achieved over subsequent steps, and the number of steps required to restore the relation between gait and the beeps or stepping stones. The results showed that perturbations in a sequence of stepping stones were overcome faster than those in a sequence of metronome beeps. In switching trials, switching from metronome beeps to stepping stones was achieved faster than vice versa, indicating that gait was influenced more strongly by the stepping stones than the metronome beeps. Together these results revealed that, in healthy elderly, the stepping stones induced gait adjustments more effectively than did the metronome beeps. Potential implications for the use of metronome beeps and stepping stones in gait rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  14. Results of time-domain electromagnetic soundings in Everglades National Park, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Stoddard, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the collection, processing, and interpretation of time-domain electromagnetic soundings from Everglades National Park. The results are used to locate the extent of seawater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer and to map the base of the Biscayne aquifer in regions where well coverage is sparse. The data show no evidence of fresh, ground-water flows at depth into Florida Bay.

  15. Working time of neurosurgical residents in Europe--results of a multinational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Netuka, David; Demetriades, Andreas K; Ringel, Florian; Gautschi, Oliver P; Gempt, Jens; Kuhlen, Dominique; Schaller, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the European Working Time directive 2003/88/EC has led to a reduction of the working hours with distinct impact on the clinical and surgical activity of neurosurgical residents in training. A survey was performed among European neurosurgical residents between 06/2014 and 03/2015. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between responder-specific variables (e.g., age, gender, country, postgraduate year (PGY)) and outcome (e.g., working time). A total of 652 responses were collected, of which n = 532 responses were taken into consideration. In total, 17.5, 22.1, 29.5, 19.5, 5.9, and 5.5 % of European residents indicated to work 80 h/week, respectively. Residents from France and Turkey (OR 4.72, 95 % CI 1.29-17.17, p = 0.019) and Germany (OR 2.06, 95 % CI 1.15-3.67, p = 0.014) were more likely to work >60 h/week than residents from other European countries. In total, 29 % of European residents were satisfied with their current working time, 11.3 % indicated to prefer reduced working time. More than half (55 %) would prefer to work more hours/week if this would improve their clinical education. Residents that rated their operative exposure as insufficient were 2.3 times as likely as others to be willing to work more hours (OR 2.32, 95 % CI 1.47-3.70, p 50 % of his/her working time in the operating room. By contrast, 77.4 % indicate to devote >25 % of their daily working time to administrative work. For every advanced PGY, the likelihood to spend >50 % of the working time in the OR increases by 19 % (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.02-1.40, p = 0.024) and the likelihood to spend >50 % of the working time with administrative work decreases by 18 % (OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.94, p = 0.002). The results of this survey on >500 European neurosurgical residents clearly prove that less than 40 % conform with the 48-h week as claimed by the WTD2003/88/EC. Still, more than half of them would chose to work

  16. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  17. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    this paper our proposition is to present the mathematical models implemented in the PPP_RT software and some proposal to accomplish the PPP in real time as for example using tropospheric model from Brazilian Numerical Weather Forecast Model (BNWFM) and estimating the ionosphere using stochastic process. GPS data sample from the Brazilian region was processed using the PPP_RT software considering periods under low and high ionospheric activities and the results estimating the ionosphere were compared with the ion-free combination. The PPP results also were analyzed considering the strategy of the troposphere estimation, Hopfield model or using the BNWFM. For the troposphere case, the values from BNWFM can reach similar results when estimating the troposphere. For the ionosphere case, the results have shown that ionosphere estimation can improve the time convergence of the PPP processing what is very important for PPP in real time.

  18. Quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion using time-resolved parallel 3D MRI - initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.; Buhmann, R.; Plathow, C.; Puderbach, M.; Kauczor, H.U.; Risse, F.; Ley, S.; Meyer, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to assess the use of time-resolved parallel 3D MRI for a quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Materials and methods: eight patients with pulmonary embolism or pulmonary hypertension were examined with a time-resolved 3D gradient echo pulse sequence with parallel imaging techniques (FLASH 3D, TE/TR: 0.8/1.9 ms; flip angle: 40 ; GRAPPA). A quantitative perfusion analysis based on indicator dilution theory was performed using a dedicated software. Results: patients with pulmonary embolism or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension revealed characteristic wedge-shaped perfusion defects at perfusion MRI. They were characterized by a decreased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and increased mean transit time (MTT). Patients with primary pulmonary hypertension or eisenmenger syndrome showed a more homogeneous perfusion pattern. The mean MTT of all patients was 3.3 - 4.7 s. The mean PBF and PBV showed a broader interindividual variation (PBF: 104-322 ml/100 ml/min; PBV: 8 - 21 ml/100 ml). Conclusion: time-resolved parallel 3D MRI allows at least a semi-quantitative assessment of lung perfusion. Future studies will have to assess the clinical value of this quantitative information for the diagnosis and management of cardiopulmonary disease. (orig.) [de

  19. Performance results of cooperating expert systems in a distributed real-time monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, U. M.; Veregge, J. R.; Quan, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous definitions for real-time systems, the most stringent of which involve guaranteeing correct system response within a domain-dependent or situationally defined period of time. For applications such as diagnosis, in which the time required to produce a solution can be non-deterministic, this requirement poses a unique set of challenges in dynamic modification of solution strategy that conforms with maximum possible latencies. However, another definition of real time is relevant in the case of monitoring systems where failure to supply a response in the proper (and often infinitesimal) amount of time allowed does not make the solution less useful (or, in the extreme example of a monitoring system responsible for detecting and deflecting enemy missiles, completely irrelevant). This more casual definition involves responding to data at the same rate at which it is produced, and is more appropriate for monitoring applications with softer real-time constraints, such as interplanetary exploration, which results in massive quantities of data transmitted at the speed of light for a number of hours before it even reaches the monitoring system. The latter definition of real time has been applied to the MARVEL system for automated monitoring and diagnosis of spacecraft telemetry. An early version of this system has been in continuous operational use since it was first deployed in 1989 for the Voyager encounter with Neptune. This system remained under incremental development until 1991 and has been under routine maintenance in operations since then, while continuing to serve as an artificial intelligence (AI) testbed in the laboratory. The system architecture has been designed to facilitate concurrent and cooperative processing by multiple diagnostic expert systems in a hierarchical organization. The diagnostic modules adhere to concepts of data-driven reasoning, constrained but complete nonoverlapping domains, metaknowledge of global consequences of anomalous

  20. Detection of live Salmonella enterica in fresh-cut vegetables by a TaqMan-based one-step reverse transcription real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Y J; Xiong, G T; Bai, M Y; Ge, Y; Wu, Z F

    2018-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce is at greater risk of Salmonella contamination. Detection and early warning systems play an important role in reducing the dissemination of contaminated products. One-step Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting Salmonella tmRNA with or without a 6-h enrichment was evaluated for the detection of Salmonella in fresh-cut vegetables after 6-h storage. LOD of one-step RT-qPCR was 1·0 CFU per ml (about 100 copies tmRNA per ml) by assessed 10-fold serially diluted RNA from 10 6 CFU per ml bacteria culture. Then, one-step RT-qPCR assay was applied to detect viable Salmonella cells in 14 fresh-cut vegetables after 6-h storage. Without enrichment, this assay could detect 10 CFU per g for fresh-cut lettuce, cilantro, spinach, cabbage, Chinese cabbage and bell pepper, and 10 2 CFU per g for other vegetables. With a 6-h enrichment, this assay could detect 10 CFU per g for all fresh-cut vegetables used in this study. Moreover, this assay was able to discriminate viable cells from dead cells. This rapid detection assay may provide potential processing control and early warning method in fresh-cut vegetable processing to strengthen food safety assurance. Significance and Impact of the Study: Fresh-cut produce is at greater risk of Salmonella contamination. Rapid detection methods play an important role in reducing the dissemination of contaminated products. One-step RT-qPCR assay used in this study could detect 10 CFU per g Salmonella for 14 fresh-cut vegetables with a 6-h short enrichment. Moreover, this assay was able to discriminate viable cells from dead cells. This rapid detection assay may provide potential processing control and early warning method in fresh-cut vegetable processing to strengthen food safety assurance. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Timeliness of recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD – an initial step in the implementation of near real-time vaccine safety surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Leite

    2017-04-01

    This work shows that most diagnoses examined were recorded with a delay of ≤30 days, making NRTVSS possible. The distribution of the delays was condition-specific and the weekly delay distribution could be used to adjust for delays in the NRTVSS analysis. CPRD can be a viable data source to use in this kind of analysis; next steps will include trial implementation of the system using these data.

  2. One-at-a-time versus grouped presentation of mug book pictures: some surprising results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H A; McAllister, H A

    2001-12-01

    Eyewitnesses to a simulated crime attempted to identify the perpetrator from a computerized mug book. The 208 mug book pictures were presented either 1 mug shot per page or in groups of 12 mug shots per page. Half of the mug books were arranged by similarity to the perpetrator as determined by a facial recognition algorithm, and half were randomly arranged. In contrast to past findings with photospreads, false-positive identifications were significantly higher using the one-at-a-time procedure than the grouped procedure. Results suggest that the best practice for mug books may be the use of groups of pictures per page rather than the one-at-a-time procedure long advocated by experts for use in lineups and photospreads.

  3. Performance of an attention-demanding task during treadmill walking shifts the noise qualities of step-to-step variation in step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabiner, Mark D; Marone, Jane R; Wyatt, Marilynn; Sessoms, Pinata; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2018-06-01

    The fractal scaling evident in the step-to-step fluctuations of stepping-related time series reflects, to some degree, neuromotor noise. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the fractal scaling of step width, step width and step width variability are affected by performance of an attention-demanding task. We hypothesized that the attention-demanding task would shift the structure of the step width time series toward white, uncorrelated noise. Subjects performed two 10-min treadmill walking trials, a control trial of undisturbed walking and a trial during which they performed a mental arithmetic/texting task. Motion capture data was converted to step width time series, the fractal scaling of which were determined from their power spectra. Fractal scaling decreased by 22% during the texting condition (p Step width and step width variability increased 19% and five percent, respectively (p step width fractal scaling. The change of the fractal scaling of step width is consistent with increased cognitive demand and suggests a transition in the characteristics of the signal noise. This may reflect an important advance toward the understanding of the manner in which neuromotor noise contributes to some types of falls. However, further investigation of the repeatability of the results, the sensitivity of the results to progressive increases in cognitive load imposed by attention-demanding tasks, and the extent to which the results can be generalized to the gait of older adults seems warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of walking speed on the step-by-step control of step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Katy H; Heitkamp, Lauren N; Horne, Joscelyn S; Dean, Jesse C

    2018-02-08

    Young, healthy adults walking at typical preferred speeds use step-by-step adjustments of step width to appropriately redirect their center of mass motion and ensure mediolateral stability. However, it is presently unclear whether this control strategy is retained when walking at the slower speeds preferred by many clinical populations. We investigated whether the typical stabilization strategy is influenced by walking speed. Twelve young, neurologically intact participants walked on a treadmill at a range of prescribed speeds (0.2-1.2 m/s). The mediolateral stabilization strategy was quantified as the proportion of step width variance predicted by the mechanical state of the pelvis throughout a step (calculated as R 2 magnitude from a multiple linear regression). Our ability to accurately predict the upcoming step width increased over the course of a step. The strength of the relationship between step width and pelvis mechanics at the start of a step was reduced at slower speeds. However, these speed-dependent differences largely disappeared by the end of a step, other than at the slowest walking speed (0.2 m/s). These results suggest that mechanics-dependent adjustments in step width are a consistent component of healthy gait across speeds and contexts. However, slower walking speeds may ease this control by allowing mediolateral repositioning of the swing leg to occur later in a step, thus encouraging slower walking among clinical populations with limited sensorimotor control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Auditing smear microscopy results according to time to detection using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ TB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaghier, A A F

    2015-09-01

    Smear microscopy is a rapid method for the identification of the most infectious patients with mycobacterial infection. Suboptimal smear microscopy may significantly compromise or delay patient isolation and contact tracing. A stringent method for auditing mycobacterial smear results is thus needed. This article proposes an auditing tool based on time to detection (TTD) of culture-positive samples using the automated BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 TB system. In our study, sputum samples subjected to liquefaction and concentration before staining with a TTD of ≤ 13 days using the BACTEC system should be positive on smear microscopy.

  6. New Results on Robust Model Predictive Control for Time-Delay Systems with Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of model predictive control for a class of nonlinear systems subject to state delays and input constraints. The time-varying delay is considered with both upper and lower bounds. A new model is proposed to approximate the delay. And the uncertainty is polytopic type. For the state-feedback MPC design objective, we formulate an optimization problem. Under model transformation, a new model predictive controller is designed such that the robust asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed. Finally, the applicability of the presented results are demonstrated by a practical example.

  7. Initial results with time series forecasting of TJ-II heliac waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, G.; Dormido-Canto, S.; Vega, J.; Díaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses about how to apply forecasting techniques to predict future samples of plasma signals during a discharge. One application of the forecasting could be to detect in real time anomalous behaviors in fusion waveforms. The work describes the implementation of three prediction techniques; two of them based on machine learning methods such as artificial neural networks and support vector machines for regression. The results have shown that depending on the temporal horizon, the predictions match the real samples in most cases with an error less than 5%, even more the forecasting of five samples ahead can reach accuracy over 90% in most signals analyzed.

  8. Preliminary results in single-step wound closure procedure of full-thickness facial burns in children by using the collagen-elastin matrix and review of pediatric facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Mehmet; Cicek, Tugrul; Yetis, Muhammed Ikbal

    2015-09-01

    Management of full-thickness facial burns remains one of the greatest challenges. Controversy exists among surgeons regarding the use of early excision for facial burns. Unfortunately, delayed excision of deeper burns often results in more scarring and subsequent reconstruction becomes more difficult. A collagen-elastin matrix is used to improve the quality of the reconstructed skin, to reduce scarring and to prevent wound contraction. It serves as a foundation for split thickness skin graft and enhances short and long-term results. We report the usage of a collagen-elastin matrix during single-step wound closure technique of severe full-thickness facial burns in 15 children with large burned body surface area, and also we review the literature about pediatric facial burns. There were 15 pediatric patients with severe facial burns, 8 girls and 7 boys ranging in age from 10 months to 12 years, mean age 7 years and 6 months old. The facial burn surface area (FBSA) among the patients includes seven patients with 100%, five with 75%, and three with 50%. The average total body surface area (TBSA) for the patients was 72%, ranging between 50 and 90%. 5 of the patients' admissions were late, more than four days after burns while the rest of the patients were admitted within the first four days (acute admission time). The burns were caused by flame in eight of the patients, bomb blast in four, and scalding in three. All patients were treated by the simultaneous application of the collagen-elastin matrix and an unmeshed split thickness skin graft at Turgut Özal Medical Center, Pediatric Burn Center, Malatya, Turkey. After the treatment only two patients needed a second operation for revision of the grafts. All grafts transplanted to the face survived. The average Vancouver scar scales (VSS) were 2.55±1.42, ranging between one and six, in the first 10 of 15 patients at the end of 6 months postoperatively. VSS measurements of the last 5 patients were not taken since the 6

  9. The PARIGA server for real time filtering and analysis of reciprocal BLAST results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Orsini

    Full Text Available BLAST-based similarity searches are commonly used in several applications involving both nucleotide and protein sequences. These applications span from simple tasks such as mapping sequences over a database to more complex procedures as clustering or annotation processes. When the amount of analysed data increases, manual inspection of BLAST results become a tedious procedure. Tools for parsing or filtering BLAST results for different purposes are then required. We describe here PARIGA (http://resources.bioinformatica.crs4.it/pariga/, a server that enables users to perform all-against-all BLAST searches on two sets of sequences selected by the user. Moreover, since it stores the two BLAST output in a python-serialized-objects database, results can be filtered according to several parameters in real-time fashion, without re-running the process and avoiding additional programming efforts. Results can be interrogated by the user using logical operations, for example to retrieve cases where two queries match same targets, or when sequences from the two datasets are reciprocal best hits, or when a query matches a target in multiple regions. The Pariga web server is designed to be a helpful tool for managing the results of sequence similarity searches. The design and implementation of the server renders all operations very fast and easy to use.

