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Sample records for time spent feeding

  1. Time spent on television in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Konig, R.P.; Nelissen, P.W.M.; Huysmans, F.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explain the variation in time spent on watching television in 15 European Union countries, using determinants defined at the individual level, and characteristics defined at the national level, such as the number of channels and nature of the television supply. The results of the

  2. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a time...

  3. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1) The...

  4. SOCIAL INTEGRATION: TESTING ANTECEDENTS OF TIME SPENT ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Suriani Mohd Arif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the relationship of social integration and time spent onlineprovides conflicting evidence of the relationship of social integration with timespent online. The study identifies and highlightsthe controversy and attempts toclarify the relationship of social integration withtime spent online bydecomposing the construct social integration into its affective and behavioraldimensions . Thestudy tests antecedents and effects of time spent online in arandom sample of senior level undergraduate students at a public university inMalaysia. The findings indicated that while self-report measures of behavioralsocial integration did not predict time spent online, and, the affective socialintegration had an inverse relationship with time spent online.

  5. Adolescent Depression and Time Spent with Parents and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…

  6. Time Well Spent? Relating Television Use to Children’s Free-Time Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Bickham, David S.; Lee, June H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study assessed the claim that children’s television use interferes with time spent in more developmentally appropriate activities. METHODS Data came from the first wave of the Child Development Supplement, a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 12 in 1997 (N = 1712). Twenty-four-hour time-use diaries from 1 randomly chosen weekday and 1 randomly chosen weekend day were used to assess children’s time spent watching television, time spent with parents, time spent with siblings, time spent reading (or being read to), time spent doing homework, time spent in creative play, and time spent in active play. Ordinary least squares multiple regression was used to assess the relationship between children’s television use and time spent pursuing other activities. RESULTS Results indicated that time spent watching television both with and without parents or siblings was negatively related to time spent with parents or siblings, respectively, in other activities. Television viewing also was negatively related to time spent doing homework for 7- to 12-year-olds and negatively related to creative play, especially among very young children (younger than 5 years). There was no relationship between time spent watching television and time spent reading (or being read to) or to time spent in active play. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study are among the first to provide empirical support for the assumptions made by the American Academy of Pediatrics in their screen time recommendations. Time spent viewing television both with and without parents and siblings present was strongly negatively related to time spent interacting with parents or siblings. Television viewing was associated with decreased homework time and decreased time in creative play. Conversely, there was no support for the widespread belief that television interferes with time spent reading or in active play. PMID:16452327

  7. Cooling-time determination of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hatcher, C.R.; Kaieda, K.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods to determine the cooling time using data from high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are discussed; one is useful when the irradiation history information is available, the other when the irradiation history is not available. We have applied both methods and found that the cooling time can be determined to within an average of 3% and 4.1%, respectively

  8. The Potential Feed Value, Mode of Use and Limitations of Locally Produced Spent Brewers' Grains Fed to Dairy Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owango, M.O.; Sanda, I.A.; Lukuyu, B.A.; Omolo, J.O.; Masibili, M.

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic survey and participatory rural appraisal were conducted to determine the potential feed value, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced wet spent brewers' grains fed to dairy cattle. Structured questionnaire instruments, covering, household characteristics, dairy production, feeds and feeding and extension services were used. The survey was conducted by trained enumerators. The tools used in participatory rural appraisal were; semi-structured interview, ranking seasonal calendars labour profile and gender responsibilities.The main feed resources were Napier grass, green and dry maize stover, public land grasses and supplements consisting of Dairy meal, milling and agroindustrial by-products.Wet spent brewers' grain is one of the by-products.The main sources were Kenya Breweries Limited, Kuguru Food Processors and 'Busaa' dregs from the traditional brews. It was fed to dairy cows by (96.8%) of the households interviewed, either at milking in the mornings or evenings. Spent brewers grains was stored after collection from the sources by (87.2%) and (12.8%) of the households for one or more weeks respectively. Households interviewed perceived spent brewers grains to be comparable to available dairy meal and other energy feeds, and all the households feeding spent brewers grains reported that it increased milk yield in lactating cows. The farmers therefore, preferentially fed spent brewers grains to lactating and dry cows, heifers, calves and bulls respectively. However, only (1.7%)of the households interviewed received extension advice on the use of spent brewers' grains. The perception of the farmers/household was that spent brewers' grains is a valuable feed for dairy cattle and increased milk yield production, and maintained good body condition. However,limited information is available on the potential, mode of and constraints to the use of locally produced spent brewers' grains

  9. Do Workplace Flexibility Policies Influence Time Spent in Domestic Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Mary C.; Estes, Sarah Beth; Glass, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. midwestern sample of mothers and fathers, the authors examine whether using workplace flexibility policies alters time spent in housework and child care. They hypothesize that an individual's policy use will lead to more time in domestic labor and that his or her spouse's policy use will lead to less time in domestic labor.…

  10. Time Spent in Indirect Nursing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    unable to recognize what needs to be done, or lacking motivation . Likewise, head nurses may spend too much time giving Cdirect care (14.5%). Perhaps more...of the head nurse time might be redirected to teaching, supervising, and motivating other staff members. Although the objective data are reliable, the...S7 9 1 a NO .06 P4 Z& V- N. 4 1 oe a ~~3 00 0I xI %A II I-~~~- Lai - E, zCk u atII C.p UA a 5 P44 d4. Ps4 .- U)2 co Ili L I ao r40 ey . 1a ,o 01 𔃾K

  11. Estimated time spent on preventive services by primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradison Margaret

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivery of preventive health services in primary care is lacking. One of the main barriers is lack of time. We estimated the amount of time primary care physicians spend on important preventive health services. Methods We analyzed a large dataset of primary care (family and internal medicine visits using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2001–4; analyses were conducted 2007–8. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the amount of time spent delivering each preventive service, controlling for demographic covariates. Results Preventive visits were longer than chronic care visits (M = 22.4, SD = 11.8, M = 18.9, SD = 9.2, respectively. New patients required more time from physicians. Services on which physicians spent relatively more time were prostate specific antigen (PSA, cholesterol, Papanicolaou (Pap smear, mammography, exercise counseling, and blood pressure. Physicians spent less time than recommended on two "A" rated ("good evidence" services, tobacco cessation and Pap smear (in preventive visits, and one "B" rated ("at least fair evidence" service, nutrition counseling. Physicians spent substantial time on two services that have an "I" rating ("inconclusive evidence of effectiveness", PSA and exercise counseling. Conclusion Even with limited time, physicians address many of the "A" rated services adequately. However, they may be spending less time than recommended for important services, especially smoking cessation, Pap smear, and nutrition counseling. Future research is needed to understand how physicians decide how to allocate their time to address preventive health.

  12. Photoprotection by sunscreen depends on time spent on application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerfordt, Ida M; Torsnes, Linnea R; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2018-03-01

    To be effective, sunscreens must be applied in a sufficient quantity and reapplication is recommended. No previous study has investigated whether time spent on sunscreen application is important for the achieved photoprotection. To determine whether time spent on sunscreen application is related to the amount of sunscreen used during a first and second application. Thirty-one volunteers wearing swimwear applied sunscreen twice in a laboratory environment. Time spent and the amount of sunscreen used during each application was measured. Subjects' body surface area accessible for sunscreen application (BSA) was estimated from their height, weight and swimwear worn. The average applied quantity of sunscreen after each application was calculated. Subjects spent on average 4 minutes and 15 seconds on the first application and approximately 85% of that time on the second application. There was a linear relationship between time spent on application and amount of sunscreen used during both the first and the second application (P applications. After the first application, subjects had applied a mean quantity of sunscreen of 0.71 mg/cm 2 on the BSA, and after the second application, a mean total quantity of 1.27 mg/cm 2 had been applied. We found that participants applied a constant amount of sunscreen per minute during both a first and a second application. Measurement of time spent on application of sunscreen on different body sites may be useful in investigating the distribution of sunscreen in real-life settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reviewing interval cancers: Time well spent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower-Thomas, Kate; Fielder, Hilary M.P.; Branston, Lucy; Greening, Sarah; Beer, Helen; Rogers, Cerilan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To categorize interval cancers, and thus identify false-negatives, following prevalent and incident screens in the Welsh breast screening programme. SETTING: Breast Test Wales (BTW) Llandudno, Cardiff and Swansea breast screening units. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty interval breast cancers identified following negative mammographic screening between 1989 and 1997 were reviewed by eight screening radiologists. The blind review was achieved by mixing the screening films of women who subsequently developed an interval cancer with screen negative films of women who did not develop cancer, in a ratio of 4:1. Another radiologist used patients' symptomatic films to record a reference against which the reviewers' reports of the screening films were compared. Interval cancers were categorized as 'true', 'occult', 'false-negative' or 'unclassified' interval cancers or interval cancers with minimal signs, based on the National Health Service breast screening programme (NHSBSP) guidelines. RESULTS: Of the classifiable interval films, 32% were false-negatives, 55% were true intervals and 12% occult. The proportion of false-negatives following incident screens was half that following prevalent screens (P = 0.004). Forty percent of the seed films were recalled by the panel. CONCLUSIONS: Low false-negative interval cancer rates following incident screens (18%) versus prevalent screens (36%) suggest that lower cancer detection rates at incident screens may have resulted from fewer cancers than expected being present, rather than from a failure to detect tumours. The panel method for categorizing interval cancers has significant flaws as the results vary markedly with different protocol and is no more accurate than other, quicker and more timely methods. Gower-Thomas, K. et al. (2002)

  14. Effect of feeding spent coffee grounds on the feedlot performance and carcass quality of fattening pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S S; Chawla, J S

    1986-01-01

    Twelve fattening pigs of large white Yorkshire breed, divided into three equal groups, were fed isonitrogenous concentrate mixture containing 0, 10 and 15% spent coffee grounds (SCG) for 70 days. The crude fibre and ether extract content increased while that of nitrogen-free extract decreased with the increase in the level of SCG. The daily live weight gain and the feed conversion efficiency were depressed significantly at a 15% level of SCG. However, the inclusion of SCG in the rations did not have any adverse effect on carcass quality. It was concluded that SCG at 10% can be included in the ration of pigs safely without affecting their health. 10 references.

  15. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  16. Reevaluation of time spent indoors used for exposure dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    A time spent indoors of sixteen hours per day (indoor occupancy factor: 0.67) has been used to assess the radiation dose of residents who spend daily life in the area contaminated due to the nuclear accident in Japan. However, much longer time is considered to be spent indoors for recent modern life. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has been used an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 since 1977 and a few reports suggested much higher indoor occupancy factors. Therefore it is important to reevaluate the indoor occupancy factor using current available survey data in Japan, such as 'NHK 2010 National Time Use Survey' and 'Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities' of Statistics Bureau with certain assumption of time spent indoors in each daily activity. The total time spent indoors in a day is calculated to be 20.2 hours and its indoor occupancy factor is 0.84. Much lower indoor occupancy factors were derived from the survey data by Statistics Bureau for 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years old groups and farmers who spend most of their time outdoors although present estimated indoor occupancy factor of 0.84 is still lower than those found in some of the relevant reports. A rounded indoor occupancy factor of 0.80 might be the appropriate conservative reference value to be used for the dose estimation of people who live in radioactively contaminated areas and for other relevant purposes of exposure assessment, taken into consideration the present results and values reported in United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and UNSCEAR. (author)

  17. [Problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, S; Andréoletti, A; Chauchard, E; Rodgers, R F; Chabrol, H

    2016-06-01

    Internet addiction or problematic Internet use is a recent and increasingly recognized disorder which has been consistently associated with many psychiatric disorders, adding to the documented negative consequences of problematic Internet use. However, very few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use and personality traits and none in a French sample. Moreover, those which have evaluated this relationship have mainly been conducted on small samples. The main goal of our study was to explore the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits in a French sample, taking into account the presence of depressive symptoms, and gender. A sample of 276 participants aged from 18 to 50 (M=28; SD=8.9) completed a questionnaire assessing problematic Internet use, time spent online, the presence of ten personality traits and depressive symptoms. Our results revealed significant differences between genders. Among men, problematic Internet use was associated with personality clusters A and B while in women no cluster or personality traits were associated. Time spent online was predicted by schizoid personality traits among men and avoidant personality traits among women. Our results indicate that cluster A (schizoid and schizotypal) and cluster B traits (borderline and antisocial) play a more important role in problematic Internet use than cluster C traits among men. Differences between men and women regarding the relationships between personality traits, time online and problematic Internet use may be related to differences in the activities engaged in by men and women online. We observed that communication websites use was more prevalent among women while erotic, gambling and shopping websites use was more prevalent among men suggesting that the characteristics of problematic Internet use may vary according to gender. Few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent

  18. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Johnson, Dayna A; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-10-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331 healthy adolescents (ages 14-17 years). Heavy Internet use was defined as ≥ 2 hr/day, moderate use as Internet users had statistically significantly higher odds of elevated BP compared to light Internet users. School nurses can play an important role in preventing high BP through assessment of BP and other health behaviors including Internet use, and health teaching to individuals, student groups, faculty, and parents to increase awareness of the relationship between Internet use and health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Optimization of time and location dependent spent nuclear fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, V.

    1977-01-01

    A linear spent fuel storage model is developed to identify cost-effective spent nuclear fuel storage strategies. The purpose of this model is to provide guidelines for the implementation of the optimal time-dependent spent fuel storage capacity expansion in view of the current economic and regulatory environment which has resulted in phase-out of the closed nuclear fuel cycle. Management alternatives of the spent fuel storage backlog, which is created by mismatch between spent fuel generation rate and spent fuel disposition capability, are represented by aggregate decision variables which describe the time dependent on-reactor-site and off-site spent fuel storage capacity additions, and the amount of spent fuel transferred to off-site storage facilities. Principal constraints of the model assure determination of cost optimal spent fuel storage expansion strategies, while spent fuel storage requirements are met at all times. A detailed physical and economic analysis of the essential components of the spent fuel storage problem, which precedes the model development, assures its realism. The effects of technological limitations on the on-site spent fuel storage expansion and timing of reinitiation of the spent fuel reprocessing on optimal spent fuel storage capacity expansion are investigated. The principal results of the study indicate that (a) expansion of storage capacity beyond that of currently planned facilities is necessary, and (b) economics of the post-reactor fuel cycle is extremely sensitive to the timing of reinitiation of spent fuel reprocessing. Postponement of reprocessing beyond mid-1982 may result in net negative economic liability of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

  20. Time Spent in Home Production Activities by Married Couples and Single Adults with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthitt, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    A study found that, over time, married women employed full time have not decreased the time spent working in the home. Married men with young children have increased the time spent on home work. Single parents' time most closely resembled that of married women. (JOW)

  1. Time Spent on Social Network Sites and Psychological Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2017-06-01

    This meta-analysis examines the relationship between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being factors, namely self-esteem, life satisfaction, loneliness, and depression. Sixty-one studies consisting of 67 independent samples involving 19,652 participants were identified. The mean correlation between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being was low at r = -0.07. The correlations between time spent on social networking sites and positive indicators (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were close to 0, whereas those between time spent on social networking sites and negative indicators (depression and loneliness) were weak. The effects of publication outlet, site on which users spent time, scale of time spent, and participant age and gender were not significant. As most included studies used student samples, future research should be conducted to examine this relationship for adults.

  2. Maternal Time Use and Nurturing: Analysis of the Association Between Breastfeeding Practice and Time Spent Interacting with Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P; Forrester, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Breastfeeding supports child development through complex mechanisms that are not well understood. Numerous studies have compared how well breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding mothers interact with their child, but few examine how much interaction occurs. Our study of weekly time use among 156 mothers of infants aged 3-9 months investigated whether lactating mothers spend more time providing emotional support or cognitive stimulation of their infants than nonbreastfeeding mothers, and whether the amount of such interactive time is associated with breastfeeding intensity. Mothers were recruited via mother's and baby groups, infant health clinics, and childcare services, and used an electronic device to record their 24-hour time use for 7 days. Sociodemographic and feeding status data were collected by questionnaire. Statistical analysis using linear mixed modeling and residual maximum likelihood analysis compared maternal time use for those giving "some breastfeeding" and those "not breastfeeding." Analysis was also conducted for more detailed feeding subgroups. Breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding mothers had broadly similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Breastfeeding was found to be associated with more mother-child interaction time, a difference only partially explained by weekly maternal employment hours or other interactive care activities such as play or reading. This study presents data suggesting that lactating mothers spent significantly more hours weekly on milk feeding and on carrying, holding, or soothing their infant than nonlactating mothers; and on providing childcare. Understanding the mechanisms by which child mental health and development benefits from breastfeeding may have important implications for policies and intervention strategies, and could be usefully informed by suitably designed time use studies.

  3. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING TIME ON FEED UTILIZATION BY SIAMESE CATFISH, Pangasius hypophthalmus JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Meilisza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus at juvenile stage is used as ornamental fish by fish hobbies because of their beautiful shape and movement. Feeding time is a part of feeding management to get the best and effective strategy on feed input. This study aimed to determine the growth of Siamese catfish juvenile by looking at the influence of feeding time on feed utilization. The average individual weight of juveniles used was ± 3.2 g stocked 15 fish per aquarium equipped with recirculation system. Two level factors in the factorial design consisted of 4 feeding times (at 8:00, at 12:00, at 16:00, and as control (8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and feeding level (45 g feed kg-1 fish, 90 g feed kg-1 fish. Interaction between feeding time and feeding level resulting eight types of treatments research, namely A (8/45, B (12/45, C (16/45, D (8:12:16/45, E (8:12:16/90, F (8/90, G (12/90, and H (16/90. The results showed that feeding time had significant effect on the specific growth rate, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratio and were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05. Besides feeding time control (treatments D and E, treatment C also showed the highest of specific growth rate (2.03%, protein efficiency ratio (1.46, and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.85.

  4. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students’ ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses. PMID:27667839

  5. Teacher Time Spent on Student Health Issues and School Nurse Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The…

  6. 48 CFR 852.271-72 - Time spent by counselee in counseling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... counseling process. 852.271-72 Section 852.271-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Clauses 852.271-72 Time spent by counselee in counseling process. As prescribed in 871.212, insert the following clause: Time Spent by Counselee in Counseling Process (APR 1984) The contractor agrees that no...

  7. Evaluation of nutritional and economic feed values of spent coffee grounds and Artemisia princeps residues as a ruminant feed using in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jakyeom; Jung, Jae Keun; Seo, Seongwon

    2015-01-01

    Much research on animal feed has focused on finding alternative feed ingredients that can replace conventional ones (e.g., grains and beans) to reduce feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic, as well as nutritional value of spent coffee grounds (SCG) and Japanese mugwort (Artemisia princeps) residues (APR) as alternative feed ingredients for ruminants. We also investigated whether pre-fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. was a feasible way to increase the feed value of these by-products. Chemical analyses and an in vitro study were conducted for SCG, APR, and their pre-fermented forms. All the experimental diets for in vitro ruminal fermentation were formulated to contain a similar composition of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients at 1x maintenance feed intake based on the dairy National Research Council (NRC). The control diet was composed of ryegrass, corn, soybean meal, whereas the treatments consisted of SCG, SCG fermented with Lactobacillus spp. (FSCG), APR, and its fermented form (FAPR). The treatment diets replaced 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the feed ingredients in the control. Costs were lower for the all treatments, except FAPR, than that of the control. After 24-h incubation, the NDF digestibility of the diets containing SCG and its fermented form were significantly lower than those of the other diets (P < 0.01); pre-fermentation tended to increase NDF digestibility (P = 0.07), especially for APR. Supplementation of SCG significantly decreased total gas production (ml/g DM) after 24-h fermentation in comparison with the control (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the control and the SCG or the APR diets in total gas production, as expressed per Korean Won (KRW). Diets supplemented with SCG or FSCG tended to have a higher total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, expressed as per KRW, compared with the control (P = 0.06). Conversely, the fermentation

  8. Effect of Sorghum -Barley Brewer's Spent Grain as a Feed Ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine if the inclusion of Sorghum-Barley Brewer's Spent Grain (SBBSG) in broiler diets will affect growth performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 380 Ross broiler chicks were brooded on a common diet without SBBSG for 28 days after which they were randomly assigned to ...

  9. Time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors on the working day: the American time use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Leonardi, Claudia; Johnson, William D; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2011-12-01

    To determine time spent on the working day in sleep, work, sedentary behaviors, and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity behaviors by occupation intensity. Data came from 30,758 working respondents to the 2003 to 2009 American Time Use Survey. Mean ± SEM time spent in work, sedentary behaviors, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity activities, and sleep were computed by occupations classified as sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity. On average, approximately 32% of the 24-hour day was spent sleeping and approximately 31% was spent at work. Time spent in sedentary behaviors outside of work was higher, and light-intensity time was lower, with higher levels of intensity-defined occupation. Those employed in sedentary occupations were sedentary for approximately 11 hours per day, leaving little time to achieve recommended levels of physical activity for overall health.

  10. Social relationships enhance the time spent eating and intake of a novel diet in pregnant Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Han; Kang, Hyun-Min; Seo, Seongwon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of social relationships on the feed intake, eating behavior, and growth, upon exposure to a novel diet, in Hanwoo ( Bos taurus coreanae ) heifers during pregnancy. Twenty-four pregnant Hanwoo heifers, averaging 438 ± 27.8 kg in weight, 21 months in age, and 194 ± 8.5 days in pregnancy, were involved in a two-month (eight weeks) experiment. The heifers were randomly assigned to either the single housing group (SG; one individual per pen, n = 12), or the paired housing group (PG; two individuals per pen, n = 12). All pens were of the same size (5 × 5 m) and provided with one feed bin, which automatically recorded the individual feed intake and eating behavior. As the experiment began, the diet of the heifers was switched from a total mixed ration (TMR; 250 g/kg ryegrass straw and 750 g/kg concentrate mix) to a forage-only diet (mixed hay cubes composed of 500 g/kg alfalfa, 250 g/kg timothy, and 250 g/kg blue grass hay). The heifers were fed ad libitum twice a day. The individual feed intake and eating behavior were recorded daily throughout the experiment, and body weights (BWs) were measured every four weeks before the morning feeding. PG animals visited the feed bin 22% less often than SG. PG, however, stayed 39% longer in the feed bin and consumed 40% more feed per visit, compared with SG. Consequently, PG heifers spent 23% more time in eating and had 16% more daily dry matter intake than SG during the experiment. Average daily gain during the experimental period tended to be greater in PG than in SG. When pregnant Hanwoo heifers encountered a novel diet, social relationships (i.e., presence of a pen-mate) enhanced their time spent eating and feed intake. Social interactions, even with an unfamiliar individual, may be helpful for pregnant Hanwoo heifers cope with a diet challenge compared to solitary situation.

  11. Developer’s time spent in a software project part using the SGD framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesluk, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Resource management is important for software projects to be successful. Time is one of these resources that needs to be managed. To do this you need to know how time resources are spent. Currently the existence of published material on time resources spent in a software project is almost none. In this thesis a research was conducted on how time resources are spent by an individual developer in a software project. The Self-Governance Developer framework was the tool used to gather these resou...

  12. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time restricted feeding in healthy lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Valter D.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-01-01

    Feeding in most animals is confined to a defined period, leaving short periods of fasting that coincide with sleep. Fasting enables organisms to enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding time is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily...

  13. Energy beyond food: foraging theory informs time spent in thermals by a large soaring bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L C Shepard

    Full Text Available Current understanding of how animals search for and exploit food resources is based on microeconomic models. Although widely used to examine feeding, such constructs should inform other energy-harvesting situations where theoretical assumptions are met. In fact, some animals extract non-food forms of energy from the environment, such as birds that soar in updraughts. This study examined whether the gains in potential energy (altitude followed efficiency-maximising predictions in the world's heaviest soaring bird, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus. Animal-attached technology was used to record condor flight paths in three-dimensions. Tracks showed that time spent in patchy thermals was broadly consistent with a strategy to maximise the rate of potential energy gain. However, the rate of climb just prior to leaving a thermal increased with thermal strength and exit altitude. This suggests higher rates of energetic gain may not be advantageous where the resulting gain in altitude would lead to a reduction in the ability to search the ground for food. Consequently, soaring behaviour appeared to be modulated by the need to reconcile differing potential energy and food energy distributions. We suggest that foraging constructs may provide insight into the exploitation of non-food energy forms, and that non-food energy distributions may be more important in informing patterns of movement and residency over a range of scales than previously considered.

  14. Time Spent Outdoors, Depressive Symptoms, and Variation by Race and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-09-01

    Numerous studies have explored neighborhood environmental correlates of mental illnesses, presuming that the time individuals spend in their environment can confer benefit or harm based on environmental characteristics. However, few population-based studies have directly examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and mental health, and little work has been done to explore how experiences differ by race and ethnicity. Though some have proposed "doses of outdoor time" to improve health, the absence of information about the benefits conferred by particular "doses," and expected baseline levels of outdoor time, are needed to inform the development of recommendations and interventions. This study examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression among a population-based sample of American adults, characterized current levels of time spent outdoors by race and ethnicity, and examined how the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression varies by race and ethnicity. Descriptive statistics and survey regression models were used to examine data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2009-2012. Findings provide evidence that time spent outdoors is associated with fewer depressive symptoms, but this benefit may not be equally distributed by race and ethnicity. Descriptive analyses also reveal differences in time spent outdoors among different racial and ethnic groups. Study findings support the notion that increasing time spent outdoors may result in mental health benefits. However, this study questions whether that benefit is experienced equally among different groups, particularly given differences in occupational experiences and environmental characteristics of neighborhoods. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Time spent on home food preparation and indicators of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. It takes longer than you think: librarian time spent on systematic review tasks*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullers, Krystal; Howard, Allison M.; Hanson, Ardis; Kearns, William D.; Orriola, John J.; Polo, Randall L.; Sakmar, Kristen A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The authors examined the time that medical librarians spent on specific tasks for systematic reviews (SRs): interview process, search strategy development, search strategy translation, documentation, deliverables, search methodology writing, and instruction. We also investigated relationships among the time spent on SR tasks, years of experience, and number of completed SRs to gain a better understanding of the time spent on SR tasks from time, staffing, and project management perspectives. Methods A confidential survey and study description were sent to medical library directors who were members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries as well as librarians serving members of the Association of American Medical Colleges or American Osteopathic Association. Results Of the 185 participants, 143 (77%) had worked on an SR within the last 5 years. The number of SRs conducted by participants during their careers ranged from 1 to 500, with a median of 5. The major component of time spent was on search strategy development and translation. Average aggregated time for standard tasks was 26.9 hours, with a median of 18.5 hours. Task time was unrelated to the number of SRs but was positively correlated with years of SR experience. Conclusion The time required to conduct the librarian’s discrete tasks in an SR varies substantially, and there are no standard time frames. Librarians with more SR experience spent more time on instruction and interviews; time spent on all other tasks varied widely. Librarians also can expect to spend a significant amount of their time on search strategy development, translation, and writing. PMID:29632442

  17. Age at Menarche and Time Spent in Education: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D; Del Greco M, F; Rawson, T M; Sivakumaran, P; Brown, A; Sheehan, N A; Minelli, C

    2017-09-01

    Menarche signifies the primary event in female puberty and is associated with changes in self-identity. It is not clear whether earlier puberty causes girls to spend less time in education. Observational studies on this topic are likely to be affected by confounding environmental factors. The Mendelian randomization (MR) approach addresses these issues by using genetic variants (such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) as proxies for the risk factor of interest. We use this technique to explore whether there is a causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education. Instruments and SNP-age at menarche estimates are identified from a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 182,416 women of European descent. The effects of instruments on time spent in education are estimated using a GWAS meta-analysis of 118,443 women performed by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium (SSGAC). In our main analysis, we demonstrate a small but statistically significant causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education: a 1 year increase in age at menarche is associated with 0.14 years (53 days) increase in time spent in education (95% CI 0.10-0.21 years, p = 3.5 × 10 -8 ). The causal effect is confirmed in sensitivity analyses. In identifying this positive causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education, we offer further insight into the social effects of puberty in girls.

  18. Predicting Time Spent in Treatment in a Sample of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Shelley; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark; Armour, Cherie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify significant predictors of length of time spent in treatment. In a convenience sample of 439 Danish survivors of child sexual abuse, predictors of time spent in treatment were examined. Assessments were conducted on a 6-month basis over a period of 18 months. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the experience of neglect in childhood and having experienced rape at any life stage were associated with less time in treatment. Higher educational attainment and being male were associated with staying in treatment for longer periods of time. These factors may be important for identifying those at risk of terminating treatment prematurely. It is hoped that a better understanding of the factors that predict time spent in treatment will help to improve treatment outcomes for individuals who are at risk of dropping out of treatment at an early stage.

  19. Time well spent? Assessing nursing-supply chain activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Jeff

    2010-02-01

    The amount of time nurses spend providing direct patient care seems to be continually eroding. So it's little wonder a survey conducted last year of critical care, OR nurses and nurse executives found that half of the 1600 respondents feel they spend too much time on supply chain duties. Most also said their supply chain duties impact patient safe ty and their ability to provide bedside care. Experts interviewed for this report believe it's time for supply chain leaders and nurses to develop a closer working partnership. Included are their recommendations to improve performance.

  20. A study on the frequency of participation and time spent on sport in different organisational settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, J.; Breedveld, K.; Tienen-Raaphorst, A.; Thibaut, E.; Vandermeerschen, H.; Vos, S.B.; Scheerder, J.

    2016-01-01

    Research question: As a result of the expansion of opportunities for leisure-time sport participation (LTSP), the question arises if differing organisational settings relate to differences in participation behaviour. This paper compares participation frequency and time spent on sport between

  1. Study of side-feeding time for light mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sudatta; Bisoi, A.; Kshetri, R.; Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Pramanik, D.; Sarkar, S.; Nag, S.; Selva Kumar, K.; Singh, P.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Trivedi, T.; Naidu, B.S.; Donthi, R.; Nanal, V.; Palit, R.