  10. Stress effect on conception rate in Nellore cows submmited to fixed time artificial insemination. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In beef cattle, fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI provides a method to inseminate large numbers of females in a specific time, which result in economical gains due, among others, to a more uniform calf crop. However, FTAI requires frequent manipulation of animals in order to inject hormones and for clinical examination. Consequently, animals seemed stressed in less or higher extent at the time of insemination. This can be a problem because it has been demonstrated that application of an acute stress treatment (electric shock, confinement, restraint and rotation twice a day during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle prevents the pre-ovulatory LH surge. This study aimed to evaluate if FTAI efficiency of Nellore cows is affected by the degree of stress observed at time of AI. Nellore cows (n=92 were treated (Day 0 with a progesterone intravaginal devise (Primer®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil containing 1 g of progesterone and injected with estradiol benzoate (2mg EB, Estrogin, AUSA, Brazil. Primer was removed on Day 8 (08:00 AM and administered one injection of cloprostenol (125 mcg, Prolise®, Tecnopec, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four hours later, cows received 2 mg EB and insemination (semen from one sire was done on the afternoon (14:00 to 16:00 PM of day 10. At time of FTAI, the stress condition was classified as 1 (low, 2 (moderate or 3 (high according the reactivity of cows to enter in the squeeze chute and apparent nervous behavior. Pregnancy status was evaluated by transrectal ultrasound on day 40 after FTAI. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test. Cows with moderate or high degree of stress had lower conception rate than low stressed cows (P<0.01. These results suggest that cow temperament must be considered in the planning of FTAI programs. Studies are in progress in order to measure hormonal parameters (cortisol and Alpha amylase that better reflects the “fight-or-flight” response to immediate stressors in order to

  11. Evaluation of an early step-down strategy from intravenous anidulafungin to oral azole therapy for the treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis: results from an open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jose; Reboli, Annette C; Pappas, Peter G; Patterson, Thomas F; Reinhardt, John; Chin-Hong, Peter; Tobin, Ellis; Kett, Daniel H; Biswas, Pinaki; Swanson, Robert

    2014-02-21

    Hospitalized patients are at increased risk for candidemia and invasive candidiasis (C/IC). Improved therapeutic regimens with enhanced clinical and pharmacoeconomic outcomes utilizing existing antifungal agents are still needed. An open-label, non-comparative study evaluated an intravenous (i.v.) to oral step-down strategy. Patients with C/IC were treated with i.v. anidulafungin and after 5 days of i.v. therapy had the option to step-down to oral azole therapy (fluconazole or voriconazole) if they met prespecified criteria. The primary endpoint was the global response rate (clinical + microbiological) at end of treatment (EOT) in the modified intent-to-treat (MITT) population (at least one dose of anidulafungin plus positive Candida within 96 hours of study entry). Secondary endpoints included efficacy at other time points and in predefined patient subpopulations. Patients who stepped down early (≤ 7 days' anidulafungin) were identified as the "early switch" subpopulation. In total, 282 patients were enrolled, of whom 250 were included in the MITT population. The MITT global response rate at EOT was 83.7% (95% confidence interval, 78.7-88.8). Global response rates at all time points were generally similar in the early switch subpopulation compared with the MITT population. Global response rates were also similar across multiple Candida species, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. The most common treatment-related adverse events were nausea and vomiting (four patients each). A short course of i.v. anidulafungin, followed by early step-down to oral azole therapy, is an effective and well-tolerated approach for the treatment of C/IC. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00496197.

  12. Influence of the timing of surgery and postoperative radiotherapy on treatment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, R.

    2000-01-01

    Background: The timing of surgery and postoperative radiotherapy - especially if combined with chemotherapy - has been a subject of interest over the past years. Methods: This analysis was based on a literature review of mostly retrospective publications. Data concerning the interval between surgery and radiotherapy were correlated with the locoregional control, incidence of distant metastases and prognosis of breast cancer, lung carcinoma, and head and neck carcinomas. Results and Conclusions: The reviewed data did not show a clear relationship of the time interval between surgery and start of radiotherapy and locoregional control. However, evaluation of the data was difficult, because in most publications, retrospective analyses were performed and other prognostically more relevant parameters may influence locoregional control stronger than the time interval. In patients with head and neck carcinomas, there is a negative effect of time interval between surgery and radiotherapy on local control if unfavorable factors exist, i.e., close surgical margins, unfavorable pathohistological parameters and low radiation dose. In patients with breast cancer who do not receive chemotherapy, there are inconsistent reports in the literature. If additional chemotherapy is necessary, the sequence surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy seems adequate. Although some data suggest that delaying the initiation of radiotherapy due to chemotherapy may increase the risk of local recurrences, there may, on the other hand, be an increased likelihood of systemic metastases, if radiotherapy is applied before chemotherapy. Concerning lung cancer, only one retrospective analysis exists suggesting a better survival of patients with an interval of more than 36 days between surgery and radiotherapy as compared to patients with a shorter interval. (orig.) [de

  13. A Compact Tandem Two-Step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for In Situ Analysis of Non-Volatile Organics on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Li, Xiang; Elsila, Jamie; Cornish, Timothy; Ecelberger, Scott; Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Two-step laser desorption mass spectrometry is a well suited technique to the analysis of high priority classes of organics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, present in complex samples. The use of decoupled desorption and ionization laser pulses allows for sensitive and selective detection of structurally intact organic species. We have recently demonstrated the implementation of this advancement in laser mass spectrometry in a compact, flight-compatible instrument that could feasibly be the centerpiece of an analytical science payload as part of a future spaceflight mission to a small body or icy moon.

  14. Alpine meadows and pastures after abandonment. Results of the Austrian MaB-programme and the EC-STEP project INTEGRALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappeiner, Ulrike

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a study on the behaviour of alpine ecosystems after the abandon of farming practices. The work has been carried out in Gastein Valley (Austria, the High Tauern National Park (Austria and the Mt. Bondone (Italy. In the three places different phases of plant succession have been studied, and several ecologic parameters, such as the energy budget, the carbon budget, the canopy structure and many interactions between organisms were measured. Over 20 specialists have worked on the data gathering and analysis. Among the main observed results we can count the relative instability of abandoned plots; the diversity and the specific richness decrease; light becomes there a limiting factor because of the canopy growth; the degradation of litterfall becomes slower than in grazed plots; surface erosion and runoff decrease strongly, and so on. Commonly, the abandoned alpine pastures show a transition situation between the artificial equilibrium status kept by livestock and the natural equilibrium corresponding to climatic communities.

    [es] Se presentan los resultados de un análisis sobre el comportamiento de los ecosistemas alpinos durante el abandono de las prácticas agrícolas en los mismos. Los trabajos se han llevado a cabo en el valle de Gastein (Austria, en el Parque Nacional del Alto Tauern (Austria y en el Monte Bondone (Italia. En los tres lugares se han estudiado distintas fases de la sucesión vegetal, midiéndose numerosos parámetros ecológicos, como el balance de carbono, el balance energético, la estructura de la cubierta vegetal y distintas interacciones entre organismos. Más de 20 especialistas han intervenido en la toma y análisis de los datos. Entré los principales resultados observados se cuentan el aumento de diversidad en las áreas abandonadas y su relativa inestabilidad; en ellas la luz se convierte en un factor limitante; la degradación de la hojarasca y la materia muerta se hace más lenta; la

  15. Some relations between asymptotic results for dead-time-distorted processes. Part I. The expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. On the one hand, it should provide us with a deeper insight into the mechanism of these processes. On the other hand, we shall arrive at some new forms of asymptotic results not commonly known, in particular those pertaining to an extended dead time. In addition, the novel approach permits independent checking of earlier results (some of which had been at variance with previous claims). In view of the usually quite cumbersome arithmetic involved, such controls are certainly most welcome. In this first part all the relations concerning the asymptotic expectation values will be discussed; the second part will do the same for the variances. A more elegant treatment of these problems, based on some general asymptotic results for renewal processes of the type first derived by Smith must be postponed for the moment since the corresponding formulae for a modified process are not yet readily available. We hope to be able to fill this gap in a near future

  16. Delay-time distribution of core-collapse supernovae with late events resulting from binary interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapartas, E.; de Mink, S. E.; Izzard, R. G.; Yoon, S.-C.; Badenes, C.; Götberg, Y.; de Koter, A.; Neijssel, C. J.; Renzo, M.; Schootemeijer, A.; Shrotriya, T. S.

    2017-05-01

    Most massive stars, the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae, are in close binary systems and may interact with their companion through mass transfer or merging. We undertake a population synthesis study to compute the delay-time distribution of core-collapse supernovae, that is, the supernova rate versus time following a starburst, taking into account binary interactions. We test the systematic robustness of our results by running various simulations to account for the uncertainties in our standard assumptions. We find that a significant fraction, %, of core-collapse supernovae are "late", that is, they occur 50-200 Myr after birth, when all massive single stars have already exploded. These late events originate predominantly from binary systems with at least one, or, in most cases, with both stars initially being of intermediate mass (4-8 M⊙). The main evolutionary channels that contribute often involve either the merging of the initially more massive primary star with its companion or the engulfment of the remaining core of the primary by the expanding secondary that has accreted mass at an earlier evolutionary stage. Also, the total number of core-collapse supernovae increases by % because of binarity for the same initial stellar mass. The high rate implies that we should have already observed such late core-collapse supernovae, but have not recognized them as such. We argue that φ Persei is a likely progenitor and that eccentric neutron star - white dwarf systems are likely descendants. Late events can help explain the discrepancy in the delay-time distributions derived from supernova remnants in the Magellanic Clouds and extragalactic type Ia events, lowering the contribution of prompt Ia events. We discuss ways to test these predictions and speculate on the implications for supernova feedback in simulations of galaxy evolution.

  17. A Step Toward Timely Referral and Early Diagnosis of Cancer: Implementation and Impact on Knowledge of a Primary Care-Based Training Program in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neo M. Tapela

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHealth system delays in diagnosis of cancer contribute to the glaring disparities in cancer mortality between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries. In Botswana, approximately 70% of cancers are diagnosed at late stage and median time from first health facility visit for cancer-related symptoms to specialty cancer care was 160 days (IQR 59–653. We describe the implementation and early outcomes of training targeting primary care providers, which is a part of a multi-component implementation study in Kweneng-East district aiming to enhance timely diagnosis of cancers.MethodsHealth-care providers from all public facilities within the district were invited to participate in an 8-h intensive short-course program developed by a multidisciplinary team and adapted to the Botswana health system context. Participants’ performance was assessed using a 25-multiple choice question tool, with pre- and post-assessments paired by anonymous identifier. Statistical analysis with Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare performance at the two time points across eight sub-domains (pathophysiology, epidemiology, social context, symptoms, evaluation, treatment, documentation, follow-up. Linear regression and negative binomial modeling were used to determine change in performance. Participants’ satisfaction with the program was measured on a separate survey using a 5-point Likert scale.Results176 participants attended the training over 5 days in April 2016. Pooled linear regression controlling for test version showed an overall performance increase of 16.8% after participation (95% CI 15.2–18.4. Statistically significant improvement was observed for seven out of eight subdomains on test A and all eight subdomains on test B. Overall, 71 (40.3% trainees achieved a score greater than 70% on the pretest, and 161 (91.5% did so on the posttest. Participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with the training program’s content

  18. Results of time-domain electromagnetic soundings in Miami-Dade and southern Broward Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; Prinos, Scott T.

    2011-01-01

    Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made in Miami-Dade and southern Broward Counties to aid in mapping the landward extent of saltwater in the Biscayne aquifer. A total of 79 soundings were collected in settings ranging from urban to undeveloped land, with some of the former posing problems of land access and interference from anthropogenic features. TEM soundings combined with monitoring-well data were used to determine if the saltwater front had moved since the last time it was mapped, to provide additional spatial coverage where existing monitoring wells were insufficient, and to help interpret a previously collected helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) survey flown in the southernmost portion of the study area. TEM soundings were interpreted as layered resistivity-depth models. Using information from well logs and water-quality data, the resistivity of the freshwater saturated Biscayne aquifer is expected to be above 30 ohm-meters, and the saltwater-saturated aquifer will have resistivities of less than 10 ohm-meters allowing determination of water quality from the TEM interpretations. TEM models from 29 soundings were compared to electromagnetic induction logs collected in nearby monitoring wells. In general, the agreement of these results was very good, giving confidence in the use of the TEM data for mapping saltwater encroachment.

  19. A transformation for predicting mechanical changes resulting from time-dependent microcracking in plutonic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    A transformation for a simple phenomenological model of microcracking is proposed. It relates the evolution of microcrack size in an elastic solid (plutonic rock) under different temporal macro- and microstresses. In this model, for a rock property that changes as a result of microcracking, both the calculated and the experimentally determined evolution of that property for a given stress history can be used to determine the evolution of that property (for the same range) for any other stress history. For example, the transformation can be used to extrapolate the short-term extent of microcracking due to thermally induced stresses to time scales too long for experimental determination. This is of interest in assessing the long-term behaviour of rock surrounding a high level nuclear waste vault, where thermally induced microcracking may take tens of thousands of years to develop. Experimental strategies are suggested for validation of the phenomenological model. Where results are obtained from the corresponding mathematical models, the transformation facilitates the efficient calculation of functions that depend only on the state of microcrack size once the functions have been calculated for any convenient stress history

  20. Valve cam design using numerical step-by-step method

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Bakhracheva, Yuliya; Kabore, Ousman; Zelenskiy, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the numerical step-by-step method of cam profile design. The results of the study are used for designing the internal combustion engine valve gear. This method allows to profile the peak efficiency of cams in view of many restrictions, connected with valve gear serviceability and reliability.

  1. The Evaluation of Real Time Milk Analyse Result Reliability in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The good result reliability of regular analyzes of milk composition could improve the health monitoring of dairy cows and herd management. The aim of this study was the analysis of measurement of abilities and properties of RT (Real Time system (AfiLab = AfiMilk (NIR measurement unit (near infrared spectroscopy and electrical conductivity (C of milk by conductometry + AfiFarm (calibration and interpretation software for the analysis of individual milk samples (IMSs. There were 2 × 30 IMSs in the experiment. The reference values (RVs of milk components and properties (fat (F, proteins (P, lactose (L, C and the somatic cell count (SCC were determined by conventional (direct and indirect: conductometry (C; infrared spectroscopy 1 with the filter technology and 2 with the Fourier transformations (F, P, L; fluoro-opto-electronic cell counting (SCC in the film on the rotation disc (1 and by flow cytometry (2 methods. AfiLab method (alternative showed less close relationships as compared to the RVs as relationships between reference methods. This was expected. However, these relationships (r were mostly significant: F from .597 to .738 (P ≤ 0.01 and ≤ 0.001; P from .284 to .787 (P > 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001; C .773 (P ≤ 0.001. Correlations (r were not significant (P > 0.05: L from −.013 to .194; SCC from −.148 to −.133. Variability of the RVs explained the following percentages of variability in AfiLab results: F to 54.4 %; P to 61.9 %; L only 3.8 %; C to 59.7 %. Explanatory power (reliability of AfiLab results to the animal is increasing with the regularity of their measurements (principle of real time application. Correlation values r (x minus 1.64 × sd for confidence interval (one-sided at a level of 95 % can be used for an alternative method in assessing the calibration quality. These limits are F 0.564, P 0.784 and C 0.715 and can be essential with the further implementation of this advanced technology of dairy herd management.

  2. Correlation Between Timed Barium Esophagogram and Esophageal Transit Scintigraphy Results in Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Mi; Jeon, Han Ho; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyojin

    2015-08-01

    Timed barium esophagogram (TBE) and esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) have been adopted as useful ways to evaluate achalasia patients. TBE has merit as a simple, non-invasive, and convenient method. The study sought to compare the results of these two tests and verify their usefulness in evaluating treatment response. In addition, we assessed whether TBE could effectively replace ETS through correlation analysis. The medical records of 50 achalasia patients treated between September 2011 and June 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The height and width of the barium column at 1, 2, and 5 min were measured by TBE. Half-life (T 1/2, min) and R 30 (percentage of remaining radioactivity 30 s after radioisotope ingestion) were measured by ETS. Both tests were performed before and after treatment, and the tests were carried out 1 and 2 days after procedures. And we analyzed the correlation between the parameters from the two tests. The parameters of TBE and ETS were improved after treatment (p treatment, the height and width results at 5 min from TBE positively correlated with the T 1/2 parameter from ETS (correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.75, respectively). After treatment, the correlation coefficients between the 5-min height and width of the barium column by TBE and T 1/2 by ETS were 0.55 and 0.46, respectively. Both TBE and ETS are useful modalities in assessing esophageal emptying and response to achalasia treatment. TBE and ETS results have a statistically significant correlation both pre- and post-treatment. We suggest that TBE could effectively replace ETS for the assessment of achalasia.

  3. Biomechanical influences on balance recovery by stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, E T; Robinovitch, S N

    1999-10-01

    Stepping represents a common means for balance recovery after a perturbation to upright posture. Yet little is known regarding the biomechanical factors which determine whether a step succeeds in preventing a fall. In the present study, we developed a simple pendulum-spring model of balance recovery by stepping, and used this to assess how step length and step contact time influence the effort (leg contact force) and feasibility of balance recovery by stepping. We then compared model predictions of step characteristics which minimize leg contact force to experimentally observed values over a range of perturbation strengths. At all perturbation levels, experimentally observed step execution times were higher than optimal, and step lengths were smaller than optimal. However, the predicted increase in leg contact force associated with these deviations was substantial only for large perturbations. Furthermore, increases in the strength of the perturbation caused subjects to take larger, quicker steps, which reduced their predicted leg contact force. We interpret these data to reflect young subjects' desire to minimize recovery effort, subject to neuromuscular constraints on step execution time and step length. Finally, our model predicts that successful balance recovery by stepping is governed by a coupling between step length, step execution time, and leg strength, so that the feasibility of balance recovery decreases unless declines in one capacity are offset by enhancements in the others. This suggests that one's risk for falls may be affected more by small but diffuse neuromuscular impairments than by larger impairment in a single motor capacity.

  4. Self-potential time series analysis in a seismic area of the Southern Apennines: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bello, G.; Lapenna, V.; Satriano, C.; Tramutoli, V.

    1994-01-01

    The self-potential time series recorded during the period May 1991 - August 1992 by an automatic station, located in a seismic area of Southern Apennines, is analyzed. We deal with the spectral and the statistical features of the electrotellurie precursors: they can play a major role in the approach to seismic prediction. The time-dynamics of the experimental time series is investigated, the cyclic components and the time trends are removed. In particular we consider the influence of external...

  5. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you

  6. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  7. The influence of time horizon on results of cost-effectiveness analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David D; Wilkinson, Colby L; Pope, Elle F; Chambers, James D; Cohen, Joshua T; Neumann, Peter J

    2017-12-01

    Debates persist on the appropriate time horizon from a payer's perspective and how the time horizon in cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) influences the value assessment. We systematically reviewed the Tufts Medical Center CEA Registry and identified US-based studies that used a payer perspective from 2005-2014. We classified the identified CEAs as short-term (time horizon ≤ 5 years) and long-term (> 5 years), and examined associations between study characteristics and the specified time horizon. We also developed case studies with selected interventions to further explore the relationship between time horizon and projected costs, benefits, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). Among 782 identified studies that met our inclusion criteria, 552 studies (71%) utilized a long-term time horizon while 198 studies (25%) used a short-term horizon. Among studies that employed multiple time horizons, the extension of the time horizon yielded more favorable ICERs in 19 cases and less favorable ICERs in 4 cases. Case studies showed the use of a longer time horizon also yielded more favorable ICERs. The assumed time horizon in CEAs can substantially influence the value assessment of medical interventions. To capture all consequences, we encourage the use of time horizons that extend sufficiently into the future.

  8. Storm-time meridional flows: a comparison of CINDI observations and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hairston

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During a large geomagnetic storm, the electric field from the polar ionosphere can expand far enough to affect the mid-latitude and equatorial electric fields. These changes in the equatorial zonal electric field, called the penetration field, will cause changes in the meridional ion flows that can be observed by radars and spacecraft. In general this E × B ion flow near the equator caused by the penetration field during undershielding conditions will be upward on the dayside and downward on the nightside of the Earth. Previous analysis of the equatorial meridional flows observed by CINDI instrument on the C/NOFS spacecraft during the 26 September 2011 storm showed that all of the response flows on the dayside were excess downward flows instead of the expected upward flows. These observed storm-time responses are compared to a prediction from a physics-based coupled model of thermosphere–ionosphere–inner-magnetosphere in an effort to explain these observations. The model results suggest that the equatorial downward flow could be attributed to a combined effect of the overshielding and disturbance dynamo processes. However, some discrepancy between the model and observation indicates a need for improving our understanding of how sensitive the equatorial electric field is to various model input parameters that describe the magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling processes.

  9. A novel one-step real-time multiplex PCR assay to detect Streptococcus agalactiae presence and serotypes Ia, Ib, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, Lucy L; Chang, Barbara J; Payne, Matthew S

    2017-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Culture-based screening methods lack the sensitivity of molecular assays and do not indicate serotype; a potentially important virulence marker. We aimed to develop a multiplex PCR to detect S. agalactiae while simultaneously identifying serotypes Ia, Ib, and III; commonly associated with infant disease. Primers were designed to target S. agalactiae serotype-specific cps genes and the dltS gene. The assay was validated with 512 vaginal specimens from pregnant women. 112 (21.9%) were dltS positive, with 14.3%, 0.9%, and 6.3% of these identified as cps Ia, Ib, and III, respectively. Our assay is a specific and sensitive method to simultaneously detect S. agalactiae and serotypes Ia, Ib, and III in a single step. It is of high significance for clinical diagnostic applications and also provides epidemiological data on serotype, information that may be important for vaccine development and other targeted non-antibiotic therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Results of postoperative radiation therapy of rectal cancers: with the emphasis of the overall treatment time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Young; Lee, Myung Hag; Lee, Kyu Chan

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the results of the treatment of locally advanced but resectable rectal cancers and to analyze prognostic factors, especially with the emphasis on the treatment time factor. There were 71 patients with rectal cancer who had been treated by curative surgical procedure and postoperative radiotherapy from August 1989 to December 1993. The minimum follow up period was 24 months and the median follow-up was 35 months. Radiation therapy had been given by 6 MV linear accelerator by parallel opposing or four-box portals. Whole pelvis was treated up to 5040 cGy in most cases. Systemic chemotherapy had been given in 94% of the patients, mostly with 5-FU/ACNU regimen. Assessment for the overall and disease-free survival rates were done by life-table method and prognostic factors by Log-Rank tests. Five-year overall survival, disease-free survival were 58.8% and 57%, respectively. Two-year local control rate was 76.6%. Stage according to Modified Astler-Coller (MAC) system, over 4 positive lymph nodes, over 6 weeks interval between definitive surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy and over 7 days of interruption during radiotherapy period were statistically significant, or borderline significant prognostic factors. The treatment results of patients with rectal cancers are comparable to those of other large institutes. The treatment results for the patients with bowel wall penetration and/or positive regional lymph nodes were still discouraging for their high local recurrence rate for the patients with MAC 'C' stage diseases and high distant metastases rate even for the patients with node-negative diseases. Maybe more effective regimen of chemotherapy would be needed with proper route and schedule. To maximize postoperative adjuvant treatment, radiotherapy should be started at least within 6 weeks after surgery and preferably as soon as wound healing is completed. Interruption of treatment during radiotherapy course affects disease-free survival badly, especially if

  11. One-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting and genotyping wild-type group A rotavirus strains and vaccine strains (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) in stool samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Tam, Ka Ian; Quaye, Osbourne; Bowen, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Group A rotavirus (RVA) infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. Introduction of two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® and Rotarix®, has dramatically reduced RVA associated AGE and mortality in developed as well as in many developing countries. High-throughput methods are needed to genotype rotavirus wild-type strains and to identify vaccine strains in stool samples. Quantitative RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) offer several advantages including increased sensitivity, higher throughput, and faster turnaround time. Methods. In this study, a one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay was developed to detect and genotype wild-type strains and vaccine (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) rotavirus strains along with an internal processing control (Xeno or MS2 RNA). Real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for VP7 (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, G12) and VP4 (P[4], P[6] and P[8]) genotypes. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay also included previously published NSP3 qRT-PCR for rotavirus detection and Rotarix® NSP2 and RotaTeq® VP6 qRT-PCRs for detection of Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccine strains respectively. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay was validated using 853 sequence confirmed stool samples and 24 lab cultured strains of different rotavirus genotypes. By using thermostable rTth polymerase enzyme, dsRNA denaturation, reverse transcription (RT) and amplification (PCR) steps were performed in single tube by uninterrupted thermocycling profile to reduce chances of sample cross contamination and for rapid generation of results. For quantification, standard curves were generated using dsRNA transcripts derived from RVA gene segments. Results. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8–100% sensitivity, 99.7–100% specificity, 85–95% efficiency and a limit of detection of 4–60 copies per singleplex reaction. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 81–92% efficiency and limit of detection of 150–600 copies in multiplex reactions. The VP4 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8

  12. Initial evaluation of prostate cancer with real-time elastography based on step-section pathologic analysis after radical prostatectomy. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumura, Masahiro; Shigeno, Kazushi; Hyuga, Taiju; Yoneda, Tatsuaki; Shiina, Hiroaki; Igawa, Mikio

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether real-time elastography can be used to detect prostate cancer as a relatively non-invasive modality based on the tissue strain value. Seventeen patients underwent real-time elastography in conjunction with digital rectal examination (DRE), conventional gray-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to radical prostatectomy. The elastogram was compared to findings of conventional modalities and pathological findings of prostatectomy specimens. To obtain the elastogram, compression of the prostate was performed along with a visual indicator on a video screen. Twenty of 27 pathologically confirmed tumors were detected with real-time elastography. The cancer detection rate with real-time elastography was superior to the rates of other modalities and nearly equal to both on the anterior side (75.0%) and the posterior side (73.7%) of the prostate. A higher tumor detection rate for real-time elastography was observed for tumors with a higher Gleason score and larger tumor volume. In our preliminary study, real-time elastography in conjunction with gray-scale TRUS is a non-invasive modality to detect prostate cancer. (author)

  13. TIMED solar EUV experiment: preflight calibration results for the XUV photometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rodgers, Erica M.; Bailey, Scott M.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Ucker, Gregory J.

    1999-10-01

    The Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) on the NASA Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission will measure the solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral irradiance from 0.1 to 200 nm. To cover this wide spectral range two different types of instruments are used: a grating spectrograph for spectra between 25 and 200 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm and a set of silicon soft x-ray (XUV) photodiodes with thin film filters as broadband photometers between 0.1 and 35 nm with individual bandpasses of about 5 nm. The grating spectrograph is called the EUV Grating Spectrograph (EGS), and it consists of a normal- incidence, concave diffraction grating used in a Rowland spectrograph configuration with a 64 X 1024 array CODACON detector. The primary calibrations for the EGS are done using the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF-III) in Gaithersburg, Maryland. In addition, detector sensitivity and image quality, the grating scattered light, the grating higher order contributions, and the sun sensor field of view are characterized in the LASP calibration laboratory. The XUV photodiodes are called the XUV Photometer System (XPS), and the XPS includes 12 photodiodes with thin film filters deposited directly on the silicon photodiodes' top surface. The sensitivities of the XUV photodiodes are calibrated at both the NIST SURF-III and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) electron storage ring called BESSY. The other XPS calibrations, namely the electronics linearity and field of view maps, are performed in the LASP calibration laboratory. The XPS and solar sensor pre-flight calibration results are primarily discussed as the EGS calibrations at SURF-III have not yet been performed.

  14. Statistical analysis of real-time, enviromental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Enviromental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Exact results on diffusion in a piecewise linear potential with a time-dependent sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwaker, E-mail: diwakerphysics@gmail.com [Central University of Himachal Pradesh, School of Physical and Astronomical Sciences (India); Chakraborty, Aniruddha [Indian Institute of Technology Mandi (India)

    2016-02-15

    The Smoluchowski equation with a time-dependent sink term is solved exactly. In this method, knowing the probability distribution P(0, s) at the origin, allows deriving the probability distribution P(x, s) at all positions. Exact solutions of the Smoluchowski equation are also provided in different cases where the sink term has linear, constant, inverse, and exponential variation in time.

  16. Polling Systems with Two-Phase Gated Service: Heavy Traffic Results for the Waiting Time Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. van der Mei (Rob); J.A.C. Resing

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study an asymmetric cyclic polling system with Poisson arrivals, general service-time and switch-over time distributions, and with so-called two-phase gated service at each queue, an interleaving scheme that aims to enforce some level of "fairness" among the different customer

  17. Time Span of Discretion and Administrative Work in School Systems: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Derek J.; Morfitt, Grace

    This paper presents findings of a study that utilized Elliott Jaques' theories of organizational depth structure and time span of discretion in administrative work to examine administrators' responsibilities in two Ontario (Canada) school systems. The theory predicts that the time-span of discretion associated with the administrative tasks will…

  18. New SHRIMP zircon results from Broken Hill: towards robust stratigraphic and event timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.W.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology is a powerful means of elucidating geological ages, providing that it is integrated with unequivocal field constraints, and providing that the fundamental assumptions which are behind any isotopic dating methods are geologically validated. In an attempt to better quantify the timing of Broken Hill's complex history and to reduce some current uncertainties, we report initial results from a new U-Pb SHRIMP investigation. This program was planned within the background of our own disparate stratigraphic and structural approaches to Broken Hill geology, and with objectives to (a) benchmark our new age results with those of previous workers as well as our own previous work in the Broken Hill Group, (b) evaluate and test the evidence for reported Archaean basement terrain, (c) date stratigraphic units in the upper parts of the Willyama Supergroup, (d) better constrain the timing of deformational events. Our U-Pb SHRIMP work on zircons from layered paragneisses in the Redan Geophysical Zone near Farmcote was catalysed by Nutman and Ehlers' (1998a) preferred interpretation that these 'strondhjemitic' gneisses represent an original ∼2650 Ma protolith. Our work finds zircon provenance age signatures typical of almost all ca. 1700 Ma metasediments, whether in the Broken Hill Block or other Australian Palaeoproterozoic settings. This therefore suggests that the rocks are not Archaean basement, but are part of a Thackaringa Group package possibly deposited about 1705-1710 Ma ago. New SHRIMP work on the Alma Gneiss provides a magmatic age of 1704±3 Ma, and a minimum stratigraphic age for host Thackaringa Group. This result is within error of our ages for other granitoids (1703±3 Ma, 1704±3 Ma) in the same stratigraphic position near Farmcote. As the Thackaringa Group is no more than 1000-1500 metres thick and includes 1710-1700 Ma detrital zircons, pan of the Alma Gneiss intrusion may well have been shallowly intruded, and akin to

  19. Work engagement and its association with occupational sitting time: results from the Stormont study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Houdmont, Jonathan; Clemes, Stacy; Wilson, Kelly; Kerr, Robert; Addley, Ken

    2015-01-29

    Evidence suggests that poor health outcomes and poor work-related health outcomes such as sickness presenteeism are associated with excessive sitting at work. Studies have yet to investigate the relationship between work engagement and occupational sitting. Work engagement is considered to be an important predictor of work-related well-being. We investigated the relationship between and self-reported work engagement and high occupational sitting time in Northern Ireland Civil Service (NICS) office-based workers. A cohort of 4436 NICS office-workers (1945 men and 2491 women) completed a questionnaire measuring work engagement and occupational sitting time. Logistic regression analyses were used to test the associations between work engagement and occupational sitting times. Compared to women, men reported lower mean occupational sitting time (385.7 minutes/day; s.d. = 1.9; versus 362.4 minutes/day; s.d. =2.5; p work engagement of vigor (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.98) and dedication (OR 0.68 95% CI 0.47-0.98) were less likely to have prolonged sitting time. Women with high work engagement of vigor (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.84) were also less likely to have prolonged occupational sitting times. In contrast, women with high absorption (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.65) were more likely to have prolonged sitting times. Being actively engaged in one's work is associated with lower occupational sitting times for men (vigor and dedication) and to a limited extent for women (vigor only). This suggests that interventions such as introducing sit-stand workstations to reduce sitting times, may be beneficial for work engagement.

  20. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra O'Connell

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities.Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video.All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025. The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P < 0.01 for both. The ActivPAL™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the cycling exercises (P < 0.001 for both.As a number of false positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the authors conclude that non-stepping

  1. When a Step Is Not a Step! Specificity Analysis of Five Physical Activity Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Quinlan, Leo R

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is an essential aspect of a healthy lifestyle for both physical and mental health states. As step count is one of the most utilized measures for quantifying physical activity it is important that activity-monitoring devices be both sensitive and specific in recording actual steps taken and disregard non-stepping body movements. The objective of this study was to assess the specificity of five activity monitors during a variety of prescribed non-stepping activities. Participants wore five activity monitors simultaneously for a variety of prescribed activities including deskwork, taking an elevator, taking a bus journey, automobile driving, washing and drying dishes; functional reaching task; indoor cycling; outdoor cycling; and indoor rowing. Each task was carried out for either a specific duration of time or over a specific distance. Activity monitors tested were the ActivPAL micro™, NL-2000™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2)™, Fitbit One™ and Jawbone UP™. Participants were video-recorded while carrying out the prescribed activities and the false positive step count registered on each activity monitor was obtained and compared to the video. All activity monitors registered a significant number of false positive steps per minute during one or more of the prescribed activities. The Withings™ activity performed best, registering a significant number of false positive steps per minute during the outdoor cycling activity only (P = 0.025). The Jawbone™ registered a significant number of false positive steps during the functional reaching task and while washing and drying dishes, which involved arm and hand movement (P positive steps during the cycling exercises (P positive steps were registered on the activity monitors during the non-stepping activities, the authors conclude that non-stepping physical activities can result in the false detection of steps. This can negatively affect the quantification of physical

  2. 20 CFR 655.1114 - Element IV-What are the timely and significant steps an H-1C employer must take to recruit and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that constitute a “significant” factor in inducing employment and retention of U.S. nurses. (iii) Work schedule options. The facility provides nurses with non-mandatory work schedule options for part-time work, job-sharing, compressed work week or non-rotating shifts (provided, however, that H-1C nurses are...

  3. Factors Associated with Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time of 5-6-Year-Old Children in the STEPS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarma, Tanja; Tammelin, Tuija; Kulmala, Janne; Koski, Pasi; Hurme, Saija; Lagström, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: The factors associated with preschool-aged children's physical activity (PA) remains unclear. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how different factors were associated with preschool-aged children's objectively measured PA and sedentary time. Methods: The study population was 5-6-year-old children (n = 140) and their…

  4. Behavioural repertoire of working donkeys and consistency of behaviour over time, as a preliminary step towards identifying pain-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Fran H; Hockenhull, Jo; Pritchard, Joy C; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Whay, Helen R

    2014-01-01

    The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram. Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males). Instantaneous (scan) and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (Pdonkeys (Pdonkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys.