    2011-01-01

    Precise determination of level lifetime is of utmost importance in nuclear γ-spectroscopy. Doppler Shift Attenuation (DSA) method suitable for measuring sub-pico second lifetimes, involves inclusion of proper correction for side-feeding which is synonymous to unknown feeding of the level under consideration. It is possible to avoid a sidefeeding contribution by gating on Doppler shifted gamma lines above (GTA) the level being studied in the cascade. In the present work, an empirical approach has been adopted to find the dependence of side-feeding times in nuclei in A ≅ 40 region as function of level energies

  2. Time spent in sedentary activities in a pediatric population in Pretoria Central, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Daniel T; Nsibambi, Constance A; Chebet, Milton

    2016-12-01

    Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa. Questionnaire was used to collect data on the participants' sedentary behaviors. The prevalence estimates for sedentary time activity was based on the guidelines (i.e., <2 or ≥2 hours per day) of AAP. The mean age of the children was 11.1±1.4 years. Sedentary activity data were collected from 548 boys (48.2%) and 588 (51.8%) girls. The majority of children spent more than two hours per day (exceeding the AAP recommendation for sedentary activity) watching TV (3.0%), worked or played on the computer (25.4%), read (1.0%), played music (27.9%), played board games (14.7%), washing clothes (8.0%), floor sweeping (10.5%), art work (18.2%), and spent time on other unspecified activities (28.6%). Boys spent more time (2 hours, 3-4 hours) watching TV (38.3%; P=0.001), playing computer (31.8 %; P=0.024) and board games (17.4%; P=0.012) than girls. The corresponding figures for girls were 35.7%, 19.2% and 12.5% for TV, computer and board games, respectively. However, the proportion of those who spent more time playing music was higher among girls (32.7%) than boys (22.4%) (P=0.002). Overall, the time spent exceeding AAP recommendation (≥ 2 hours) was not statistically (P=0.427) different between boys and girls. The time spent in sedentary activities, particularly in screen time activity among urban primary school children in Pretoria Central is excessively higher than the recommendation (i.e., ≥2 hours per day

  3. The independent relationship between trouble controlling Facebook use, time spent on the site and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Fredrick; Hayes, Marie; Kuerbis, Alexis; Shao, Sijing

    2015-09-01

    There is an emerging literature base on the relationship between maladaptive traits and "addiction" to social networking sites. These studies have operationalized addiction as either spending excessive amounts of time on social networking sites (SNS) or trouble controlling SNS use, but have not assessed the unique contribution of each of these constructs on outcomes in the same models. Moreover, these studies have exclusively been conducted with younger people rather than a heterogeneous sample. This study examined the independent relationship of a brief Facebook addiction scale, time spent on Facebook, and Facebook checking on positive and negative social domains, while controlling for self-esteem and social desirability. Participants were recruited using e-mail, SNS posts and through Amazon's MTurk system. The sample included 489 respondents ages from 18 to approximately 70, who completed a 10-15 minute survey. Results indicate that neither time spent on Facebook nor Facebook checking was significantly associated with either self-esteem, fear of negative social evaluation or social comparison, while SNS addiction symptoms were each independently associated with Facebook usage. Neither time spent on Facebook nor SNS addiction symptoms were associated with positive social relationships. Overall results suggest that time on SNS and trouble controlling use should be considered independent constructs and that interventions should target underlying loss of control as the primary intervention target above ego syntonic time spent on the site.

  4. The independent relationship between trouble controlling Facebook use, time spent on the site and distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Fredrick; Hayes, Marie; Kuerbis, Alexis; Shao, Sijing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is an emerging literature base on the relationship between maladaptive traits and “addiction” to social networking sites. These studies have operationalized addiction as either spending excessive amounts of time on social networking sites (SNS) or trouble controlling SNS use, but have not assessed the unique contribution of each of these constructs on outcomes in the same models. Moreover, these studies have exclusively been conducted with younger people rather than a heterogeneous sample. This study examined the independent relationship of a brief Facebook addiction scale, time spent on Facebook, and Facebook checking on positive and negative social domains, while controlling for self-esteem and social desirability. Methods Participants were recruited using e-mail, SNS posts and through Amazon’s MTurk system. The sample included 489 respondents ages from 18 to approximately 70, who completed a 10–15 minute survey. Results Results indicate that neither time spent on Facebook nor Facebook checking was significantly associated with either self-esteem, fear of negative social evaluation or social comparison, while SNS addiction symptoms were each independently associated with Facebook usage. Neither time spent on Facebook nor SNS addiction symptoms were associated with positive social relationships. Discussion Overall results suggest that time on SNS and trouble controlling use should be considered independent constructs and that interventions should target underlying loss of control as the primary intervention target above ego syntonic time spent on the site. PMID:26551906

  5. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  6. Evaluation of daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Carlyn J; Stieb, David M; Egyed, Marika; Brion, Orly; Johnson, Markey

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to traffic and traffic-related air pollution is associated with a wide array of health effects. Time spent in a vehicle, in active transportation, along roadsides, and in close proximity to traffic can substantially contribute to daily exposure to air pollutants. For this study, we evaluated daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians using the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2 results. Approximately 4-7% of daily time was spent in on- or near-road locations, mainly associated with being in a vehicle and smaller contributions from active transportation. Indoor microenvironments can be impacted by traffic emissions, especially when located near major roadways. Over 60% of the target population reported living within one block of a roadway with moderate to heavy traffic, which was variable with income level and city, and confirmed based on elevated NO 2 exposure estimated using land use regression. Furthermore, over 55% of the target population ≤ 18 years reported attending a school or daycare in close proximity to moderate to heavy traffic, and little variation was observed based on income or city. The results underline the importance of traffic emissions as a major source of exposure in Canadian urban centers, given the time spent in traffic-influenced microenvironments.

  7. The Relationship between Motivation, Learning Approaches, Academic Performance and Time Spent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Patricia; Opdecam, Evelien; Maussen, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Previous literature calls for further investigation in terms of precedents and consequences of learning approaches (deep learning and surface learning). Motivation as precedent and time spent and academic performance as consequences are addressed in this paper. The study is administered in a first-year undergraduate course. Results show that the…

  8. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children's Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucaides, Constantinos A; Tsangaridou, Niki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children ( N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between "general friend support," "friends' activity norms," and physical activity ( r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p friend support" and time spent outside ( r = 0.460, p parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors.

  9. Re-Examining Gender Differences in Video Game Play: Time Spent and Feelings of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlen, Karla R.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that, among children, boys tend to play video games more than girls do. There are several theories addressing this phenomenon, including that stereotypes and lack of opportunity leave girls feeling inadequate with certain types of technology. No research has yet examined the interactive relationships between time spent playing…

  10. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  11. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time restricted feeding in healthy lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Valter D.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-01-01

    Summary Feeding in most animals is confined to a defined period, leaving short periods of fasting that coincide with sleep. Fasting enables organisms to enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding time is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily fasting period to last >12 h, thus imparting pleiotropic benefits in multiple organisms. Understanding the mechanistic link between nutrients and the fasting benefits is leading to the identification of fasting mimicking diets (FMDs) that achieve changes similar to those caused by fasting. Given the pleiotropic and sustained benefits of TRF and FMD, both basic science and translational research are warranted to develop fasting-associated interventions into effective and inexpensive treatments with the potential to improve healthspan. PMID:27304506

  12. Effects of limiting feed access time and re - alimentation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of limiting feed access time on the performance of growing rabbit. Forty eighty (48) male rabbits of mixed breeds (Chinchilla x Dutch x California White) with an average weight of 600g. The rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 12 rabbits each after balancing for live weight.

  13. Some notes on the Timing of Geological Disposal of CANDU Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Kook, Dong Hak; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    CANDU spent fuel is to be disposed of at repository finally rather than recycled because of its low fissile nuclide concentration. But the difficult situation of finding a repository site can not help introducing a interim storage in the short term. It is required to find an optimum timing of geological disposal of CANDU spent fuels related to the interim storage operation period. The major factors for determining the disposal starting time are considered as safety, economics, and public acceptance. Safety factor is compared in terms of the decay heat and non-proliferation. Economics factor is compared from the point of the operation cost, and public acceptance factor is reviewed from the point of retrievability and inter-generation ethics. This paper recommended the best solution for the disposal starting time by analyzing the above factors. It is concluded that the optimum timing for the CANDU spent fuel disposal is around 2041 and that the sooner disposal time, the better from the point of technical and safety aspects.

  14. Circadian rhythms, time-restricted feeding, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Emily N C; Panda, Satchidananda

    2017-10-01

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models. In humans, epidemiological studies have shown erratic eating patterns increase the risk of disease, whereas sustained feeding-fasting cycles, or prolonged overnight fasting, is correlated with protection from breast cancer. Therefore, optimizing the timing of external cues with defined eating patterns can sustain a robust circadian clock, which may prevent disease and improve prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Is fasting duration important in post adenotonsillectomy feeding time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari Moghaddam, Yalda; Seyedhejazi, Mahin; Naderpour, Mosoud; Yaghooblua, Yoosef; Golzari, Samad E J; Golzary, Samad

    2014-02-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is a common otolaryngology surgery. Nausea and vomiting are the most common complications of this procedure with a prevalence ranging from 49% to 73 %. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of short time fasting protocol on decreasing postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting, and initiation of oral feeding after adenotonsillectomy. 120 children aged 4 to 14 years candidates for adenotonsillectomy were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n = 120, 60 in each group). Each patient of the intervention group was given oral dextrose 10% as much volume as he could consume at 3 and 6 hours prior to the operation. All the data including pain severity, nausea and vomiting of the patients, the time of oral feeding initiation etc. were gathered in checklists after the operation. Statistical analyses were then performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16. Descriptive statistical methods and mean difference test for independent groups and chi square test or Fisher exact test, and if regression needed model test were applied. A P value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. The amount of Acetaminophen administered for the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group, and also the time of oral feeding initiation was significantly shorter in the intervention group than the control group (P time was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (P < 0.002), there were no significant differences in frequency of nausea between the two groups at other postoperative occasions. Postoperative vomiting frequency was not significant between the two groups at any occasions. The findings of this survey showed that shortening the duration of pre-adenotonsillectomy fasting period and hydration of patients several hours prior to the operation might be effective in decreasing postoperative pain and facilitating postoperative oral feeding initiation

  16. Time Spent by Calliphora Spp. Blowflies on Standard Traps Baited with Liver and Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of blowflies from the Calliphoridae family cause fly strikes in sheep and other species of economic importance. Impaired wool, decrease of ewe fertility, and even death can occur in heavy infestations. This paper describes the Calliphora spp. blowflies’ behavior on and around a trap baited with liver and ammonia before they entered in. More than half of Calliphora spp. blowflies (50.88% stayed a medium time (eight to fourteen seconds on the standard trap, while only 1.79% of them spent a longer time (26 to 30 seconds before entering the trap.

  17. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F.

    2018-02-26

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host’s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host’s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new

  18. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F

    2017-12-07

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host\\'s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host\\'s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new

  19. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra Sagarduy, José Luis; Camacho Mata, Dacia Yurima; Moral de la Rubia, José; Piña López, Julio Alfonso; Yunes Zárraga, José Luis Masud

    2018-01-01

    It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension. This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior. Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data ( p BS =0.235, χ 2 / gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom's Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen's Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053). The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so that quality of life of patients with hypertension improves and they might be able to manage and control their disease well.

  20. How do passion for video games and needs frustration explain time spent gaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Devin J; Milyavskaya, Marina; Mettler, Jessica; Heath, Nancy L; Derevensky, Jeffrey L

    2018-04-01

    Research applying self-determination theory and the dualistic model of passion (DMP) has shown video games may satisfy basic psychological needs (i.e., competence, autonomy, and relatedness) and be identified as a passion. The DMP distinguishes between healthy or harmonious passion and problematic or obsessive passion (OP), with the latter reflecting an overreliance towards one's passion to obtain needs satisfaction. The experience of daily obstructions to needs satisfaction, or needs frustration (NF), may facilitate such an overreliance. This study explored how NF and both types of passion explain the amount of time that university students spend gaming. The overall association between NF and time spent gaming was not significant. However, for video game users with low levels of OP for gaming, there was a significant negative association between NF and time spent gaming. Additionally, evidence of a mutually reinforcing association between NF and OP for gaming indicates that a vicious cycle exists, whereby a strong OP for gaming predicts and is reinforced by greater NF. The theoretical implications are discussed. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related behaviours among German children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke; Chen, Susan E; Jilcott, Stephanie B; Nayga, Rodolfo M

    2012-07-01

    To examine associations between maternal employment and time spent engaging in nutrition-related behaviours among mothers and children using a nationally representative sample of households in West and East Germany. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using time-use data for a sample of mother-child dyads. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related activities such as eating at home, eating away from home and food preparation were estimated using a double-hurdle model. German Time Budget Survey 2001/02. The overall sample included 1071 households with a child between 10 and 17 years of age. The time-use data were collected for a 3 d period of observation (two weekdays and one weekend day). Maternal employment was associated with the time children spent on nutrition-related behaviours. In households with employed mothers, children spent more time eating alone at home and less time eating meals with their mothers. Moreover, employed mothers spent less time on meal preparation compared with non-employed mothers. There were regional differences in time spent on nutrition-related behaviours, such that East German children were more likely to eat at home alone than West German children. Maternal employment was associated with less time spent eating with children and preparing food, which may be related to the increasing childhood obesity rates in Germany. Future national surveys that collect both time-use data and health outcomes could yield further insight into mechanisms by which maternal time use might be associated with health outcomes among children.

  2. Birth weight and time spent in outdoor physical activity during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the association between birth parameters (weight, length, and head circumference) and time spent in physical activity (outdoor and indoor) and screen time (TV viewing, computer, and videogame usage) among adolescents. A longitudinal cohort study surveyed 1794 children in 2004-2005 (median age = 12.7 yr), and 752 were resurveyed 5 yr later in 2009-2010 (age = 17-18 yr). Adolescents completed detailed activity questionnaires. Parents extracted birth parameter data from their child's health record booklet. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, gestational age, parental education, home ownership, exposure to passive smoking, and body mass index, 12-yr-old children in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of birth weight spent on average approximately 56 and 62 min more in total (Ptrend = 0.02) and outdoor physical activity (Ptrend = 0.02) per week, respectively. Similarly, 12-yr-old children in the high (>4000 g) versus very low (adolescence. Hence, this could be part of the underlying mechanism between prenatal influences and future disease risk and could have possible clinical implications.

  3. Automated methods for real-time analysis of spent-fuel measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosler, G.E.; Rinard, P.M.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Painter, J.

    1988-01-01

    Software has been developed for ''real-time'' analysis of neutron and gamma data from GRAND-1/fork measurements on spent-fuel assemblies. Three modules compose the software package. The modules are linked through a database system of files. The first module is part of a general data-base processing code. This module prepares input data files with inventory and correction-factor information for the second module. The second module, called OLAF, operates on a computer attached to the GRAND-1 electronics unit. In this second module, neutron and gamma data from spent-fuel assemblies are analyzed to verify consistency in the facility operator declarations for exposure (burnup) and cooling time. From the analysis, potential discrepancies in the measurement data are questioned while equipment is still installed at the facility and is available for additional measurements. During the measurements, data are written to an output file, called a results file, which can be processed by the third module of the software package. In the third module, printed reports summarizing the data and results are prepared, and neutron and gamma data are written to files that are process by the Deming curve-fitting code

  4. Time spent sitting during and outside working hours in bus drivers: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Clemes, Stacy A

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study objectively measured sedentary and non-sedentary time in a sample of bus drivers from the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants wore an activPAL3 inclinometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary. Driver's blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumference and body composition were measured objectively at the outset. The proportions of time spent sedentary and non-sedentary were calculated during waking hours on workdays and non-workdays and during working-hours and non-working-hours on workdays. 28 (85% of those enrolled into the study) provided valid objective monitoring data (89.3% male, [median ± IQR] age: 45.2 ± 12.8 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). A greater proportion of time was spent sitting on workdays than non-workdays (75% [724 ± 112 min/day] vs. 62% [528 ± 151 min/day]; p working-hours than non-working-hours (83% [417 ± 88 min/day] vs. 68% [307 ± 64 min/day]; p less than 3% of their overall time stepping. Bus drivers accumulate high levels of sitting time during working-hours and outside working-hours. Interventions are urgently needed in this at-risk group, which should focus on reducing sitting and increasing movement during breaks and increasing physical activity during leisure time to improve cardiovascular health.

  5. Relationship of Near-Crash/Crash Risk to Time Spent on a Cell Phone While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine in a naturalistic driving setting the dose-response relationship between cell phone usage while driving and risk of a crash or near crash. How is the increasing use of cell phones by drivers associated with overall near-crash/crash risk (i.e., during driving times both on and off the phone)? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. A random sample was selected comprised of 4 trips from each month that each driver was in the study, and in-vehicle video was used to classify driver behavior. The proportion of driving time spent using a cell phone was estimated for each 3-month period and correlated with overall crash and near-crash rates for each period. Thus, it was possible to test whether changes in an individual driver's cell phone use over time were associated with changes in overall near-crash/crash risk. Drivers in the study spent 11.7% of their driving time interacting with a cell phone, primarily talking on the phone (6.5%) or simply holding the phone in their hand or lap (3.7%). The risk of a near-crash/crash event was approximately 17% higher when the driver was interacting with a cell phone, due primarily to actions of reaching for/answering/dialing, which nearly triples risk (relative risk = 2.84). However, the amount of driving time spent interacting with a cell phone did not affect a driver's overall near-crash/crash risk. Vehicle speeds within 6 s of the beginning of each call on average were 5-6 mph lower than speeds at other times. Results of this naturalistic driving study are consistent with the observation that increasing cell phone use in the general driving population has not led to increased crash rates. Although cell phone use can be distracting and crashes have occurred during this distraction, overall crash rates appear unaffected by changes in the rate of cell phone use, even for individual drivers. Drivers compensate somewhat for the distraction

  6. Determination of burnup, cooling time and initial enrichment of PWR spent fuel by use of gamma-ray activity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, D.K.; Park, H.J.; Park, K.J.; Ro, S.G.; Park, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Institute has been developing the algorithms for sequential determination of cooling time, initial enrichment and burnup of the PWR spent fuel assembly by use of gamma ratio measurements, i.e. 134 Cs/ 137 Cs, 154 Eu/ 137 Cs and 106 Ru 137 Cs/( 134 Cs) 2 . Calculations were performed by applying the ORIGEN-S code. This method has advantages over combination techniques of neutron and gamma measurement, because of its simplicity and insensitivity to the measurement geometry. For verifying the algorithms an experiment for determining the cooling time, initial enrichment and burnup of the two PWR spent fuel rods was conducted by use of high-resolution gamma detector (HPGe) system only. This paper describes the method used and interim results of the experiment. This method can be applied for spent fuel characterization, burnup credit and safeguards of the spent fuel management facility

  7. Effect of the time spent by the photon in the absorbed state on the time-dependent transfer of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.M.; Rangarajan, K.E.; Peraiah, A.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent transfer equation is derived for a two-level atomic model which takes both bound-bound and bound-free transitions into account. A numerical scheme is proposed for solving the monochromatic time-dependent transfer equation when the time spent by the photon in the absorbed state is significant. The method can be easily extended to solve the problem of time-dependent line formation of the bound-free continuum. It is used here to study three types of boundary conditions of the incident radiation incident on a scattering atmosphere. The quantitative results show that the relaxation of the radiation field depends on the optical depth of the medium and on the ray's angle of emergence. 21 refs

  8. Time spent in housework and leisure: links with parents' physiological recovery from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E; Repetti, Rena L; Graesch, Anthony P

    2011-04-01

    Spouses' balancing of housework and leisure activities at home may affect their recovery from work. This paper reports on a study of everyday family life in which 30 dual-earner couples were tracked around their homes by researchers who recorded their locations and activities every 10 min. For women, the most frequently pursued activities at home were housework, communication, and leisure; husbands spent the most time in leisure activities, followed by communication and housework. Spouses differed in their total time at home and their proportion of time devoted to leisure and housework activities, with wives observed more often in housework and husbands observed more often in leisure activities. Both wives and husbands who devoted more time to housework had higher levels of evening cortisol and weaker afternoon-to-evening recovery. For wives, husbands' increased housework time also predicted stronger evening cortisol recovery. When both spouses' activities were entered in the same model, leisure predicted husbands' evening cortisol, such that husbands who apportioned more time to leisure, and whose wives apportioned less time to leisure, showed stronger after-work recovery. These results suggest that the division of labor within couples may have implications for physical health.

  9. Time spent for activation of non-profit studies in oncology in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco De Feo

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the time spent to activate oncological non-profit clinical trials promoted in Italy by the National Cancer Institute of Naples, following the implementation of recent European laws. METHODOLOGY: Data about the process of activation of 5 non-profit multicentre clinical trials were prospectively collected through a web-based system. The impact of European guidelines was assessed by comparing the efficiency of the process between applications started before and after the decree introducing in Italy the Clinical Trial Application form (MD-CTA. Outcomes of the descriptive analyses were the time to EC opinion, the time to administrative agreement signature after a positive EC opinion, and the cumulative percentage of submissions that came to closure (either positive or negative within four subsequent time cohorts. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 2007 to October 2009, 202 applications were submitted to 107 centres. Forty-four (59% applications of those submitted before were successful, compared to 71 (55% of those submitted after MD-CTA. Most of the failures were due to missing EC response (27% and 22% or administrative reasons (10% and 16%, before and after, respectively; very few (4% and 7% were due to EC refusal. The impact of the MD-CTA on time to EC opinion looked positive (median 4.1 vs 2.4 months, before and after, respectively but a subgroup analysis revealed that the impact was limited to a comparison biased by the selection of EC. After a positive EC opinion, there was no difference before and after MD-CTA in the time to administrative agreement signature (median 3.6 and 3.8 months, respectively. A trend to shortening time to closure of the whole submission process over the time was evident, with 58% of the applications coming to closure within 6 months from submission in the most recent cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience there is reassuring evidence of a trend toward shortening the time spent to

  10. Data Mining Techniques to Estimate Plutonium, Initial Enrichment, Burnup, and Cooling Time in Spent Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fugate, Michael Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tobin, Stephen Joesph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-19

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control (NPAC), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a multi-laboratory, university, international partner collaboration to (1) detect replaced or missing pins from spent fuel assemblies (SFA) to confirm item integrity and deter diversion, (2) determine plutonium mass and related plutonium and uranium fissile mass parameters in SFAs, and (3) verify initial enrichment (IE), burnup (BU), and cooling time (CT) of facility declaration for SFAs. A wide variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques were researched to achieve these goals [Veal, 2010 and Humphrey, 2012]. In addition, the project includes two related activities with facility-specific benefits: (1) determination of heat content and (2) determination of reactivity (multiplication). In this research, a subset of 11 integrated NDA techniques was researched using data mining solutions at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for their ability to achieve the above goals.

  11. Achieving the timely receipt of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizes, C.M.; Clark, W.D; Thomas, J.; Andes, T.

    1998-01-01

    The May 1996 Record of Decision on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel states that the United States will accept spent nuclear fuel containing uranium of U.S.-origin from foreign research reactors through the year 2009. The best information available indicates that approximately 13,000 assemblies of Material Test Reactor (MTR) spent nuclear fuel from 29 countries are expected to be shipped to the Savannah River Site during the 13 years of the program. As of July 1998, 1,371 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from 12 foreign research reactors have been received at the SRS. That is, after more than two years of the FRR program (approximately 15 percent of the program time), 11 percent of the total assemblies have been received at SRS. Current projections show that most of the assemblies can be received by 2009, however if some of the eligible, non-participating countries decide to rejoin the program, a bottleneck would occur at the end of the program. Also adding to the potential for the bottleneck is a trend of shipments being moved out in the timeline. The Savannah River Site is working to be proactive in avoiding a bottleneck at the end of the program, but cooperation is required from all program participants to be successful. Activities currently in progress include inventory/information questionnaires, verifying fuel against cask(s) certificate of compliance (C. of C.), and collecting Appendix A information well in advance of shipping the SNF. The inventory/information sheets have been distributed to a select number of reactor facilities in the past, but work is in progress to refine the process. Information requested in the questionnaire includes inventory numbers, preferred shipping dates, and cask preferences. This information allows for improved shipment planning and helps to ensure that we are working to meet the needs of the reactor facilities. Current plans are to send the questionnaires to

  12. Long time storage containers for spent fuels and vitrified wastes: synthesis of the studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beziat, A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of the studies relatives to the containers devoted to the long time spent fuels storage and vitrified wastes packages. These studies were realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. The first part is devoted to the presentation of the studies. The container sizing studies which constitute the first containment barrier are then presented. The material choice and the closed system are also detailed. The studies were validate by the realization of containers models and an associated demonstration program is proposed. A synthesis of the technical and economical studies allowed to determine the components and operation costs. (A.L.B.)

  13. Protective effect of time spent walking on risk of stroke in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Barbara J; Whincup, Peter H; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2014-01-01

    Older adults have the highest risks of stroke and the lowest physical activity levels. It is important to quantify how walking (the predominant form of physical activity in older age) is associated with stroke. A total of 4252 men from a UK population-based cohort reported usual physical activity (regular walking, cycling, recreational activity, and sport) in 1998 to 2000. Nurses took fasting blood samples and made anthropometric measurements. Among 3435 ambulatory men free from cardiovascular disease and heart failure in 1998 to 2000, 195 first strokes occurred during 11-year follow-up. Men walked a median of 7 (interquartile range, 3-12) hours/wk; walking more hours was associated with lower heart rate, D-dimer, and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Compared with men walking 0 to 3 hours/wk, men walking 4 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, and >22 hours had age- and region-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for stroke of 0.89 (0.60-1.31), 0.63 (0.40-1.00), 0.68 (0.35-1.32), and 0.36 (0.14-0.91), respectively, P (trend)=0.006. Hazard ratios were somewhat attenuated by adjustment for established and novel risk markers (inflammatory and hemostatic markers and cardiac function [N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide]) and walking pace, but linear trends remained. There was little evidence for a dose-response relationship between walking pace and stroke; comparing average pace or faster to a baseline of slow pace, the hazard ratio for stroke was 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.97), which was fully mediated by time spent walking. Time spent walking was associated with reduced risk of onset of stroke in dose-response fashion, independent of walking pace. Walking could form an important part of stroke-prevention strategies in older people.

  14. [Obesity and complementary feeding time: a period at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, M

    2010-12-01

    Relation between rapid growth during the first months of life and secondary risk of excessive adiposity is well demonstrated. Many works have indicated a birth feeding effect on weight gain during the first year of life and a protective effect towards later childhood and adult obesity. However all these studies are observational and several works denied this protective effect. Concerning complementary feeding, 3 interventional, randomized, studies achieved between 4 and 6 months of age, showed a good regulation of caloric intake and no weight gain modification due to complementary foods. Most of others studies are observational and don't show any relation between time of introduction of complementary foods and later fat mass. However 3 recent studies indicate, respectively at 7, 10 and 42 years of age, an increased adiposity, suggesting the possibility of a programmed excessive fat gain induced by an early complementary foods introduction. Very few studies have evaluated, besides the time of weaning, the kind, quantity and caloric density of foods used as complements, whereas other recent studies show the importance of appetite differences since the first months of life and the importance of genetic influence on these variations. Others works have emphasized the possible role of an excessive protein intake during the first 2 years of life. So, it appears that it may be necessary to pay attention not only on the date, but also on the kind and quantity of complementary foods, particularly in infants at risk for obesity, because of parental obesity, rapid weight growth or an excessive appetite. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of informal care: an empirical study into the valid measurement of time spent on informal caregiving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Bernard van den; Spauwen, Pol

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of informal care into economic evaluations of health care is troublesome. The debate focuses on the valuation of time spent on informal caregiving, while time measurement, a related and may be even a more important issue, tends to be neglected. Valid time measurement is a necessary

  16. Time Spent With Children and Working Parents’ Willingness to Medicate ADHD-Like Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Pajo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How much time parents spend with their children is likely to influence their judgments of children’s behaviors and the behaviors themselves. In the diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, parents are key informants and decide whether their children should receive medication. This exploratory study investigates the relationship between working parents’ willingness to medicate ADHD-like behaviors and the time they can spend with their children during a regular workday. The participants (409 parents of 5- to 17- year-old children reporting having no child with emotional or behavioral problems and 87 reporting having such a child were drawn from a population-based telephone survey of parents stratified by race and ethnicity in two urban Florida counties. Path analysis models, controlling for selected sociodemographic and household variables, showed that spending more time with one’s children during a regular workday and self-identifying as African American were negatively related to willingness to medicate among parents of children with problems. Among parents reporting no children with problems, only the number of children in the household and the parent-type household showed relationships to willingness to medicate, while mothers were more likely than fathers to spend more time with children. These observed relationships were of moderate effect but underscore the importance to initiate studies using valid measures of quantity and quality of parental time spent with ADHD children, and to query parents on these points when assessing the information they provide to clinicians.

  17. Genetic parameters for different measures of feed efficiency and related traits in boars of three pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    ) to 0.67 (LL) for BF, and from 0.13 (DD) to 0.19 (YY) for body conformation. Feeding behavior traits including DFI, number of visits to feeder per day (NVD), total time spent eating per day (TPD), feed intake rate (FR), feed intake per visit (FPV), and time spent eating per visit (TPV) were moderately...

  18. Effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates′ weight gain and reaching full oral feeding time interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Marofi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature neonates′ feeding is of great importance due to its effective role in their growth. These neonates should reach an independent oral nutrition stage before being discharged from the Neonatal Intensive care Unit. Therefore, the researcher decided to conduct a study on the effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates′ weight gain and their reaching full oral feeding time interval. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical trial with a quantitative design conducted on 69 premature infants (gestational age between 29 and 32 weeks who were assigned to cup (n = 34 and palady (n = 35 feeding groups through random allocation. The first feeding was administrated either by cup or palady method in each shift within seven sequential days (total of 21 cup and palady feedings. Then, the rest of feeding was administrated by gavage. Results: Mean hospitalization time (cup = 39.01 and palady = 30.4; P < 0.001 and mean time interval to reach full oral feeding (cup = 33.7 and palady = 24.1; P < 0.001 were significantly lower in palady group compared to cup group. Mean weight changes of neonates 7 weeks after the intervention compared to those in the beginning of the intervention were significantly more in palady group compared to the cup group (cup = 146.7 and palady = 198.8; P < 0.001. Conclusions: The neonates in palady group reached full oral feeding earlier than those of cup group. Subjects′ weight gain was also higher in palady group compared to the cup group. Premature neonates with over 30 weeks of gestational age and physiological stability can be fed by palady.

  19. Effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates' weight gain and reaching full oral feeding time interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marofi, Maryam; Abedini, Fatemeh; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Talakoub, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Premature neonates' feeding is of great importance due to its effective role in their growth. These neonates should reach an independent oral nutrition stage before being discharged from the Neonatal Intensive care Unit. Therefore, the researcher decided to conduct a study on the effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates' weight gain and their reaching full oral feeding time interval. This is a clinical trial with a quantitative design conducted on 69 premature infants (gestational age between 29 and 32 weeks) who were assigned to cup (n = 34) and palady (n = 35) feeding groups through random allocation. The first feeding was administrated either by cup or palady method in each shift within seven sequential days (total of 21 cup and palady feedings). Then, the rest of feeding was administrated by gavage. Mean hospitalization time (cup = 39.01 and palady = 30.4; P cup = 33.7 and palady = 24.1; P cup group. Mean weight changes of neonates 7 weeks after the intervention compared to those in the beginning of the intervention were significantly more in palady group compared to the cup group (cup = 146.7 and palady = 198.8; P cup group. Subjects' weight gain was also higher in palady group compared to the cup group. Premature neonates with over 30 weeks of gestational age and physiological stability can be fed by palady.

  20. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... afternoon routine feeding. Data were collected on fruit choice to determine fruits preference; time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the animal while ... of others irrespective of their nutritional quality. Time spent to remove or ... may exert selection pressures on fruit characteristics ...

  1. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ybarra Sagarduy JL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  2. Influence of limit-feeding and time of day of feed availability to growing calves on growth performance and feeding behavior in cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto, L D; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Islas, A; Swanson, K C

    2017-11-01

    Objective swere to determine the effects of limit-feeding and time of feed access in cold weather on growth performance and feeding behavior of growing calves fed a corn silage-based diet. Sixty-six steers (BW = 317 ± 5.3 kg) and 30 heifers (BW = 239 ± 7.6 kg) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment: 1) ad libitum feed intake (AL), 2) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the daytime (0601-1759 h; LF-D), 3) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis in the nighttime (1800-0559 h; LF-N), and 4) limit-fed to 80% of the average DMI of the AL group on a BW basis, split 1/2 in the daytime and 1/2 in the nighttime (LF-S). Feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored over 84 d using the Insentec feeding system. Average daily gain, DMI, and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.002) in the AL group compared with others. Dry matter intake was not different ( = 0.17) when comparing the LF-D with the LF-N groups. Average daily gain and G:F were greater ( ≤ 0.05) when comparing the LF-N group to the LF-D group, and were not different ( ≥ 0.51) when comparing the LF-S group with the mean of the LF-D and LF-N groups. Number of visits and meals per d was greater ( ≤ 0.001) in the LF-N than the LF-D group. Feed intake per visit was not different ( = 0.55) when comparing the AL group and others, and tended to be greater ( = 0.06) in the LF-D than the LF-N group. Feed intake per meal was greater ( Feed intake per minute (eating rate) was not influenced by treatment. In conclusion, limit-feeding at 80% of ad libitum intake decreased ADG and G:F. Limit-feeding in the nighttime as compared to limit-feeding in the daytime improves growth performance and increases feeding activity (number of visits and meals per d) which could be because of increased heat production to help maintain body temperature and thus reduce maintenance energy requirements.