  5. SMOS near-real-time soil moisture product: processor overview and first validation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Rodríguez-Fernández

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the surface soil moisture (SM content are important for a wide range of applications. Among them, operational hydrology and numerical weather prediction, for instance, need SM information in near-real-time (NRT, typically not later than 3 h after sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS satellite is the first mission specifically designed to measure SM from space. The ESA Level 2 SM retrieval algorithm is based on a detailed geophysical modelling and cannot provide SM in NRT. This paper presents the new ESA SMOS NRT SM product. It uses a neural network (NN to provide SM in NRT. The NN inputs are SMOS brightness temperatures for horizontal and vertical polarizations and incidence angles from 30 to 45°. In addition, the NN uses surface soil temperature from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF Integrated Forecast System (IFS. The NN was trained on SMOS Level 2 (L2 SM. The swath of the NRT SM retrieval is somewhat narrower (∼ 915 km than that of the L2 SM dataset (∼ 1150 km, which implies a slightly lower revisit time. The new SMOS NRT SM product was compared to the SMOS Level 2 SM product. The NRT SM data show a standard deviation of the difference with respect to the L2 data of < 0.05 m3 m−3 in most of the Earth and a Pearson correlation coefficient higher than 0.7 in large regions of the globe. The NRT SM dataset does not show a global bias with respect to the L2 dataset but can show local biases of up to 0.05 m3 m−3 in absolute value. The two SMOS SM products were evaluated against in situ measurements of SM from more than 120 sites of the SCAN (Soil Climate Analysis Network and the USCRN (US Climate Reference Network networks in North America. The NRT dataset obtains similar but slightly better results than the L2 data. In summary, the NN SMOS NRT SM product exhibits performances similar to those of the Level 2 SM product

  6. Behavioural repertoire of working donkeys and consistency of behaviour over time, as a preliminary step towards identifying pain-related behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran H Regan

    Full Text Available The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram.Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males. Instantaneous (scan and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (P<0.001. Level head carriage, licking/chewing and head-shaking were observed more frequently in female donkeys (P<0.001. Tail position, ear orientation, foot stamping, rolling/lying and head-shaking behaviours were affected by time of day (P<0.001. However, only two variations in ear orientation were found to be significantly different over the two days of observations (P<0.001. Tail swishing, head shaking, foot stamping, and ears held sideways and downwards were significantly correlated (P<0.001 and are assumed to be behaviours to discourage flies.All donkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys.

  7. Time-dependent theoretical model of the polar wind: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombosi, T.I.; Cravens, T.E.; Nagy, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The coupled time dependent continuity, momentum and energy equations of a two ion (O + and H + ) quasineutral plasma were solved in order to extend our understanding of polar wind behavior. This numerical code allows studies of the time dependent behavior of polar wind-type flows into and out of the ionosphere. Initial studies indicate that the typical time constants for electron and ion temperature changes are of the order of minutes and tens of minutes, respectively. The response time of the minor high altitude ion O + is less than an hour, whereas that of the major ion, H + , is many hours. The initial test runs also demonstrate the fact that temporary supersonic flows of both O + and H + are possible, especially in the presence of significant ion heating

  8. Maternal expectations and postpartum emotional adjustment in first-time mothers: results of a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Erin J; Fried, Rachel; Teeters, Jenni Beth; Siskind, Emily E

    2014-09-01

    Several predictors of postpartum mood have been identified in the literature, but the role of maternal expectations in postpartum mental health remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify whether maternal expectations during the postpartum hospital stay predict adjustment and depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum. The sample included 233 first-time mothers recruited from the postpartum unit of a Midwestern hospital. Participants completed measures of maternal expectations and depressive symptoms (EPDS) at Time 1 (2 d postpartum) and completed EPDS and an Emotional Adjustment Scale (BaM-13) at Time 2 (6 weeks postpartum). A conditional relationship between the expectation that an infant's behavior will reflect maternal skill and Time 2 outcomes (BaM-13 and EPDS) was found, such that endorsing this belief predicted increased depression and poorer adjustment in those with higher (but not lower) Time 1 EPDS scores. Time 2 BaM-13 scores were also negatively predicted by expectations of self-sacrifice and positively predicted by expectations that parenthood would be naturally fulfilling. The expectations that new mothers hold about parenting soon after delivery are predictive of emotional adjustment in the early postpartum period, suggesting a role for discussion of expectations in future preventive strategies.

  9. Digital instrumentation and management of dead time: first results on a NaI well-type detector setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, B; Bobin, C; Bouchard, J; Aubineau-Lanièce, I

    2010-01-01

    The LNE-LNHB is engaged in a development program on digital instrumentation, the first step being the instrumentation of a NaI well-type detector set-up. The prototype acquisition card and its technical specifications are presented together with the first comparison with the classical NIM-based acquisition chain, for counting rates up to 100 kcps. The digital instrumentation is shown to be counting-loss free in this range. This validates the main option adopted in this project, namely the implementation of an extending dead time with live-time measurement already successfully used in the MTR2 NIM module developed at LNE-LNHB. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Bernaards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of

  11. Recent salmon declines: a result of lost feeding opportunities due to bad timing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar M Chittenden

    Full Text Available As the timing of spring productivity blooms in near-shore areas advances due to warming trends in global climate, the selection pressures on out-migrating salmon smolts are shifting. Species and stocks that leave natal streams earlier may be favoured over later-migrating fish. The low post-release survival of hatchery fish during recent years may be in part due to static release times that do not take the timing of plankton blooms into account. This study examined the effects of release time on the migratory behaviour and survival of wild and hatchery-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch using acoustic and coded-wire telemetry. Plankton monitoring and near-shore seining were also conducted to determine which habitat and food sources were favoured. Acoustic tags (n = 140 and coded-wire tags (n = 266,692 were implanted into coho salmon smolts at the Seymour and Quinsam Rivers, in British Columbia, Canada. Differences between wild and hatchery fish, and early and late releases were examined during the entire lifecycle. Physiological sampling was also carried out on 30 fish from each release group. The smolt-to-adult survival of coho salmon released during periods of high marine productivity was 1.5- to 3-fold greater than those released both before and after, and the fish's degree of smoltification affected their downstream migration time and duration of stay in the estuary. Therefore, hatchery managers should consider having smolts fully developed and ready for release during the peak of the near-shore plankton blooms. Monitoring chlorophyll a levels and water temperature early in the spring could provide a forecast of the timing of these blooms, giving hatcheries time to adjust their release schedule.

  12. Comparison of single-step and two-step purified coagulants from Moringa oleifera seed for turbidity and DOC removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J; Ghebremichael, K; Beltrán-Heredia, J

    2010-08-01

    The coagulant proteins from Moringa oleifera purified with single-step and two-step ion-exchange processes were used for the coagulation of surface water from Meuse river in The Netherlands. The performances of the two purified coagulants and the crude extract were assessed in terms of turbidity and DOC removal. The results indicated that the optimum dosage of the single-step purified coagulant was more than two times higher compared to the two-step purified coagulant in terms of turbidity removal. And the residual DOC in the two-step purified coagulant was lower than in single-step purified coagulant or crude extract. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative explanat......Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative...... explanation of the impact of step sites on catalyst activity and side reactions such as carbon formation. This leads to a discussion of principles for catalyst promotion....

  14. Full-scale and time-scale heating experiments at Stripa: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Hood, Michael; California Univ., Berkeley

    1978-01-01

    Two full-scale heating experiments and a time-scale heating experiment have recently been started in granite 340 meters below surface. The purpose of the full-scale heating experiments is to assess the near-field effects of thermal loading for the design of an underground repository of nuclear wastes. That of the time-scale heating experiments is to obtain field data of the interaction between heaters and its effect on the rock mass during a period of about two years, which corresponds to about twenty years of full-scale operation. Geological features of the rock around each experiment have been mapped carefully, and temperatures, stresses and displacements induced in the rock by heating have been calculated in advance of the experiments. Some 800 different measurements are recorded at frequent intervals by a computer system situated underground. These data can be compared at any time with predictions made earlier on video display units underground

  15. Short time propagation of a singular wave function: Some surprising results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, A.; Granot, E.; Schuss, Z.

    2007-08-01

    The Schrödinger evolution of an initially singular wave function was investigated. First it was shown that a wide range of physical problems can be described by initially singular wave function. Then it was demonstrated that outside the support of the initial wave function the time evolution is governed to leading order by the values of the wave function and its derivatives at the singular points. Short-time universality appears where it depends only on a single parameter—the value at the singular point (not even on its derivatives). It was also demonstrated that the short-time evolution in the presence of an absorptive potential is different than in the presence of a nonabsorptive one. Therefore, this dynamics can be harnessed to the determination whether a potential is absorptive or not simply by measuring only the transmitted particles density.

  16. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary......Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...

  17. Artworks characterization at THz frequencies: preliminary results via the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In the research field of art and archaeology, scientific observation and analysis are hugely demanded to gather as more information as possible on the materials and techniques used to create artworks as well as in previous restoration actions. In this frame, diagnostic tools exploiting electromagnetic waves deserve massive interest tanks to their ability to provide non-invasive and possibly contactless characterization of the investigated objects. Among the electromagnetic diagnostic technologies, those working at frequencies belonging to the 0.1-10 THz range are currently deserving an increased attention since THz waves are capable of penetrating into optically opaque materials (up to the preparation layers), without direct contact and by involving sufficiently low energy to be considered as perfectly non-invasive in practice [1,2]. Moreover, being THz non-ionizing radiations, a moderate exposure to them implies minor long term risks to the molecular stability of the historical artifact and humans. Finally, recent developments of THz technology have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems. One of them is the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega, acquired by the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) in 2013. This system works in the range from 60GHz to 3THz with a waveform acquisition speed up to 500Hz, it is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and, few months ago, has been potentiated by means of an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150mm x 150mm area. In the frame of the IREA research activities regarding cultural heritage, the FICO system is currently adopted to perform both spectroscopy and imaging, which are the two kind of analysis wherein THz technology can be profitably explored [3]. In particular, THz spectroscopy is used to distinguish different artists materials by exploiting their peculiar fingerprint in the absorption

  18. Results of the JET real-time disruption predictor in the ITER-like wall campaigns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Jesús; Dormido-Canto, Sebastián; López, Juan M.; Murari, Andrea; Ramírez, Jesús M.; Moreno, Raúl; Ruiz, Mariano; Alves, Diogo; Felton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •JET real-time disruption predictor with metallic wall 991 discharges analyzed. •Predictor training has been carried out with JET C wall data. •Success, false alarm and missed alarm rates are 98.4%, 0.9% and 1.6%, respectively. •Alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruption. -- Abstract: The impact of disruptions in JET became even more important with the replacement of the previous Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) wall with a more fragile full metal ITER-like wall (ILW). The development of robust disruption mitigation systems is crucial for JET (and also for ITER). Moreover, a reliable real-time (RT) disruption predictor is a pre-requisite to any mitigation method. The Advance Predictor Of DISruptions (APODIS) has been installed in the JET Real-Time Data Network (RTDN) for the RT recognition of disruptions. The predictor operates with the new ILW but it has been trained only with discharges belonging to campaigns with the CFC wall. 7 real-time signals are used to characterize the plasma status (disruptive or non-disruptive) at regular intervals of 32 ms. After the first 3 JET ILW campaigns (991 discharges), the success rate of the predictor is 98.36% (alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruptions). The false alarm and missed alarm rates are 0.92% and 1.64%

  19. Results of the JET real-time disruption predictor in the ITER-like wall campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, Sebastián [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); López, Juan M. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM/ENEA per la Fusione, Padua (Italy); Ramírez, Jesús M. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, Raúl [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Mariano [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Alves, Diogo [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear – Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Felton, Robert [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •JET real-time disruption predictor with metallic wall 991 discharges analyzed. •Predictor training has been carried out with JET C wall data. •Success, false alarm and missed alarm rates are 98.4%, 0.9% and 1.6%, respectively. •Alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruption. -- Abstract: The impact of disruptions in JET became even more important with the replacement of the previous Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) wall with a more fragile full metal ITER-like wall (ILW). The development of robust disruption mitigation systems is crucial for JET (and also for ITER). Moreover, a reliable real-time (RT) disruption predictor is a pre-requisite to any mitigation method. The Advance Predictor Of DISruptions (APODIS) has been installed in the JET Real-Time Data Network (RTDN) for the RT recognition of disruptions. The predictor operates with the new ILW but it has been trained only with discharges belonging to campaigns with the CFC wall. 7 real-time signals are used to characterize the plasma status (disruptive or non-disruptive) at regular intervals of 32 ms. After the first 3 JET ILW campaigns (991 discharges), the success rate of the predictor is 98.36% (alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruptions). The false alarm and missed alarm rates are 0.92% and 1.64%.

  20. Beam test results of a 16 ps timing system based on ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartiglia, N., E-mail: cartiglia@to.infn.it [INFN, Torino (Italy); Staiano, A.; Sola, V. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Arcidiacono, R. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Università del Piemonte Orientale (Italy); Cirio, R.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Monaco, V.; Mulargia, R.; Obertino, M.; Ravera, F.; Sacchi, R. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellora, A.; Durando, S. [Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Mandurrino, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Minafra, N. [University of Kansas, KS (United States); Fadeyev, V.; Freeman, P.; Galloway, Z.; Gkougkousis, E. [SCIPP, University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we report on the timing resolution obtained in a beam test with pions of 180 GeV/c momentum at CERN for the first production of 45 µm thick Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD are based on the Low-Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) design, employing n-on-p silicon sensors with internal charge multiplication due to the presence of a thin, low-resistivity diffusion layer below the junction. The UFSD used in this test had a pad area of 1.7 mm{sup 2}. The gain was measured to vary between 5 and 70 depending on the sensor bias voltage. The experimental setup included three UFSD and a fast trigger consisting of a quartz bar readout by a SiPM. The timing resolution was determined by doing Gaussian fits to the time-of-flight of the particles between one or more UFSD and the trigger counter. For a single UFSD the resolution was measured to be 34 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 27 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V. For the combination of 3 UFSD the timing resolution was 20 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 16 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V.

  1. Short-term adaptations as a response to travel time: results of a stated adaptation experimentincreases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psarra, I.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on short-term dynamics of activity-travel behavior as a response to travel time increases. It is assumed that short-term changes are triggered by stress, which is defined as the deviation between an individual’s aspirations and his or her daily experiences. When stress exceeds a

  2. Planck 2015 results: VII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Time-ordered information and beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the time-ordered information (TOI) containing the d...

  3. Analytical results for non-Hermitian parity–time-symmetric and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate both the non-Hermitian parity–time-(PT-)symmetric and Hermitian asymmetric volcano potentials, and present the analytical solution in terms of the confluent Heun function. Under certain special conditions, the confluent Heun function can be terminated as a polynomial, thereby leading to certain ...

  4. Studies on 99mTc-DMSA samples: some results concerning stability in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metello, L.F.; Cunha, L.; Veiga, J.; Gomes, C.; Botelho, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: It has been decided to study the stability period of the 99mTc-DMSA after the advent of unclear situations, where this radiopharmaceutical was administered in a distant moment related to the preparation time, and also because of some rare imagiological findings, not exactly predictable and/or compatible when considering their relations with the specific clinical environment, even if it was happening clearly inside the stability time given as reference by the producer of the radiopharmaceutical. The first thing to be found was that the concerned information in current bibliography is quite uncertain, some authors defending kits stability in time from half hour till six hours and with most authors making reference to half hour, which clearly and obviously contradicts the literature furnished with the kits, that usually refers stability periods between four and six hours. Methods and Conclusions: As developed methodology, it was decided to establish and use a Quality Control Program, consisting on running in parallel the three specific methods indicated to study this radiopharmaceutical properties and purity, over the time, starting on the fifth minute after completion of the kits and going until a maximum of eight hours after this moment, having always previously studied the radiochemical purity of the 99mTc-eluate being used. In the development of this study, we used several lyophilised formulations, from distinct producers. We easily arrived to the conclusion that, if the free pertechnetate and the colloidal technetium remains more or less stable on his relative amount over the time, the relative amounts concerning the DMSA III (oxidation state III) and the DMSA V (oxidation state V) are quite distinct from the expected and described on the literature, putting once again in evidence the urgent need to implement Quality Control as a indispensable part of the each day routine on a Nuclear Medicine Department

  5. Dynamic balance and stepping versus tai chi training to improve balance and stepping in at-risk older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnodim, Joseph O; Strasburg, Debra; Nabozny, Martina; Nyquist, Linda; Galecki, Andrzej; Chen, Shu; Alexander, Neil B

    2006-12-01

    To compare the effect of two 10-week balance training programs, Combined Balance and Step Training (CBST) versus tai chi (TC), on balance and stepping measures. Prospective intervention trial. Local senior centers and congregate housing facilities. Aged 65 and older with at least mild impairment in the ability to perform unipedal stance and tandem walk. Participants were allocated to TC (n = 107, mean age 78) or CBST, an intervention focused on improving dynamic balance and stepping (n = 106, mean age 78). At baseline and 10 weeks, participants were tested in their static balance (Unipedal Stance and Tandem Stance (TS)), stepping (Maximum Step Length, Rapid Step Test), and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Performance improved more with CBST than TC, ranging from 5% to 10% for the stepping tests (Maximum Step Length and Rapid Step Test) and 9% for TUG. The improvement in TUG represented an improvement of more than 1 second. Greater improvements were also seen in static balance ability (in TS) with CBST than TC. Of the two training programs, in which variants of each program have been proven to reduce falls, CBST results in modest improvements in balance, stepping, and functional mobility versus TC over a 10-week period. Future research should include a prospective comparison of fall rates in response to these two balance training programs.

  6. SYBR green-based one step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Zika virus in field-caught mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Wei-Ping; Lim, Gareth; Yeo, Gladys; Chiang, Suzanna Nicole; Chong, Chee-Seng; Ng, Lee-Ching; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chanditha

    2017-09-19

    The monitoring of vectors is one of the key surveillance measures to assess the risk of arbovirus transmission and the success of control strategies in endemic regions. The recent re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the tropics, including Singapore, emphasizes the need to develop cost-effective, rapid and accurate assays to monitor the virus spread by mosquitoes. As ZIKV infections largely remain asymptomatic, early detection of ZIKV in the field-caught mosquitoes enables timely implementation of appropriate mosquito control measures. We developed a rapid, sensitive and specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay for the detection of ZIKV in field-caught mosquitoes. The primers and PCR cycling conditions were optimized to minimize non-specific amplification due to cross-reactivity with the genomic material of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex sitiens and Anopheles sinensis, as well as accompanying microbiota. The performance of the assay was further evaluated with a panel of flaviviruses and alphaviruses as well as in field-caught Ae. aegypti mosquitoes confirmed to be positive for ZIKV. As compared to a probe-based assay, the newly developed assay demonstrated 100% specificity and comparable detection sensitivity for ZIKV in mosquitoes. Being a SYBR Green-based method, the newly-developed assay is cost-effective and easy to adapt, thus is applicable to large-scale vector surveillance activities in endemic countries, including those with limited resources and expertise. The amplicon size (119 bp) also allows sequencing to confirm the virus type. The primers flank relatively conserved regions of ZIKV genome, so that, the assay is able to detect genetically diverse ZIKV strains. Our findings, therefore, testify the potential use of the newly-developed assay in vector surveillance programmes for ZIKV in endemic regions.

  7. Some new results for recurrent neural networks with varying-time coefficients and delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Haijun; Teng Zhidong

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, we consider the recurrent neural networks with varying-time coefficients and delays. By constructing new Lyapunov functional, introducing ingeniously many real parameters and applying the technique of Young inequality, we establish a series of criteria on the boundedness, global exponential stability and the existence of periodic solutions. In these criteria, we do not require that the response functions are differentiable, bounded and monotone nondecreasing. Some previous works are improved and extended

  8. Improved result on stability analysis of discrete stochastic neural networks with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhengguang; Su Hongye; Chu Jian; Zhou Wuneng

    2009-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of exponential stability for discrete stochastic time-delay neural networks. By defining a novel Lyapunov functional, an improved delay-dependent exponential stability criterion is established in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Meanwhile, the computational complexity of the newly established stability condition is reduced because less variables are involved. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.

  9. Leisure time physical activity and quality of life in medical students: results from a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleias, Munique; Tempski, Patricia; Paro, Helena Bms; Perotta, Bruno; Mayer, Fernanda B; Enns, Sylvia C; Gannam, Silmar; Pereira, Maria Amelia D; Silveira, Paulo S; Santos, Itamar S; Carvalho, Celso Rf; Martins, Milton A

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the association between leisure time physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL) in medical students. Our hypothesis was that there was a positive association between volume of PA and various domains of perception of QoL. Data were evaluated from a random sample of 1350 medical students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Information from participants included the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire-short form (WHOQOL-BREF), a questionnaire specifically designed to evaluate QoL in medical students (VERAS-Q) and questions for both global QoL self-assessment and leisure time PA. According to the amount of metabolic equivalents (METs) spend during PA, volunteers were divided into four groups, according to the volume of PA: (a) no PA; (b) low PA, ≤540 MET min/week; (c) moderate PA, from 541 to 1260 MET min/week and (d) high PA, > 1261 MET min/week. Forty per cent of the medical students reported no leisure time PA (46.0% of females and 32.3% of males). In contrast, 27.2% were classified in the group of high PA (21.0% of females and 34.2% of males). We found significant associations between moderate and high levels of PA and better QoL for all measurements. For low levels of PA, this association was also significant for most QoL measurements, with the exceptions of WHOQOL physical health (p=0.08) and social relationships (p=0.26) domains. We observed a strong dose-effect relationship between the volume of leisure time PA and QoL in both male and female medical students.

  10. Planck 2015 results: VII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Time-ordered information and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the time-ordered information (TOI) containing the detector and pointing samples must be processed and the angular response must be assessed. The full mission TOI is included in the Planck 2015 release. This study describes the HFI TOI and beam processing for the 2015 release. HFI calibration and map making are described in a companion paper. The main pipeline has been modified since the last release (2013 nominal mission in intensity only), by including a correction for the nonlinearity of the warm readout and by improving the model of the bolometer time response. The beam processing is an essential tool that derives the angular response used in all the Planck science papers and we report an improvement in the effective beam window function uncertainty of more than a factor of 10 relative to the2013 release. Noise correlations introduced by pipeline filtering function are assessed using dedicated simulations. Finally, angular cross-power spectra using data sets that are decorrelated in time are immune to the main systematic effects.

  11. Work-time sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers: results from the 2006 National Sun Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Loraine D; Pichora, Erin C; Costa, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe summer work-related sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers. Information on time in the sun and sun protection practices at work during the summer of 2006 were collected from 1,337 outdoor workers aged 16-64 years as part of the Second National Sun Survey. Proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) were estimated using procedures appropriate for complex survey designs. Twenty-six percent of all Canadians, 39% of males and 33% of those aged 16-24 years work outdoors during the summer. Although 41% spend four or more hours daily in the sun at work, just over half always or often protect themselves by covering their heads (58%), wearing protective clothing (56%) or wearing sunglasses (54%), and only 29% use sunscreen. Males and those aged 16-24 spend the most work time in the sun but are the least likely to use protection. The prevalence of outdoor work and sun behaviours varies among regions. Study findings confirm the need for strategies to reduce time in the sun and increase the use of sun protection among outdoor workers. In order to be effective, these strategies must include both enhanced workplace policies and practice, and increased individual use of sun protection.

  12. Properties of transit-time interactions in magnetized plasmas: Analytic and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melatos, A.; Robinson, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The recently developed perturbation theory of transit-time interactions between particles and coherent wave packets in magnetized plasmas is applied to particular field structures. Limits of validity are determined by comparison with test-particle simulations, showing that the theory is accurate everywhere except near certain well-determined resonances, for wave fields exceeding a characteristic threshold, and for particles below a particular velocity. The properties of transit-time interactions in magnetized plasmas are investigated in detail to determine their dependence on the fields and parameters of the particle motion. Resonant particle scattering is found to occur at low particle velocities when the frequency of the coherent wave packet is an integer multiple of the gyrofrequency. Two different types of resonant transit-time dissipation are also observed: one arises from transient cyclotron acceleration in the localized wave packet, the other from beating between the gyration of the particles and the oscillation of the wave packet field. Both effects involve an interplay between the field geometry and resonant oscillations

  13. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  14. Four-dimensional dose distributions of step-and-shoot IMRT delivered with real-time tumor tracking for patients with irregular breathing: Constant dose rate vs dose rate regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaocheng; Han-Oh, Sarah; Gui Minzhi; Niu Ying; Yu, Cedric X.; Yi Byongyong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dose-rate-regulated tracking (DRRT) is a tumor tracking strategy that programs the MLC to track the tumor under regular breathing and adapts to breathing irregularities during delivery using dose rate regulation. Constant-dose-rate tracking (CDRT) is a strategy that dynamically repositions the beam to account for intrafractional 3D target motion according to real-time information of target location obtained from an independent position monitoring system. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the differences in the effectiveness and delivery accuracy between these two tracking methods in the presence of breathing irregularities. Methods: Step-and-shoot IMRT plans optimized at a reference phase were extended to remaining phases to generate 10-phased 4D-IMRT plans using segment aperture morphing (SAM) algorithm, where both tumor displacement and deformation were considered. A SAM-based 4D plan has been demonstrated to provide better plan quality than plans not considering target deformation. However, delivering such a plan requires preprogramming of the MLC aperture sequence. Deliveries of the 4D plans using DRRT and CDRT tracking approaches were simulated assuming the breathing period is either shorter or longer than the planning day, for 4 IMRT cases: two lung and two pancreatic cases with maximum GTV centroid motion greater than 1 cm were selected. In DRRT, dose rate was regulated to speed up or slow down delivery as needed such that each planned segment is delivered at the planned breathing phase. In CDRT, MLC is separately controlled to follow the tumor motion, but dose rate was kept constant. In addition to breathing period change, effect of breathing amplitude variation on target and critical tissue dose distribution is also evaluated. Results: Delivery of preprogrammed 4D plans by the CDRT method resulted in an average of 5% increase in target dose and noticeable increase in organs at risk (OAR) dose when patient breathing is either 10% faster or

  15. Recent USNRC results and program plans for elevated temperature time dependent material behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, T J [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington (United States)

    1977-07-01

    The SI program thus provides NRC with a consultant capability to monitor the materials and structures efforts of applicants. Also, analytical and experimental work is actively pursued in areas with limited background or limited experimental basis. One major area, the extrapolation of test data from time limited tests to the full 40 year plant lifetime, has been chosen for a significant independent effort. This extrapolation study provides a focus for all creep-fatigue, fracture mode and analysis methods development to be done within the program. The supporting assurance which may be provided by sound in-service-inspection techniques must also be developed to the fullest possible extent. (author)

  16. Gastric Emptying Assessment in Frequency and Time Domain Using Bio-impedance: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Sosa, M.; Gutiérrez, G.; Reyes, P.; Mendiola, C.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance assessment to measure gastric emptying and in general gastric activity has been reported since 1985. The physiological interpretation of these measurements, is still under research. This technique usually uses a single frequency, and the conductivity parameter. The frequency domain and the Fourier analysis of the time domain behavior of the gastric impedance in different gastric conditions (fasting state, and after food administration) has not been explored in detail. This work presents some insights of the potentiality of these alternative methodologies to measure gastric activity.

  17. Time-usage strategies in the context of work-life balance : the survey results

    OpenAIRE

    Tubutienė, Vilma; Poškuvienė, Beatričė

    2007-01-01

    Work-Life-Balance has become a long-term subject. In an economy which brings people to the limits of their possibilities it depends more than ever on creating a well-balanced relation between professional requirements and personal wishes by suitable measures and conditions. But it is not simply about the reduction of work and rise of spare time-oriented life. It is about the creation of a wellharmonized balance which connects efficiency with personal well-being. This division cannot hide some...

  18. Recent USNRC results and program plans for elevated temperature time dependent material behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The SI program thus provides NRC with a consultant capability to monitor the materials and structures efforts of applicants. Also, analytical and experimental work is actively pursued in areas with limited background or limited experimental basis. One major area, the extrapolation of test data from time limited tests to the full 40 year plant lifetime, has been chosen for a significant independent effort. This extrapolation study provides a focus for all creep-fatigue, fracture mode and analysis methods development to be done within the program. The supporting assurance which may be provided by sound in-service-inspection techniques must also be developed to the fullest possible extent. (author)

  19. Normalization with Corresponding Naïve Tissue Minimizes Bias Caused by Commercial Reverse Transcription Kits on Quantitative Real-Time PCR Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Garcia-Bardon

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the gold standard for expression analysis. Designed to improve reproducibility and sensitivity, commercial kits are commonly used for the critical step of cDNA synthesis. The present study was designed to determine the impact of these kits. mRNA from mouse brains were pooled to create serial dilutions ranging from 0.0625 μg to 2 μg, which were transcribed into cDNA using four different commercial reverse-transcription kits. Next, we transcribed mRNA from brain tissue after acute brain injury and naïve mice into cDNA for qPCR. Depending on tested genes, some kits failed to show linear results in dilution series and revealed strong variations in cDNA yield. Absolute expression data in naïve and trauma settings varied substantially between these kits. Normalization with a housekeeping gene failed to reduce kit-dependent variations, whereas normalization eliminated differences when naïve samples from the same region were used. The study shows strong evidence that choice of commercial cDNA synthesis kit has a major impact on PCR results and, consequently, on comparability between studies. Additionally, it provides a solution to overcome this limitation by normalization with data from naïve samples. This simple step helps to compare mRNA expression data between different studies and groups.

  20. SMOS near-real-time soil moisture product: processor overview and first validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Nemesio J.; Muñoz Sabater, Joaquin; Richaume, Philippe; de Rosnay, Patricia; Kerr, Yann H.; Albergel, Clement; Drusch, Matthias; Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of the surface soil moisture (SM) content are important for a wide range of applications. Among them, operational hydrology and numerical weather prediction, for instance, need SM information in near-real-time (NRT), typically not later than 3 h after sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite is the first mission specifically designed to measure SM from space. The ESA Level 2 SM retrieval algorithm is based on a detailed geophysical modelling and cannot provide SM in NRT. This paper presents the new ESA SMOS NRT SM product. It uses a neural network (NN) to provide SM in NRT. The NN inputs are SMOS brightness temperatures for horizontal and vertical polarizations and incidence angles from 30 to 45°. In addition, the NN uses surface soil temperature from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS). The NN was trained on SMOS Level 2 (L2) SM. The swath of the NRT SM retrieval is somewhat narrower (˜ 915 km) than that of the L2 SM dataset (˜ 1150 km), which implies a slightly lower revisit time. The new SMOS NRT SM product was compared to the SMOS Level 2 SM product. The NRT SM data show a standard deviation of the difference with respect to the L2 data of Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) multicast service (EUMETCast).

  1. The Physics of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves. I. Analytic Results and Time Dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Philip A.; Eastman, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    We develop an analytic solution of the radiation transport problem for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and show that it reproduces bolometric light curves produced by more detailed calculations under the assumption of a constant-extinction coefficient. This model is used to derive the thermal conditions in the interior of SNe Ia and to study the sensitivity of light curves to various properties of the underlying supernova explosions. Although the model is limited by simplifying assumptions, it is adequate for demonstrating that the relationship between SNe Ia maximum-light luminosity and rate of decline is most easily explained if SNe Ia span a range in mass. The analytic model is also used to examine the size of various terms in the transport equation under conditions appropriate to maximum light. For instance, the Eulerian and advective time derivatives are each shown to be of the same order of magnitude as other order v/c terms in the transport equation. We conclude that a fully time-dependent solution to the transport problem is needed in order to compute SNe Ia light curves and spectra accurate enough to distinguish subtle differences of various explosion models. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  2. Strain ratio measurement of femoral cartilage by real-time elastosonography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek, Ali; Unal, Ozlem; Kartal, Merve Gulbiz; Arslan, Halil; Isik, Cetin; Bozkurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate strain ratio measurement of femoral cartilage using real-time elastosonography. Twenty-five patients with femoral cartilage pathology on MRI (study group) were prospectively compared with 25 subjects with normal findings on MRI (control group) using real-time elastosonography. Strain ratio measurements of pathologic and normal cartilage were performed and compared, both within the study group and between the two groups. Elastosonography colour-scale coding showed a colour change from blue to red in pathologic cartilage and only blue colour-coding in normal cartilage. In the study group, the median strain ratio was higher in pathologic cartilage areas compared to normal areas (median, 1.49 [interquartile range, 0.80-2.53] vs. median, 0.01 [interquartile range, 0.01-0.01], p < 0.001, respectively). The median strain ratio of the control group was 0.01 (interquartile range, 0.01-0.01), and there was no significant difference compared to normal areas of the study group. There was, however, a significant difference between the control group cartilage and pathologic cartilage of the study group (p < 0.001). Elastosonography may be an effective, easily accessible, and relatively simple tool to demonstrate pathologic cartilage and to differentiate it from normal cartilage in the absence of advanced imaging facility such as MRI. (orig.)

  3. Preimages for Step-Reduced SHA-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Kazumaro; Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present preimage attacks on up to 43-step SHA-256 (around 67% of the total 64 steps) and 46-step SHA-512 (around 57.5% of the total 80 steps), which significantly increases the number of attacked steps compared to the best previously published preimage attack working for 24 steps....... The time complexities are 2^251.9, 2^509 for finding pseudo-preimages and 2^254.9, 2^511.5 compression function operations for full preimages. The memory requirements are modest, around 2^6 words for 43-step SHA-256 and 46-step SHA-512. The pseudo-preimage attack also applies to 43-step SHA-224 and SHA-384...

  4. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

    2012-01-01

    We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond

  5. Income and health in Accra, Ghana: results from a time use and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Weeks, John R; Hill, Allan G

    2012-10-01

    This paper uses newly collected household survey data from Accra, Ghana, to investigate whether incomes affect acute and chronic health outcomes in settings that can be considered representative for the large and rapidly growing urban centers of sub-Saharan Africa. The Time Use and Health Study in Accra collected information on incomes, current health status, and health care use from 5,484 persons in 1,250 households, each repeatedly sampled on a rolling basis for a period of 13 weeks. Data collection took place during September 2008-March 2010 to capture seasonal variations. The study found that incomes varied widely between households, and that a high fraction of persons lived below the poverty line. Despite this level of income poverty and an overall remarkably high burden of treatable disease, no systematic differences in self-reported and objectively measured health conditions were detected across socioeconomic groups.

  6. On Tenterhooks: A Study of the Time Gap between Submission and Results of Postgraduate Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Graham

    2012-01-01

    After waiting over nine months for the results of his PhD thesis the author was motivated to conduct some qualitative research on the reasons why the system of examiners' reports is so slow and goes on to explain how this problem could be improved by the recruitment of retired academics.

  7. Guidance flap choice for lip cancer: Principles, timing and esthetic-functional results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Carlo Salgarelli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: We share the widespread view that a surgeon who performs a reconstruction using the minimal tissue components required to close the lesion will achieve the best results. Reconstruction does not influence prognosis and overall should be oriented to the defect. Careful, clean, and safe resection of lip carcinoma, with creation of healthy margins, can be followed by functional and esthetic lip reconstruction.