  3. Time spent with friends in adolescence relates to less neural sensitivity to later peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L; Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2012-01-01

    Involvement with friends carries many advantages for adolescents, including protection from the detrimental effects of being rejected by peers. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which friendships may serve their protective role at this age, or the potential benefit of these friendships as adolescents transition to adulthood. As such, this investigation tested whether friend involvement during adolescence related to less neural sensitivity to social threats during young adulthood. Twenty-one adolescents reported the amount of time they spent with friends outside of school using a daily diary. Two years later they underwent an fMRI scan, during which they were ostensibly excluded from an online ball-tossing game by two same-age peers. Findings from region of interest and whole brain analyses revealed that spending more time with friends during adolescence related to less activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula--regions previously linked with negative affect and pain processing--during an experience of peer rejection 2 years later. These findings are consistent with the notion that positive relationships during adolescence may relate to individuals being less sensitive to negative social experiences later on.

  4. Robotic Spent Fuel Monitoring – It is time to improve old approaches and old techniques!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This report describes various approaches and techniques associated with robotic spent fuel monitoring. The purpose of this description is to improve the quality of measured signatures, reduce the inspection burden on the IAEA, and to provide frequent verification.

  5. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control, sucrose solution (0.75 mol or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol. As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution: 1 Parents (especially females increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2 Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  6. Grey Literature Searching for Health Sciences Systematic Reviews: A Prospective Study of Time Spent and Resources Utilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahlam A; Ratajeski, Melissa A; Bertolet, Marnie

    To identify estimates of time taken to search grey literature in support of health sciences systematic reviews and to identify searcher or systematic review characteristics that may impact resource selection or time spent searching. A survey was electronically distributed to searchers embarking on a new systematic review. Characteristics of the searcher and systematic review were collected along with time spent searching and what resources were searched. Time and resources were tabulated and resources were categorized as grey or non-grey. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Out of 81 original respondents, 21% followed through with completion of the surveys in their entirety. The median time spent searching all resources was 471 minutes, and of those a median of 85 minutes were spent searching grey literature. The median number of resources used in a systematic review search was four and the median number of grey literature sources searched was two. The amount of time spent searching was influenced by whether the systematic review was grant funded. Additionally, the number of resources searched was impacted by institution type and whether systematic review training was received. This study characterized the amount of time for conducting systematic review searches including searching the grey literature, in addition to the number and types of resources used. This may aid searchers in planning their time, along with providing benchmark information for future studies. This paper contributes by quantifying current grey literature search patterns and associating them with searcher and review characteristics. Further discussion and research into the search approach for grey literature in support of systematic reviews is encouraged.

  7. DETERMINANT FACTORS OF TIME SPENT ON FACEBOOK: BRAND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT AND USAGE TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    ULUSU, Yard. Doç. Dr. Yeşim

    2010-01-01

    Online  social  networks  have  integrated  into  the  computer  mediated  communication  (CMC) environment  in  the  past  few  years.  Social  Networks  such  as  Facebook,  Myspace,  Bebo  and  Twitter  are  web‐based services that allow people to create a public profile, share the connection with other users, and view and traverse  their  list  of  connections  in  common  network.  The  aim  of  this  study  is  to  find  factors  affecting  the amount  of  time  users  spent  on  Facebo...

  8. Teen worker safety training: methods used, lessons taught, and time spent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2015-05-01

    Safety training is strongly endorsed as one way to prevent teens from performing dangerous tasks at work. The objective of this mixed methods study was to characterize the safety training that teenagers receive on the job. From 2010 through 2012, focus groups and a cross-sectional survey were conducted with working teens. The top methods of safety training reported were safety videos (42 percent) and safety lectures (25 percent). The top lessons reported by teens were "how to do my job" and "ways to spot hazards." Males, who were more likely to do dangerous tasks, received less safety training than females. Although most teens are getting safety training, it is inadequate. Lessons addressing safety behaviors are missing, training methods used are minimal, and the time spent is insignificant. More research is needed to understand what training methods and lessons should be used, and the appropriate safety training length for effectively preventing injury in working teens. In addition, more research evaluating the impact of high-quality safety training compared to poor safety training is needed to determine the best training programs for teens. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Time's up. descriptive epidemiology of multi-morbidity and time spent on health related activity by older Australians: a time use survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanisha Jowsey

    Full Text Available Most Western health systems remain single illness orientated despite the growing prevalence of multi-morbidity. Identifying how much time people with multiple chronic conditions spend managing their health will help policy makers and health service providers make decisions about areas of patient need for support. This article presents findings from an Australian study concerning the time spent on health related activity by older adults (aged 50 years and over, most of whom had multiple chronic conditions. A recall questionnaire was developed, piloted, and adjusted. Sampling was undertaken through three bodies; the Lung Foundation Australia (COPD sub-sample, National Diabetes Services Scheme (Diabetes sub-sample and National Seniors Australia (Seniors sub-sample. Questionnaires were mailed out during 2011 to 10,600 older adults living in Australia. 2540 survey responses were received and analysed. Descriptive analyses were completed to obtain median values for the hours spent on each activity per month. The mean number of chronic conditions was 3.7 in the COPD sub-sample, 3.4 in the Diabetes sub-sample and 2.0 in the NSA sub-sample. The study identified a clear trend of increased time use associated with increased number of chronic conditions. Median monthly time use was 5-16 hours per month overall for our three sub-samples. For respondents in the top decile with five or more chronic conditions the median time use was equivalent to two to three hours per day, and if exercise is included in the calculations, respondents spent from between five and eight hours per day: an amount similar to full-time work. Multi-morbidity imposes considerable time burdens on patients. Ageing is associated with increasing rates of multi-morbidity. Many older adults are facing high demands on their time to manage their health in the face of decreasing energy and mobility. Their time use must be considered in health service delivery and health system reform.

  10. Determinants of Children's Use of and Time Spent in Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Alex; Kubena, Karen S.; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jan, Jie-Sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identify parental and children's determinants of children's use of and time spent in fast-food (FF) and full-service (FS) restaurants. Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Parents were interviewed by phone; children were interviewed in their homes. Participants: Parents and children ages 9-11 or 13-15 from 312 families…

  11. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children’s Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos A. Loucaides

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N=154, mean age = 11.7 and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child’s questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between “general friend support,” “friends’ activity norms,” and physical activity (r=0.343 and 0.333 resp., p<0.001 and between “general friend support” and time spent outside (r=0.460, p<0.001. Obtaining information relating to parental and friends’ influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children’s physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends’ influences may have a stronger impact on children’s behaviors.

  12. Is time spent playing video games associated with mental health, cognitive and social skills in young children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, V.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Hanson, G.; Bitfoi, A.; Golitz, D.; Koç, C.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Fermanian, C.; Pez, O.

    2016-01-01

    Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills.

  13. First-time mothers' breast-feeding maintenance: role of experiences and changes in maternal perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ellen J; Campo, Shelly; Colaizy, Tarah T; Mulder, Pamela J; Breheny, Patrick; Ashida, Sato

    2017-12-01

    Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions. Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions. Secondary data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007. Data from 762 first-time mothers who ever breast-fed were analysed. Experiencing trouble with baby's latch, problems with milk flow/supply and painful breast-feeding were significantly associated with breast-feeding duration (64, 26 and 36 % shorter duration, respectively). Meanwhile, positive changes in perception with respect to breast-feeding self-efficacy, opinion about infant feeding and belief about breast milk were associated with 16-27 % longer duration. Furthermore, changes in perception were observed to partially mediate the impact of physiological experiences on breast-feeding duration. Perceptions of breast-feeding self-efficacy, beliefs and opinions can change over time and are influenced by breast-feeding experiences. The combined effect of experience and perception plays a key role in influencing breast-feeding duration. Future research should explore interventions to maintain or improve these perceptions while accounting for physiological experiences to support breast-feeding for recommended durations among first-time mothers.

  14. Human mobility and time spent at destination: impact on spatial epidemic spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Chiara; Tizzoni, Michele; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-12-07

    Host mobility plays a fundamental role in the spatial spread of infectious diseases. Previous theoretical works based on the integration of network theory into the metapopulation framework have shown that the heterogeneities that characterize real mobility networks favor the propagation of epidemics. Nevertheless, the studies conducted so far assumed the mobility process to be either Markovian (in which the memory of the origin of each traveler is lost) or non-Markovian with a fixed traveling time scale (in which individuals travel to a destination and come back at a constant rate). Available statistics however show that the time spent by travelers at destination is characterized by wide fluctuations, ranging from a single day up to several months. Such varying length of stay crucially affects the chance and duration of mixing events among hosts and may therefore have a strong impact on the spread of an emerging disease. Here, we present an analytical and a computational study of epidemic processes on a complex subpopulation network where travelers have memory of their origin and spend a heterogeneously distributed time interval at their destination. Through analytical calculations and numerical simulations we show that the heterogeneity of the length of stay alters the expression of the threshold between local outbreak and global invasion, and, moreover, it changes the epidemic behavior of the system in case of a global outbreak. Additionally, our theoretical framework allows us to study the effect of changes in the traveling behavior in response to the infection, by considering a scenario in which sick individuals do not leave their home location. Finally, we compare the results of our non-Markovian framework with those obtained with a classic Markovian approach and find relevant differences between the two, in the estimate of the epidemic invasion potential, as well as of the timing and the pattern of its spatial spread. These results highlight the importance of

  15. Timed Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (tFEED) maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Schouten, Theo E.; Laplante, Philip A.; Kuppens, Harco; van den Broek, Egon

    2005-01-01

    In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. In a naive implementation, each object pixel feeds its (exact) ED to each background pixel; then the minimum of these values denotes the ED to

  16. Day - time feeding ecology of Eulemur cinereiceps in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Agnalazaha Forest, a degraded fragment of littoral forest in southeast Madagascar, contains a small population of the endangered Eulemur cinereiceps To better conserve this species its feeding ecology was described by habituating two groups and recording their activities, the food types and species exploited, and ...

  17. Time patterns of feeding and rumination in domestic cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, J.H.M.

    1975-01-01

    For the maintenance of its caloric and nutritional balance, an animal must consume food. The level of intake ultimately depends upon the factors that govern onset and cessation of the successive feeding spells. These factors may be studied either at the purely behavioural level, or at the

  18. Tank 21 and Tank 24 Blend and Feed Study: Blending Times, Settling Times, and Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 (micro)m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion ( 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  19. Time management and nectar flow: flower handling and suction feeding in long-proboscid flies (Nemestrinidae: Prosoeca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolyi, Florian; Morawetz, Linde; Colville, Jonathan F.; Handschuh, Stephan; Metscher, Brian D.; Krenn, Harald W.

    2013-11-01

    A well-developed suction pump in the head represents an important adaptation for nectar-feeding insects, such as Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. This pumping organ creates a pressure gradient along the proboscis, which is responsible for nectar uptake. The extremely elongated proboscis of the genus Prosoeca (Nemestrinidae) evolved as an adaptation to feeding from long, tubular flowers. According to the functional constraint hypothesis, nectar uptake through a disproportionately elongated, straw-like proboscis increases flower handling time and consequently lowers the energy intake rate. Due to the conspicuous length variation of the proboscis of Prosoeca, individuals with longer proboscides are hypothesised to have longer handling times. To test this hypothesis, we used field video analyses of flower-visiting behaviour, detailed examinations of the suction pump morphology and correlations of proboscis length with body length and suction pump dimensions. Using a biomechanical framework described for nectar-feeding Lepidoptera in relation to proboscis length and suction pump musculature, we describe and contrast the system in long-proboscid flies. Flies with longer proboscides spent significantly more time drinking from flowers. In addition, proboscis length and body length showed a positive allometric relationship. Furthermore, adaptations of the suction pump included an allometric relationship between proboscis length and suction pump muscle volume and a combination of two pumping organs. Overall, the study gives detailed insight into the adaptations required for long-proboscid nectar feeding, and comparisons with other nectar-sucking insects allow further considerations of the evolution of the suction pump in insects with sucking mouthparts.

  20. The Timing of Initiating Complementary Feeding in Preterm Infants and Its Effect on Overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, K.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Goudoever, van J.B.; Janse, A.

    2018-01-01

    Background:
    What is the appropriate time to start complementary feeding for preterm infants? The answer to this question is yet under debate. The timing of initiating complementary feeding may be associated with overweight in
    term infants. This systematic review aimed to study the effect

  1. Breastfeeding Duration and Authoritative Feeding Practices in First-Time Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Byrne, Rebecca; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M

    2016-08-01

    Longer breastfeeding duration appears to have a protective effect against childhood obesity. This effect may be partially mediated by maternal feeding practices during the first years of life. However, the few studies that have examined links between breastfeeding duration and subsequent feeding practices have yielded conflicting results. Using a large sample of first-time mothers and a newly validated, comprehensive measure of maternal feeding (the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire), this study examined associations between breastfeeding duration and maternal feeding practices at child age 24 months. Mothers (n = 458) enrolled in the NOURISH trial provided data on breastfeeding at child age 4, 14, and 24 months, and on feeding practices at 24 months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations between breastfeeding duration and 5 nonresponsive and 4 structure-related "authoritative" feeding practices, adjusting for a range of maternal and child characteristics. The model showed acceptable fit (χ(2)/df = 1.68; root mean square error of approximation = .04, comparative fit index = .91, and Tucker-Lewis index = .89) and longer breastfeeding duration was negatively associated with 4 out of 5 nonresponsive feeding practices and positively associated with 3 out of 4 structure-related feeding practices. Overall, these results suggest that mothers who breastfeed longer reported using more appropriate feeding practices. These data demonstrate an association between longer breastfeeding duration and authoritative feeding practices characterized by responsiveness and structure, which may partly account for the apparent protective effect of breastfeeding on childhood obesity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Heart rate biofeedback fails to enhance children's ability to identify time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Marguerite M; Gastin, Paul B; Brown, Helen; Shaw, Christine

    2011-03-01

    Physical activity recommendations for children in several countries advise that all young people should accumulate at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day. Perceiving physical activity intensity, however, can be a difficult task for children and it is not clear whether children can identify their levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity in accordance with the recommended guidelines. This study aimed to (1) explore whether children can identify time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity; and (2) investigate whether heart rate biofeedback would improve children's ability to estimate time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thirty seven children (15 boys and 22 girls, mean age 12.6 years) wore data recording Polar E600 heart rate monitors during eight physical education lessons. At the end of each lesson children's estimated time in zone was compared to their actual time in zone. During a six lesson Intervention phase, one class was assigned to a biofeedback group whilst the other class acted as the control group and received no heart rate biofeedback. Post-Intervention, students in the biofeedback group were no better than the control group at estimating time spent in zone (mean relative error of estimation biofeedback group: Pre-Intervention 41±32% to Post-Intervention 28±26%; control group: Pre-Intervention 40±39% to Post-Intervention 31±37%). Thus it seems that identifying time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity remains a complex task for children aged 11-13 even with the help of heart rate biofeedback. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Employment Status and Daily Stressors on Time Spent on Daily Household Chores in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study examines how employment status (worker vs. retiree) and life course influences (age, gender, and marital status) are associated with time spent on daily household chores. Second, this study assesses whether the associations between daily stressors and time spent on daily household chores differ as a function of…

  4. Influence of time off feed on broiler viscera weight, diameter, and shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Northcutt, J K; Lyon, C E; Rowland, G N

    1998-05-01

    The influence of time off feed on broiler viscera weight, intestinal diameter, and shear was studied by subjecting market-age male broilers (42, 44, or 48 d) to incremental feed withdrawal periods (0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 h). Body weight was determined prior to feed withdrawal and at the time of processing. After slaughter, scalding, and defeathering, the abdominal cavity was opened. Diameter and shear of the proventriculus-ventriculus junction, jejunum, and ileum segments were measured, as were gallbladder length and width. Thoracic and abdominal viscera, liver, and ventriculus weights were determined, and liver surface color was measured. Percentage body weight loss increased with longer feed withdrawal periods, as viscera, liver, and ventriculus weights decreased. Gallbladder length increased with time off feed, whereas its width did not change. Diameter of the proventriculus-ventriculus junction, jejunum, and ileum decreased with longer feed withdrawal periods. Shear values for the proventriculus-ventriculus junction, jejunum, and ileum were not influenced by time off feed. Positive correlations (P 0.4) between viscera weight and intestinal diameter were detected. Correlations between all measured parameters and shear values were not significant. Liver color measurements indicated that longer feed withdrawal periods resulted in significant linear decreases in L* (lightness), +a* (redness), and +b* (yellowness). Longer feed withdrawal periods decreased viscera weight and intestinal diameter, which would lower the potential for cutting the intestine during automated evisceration. However, the resulting greater gallbladder length (5 mm) would increase the possibility of bile contamination during evisceration.

  5. Effects of feeding level and access to rooting material on behaviour of growing pigs in situations with reduced feeding space and delayed feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-two pigs, housed in groups of four, were allocated to either (1) ad libitum feeding with access to wood chip, (2) restrictive feeding with access to wood chip or (3) restrictive feeding without access to wood chip. The effects of feeding level (treatment 1 vs. 2) and access to wood chip......, but the level of manipulating floor in these pigs did not reach the level of manipulating wood chip among pigs on treatment 2. During normal days restrictively fed pigs spent less time feeding on a 24 h basis, but more time feeding during the first hour after feed allocation than ad libitum fed pigs. When...

  6. High-burnup/low-cooling-time fuel carrying capacity of the GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.K.; Hopf, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In response to utilities' projected needs to ship higher burnup spent fuel, General Atomics (GA) has performed shielding and thermal analysis for the GA-4 and GA-9 legal weight shipping casks to determine the minimum cooling times for various burnup levels for fully loaded GA-4 and GA-9 casks and reduced payloads for the casks. Tables are provided in the paper which show the minimum cooling time for a given burnup and payload for each of the casks. The analyses show that the GA-4 and GA-9 casks can carry at least as many high-burnup and/or short-cooling-time spent fuel assemblies as present day shipping casks. In addition, the GA casks are able to carry at least twice as many assemblies as the present day shipping casks if the spent fuel burnup levels and/or cooling times are open-quotes coolerclose quotes or open-quotes as coolclose quotes as their design basis fuels. The increased shipping capacity for these more common open-quotes coolerclose quotes assemblies allows fewer shipments and therefore increases the efficiency and lowers predicted risks of the transport system

  7. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children’s Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinos A. Loucaides; Niki Tsangaridou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Explorat...

  8. Comparison of the Amount of Time Spent on Computer Games and Aggressive Behavior in Male Middle School Students of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi; Zahra Shahabinezhad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Modern technologies have a prominent role in adolescent's daily life. These technologies include specific cultural and moral patterns, which could be highly effective on adolescents. This research aimed at comparing the amount of time spent on computer games and aggressive behavior in male middle school students of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This study had a descriptive design. The study population included all male students of middle school of Tehran, and th...

  9. Changes in time spent walking and the risk of incident dementia in older Japanese people: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomata, Yasutake; Zhang, Shu; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Kaiho, Yu; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-09-01

    the impact of long-term changes in physical activity during adulthood in the context of primary prevention of dementia has not been addressed previously. to study the relationship between changes in time spent walking after middle age and incident dementia in older Japanese individuals. we conducted a cohort study of 6,909 disability-free Japanese individuals aged ≥65 years who lived in Ohsaki City, Japan. In both 1994 and 2006, the individual amount of time spent walking per day was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire (dementia were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance (LTCI) Database, in which participants were followed up for 5.7 years (between April 2007 and November 2012). The Cox model was used for estimating the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of incident dementia. the 5.7-year incidence of dementia was 9.2%. Compared with persons who remained in the lowest category of time spent walking (dementia: the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence intervals) was 0.72 (0.53 and 0.97). these results suggest that maintaining a higher level of physical activity after middle age may be a key strategy for prevention of dementia in older age. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Reduces Time Spent With Acute Dermatitis for Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Li Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen Yan; Ma, Charlie C.-M.; Anderson, Penny R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 to 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n = 405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n = 399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results: The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, Grade 0; 34%, Grade 1; 61%, Grade 2; and 2%, Grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, Grade 0/1, and 52%, Grade 2/3, for IMRT; and 25%, Grade 0/1, and 75%, Grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p < 0.0001). The IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with Grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with Grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the time spent with Grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p = 0.0015), medium (p < 0.0001), and large (p < 0.0001) breasts. Conclusions: Breast IMRT is associated with a significant decrease both in the time spent during treatment with Grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with that associated with conventional radiation, regardless of breast size.

  11. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  12. Eye movements discriminate fatigue due to chronotypical factors and time spent on task--a double dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cazzoli

    Full Text Available Systematic differences in circadian rhythmicity are thought to be a substantial factor determining inter-individual differences in fatigue and cognitive performance. The synchronicity effect (when time of testing coincides with the respective circadian peak period seems to play an important role. Eye movements have been shown to be a reliable indicator of fatigue due to sleep deprivation or time spent on cognitive tasks. However, eye movements have not been used so far to investigate the circadian synchronicity effect and the resulting differences in fatigue. The aim of the present study was to assess how different oculomotor parameters in a free visual exploration task are influenced by: a fatigue due to chronotypical factors (being a 'morning type' or an 'evening type'; b fatigue due to the time spent on task. Eighteen healthy participants performed a free visual exploration task of naturalistic pictures while their eye movements were recorded. The task was performed twice, once at their optimal and once at their non-optimal time of the day. Moreover, participants rated their subjective fatigue. The non-optimal time of the day triggered a significant and stable increase in the mean visual fixation duration during the free visual exploration task for both chronotypes. The increase in the mean visual fixation duration correlated with the difference in subjectively perceived fatigue at optimal and non-optimal times of the day. Conversely, the mean saccadic speed significantly and progressively decreased throughout the duration of the task, but was not influenced by the optimal or non-optimal time of the day for both chronotypes. The results suggest that different oculomotor parameters are discriminative for fatigue due to different sources. A decrease in saccadic speed seems to reflect fatigue due to time spent on task, whereas an increase in mean fixation duration a lack of synchronicity between chronotype and time of the day.

  13. Determination of the main retention time of feed in the digestive tract of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, C.; Dittrich, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Leistner, E.; Bier, H.; Militz, H.

    1985-01-01

    The medium retention time of the test feed in sheep was determined in ewes during three stages of the reproduction cycle. The feed was labelled with 51 Cr 2 O 3 . Experimental conditions are described on which the experiments can be carried out within the permissible limits. (author)

  14. Time-dependent variation of the neutron multiplication factor in spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leotlela, M.J. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics; Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa). Regulations and Licensing, Koeberg Operating Unit; Olifant, T. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Nuclear Power Studies; Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, Cape Town (South Africa). Operating Dept.; Petr, I. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics

    2017-12-15

    After spent fuel assemblies have been discharged from the reactor, reactivity will fluctuate as the cooling period progresses because of changes in the number density of fissile nuclides and neutron absorber nuclides. The purpose of this project was (1) to quantify the contribution of each individual nuclide to the reactivity of the fissile system, (2) to identify nuclides that are responsible for the fluctuation in reactivity, and (3) to determine the effect of the number of nuclides on reactivity. This paper will present the results of the study of the behaviour of the k{sub eff} with respect to variation in the duration of the cooling period during storage.

  15. Randomized controlled trial: impact of glycerin suppositories on time to full feeds in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadr, Sophie N; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel E; Rennix, Connie; Fisher, Hazel E; Manjunatha, Chikkanayakanahalli M; Young, David; Abara, Rosemary C

    2011-01-01

    Feed intolerance delays achievement of enteral feeding in preterm infants. Parenteral nutrition is associated with cholestasis and increased risk of sepsis. Glycerin suppositories have been used to promote gastrointestinal motility and feed tolerance. To investigate whether daily glycerin suppositories (a) reduce the time to full enteral feeding in infants born at suppositories; 28-31(+6) weeks subgroup); controls - no intervention. The same feeding protocol and departmental guidelines for other aspects of neonatal intensive care were used in all subjects. Analysis was by intention to treat. 54 babies were recruited (31 males), 29 randomized to receive suppositories; 48 achieved full enteral feeds. The median (range) time to full feeds was 1.6 days shorter in intervention group babies than controls, but not statistically significant: 7.4 (4.6-30.9) days versus 9.0 (4.4-13.3) days (p = 0.780; 95% confidence interval: -1.917, 2.166). No significant differences were observed in secondary outcomes. Intervention group babies passed their first stool earlier than controls (median: day 2 vs. day 4; p = 0.016). Regular glycerin suppositories did not reduce the time to full enteral feeds in infants born at <32 weeks' gestation in our setting. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Aline Araújo; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Chor, Dora

    2017-08-17

    To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil - Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto ) have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week) spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income. The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  17. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Araújo Nobre

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. METHODS Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil – Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. RESULTS The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income CONCLUSIONS The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  18. The effects of feeding frequency on waiting time, milking frequency, cubicle and feeding fence utilization for cows in an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, H.H.; Stefanowska, J.; Sallvik, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this trial, the effects of the forage feeding frequency on the waiting time prior to milking and the cowshed facility utilization by cows milked in an automatic milking unit (AMU) were studied. The feeding frequency was increased from two times per day to six times per day. It was found that the

  19. Effect of nutrient dilution on feed intake, eating time and performance of hens in early lay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Kwakkel, R P; André, G; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Verstegen, M W A

    2007-08-01

    1. An experiment with 480 ISA Brown layers was conducted to measure the effect of dietary energy (11.8, 11.2 and 10.6 MJ/kg) and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) (128, 146 and 207 g/kg) concentration, soluble NSP content (64 and 85 g/kg), particle size distribution of the NSP fraction (fine and coarse) and feed form (mash and crumble) on feed intake, eating time and egg performance of laying hens in early lay (from 18 to 26 weeks of age). Twelve experimental diets were tested, each replicated 4 times. 2. Laying hens in early lay that were fed low- or high-NSP diets were able to compensate for 10% dietary dilution by 9.5 and 4.9% higher feed intakes, respectively. Feeding crumble or coarsely ground mash did not affect feed intake. 3. Eating time of the hens fed the undiluted diets increased over the experimental period from 16.4 to 24.6% of the observation period, but was not affected by sand or grit addition, particle size distribution or feed form. Feeding high-NSP diets increased eating time by 22%. 4. Egg performance and body weight gain of the hens that were fed low-NSP or high-NSP diets were similar or better compared to the undiluted diets, whereas coarse grinding of the diets showed 7 to 10% lower egg performance and weight gain. Egg performance and weight gain were not affected by feed form. 5. It is concluded that hens in early lay, fed energy-diluted diets, by adding sand or grit (low-NSP) or NSP-rich raw materials (high-NSP) to the control diet, were able to increase their feed intake, resulting in energy intake and egg performance comparable to the control group. Supplementing diets with insoluble NSP also decreased eating rate. Prolonged eating time using insoluble NSP could be useful in reducing feather pecking behaviour.

  20. Maternal employment, acculturation, and time spent in food-related behaviors among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Evidence from the American Time Use Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Must, Aviva; Peréa, Flavia; Economos, Christina D

    2015-04-01

    Employment is a major factor underlying im/migration patterns. Unfortunately, lower diet quality and higher rates of obesity appear to be unintended consequences of moving to the US. Changes in food preparation practices may be a factor underlying dietary acculturation. The relationships between employment, acculturation, and food-related time use in Hispanic families have received relatively little attention. We used cross-sectional data collected from Hispanic mothers (ages 18-65) with at least one child employment, acculturation (US-born vs. im/migrant), and time spent in food preparation and family dinner. Regression models were estimated separately for the employed and the non-working and were adjusted for Hispanic origin group, socio-demographic and household characteristics. Working an eight-hour day was associated with spending 38 fewer minutes in food preparation (-38.0 ± SE 4.8, p < 001). Although being US-born was associated with spending fewer minutes in food preparation, this relationship varied by origin group. Acculturation did not appear to modify the relationship between hours worked and time spent in food preparation or family dinner. Mothers who worked late hours spent less time eating the evening meal with their families (-9.8 ± SE 1.3). Although an eight-hour workday was associated with a significant reduction in food preparation time, an unexpected result is that, for working mothers, additional time spent in paid work is not associated with the duration of family dinner later that day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of rivastigmine on costs and on time spent in caregiving for families of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Deborah; Amaya, Karine; Casciano, Roman; Puder, Katherine L; Casciano, Julian; Chang, Sobin; Snyder, Edward H; Cheng, Isaac; Cuccia, Anthony J

    2003-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) places a significant burden on health care systems worldwide. As new treatments are developed, their cost-effectiveness is often assessed to help health care professionals make informed decisions. In addition to the more common practice of assessing direct medical costs, indirect costs, including time spent in caregiving, should be evaluated. This study examined the potential effects of the dual cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine (Exelon) on caregivers of patients with AD. Results from two 26-week, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated the clinically relevant and statistically significant efficacy of rivastigmine (6-12 mg/day) compared to placebo, on cognition, activities of daily living, and global functioning. By delaying progression of AD, significant savings in caregiver burden are anticipated, as measured by time spent caregiving and its related costs. Data collected in a prospective, observational study of AD patients and their caregivers were used to establish the relationship between disease severity (based on Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score) and time spent caregiving (according to the 5-item Caregivers Activity Survey score). A significant correlation was observed between the two scores (N = 43, r = -.56, p patients with mild AD (MMSE score 21-30), resulting in a total savings of approximately 11,253 dollars. Treatment of patients with moderately severe AD was also evaluated. The trend was similar but the impact was less, suggesting an economic benefit to early therapy. Early diagnosis and a pharmacologic intervention that allows the patients to remain at home longer by delaying disease progression would have a beneficial impact on patients, caregivers, and payers, and should therefore be encouraged through initiatives designed to identify and treat patients early in the course of disease.

  2. Daily time spent indoors in German homes--baseline data for the assessment of indoor exposure of German occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasche, Sabine; Bischof, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive time-activity studies, for use as a basis for estimates of personal exposure, are not readily available in Germany. This analysis of time spent indoors at home is based on data from "Dampness and mould in homes" (2000/ 2001)--a study of about 12,000 persons living in 5530 randomly selected apartments and houses in Germany. The results show the mean times per day people in Germany spend in their homes, classified by gender, age group, building location, city size, region, building type, owner-occupier status, number of people at home, smoking and ventilation habits, moisture emission and ill health factors such as asthma, allergy and number of acute respiratory infections per year. The overall mean time spent at home, 15.7 h per, is in accordance with results from US-American (15.6 h/day) and Canadian (15.8 h/day) human activity surveys carried out in the nineties, as well as being consistent with the German Environmental Survey (1990/92) and a small German study in 1987.