  8. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  9. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  10. Analysis of Workflow and Time to Treatment and the Effects on Outcome in Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results from the SWIFT PRIME Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Mayank; Jadhav, Ashutosh P; Bonafe, Alain; Diener, Hans; Mendes Pereira, Vitor; Levy, Elad; Baxter, Blaise; Jovin, Tudor; Jahan, Reza; Menon, Bijoy K; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To study the relationship between functional independence and time to reperfusion in the Solitaire with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) trial in patients with disabling acute ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular therapy plus intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration versus tPA administration alone and to investigate variables that affect time spent during discrete steps. Materials and Methods Data were analyzed from the SWIFT PRIME trial, a global, multicenter, prospective study in which outcomes were compared in patients treated with intravenous tPA alone or in combination with the Solitaire device (Covidien, Irvine, Calif). Between December 2012 and November 2014, 196 patients were enrolled. The relation between time from (a) symptom onset to reperfusion and (b) imaging to reperfusion and clinical outcome was analyzed, along with patient and health system characteristics that affect discrete steps in patient workflow. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between time and outcome; negative binomial regression was used to evaluate effects on workflow. The institutional review board at each site approved the trial. Patients provided written informed consent, or, at select sites, there was an exception from having to acquire explicit informed consent in emergency circumstances. Results In the stent retriever arm of the study, symptom onset to reperfusion time of 150 minutes led to 91% estimated probability of functional independence, which decreased by 10% over the next hour and by 20% with every subsequent hour of delay. Time from arrival at the emergency department to arterial access was 90 minutes (interquartile range, 69-120 minutes), and time to reperfusion was 129 minutes (interquartile range, 108-169 minutes). Patients who initially arrived at a referring facility had longer symptom onset to groin puncture times compared with

  11. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  12. Time-dose relationship in radiotherapy of gingival carcinoma. Therapeutic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, B.; Wojcieszek, Z.; Majewski, S.

    1982-01-01

    Therapeutic results were analysed in 30 patients with gingival carcinoma irradiated with 60 Co at the Institute of Oncology in Gliwice. Three-year asymptomatic survival rate was 26%. Administration of 1950 rets dose was associated with a high probability of cure and low risk of complications. Tumour diameter exceeding 3 cm, involvement of adjacent anatomical structures and metastases to cervical lymph nodes worsened considerably the prognosis. (author)

  13. Measuring trends in poverty over time - some robust results for Ireland 1980-87

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, B; Callan, T

    1989-01-01

    The trend in poverty in Ireland between 1980 and 1987 is analysed, using the 1980 Household Budget Survey and the ESRI 1987 Survey of Income, Distribution, Poverty and Usage of State Services. In addition to the number falling below poverty thresholds, more sophisticated aggregate poverty measures are derived, taking into account the extent to which the poor fall below the poverty line and the distribution of income among the poor. Results for the trend in poverty which are robust over a rang...

  14. Results on nucleon life-time from the Kolar gold field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, M.R.; Menon, M.G.K.; Mondal, N.K.; Narasimham, V.S.; Sreekantan, B.V.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Miyake, S.

    1985-01-01

    The KGF nucleon decay experiment has been in operation since October 1980 with a 140 ton calorimetric detector at a depth of 2.3 Km underground. The detector comprises 34 layers of proportional counters arranged in an orthogonal geometry with 12 mm thick iron plates in between successive layers. The proportional counters are made up of square (10 x 10 square centimeters) iron plates of wall thickness 2.3 mm. Each of the 1600 counters is instrumented to provide data on ionization, DE/dx and arrival time. The visible energy of a particle is determined to an accuracy of approximately 20% from the ionization and range of its track. The end point ionization of a stopping track provides the direction of motion as well as the nature of the particle (mu/pi,k,p). Decay of mu is recorded with an overall efficiency of only 20% in view of the thickness of 13 g/square centimeters between successive layers

  15. Resolution of a disputed albendazole result in the UK Official Control System - time for more guidance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael; Gray, Kirstin; Hopley, Christopher; Mussell, Christopher; Clifford, Louise; Meinerikandathevan, Jayanie; Firpo, Leonardo; Topping, Joanna; Santacruz, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Albendazole, one of the benzimidazole anthelmintics, is used in ruminants and has maximum residue limits in muscle, fat and other tissue owing to reported teratogenicity. Albendazole is extensively metabolised in domestic animals and humans with rapid conversion to a sulphoxide and subsequently sulphone and amino sulphone metabolites. Sulphoxide metabolites are responsible for the systemic biological activity of benzimidazole drugs. Herein we report a case of disputed results for albendazole in a consignment sampled at import in which the Official Analyst certified against the consignment for excess albendazole. A laboratory acting for the importer reported data below the MRL, including a finding of the parent drug which is not included in the residue definition. The Government Chemist has a statutory duty as a route of technical appeal in the UK Official Food Control system and the case was referred for referee analysis. We report our findings based on a LC-MS/MS method, which confirmed the official findings, did not reveal the presence of the parent drug but identified hot spots of albendazole marker residues in the consignment. We discuss the need for recommendations on official sampling at import and interpretation of results.

  16. Time trends in cigarette smoking in two German cohorts--results from EPIC Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, S; Kroke, A; Boeing, H; Becker, N

    2003-08-01

    Smoking prevention is less advanced in Germany compared with other European and North American countries, and fewer data exist, especially on the consumption habits at the individual level over time. EPIC Germany, which is part of a European multicentre study on diet and cancer, collected data on individual smoking behaviour and allows for consideration of the changing consumption pattern for both centres and different age groups. Within EPIC 25 546 and 27 548 participants, respectively, were recruited in Heidelberg and Potsdam. Data on smoking habits were collected by means of a computer-guided interview during the baseline examination between 1994 and 1998. For each birth cohort smoking prevalence and mean number of cigarettes smoked per day at different ages were calculated. Additionally, the prevalence of non-filter cigarette smoking was computed. Smoking prevalence in the 1990s was still higher among men (Heidelberg 16.3-32.3%; Potsdam 18.2-29.3%) than among women (Heidelberg 12.8-32.0%; Potsdam 10.4-27.8%). However, the percentage of women smokers was still increasing. Filter cigarettes comprised a growing percentage of the cigarettes smoked, but especially among men differences between both German cohorts can still be seen: depending on age, 10.0-12.7% of men in the Heidelberg cohort smoked non-filter cigarettes, but only 1.1-2.3% in the Potsdam cohort. The quantity smoked was higher in the Heidelberg than in the Potsdam cohort with respect to the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as the pack-years of smoking. In conclusion, smoking habits in the Potsdam and the Heidelberg cohorts did not strongly differ by smoking prevalence. However, they did differ according to the quantity and quality of smoking. These differences, as well as the changes over the last 40 years may contribute to a changing pattern of diseases in different groups of the German population.

  17. Step Detection Robust against the Dynamics of Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan-hee; Choi, Suji; Lee, Myeong-jin

    2015-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for robust step detection irrespective of step mode and device pose in smartphone usage environments. The dynamics of smartphones are decoupled into a peak-valley relationship with adaptive magnitude and temporal thresholds. For extracted peaks and valleys in the magnitude of acceleration, a step is defined as consisting of a peak and its adjacent valley. Adaptive magnitude thresholds consisting of step average and step deviation are applied to suppress pseudo peaks or valleys that mostly occur during the transition among step modes or device poses. Adaptive temporal thresholds are applied to time intervals between peaks or valleys to consider the time-varying pace of human walking or running for the correct selection of peaks or valleys. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed step detection algorithm shows more than 98.6% average accuracy for any combination of step mode and device pose and outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26516857

  18. New Results on Gain-Loss Asymmetry for Stock Markets Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudziecki, M.; Gnatowska, E.; Karpio, K.; Orłowski, A.; Załuska-Kotur, M.

    2008-09-01

    A method called investment horizon approach was successfully used to analyze stock markets of many different countries. Here we apply a version of this method to study characteristics of the Polish Pioneer mutual funds. We decided to analyze Pioneer because of its longest involvement in investing on the Polish market. Moreover, it apparently manages the biggest amount of money among all similar institutions in Poland. We compare various types of Pioneer mutual funds, characterized by different financial instruments they invest in. Previously, investment horizon approach produced different characteristics of emerging markets as opposed to mature ones, providing a possible way to quantify stock market maturity. Here we generalize the above mentioned results for mutual funds of various types.

  19. Regularity results for the minimum time function with Hörmander vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Paolo; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Scarinci, Teresa

    2018-03-01

    In a bounded domain of Rn with boundary given by a smooth (n - 1)-dimensional manifold, we consider the homogeneous Dirichlet problem for the eikonal equation associated with a family of smooth vector fields {X1 , … ,XN } subject to Hörmander's bracket generating condition. We investigate the regularity of the viscosity solution T of such problem. Due to the presence of characteristic boundary points, singular trajectories may occur. First, we characterize these trajectories as the closed set of all points at which the solution loses point-wise Lipschitz continuity. Then, we prove that the local Lipschitz continuity of T, the local semiconcavity of T, and the absence of singular trajectories are equivalent properties. Finally, we show that the last condition is satisfied whenever the characteristic set of {X1 , … ,XN } is a symplectic manifold. We apply our results to several examples.

  20. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2016-10-26

    Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.

  1. Daytime SABER/TIMED observations of water vapor in the mesosphere: retrieval approach and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Petelina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodology for water vapor retrieval in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT using 6.6 μm daytime broadband emissions measured by SABER, the limb scanning infrared radiometer on board the TIMED satellite. Particular attention is given to accounting for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE nature of the H2O 6.6 μm emission in the MLT. The non-LTE H2O(ν2 vibrational level populations responsible for this emission depend on energy exchange processes within the H2O vibrational system as well as on interactions with vibrationally excited states of the O2, N2, and CO2 molecules. The rate coefficients of these processes are known with large uncertainties that undermines the reliability of the H2O retrieval procedure. We developed a methodology of finding the optimal set of rate coefficients using the nearly coincidental solar occultation H2O density measurements by the ACE-FTS satellite and relying on the better signal-to-noise ratio of SABER daytime 6.6 μm measurements. From this comparison we derived an update to the rate coefficients of the three most important processes that affect the H2O(ν2 populations in the MLT: a the vibrational-vibrational (V–V exchange between the H2O and O2 molecules; b the vibrational-translational (V–T process of the O2(1 level quenching by collisions with atomic oxygen, and c the V–T process of the H2O(010 level quenching by collisions with N2, O2, and O. Using the advantages of the daytime retrievals in the MLT, which are more stable and less susceptible to uncertainties of the radiance coming from below, we demonstrate that applying the updated H2O non-LTE model to the SABER daytime radiances makes the retrieved H2O vertical profiles in 50–85 km region consistent

  2. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of the Antidumping Duty... preliminary results of review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  3. Effect of ageing time on suckling lamb meat quality resulting from different carcass chilling regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C; Fernández, A M

    2014-02-01

    The effect of ageing on suckling lamb carcasses subjected to three chilling treatments was studied: Conventional (2 °C for 24h), ultra-fast (-20 °C for 3.5h then 2 °C until 24h post mortem) and slow chilling (12 °C for 7h then 2 °C until 24h post mortem) treatments. Meat quality measurements were carried out in carcasses at 24h post mortem and also after 5 days of ageing. Carcass chilling losses were not affected by a chilling regime. Aged meat showed higher cooking losses than non-aged meat (p<0.05). Sarcomere length of ultra-fast t was shorter (p<0.05) than conventional and conventional was shorter than slow chilling treatment (p<0.05), at 24h and after 5 days of ageing. Conventional and ultra-fast chilling treatments resulted in higher shear force values at 24h post mortem (p<0.05) compared to slow treatment. All treatments improved sensory scores with ageing (p<0.05), but ultra-fast chilling treatment did not attain higher values as the other two treatments. © 2013.

  4. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  5. Multi-Grid detector for neutron spectroscopy: results obtained on time-of-flight spectrometer CNCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, M.; Bebb, R.; Berry, K.; Birch, J.; Bryś, T.; Buffet, J.-C.; Clergeau, J.-F.; Deen, P. P.; Ehlers, G.; van Esch, P.; Everett, S. M.; Guerard, B.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herwig, K.; Hultman, L.; Höglund, C.; Iruretagoiena, I.; Issa, F.; Jensen, J.; Khaplanov, A.; Kirstein, O.; Lopez Higuera, I.; Piscitelli, F.; Robinson, L.; Schmidt, S.; Stefanescu, I.

    2017-04-01

    The Multi-Grid detector technology has evolved from the proof-of-principle and characterisation stages. Here we report on the performance of the Multi-Grid detector, the MG.CNCS prototype, which has been installed and tested at the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer, CNCS at SNS. This has allowed a side-by-side comparison to the performance of 3He detectors on an operational instrument. The demonstrator has an active area of 0.2 m2. It is specifically tailored to the specifications of CNCS. The detector was installed in June 2016 and has operated since then, collecting neutron scattering data in parallel to the He-3 detectors of CNCS. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of this data, in particular on instrument energy resolution, rate capability, background and relative efficiency. Stability, gamma-ray and fast neutron sensitivity have also been investigated. The effect of scattering in the detector components has been measured and provides input to comparison for Monte Carlo simulations. All data is presented in comparison to that measured by the 3He detectors simultaneously, showing that all features recorded by one detector are also recorded by the other. The energy resolution matches closely. We find that the Multi-Grid is able to match the data collected by 3He, and see an indication of a considerable advantage in the count rate capability. Based on these results, we are confident that the Multi-Grid detector will be capable of producing high quality scientific data on chopper spectrometers utilising the unprecedented neutron flux of the ESS.

  6. Time for a new language for asthma control: results from REALISE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David; David-Wang, Aileen; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ho, James Chung-Man; Jeong, Jae-Won; Liam, Chong-Kin; Lin, Jiangtao; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Tan, Tze-Lee; Yunus, Faisal; Neira, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Asthma is a global health problem, and asthma prevalence in Asia is increasing. The REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience Asia study assessed patients’ perception of asthma control and attitudes toward treatment in an accessible, real-life adult Asian population. Patients and methods An online survey of 2,467 patients with asthma from eight Asian countries/regions, aged 18–50 years, showed greater than or equal to two prescriptions in previous 2 years and access to social media. Patients were asked about their asthma symptoms, exacerbations and treatment type, views and perceptions of asthma control, attitudes toward asthma management, and sources of asthma information. Results Patients had a mean age of 34.2 (±7.4) years and were diagnosed with asthma for 12.5 (±9.7) years. Half had the Global Initiative for Asthma-defined uncontrolled asthma. During the previous year, 38% of patients visited the emergency department, 33% were hospitalized, and 73% had greater than or equal to one course of oral corticosteroids. About 90% of patients felt that their asthma was under control, 82% considered their condition as not serious, and 59% were concerned about their condition. In all, 66% of patients viewed asthma control as managing attacks and 24% saw it as an absence of or minimal symptoms. About 14% of patients who correctly identified their controller inhalers had controlled asthma compared to 6% who could not. Conclusion Patients consistently overestimated their level of asthma control contrary to what their symptoms suggest. They perceived control as management of exacerbations, reflective of a crisis-oriented mind-set. Interventions can leverage on patients’ trust in health care providers and desire for self-management via a new language to generate a paradigm shift toward symptom control and preventive care. PMID:26445555

  7. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  8. Exploring the acceptable travel time concept in the US and European contexts. Results from Berkeley, CA and Delft, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milakis, D.; van Wee, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    “Do people consider an acceptable travel time?” We raised this question in Milakis, Cervero, and van Wee (2015) to explore the validity of the acceptable travel time concept as a possible factor in the travel and destination decision-making process. Results from interviews with 20 subjects in

  9. 75 FR 62765 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    .... Extension of Time Limit for Final Results Section 751(a)(3)(A) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the... surrogate financial ratios, the valuation of silica fume and coal, and questions regarding comparisons...

  10. Revisionist integral deferred correction with adaptive step-size control

    KAUST Repository

    Christlieb, Andrew

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 Mathematical Sciences Publishers. Adaptive step-size control is a critical feature for the robust and efficient numerical solution of initial-value problems in ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we show that adaptive step-size control can be incorporated within a family of parallel time integrators known as revisionist integral deferred correction (RIDC) methods. The RIDC framework allows for various strategies to implement stepsize control, and we report results from exploring a few of them.

  11. Analysis on burnup step effect for evaluating reactor criticality and fuel breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputra, Geby; Purnama, Aditya Rizki; Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Criticality condition of the reactors is one of the important factors for evaluating reactor operation and nuclear fuel breeding ratio is another factor to show nuclear fuel sustainability. This study analyzes the effect of burnup steps and cycle operation step for evaluating the criticality condition of the reactor as well as the performance of nuclear fuel breeding or breeding ratio (BR). Burnup step is performed based on a day step analysis which is varied from 10 days up to 800 days and for cycle operation from 1 cycle up to 8 cycles reactor operations. In addition, calculation efficiency based on the variation of computer processors to run the analysis in term of time (time efficiency in the calculation) have been also investigated. Optimization method for reactor design analysis which is used a large fast breeder reactor type as a reference case was performed by adopting an established reactor design code of JOINT-FR. The results show a criticality condition becomes higher for smaller burnup step (day) and for breeding ratio becomes less for smaller burnup step (day). Some nuclides contribute to make better criticality when smaller burnup step due to individul nuclide half-live. Calculation time for different burnup step shows a correlation with the time consuming requirement for more details step calculation, although the consuming time is not directly equivalent with the how many time the burnup time step is divided

  12. Time for a new language for asthma control: results from REALISE Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price D

    2015-09-01

    sources of asthma information. Results: Patients had a mean age of 34.2 (±7.4 years and were diagnosed with asthma for 12.5 (±9.7 years. Half had the Global Initiative for Asthma-defined uncontrolled asthma. During the previous year, 38% of patients visited the emergency department, 33% were hospitalized, and 73% had greater than or equal to one course of oral corticosteroids. About 90% of patients felt that their asthma was under control, 82% considered their condition as not serious, and 59% were concerned about their condition. In all, 66% of patients viewed asthma control as managing attacks and 24% saw it as an absence of or minimal symptoms. About 14% of patients who correctly identified their controller inhalers had controlled asthma compared to 6% who could not. Conclusion: Patients consistently overestimated their level of asthma control contrary to what their symptoms suggest. They perceived control as management of exacerbations, reflective of a crisis-oriented mind-set. Interventions can leverage on patients' trust in health care providers and desire for self-management via a new language to generate a paradigm shift toward symptom control and preventive care. Keywords: asthma control, attitudes, perception

  13. Stepping out: dare to step forward, step back, or just stand still and breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Mary Sue

    2012-01-01

    It is important to step out and make a difference. We have one of the most unique and diverse professions that allows for diversity in thought and practice, permitting each of us to grow in our unique niches and make significant contributions. I was frightened to 'step out' to go to culinary school at the age of 46, but it changed forever the way I look at my profession and I have since experienced the most enjoyable and innovative career. There are also times when it is important to 'step back' to relish the roots of our profession; to help bring food back into nutrition; to translate all of our wonderful science into a language of food that Canadians understand. We all need to take time to 'just stand still and breathe': to celebrate our accomplishments, reflect on our actions, ensure we are heading toward our vision, keep the profession vibrant and relevant, and cherish one another.