  3. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F.; van der Veen, Daan R.; O’ Donnell, Aidan J.; Cumnock, Katherine; Schneider, David; Pain, Arnab; Subudhi, Amit; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Rund, Samuel S. C.; Savill, Nicholas J.; Reece, Sarah E.

    2018-01-01

    by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms

  4. Determinants of timely initiation of complementary feeding among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-26

    May 26, 2014 ... care, exclusive breastfeeding and no siblings as independent predictors of timely initiation of ... studies[7‑9] conducted in different parts of the developing ..... services provides further benefits of counseling on issues relevant ...

  5. Gamma spectrometric characterization of short cooling time nuclear spent fuels using hemispheric CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, A; Szabó, J L; Arenas-Carrasco, J; Arlt, R; Dubreuil, A; Esmailpur-Kazerouni, K

    2000-01-01

    After years of cooling, nuclear spent fuel gamma emissions are mainly due to caesium isotopes which are emitters at 605, 662 and 796-801 keV. Extensive work has been done on such fuels using various CdTe or CdZnTe probes. When fuels have to be measured after short cooling time (during NPP outage) the spectrum is much more complex due to the important contributions of niobium and zirconium in the 700 keV range. For the first time in a nuclear power plant, four spent fuels of the Kozloduy VVER reactor no 4 were measured during outage, 37 days after shutdown of the reactor. In such conditions, good resolution is of particular interest, so a 20 mm sup 3 hemispheric crystal was used with a resolution better than 7 keV at 662 keV. This paper presents the experimental device and analyzes the results which show that CdZnTe commercially available detectors enabled us to perform a semi-quantitative determination of the burn-up after a short cooling time. In addition, it is discussed how a burn-up evolution code (CESAR)...

  6. Survival times with and without tube feeding in patients with dementia or psychiatric diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keiko; Hirayama, Keisuke; Hirao, Akihiko; Kondo, Keiko; Hayashi, Hideki; Kadota, Koichi; Asaba, Hiroyuki; Ishizu, Hideki; Nakata, Kenji; Kurisu, Kairi; Oshima, Etsuko; Yokota, Osamu; Yamada, Norihito; Terada, Seishi

    2017-11-01

    It is widely supposed that there has been no evidence of increased survival in patients with advanced dementia receiving enteral tube feeding. However, more than a few studies have reported no harmful outcome from tube feeding in dementia patients compared to in patients without dementia. This was a retrospective study. Nine psychiatric hospitals in Okayama Prefecture participated in this survey. All inpatients fulfilling the entry criteria were evaluated. All subjects suffered from difficulty with oral intake. Attending physicians thought that the patients could not live without long-term artificial nutrition. The physicians decided whether to make use of long-term artificial nutrition between January 2012 and December 2014. We evaluated 185 patients. Their mean age was 76.6 ± 11.4 years. Of all subjects, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (n = 78) formed the biggest group, schizophrenia patients (n = 44) the second, and those with vascular dementia (n = 30) the third. The median survival times were 711 days for patients with tube feeding and 61 days for patients without tube feeding. In a comparison different types of tube feeding, median survival times were 611 days for patients with a nasogastric tube and more than 1000 days for those with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. Patients with tube feeding survived longer than those without tube feeding, even among dementia patients. This study suggests that enteral nutrition for patients with dementia prolongs survival. Additionally, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding may be safer than nasogastric tube feeding among patients in psychiatric hospitals. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  8. Spent fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this task is to support the Domestic Spent Fuel Storage Program through studies involving the transport of spent fuel. A catalog was developed to provide authoritative, timely, and accessible transportation information for persons involved in the transport of irradiated reactor fuel. The catalog, drafted and submitted to the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratories, for their review and approval, covers such topics as federal, state, and local regulations, spent fuel characteristics, cask characteristics, transportation costs, and emergency response information

  9. The influence of evaluation protocol on time spent exercising at a high level of oxygen uptake during continuous cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, K L; Glaister, M; Howatson, G; Van Someren, K

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of protocol variation on the time spent exercising at ≥95% V̇O2max during cycle ergometer trials performed at the exercise intensity associated with V̇O2max (iV̇O2max). Nine male triathletes (age: 32±10 years; body mass: 73.3±6.1 kg; stature: 1.79±0.07 m; V̇O2max: 3.58±0.45 L.min(-1)) performed four exercise tests. During tests 1 and 2, participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test using different stage durations (1 min and 3 min) for the determination of iV̇O2max (1 min) and iV̇O2max (3 min). During tests 3 and 4, participants performed a continuous bout of exhaustive cycling at iV̇O2max (1 min) (CONT1) and iV̇O2max (3 min) (CONT3). iV̇O2max (1 min) was significantly greater (Pexercising continuously at iV̇O2max, time spent at ≥95% V̇O2max is influenced by the initial measurement of iV̇O2max.

  10. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ling; Yang Dong; Zhu Nanwen

    2008-01-01

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni 0 ) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d -1 and HRT was 3 days

  11. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: effect of hydraulic retention time and process load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Nan-Wen

    2008-12-30

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni0) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1Ld(-1) and HRT was 3 days.

  12. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Ling; Yang Dong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Nanwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: nwzhu@sina.com

    2008-12-30

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni{sup 0}) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d{sup -1} and HRT was 3 days.

  13. Time spent by Brazilian students in different modes of transport going to school: changes over a decade (2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine changes in the time spent in each mode of transportation used for going to school by gender and age among adolescents from Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Two school-based surveys were performed in 2001 (N = 5,028 and 2011 (N = 6,529 in high school students (15-19 years old. The mode of transportation (on foot; by bicycle; by bus; car/motorcycle and the time spent for commuting to school were assessed. Active commuting increased for short trips in both genders (male: 25.1% to 36.7%; female: 18.8% to 29.2% and in all ages (15-16 years: 21% to 32.7%; 17-19 years: 21.9% to 32.4%, and declined for longer trips in males (30.5% to 21.9% and in 15-16 years old students (25.7% to 34.7%. Car/motorcycle use has doubled for short trips in males (38.1% to 65.9% and in 17-19 years old students (37.7% to 62.7%, while the use of buses remained stable in both genders. Our findings contribute to discussions on public policy focusing on the design of safe environments to promote active commuting to schools, particularly to decrease the use of motorized transport for short trips.

  14. Is time spent playing video games associated with mental health, cognitive and social skills in young children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Hanson, Gregory; Bitfoi, Adina; Golitz, Dietmar; Koç, Ceren; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Pez, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    Background Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills. Methods Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health Europe project conducted in six European Union countries (youth ages 6–11, n = 3195). Child mental health was assessed by parents and teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and by children themselves with the Dominic Interactive. Child video game usage was reported by the parents. Teachers evaluated academic functioning. Multivariable logistic regressions were used. Results 20 % of the children played video games more than 5 h per week. Factors associated with time spent playing video games included being a boy, being older, and belonging to a medium size family. Having a less educated, single, inactive, or psychologically distressed mother decreased time spent playing video games. Children living in Western European countries were significantly less likely to have high video game usage (9.66 vs 20.49 %) though this was not homogenous. Once adjusted for child age and gender, number of children, mothers age, marital status, education, employment status, psychological distress, and region, high usage was associated with 1.75 times the odds of high intellectual functioning (95 % CI 1.31–2.33), and 1.88 times the odds of high overall school competence (95 % CI 1.44–2.47). Once controlled for high usage predictors, there were no significant associations with any child self-reported or mother- or teacher-reported mental health problems. High usage was associated with decreases in peer relationship problems [OR 0.41 (0.2–0.86) and in prosocial deficits (0.23 (0.07, 0.81)]. Conclusions Playing video games may have positive effects on young children. Understanding the mechanisms

  15. Is time spent playing video games associated with mental health, cognitive and social skills in young children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Hanson, Gregory; Bitfoi, Adina; Golitz, Dietmar; Koç, Ceren; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Pez, Ondine

    2016-03-01

    Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health Europe project conducted in six European Union countries (youth ages 6-11, n = 3195). Child mental health was assessed by parents and teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and by children themselves with the Dominic Interactive. Child video game usage was reported by the parents. Teachers evaluated academic functioning. Multivariable logistic regressions were used. 20 % of the children played video games more than 5 h per week. Factors associated with time spent playing video games included being a boy, being older, and belonging to a medium size family. Having a less educated, single, inactive, or psychologically distressed mother decreased time spent playing video games. Children living in Western European countries were significantly less likely to have high video game usage (9.66 vs 20.49 %) though this was not homogenous. Once adjusted for child age and gender, number of children, mothers age, marital status, education, employment status, psychological distress, and region, high usage was associated with 1.75 times the odds of high intellectual functioning (95 % CI 1.31-2.33), and 1.88 times the odds of high overall school competence (95 % CI 1.44-2.47). Once controlled for high usage predictors, there were no significant associations with any child self-reported or mother- or teacher-reported mental health problems. High usage was associated with decreases in peer relationship problems [OR 0.41 (0.2-0.86) and in prosocial deficits (0.23 (0.07, 0.81)]. Playing video games may have positive effects on young children. Understanding the mechanisms through which video game use may stimulate

  16. Influence of feeding time on sexual maturity and carcass composition in female broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila VS de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred and ninety six Arbor Acres females and 144 males were used to study the influence of feeding time on sexual maturity and carcass composition. Treatments were: T1 = feeding at 6:30 am, T2 = 50% feeding at 6:30 am and 50% at 3:30 pm (dual, T3 = feeding at 11:00 am, T4 = feeding at 3:30 pm. Nutrition and management were as recommended to the commercial line. Variables studied were: sexual maturity at 5% production (SM, mean egg production percentage (PEP body weight (BW, carcass composition, tibia weight (TIBW and tibia calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P contents. Analysis of variance was used, and the means were compared using Student's t test. T2 females reached SM at 25.92 weeks, which was earlier (p0.10 on carcass dry matter (DM, ether extract (EE, crude protein (CP and ash (ASH. DM, EE, TIBW, Ca and P increased (p<0.05 whereas CP and ASH decreased with age. Time of feeding influenced body weight, but not carcass composition. Hens fed twice a day had earlier sexual maturity and similar egg production compared to those fed once at 6:30 am.

  17. Comparison of Objectively Measured and Self-reported Time Spent Sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Korshøj, M; Skotte, J

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, methods for objective quantification of sitting time have been lacking. The aim of this study was to validate self-reported measures against objectively measured total sitting time and longest continuous time with uninterrupted sitting during working hours, leisure time on workday...... a retrospective 7-day questionnaire. A generalized linear model showed the difference between the methods. No significant correlations were found between objective and self-reported sitting time (r...

  18. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  19. Measuring the opportunity loss of time spent boarding admitted patients in the emergency department: a multihospital analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Raymond; Farley, Heather; Twanmoh, Joseph; Urumov, Andrej; Evans, Bruce; Olsen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is an international crisis affecting the timeliness and quality of patient care. Boarding of admitted patients in the ED is recognized as a major contributor to ED crowding. The opportunity loss of this time is the benefit or value it could produce if it were used for something else. In crowded EDs, the typical alternative use of this time is to treat patients waiting to be seen. Various ED performance benchmarks related to inpatient boarding have been proposed, but they are not commonly reported and have yet to be evaluated to determine whether they correlate with the opportunity loss of time used for boarding. This study quantified several measures of ED boarding in a variety of hospital settings and looked for correlations between them and the opportunity loss of the time spent on boarding. In particular, average boarding time per admission was found to be easy to measure. Results revealed that it had a near-perfect linear correlation with opportunity loss. The opportunity loss of every 30 minutes of average boarding time equaled the time required to see 3.5 percent of the ED's daily census. For busy hospitals, the opportunity loss allowed sufficient time for staff to be able to see up to 36 additional patients per day. This correlation suggests that average boarding time per admission may be useful in evaluating efforts to reduce ED crowding and improve patient care.

  20. Who's cooking? Time spent preparing food by gender, income and household composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey data and multivariate analysis to explore how time allocated to food preparation differs across income groups, household composition (number of adults and presence of children), and employment status of adults in the household.

  1. Time Spent in Face-to-Face Patient Care and Work Outside the Examination Room

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Andrew; Flocke, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE Contrary to physicians’ concerns that face-to-face patient time is decreasing, data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) indicate that between 1988 and 1998, durations of primary care outpatient visits have increased. This study documented how physicians spend time during the workday, including time outside the examination room, and compared observed face-to-face patient care time with that reported in NAMCS.

  2. A Study of Time Spent Working at Learning Centers. Technical Report #17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Sharon; And Others

    This study examined the proportion of time children in the Kamehameha Early Education Program schools spend at actual school work in learning centers. Systematic time-sampled observations using multiple observers were conducted in December-January and again in March-April. The subjects, 12 children (6 kindergarteners and 6 first graders) were…

  3. The Effects of Social Environments on Time Spent Gaming: Focusing on the Effects of Communities and Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tee Teng; Jung, Sun Young; Kim, Eunyi

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the impact of community and neighborhood on time spent computer gaming. Computer gaming for over 20 hours a week was set as the cutoff line for "engaged use" of computer games. For the analysis, this study analyzed data for about 1,800 subjects who participated in the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. The main findings are as follows: first, structural community characteristics and neighborhood social capital affected the engaged use of computer games. Second, adolescents who reside in regions with a higher divorce rate or higher residential mobility were likely to exhibit engaged use of computer games. Third, adolescents who highly perceive neighborhood social capital exhibited lower possibility of engaged use of computer games. Based on these findings, practical implications and directions for further study are suggested.

  4. Interaction during feeding times between mothers and malnourished children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Chuproski Saldan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to understand the relations between mothers and malnourished children at feeding times. It is an exploratory study with qualitative data analysis. Data collection was performed at home by means of participant observation with eight mother-child dyads and three grandmothers. Based on the thematic analysis, the following themes emerged: food and interaction; day-to-day care of the child. The families' life situation was unfavorable. Mothers and grandmothers were responsible for preparing family meals, feeding and child care. The mother-child relationships were permeated by gestures of affection, slaps, scolding, and threats during feeding and there were cases of negligence, physical and psychological violence in daily care. Some mothers and grandmothers spoke quietly and cared for the child to be fed and cleaned while others mothers showed little patience for dealing with the child and they became easily irritated. Mothers' life stories were marked by adverse events and most of them faced emotional problems that could have repercussions in relationships with children at feeding times and in daily care. The mother-child interactions at home do not always favor feeding and responsive care, which may further worsen the nutritional status of these children.

  5. Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris; Nunn, Charles L; Machanda, Zarin; Wrangham, Richard W

    2011-08-30

    Unique among animals, humans eat a diet rich in cooked and nonthermally processed food. The ancestors of modern humans who invented food processing (including cooking) gained critical advantages in survival and fitness through increased caloric intake. However, the time and manner in which food processing became biologically significant are uncertain. Here, we assess the inferred evolutionary consequences of food processing in the human lineage by applying a Bayesian phylogenetic outlier test to a comparative dataset of feeding time in humans and nonhuman primates. We find that modern humans spend an order of magnitude less time feeding than predicted by phylogeny and body mass (4.7% vs. predicted 48% of daily activity). This result suggests that a substantial evolutionary rate change in feeding time occurred along the human branch after the human-chimpanzee split. Along this same branch, Homo erectus shows a marked reduction in molar size that is followed by a gradual, although erratic, decline in H. sapiens. We show that reduction in molar size in early Homo (H. habilis and H. rudolfensis) is explicable by phylogeny and body size alone. By contrast, the change in molar size to H. erectus, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens cannot be explained by the rate of craniodental and body size evolution. Together, our results indicate that the behaviorally driven adaptations of food processing (reduced feeding time and molar size) originated after the evolution of Homo but before or concurrent with the evolution of H. erectus, which was around 1.9 Mya.

  6. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Vidal Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital.Method: quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants - with self-confrontation - by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts - whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not.Results: time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life.Conclusion: the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time.

  7. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital. quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants--with self-confrontation--by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts--whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not. time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life. the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time.

  8. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  9. The Relation between the Time Mothers and Children Spent Together and the Children's Trait Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices have been shown to predict children's emotional intelligence. The time that mothers and children spend in joint activity is an important aspect of the parent-child relationship, and it has been found to be influential in different domains of children's development. However, it has not been investigated in relation…

  10. Ojibway Adolescent Time Spent with Parents/Elders as Related to Delinquency and Court Adjudication Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzow, Darryl

    1990-01-01

    Among 94 Ojibway adolescents, those with a history of delinquency or court adjudication were less likely to spend time with their families and were more likely to report dysfunctional family situations and negative feelings toward family. Recommendations are presented for family support and skills development in reservation communities. (SV)

  11. Feeding activity in Groups of Newly Hatched Broiler Chicks: Effects of strain and hatching time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    The feeding activity of 2 strains of broiler chickens was investigated during their first week of life in relation to their hatching time. Fast (Ross 308) and slow-growing (LB) strains were allocated to 1 of 3 (early, middle, or late hatch) single-strain groups of 80 to 100 as-hatched birds in 4...

  12. Animal DNA identification in food products and animal feed by real time polymerase chain reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Мар’янівна Іщенко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Approbation of diagnostic tests for species identification of beef, pork and chicken by real time polymerase chain reaction method was done. Meat food, including heat treated and animal feed, was used for research. The fact of inconsistencies was revealed for product composition of some meat products that is marked by manufacturer 

  13. Splitting the scotoperiod: effects on feeding behaviour, intestinal fill and digestive transit time in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Thodberg, Karen

    2011-01-01

    points (n¼192). Digestive transit time was estimated on d 29 using a chromic oxide marker; production variables and the extent of foot pad dermatitis were also recorded. 4. In the 3 h prior to a scotoperiod, feeding activity increased in chickens from DARK 8 but not DARK 4þ4. This increase was reflected...

  14. Effects of varying feeding times on fertility and hatchability of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of varying feeding times on fertility and hatchability of broiler chicken breeders in a tropical environment. ... Journal Home > Vol 65, No 4 (2017) > ... Prior to the eighth week data collection, the birds were allowed to get accustomed to ...

  15. Growth performance, haematology and cost benefit of growing rabbits reared on different feed access times and restriction durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obasa, O.A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty growing rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes were used for 10 wk in a 4 x 3 factorial experimental design to test for the effect of different feed access times (2, 4, 6 and 24 h and different restriction durations (2, 4 and 6 wk on the performance, haematological parameters and cost benefits of growing rabbits. Data obtained were subject to a 2�way analysis of variance. Results showed significantly higher (p0.05 across the feed access time and restriction duration. White blood cell was higher in growing rabbits on 2-h feed access time for 6-wk duration of restriction while all other parameters measured for haematology were not significantly affected by the feed access time and restriction duration. Total cost of feed consumed was highest in growing rabbits maintained on 24-h feed access time. Cost of feed per kg weight gain was not significantly influenced across the feed access times and the restriction durations. It was concluded that for a reduced cost of feeding without an adverse effect on the performance and haematological profile, growing rabbits should be raised on not less than 4-h feed access time for 2-wk restriction duration.

  16. EFFECT OF CURRENT, TIME, FEED AND CATHODE TYPE ON ELECTROPLATING PROCESS OF URANIUM SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Sigit

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   EFFECT OF CURRENT, TIME, FEED AND CATHODE TYPE ON ELECTROPLATING PROCESS OF URANIUM SOLUTION. Electroplating process of uranyl nitrate and effluent process has been carried out in order to collect uranium contained therein using electrode Pt / Pt and Pt / SS at various currents and times. Material used for electrode were Pt (platinum and SS (Stainlees Steel. Feed solution of 250 mL was entered into a beaker glass equipped with Pt anode - Pt cathode or Pt anode - SS cathode, then fogged direct current from DC power supply with specific current and time so that precipitation of uranium sticking to the cathode. After the processes completed, the cathode was removed and weighed to determine weight of precipitates, while the solution was analyzed to determine the uranium concentration decreasing after and before electroplating process. The experiments showed that a relatively good time to acquire uranium deposits at the cathode was 1 hour by current 7 ampere, uranyl nitrate as feed, and Pt (platinum as cathode. In these conditions, uranium deposits attached to the cathode amounted to 74.96% of the original weight of uranium oxide in the feed or 206.5 mg weight. The use of Pt cathode for  uranyl nitrate, SS and Pt cathode for effluent process feed gave uranium specific weight at the cathode of 12.99 mg/cm2, 2.4 mg/cm2 and 5.37 mg/cm2 respectively for current 7 ampere and electroplating time 1 hour. Keywords: Electroplating, uranyl nitrate, effluent process, Pt/Pt electrode, Pt/SS electrode

  17. A Between- and Within-Person Analysis of Parenting And Time Spent in Criminogenic Settings during Adolescence: The Role of Self-Control And Delinquent Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Heleen J.; Bruinsma, Gerben J. N.; Dekovic, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.

    2018-01-01

    Although spending time in criminogenic settings is increasingly recognized as an explanation for adolescent delinquency, little is known about its determinants. The current study aims to examine the extent to which (change in) self-control and (change in) delinquent attitudes relate to (change in) time spent in criminogenic settings, and the…

  18. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY12 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-09-28

    .g. Pb stack size, neutron source location) of an LSDS for the purpose of assaying used fuel assemblies. Sensitivity studies were conducted that provide insight as to how the LSDS instrument can be improved by making it more sensitive to the center of the fuel assemblies. In FY2013, PNNL will continue efforts to develop and refine design requirements of an LSDS for the ultimate purpose of assaying used fuel assemblies. Future efforts will be directed toward more extensive experimental benchmarking of currently implemented time-spectra analysis algorithms.

  19. The oral motor capacity and feeding performance of preterm newborns at the time of transition to oral feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bauer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the oral motor capacity and the feeding performance of preterm newborn infants when they were permitted to start oral feeding. This was an observational and prospective study conducted on 43 preterm newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of UFSM, RS, Brazil. Exclusion criteria were the presence of head and neck malformations, genetic disease, neonatal asphyxia, intracranial hemorrhage, and kernicterus. When the infants were permitted to start oral feeding, non-nutritive sucking was evaluated by a speech therapist regarding force (strong vs weak, rhythm (rapid vs slow, presence of adaptive oral reflexes (searching, sucking and swallowing and coordination between sucking, swallowing and respiration. Feeding performance was evaluated on the basis of competence (defined by rate of milk intake, mL/min and overall transfer (percent ingested volume/total volume ordered. The speech therapist's evaluation showed that 33% of the newborns presented weak sucking, 23% slow rhythm, 30% absence of at least one adaptive oral reflex, and 14% with no coordination between sucking, swallowing and respiration. Mean feeding competence was greater in infants with strong sucking fast rhythm. The presence of sucking-swallowing-respiration coordination decreased the days for an overall transfer of 100%. Evaluation by a speech therapist proved to be a useful tool for the safe indication of the beginning of oral feeding for premature infants.

  20. Feeding, defecation, and development times of Meccus longipennis Usinger, 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, time-lapse between presenting the blood-meal and beginning of feeding, feeding time, postfeed defecation delay, mortality, and fecundity for each stage of Meccus longipennis life-cycle were evaluated. The bugs were maintained in a dark incubator at 27 ± 1ºC and 80 ± 5% rh, were fed weekly and checked daily for ecdysis or death. The hatching rate observed for 300 eggs was 76.7% and the average time of hatching was 19.8 days. Mean time-lapse between presentation of the blood meal and the beginning of feeding was under 5 min in nymphal stages and postfeed defecation delay was under 10 min in most stages, except in fourth and fifth stages. Mean feeding time was longer than 10 min in most stages, except in fourth stage. One hundred thirty-one nymphs (N (65.5% completed the cycle and the average time from NI to adult was 192.6 ± 34.8 days. The average span in days for each stage was 18.1 for NI, 21.4 for NII, 29.5 for NIII, 45.5 for NIV and 55.9 for NV. The number of bloodmeals at each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 5. The mortality rate was 3.29 for NI, 6.8 for NII, 2.92 for NIII 3.76 for NIV, and 10.16 for NV nymphs. The average number of eggs laid per female in a 9-month period was 615.6. Based on our results, we conclude that M. longipennis has some biological and behavioral characteristics which influence its capacity of becoming infected and transmitting Trypanosoma cruzi to human populations in those areas of Mexico where it is currently present.

  1. Time well spent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7 220 children. The children experienced...

  2. The impact of a Critical Care Information System (CCIS) on time spent charting and in direct patient care by staff in the ICU: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mador, Rebecca L; Shaw, Nicola T

    2009-07-01

    The introduction of a Critical Care Information System (CCIS) into an intensive care unit (ICU) is purported to reduce the time health care providers (HCP) spend on documentation and increase the time available for direct patient care. However, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research that has investigated these assertions. Moreover, those studies that have sought to elucidate the relationship between the introduction of a CCIS and the time spent by staff on in/direct patient care activities have published contradictory findings. The objective of this literature review is to establish the impact of a CCIS on time spent documenting and in direct patient care by staff in the ICU. Five electronic databases were searched including PubMed Central, EMBASE, CINAHL, IEEE Xplore, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists of all published papers were hand searched, and citations reviewed to identify extra papers. We included studies that were empirical articles, published in English, and provided original data on the impact of a CCIS on time spent documenting and in direct patient care by staff in the ICU. In total, 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. Workflow analysis (66%) and time-and-motion analysis (25%) were the most common forms of data collection. Three (25%) studies found an increase in time spent charting, five (42%) found no difference, and four (33%) studies reported a decrease. Results on the impact of a CCIS on direct patient care were similarly inconclusive. Due to the discrepant findings and several key methodological issues, the impact of a CCIS on time spent charting and in direct patient care remains unclear. This review highlights the need for an increase in rigorous empirical research in this area and provides recommendations for the design and implementation of future studies.

  3. Time Spent on Dedicated Patient Care and Documentation Tasks Before and After the Introduction of a Structured and Standardized Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukes, Erik; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Cornet, Ronald; de Keizer, Nicolette F

    2018-01-01

    Physicians spend around 35% of their time documenting patient data. They are concerned that adopting a structured and standardized electronic health record (EHR) will lead to more time documenting and less time for patient care, especially during consultations. This study measures the effect of the introduction of a structured and standardized EHR on documentation time and time for dedicated patient care during outpatient consultations. We measured physicians' time spent on four task categories during outpatient consultations: documentation, patient care, peer communication, and other activities. Physicians covered various specialties from two university hospitals that jointly implemented a structured and standardized EHR. Preimplementation, one hospital used a legacy-EHR, and one primarily paper-based records. The same physicians were observed 2 to 6 months before and 6 to 8 months after implementation.We analyzed consultation duration, and percentage of time spent on each task category. Differences in time distribution before and after implementation were tested using multilevel linear regression. We observed 24 physicians (162 hours, 439 consultations). We found no significant difference in consultation duration or number of consultations per hour. In the legacy-EHR center, we found the implementation associated with a significant decrease in time spent on dedicated patient care (-8.5%). In contrast, in the previously paper-based center, we found a significant increase in dedicated time spent on documentation (8.3%) and decrease in time on combined patient care and documentation (-4.6%). The effect on dedicated documentation time significantly differed between centers. Implementation of a structured and standardized EHR was associated with 8.5% decrease in time for dedicated patient care during consultations in one center and 8.3% increase in dedicated documentation time in another center. These results are in line with physicians' concerns that the introduction

  4. Comparison of the Amount of Time Spent on Computer Games and Aggressive Behavior in Male Middle School Students of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Modern technologies have a prominent role in adolescent's daily life. These technologies include specific cultural and moral patterns, which could be highly effective on adolescents. This research aimed at comparing the amount of time spent on computer games and aggressive behavior in male middle school students of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This study had a descriptive design. The study population included all male students of middle school of Tehran, and the sample included 120 male students, of which 60 were dependent on computer games with aggressive behavior and 60 were non-dependent on computer games with normal behavior; the sample was randomly selected from Tehran regions (south, north, west, and east regions with random multi-stage sampling. Data were gathered using questionnaires, including Aggressive Questionnaire (AGQ and a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 10 multiple questions that measure the use or non-use of computer games. Data were analyzed using SPSS-19 statistical software. For data analysis, Pearson correlation and t test were used. Results: The results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between computer gaming and aggressive behavior and also between duration of using computer games and aggressive behaviors (P <0.05. Conclusions: According to the results, it seems that children could be kept safe from the adverse effects of computer games by controlling the duration and the type of the games that they play.

  5. Time allocation between feeding and incubation in uniparental arctic-breeding shorebirds: energy reserves provide leeway in a tight schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.

    2006-01-01

    Birds with uniparental incubation may face a time allocation problem between incubation and feeding. Eggs need regular warming to hatch successfully, but the parent must leave the nest to feed and safeguard its own survival. Time allocation during incubation is likely to depend on factors

  6. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  7. Determination of the retention time of feed in rumen using Sc-46 tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadai, E.A. de; Castro, F.B. de; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Machado, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1988-01-01

    The retention time of fibrous feed materials in rumen is of prime importance by providing parameters to evaluate its nutritional value. Some existing marker methods have been presenting serious problems such as physico-chemical alterations of feedstuff during the treatment and also marker migration in rumen conditions. In this study, the rare-earth element Scandium-46 has been applied to marking sugarcane bagasse physically processed. The data showed no significant migration of marker to liquid phase. The retention time in the rumen fistulated cow was 23.06 hours. Correlation coefficient of elapsed time after marking with logarithm of specific activity of ruminal content was 0.9986**. (author) [pt

  8. PENENTUAN WAKTU PERAWATAN UNTUK PENCEGAHANPADA KOMPONEN KRITIS CYCLONE FEED PUMP BERDASARKAN KRITERIA MINIMASI DOWN TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nandiroh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sistem perawatan mesin yang dilakukan di PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara, selama ini masih bersifat korektif yaitu perawatan setelah terjadi kerusakan. Kerusakan komponen ini biasanya akan ditandai dengan ditemukannya produk yang dihasilkan tidak sedikit mengalami kecacatan. Peranan perawatan terhadap komponen-komponen Cyclone Feed Pump pada Process Departement - PT.Newmont Nusa Tenggara sangat penting artinya untuk mencegah terjadinya kecacatan produk masal dan mencegah terjadinya down time produksi. Dan perawatan yang paling baik digunakan adalah perawatan pencegahan sebelum terjadinya kerusakan (preventive maintenance. Mesin kritis adalah mesin yang mengalami frekwensi kerusakan terbesar dengan total downtime terbesar. Untuk penentuan mesin kritis ini, langkah pertama yang dilakukan adalah dengan mengukur lamanya waktu downtime produksi dari tiap-tiap mesin yang ada. Perhitungan MTTR berdasarkan data downtime, yang sebelumnya juga dilakukan uji kecocokan distribusi dan hasilnya sesuai, Dengan melakukan perhitungan Mean Time To Repair dan Mean Time To Failure dapat diketahui rata-rata waktu berapa lama pompa beroperasi dan berapa lama pompa tersebut dapat dilakukan perbaikan serta dapat diketahui Reliability pada Cyclone Feed Pump 2.0.1. Setelah dilakukkan perhitungan, komponen kritis Discharge Pipe pada Cyclone Feed Pump 2.0.1 harus sudah dilakukan inspeksi preventif, karena telah beroperasi 664.8 jam, dan perbaikan yang harus lakukan maksimal 3.4997 jam setiap kali dilakukan shutdown.