  14. Do lightning positive leaders really "step"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, D.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known for some time that positive leaders exhibit impulsive charge motion and optical emissions as they extend. However, laboratory and field observations have not produced any evidence of a process analogous to the space leader mechanism of negative leader extension. Instead, observations have suggested that the positive leader tip undergoes a continuous to intermittent series of corona streamer bursts, each burst resulting in a small forward extension of the positive leader channel. Traditionally, it has been held that lightning positive leaders extend in a continuous or quasi-continuous fashion. Lately, however, many have become concerned that this position is incongruous with observations of impulsive activity during lightning positive leader extension. It is increasingly suggested that this impulsive activity is evidence that positive leaders also undergo "stepping". There are two issues that must be addressed. The first issue concerns whether or not the physical processes underlying impulsive extension in negative and positive leaders are distinct. We argue that these processes are in fact physically distinct, and offer new high-speed video evidence to support this position. The second issue regards the proper use of the term "step" as an identifier for the impulsive forward extension of a leader. Traditional use of this term has been applied only to negative leaders, due primarily to their stronger impulsive charge motions and photographic evidence of clearly discontinuous forward progression of the luminous channel. Recently, due to the increasing understanding of the distinct "space leader" process of negative leader extension, the term "step" has increasingly come to be associated with the space leader process itself. Should this emerging association, "step" = space leader attachment, be canonized? If not, then it seems reasonable to use the term "step" to describe impulsive positive leader extension. If, however, we do wish to associate the

  15. Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention: shortened interrupted time series evaluation of a behavioural and structural health promotion and violence prevention intervention for young people in informal settlements in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Gibbs, Andrew; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mushinga, Mildred; Washington, Laura; Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Skiweyiya, Yandisa

    2014-12-29

    Gender-based violence and HIV are highly prevalent in the harsh environment of informal settlements and reducing violence here is very challenging. The group intervention Stepping Stones has been shown to reduce men's perpetration of violence in more rural areas, but violence experienced by women in the study was not affected. Economic empowerment interventions with gender training can protect older women from violence, but microloan interventions have proved challenging with young women. We investigated whether combining a broad economic empowerment intervention and Stepping Stones could impact on violence among young men and women. The intervention, Creating Futures, was developed as a new generation of economic empowerment intervention, which enabled livelihood strengthening though helping participants find work or set up a business, and did not give cash or make loans. We piloted Stepping Stones with Creating Futures in two informal settlements of Durban with 232 out of school youth, mostly aged 18-30 and evaluated with a shortened interrupted time series of two baseline surveys and at 28 and 58 weeks post-baseline. 94/110 men and 111/122 women completed the last assessment, 85.5% and 90.2% respectively of those enrolled. To determine trend, we built random effects regression models with each individual as the cluster for each variable, and measured the slope of the line across the time points. Men's mean earnings in the past month increased by 247% from R411 (~$40) to R1015 (~$102, and women's by 278% R 174 (~$17) to R 484 (about $48) (trend test, p < 0.0001). There was a significant reduction in women's experience of the combined measure of physical and/or sexual IPV in the prior three months from 30.3% to 18.9% (p = 0.037). This was not seen for men. However both men and women scored significantly better on gender attitudes and men significantly reduced their controlling practices in their relationship. The prevalence of moderate or severe depression

  16. Performance of the Seven-step Procedure in Problem-based Hospitality Management Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichard Zwaal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the seven-step procedure (SSP in problem-based learning (PBL. The way students apply the seven-step procedure will help us understand how students work in a problem-based learning curriculum. So far, little is known about how students rate the performance and importance of the different steps, the amount of time they spend on each step and the perceived quality of execution of the procedure. A survey was administered to a sample of 101 students enrolled in a problem-based hospitality management program. Results show that students consider step 6 (Collect additional information outside the group to be most important. The highest performance-rating is for step two (Define the problem and the lowest for step four (Draw a systemic inventory of explanations from step three. Step seven is classified as low in performance and high in importance implicating urgent attention. The average amount of time spent on the seven steps is 133 minutes with the largest part of the time spent on self-study outside the group (42 minutes. The assessment of the execution of a set of specific guidelines (the Blue Card did not completely match with the overall performance ratings for the seven steps. The SSP could be improved by reducing the number of steps and incorporating more attention to group dynamics.

  17. Effectiveness of a step-by-step oral recount before a practical simulation of fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagge, Marcelo; Uliana, Christiano Saliba; Fischer, Sergei Taggesell; Kojima, Kodi Edson

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a step-by-step oral recount by residents before the final execution of a practical exercise simulating a surgical fixation of a radial diaphyseal fracture. The study included 10 residents of orthopaedics and traumatology (four second- year and six first-year residents) divided into two groups with five residents each. All participants initially gathered in a room in which a video was presented demonstrating the practical exercise to be performed. One group (Group A) was referred directly to the practical exercise room. The other group (Group B) attended an extra session before the practical exercise, in which they were invited by instructors to recount all the steps that they would perform during the practical exercise. During this session, the instructors corrected the residents if any errors in the step-by-step recount were identified, and clarified questions from them. After this session, both Groups A and B gathered in a room in which they proceeded to the practical exercise, while being video recorded and evaluated using a 20-point checklist. Group A achieved a 57% accuracy, with results in this group ranging from 7 to 15 points out of a total of a possible 20 points. Group B achieved an 89% accuracy, with results in this group ranging from 15 to 20 points out of 20. An oral step-by-step recount by the residents before the final execution of a practical simulation exercise of surgical fixation of a diaphyseal radial fracture improved the technique and reduced the execution time of the exercise. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multivariate statistical analysis of a multi-step industrial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinikainen, S.P.; Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and quality control of industrial processes often produce information on how the data have been obtained. In batch processes, for instance, the process is carried out in stages; some process or control parameters are set at each stage. However, the obtained data might not be utilized...... efficiently, even if this information may reveal significant knowledge about process dynamics or ongoing phenomena. When studying the process data, it may be important to analyse the data in the light of the physical or time-wise development of each process step. In this paper, a unified approach to analyse...... multivariate multi-step processes, where results from each step are used to evaluate future results, is presented. The methods presented are based on Priority PLS Regression. The basic idea is to compute the weights in the regression analysis for given steps, but adjust all data by the resulting score vectors...

  19. One step beyond: Different step-to-step transitions exist during continuous contact brachiation in siamangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fana Michilsens

    2012-02-01

    In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation. During ricochetal brachiation, a flight phase exists and the body centre of mass (bCOM describes a parabolic trajectory. For continuous contact brachiation, where at least one hand is always in contact with the substrate, we showed in an earlier paper that four step-to-step transition types occur. We referred to these as a ‘point’, a ‘loop’, a ‘backward pendulum’ and a ‘parabolic’ transition. Only the first two transition types have previously been mentioned in the existing literature on gibbon brachiation. In the current study, we used three-dimensional video and force analysis to describe and characterize these four step-to-step transition types. Results show that, although individual preference occurs, the brachiation strides characterized by each transition type are mainly associated with speed. Yet, these four transitions seem to form a continuum rather than four distinct types. Energy recovery and collision fraction are used as estimators of mechanical efficiency of brachiation and, remarkably, these parameters do not differ between strides with different transition types. All strides show high energy recoveries (mean  = 70±11.4% and low collision fractions (mean  = 0.2±0.13, regardless of the step-to-step transition type used. We conclude that siamangs have efficient means of modifying locomotor speed during continuous contact brachiation by choosing particular step-to-step transition types, which all minimize collision fraction and enhance energy recovery.

  20. Linear, Step by Step Managerial Performance, versus Exponential Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MOLDOVEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the transition from the potential management concept, which its authors approached by determining its dimension (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009b, to the linear, step by step performance concept, as an objective result of management process. In this way, we “answer” the theorists and practitioners, who support exponential management performance. The authors, as detractors of the exponential performance, are influenced by the current crisis (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009a, by the lack of organizational excellence in many companies, particularly in Romanian ones and also reaching “the finality” in the evolved companies, developed into an uncontrollable speed.

  1. Modifications resulting in significant increases in the beam usage time of a 60 keV electron beam welder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Harrison, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Short beam usage times were encountered using a 60 keV electron beam welder. These short times were the direct result of a buildup of a reaction product (WO 2 . 90 ) that occurred on graphite washers which housed the tungsten emitter plate. While it was not possible to prevent the reaction product, its growth rate was sufficiently altered by changing graphite materials and minor design changes of the washers. With these modifications beam usage times increased from an original 40 min to approximately 675 min

  2. Groundwater travel time uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity of results to model geometry, and correlations and cross correlations among input parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, P.M.

    1985-03-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the travel time distribution predicted by a reference case model to (1) scale of representation of the model parameters, (2) size of the model domain, (3) correlation range of log-transmissivity, and (4) cross correlations between transmissivity and effective thickness. The basis for the reference model is the preliminary stochastic travel time model previously documented by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Results of this study show the following. The variability of the predicted travel times can be adequately represented when the ratio between the size of the zones used to represent the model parameters and the log-transmissivity correlation range is less than about one-fifth. The size of the model domain and the types of boundary conditions can have a strong impact on the distribution of travel times. Longer log-transmissivity correlation ranges cause larger variability in the predicted travel times. Positive cross correlation between transmissivity and effective thickness causes a decrease in the travel time variability. These results demonstrate the need for a sound conceptual model prior to conducting a stochastic travel time analysis

  3. Comparison of the genexpert enterovirus assay (GXEA) with real-time one step RT-PCR for the detection of enteroviral RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, JiYoung; Kim, Ahyoun; Hwang, Seoyeon; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Kim, Jong-Hyen; Lee, June-Woo; Park, Jae-Hak; Kang, Byunghak

    2015-02-13

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the leading cause of aseptic meningitis worldwide. Detection of enteroviral RNA in clinical specimens has been demonstrated to improve the management of patient care, especially that of neonates and young children. To establish a sensitive and reliable assay for routine laboratory diagnosis, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the GeneXpert Enterovirus Assay (GXEA) with that of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based assay referred to as real-time one step RT-PCR (RTo-PCR). The sensitivity/specificity produced by GXEA and RTo-PCR were 100%/100% and 65%/100%, respectively. Both methods evaluated in this article can be used for detection of enterovirus in clinical specimens and these nucleic acid amplification methods are useful assays for the diagnosis of enteroviral infection.

  4. Use of collagen scaffold and autologous bone marrow concentrate as a one-step cartilage repair in the knee: histological results of second-look biopsies at 1 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, A; Calcagno, S; Cecconi, S; Ramazzotti, D; Manzotti, S; Enea, D

    2011-01-01

    Chondral articular defects are a key concern in orthopaedic surgery. To overcome the disadvantages of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and to improve the outcomes of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC), the latter technique is currently augmented with bone marrow concentrate injected under or seeded onto the scaffold. However, to date, only a little is known about histological outcomes of either the AMIC technique or AMIC associated with bone marrow concentrate. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the repair tissue obtained from biopsies harvested during second-look arthroscopy after arthroscopic AMIC augmented with bone marrow concentrate. We analysed five second-look core biopsies harvested at 12 months follow-up. At the time of biopsy the surgeon reported the quality of the repair tissue using the standard ICRS Cartilage Repair Assessment (CRA). Every biopsy together with patient data was sent to our centre to undergo blind histological evaluation (ICRS II Visual Histological Assessment Scale) and data analysis. Five asymptomatic patients (mean age 43.4 years) had isolated lesions (mean size was 3.7 cm2) at the medial femoral condyle. All the implants appeared nearly normal (ICRS CRA) at arthroscopic evaluation and had a mean overall histological (ICRS II) of 59.8±14,5. Hyaline-like matrix was found in only one case, a mixture of hyaline/fibrocartilage was found in one case and fibrocartilage was found three cases. Our clinical and histological data suggest that this procedure achieved a nearly normal arthroscopic appearance and a satisfactory repair tissue, which was possibly still maturing at 12 months follow-up. Further studies are needed to understand the true potential of one-step procedures in the repair of focal chondral lesions in the knee.

  5. STEP and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-09-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  6. STEP and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-01-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  7. Evolution of robot-assisted orthotopic ileal neobladder formation: a step-by-step update to the University of Southern California (USC) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sameer; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Berger, Andre K; Sehgal, Shuchi; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish; Desai, Mihir M

    2017-01-01

    To describe our, step-by-step, technique for robotic intracorporeal neobladder formation. The main surgical steps to forming the intracorporeal orthotopic ileal neobladder are: isolation of 65 cm of small bowel; small bowel anastomosis; bowel detubularisation; suture of the posterior wall of the neobladder; neobladder-urethral anastomosis and cross folding of the pouch; and uretero-enteral anastomosis. Improvements have been made to these steps to enhance time efficiency without compromising neobladder configuration. Our technical improvements have resulted in an improvement in operative time from 450 to 360 min. We describe an updated step-by-step technique of robot-assisted intracorporeal orthotopic ileal neobladder formation. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Part-time Work and Men's Health : Results based on Routine Data of a Statutory Health Insurance Scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Thomas G

    2016-08-01

    With the introduction of a new occupational classification at the end of 2011, employment characteristics are reported by employees to social insurance agencies in Germany in more detail than in previous years. In addition to other changes, the new classification allows a distinction between full- and part-time work to be made. This provided a reason to consider the health-related aspects of part-time work on the basis of data from a statutory health insurance scheme. Our analysis is based on the data of 3.8 million employees insured with the Techniker Krankenkasse (TK), a statutory health insurance scheme, in 2012. In addition to daily information on employment situations, details of periods and diagnoses of sick leave and the drugs prescribed were available. Although approximately 50 % of women of middle to higher working age worked part-time in 2012, the corresponding percentage of men employed in part-time work was less than 10 %. Overall, part-time employees were on sick leave for fewer days than full-time employees, but among men, sick leave due to mental disorders was longer for part-time employees than for full-time employees, whereas women working part time were affected to a lesser extent by corresponding periods of absence than those working full time. The results provide indications for the assertion that men in gender-specifically atypical employment situations are more frequently affected by mental disorders. Further evidence supports this assertion. With the long-term availability of these new employment characteristics, longitudinal analyses could help to clarify this cause-effect relationship.

  9. The step complexity measure for emergency operating procedures: measure verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Ha, Jaejoo; Park, Changkue

    2002-01-01

    In complex systems, such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) or airplane control systems, human errors play a major role in many accidents. Therefore, to prevent an occurrence of accidents or to ensure system safety, extensive effort has been made to identify significant factors that can cause human errors. According to related studies, written manuals or operating procedures are revealed as one of the most important factors, and the understandability is pointed out as one of the major reasons for procedure-related human errors. Many qualitative checklists are suggested to evaluate emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of NPPs. However, since qualitative evaluations using checklists have some drawbacks, a quantitative measure that can quantify the complexity of EOPs is very necessary to compensate for them. In order to quantify the complexity of steps included in EOPs, Park et al. suggested the step complexity (SC) measure. In addition, to ascertain the appropriateness of the SC measure, averaged step performance time data obtained from emergency training records for the loss of coolant accident and the excess steam dump event were compared with estimated SC scores. Although averaged step performance time data show good correlation with estimated SC scores, conclusions for some important issues that have to be clarified to ensure the appropriateness of the SC measure were not properly drawn because of lack of backup data. In this paper, to clarify remaining issues, additional activities to verify the appropriateness of the SC measure are performed using averaged step performance time data obtained from emergency training records. The total number of available records is 36, and training scenarios are the steam generator tube rupture and the loss of all feedwater. The number of scenarios is 18 each. From these emergency training records, averaged step performance time data for 30 steps are retrieved. As the results, the SC measure shows statistically meaningful

  10. Groundwater travel time uncertainty analysis: Sensitivity of results to model geometry, and correlations and cross correlations among input parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, P.M.