  9. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms ( P>0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm ( P0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  10. Smart cities, healthy kids: the association between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and time spent sedentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esliger, Dale W; Sherar, Lauren B; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2012-07-26

    To determine whether, and to what extent, a relation exists between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Saskatoon. Three neighbourhood designs were assessed: 1) core neighbourhoods developed before 1930 that follow a grid pattern, 2) fractured-grid pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the 1930s and mid-1960s, and 3) curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the mid-1960s through to 1998. Children aged 10-14 years (N=455; mean age 11.7 years), grouped by the neighbourhoods they resided in, had their physical activity and sedentary behaviour objectively measured by accelerometry for 7 days. ANCOVA and MANCOVA (multivariate analysis of covariance) models were used to assess group differences (p<0.05). Group differences were apparent on weekdays but not on weekend days. When age, sex and family income had been controlled for, children living in fractured-grid neighbourhoods had, on average, 83 and 55 fewer accelerometer counts per minute on weekdays than the children in the core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. Further analyses showed that the children in the fractured-grid neighbourhoods accumulated 15 and 9 fewer minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day and had a greater time spent in sedentary behaviour (23 and 17 minutes) than those in core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. These data suggest that in Saskatoon there is a relation between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Further work is needed to tease out which features of the built environments have the greatest impact on these important lifestyle behaviours. This information, offered in the context of ongoing development of neighbourhoods, as we see in Saskatoon, is critical to an evidence-informed approach to urban development and planning.

  11. Physical activity and time spent sitting as a risk factor for low-back pain: longitudinal data from the HUNT study

    OpenAIRE

    Venseth, Torje Bragstad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is the most common pain condition with a lifetime prevalence of 70 %. One of the most investigated risk factor for LBP is sedentary lifestyle. This is of great interest as sitting is the more dominant occupational activity in today’s society. Aim: The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate if the risk of chronic LBP is associated with time spent sitting, leisure time physical activity, and occupational activity. We also examined the combined eff...

  12. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzl, Vladimir; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) (σ DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

  13. Feeding children in a favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: how much is spent and what would be the cost of a healthy diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Rosa Gama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to measure food expenditure for children living in a favela in Rio de Janeiro, and compare this expenditure to the cost of a healthy diet, based on local prices. Methods: panel study, with three collection dates – 2004, 2008 and 2012 – conducted in children (5 to 9 years old in Manguinhos. Food prices were collected by way of a sample of local food stores in 2013 and deflated using indicators specific to food prices. Twenty-four hour diet recall, qualitative food frequency and the Brazilian food pyramid adequate for the age group were used to estimate the observed expenditure and the cost of a healthy diet. Results: in 2004, 49.2% of the families interviewed lived on less than US$1 per person/day and 9.7% in 2012.In the same period, the percentage of students eating free school meals dropped from 73% to 49%. Money spent on food was concentrated on sugary products (32.4% and snacks (12.5%. The estimated monthly cost of a healthy diet (US$142 was lower than the observed expenditure (US$176. Conclusions: increased purchasing power has not led to healthier food choices. The common belief that poor people choose food based on prices was rejected by the present study. Other factors certainly play an important role in food purchasing decisions.

  14. Timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J; Taylor, M A; Langley-Evans, S C

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond. Appropriate complementary foods should be introduced in a timely fashion, beginning when the infant is 6 months old. In developing countries, early or inappropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and poor growth, but in countries such as the United Kingdom and United States of America, where obesity is a greater public health concern than malnutrition, the relationship to growth is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until 30 September 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 23 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Twenty-one of the studies considered the relationship between the time at which complementary foods were introduced and childhood body mass index (BMI), of which five found that introducing complementary foods at childhood. Seven of the studies considered the association between complementary feeding and body composition but only one study reported an increase in the percentage of body fat among children given complementary foods before 15 weeks of age. We conclude that there is no clear association between the timing of the introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight or obesity, but some evidence suggests that very early introduction (at or before 4 months), rather than at 4-6 months or >6 months, may increase the risk of childhood overweight.

  15. Reactivity and isotopic composition of spent PWR [pressurized-water-reactor] fuel as a function of initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerne, S.P.; Hermann, O.W.; Westfall, R.M.

    1987-10-01

    This study presents the reactivity loss of spent PWR fuel due to burnup in terms of the infinite lattice multiplications factor, k/sub ∞/. Calculations were performed using the SAS2 and CSAS1 control modules of the SCALE system. The k/sub ∞/ values calculated for all combinations of six enrichments, seven burnups, and five cooling times. The results are presented as a primary function of enrichment in both tabular and graphic form. An equation has been developed to estimate the tabulated values of k/sub ∞/'s by specifying enrichment, cooling time, and burnup. Atom densities for fresh fuel, and spent fuel at cooling times of 2, 10, and 20 years are included. 13 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Feeding in full-time public schools: Do students adhere and accept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nágila Araújo de CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Identifying adherence to, and acceptance of school feeding, and analyzing the factors associated with non-adherence/non-acceptance in full-time public schools in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study with students of both sexes aged 6-14 years. Issues regarding the consumption of meals, food distribution, food eaten outside the school and socioeconomic data, including nutritional assessment of students, were investigated. Adherence to meals was defined as the consumption of school meals four to five times/week, and acceptance was defined as meal approval, using the facial hedonic scale. Results A total of 359 students participated in this study and it was observed that adherence was high for lunch (95% and afternoon snacks (78%, and low for morning snacks (44%. Acceptance did not reach the required minimum percentage of 85% for any of the meals. Factors associated with non-adherence were the presence of >4 people in a household, having meals in a refectory, the meal location being considered uncomfortable and a negative evaluation of utensils used in eating meals. Factors associated with non-acceptance were age >10 years, female sex, the negative evaluation of utensils used in eating meals and inadequate food temperature. Conclusion Lunch and afternoon snacks showed the highest adherence, but the stipulated acceptance was not reached. Non-adherence and non-acceptance were mainly associated with aspects related to school feeding. This study allowed the evaluation of feeding in full-time public schools, in order to influence its improvement.

  17. Soldiers for the virtual battlefield : Even at secondary school, Jan Paul van Waveren spent more time on computer games than on his homework, though he doesn't seem to have suffered from it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waveren, J.P.; Rothkrantz, L.; Jongeneel, C.

    2001-01-01

    Even at secondary school, Jan Paul van Waveren spent more time on computer games than on his homework,though he doesnt seem to have suffered from it. At university he spent some of his time linking up personal computers with his friends, trying to blast each other to virtual smithereens in a game of

  18. Emerging effortful control in toddlerhood: the role of infant orienting/regulation, maternal effortful control, and maternal time spent in caregiving activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Gartstein, Maria A; Putnam, Samuel P; Lance, Kate Oddi; Iddins, Erin; Waits, Robin; Vanvleet, Jessica; Lee, Lindsay

    2011-02-01

    Latent growth modeling (LGM) was used to examine the contribution of changes in infant orienting/regulation (O/R) to the emergence of toddler effortful control (EC), the contributions of maternal EC to the development of infant O/R and the emergence of toddler EC, the influence of maternal time spent in caregiving activities on toddler EC and the slope of infant O/R, and the contribution of maternal EC to subsequent maternal time spent in caregiving activities. Mothers from 158 families completed a self-report measure of EC when their infants were 4 months of age, a measure of infant O/R when their infants were 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, and a measure of toddler EC when their children reached 18 months of age. Information concerning maternal time spent in various interactive caregiving activities was collected when infants were 6 months old. Results indicated higher maternal EC predicted interindividual differences in the intercept (i.e., higher intercepts), but not slope, of infant O/R and that higher maternal EC, higher infant O/R intercept, and higher infant O/R slope contributed to higher toddler EC. Furthermore, higher maternal EC predicted greater maternal time spent in interactive caregiving activities with their infants and greater maternal time in interactive caregiving with infants also contributed to higher toddler EC after controlling for maternal EC. These findings contribute to the understanding of the influence of maternal EC, directly and through caregiving, on toddler EC. Additional implications as they are related to early developing regulatory aspects of temperament are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsiu-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20. Patients who received enteral feeding within 48 h of medical intensive care unit (ICU admission were considered early feeding cases otherwise they were assessed as late feeding cases. Feeding complications (gastric retention/vomiting/diarrhea/gastrointestinal bleeding, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital mortality, nutritional intake, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, nitrogen balance (NB, and 24-h urinary urea nitrogen data were collected over 21 days. Results There were no differences in measured outcomes between early and late feedings for less severely ill patients. Among more severely ill patients, however, the early feeding group showed improved serum albumin (p = 0.036 and prealbumin (p = 0.014 but worsened NB (p = 0.01, more feeding complications (p = 0.005, and prolonged ICU stays (p = 0.005 compared to their late feeding counterparts. Conclusions There is a significant association between severity of illness and timing of enteral feeding initiation. In more severe illness, early feeding was associated with improved nutritional outcomes, while late feeding was associated with reduced feeding complications and length of ICU stay. However, the feeding complications of more severely ill early feeders can be handled without significantly affecting nutritional intake and there is no eventual difference in length of hospital stay or mortality

  20. Objectively measured time spent sedentary is associated with insulin resistance independent of overall and central body fat in 9- to 10-year-old Portuguese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardinha, Luis B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the independent relationships between objectively measured physical activity and insulin resistance in Portuguese children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a school-based, cross-sectional study in 147 randomly selected girls (aged 9.8 +/- 0.3 years; 27.8 +/- 9.3% body...... fat) and 161 boys (aged 9.8 +/- 0.3 years; 22.0 +/- 9.2% body fat). Physical activity was assessed by the Actigraph accelerometer for 4 days and summarized as time spent sedentary (accelerometer counts ... (beta-coefficient = 0.001 [95% CI 0.0002-0.002]; P = 0.013). Time spent in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (-0.002 [-0.003 to -0.001]; P = 0.0009) and overall physical activity (-0.001 [-0.008 to 0.003]; P

  1. Possible application of brewer’s spent grain in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Jelena D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain is the major by-product in beer production. It is produced in large quantities (20 kg per 100 liters of produced beer throughout the year at a low cost or no cost, and due to its high protein and carbohydrates content it can be used as a raw material in biotechnology. Biotechnological processes based on renewable agro-industrial by-products have ecological (zero CO2 emission, eco-friendly by-products and economical (cheap raw materials and reduction of storage costs advantages. The use of brewer’s spent grain is still limited, being basically used as animal feed. Researchers are trying to improve the application of brewer’s spent grain by finding alternative uses apart from the current general use as an animal feed. Its possible applications are in human nutrition, as a raw material in biotechnology, energy production, charcoal production, paper manufacture, as a brick component, and adsorbent. In biotechnology brewer’s spent grain could be used as a substrate for cultivation of microorganisms and enzyme production, additive of yeast carrier in beer fermentation, raw material in production of lactic acid, bioethanol, biogas, phenolic acids, xylitol, and pullulan. Some possible applications for brewer’s spent grain are described in this article including pre-treatment conditions (different procedures for polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and cellulose hydrolysis, working microorganisms, fermentation parameters and obtained yields. The chemical composition of brewer’s spent grain varies according to barley variety, harvesting time, malting and mashing conditions, and a quality and type of unmalted raw material used in beer production. Brewer’s spent grain is lignocellulosic material rich in protein and fibre, which account for approximately 20 and 70% of its composition, respectively.

  2. The associations between self-reported sleep duration and adolescent health outcomes: what is the role of time spent on Internet use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae; Bautista, Mary Ann; Foo, Kelvin

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with adolescent health outcomes, taking into account time spent on Internet use. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korea Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a cross-sectional online survey of middle and high school students aged 13-18years in South Korea (N=136,589) to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with four mental and physical health measures, e.g. self-report of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, weight status, and self-rated health. The binary logit and generalized ordered logit models controlled for time spent on Internet use for non-study purposes and other factors. Shorter self-reported sleep duration was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and overweight or obese status, and a lower likelihood of reporting better self-rated health, even after accounting for time spent on Internet use. Excessive Internet use was found to be an independent risk factor for these outcomes. Among in-school adolescents in South Korea, shorter sleep duration and excessive Internet use are independently and additively associated with multiple indicators of adverse health status. Excessive Internet use may have not only direct adverse health consequences, but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of wheelchair propulsion style on changes in time spent in extreme wrist orientations after a bout of fatiguing propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Lisa A; Hass, Chris J; Shechtman, Orit; Christou, Evangelos A; Tillman, Mark D

    2017-10-01

    This study compared how wheelchair propulsion styles affect changes in percentage of time spent in extreme wrist orientations, which have been associated with median nerve injury, after a fatiguing bout of propulsion. Twenty novice, non-disabled adult males learned arcing (ARC) and semicircular (SEMI) propulsion styles and utilised each to perform a wheelchair fatigue protocol. ARC and SEMI did not significantly differ in terms of changes after the fatigue protocol in percentage of time spent in extreme flexion/extension or radial/ulnar deviation at the push phase beginning or end. A pattern was observed, although not significant, of greater increases in percentage of time spent in extreme wrist extension and ulnar deviation during the push phase beginning and ulnar deviation during the push phase end while utilising SEMI relative to ARC. This study evinces that individual differences are greater than observed changes in extreme wrist orientations for both propulsion styles. Practitioner Summary: How wheelchair propulsion styles change with fatigue in terms of extreme wrist orientations was examined. This study evinces that individual differences are greater than observed changes in extreme wrist orientations for both propulsion styles and point towards the need for future research on individual differences utilising propulsion styles.

  4. Influence of timing and duration of feed restriction on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unrestricted (R0) was the control where birds fed ad libitum. In R5, birds were restricted the 5th week; R56, 5th and 6th weeks; R67, 6th and 7th weeks, and R57, 5th and 7th weeks. However, all the feed-restricted birds fed ad libitum in the 8th week. Feed restriction involved feeding one-third feed intake of R0 birds starting ...

  5. Lesser time of preoperative fasting and early postoperative feeding are safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Raquele Brinckmann; Paludo, Juliana; Fernandes, Daieni; Scherer, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Fasting in the night before elective surgery has been established to prevent pulmonary complications, vomiting, regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. The year of 2005 was developed the project ACERTO. It consists in a multidisciplinary team that aims to recover the surgical patient by administering two our six hours before surgery, a carbohydrate-rich beverage (12.5% dextrinomaltose). The multidisciplinary team consists of anesthesiologists, surgeons, nutritionists, nurses and physiotherapists. Literature review of preoperative fasting conducted during September and October of 2011 in Scielo and PubMed. Reducing the time of preoperative fasting with high carbohydrate solution until two hours before the operation as early feeding postoperatively, bring numerous benefits to the patient. The ACERTO project has shown good results and these new behaviors should be encouraged, thereby reducing the recovery time of the surgical patient.

  6. HrpNEa-induced deterrent effect on phloem feeding of the green ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In response to the phloem-feeding stress, plants defend themselves by .... was quantified as a percentage decrease in the number of feeding aphids .... increased with time during the course of 24 h monitoring ... spent outside the cuticle (nonpenetration; figure 3A, np) ..... R2R3-MYB gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Time/motion observations and dose analysis of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an overweight truck spent fuel shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostick, C.J.; Lavender, J.C.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents observed activity durations and radiation dose analyses for an overweight truck shipment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel from the Surry Power Station in Virginia to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask carrying three 9-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Handling times and dose analyses for at-reactor activities were completed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) personnel. Observations of in-transit and unloading activities were made by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel, who followed the shipment for approximately 2800 miles and observed cask unloading activities. In-transit dose estimates were calculated using dose rate maps provided by Virginia Power for a fully loaded TN-8L shipping cask. The dose analysis for the cask unloading operations is based on the observations of PNL personnel

  8. Time and dose assessment of barge shipment and at-reactor handling of a CASTOR V/21 spent fuel storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Lavender, J.C. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Wakeman, B.H. (Virginia Electric and Power Co., Richmond, VA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report contains the results of a time/motion analysis and a radiation dose assessment made during the receipt from barge transport and the loading of CAst iron cask for Storage and Transport Of Radioactive material (CASTOR) V/21 storage casks with spent nuclear fuel at the Surry Power Station in Virginia during 1987. The study was a cooperative effort between Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power), and was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Program Office. In this study, cask handling activities were tracked at the Surry Power Station, tracing the transfer of the empty spent fuel storage cask from an ocean-going vessel to a barge for river transport through the activities required to place the loaded storage cask at an at-reactor storage location.

  9. Real time monitoring of powder blend bulk density for coupled feed-forward/feed-back control of a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Román-Ospino, Andrés D; Romañach, Rodolfo J; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2015-11-10

    The pharmaceutical industry is strictly regulated, where precise and accurate control of the end product quality is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the drug products. For such control, the process and raw materials variability ideally need to be fed-forward in real time into an automatic control system so that a proactive action can be taken before it can affect the end product quality. Variations in raw material properties (e.g., particle size), feeder hopper level, amount of lubrication, milling and blending action, applied shear in different processing stages can affect the blend density significantly and thereby tablet weight, hardness and dissolution. Therefore, real time monitoring of powder bulk density variability and its incorporation into the automatic control system so that its effect can be mitigated proactively and efficiently is highly desired. However, real time monitoring of powder bulk density is still a challenging task because of different level of complexities. In this work, powder bulk density which has a significant effect on the critical quality attributes (CQA's) has been monitored in real time in a pilot-plant facility, using a NIR sensor. The sensitivity of the powder bulk density on critical process parameters (CPP's) and CQA's has been analyzed and thereby feed-forward controller has been designed. The measured signal can be used for feed-forward control so that the corrective actions on the density variations can be taken before they can influence the product quality. The coupled feed-forward/feed-back control system demonstrates improved control performance and improvements in the final product quality in the presence of process and raw material variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECT OF FEED DEPRIVATION TIME ON BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF SKIN AND CARCASS IN MEAT GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vanguru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that diet and feed deprivation time prior to slaughter can influence the fecal shedding of bacteria in goats. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feed deprivation time (FDT on skin and carcass bacterial counts. Thirty-two Boer × Spanish goats (BW = 18.8 ± 0.82 kg were randomly assigned to one of 4 FDT (0, 9, 18, or 27 h before slaughter. Immediately after slaughter and evisceration, the pH values of rumen liquor and cecal digesta were determined. Rumen and rectal content samples were collected and transported to the laboratory for culture and determination of microbial load. Initial pH of Longissimus muscle (LM was determined at 15 min postmortem on each carcass. Swab samples were collected from skin (leg; 25 cm2 area and carcass (flank, brisket and leg; 75 cm2 area of each animal to assess the bacterial load. The 27-h FDT group had higher (P 0.05 by FDT.  The microbial counts of rumen and fecal contents were not influenced by FDT.  The E. coli, total coliform (TCC, and total plate counts of rumen content were 2.93, 3.14, and 6.08 log10CFU/g, respectively, and those of fecal contents were 3.56, 7.25 and 6.81 log10CFU/g, respectively. The FDT had no effect on the initial (pH = 6.87 of LM. The E. coli, TCC, and aerobic plate counts on skin were 1.13, 1.49, and 3.78 log10CFU/cm2, respectively, and those on carcasses were 1.51, 1.65, and 3.11 log10CFU/cm2, respectively. Both skin and carcass microbial counts were not affected (P > 0.05 by FDT. The results indicate that feed deprivation time alone up to 27 h may not significantly influence gut, skin, or carcass microbial loads.

  11. Premigration School Quality, Time Spent in the United States, and the Math Achievement of Immigrant High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozick, Robert; Malchiodi, Alessandro; Miller, Trey

    2016-10-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 1,189 immigrant youth in American high schools, we examine whether the quality of education in their country of origin is related to post-migration math achievement in the 9th grade. To measure the quality of their education in the country of origin, we use country-specific average test scores from two international assessments: the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). We find that the average PISA or TIMSS scores for immigrant youth's country of origin are positively associated with their performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment. We also find that each year spent in the United States is positively associated with performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment, but this effect is strongest for immigrants from countries with low PISA/TIMSS scores.

  12. The effects of host-feeding on stability of discrete-time host-parasitoid population dynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Brooks; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-02-01

    Discrete-time models are the traditional approach for capturing population dynamics of a host-parasitoid system. Recent work has introduced a semi-discrete framework for obtaining model update functions that connect host-parasitoid population levels from year-to-year. In particular, this framework uses differential equations to describe the host-parasitoid interaction during the time of year when they come in contact, allowing specific behaviors to be mechanistically incorporated. We use the semi-discrete approach to study the effects of host-feeding, which occurs when a parasitoid consumes a potential host larva without ovipositing. We find that host-feeding by itself cannot stabilize the system, and both populations exhibit behavior similar to the Nicholson-Bailey model. However, when combined with stabilizing mechanisms such as density-dependent host mortality, host-feeding contracts the region of parameter space that allows for a stable host-parasitoid equilibrium. In contrast, when combined with a density-dependent parasitoid attack rate, host-feeding expands the non-zero equilibrium stability region. Our results show that host-feeding causes inefficiency in the parasitoid population, which yields a higher population of hosts per generation. This suggests that host-feeding may have limited long-term impact in terms of suppressing host levels for biological control applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spike-timing computation properties of a feed-forward neural network model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Benjamin Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain function is characterized by dynamical interactions among networks of neurons. These interactions are mediated by network topology at many scales ranging from microcircuits to brain areas. Understanding how networks operate can be aided by understanding how the transformation of inputs depends upon network connectivity patterns, e.g. serial and parallel pathways. To tractably determine how single synapses or groups of synapses in such pathways shape transformations, we modeled feed-forward networks of 7-22 neurons in which synaptic strength changed according to a spike-timing dependent plasticity rule. We investigated how activity varied when dynamics were perturbed by an activity-dependent electrical stimulation protocol (spike-triggered stimulation; STS in networks of different topologies and background input correlations. STS can successfully reorganize functional brain networks in vivo, but with a variability in effectiveness that may derive partially from the underlying network topology. In a simulated network with a single disynaptic pathway driven by uncorrelated background activity, structured spike-timing relationships between polysynaptically connected neurons were not observed. When background activity was correlated or parallel disynaptic pathways were added, however, robust polysynaptic spike timing relationships were observed, and application of STS yielded predictable changes in synaptic strengths and spike-timing relationships. These observations suggest that precise input-related or topologically induced temporal relationships in network activity are necessary for polysynaptic signal propagation. Such constraints for polysynaptic computation suggest potential roles for higher-order topological structure in network organization, such as maintaining polysynaptic correlation in the face of relatively weak synapses.

  14. Factors influencing a mother's choice of feeding after discharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess feeding methods chosen by mothers of babies who spent time in a neonatal unit. Factors influencing this decision were investigated. Design. Descriptive study. Methods. Mothers were interviewed on the day they took their babies home. Basic demographic data on mother and baby were collected from ...

  15. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Zhang

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1. In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring.

  17. Rapid on-site sensing aflatoxin B1 in food and feed via a chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Tang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Du; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 poses grave threats to food and feed safety due to its strong carcinogenesis and toxicity, thus requiring ultrasensitive rapid on-site determination. Herein, a portable immunosensor based on chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed for sensitive and on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples. Chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay offered a magnified positive signal and low signal-to-noise ratio in time-resolved mode due to the absence of noise interference caused by excitation light sources. Compared with the immunosensing performance in previous studies, this platform demonstrated a wider dynamic range of 0.2-60 μg/kg, lower limit of detection from 0.06 to 0.12 µg/kg, and considerable recovery from 80.5% to 116.7% for different food and feed sample matrices. It was found to be little cross-reactivity with other aflatoxins (B2, G1, G2, and M1). In the case of determination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts, corn, soy sauce, vegetable oil, and mouse feed, excellent agreement was found when compared with aflatoxin B1 determination via the conversational high-performance liquid chromatography method. The chromatographic time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay affords a powerful alternative for rapid on-site determination of aflatoxin B1 and holds a promise for food safety in consideration of practical food safety and environmental monitoring.

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  19. A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction approach for estimating processed animal proteins in feed: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cesarina Abete

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifting of the ban on the use of processed animal proteins (PAPs from non-ruminants in non-ruminant feed is in the wind, avoiding intraspecies recycling. Discrimination of species will be performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR, which is at a moment a merely qualitative method. Nevertheless, quantification of PAPs in feed is needed. The aim of this study was to approach the quantitative determination of PAPs in feed through Real Time (RT-PCR technique; three different protocols picked up from the literature were tested. Three different kind of matrices were examined: pure animal meals (bovine, chicken and pork; one feed sample certified by the European reference laboratory on animal proteins (EURL AP in feed spiked with 0.1% bovine meal; and genomic DNAs from bovine, chicken and pork muscles. The limit of detection (LOD of the three protocols was set up. All the results obtained from the three protocols considered failed in the quantification process, most likely due to the uncertain copy numbers of the analytical targets chosen. This preliminary study will allow us to address further investigations, with the purpose of developing a RT-PCR quantitative method.

  20. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Houldcroft

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents’ eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2. Preadolescents’ perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours.

  1. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A. Rawluk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris, Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW with or without natural barriers on (i amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP, (ii watering location (OSW or stream, and (iii animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture—which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size—was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT, OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR, and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR. Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002, 2 (p = 0.1116, and 3 (p < 0.0001 at the Killarney site compared to cattle in 3NOBARR at the same site. Cattle in 2BARR at the Souris site spent more time in the RP in Period 1 (p < 0.0001 and less time in Period 2 (p = 0.0002 compared to cattle in 3NOBARR. Cattle did use the OSW, but not exclusively, as watering at the stream was still observed. The observed inconsistency in the effectiveness of the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area between periods and locations may be partly attributable to the environmental conditions present during this field trial as well as difference in pasture size and the ability of the established barriers to deter cattle from using the stream as a water source. Treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on cow and calf weights averaged over the summer period. These results indicate that the presence of an OSW does not create significant differences in animal performance when used in extensive pasture scenarios such as those studied within the present study. Whereas the barriers did not consistently discourage watering at the stream, the results provide some indication of the efficacy of the OSW as well

  2. Feeding time can alleviate negative effects of heat stress on performance, meat quality and health status of turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghly, M F A; Alagawany, M; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2018-04-01

    1. A total of 180 one-day-old turkeys were randomly assigned to 6 equal groups to investigate the effect of feeding time on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, leg problems and physiological responses of growing turkeys under the high temperature conditions of summer. 2. Birds of the first group were ad libitum fed and were considered as the controls (C). The second group (T1) was given 80% of diet in the morning and 20% of diet in the afternoon, the third group (T2) was given 60% of diet in the morning and 40% of diet in the afternoon, the fourth group (T3) was given 40% of diet in the morning and 60% of diet in the afternoon, the fifth group (T4) was given 20% of diet in the morning and 80% of diet in the afternoon and the sixth group (T5) was given 100% of diet in the afternoon. 3. Body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were improved with T2, T3, T4 and T5 in comparison to control or T1 under heat stress conditions. No significant impacts on carcass traits and meat quality due to changing the time of feeding were seen, except for tenderness and juiciness. 4. Feeding in the afternoon (100%) decreased body temperature and tonic immobility test score, which were positively related with the health condition of the birds. 5. The incidence of leg problems, plumage condition and breast blisters were not significantly different among the experimental groups. 6. It is concluded that feeding turkeys mainly or totally in the afternoon (T4 and T5, birds were fed with 80% or 100% of the diet in the afternoon) can be used as a strategy and a managerial tool for improving growth rate, feed utilisation, carcass and meat quality, as well as health status of growing turkeys reared under hot climate conditions.

  3. Feeding times of high spin states in sup(152,154)Dy: Probes of nuclear structure above the yrast line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azgui, F.; Emling, H.; Grosse, E.; Michel, C.; Simon, R.S.; Spreng, W.; Wollersheim, H.J.; Khoo, T.L.; Chowdhury, P.; Frekers, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Pakkanen, A.; Daly, P.J.; Kortelahti, M.; Schwalm, D.; Seiler-Clark, G.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of feeding times of high spin yrast states up to spin 30 (h/2π) in 154 Dy and 36 (h/2π) in 152 Dy were utilized to obtain information about possible spin dependent shape changes. The reactions 25 Mg ( 134 Xe, 5n), 124 Sn ( 34 S, 4n) and 25 Mg ( 132 Xe, 5n), 122 Sn ( 34 S, 4n) were used to populate the high spin states in 154 Dy and 152 Dy, respectively. Feeding times as well as lifetimes were determined with the recoil distance technique. In 152 Dy only long feeding times (>=10 ps) could be identified, indicating that the aligned-particle yrast states are fed through configurations of similar character, with little direct population from collective cascades in the continuum region. In 154 Dy discrete states with I<=30 (h/2π) have lifetimes which are characteristically collective, whereas the preyrast cascades exhibit both fast (< or approx.1 ps) and slow (proportional10 ps) feeding components. The latter imply a change with increasing spin from collective to aligned-particle character, probably associated with a prolate to oblate shape transition. (orig.)

  4. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582. Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to and from work in the last week, perceptions of the route, psychological measures regarding car use and socio-demographic characteristics. Participants were classified into one of two categories according to time spent walking for commuting ('no walking' or 'some walking' and one of three categories for cycling ('no cycling', '1-149 min/wk' and ' ≥ 150 min/wk'. Results Of the 1164 respondents (68% female, mean (SD age: 42.3 (11.4 years 30% reported any walking and 53% reported any cycling to or from work. In multiple regression models, short distance to work and not having access to a car showed strong positive associations with both walking and cycling. Furthermore, those who reported that it was pleasant to walk were more likely to walk to or from work (OR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.02 to 5.78 and those who reported that it was convenient to cycle on the route between home and work were more likely to do so (1-149 min/wk: OR = 4.60, 95% CI 2.88 to 7.34; ≥ 150 min/wk: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.66. Positive attitudes in favour of car use were positively associated with time spent walking to or from work but negatively associated with cycling to or from work. Strong perceived behavioural control for car use was negatively associated with walking. Conclusions In this relatively affluent sample of commuters, a range of individual and household characteristics, perceptions of the route environment and psychological measures relating to car use were associated with

  5. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  6. Time spent in primary care for hip osteoarthritis patients once the diagnosis is set : a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Nienke; van der Veen, Willem Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research on time to referral to orthopaedic surgery has predominantly used hip complaints as starting point instead of the moment the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is established, therefore little is known about the length of time a patient diagnosed with hip OA

  7. A real-time data acquisition and processing system for the analytical laboratory automation of a HTR spent fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzlawik, K.H.

    1979-12-01

    A real-time data acquisition and processing system for the analytical laboratory of an experimental HTR spent fuel reprocessing facility is presented. The on-line open-loop system combines in-line and off-line analytical measurement procedures including data acquisition and evaluation as well as analytical laboratory organisation under the control of a computer-supported laboratory automation system. In-line measurements are performed for density, volume and temperature in process tanks and registration of samples for off-line measurements. Off-line computer-coupled experiments are potentiometric titration, gas chromatography and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Organisational sections like sample registration, magazining, distribution and identification, multiple data assignment and especially calibrations of analytical devices are performed by the data processing system. (orig.) [de

  8. Time spent in primary care for hip osteoarthritis patients once the diagnosis is set: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Akker-Scheek Inge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on time to referral to orthopaedic surgery has predominantly used hip complaints as starting point instead of the moment the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA of the hip is established, therefore little is known about the length of time a patient diagnosed with hip OA stays under the care of a general practitioner (GP. No knowledge on factors of influence on this time period is available either. Aim of this study was thus to determine the time an incident hip OA patient stays in the care of a GP until referral to an orthopaedic department. Influencing factors were also analyzed. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted based on data over a 10-year period from a general practice-based registration network (17 GPs, > 30,000 patients registered yearly. Patients with the diagnosis of hip OA were included. A survival analysis was used to determine time until referral to an orthopaedic department, and to determine factors of influence on this time. Results Of 391 patients diagnosed with hip OA, 121 (31% were referred; average survival time until referral was 82.0 months (95% CI 76.6-87.5. Less contact with the GP for hip complaints before the diagnosis of hip OA was established resulted in a decreased time to referral. Conclusions The results of this study show that patients with hip OA were under the care of a general practitioner, and thus in primary care, for a considerable amount of time once the diagnosis of hip OA was established.

  9. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Ashley A; Crow, Gary; Legesse, Getahun; Veira, Douglas M; Bullock, Paul R; González, Luciano A; Dubois, Melanie; Ominski, Kim H

    2014-10-29

    A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris), Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW) with or without natural barriers on (i) amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP), (ii) watering location (OSW or stream), and (iii) animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture-which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size-was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT), OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR), and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR). Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002), 2 (p = 0.1116), and 3 (p natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area between periods and locations may be partly attributable to the environmental conditions present during this field trial as well as difference in pasture size and the ability of the established barriers to deter cattle from using the stream as a water source. Treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on cow and calf weights averaged over the summer period. These results indicate that the presence of an OSW does not create significant differences in animal performance when used in extensive pasture scenarios such as those studied within the present study. Whereas the barriers did not consistently discourage watering at the stream, the results provide some indication of the efficacy of the OSW as well as the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area.

  10. Time course study of feeding damage to pin head cotton squares by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an economically important pest affecting cotton crops in California. Lygus feeding causes abscission of cotton squares, with damage severity dependent on size of the square and life stage of the insect. Fifth instar nymphs are the most damaging stage; however, ...

  11. ASSOCIATIONS OF MOTHERS IN PROTECTION AND SUPPORTING OF BREAST FEEDING: HISTORY AND PRESENT TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Abol’yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a data on creation of social associations of mothers — groups of maternal supporting of breast feeding in continuation with international initiative «Baby-Friendly Hospital» of WHO/UNICEF in Russia. As breast feeding is mostly a medical problem usual for medical personnel in obstetrical and children’s medical institution (obstetricians-gynecologists, neonatologists, pediatricians, there is a question on legality of such groups’ presence and its competence, relations to medical personnel, forms of work. The Soviet public health had wide experience of successful collaboration of public activists of Russian Red Cross Society and Health Care Administrations in performance of prophylactic and health-improving measures and hygienic education among population. Successful activity of voluntary associations supporting breast feeding depends on collaboration with medical personnel, development of scientifically-based programs of mothers-consultants education, and presence of informational, methodical and hygienical educational materials.Key words: breast feeding, groups of maternal support.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:15-18

  12. Surveillance instrumentation for spent-fuel safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Holmes, J.P.; Gillman, L.K.; Schmitz, J.A.; McDaniel, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The movement, in a facility, of spent reactor fuel may be tracked using simple instrumentation together with a real time unfolding algorithm. Experimental measurements, from multiple radiation monitors and crane weight and position monitors, were obtained during spent fuel movements at the G.E. Morris Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. These data and a preliminary version of an unfolding algorithm were used to estimate the position of the centroid and the magnitude of the spent fuel radiation source. Spatial location was estimated to +-1.5 m and source magnitude to +-10% of their true values. Application of this surveillance instrumentation to spent-fuel safeguards is discussed

  13. Human factors related to time-dependent infection control measures: "Scrub the hub" for venous catheters and feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, Lindsay; Epstein, Elizabeth; Blackman, Amy; Jin, Li; Kaufman, David A

    2017-06-01

    The use of catheter hub decontamination protocols is a common practice to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections. However, few data exist on the most effective disinfection procedure prior to hub access accounting for human factors and time-dependent practices in real time in the clinical setting. An observational design with a multimodal intervention was used in this study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Direct observations on nurse compliance of scrub times with decontamination when accessing of venous catheter and feeding tube hubs were conducted during 3 phases: (1) baseline period prior to any interventions; (2) during an educational intervention phase; and (3) during a timer intervention period when using a timing device, either an actual timer or music button. Overall, both education and the timing device interventions increased the mean scrub time ± SD of venous catheter hubs. Mean baseline scrub times of 10 ± 5 seconds were lower compared with 23 ± 12 seconds after educational intervention (P music button use (P observed with scrub times of feeding tubes. Time-based infection control measures, such as scrubbing the hub, must be implemented with aids that qualify specific times to account for human factors, to ensure adherence to time-dependent measures aimed at decreasing nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate

  15. The Cell Cycle: An Activity Using Paper Plates to Represent Time Spent in Phases of the Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, students are given the opportunity to combine skills in math and geometry for a biology lesson in the cell cycle. Students utilize the data they collect and analyze from an online onion-root-tip activity to create a paper-plate time clock representing a 24-hour cell cycle. By dividing the paper plate into appropriate phases of…

  16. Time Spent by Breast Imaging Radiologists to Perform Value-Added Activities at an Academic Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Klevos, Geetika; Arheart, Kristopher; Banks, James; Yepes, Monica; Net, Jose

    2017-04-01

    Health care reform in the United States has generated a paradigm shift in the practice of radiology aimed at increasing the degree of patient-centered care. We conducted a study to quantify the amount of time breast imaging radiologists spend on value-added activities at an academic comprehensive cancer center located in Miami, Florida, and accredited by the American College of Radiology as a Breast Imaging Center of Excellence. A prospective, observational study was conducted during a period of 20 consecutive workdays. Three participating breast imaging radiologists maintained a real-time log of each activity performed. A generalized linear model was used to perform a 1-way analysis of variance. An alpha level of .05 was used to determine statistical significance. The average daily time dedicated to these activities was 92.1 minutes (range, 56.4-132.2). The amount of time significantly differed among breast imaging radiologists and correlated with their assigned daily role (P value-added activities to help improve patients' experience across the continuity of their care. We propose that similar studies be conducted at other institutions to better assess the magnitude of this finding across different breast imaging care settings.

  17. Hatching time and alevin growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding in farmed, wild and hybrid Norwegian Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Favnebøe Solberg

    Full Text Available The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1-15 degree-days (0-3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5-6°C, these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding.

  18. Time spent in outdoor activities in relation to myopia prevention and control: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuyu; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Naduvilath, Thomas; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Haidong; Zhu, Jianfeng; Lv, Minzhi; He, Xiangui; Xu, Xun

    2017-09-01

    Outdoor time is considered to reduce the risk of developing myopia. The purpose is to evaluate the evidence for association between time outdoors and (1) risk of onset of myopia (incident/prevalent myopia); (2) risk of a myopic shift in refractive error and c) risk of progression in myopes only. A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis and a dose-response analysis of relevant evidence from literature was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant papers. Of the 51 articles with relevant data, 25 were included in the meta-analysis and dose-response analysis. Twenty-three of the 25 articles involved children. Risk ratio (RR) for binary variables and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous variables were conducted. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used to pool the data for meta-analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 test with I 2  ≥ 50% considered to indicate high heterogeneity. Additionally, subgroup analyses (based on participant's age, prevalence of myopia and study type) and sensitivity analyses were conducted. A significant protective effect of outdoor time was found for incident myopia (clinical trials: risk ratio (RR) = 0.536, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.338 to 0.850; longitudinal cohort studies: RR = 0.574, 95% CI = 0.395 to 0.834) and prevalent myopia (cross-sectional studies: OR = 0.964, 95% CI = 0.945 to 0.982). With dose-response analysis, an inverse nonlinear relationship was found with increased time outdoors reducing the risk of incident myopia. Also, pooled results from clinical trials indicated that when outdoor time was used as an intervention, there was a reduced myopic shift of -0.30 D (in both myopes and nonmyopes) compared with the control group (WMD = -0.30, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.41) after 3 years of follow-up. However, when only myopes were considered, dose-response analysis did not find a relationship between time outdoors and myopic

  19. 棉籽壳基质在P.ostreatus生长过程中组份与 微结构的变化及其对菌糠饲用价值的影响%Compositional and Micro-structural Changes of Cottonseed Hull Substrate During P. ostreatus Growth and the Effects on Feed Value of the Spent Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀金; 庞云芝; 张瑞红

    2001-01-01

    The dry matters and contents of major compositions of cottons e ed hull substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation were tested at different grow ing stages. The micro-structures of the substrate were observed under scanning electronic microscopy(SEM). Their effects on the feed nutritional values of the spent substrate were investigated. During the whole P. ostreatus growing per iod, the content of protein, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and the micro-st ructures of the substrate were changed considerably. These contributed to the raising of the dr y matter digestibility of the spent substrate, making it possibly acceptable to be used as ruminant feed with improved feed value.%对棉籽基质在栽培P.ostreatus过程中不同时期的干物质及主要组 份含量进行了测定。对其微观结构的变化进行了显微观察。分析了组份与微观结构的变化对 菌糠饲用价值的影响。结果表明:与初始料相比,菌糠具有较高的干物质消化率,因而有可 能用作反刍动物的饲料。

  20. How passion and impulsivity influence a player's choice of videogame, intensity of playing and time spent playing

    OpenAIRE

    Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Panova, Tayana; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Videogames have received much attention in addiction research due to their popularity and frequent use. However, few studies have addressed the effect of passion and impulsivity in gamers. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of passion and impulsivity on the intensity of play, playing time, and choice of Massive Multiplayer Online Role Play Game (MMORPG) vs. non-MMORPG. A sample of 630 university students (40.7% Colombian, 59.3% Spanish) responded ...

  1. Investigating the tradeoffs between spatial resolution and diffusion sampling for brain mapping with diffusion tractography: time well spent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Coe, Christopher L; Lubach, Gabriele R; Styner, Martin A; Johnson, G Allan

    2014-11-01

    Interest in mapping white matter pathways in the brain has peaked with the recognition that altered brain connectivity may contribute to a variety of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Diffusion tractography has emerged as a popular method for postmortem brain mapping initiatives, including the ex-vivo component of the human connectome project, yet it remains unclear to what extent computer-generated tracks fully reflect the actual underlying anatomy. Of particular concern is the fact that diffusion tractography results vary widely depending on the choice of acquisition protocol. The two major acquisition variables that consume scan time, spatial resolution, and diffusion sampling, can each have profound effects on the resulting tractography. In this analysis, we determined the effects of the temporal tradeoff between spatial resolution and diffusion sampling on tractography in the ex-vivo rhesus macaque brain, a close primate model for the human brain. We used the wealth of autoradiography-based connectivity data available for the rhesus macaque brain to assess the anatomic accuracy of six time-matched diffusion acquisition protocols with varying balance between spatial and diffusion sampling. We show that tractography results vary greatly, even when the subject and the total acquisition time are held constant. Further, we found that focusing on either spatial resolution or diffusion sampling at the expense of the other is counterproductive. A balanced consideration of both sampling domains produces the most anatomically accurate and consistent results. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Time spent studying on a pre-registration nursing programme module: an exploratory study and implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C; Lipscomb, Martin; Lockyer, Lesley; Yates, Sue; Young, Pat

    2010-11-01

    European Union (EU) regulations require that university programmes are of specified duration. Additional EU regulations apply specifically to university based nurse education, enacted in the UK by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). However, little is known about how much time student nurses spend on their studies. In this exploratory study, students undertaking a single module in the pre-registration diploma programme at an English university were asked to keep a log of learning activity for the duration of the module. Twenty-six students completed the log. These students achieved higher grades and attended more lectures than the average for the module. The mean study time was 128.4 h against a regulatory assumption that the module should take 200 h. More than half of the 26 students undertook paid work during the module run, though this work was not associated with poorer performance. Problems in regulation for course duration are discussed and it is suggested that undertaking a 4600 h course in 3 years is problematic. More research is required so that patterns of study can be better understood and student centred programmes meeting regulatory requirements developed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of nutrient density, NSP source, coarseness of NSP and feed form on performance and behaviour of hens at early lay.

    OpenAIRE

    Krimpen, van, M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Andre, G.; Peet-Schwering, van der, C.M.C.; Hartog, den, L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Feather pecking in layers is a multi factorial problem, which can be caused by environmental, genetic or nutritional factors. From the literature it has been shown that nutritional factors may positively or negatively affect feather pecking behaviour in laying hens. Nutritional factors seem to reduce feather pecking behaviour in laying hens if these factors increase the time spent on feeding behaviour, by affecting foraging and feed intake. Laying hens may spend more time on these feeding beh...

  4. Medical documentation: part of the solution, or part of the problem? A narrative review of the literature on the time spent on and value of medical documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynch, Neil; Kellett, John

    2015-04-01

    Even though it takes up such a large part of all clinicians' working day the medical literature on documentation and its value is sparse. Medline searches combining the terms medical records, documentation, time, and value or efficacy or benefit yielded only 147 articles. This review is based on the relevant articles selected from this search and additional studies gathered from the personal experience of the authors and their colleagues. Documentation now occupies a quarter to half of doctors' time yet much of the information collected is of dubious or unproven value. Most medical records departments still use the traditional paper chart, and there is considerable debate on the benefits of electronic medical records (EMRs). Although EMRs contains a lot more information than a paper record clinicians do not find it easy to getting useful information out of them. Unlike the paper chart narrative is difficult to enter into most EMRs so that they do not adequately communicate the patient's "story" to clinicians. Recent innovations have the potential to address these issues. Although documentation is widespread throughout the health care industry there has been almost no formal research into its value, on how to enhance its value, or on whether the time spent on it has negative effects on patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  6. Effects of actinide compositional variability in the US spent fuel inventory on partitioning-transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michaels, G.E.; Hanson, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is an advanced waste management concept by which certain undesirable nuclides in spent fuel are first isolated (partitioned) and later destroyed (transmuted) in a nuclear reactor or other transmutation device. There are wide variabilities in the nuclide composition of spent fuel. This implies that there will also be wide variabilities in the transmutation device feed. As a waste management system, P-T must be able to accept (all) spent fuel. Variability of nuclide composition (i.e., the feed material for transmutation devices) may be important because virtually all transmutation systems propose to configure transuranic (TRU) nuclides recovered from discharged lightwater reactor (LWR) spent fuel in critical or near-critical cores. To date, all transmutation system core analyses assume invariant nuclide concentrations for startup and recycle cores. Using the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Characteristics Data Base (CDB) and the ORIGEN2 computer code, the current and projected spent fuel discharges until the year 2016 have been categorized according to combinations of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, fuel age (cooling time) and reactor type (boiling-water or pressurized-water reactors). The variability of the infinite multiplication factor (k ∞ ) is calculated for both fast (ALMR) and thermal (accelerator-based) transmuter systems

  7. Flooring in front of the feed bunk affects feeding behavior and use of freestalls by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M; de Passillé, A M; Campbell, B; Rushen, J

    2006-06-01

    In 2 experiments we assessed how preferences, time budgets, and feeding behavior of dairy cows change in response to flooring surfaces in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, 12 nonlactating dairy cattle were individually housed with access to 2 standing platforms filled with either concrete or sawdust. In Experiment 2, 24 nonlactating dairy cattle were given access to either concrete or Animat rubber flooring in front of the feed bunk. In Experiment 1, cows preferred the sawdust to the concrete flooring. In both experiments, cows provided with a softer floor in front of the feed bunk spent more time standing near the feed bunk without eating (Experiment 1: 67 vs. 40 min/d on sawdust vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 5.6 min/d; Experiment 2: 176 vs. 115 min/d on Animat vs. concrete, respectively, SEM = 20.5 min/d) compared with when they were kept on concrete. The increased time spent at the feed bunk was due to a combination of more frequent eating and standing bouts, indicating that cows were more willing to move on nonconcrete flooring. Total time spent eating was significantly greater on the softer floor in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1 (Exp. 1: 289 vs. 275 min/d on sawdust and concrete, respectively, SEM = 7.3 min/d; Exp. 2: 330 vs. 289 min/d on Animat and concrete, respectively, SEM = 15.4), although feed intake was increased on the sawdust treatment in Experiment 1. Cows spent significantly more time lying in the feed alley when the flooring was rubber (219 vs. 53 min/d on Animat and concrete, SEM = 53.6 min/d), perhaps because the lying area in Experiment 2 was inadequate. In conclusion, cows prefer to stand on softer flooring in front of the feed bunk, and are more willing to move on and spend more time standing in front of the feed bunk when provided with softer flooring. These results indicate that cows find softer flooring surfaces more comfortable to stand on than concrete, and highlight the importance of evaluating the comfort of the

  8. Effect of exposure to greater active videogame variety on time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Cardoso, Chelsi; Bond, Dale S

    2016-07-01

    This investigation examined whether exposure to greater active videogame variety increases moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Twenty-three participants (age=22.7±4.2yrs; body mass index=23.5±3.0kg/m(2); self-reported MVPA=298.7±116.7min/wk; 62.2% female; 73.9% Caucasian) participated in VARIETY (4 different active videogames during 4, 15-min bouts) and NON-VARIETY (only 1 active videogame during 4, 15-min bouts) counterbalanced sessions. VARIETY provided a different active videogame in each bout. NON-VARIETY provided participants their most highly liked active videogame in each bout. The Sensewear Mini Armband objectively assessed MVPA. For MVPA minutes, a session×bout (p<0.05) interaction occurred. In NON-VARIETY, bouts 2, 3, and 4 had significantly (p<0.05) fewer minutes than bout 1, with no decrease occurring in VARIETY. In bout 4, VARIETY had significantly (p<0.05) more minutes than NON-VARIETY. A main effect of session (p<0.05) occurred for MVPA minutes and energy expenditure, with VARIETY achieving greater amounts (31.8±14.3min vs. 27.6±16.9min; 186.1±96.8kcal vs. 171.2±102.8kcal). Exposure to greater activity variety within a session increased MVPA. Future research should examine exposure to a variety of activities over a longer time frame with participants of differing lifestyles in free-living environments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effect of restricting silage feeding prepartum on time of calving, dystocia and stillbirth in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleeson David E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h, after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds. Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P

  10. Spent nuclear fuel storage - Basic concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempel, Ascanio; Santos, Cicero D. Pacifici dos; Sato, Heitor Hitoshi; Magalhaes, Leonardo de

    2009-01-01

    According to the procedures adopted in others countries in the world, the spent nuclear fuel elements burned to produce electrical energy in the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant of Angra do Reis, Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA will be stored for a long time. Such procedure will allow the next generation to decide how they will handle those materials. In the future, the reprocessing of the nuclear fuel assemblies could be a good solution in order to have additional energy resource and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. This decision will be done in the future according to the new studies and investigations that are being studied around the world. The present proposal to handle the nuclear spent fuel is to storage it for a long period of time, under institutional control. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to introduce a proposal of a basic concept of spent fuel storage, which involves the construction of a new storage building at site, in order to increase the present storage capacity of spent fuel assemblies in CNAAA installation; the concept of the spent fuel transportation casks that will transfer the spent fuel assemblies from the power plants to the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building and later on from this building to the Long Term Intermediate Storage of Spent Fuel; the concept of the spent fuel canister and finally the basic concept of the spent fuel long term storage. (author)

  11. Infant Feeding Practices and Nut Allergy over Time in Australian School Entrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Paton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To measure the association between infant feeding practices and parent-reported nut allergy in school entrant children. Method. The Kindergarten Health Check Questionnaire was delivered to all 110 Australian Capital Territory (ACT primary schools between 2006 and 2009. Retrospective analyses were undertaken of the data collected from the kindergarten population. Results. Of 15142 children a strong allergic reaction to peanuts and other nuts was reported in 487 (3.2% and 307 (3.9%, children, respectively. There was a positive association between parent reported nut allergy and breast feeding (OR=1.53; 1.11–2.11 and having a regular general practitioner (GP (OR=1.42; 1.05–1.92. A protective effect was found in children who were fed foods other than breast milk in the first six months (OR=0.71; 0.60–0.84. Conclusion. Children were at an increased risk of developing a parent-reported nut allergy if they were breast fed in the first six months of life.

  12. Effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Sophie E; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Yandell, Brian S; Adams, William M

    2010-01-01

    Healthy, adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were imaged on three occasions to determine the effects of anesthesia, patient rotation, feeding, and short/long-term temporal factors on the proventriculus:keel ratio. Increasing rotation up to 15 degrees from right lateral resulted in increased inability to measure the proventriculus in up to 44% of birds, meaning that the proventriculus:keel ratio could not be calculated from those radiographs. There was a significant difference between the proventriculus:keel ratio for individual parrots when quantified 3 weeks apart. Despite this difference, all ratios remained within normal limits. No significant effect was identified due to anesthesia, feeding, fasting, or repeated imaging through an 8-h period. Interobserver agreement for measurability and correlation for the proventriculus:keel ratio values was high. It is recommended that the proventriculus:keel ratio be calculated from anesthetized parrots to attain images in true lateral recumbency. Ratio fluctuations within the normal range between radiographs obtained on different dates may be observed in normal parrots.

  13. Transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Toshiichi

    1976-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel taken out of reactors is cooled in the cooling pool in each power station for a definite time, then transported to a reprocessing plant. At present, there is no reprocessing plant in Japan, therefore the spent nuclear fuel is shipped abroad. In this paper, the experiences and the present situation in Japan are described on the transport of the spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, centering around the works in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. The spent nuclear fuel in Tsuruga Power Station was first transported in Apr. 1973, and since then, about 36 tons were shipped to Britain by 5 times of transport. The reprocessing plant in Japan is expected to start operation in Apr. 1977, accordingly the spent nuclear fuel used for the trial will be transported in Japan in the latter half of this year. Among the permission and approval required for the transport of spent nuclear fuel, the acquisition of the certificate for transport casks and the approval of land and sea transports are main tasks. The relevant laws are the law concerning the regulations of nuclear raw material, nuclear fuel and reactors and the law concerning the safety of ships. The casks used in Tsuruga Power Station and EXL III type, and the charging of spent nuclear fuel, the decontamination of the casks, the leak test, land transport with a self-running vehicle, loading on board an exclusive carrier and sea transport are briefly explained. The casks and the ship for domestic transport are being prepared. (Kato, I.)

  14. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  15. Is It Time Well Spent? The Relationship between Time Management Behaviours, Perceived Effectiveness and Work-Related Morale and Distress in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Hugh; Gardiner, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Despite the high "guru-factor" in time management, few claims have been subjected to empirical investigation. This study tests the claims that people who manage their time well perceive themselves to be more effective and feel less stressed. University staff and students were utilized to investigate the relationship between time management related…

  16. Chemical homogeneity and particle size distribution of dairy cow TMR along the feeding alley with different mixing times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the concepts of precision feeding, the right components balance (Sova et al., 2014 and the correct particle size distribution (PSD, Khan et al., 2014 of total mixed ration (TMR are essential for a complete homogeneity of the diet and are strongly influenced by adopted mixing time (MT, Humer et al., 2018, Schingoethe et al.,2017. The aim of the trial was to determine the influence of two MTs (MT1≤7min and MT2>7min on the chemical homogeneity and PSD along the feeding alley. Diets were performed with a horizontal cutter-mixer wagon (Gulliver 4016, Sgariboldi, and TMR samples were collected from the beginning, middle and end of the feeding alley after discharge. Triplicate samples of the diet were collected for chemical composition analyses (moisture, CP, Ash, EE, NDF and ADF and PSD evaluation (Heinrichs and Kononoff, 2002 over two months (two sampling/week. Statistical analysis was performed by a PROC MIXED for repeated measurements of SAS. MT1 evidenced a non-uniform distribution of moisture content along the feeding alley (P=0.05: lower moisture was found at the end than at the beginning and in the middle (47.55 vs 51.13 and 51.00%, respectively; P<0.01. No significant effects of MTs were recorded for other chemical parameters. The PSD showed trend to a higher retained amount of fibre in MT1 upper sieve (14.79 vs. 10.14%; P=0.06, while lower amount of feed was found in middle and bottom sieve than MT2 (38.9 and 12.81 vs 42.17 and 14.32%, respectively; P=0.08 and P=0.06. With respect to TMR distribution along the feeding alley, no differences were found between MT1 and MT2. Day of sampling evidenced significant variation both in chemical and physical composition (P<0.05. Obtained preliminary data evidenced the influence of MTs on composition and on PSD of the provided diet; results suggest to daily measure moisture of raw material in order to avoid negative changes in dry matter intake.

  17. Genetic parameters of rumination time and feed efficiency traits in primiparous Holstein cows under research and commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, M V; Fogh, A; Løvendahl, P

    2017-12-01

    Feed efficiency has the potential to be improved both through feeding, management, and breeding. Including feed efficiency in a selection index is limited by the fact that dry matter intake (DMI) recording is only feasible under research facilities, resulting in small data sets and, consequently, uncertain genetic parameter estimates. As a result, the need to record DMI indicator traits on a larger scale exists. Rumination time (RT), which is already recorded in commercial dairy herds by a sensor-based system, has been suggested as a potential DMI indicator. However, RT can only be a DMI indicator if it is heritable, correlates with DMI, and if the genetic parameters of RT in commercial herd settings are similar to those in research facilities. Therefore, the objective of our study was to estimate genetic parameters for RT and the related traits of DMI in primiparous Holstein cows, and to compare genetic parameters of rumination data between a research herd and 72 commercial herds. The estimated heritability values were all moderate for DMI (0.32-0.49), residual feed intake (0.23-0.36), energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield (0.49-0.70), and RT (0.14-0.44) found in the research herd. The estimated heritability values for ECM were lower for the commercial herds (0.08-0.35) than that for the research herd. The estimated heritability values for RT were similar for the 2 herd types (0.28-0.32). For the research herd, we found negative individual level correlations between RT and DMI (-0.24 to -0.09) and between RT and RFI (-0.34 to -0.03), and we found both positive and negative correlations between RT and ECM (-0.08 to 0.09). For the commercial herds, genetic correlations between RT and ECM were both positive and negative (-0.27 to 0.10). In conclusion, RT was not found to be a suitable indicator trait for feed intake and only a weak indicator of feed efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scientific reference on the long time evolution of spent fuels; Referentiel scientifique sur l'evolution a long terme des combustibles uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, C.; Poinssot, Ch.; Broudic, V.; Jegou, Ch.; Roudil, D.; Poulesquen, A.; Miserque, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cappelaere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Desgranges, L.; Garcia, Ph.; Piron, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Lovera, P.; Marimbeau, P. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs; Corbel, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-03-15

    This report is published in the framework of the 1991 French law for the nuclear waste management. The state of the art reported here concerns the long term evolution of spent fuel in the various environmental conditions corresponding to dry storage and geological disposal: closed system, air and water saturated medium. This review is based on the results of the french PRECCI project (Research Program on Long term Evolution of Spent Nuclear Fuel) and on literature data. (authors)

  19. Sensitive Quantification of Aflatoxin B1 in Animal Feeds, Corn Feed Grain, and Yellow Corn Meal Using Immunomagnetic Bead-Based Recovery and Real-Time Immunoquantitative-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are considered unavoidable natural mycotoxins encountered in foods, animal feeds, and feed grains. In this study, we demonstrate the application of our recently developed real-time immunoquantitative PCR (RT iq-PCR assay for sensitive detection and quantification of aflatoxins in poultry feed, two types of dairy feed (1 and 2, horse feed, whole kernel corn feed grains, and retail yellow ground corn meal. Upon testing methanol/water (60:40 extractions of the above samples using competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the aflatoxin content was found to be <20 μg/kg. The RT iq-PCR assay exhibited high antigen hook effect in samples containing aflatoxin levels higher than the quantification limits (0.1–10 μg/kg, addressed by comparing the quantification results of undiluted and diluted extracts. In testing the reliability of the immuno-PCR assay, samples were spiked with 200 μg/kg of aflatoxin B1, but the recovery of spiked aflatoxin was found to be poor. Considering the significance of determining trace levels of aflatoxins and their serious implications for animal and human health, the RT iq-PCR method described in this study can be useful for quantifying low natural aflatoxin levels in complex matrices of food or animal feed samples without the requirement of extra sample cleanup.

  20. Sensitive quantification of aflatoxin B1 in animal feeds, corn feed grain, and yellow corn meal using immunomagnetic bead-based recovery and real-time immunoquantitative-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Dinesh; Muriana, Peter M

    2014-12-02

    Aflatoxins are considered unavoidable natural mycotoxins encountered in foods, animal feeds, and feed grains. In this study, we demonstrate the application of our recently developed real-time immunoquantitative PCR (RT iq-PCR) assay for sensitive detection and quantification of aflatoxins in poultry feed, two types of dairy feed (1 and 2), horse feed, whole kernel corn feed grains, and retail yellow ground corn meal. Upon testing methanol/water (60:40) extractions of the above samples using competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the aflatoxin content was found to be effect in samples containing aflatoxin levels higher than the quantification limits (0.1-10 μg/kg), addressed by comparing the quantification results of undiluted and diluted extracts. In testing the reliability of the immuno-PCR assay, samples were spiked with 200 μg/kg of aflatoxin B1, but the recovery of spiked aflatoxin was found to be poor. Considering the significance of determining trace levels of aflatoxins and their serious implications for animal and human health, the RT iq-PCR method described in this study can be useful for quantifying low natural aflatoxin levels in complex matrices of food or animal feed samples without the requirement of extra sample cleanup.

  1. Team Work: Time well Spent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore Johnson, Susan; Reinhorn, Stefanie K.; Simon, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in high-poverty schools often feel stressed and fatigued. We might expect that if we ask these teachers to take on even more work by meeting regularly in collaborative improvement teams, they will respond with skepticism, even resentment. But in a study of 83 teachers in six outstanding high-poverty schools, these researchers found the…

  2. Investigation of Positional Differences in Fitness of Male University Ice Hockey Players and the Frequency, Time Spent and Heart Rate of Movement Patterns during Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Men’s university ice hockey has received little scientific attention over the past 30 years, a time in which the traits of the players and the demands of the game have evolved.  Objectives: This study compared the physiological characteristics of university ice hockey players and examined the frequency and duration of the different movement patterns and heart rate (HR responses during competition. Methods: Twenty male ice hockey players from the same team ( age ± SD = 22±2 years underwent a fitness evaluation and were filmed and HR monitored during regular season games. Results: Forwards and defense had similar fitness and only differed on % fatigue index and peak heart during on-ice sprinting (P<0.05. Defense stood, glided and skated backwards more than forwards and forwards skated at a moderate intensity and glided forward more than defense (P<0.05. All players spent the majority of game time gliding forward (60% of the time followed by skating forward at a moderate intensity (17% and standing with little movement (9%. Average HR during the game reached 96 and 92 % and peak HR was 100 and 96 % of maximum in forwards and defense, respectively. Conclusions: Male university hockey players present with a high level of physical fitness in a variety of categories with few differences between forwards and defense. Movement patterns during games suggest that players are performing low to moderate intensity on-ice activities the majority of the time. Paradoxically, HR continues to climb to near maximum during on ice shifts.

  3. Development of real-time PCR tests for the detection of Tenebrio molitor in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debode, Frédéric; Marien, Aline; Gérard, Amaury; Francis, Frédéric; Fumière, Olivier; Berben, Gilbert

    2017-08-01

    Insects are rich in proteins and could be an alternative source of proteins to feed animals and humans. Numerous companies have started the production of insects for feed purposes. In Europe, these processed animal proteins are not yet authorised by legislation as many questions still need to be answered concerning this 'novel food'. Authorisations will be possible when methods of authentication of the products are available. In this study we propose real-time PCR methods for the specific detection of the mealworm (Tenebriomolitor), one of the most widely used insects for food and feed production. Two PCR assays are proposed: the first based on the wingless gene and the second based on the cadherin gene. The PCR tests amplify fragments of 87 bp. These qualitative methods were tested according to several performance criteria. The specificity was tested on 34 insect species' DNA, but also on non-insect species including crustacean, mammals, birds and plants. The limit of detection was determined and was below 20 copies for the two PCR tests. The applicability of the tests was demonstrated by the analysis of real-life processed samples containing T. molitor.