    1984-12-01

    The deep basalt formations beneath the Hanford Site are being investigated for the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess their suitability as a host medium for a high level nuclear waste repository. Predicted performance of the proposed repository is an important part of the investigation. One of the performance measures being used to gauge the suitability of the host medium is pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel times to the accessible environment. Many deterministic analyses of groundwater travel times have been completed by Rockwell and other independent organizations. Recently, Rockwell has completed a preliminary stochastic analysis of groundwater travel times. This document presents analyses that show the sensitivity of the results from the previous stochastic travel time study to: (1) scale of representation of model parameters, (2) size of the model domain, (3) correlation range of log-transmissivity, and (4) cross-correlation between transmissivity and effective thickness. 40 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Patient throughput times for orthopedic outpatients in a department of radiology: results of an interdisciplinary quality management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodler, J.; Zanetti, M.; Strehle, J.; Gerber, C.; Schilling, J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to employ quality management methods in order to decrease throughput times for orthopedic outpatients sent to the department of radiology. The following intervals were measured at the onset of the study and after 6 and 12 months: (a) between arrivals at outpatient clinic and radiology counter; (b) between arrival at radiology counter and time of last radiograph; and (c) between time of last radiograph and radiology report printing time. After the initial measurement, numerous changes were initiated both in radiology and in orthopedic surgery. The mean interval between arrival at the outpatient clinic and in radiology decreased by one third from 60 min during the first measurement to 40 (p < 0.001) and 41 min during the second and third measurement. The proportion of patients with total radiology times of more than 30 min decreased from 41 to 29 % between the first and third measurements (p < 0.001). The corresponding results for radiology times of more than 45 min were 17 and 11 % (p = 0.03). A standard type of quality management program can be employed successfully in order to reduce radiology throughput times for orthopedic outpatients. (orig.)

  12. 76 FR 41759 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... (``Department'') published a notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's...

  13. 75 FR 32361 - Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... Commerce (``Department'') published a notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from...

  14. 75 FR 4044 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From... antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil for the period February 1, 2008, through... Steel Bar From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  15. 75 FR 65449 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India...

  16. 76 FR 62761 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the 2010-2011 Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India, covering the period February 1...

  17. 77 FR 17410 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... Commerce (the Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea...

  18. 76 FR 17380 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation for the period July...

  19. 77 FR 11065 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-489-806] Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Turkey, covering...

  20. 77 FR 15718 - Certain Pasta from Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta from Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... notice of initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from...

  1. 77 FR 12008 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-818] Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... notice of initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from...

  2. 77 FR 11485 - Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-489-805] Certain Pasta From Turkey: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain pasta from Turkey, covering...

  3. 76 FR 6604 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-475-819] Certain Pasta From Italy: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... initiation of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain pasta from Italy, covering...

  4. 76 FR 65496 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing...

  5. 75 FR 69917 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing...

  6. 75 FR 78968 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-819] Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation for the period...

  7. 75 FR 50992 - Magnesium Metal from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-896] Magnesium Metal from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time for the Final Results of the Antidumping Duty... administrative review for the period April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009. See Magnesium Metal from the People's...

  8. How many steps/day are enough? for adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe David A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical activity guidelines from around the world are typically expressed in terms of frequency, duration, and intensity parameters. Objective monitoring using pedometers and accelerometers offers a new opportunity to measure and communicate physical activity in terms of steps/day. Various step-based versions or translations of physical activity guidelines are emerging, reflecting public interest in such guidance. However, there appears to be a wide discrepancy in the exact values that are being communicated. It makes sense that step-based recommendations should be harmonious with existing evidence-based public health guidelines that recognize that "some physical activity is better than none" while maintaining a focus on time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Thus, the purpose of this review was to update our existing knowledge of "How many steps/day are enough?", and to inform step-based recommendations consistent with current physical activity guidelines. Normative data indicate that healthy adults typically take between 4,000 and 18,000 steps/day, and that 10,000 steps/day is reasonable for this population, although there are notable "low active populations." Interventions demonstrate incremental increases on the order of 2,000-2,500 steps/day. The results of seven different controlled studies demonstrate that there is a strong relationship between cadence and intensity. Further, despite some inter-individual variation, 100 steps/minute represents a reasonable floor value indicative of moderate intensity walking. Multiplying this cadence by 30 minutes (i.e., typical of a daily recommendation produces a minimum of 3,000 steps that is best used as a heuristic (i.e., guiding value, but these steps must be taken over and above habitual activity levels to be a true expression of free-living steps/day that also includes recommendations for minimal amounts of time in MVPA. Computed steps/day translations of time in

  9. Providing critical laboratory results on time, every time to help reduce emergency department length of stay: how our laboratory achieved a Six Sigma level of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Kenneth E

    2013-08-01

    To develop a fully automated core laboratory, handling samples on a "first in, first out" real-time basis with Lean/Six Sigma management tools. Our primary goal was to provide services to critical care areas, eliminating turnaround time outlier percentage (TAT-OP) as a factor in patient length of stay (LOS). A secondary goal was to achieve a better laboratory return on investment. In 2011, we reached our primary goal when we calculated the TAT-OP distribution and found we had achieved a Six Sigma level of performance, ensuring that our laboratory service can be essentially eliminated as a factor in emergency department patient LOS. We also measured return on investment, showing a productivity improvement of 35%, keeping pace with our increased testing volume. As a result of our Lean process improvements and Six Sigma initiatives, in part through (1) strategic deployment of point-of-care testing and (2) core laboratory total automation with robotics, middleware, and expert system technology, physicians and nurses at the Oklahoma University Medical Center can more effectively deliver lifesaving health care using evidence-based protocols that depend heavily on "on time, every time" laboratory services.

  10. A kinematic analysis of the rapid step test in balance-impaired and unimpaired older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Brian W; Ashton-Miller, James A; Alexander, Neil B

    2007-04-01

    Little is known about the kinematic and kinetic determinants that might explain age and balance-impairment alterations in the results of volitional stepping performance tests. Maximal unipedal stance time (UST) was used to distinguish "balance-impaired" old (BI, UST30s, N=12, mean age=71 years) before they and healthy young females (Y, UST>30s, N=13, mean age=23 years) performed the rapid step test (RST). The RST evaluates the time required to take volitional front, side, and back steps of at least 80% maximum step length in response to verbal commands. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded during the RST. The results indicate that the initiation phase of the step was the major source of age- and balance impairment-related delays. The delays in BI were primarily caused by increased postural adjustments prior to step initiation, as measured by center-of-pressure (COP) path length (p<0.003). The Step landing phase showed similar, but non-significant, temporal trends. Step length and peak center-of-mass (COM) deceleration during the Step-Out landing decreased in O by 18% (p=0.0002) and 24% (p=0.001), respectively, and a further 12% (p=0.04) and 18% (p=0.08) in BI. We conclude that the delay in BI step initiation was due to the increase in their postural adjustments prior to step initiation.

  11. Sub-step methodology for coupled Monte Carlo depletion and thermal hydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyar, D.; Shwageraus, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Discretization of time in coupled MC codes determines the results’ accuracy. • The error is due to lack of information regarding the time-dependent reaction rates. • The proposed sub-step method considerably reduces the time discretization error. • No additional MC transport solutions are required within the time step. • The reaction rates are varied as functions of nuclide densities and TH conditions. - Abstract: The governing procedure in coupled Monte Carlo (MC) codes relies on discretization of the simulation time into time steps. Typically, the MC transport solution at discrete points will generate reaction rates, which in most codes are assumed to be constant within the time step. This assumption can trigger numerical instabilities or result in a loss of accuracy, which, in turn, would require reducing the time steps size. This paper focuses on reducing the time discretization error without requiring additional MC transport solutions and hence with no major computational overhead. The sub-step method presented here accounts for the reaction rate variation due to the variation in nuclide densities and thermal hydraulic (TH) conditions. This is achieved by performing additional depletion and TH calculations within the analyzed time step. The method was implemented in BGCore code and subsequently used to analyze a series of test cases. The results indicate that computational speedup of up to a factor of 10 may be achieved over the existing coupling schemes.

  12. Positive outcomes influence the rate and time to publication, but not the impact factor of publications of clinical trial results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Suñé

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Publication bias may affect the validity of evidence based medical decisions. The aim of this study is to assess whether research outcomes affect the dissemination of clinical trial findings, in terms of rate, time to publication, and impact factor of journal publications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All drug-evaluating clinical trials submitted to and approved by a general hospital ethics committee between 1997 and 2004 were prospectively followed to analyze their fate and publication. Published articles were identified by searching Pubmed and other electronic databases. Clinical study final reports submitted to the ethics committee, final reports synopses available online and meeting abstracts were also considered as sources of study results. Study outcomes were classified as positive (when statistical significance favoring experimental drug was achieved, negative (when no statistical significance was achieved or it favored control drug and descriptive (for non-controlled studies. Time to publication was defined as time from study closure to publication. A survival analysis was performed using a Cox regression model to analyze time to publication. Journal impact factors of identified publications were recorded. Publication rate was 48·4% (380/785. Study results were identified for 68·9% of all completed clinical trials (541/785. Publication rate was 84·9% (180/212 for studies with results classified as positive and 68·9% (128/186 for studies with results classified as negative (p<0·001. Median time to publication was 2·09 years (IC95 1·61-2·56 for studies with results classified as positive and 3·21 years (IC95 2·69-3·70 for studies with results classified as negative (hazard ratio 1·99 (IC95 1·55-2·55. No differences were found in publication impact factor between positive (median 6·308, interquartile range: 3·141-28·409 and negative result studies (median 8·266, interquartile range: 4·135-17·157. CONCLUSIONS

  13. Safety of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine plus Amodiaquine when Delivered to Children under 10 Years of Age by District Health Services in Senegal: Results from a Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J L NDiaye

    Full Text Available It is recommended that children aged 3 months to five years of age living in areas of seasonal transmission in the sub-Sahel should receive Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SPAQ during the malaria transmission season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of SMC with SPAQ in children when delivered by community health workers in three districts in Senegal where SMC was introduced over three years, in children from 3 months of age to five years of age in the first year, then in children up to 10 years of age.A surveillance system was established to record all deaths and all malaria cases diagnosed at health facilities and a pharmacovigilance system was established to detect adverse drug reactions. Health posts were randomized to introduce SMC in a stepped wedge design. SMC with SPAQ was administered once per month from September to November, by nine health-posts in 2008, by 27 in 2009 and by 45 in 2010.After three years, 780,000 documented courses of SMC had been administered. High coverage was achieved. No serious adverse events attributable to the intervention were detected, despite a high level of surveillance.SMC is being implemented in countries of the sub-Sahel for children under 5 years of age, but in some areas the age distribution of cases of malaria may justify extending this age limit, as has been done in Senegal. Our results show that SMC is well tolerated in children under five and in older children. However, pharmacovigilance should be maintained where SMC is implemented and provision for strengthening national pharmacovigilance systems should be included in plans for SMC implementation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00712374.

  14. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  15. Comparative analysis of single-step and two-step biodiesel production using supercritical methanol on laboratory-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, Radoslav D.; Tomić, Milan D.; Kiss, Ferenc E.; Martinovic, Ferenc L.; Simikić, Mirko Ð.; Molnar, Tibor T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-step supercritical transesterification compared to the two-step process. • Two-step process: oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification. • Experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. • Higher biodiesel yields in two-step process at milder reaction conditions. • Two-step process has potential to be cost-competitive with the single-step process. - Abstract: Single-step supercritical transesterification and two-step biodiesel production process consisting of oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification were studied and compared. For this purpose, comparative experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor and optimal reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio and time) were determined. Results indicate that in comparison to a single-step transesterification, methyl esterification (second step of the two-step process) produces higher biodiesel yields (95 wt% vs. 91 wt%) at lower temperatures (270 °C vs. 350 °C), pressures (8 MPa vs. 12 MPa) and methanol to oil molar ratios (1:20 vs. 1:42). This can be explained by the fact that the reaction system consisting of free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol achieves supercritical condition at milder reaction conditions. Furthermore, the dissolved FFA increases the acidity of supercritical methanol and acts as an acid catalyst that increases the reaction rate. There is a direct correlation between FFA content of the product obtained in hydrolysis and biodiesel yields in methyl esterification. Therefore, the reaction parameters of hydrolysis were optimized to yield the highest FFA content at 12 MPa, 250 °C and 1:20 oil to water molar ratio. Results of direct material and energy costs comparison suggest that the process based on the two-step reaction has the potential to be cost-competitive with the process based on single-step supercritical transesterification. Higher biodiesel yields, similar or lower energy

  16. Small Town Energy Program (STEP) Final Report revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Charles (Chuck) T.

    2014-01-02

    University Park, Maryland (“UP”) is a small town of 2,540 residents, 919 homes, 2 churches, 1 school, 1 town hall, and 1 breakthrough community energy efficiency initiative: the Small Town Energy Program (“STEP”). STEP was developed with a mission to “create a model community energy transformation program that serves as a roadmap for other small towns across the U.S.” STEP first launched in January 2011 in UP and expanded in July 2012 to the neighboring communities of Hyattsville, Riverdale Park, and College Heights Estates, MD. STEP, which concluded in July 2013, was generously supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The STEP model was designed for replication in other resource-constrained small towns similar to University Park - a sector largely neglected to date in federal and state energy efficiency programs. STEP provided a full suite of activities for replication, including: energy audits and retrofits for residential buildings, financial incentives, a community-based social marketing backbone and local community delivery partners. STEP also included the highly innovative use of an “Energy Coach” who worked one-on-one with clients throughout the program. Please see www.smalltownenergy.org for more information. In less than three years, STEP achieved the following results in University Park: • 30% of community households participated voluntarily in STEP; • 25% of homes received a Home Performance with ENERGY STAR assessment; • 16% of households made energy efficiency improvements to their home; • 64% of households proceeded with an upgrade after their assessment; • 9 Full Time Equivalent jobs were created or retained, and 39 contractors worked on STEP over the course of the project. Estimated Energy Savings - Program Totals kWh Electricity 204,407 Therms Natural Gas 24,800 Gallons of Oil 2,581 Total Estimated MMBTU Saved (Source Energy) 5,474 Total Estimated Annual Energy Cost Savings $61,343 STEP clients who

  17. Does a time constraint modify results from rating-based conjoint analysis? Case study with orange/pomegranate juice bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Felipe; Machín, Leandro; Rosenthal, Amauri; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón

    2016-12-01

    People do not usually process all the available information on packages for making their food choices and rely on heuristics for making their decisions, particularly when having limited time. However, in most consumer studies encourage participants to invest a lot of time for making their choices. Therefore, imposing a time-constraint in consumer studies may increase their ecological validity. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of a time-constraint on consumer evaluation of pomegranate/orange juice bottles using rating-based conjoint task. A consumer study with 100 participants was carried out, in which they had to evaluate 16 pomegranate/orange fruit juice bottles, differing in bottle design, front-of-pack nutritional information, nutrition claim and processing claim, and to rate their intention to purchase. Half of the participants evaluated the bottle images without time constraint and the other half had a time-constraint of 3s for evaluating each image. Eye-movements were recorded during the evaluation. Results showed that time-constraint when evaluating intention to purchase did not largely modify the way in which consumers visually processed bottle images. Regardless of the experimental condition (with or without time constraint), they tended to evaluate the same product characteristics and to give them the same relative importance. However, a trend towards a more superficial evaluation of the bottles that skipped complex information was observed. Regarding the influence of product characteristics on consumer intention to purchase, bottle design was the variable with the largest relative importance in both conditions, overriding the influence of nutritional or processing characteristics, which stresses the importance of graphic design in shaping consumer perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Picture archiving and communication systems lead to sustained improvements in reporting times and productivity: results of a 5-year audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A.D.; Billington, R.A.; Adam, E.J.; Dundas, D.D. [Department of Radiology, St Georges Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Patel, U. [Department of Radiology, St Georges Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Uday.Patel@stgeorges.nhs.uk

    2008-07-15

    Aim: To evaluate the impact of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) on reporting times and productivity in a large teaching hospital. Materials and methods: Reporting time, defined as the time taken from patient registration to report availability, and productivity, defined as the number of reports issued per whole time equivalent (WTE) radiologist per month, were studied for 2 years pre- and 3 years post-PACS installation. Mean reporting time was calculated for plain radiographs and specialist radiology techniques [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine]. Productivity, total department workload, and unreported film rates were also assessed. Pre- and post-PACS findings were compared. Results: Between 2002-2006 the number of radiological patient episodes increased by 30% from 11,531/month to 15,057/month. This was accompanied by a smaller increase in WTE reporting radiologists, from 32 to 37 (15%). Mean reporting times have improved substantially post-PACS, plain radiograph reporting time decreased by 26% (from 6.8 to 5 days; p = 0.002) and specialty modalities by 24% (4.1 to 3.1 days; p < 0.001). Radiologist productivity has increased by 18% (337 films to 407 films/WTE radiologist/month). Unreported films have decreased from 5 to 4% for plain radiographs and are steady for specialty modalities (< 1%). In most areas improvements have been sustained over a 3-year period. Conclusion: Since the introduction of PACS, reporting times have decreased by 25% and the productivity improved by 18%. Sustained improvements are felt to reflect the efficiencies and cultural change that accompanied the introduction of PACS and digital dictation.

  19. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. A comparison of real-time radiography results and visual characterization results with emphasis on WIPP WAC and TRAMPAC compliance issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailey, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Visual characterization provides a means of confirming the real-time radiography (RTR) certification process and process knowledge. RTR and visual characterization have been conducted on thirty-three drums containing transuranic (TRU) waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program (WETP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) detected a small can of liquid in one of these drums during the visual examination, resulting in a WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) miscertification. The remaining thirty-two drums were certified correctly by the RTR system at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) for WIPP-WAC and TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC) requirements. TRAMPAC contains restrictions on the weights of specific materials allowed in the waste, based on the shipping category. Items on the restricted list for a given shipping category are allowed in quantities less than 1 percent of the weight of the waste. RTR can estimate the weights of certain broad categories in homogeneous waste forms, however, the capability to estimate weights at the 1 percent level is not presently realistic. Process knowledge forms the basis of conformance to these weight requirements. Visual characterization suggests process knowledge is not completely adequate at this level

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