  4. Effects of seasonal changes in feeding management under part-time grazing on terpene concentrations of ewes' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, Eunate; Virto, Mailo; Nájera, Ana Isabel; Albisu, Marta; Pérez-Elortondo, Francisco José; Ruiz de Gordoa, Juan Carlos; de Renobales, Mertxe; Barron, Luis Javier R

    2011-05-01

    Terpene composition of ewes' raw milk from nine commercial flocks was analysed from February to July. Ewes' diet consisted of concentrate and conserved forage in winter (indoor feeding) and part-time grazing from spring (transition and outdoor feeding). Regardless of the feeding, limonene and β-phellandrene were the most abundant monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene showed the highest concentrations among sesquiterpenes. Terpene content increased in the milks of commercial flocks when animals were reared under grazing management. Monoterpenes were detected in the milks of all the commercial flocks throughout the season, whereas sesquiterpenes were only detected in the milks from flocks grazing on non-cultivated community-owned grasslands in which a higher biodiversity of plant species grew. These preliminary results indicated that β-caryophyllene could be a potential pasture-diet marker in the case of milks from animals grazing a higher biodiversity of plant species but in-depth studies including information on terpene composition of plants ingested by the animals are necessary to evaluate the suitability of β-caryophyllene or another terpenoid compound as pasture biomarker.

  5. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  6. Lost in hospital: a qualitative interview study that explores the perceptions of NHS inpatients who spent time on clinically inappropriate hospital wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Lucy; Adamson, Joy; Watt, Ian; Wright, John

    2015-10-01

    Prior research suggests that the placement of patients on clinically inappropriate hospital wards may increase the risk of experiencing patient safety issues. To explore patients' perspectives of the quality and safety of the care received during their inpatient stay on a clinically inappropriate hospital ward. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Nineteen patients who had spent time on at least one clinically inappropriate ward during their hospital stay at a large NHS teaching hospital in England. Patients would prefer to be treated on the correct specialty ward, but it is generally accepted that this may not be possible. When patients are placed on inappropriate wards, they may lack a sense of belonging. Participants commented on potential failings in communication, medical staff availability, nurses' knowledge and the resources available, each of which may contribute to unsafe care. Patients generally acknowledge the need for placement on inappropriate wards due to demand for inpatient beds, but may report dissatisfaction in terms of preference and belonging. Importantly, patients recount issues resulting from this placement that may compromise their safety. Hospital managers should be encouraged to appreciate this insight and potential threat to safe practice and where possible avoid inappropriate ward transfers and admissions. Where such admissions are unavoidable, staff should take action to address the gaps in safety of care that have been identified. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Randomized Video-Feedback Intervention in Home-Based Childcare: Improvement of Children's Wellbeing Dependent on Time Spent with Trusted Caregiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Marleen G; Vermeer, Harriet J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Linting, Mariëlle

    The childcare environment offers a wide array of developmental opportunities for children. Providing children with a feeling of security to explore this environment is one of the most fundamental goals of childcare. In the current study the effectiveness of Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting-Child Care (VIPP-CC) was tested on children's wellbeing in home-based childcare in a randomized controlled trial. Forty-seven children and their caregivers were randomly assigned to the intervention group or control group. Children's wellbeing, caregiver sensitivity, and global childcare quality were observed during a pretest and a posttest. We did not find an overall intervention effect on child wellbeing, but a significant interaction effect with months spent with a trusted caregiver was present. Children who were less familiar with the caregiver showed an increase in wellbeing scores in both the intervention and control group, but for the group of children who were more familiar with the caregiver, wellbeing increased only in the intervention group. Although there was no overall effect of the VIPP-CC on children's wellbeing, the VIPP-CC seems effective in children who have been cared for by the same trusted caregiver for a longer period of time.

  8. Quality of time spent without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment for transmetatarsal amputation versus digital amputation in diabetic patients with digital gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherif, Mohamed; Tawfick, Wael; Canning, Patrick; Hynes, Niamh; Sultan, Sherif

    2018-04-01

    Aim We aim to compare the outcome of diabetic patients with gangrenous toes who were managed initially either by digital amputation or by transmetatarsal amputation. The null hypothesis is that transmetatarsal amputation had less theatre trips and better healing. Materials and Methods A parallel observational comparative study of all diabetic patients who underwent either digital or transmetatarsal amputation in a tertiary referral center from 2002 through 2015. Comorbid conditions, subsequent amputations, hospital stay, and readmission were noted. Results A total of 223 patients underwent minor amputation during the study period, of which 147 patients were diabetic and 76 patients were non-diabetic. Seventy-seven patients had digital amputation and 70 transmetatarsal amputation in diabetic patients. Demographics were similar in both groups. The median time to major amputation was (400 ± IQR 1205 days) in the digital amputation group, compared to 690 ± IQR 891 days in the transmetatarsal amputation group ( P = 0.974). 29.9% of digital amputations and 15.7% of transmetatarsal amputations in diabetic patients, required minor amputations or revision procedures ( P = 0.04). Median length of hospital stay was (20 days, IQR 27) in the digital group and (17 days, IQR17) in the transmetatarsal amputation group ( P = 0.17). Need for re-admission was 48.1% in digital patients compared to 50% in transmetatarsal amputation patients ( P = 0.81). Quality of time spent without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) was (315 days, IQR 45) in digital group and (346 days, IQR 48) in the transmetatarsal amputation patients ( P = 0.099). Conclusion Despite the lack of statistical significance, transmetatarsal amputation offered better outcome in the diabetic patients, with less re-intervention rate, shorter hospital stays, less theatre trips, and longer time without toxicity (TWiST).

  9. The Effect of High Versus Low Teacher Affect and Passive Versus Active Student Activity During Music Listening on Preschool Children's Attention, Piece Preference, Time Spent Listening, and Piece Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wendy L.

    1986-01-01

    Small-group listening lessons and subsequent individual posttests were used to judge 94 three- through five-year-old subjects' attention, paired-comparison piece preference, time spent listening, and piece recognition. Research procedures included a modified multiple baseline design and split-screen video taping of instructional sessions.…

  10. The feeding practices and structure questionnaire: construction and initial validation in a sample of Australian first-time mothers and their 2-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-06-04

    Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children's eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (review 10 factors were specified. Of these, 9 factors (40 items) showed acceptable model fit and internal reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.61-0.89). Four factors reflected non-responsive feeding practices: 'Distrust in Appetite', 'Reward for Behaviour', 'Reward for Eating', and 'Persuasive Feeding'. Five factors reflected structure of the meal environment and limits: 'Structured Meal Setting', 'Structured Meal Timing', 'Family Meal Setting', 'Overt Restriction' and 'Covert Restriction'. Feeding practices generally showed the expected pattern of associations with child eating behaviours but none with weight. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) provides a new reliable and valid measure of parental feeding practices, specifically maternal responsiveness to children's hunger/satiety signals facilitated by routine and structure in feeding. Further validation in more diverse samples is required.

  11. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, A., E-mail: afavalli@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grogan, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jansson, P. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Liljenfeldt, H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwalbach, P. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg); Sjöland, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Tobin, S.J.; Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vaccaro, S. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg)

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute {sup 137}Cs count rate and the {sup 154}Eu/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs, and {sup 144}Ce/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  12. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  13. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  14. Differential effects of diet composition and timing of feeding behavior on rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle peripheral clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Goede

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding behavior and diet composition, as well as their possible interactions, on daily (clock gene expression rhythms have mainly been studied in the liver, and to a lesser degree in white adipose tissue (WAT, but hardly in other metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM and brown adipose tissues (BAT. We therefore subjected male Wistar rats to a regular chow or free choice high-fat-high sugar (fcHFHS diet in combination with time restricted feeding (TRF to either the light or dark phase. In SM, all tested clock genes lost their rhythmic expression in the chow light fed group. In the fcHFHS light fed group rhythmic expression for some, but not all, clock genes was maintained, but shifted by several hours. In BAT the daily rhythmicity of clock genes was maintained for the light fed groups, but expression patterns were shifted as compared with ad libitum and dark fed groups, whilst the fcHFHS diet made the rhythmicity of clock genes become more pronounced. Most of the metabolic genes in BAT tissue tested did not show any rhythmic expression in either the chow or fcHFHS groups. In SM Pdk4 and Ucp3 were phase-shifted, but remained rhythmically expressed in the chow light fed groups. Rhythmic expression was lost for Ucp3 whilst on the fcHFHS diet during the light phase. In summary, both feeding at the wrong time of day and diet composition disturb the peripheral clocks in SM and BAT, but to different degrees and thereby result in a further desynchronization between metabolically active tissues such as SM, BAT, WAT and liver.

  15. Optimizing Nutrition in Pediatric Heart Failure: The Crisis Is Over and Now It's Time to Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kylie D; Conway, Jennifer; Cunningham, Chentel; Larsen, Bodil M K

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric heart failure is a complex disease occurring when cardiac output is unable to meet the metabolic demands of the body. With improved surgical interventions and medical therapies, survival rates have improved, and care has shifted from focusing on survival to optimizing quality of life and health outcomes. Based on current literature, this review addresses the nutrition needs of infants and children in heart failure and describes the pathophysiology and metabolic implications of this disease. The prevalence of wasting in pediatric heart failure has been reported to be as high as 86%, highlighting the importance of nutrition assessment through all stages of treatment to provide appropriate intake of energy, protein, and micronutrients. The etiology of malnutrition in pediatric heart failure is multifactorial and involves hypermetabolism, decreased intake, increased nutrient losses, inefficient utilization of nutrients, and malabsorption. Children in heart failure often present with tachypnea, tachycardia, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting and consequently may not be able to meet their nutrition requirements through oral intake alone. Nutrition support, including enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition, should be considered an essential part of routine care. The involvement of multiple allied health professionals may be needed to create a feeding therapy plan to support patients and their families. With appropriate nutrition interventions, clinical outcomes and quality of life can be significantly improved.

  16. Simultaneously precise frequency transfer and time synchronization using feed-forward compensation technique via 120 km fiber link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Lu, Jinlong; Cui, Yifan; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xing; Tian, Xusheng; Ci, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Wu, Hong; Tang, Tingsong; Shi, Kebin; Zhang, Zhigang

    2015-12-22

    Precision time synchronization between two remote sites is desired in many applications such as global positioning satellite systems, long-baseline interferometry, coherent radar detection and fundamental physics constant measurements. The recently developed frequency dissemination technologies based on optical fiber link have improved the transfer instability to the level of 10(-19)/day at remote location. Therefore it is possible to keep clock oscillation at remote locations continuously corrected, or to reproduce a "virtual" clock on the remote location. However the initial alignment and the correction of 1 pps timing signal from time to time are still required, besides the highly stabilized clock frequency transfer between distant locations. Here we demonstrate a time synchronization based on an ultra-stable frequency transfer system via 120-km commercial fiber link by transferring an optical frequency comb. Both the phase noise compensation in frequency dissemination and temporal basis alignment in time synchronization were implemented by a feed-forward digital compensation (FFDC) technique. The fractional frequency instability was measured to be 6.18 × 10(-20) at 2000 s. The timing deviation of time synchronization was measured to be 0.6 ps in 1500 s. This technique also can be applied in multi-node fiber network topology.

  17. Time-restricted feeding improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heekyung; Chou, Winjet; Sears, Dorothy D; Patterson, Ruth E; Webster, Nicholas J G; Ellies, Lesley G

    2016-12-01

    Menopause is associated with significant hormonal changes that result in increased total body fat and abdominal fat, amplifying the risk for metabolic syndrome and diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in postmenopausal women. Intermittent fasting regimens hold significant health benefit promise for obese humans, however, regimens that include extreme daytime calorie restriction or daytime fasting are generally associated with hunger and irritability, hampering long-term compliance and adoption in the clinical setting. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a regimen allowing eating only during a specific period in the normal circadian feeding cycle, without calorie restriction, may increase compliance and provide a more clinically viable method for reducing the detrimental metabolic consequences associated with obesity. We tested TRF as an intervention in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity. Metabolic parameters were measured using Clinical Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS) and we carried out glucose tolerance tests. We also stained liver sections with oil red O to examine steatosis and measured gene expression related to gluconeogenesis. Preexisting metabolic disease was significantly attenuated during 7 weeks of TRF. Despite having access to the same high fat diet (HFD) as ad libitum fed (ALF) mice, TRF mice experienced rapid weight loss followed by a delayed improvement in insulin resistance and a reduced severity of hepatic steatosis by having access to the HFD for only 8h during their normal nocturnal feeding period. The lower respiratory exchange ratio in the TRF group compared with the ALF group early in the dark phase suggested that fat was the predominant fuel source in the TRF group and correlated with gene expression analyses that suggested a switch from gluconeogenesis to ketogenesis. In addition, TRF mice were more physically active than ALF fed mice. Our data support further analysis of TRF as a clinically viable form of

  18. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  19. Recent salmon declines: a result of lost feeding opportunities due to bad timing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar M Chittenden

    Full Text Available As the timing of spring productivity blooms in near-shore areas advances due to warming trends in global climate, the selection pressures on out-migrating salmon smolts are shifting. Species and stocks that leave natal streams earlier may be favoured over later-migrating fish. The low post-release survival of hatchery fish during recent years may be in part due to static release times that do not take the timing of plankton blooms into account. This study examined the effects of release time on the migratory behaviour and survival of wild and hatchery-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch using acoustic and coded-wire telemetry. Plankton monitoring and near-shore seining were also conducted to determine which habitat and food sources were favoured. Acoustic tags (n = 140 and coded-wire tags (n = 266,692 were implanted into coho salmon smolts at the Seymour and Quinsam Rivers, in British Columbia, Canada. Differences between wild and hatchery fish, and early and late releases were examined during the entire lifecycle. Physiological sampling was also carried out on 30 fish from each release group. The smolt-to-adult survival of coho salmon released during periods of high marine productivity was 1.5- to 3-fold greater than those released both before and after, and the fish's degree of smoltification affected their downstream migration time and duration of stay in the estuary. Therefore, hatchery managers should consider having smolts fully developed and ready for release during the peak of the near-shore plankton blooms. Monitoring chlorophyll a levels and water temperature early in the spring could provide a forecast of the timing of these blooms, giving hatcheries time to adjust their release schedule.

  20. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Ann Sattler

    Full Text Available A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350 in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 × 10(3 cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 ± 7.8 × 10(5 cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 ± 1.1×10(7 cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 ± 5.7 × 10(5 cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days. With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken.

  1. Development of a strain-specific real-time PCR assay for enumeration of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in chicken feed and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Verity Ann; Mohnl, Michaela; Klose, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    A strain-specific real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of a probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 16350) in poultry feed and intestine. The specific primers were designed based on a genomic sequence of the strain derived from suppression subtractive hybridization with the type strain L. reuteri DSM 20016. Specificity was tested using a set of non-target strains from several sources. Applicability of the real-time PCR assay was evaluated in a controlled broiler feeding trial by using standard curves specific for feed and intestinal matrices. The amount of the probiotic L. reuteri was determined in feed from three feeding phases and in intestinal samples of the jejunum, ileum, and caecum of three, 14, and 39 day old birds. L. reuteri DSM 16350 cells were enumerated in all feeds supplemented with the probiotic close to the inclusion rate of 7.0 × 10(3) cfu/g, however, were not detected in L. reuteri DSM 16350 free feed. In three day old birds L. reuteri DSM 16350 was only detected in intestinal samples from probiotic fed animals ranging from 8.2 ± 7.8 × 10(5) cfu/g in the jejunum, 1.0 ± 1.1×10(7) cfu/g in the ileum, and 2.5 ± 5.7 × 10(5) cfu/g in the caecum. Similar results were obtained for intestinal samples of older birds (14 and 39 days). With increasing age of the animals the amount of L. reuteri signals in the control animals, however, also increased, indicating the appearance of highly similar bacterial genomes in the gut microbiota. The L. reuteri DSM 16350 qPCR assay could be used in future for feeding trials to assure the accurate inclusion of the supplement to the feed and to monitor it's uptake into the GIT of young chicken.

  2. Night-time restricted feeding normalises clock genes and Pai-1 gene expression in the db/db mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, T; Akiyama, M; Kuriyama, K; Sudo, M; Moriya, T; Shibata, S

    2004-08-01

    An increase in PAI-1 activity is thought to be a key factor underlying myocardial infarction. Mouse Pai-1 (mPai-1) activity shows a daily rhythm in vivo, and its transcription seems to be controlled not only by clock genes but also by humoral factors such as insulin and triglycerides. Thus, we investigated daily clock genes and mPai-1 mRNA expression in the liver of db/db mice exhibiting high levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides. Locomotor activity was measured using an infrared detection system. RT-PCR or in situ hybridisation methods were applied to measure gene expression. Humoral factors were measured using measurement kits. The db/ db mice showed attenuated locomotor activity rhythms. The rhythmic expression of mPer2 mRNA was severely diminished and the phase of mBmal1 oscillation was advanced in the db/db mouse liver, whereas mPai-1 mRNA was highly and constitutively expressed. Night-time restricted feeding led to a recovery not only from the diminished locomotor activity, but also from the diminished Per2 and advanced mBmal1 mRNA rhythms. Expression of mPai-1 mRNA in db/db mice was reduced to levels far below normal. Pioglitazone treatment slightly normalised glucose and insulin levels, with a slight reduction in mPai-1 gene expression. We demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes impairs the oscillation of the peripheral oscillator. Night-time restricted feeding rather than pioglitazone injection led to a recovery from the diminished locomotor activity, and altered oscillation of the peripheral clock and mPai-1 mRNA rhythm. Thus, we conclude that scheduled restricted food intake may be a useful form of treatment for diabetes.

  3. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  5. Alternative of feeding for livestock of double purpose in critical times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.

    1993-01-01

    The biggest component in the tropical pastures is that the fiber and the obtained nitrogen is non-protein; the microorganisms of the rumen have the capacity to digest the fiber and the non-proteic nitrogen, converting then in nutritious useful. The environmental situations of the warm tropic demand these requirements. Small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. Brachiaria spp in bovines, presenting deficit of ammonia (of 4-10 mg/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mg, the animal answer, was favorable. Since young bulls are supplemented with 60 gr of urea and 300 grs. Of molasses, during 350 days, 210 Kg of weight won, against 145 Kg of brachiaria-molasses and 310 in single brachiaria. The use of urea molasses is more effective in the dry time than in the rainy one, but if there is not enough biomass, it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and no-quantity, it also stimulates the consumption; this supplement that has been suggested should be strategic according to the nutritional quality of the pasture, time of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentration of ammonia; they indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  6. Spent fuel storage for ISER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takasuke; Kimura, Yuzi

    1987-01-01

    ISER is an intrinsically safe reactor basing its safety only on physical laws, and uses a steel reactor vessel in order to be economical. For such a new type reactor, it is essentially important to be accepted by the society by showing that the reactor is more profitable than conventional reactors to the public in both technical and economic viewpoint. It is also important that the reactor raises no serious problem in the total fuel cycle. Reprocessing seems one of the major worldwide fuel cycle issues. Spent fuel storage is also one of the key technologies for fuel cycle back end. Various systems for ISER spent fuel storages are examined in the present report. Spent fuel specifications of ISER are similar to those of LWR and therefore, most of LWR spent fuel technologies are basically applicable to ISER spent fuel. Design requirements and examples of storage facilities are also discussed. Dry storage seems to be preferable for the relatively long cooling time spent fuel like ISER's one from economical viewpoint. Vault storage will possibly be the most advantageous for large storage capacity. Another point for discussion is the location and international collaboration for spent fuel storages: ISER expected to be a worldwide energy source and therefore, international spent fuel management seems to be fairly attractive way for an energy recipient country. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Restless behavior increases over time, but not with compressibility of the flooring surface, during forced standing at the feed bunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, N; Berry, S L; Tucker, C B

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the use of rubber flooring in freestall barns has increased, but little is known about which design features of these surfaces are important for cattle. In 2 experiments, we evaluated how the type and compressibility of the flooring surface in front of the feed bunk influenced the behavioral response to 4 h of forced standing after morning milking. Two flooring types were compared: rubber and concrete. Rubber was tested at 3 levels of compressibility: 2, 4, and 35 times as compressible as concrete. Four hours of forced standing was evaluated because it mimicked conditions that can occur on dairies, particularly when waiting for artificial insemination or veterinary treatment. The effects of cow weight and hoof surface area, gait score, and hoof health on the response to treatment were evaluated. Restless behavior, as measured by number of steps, almost doubled over the 4h of forced standing, regardless of flooring material. Cows lay down, on average, within 5 min after access to the lying area was provided. These results indicate that the 4 h of forced standing was uncomfortable. No differences in restless behavior were observed in association with the type or compressibility of the flooring surface in front of the feed bunk. Cow size, hoof health, or gait score did not consistently explain the response to the flooring treatments or stepping rate, although these populations of animals were generally healthy. It is unclear if comfort did not differ between the flooring options tested during 4 h of forced standing or if alterative methodology, such as measuring more subtle shifts in weight, is required to assess design features of rubber flooring. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of different feeding time and frequency on metabolic conditions and milk production in heat-stressed dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, L.; Petrera, F.; Stefanini, L.; Abeni, F.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of three different feeding management (FM) schedules on physiological markers of heat stress (HS), metabolic conditions, milk yield and quality during the hot season in dairy cows. The study involved 27 mid-lactating cows, subdivided in three homogeneous groups differing in feeding time and frequency: total mixed ration (TMR) delivered once daily in the morning (M); twice daily, half in the morning and half in the evening (ME); once daily in the evening (E). During the trial, blood samples were collected in the morning (a.m.) and in the evening (p.m.), breathing rate (BR), rectal temperature (RT), and milk yield were recorded and individual milk samples were collected. Microclimate data indicated that cows were subjected to mild-moderate HS. During the hotter days, cows receiving M treatment showed higher values of RT (38.97 °C vs 38.68 °C and 38.62 °C, in ME and E) and BR (71.44 vs 66.52 and 65.26 breaths min-1, in ME and E), a.m. plasma glucose was lower in M (3.69 vs 3.83 and 3.83 mmol L-1, in ME and E) and a.m. plasma urea was lower in E (4.82 vs 5.48 and 5.35 mmol L-1, in M and ME). Milk yield was unaffected by FM, as well as milk composition and cheese-making properties. Only milk protein content and yield were higher in M (3.42 vs 3.36 and 3.27 g 100 mL-1; and 1.11 vs 1.08 and 1.02 kg day-1, for ME and E). Our results on cow physiology indicate that M seems a less suitable FM to match cow welfare during the summer season.

  9. Spent sulfite liquor developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, H H

    1958-01-01

    A review of methods of utilizing spent sulfite liquor, including evaporation and burning, fermentation to produce yeast or alcohol, production of vanillin and lignosulfonates, and use as a roadbinder.

  10. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO 2 fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO 2 dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with 238 Pu doped UO 2 M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO 2 studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with α doped UO 2 in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO 2 / water interfaces under He 2+ beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO 2 alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines (M. Kelm), On the potential catalytic behavior of

  11. Spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The production of nuclear electricity results in the generation of spent fuel that requires safe, secure and efficient management. Appropriate management of the resulting spent fuel is a key issue for the steady and sustainable growth of nuclear energy. Currently about 10,000 tonnes heavy metal (HM) of spent fuel are unloaded every year from nuclear power reactors worldwide, of which 8,500 t HM need to be stored (after accounting for reprocessed fuel). This is the largest continuous source of civil radioactive material generated, and needs to be managed appropriately. Member States have referred to storage periods of 100 years and even beyond, and as storage quantities and durations extend, new challenges arise in the institutional as well as in the technical area. The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs

  12. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Fall, C.H.D.; Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.Methods:Of 5551 children with collected

  13. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Fall, C. H. D.; van Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear. Of 5551 children with collected growth and

  14. Importance of interactions between food quality, quantity, and gut transit time on consumer feeding, growth, and trophic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Aditee; Flynn, Kevin J

    2007-05-01

    Ingestion kinetics of animals are controlled by both external food availability and feedback from the quantity of material already within the gut. The latter varies with gut transit time (GTT) and digestion of the food. Ingestion, assimilation efficiency, and thus, growth dynamics are not related in a simple fashion. For the first time, the important linkage between these processes and GTT is demonstrated; this is achieved using a biomass-based, mechanistic multinutrient model fitted to experimental data for zooplankton growth dynamics when presented with food items of varying quality (stoichiometric composition) or quantity. The results show that trophic transfer dynamics will vary greatly between the extremes of feeding on low-quantity/high-quality versus high-quantity/low-quality food; these conditions are likely to occur in nature. Descriptions of consumer behavior that assume a constant relationship between the kinetics of grazing and growth irrespective of food quality and/or quantity, with little or no recognition of the combined importance of these factors on consumer behavior, may seriously misrepresent consumer activity in dynamic situations.

  15. Moms and Media: Exploring the Effects of Online Communication on Infant Feeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Robert; McKeever, Brooke W

    2017-09-01

    Using a survey of mothers with young children (N = 455), this study applies Fishbein and Ajzen's reasoned action approach (RAA) to examine the relationship between online communication and infant feeding practices. Contrary to expectations, attitudes, perceived normative pressure, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) did not fully mediate the relationship between time spent online and behavioral intentions. Our findings indicate a significant, direct, negative association between time spent online and breastfeeding intentions In this article, theoretical and practical implications for health communication are discussed.

  16. An Estimation of Operator's Diagnostic Time for Feed-And-Bleed Operation under Various Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    In order to assess realistic safety of plant, effects of interactions between components, operator, and plant condition are needed to be considered in the PSA model. One of the important issues to estimate the CDF is the estimation of human error probability (HEP). When an accident occurs, operators follow the emergency operating procedure and check various alarm, parameters, and signals. In the conventional Korean PSA model, the Korean standard HRA (K-HRA) method is used. In this method, the HEP is the sum of diagnosis error probability and execution error probability. A diagnosis error probability is expressed by the available time for diagnosis and adjusting performance shaping factors, and an execution error probability is a function of task type and stress level. Available time for diagnosis is very important factor of HEP. If the available time for diagnosis is short, the HEP becomes high. In order to obtain the realistic risk assessment results, we first focus on the estimation of HEP considering the plant dynamics under various scenarios. Target operation and scenarios are feed-and bleed operation (F and B operation) and total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident with/without loss of coolant accident (LOCA). One of the highest HEP is HEP of FnB operation. In additional, Scenarios, which are related to combination secondary heat removal failure and primary heat removal failure, are most critical core damage scenario of the combined accident except scenarios related to station black out (SBO). In these scenarios, the FnB operation is last resort to prevent core damage. To estimate available operator diagnosis time, we identify the relationship between accidents, mitigation function, and plant condition. Distribution of available time of diagnosis was estimated using the MOSAIQUE. The variables are break size, break timing, trip timing of RCP, and availability of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump under the TLOFW accident with LOCA. For Type 1 accident

  17. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  18. Anticonvulsant effect of time-restricted feeding in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model: Metabolic and epigenetic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eLandgrave-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of antiepileptic drugs has emerged; however, one-third of epilepsy patients do not properly respond to pharmacological treatments. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether time-restricted feeding has an anticonvulsant effect and whether this restrictive diet promotes changes in energy metabolism and epigenetic modifications in a pilocarpine-induced seizure model. To resolve our hypothesis, one group of rats had free access to food and water ad libitum (AL and a second group underwent a time-restricted feeding (TRF schedule. We used the lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE, and behavioral seizure monitoring was analyzed. Additionally, an electroencephalography (EEG recording was performed to verify the effect of TRF on cortical electrical activity after a pilocarpine injection. For biochemical analysis, animals were sacrificed 24 hours after SE and hippocampal homogenates were used to evaluate the proteins related to metabolism and chromatin structure. Our results showed that TRF had an anticonvulsant effect as measured by the prolonged latency of forelimb clonus seizure, a decrease in the seizure severity score and fewer animals reaching SE. Additionally, the power of the late phase EEG recordings in the AL group was significantly higher than the TRF group. Moreover, we found that TRF is capable of inducing alterations in signaling pathways that regulate energy metabolism, including an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP dependent kinase (AMPK and a decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase. Furthermore, we found that TRF was able to significantly increase the beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB concentration, an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs. Finally, we found a significant decrease in HDAC activity as well as an increase in acetylation on histone 3 (H3 in hippocampal homogenates from the TRF group. These findings suggest that alterations in energy metabolism and the

  19. The Concentrations of Rumen Fluid Volatile Fatty Acids and Ammonia, and Rumen Microbial Protein Production in Sheep Given Feed During the Day and Night Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, D. A. K. W.; Rianto, E.; Arifin, M.

    2018-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of volatile (VFA), ammonia and microbial protein production of rumen fluid in sheep given fedd during the day and at night. This study used 12 fat-tailed rams aged 12-18 months and weighed 24,12 ± 25 kg (CV = 10,51%). The rams were fed a complete feed containing 16.64% protein and 68,33% total digestible nutrients (TDN). The rams were allocated into a completely randomised design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments applied were: T1: day time feeding (6.00 hrs - 18.00 hrs); T2: night time feeding (18.00 hrs - 6.00 hrs); and T3: day and night time feedings (6.00 hrs - 6.00 hrs). The parameters observed were dry matter intake (DMI), rumen VFA concentration, rumen ammonia concentration, rumen rmicrobial protein production and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein production. The results showed that feeding time did not significantly affect (P>0.05) all the parameters observed. Dry matter intake, VFA concentration, ammonia concentration, the microbial protein production of rumen fluid and the efficiency of microbial protein production were 1,073g/d, 49.69 mmol; 4.77 mg N/100 ml, 12,111 g/d and 19.96 g per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), respectively. It is concluded that feeding time did not affect DMI, condition of rumen fluid and rumen microbial protein production in sheep.

  20. Spent fuel storage facility, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreekumar, B.; Anthony, S.

    2017-01-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF), Kalpakkam is designed to store spent fuel arising from PHWRs. Spent fuel is transported in AERB qualified/authorized shipping cask by NPCIL to SFSF by road or rail route. The spent fuel storage facility at Kalpakkam was hot commissioned in December 2006. All systems, structures and components (SSCs) related to safety are designed to meet the operational requirements

  1. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  2. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  3. TRIGA Mark II Ljubljana - spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Dimic, V.

    2008-01-01

    The most important activity in 1999 was shipment of the spent fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal. This activity started already in 1998 with some governmental support. In July 1999 all spent fuel elements (219 pieces) from the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana were shipped back to the United Stated by the ship from the port Koper in Slovenia. At the same time shipment of the spent fuel from the research reactor in Pitesti, Romania, and the research reactor in Rome, Italy, was conducted. During the loading the radiation exposure to the workers was rather low. The loading and shipment of the spent nuclear fuel went very smoothly and according the accepted time table. During the last two years the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana has been in operation about 1100 hours per year and without any undesired shut-down. (authors)

  4. Optimization of prehydrolysis time and substrate feeding to improve ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of furfural process residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianlong; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ning; Xiong, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Ethanol is a very important industrial chemical. In order to improve ethanol productivity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation from furfural process residue, we developed a process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of furfural process residue, optimizing prehydrolysis cellulase loading concentration, prehydrolysis time, and substrate feeding strategy. The ethanol concentration obtained from the optimized process was 19.3 g/L, corresponding 76.5% ethanol yield, achieved by running SSF for 48 h from 10% furfural process residue with prehydrolysis at 50°C for 4 h and cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g furfural process residue. For higher ethanol concentrations, fed-batch fermentation was performed. The optimized fed-batch process increased the ethanol concentration to 37.6 g/L, 74.5% yield, obtained from 10% furfural process residue with two additions of 5% substrate at 12 and 24 h. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  6. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  7. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  8. Feasibility of a web-based dementia feeding skills training program for nursing home staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Amella, Elaine J; Zapka, Jane; Mueller, Martina; Beck, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Nursing home (NH) staff do not receive adequate training for providing feeding assistance to residents with dementia who exhibit aversive feeding behaviors (e.g., clamping mouth shut). The result is often low meal intake for these residents. This feasibility study tested a web-based dementia feeding skills program for staff in two United States NHs. Randomly assigned, the intervention staff received web-based dementia feeding skills training with coaching. Both groups participated in web-based pre-/post-tests assessing staff knowledge and self-efficacy; and meal observations measured NH staff and resident feeding behaviors, time for meal assistance, and meal intake. Aversive feeding behaviors increased in both groups of residents; however, the intervention NH staff increased the amount of time spent providing assistance and meal intake doubled. In the control group, less time was spent providing assistance and meal intake decreased. This study suggests that training staff to use current clinical practice guidelines improves meal intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spent Fuel Working Group Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary's initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group's Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities

  10. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  11. Improved and consistent determination of the nuclear inventory of spent PWR-fuel on the basis of time-dependent cell-calculations with KORIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Wiese, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    For safe handling, processing and storage of spent nuclear fuel a reliable, experimentally validated method is needed to determine fuel and waste characteristics: composition, radioactivity, heat and radiation. For PWR's, a cell-burnup procedure has been developed which is able to calculate the inventory in consistency with cell geometry, initial enrichment, and reactor control. Routine calculations can be performed with KORIGEN using consistent cross-section sets - burnup-dependent and based on the latest Karlsruhe evaluations for actinides - which were calculated previously with the cell-burnup procedure. Extensive comparisons between calculations and experiments validate the presented procedure. For the use of the KORIGEN code the input description and sample problems are added. Improvements in the calculational method and in data are described, results from KORIGEN, ORIGEN and ORIGEN2 calculations are compared. Fuel and waste inventories are given for BIBLIS-type fuel of different burnup. (orig.) [de

  12. Maternal Education Is Associated with Disparities in Breastfeeding at Time of Discharge but Not at Initiation of Enteral Feeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herich, Lena Carolin; Cuttini, Marina; Croci, Ileana; Franco, Francesco; Di Lallo, Domenico; Baronciani, Dante; Fares, Katia; Gargano, Giancarlo; Raponi, Massimiliano; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal education and breastfeeding in very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. This prospective, population-based cohort study analyzed the data of all very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care during 1 year in 3 regions in Italy (Lazio, Emilia-Romagna, and Marche). The use of mothers' own milk was recorded at initial enteral feedings and at hospital discharge. We used multilevel logistic analysis to model the association between maternal education and breastfeeding outcomes, adjusting for maternal age and country of birth. Region was included as random effect. There were 1047 very preterm infants who received enteral feeding, and 975 were discharged alive. At discharge, the use of mother's own milk, exclusively or not, and feeding directly at the breast were significantly more likely for mothers with an upper secondary education or higher. We found no relationship between maternal education and type of milk at initial enteral feedings. However, the exclusive early use of the mother's own milk at initial feedings was related significantly with receiving any maternal milk and feeding directly at the breast at discharge from hospital, and the association with feeding at the breast was stronger for the least educated mothers. In this population-based cohort of very preterm infants, we found a significant and positive association between maternal education and the likelihood of receiving their mother's own milk at the time of discharge. In light of the proven benefits of maternal milk, strategies to support breastfeeding should be targeted to mothers with less education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and evaluation of a real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of bovine contaminates in cattle feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Gabriel; Smith, Wayne; Ruzante, Juliana; Sawyer, Mary; Osburn, Bennie; Cullor, James

    2005-01-01

    A real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay for detecting prohibited ruminant materials such as bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM) in cattle feed using primers and FRET probes targeting the ruminant specific mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was developed and evaluated on two different types of cattle feed. Common problems involved with PCR based testing of cattle feed include the presence of high levels of PCR inhibitors and the need for certain pre-sample processing techniques in order to perform DNA extractions. We have developed a pre-sample processing technique for extracting DNA from cattle feed which does not require the feed sample to be ground to a fine powder and utilizes materials that are disposed of between samples, thus, reducing the potential of cross contamination. The DNA extraction method utilizes Whatman FTA card technology, is adaptable to high sample throughput analysis and allows for room temperature storage with established archiving of samples of up to 14 years. The Whatman FTA cards are subsequently treated with RNAse and undergo a Chelex-100 extraction (BioRad, Hercules, CA), thus removing potential PCR inhibitors and eluting the DNA from the FTA card for downstream PCR analysis. The detection limit was evaluated over a period of 30 trials on calf starter mix and heifer starter ration feed samples spiked with known concentrations of BMBM. The PCR detection assay detected 0.05% wt/wt BMBM contamination with 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 100% confidence. Concentrations of 0.005% and 0.001% wt/wt BMBM contamination were also detected in both feed types but with varying levels of confidence.

  14. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS system with timed and highly selective reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Liu, Na; Yang, Lingchen; Deng, Yifeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Suquan; Lin, Shanhai; Wu, Aibo; Zhou, Zhenlei; Hou, Jiafa

    2015-09-01

    Mycotoxins have the potential to enter the human food chain through carry-over of contaminants from feed into animal-derived products. The objective of the study was to develop a reliable and sensitive method for the analysis of 30 mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food (meat, edible animal tissues, and milk) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the study, three extraction procedures, as well as various cleanup procedures, were evaluated to select the most suitable sample preparation procedure for different sample matrices. In addition, timed and highly selective reaction monitoring on LC-MS/MS was used to filter out isobaric matrix interferences. The performance characteristics (linearity, sensitivity, recovery, precision, and specificity) of the method were determined according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 401/2006/EC. The established method was successfully applied to screening of mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food. The results indicated that mycotoxin contamination in feed directly influenced the presence of mycotoxin in animal-derived food. Graphical abstract Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS.

  15. Complementary feeding patterns in the first year of life in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: time trends from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze time trends in complementary feeding practices among children under one year of age in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1998 to 2008. Based on comparable questions on food consumption in five surveys conducted in representative randomized samples of children in 1998 (n = 3,762, 2000 (n = 3,670, 2003 (n = 4,305, 2006 (n = 3,686, and 2008 (n = 2,621, 16 complementary feeding indicators were constructed. The percentage frequency of all indicators was estimated for each year of the study. Linear trend analyses were also conducted by means of multivariate regression models. All indicators of early complementary feeding decreased from 1998 to 2008. In the 6-11.9 month age group, there was a significant downward trend in the proportion of children receiving food with adequate consistency for their age, consumption of iron-rich foods, and overall adequacy of the diet. A significant upward trend in fruit consumption was observed. There was a decrease in the early complementary feeding, and generally a worsening of complementary feeding practices in children aged 6-11.9 months in Rio de Janeiro during the period studied.

  16. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  17. Reprocessing of spent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for removing helium and other impurities from a mixture containing deuterium and tritium, a deuterium/tritium mixture when purified in accordance with such a process and, more particularly, to a process for the reprocessing of spent plasma removed from a thermofusion reactor. (U.K.)

  18. Effects of seasonal changes in feeding management under part-time grazing on the evolution of the composition and coagulation properties of raw milk from ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, E; Virto, M; Nájera, A I; Salmerón, J; Albisu, M; Pérez-Elortondo, F J; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2010-09-01

    Ewe raw milk composition, rennet coagulation parameters, and curd texture were monitored throughout the milk production season in 11 commercial flocks reared under a part-time grazing system. Milking season lasted from February to July. During that period, the diet of the animals shifted from indoor feeding, consisting of concentrate and forage, to an outdoor grazing diet. Lean dry matter, fat, protein, calcium, and magnesium contents increased throughout the milking season, as did rennet coagulation time, curd firmness, and curd resistance to compression. However, lean dry matter, protein content, and curd resistance to compression stabilized when sheep started to graze. Principal component analysis correlated curd resistance to compression and proteins, whereas curd firmness was highly correlated with fat content and minerals. Discriminant analysis distributed milk samples according to the feeding management. Curd firmness, fat, and magnesium turned out to be discriminant variables. Those variables reflected the evolution of the composition and coagulation parameters when fresh pasture prevailed over other feeds in the diet of the flocks. The present study shows that seasonal changes associated with feeding management influence milk technological quality and that milk of good processing quality can be obtained under part-time grazing. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Infant Feeding Decision-Making and the Influences of Social Support Persons Among First-Time African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V; Waters, Catherine M; Dailey, Dawn E; Lyndon, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Objective The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusions for Practice Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation.

  20. Infant Feeding Decision-Making and the Influences of Social Support Persons among First-Time African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V.; Waters, Catherine M.; Dailey, Dawn E.; Lyndon, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Purpose The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusion Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation. PMID:27565664

  1. Evaluación del Residuo del Cultivo de Agaricus bisporus como Alimento de Vacas Lecheras en Lactancia Media / Evaluation of the Agaricus bisporus Spent Compost as Feed of Dairy Cows in Mid Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Gómez Urrego

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el potencial del residuo del cultivo de la seta Agaricus bisporus como materia prima para la alimentación de vacas lecheras en segundo tercio de lactancia. Para esto, se sustituyó 10% del concentrado comercial por el residuo (sin turba y se evaluó su efecto en la producción, el balance nutricional de las vacas y el costo final del concentrado. El diseño experimental fue un cross-over o de intercambio con medidas repetidas en eltiempo. Cada periodo experimental tuvo una duración de 14 días. Se utilizaron dos grupos de animales, uno con 4 vacas Holstein y otro con 4 vacas cruzadas Holstein x BON. En promedio, las vacas tenían 117 ± 18,6 días en leche, 2,6 ± 0,9 partos, 529,5 ± 52,9 kg peso vivo y una producción de leche/día de 15,42 ± 2,6 L. El tratamiento experimental redujo los nutrientes digeribles totales de la dieta total en 2%. No hubo diferencias estadísticas en el balance nutricional de las vacas a causa del tratamiento experimental. Tampoco hubo diferencia estadística en cuanto a la producción de leche (14,4 L y calidad composicional (% de grasa:3,86; % de proteína: 3,5; relación grasa: proteína: 1,11. El análisis de costos mostró que al incluirse en el concentrado un 10% del residuo de A. bisporus (Champiñosa se obtenía una reducción en los costos de alimentación de $403 pesos colombianos/vaca/día. / Abstract. This study evaluated the potential of the growth bed of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus as a feed for mid lactation dairy cows. We replaced 10% of commercial concentrate with the residue (peat removed and assessed its effect on milk production, nutritional balance of the cows and final cost of the concentrate. The experimental design was a cross-over or change-over with repeated measurements. Each experimental period lasted 14 days. Two groups of animals, one with four Holstein cows and one with four crossbred Holstein x BON cows were used. On average, cows had 117

  2. Protein enrichment of brewery spent grain from Rhizopus oligosporus by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo, Marianny Silva; de Paula, Fernanda Gomes; da Silva, Flávio Alves; Vendruscolo, Francielo

    2016-07-01

    Brewery spent grain represents approximately 85 % of total by-products generated in a brewery. Consisting of carbohydrates, fiber, minerals and low amounts of protein, the use of brewery spent grain is limited to the feeding of ruminants; however, its potential use should be investigated. The reuse of this by-product using microorganisms by solid-state fermentation process as the case of protein enrichment by single-cell protein incorporation is an alternative to ensure sustainability and generate commercially interesting products. In this context, the aim of this study was to grow Rhizopus oligosporus in brewery spent grain under different initial moisture contents and nitrogen sources to increase the protein content of the fermented material. After 7 days of fermentation, increase of 2-4 times in the crude protein and soluble protein content was verified, respectively, compared to unfermented brewery spent grain. The kinetics of protein enrichment demonstrated the possibility of application of this technique, which can be a great alternative for use in diets for animals.

  3. Effect of cup feeding and bottle feeding on breastfeeding in late preterm infants: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gonca; Caylan, Nilgun; Karacan, Can Demir; Bodur, İlknur; Gokcay, Gulbin

    2014-05-01

    Cup feeding has been used as an alternative feeding method for preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bottle and cup feeding on exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months post-discharge in late preterm infants. Included in the study were preterm infants of 32 to 35 weeks' gestation fed only by intermittent gastric tube at the time of recruitment; 522 infants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the cup-fed group (n = 254) and bottle-fed group (n = 268). Main outcomes were prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and length of hospital stay. Infants randomized to cup versus bottle feeding were more likely to be exclusively breastfed at discharge home (relative risk [RR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.83), 3 months after discharge (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42-1.89), and 6 months after discharge (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.63). There was no significant difference between groups for length of hospital stay. The mean hospital stay was 25.96 ± 2.20 days in the bottle-fed group and 25.68 ± 2.22 days in the cup-fed group. There was no significant difference between groups for time spent feeding, feeding problems, or weight gain in hospital. Cup feeding significantly increased the likelihood of late preterm infants being exclusively breastfed at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and cup feeding did not increase the length of hospital stay. Overall, we recommend cup feeding as a transitional method prior to breastfeeding for late preterm infants during hospitalization.

  4. Automatic spent fuel ID number reader (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, S.; Kawamoto, H.; Fujimaki, K.; Kobe, A.

    1991-01-01

    An effective and efficient technique has been developed for facilitating identification works of LWR spent fuel stored in large scale spent fuel storage pools of such as processing plants. Experience shows that there are often difficulties in the implementation of operator's nuclear material accountancy and control works as well as safeguards inspections conducted on spent fuel assemblies stored in deep water pool. This paper reports that the technique is realized as an automatic spent fuel ID number reader system installed on fuel handling machine. The ID number reader system consists of an optical sub-system and an image processing sub-system. Thousands of spent fuel assemblies stored in under water open racks in each storage pool could be identified within relatively short time (e.g. within several hours) by using this combination. Various performance tests were carried out on image processing sub-system in 1990 using TV images obtained from different types of spent fuel assemblies stored in various storage pools of PWR and BWR power stations

  5. Spent fuel dry storage in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buday, G.; Szabo, B.; Oerdoegh, M.; Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. Since 1989, approximately 40-50% of the total annual electricity generation of the country has been supplied by this plant. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia. Most of the spent fuel assemblies have been shipped back to Russia. Difficulties with spent fuel transportation to Russia have begun in 1992. Since that time, some of the shipments were delayed, some of them were completely cancelled, thus creating a backlog of spent fuel filling all storage positions of the plant. To provide assurance of the continued operation, Paks NPPs management decided to implement an independent spent fuel storage facility and chose GEC-Althom's MVDS design. The construction of the facility started in February 1995 and the first spent fuel assembly was placed in the store in September 1997. The paper gives an overview of the situation, describing the conditions leading to the construction of the dry storage facility at Paks and its implementation. Finally, some information is given about the new Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management established this year and responsible for managing the issues related to spent fuel management. (author)

  6. Pyrochemical processing of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development. This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or open-quotes pyroprocessing,close quotes provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (>99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess, are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and avoid the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory

  7. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  8. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  9. Differential effects of diet composition and timing of feeding behavior on rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle peripheral clocks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Goede, P.; Sen, Satish; Oosterman, Johanneke E; Kalsbeek, A.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of feeding behavior and diet composition,as well as their possible interactions,on daily (clock) gene expression rhythms have mainly been studied in the liver, and to a lesser degree in white adipose tissue(WAT), but hardly in other metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM) and

  10. Intervalos de observações com diferentes escalas de tempo no comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras confinadas Intervals between observations at different time scales in the feeding behavior of dairy confined cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2011-09-01

    minutes, observed during ingestive behavior. Behavior observations occurred on the second to last day of each period of 15 days data collection for 24 hours. There has been analysis of variance and Dunnett test application, adopting 0.05 as the critical level of probability. There was no significant effect of record scales of time spent eating, ruminating, idling and efficiencies of feeding and rumination. For the variables of the numbers of periods of eating, ruminating and idle and times per period of feeding, ruminating and resting, the ranges of 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes were different when compared with the interval of five minutes of observation. Total collection of times of feeding ruminating and idling, and efficiencies of feeding and ruminating on the different nutrients can be performed with an interval of observation of up to 30 minutes. For the discretization of the time series of ingestive behavior, it is recommended the scale of five minutes between observations.

  11. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  13. Spent fuel dissolution mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1993-11-01

    This study is a literature survey on the dissolution mechanisms of spent fuel under disposal conditions. First, the effects of radiolysis products on the oxidative dissolution mechanisms and rates of UO 2 are discussed. These effects have mainly been investigated by using electrochemical methods. Then the release mechanisms of soluble radionuclides and the dissolution of the UO 2 matrix including the actinides, are treated. Experimental methods have been developed for measuring the grain-boundary inventories of radionuclides. The behaviour of cesium, strontium and technetium in leaching tests shows different trends. Comparison of spent fuel leaching data strongly suggests that the release of 90 Sr into the leachant can be used as a measure of the oxidation/dissolution of the fuel matrix. Approaches to the modelling UO 2 , dissolution are briefly discussed in the next chapter. Lastly, the use of natural material, uraninite, in the evaluation of the long-term performance of spent fuel is discussed. (orig.). (81 ref., 37 figs., 8 tabs.)

  14. ECOSYS-87: Model calculations of the activity in cattle meat related to deposition time and feeding regimes after a nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesen, T.K.; Gottofrey, J.; Heiz, H.J.; Schenker-Wicki, A.

    1996-01-01

    The radioecological model ECOSYS087 was used to evaluate the effect of countermeasures for reducing the ingestion dose by eating cattle meat after an accidental release of radioactive material. Calculations were performed using a database adapted to Swiss conditions for the case that (1) contaminated grass or hay is replaced by clean fodder; (2) the last 100 days before slaughter, taking place one year after an accident, only uncontaminated fodder is given; and (3) alternative feeding regimes are chosen. Seasonal effects were considered by doing all calculations for a deposition at each month of the year. Feeding uncontaminated forage 100 d before slaughter (case 2) proved to be the most effective countermeasure and reduced the integrated activity in meat by 90% to 99%. The effect of replacing contaminated grass (case 1) was less uniform and depended strongly on the time a deposition occurred. In this case the reduction was between 50% and 100% one year after deposition. The substitution of contaminated hay (case 1) was less effective compared to the substitution of grass. The choice of alternative feeding regimes (case 1) was less effective compared to the substitution of grass. The choice of alternative feeding regimes (case 3) led to a reduction of the integrated activity of up to 40% one year after deposition. The present model calculations clearly reveal the importance of the seasonality and demonstrate the usefulness of such calculations as a basis for generating countermeasures in decision support systems. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  15. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Saglam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods: Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results: The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  16. Impact of Time-Restricted Feeding and Dawn-to-Sunset Fasting on Circadian Rhythm, Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse L. Mindikoglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity now affects millions of people and places them at risk of developing metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. This rapidly emerging epidemic has led to a search for cost-effective methods to prevent the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD as well as the progression of NAFLD to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In murine models, time-restricted feeding resets the hepatic circadian clock and enhances transcription of key metabolic regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies of the effect of dawn-to-sunset Ramadan fasting, which is akin to time-restricted feeding model, have also identified significant improvement in body mass index, serum lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters. Based on the findings of studies conducted on human subjects, dawn-to-sunset fasting has the potential to be a cost-effective intervention for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD.

  17. Impact of Time-Restricted Feeding and Dawn-to-Sunset Fasting on Circadian Rhythm, Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagan, Sood K.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity now affects millions of people and places them at risk of developing metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and even hepatocellular carcinoma. This rapidly emerging epidemic has led to a search for cost-effective methods to prevent the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD as well as the progression of NAFLD to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In murine models, time-restricted feeding resets the hepatic circadian clock and enhances transcription of key metabolic regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies of the effect of dawn-to-sunset Ramadan fasting, which is akin to time-restricted feeding model, have also identified significant improvement in body mass index, serum lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters. Based on the findings of studies conducted on human subjects, dawn-to-sunset fasting has the potential to be a cost-effective intervention for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD. PMID:29348746

  18. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- barley-based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP(5), InsP(4), InsP(3), and InsP(2)) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial...... collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase...... over time (P

  19. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 h vs. 14 h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, A.; Sánchez-Macías, D.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (...

  20. Stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Belachew, Tefera; Berhanu, Getenesh; Setegn, Tesfaye; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-12-01

    Even though many studies showed that infant and child feeding index has a statistically significant association with nutritional status, there is paucity of studies on stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants. This study aimed to investigate the stability of infant and child feeding index over time that is developed based on the current recommendations and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A panel study design was conducted in health institutions in Sidama Zone from February to July, 2012. Three repeated measurements of data were collected from each HIV exposed infant aged 6-17 months over the 6 month follow-up period approximately per 2 month interval. The cross-sectional index was found stable overtime with the repeatability coefficient of 0.802 which differed significantly from zero (95% CI: 0.75-0.85). A longitudinal infant and child feeding index (L-ICFI) has a statistically significant association with length for age Z scores (LAZ) and weight for age Z scores (WAZ) at visit three (β=0.262, p=0.007; β=0.226, p=0.017), respectively. But the longitudinal index has no statistically significant association with WLZ score (p=0.552). There was no significant difference in change of LAZ and WAZ over time between L-ICFI tertiles for both female and male HIV exposed infants. The index is stable overtime at individual level even though one third of the index components were not stable. The L-CFI was associated with LAZ and WAZ but not with WLZ. However there was no significant difference in change of HAZ and WAZ over time between L-ICFI tertiles for both female and male HIV exposed infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-07-30

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD -3.15 days (95% CI -5.25/-1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management.

  2. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  3. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.

  4. Time spent on health-related activities by senior Australians with chronic diseases: what is the role of multimorbidity and comorbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S; Yen, Laurann; Jowsey, Tanisha; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-06-01

    To examine the effect of various morbidity clusters of chronic diseases on health-related time use and to explore factors associated with heavy time burden (more than 30 hours/month) of health-related activities. Using a national survey, data were collected from 2,540 senior Australians. Natural clusters were identified using cluster analysis and clinical clusters using clinical expert opinion. We undertook a set of linear regressions to model people's time use, and logistic regressions to model heavy time burden. Time use increases with the number of chronic diseases. Six of the 12 diseases are significantly associated with higher time use, with the highest effect for diabetes followed by depression; 18% reported a heavy time burden, with diabetes again being the most significant disease. Clusters and dominant comorbid groupings do not contribute to predicting time use or time burden. Total number of diseases and specific diseases are useful determinants of time use and heavy time burden. Dominant groupings and disease clusters do not predict time use. In considering time demands on patients and the need for care co-ordination, care providers need to be aware of how many and what specific diseases the patient faces. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. The development of spent fuel storage process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Kim, Ho Dong; Kim, Ki Joon; Kim, Bum Hoe

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear material accounting system were designed to track the transitions of nuclear materials at the spent-fuel technology research facility. It is embedded in a distributed control system real-time structure of the system gives timely on-line accountancy. And performance of AC servo motor with fuzzy logic control and its applicability to spent fuel management were experimentally evaluated. (Author)

  6. Time Spent on Dedicated Patient Care and Documentation Tasks Before and After the Introduction of a Structured and Standardized Electronic Health Record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joukes, Erik; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Cornet, Ronald; de Keizer, Nicolette F.

    2018-01-01

    Physicians spend around 35% of their time documenting patient data. They are concerned that adopting a structured and standardized electronic health record (EHR) will lead to more time documenting and less time for patient care, especially during consultations.  This study measures the effect of the

  7. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  8. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  9. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    How should the decision in favour of reprocessing and against alternative waste management concepts be judged from an economic standpoint. Reprocessing is not imperative neither for resource-economic reasons nor for nuclear energy strategy reasons. On the contrary, the development of an ultimate storage concept representing a real alternative promising to close, within a short period of time, the nuclear fuel cycle at low cost. At least, this is the result of an extensive economic efficiency study recently submitted by the Energy Economics Institute which investigated all waste management concepts relevant for the Federal Republic of Germany in the long run, i.e. direct ultimate storage of spent fuel elements (''Other waste disposal technologies'' - AE) as well as reprocessing of spent fuel elements where re-usable plutonium and uranium are recovered and radioactive waste goes to ultimate storage (''Integrated disposal'' - IE). Despite such fairly evident results, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has favoured the construction of a reprocessing plant. From an economic point of view there is no final answer to the question whether or not the argumentation is sufficient to justify the decision to construct a reprocessing plant. This is true for both the question of technical feasibility and issues of overriding significance of a political nature. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values for describing dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel. Data obtained during observation of the offloading of research reactor spent fuel at Newport News Terminal in the Port of Hampton Roads, Virginia, are described. These data include estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors, and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Other workers include crane operators, scale operators, security personnel, and truck drivers. The data are compared to the default data in RADTRAN 4, and the latter are found to be conservative. The casks were loaded under IAEA supervision at their point of origin, and three separate radiological inspections of each cask were performed at the entry to the port (Hampton Roads) by the U.S. Coast Guard, the state of Virginia, and the shipping firm. As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handler exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. (author)

  11. Effects of in ovo feeding of l-arginine on hatchability, hatching time, early posthatch development, and carcass traits in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Wan, X P; Miao, L P; Zou, X T; Dong, X Y

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that in ovo feeding of arginine (Arg) may improve hatchability and posthatch performance in domestic pigeons (). A completely randomized design ( = 3) with an Arg feeding treatment (Arg group, 1.14 mg Arg dissolved in 200 μL of 0.75% NaCl buffered saline as 1% concentration compared to total Arg in the egg), a buffered saline feeding treatment (SC group, 7.5 g NaCl dissolved in 1 L sterile distilled water as the concentration of poultry physiological saline), and a nonfeeding treatment (NC group) was used. Six squabs from each treatment were randomly sampled on day of hatch (DOH), posthatch d 7 (D7), and posthatch d 14 (D14), respectively. Hatchability, hatch time, BW, organ development, and carcass traits were examined. Results showed that in ovo feeding of the Arg solution increased ( < 0.05) the hatchability and advanced ( < 0.05) the hatching time in comparison with those of the other groups. Body weight of pigeon squabs that received Arg in ovo feeding was heavier ( < 0.05) on DOH and D14 than that of the NC group, and a greater ( < 0.05) BW gain from DOH to D14 and D7 to D14 was observed. Three clusters of 12 organs were classified according to the changes of organ indices. Squabs provided the Arg in ovo feeding treatment gained a priority in organ development. The heart index and gizzard index on D7 and the proventriculus index on D14 of squabs receiving Arg in ovo feeding were increased ( < 0.05) compared to those of the other groups. The brain index on DOH, the small intestine index and pancreas index on D7, and the liver index, pancreas index, and spleen index on D14 of squabs fed Arg were higher ( < 0.05) than those of the NC group. The spleen index on D7 and the small intestine index on D14 of squabs provided the Arg feeding treatment were enhanced ( < 0.05) compared with those of the SC group. The semieviscerated carcass weight of squabs receiving Arg was higher ( < 0.05) on D14 than that of

  12. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 1. Changes in feed intake, feeding behavior, and digestion with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Luzi, S P; Furger, M; Zeitz, J O; Leiber, F; Ortmann, S; Clauss, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    , owing to the different fiber content of the diets. No significant interactions between age and feeding regimen were found. Heifers spent more time eating and ruminating per unit of feed than cows, which resulted in a high fiber digestibility. Irrespective of the feeding regimen tested, older cows maintained intake and digestion efficiency with longer retention times and chewing rumination boluses more intensively. The results support efforts to extend the length of productive life in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spent fuel reprocessing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Mizuguchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1996-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels containing oxides of uranium and transuranium elements are dismantled and sheared, then oxide fuels are reduced into metals of uranium and transuranium elements in a molten salt with or without mechanical removal of coatings. The reduced metals of uranium and transuranium elements and the molten salts are subjected to phase separation. From the metals of uranium and transuranium elements subjected to phase separation, uranium is separated to a solid cathode and transuranium elements are separated to a cadmium cathode by an electrolytic method. Molten salts deposited together with uranium to the solid cathode, and uranium and transuranium elements deposited to the cadmium cathode are distilled to remove deposited molten salts and cadmium. As a result, TRU oxides (solid) such as UO 2 , Pu 2 in spent fuels can be reduced to U and TRU by a high temperature metallurgical method not using an aqueous solution to separate them in the form of metal from other ingredients, and further, metal fuels can be obtained through an injection molding step depending on the purpose. (N.H.)

  14. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  15. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kumagaya, Naomi; Oda, Masashi; Matsuda, Masami; Maruyama, Hiromi; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of a spent fuel storage rack is determined by the material, thickness, size of square cylindrical tubes (the gap between spent fuel assemblies and the square cylindrical tubes) and pitch of the arrangement (the gap between each of the square cylindrical tubes). In the present invention, the thickness and the pitch of the arrangement of the square tubes are optimized while evaluating subcriticality. Namely, when the sum of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side (the pitch of arrangement of the cylindrical tubes) and the thickness of the cylindrical tubes is made constant, the storage rack is formed by determining the thickness of the cylindrical tubes which is smaller than the optimum value among the combination of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side and that of the cylindrical tube under the effective multiplication factor to be performed. Then, the weight of the rack can be reduced, and the burden of the load on the bottom of the pool can be reduced. Further, the amount of the constitutional materials of the rack itself can be reduced thereby capable of reducing the cost for the materials of the rack. (T.M.)

  16. Storing the world's spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Weinberg, A.M.; Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    Given the world's prodigious future energy requirements and the inevitable depletion of oil and gas, it would be foolhardy consciously to seek limitations on the growth of nuclear power. Indeed, the authors continue to believe that the global nuclear power enterprise, as measured by installed reactor capacity, can become much larger in the future without increasing proliferation risks. To accomplish this objective will require renewed dedication to the non-proliferation regime, and it will require some new initiatives. Foremost among these would be the establishment of a spent fuel take-back service, in which one or a few states would retrieve spent nuclear fuel from nations generating it. The centralized retrieval of spent fuel would remove accessible plutonium from the control of national leaders in non-nuclear-weapons states, thereby eliminating the temptation to use this material for weapons. The Soviets already implement a retrieval policy with the spent fuel generated by East European allies. The authors believe that it is time for the US to reopen the issue of spent-fuel retrieval, and thus to strengthen its non-proliferation policies and the nonproliferation regime in general. 7 references

  17. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  18. Significance of campaigned spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, J.W.; Tehan, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Operational experience associated with spent fuel or irradiated hardware shipments to or from the General Electric Morris Facility is presented. The following specific areas are addressed: Problems and difficulties associated with meeting security and safeguard requirements of 10 CFR Part 73; problems associated with routing via railroad; problems associated with scheduling and impact on affected parties when a shipment is delayed or cancelled; and impact on training when shipments spread over many years. The lessons learned from these experiences indicate that spent fuel shipments are best conducted in dedicated open-quotes campaignsclose quotes that concentrate as much consecutive shipping activity as possible into one continuous time frame

  19. Method of processing spent fuel cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ouchi, Atsuhiro; Imahashi, Hiromichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the residual activity of spent fuel cladding tubes in a short period of time and enable safety storage with simple storage equipments. Constitution: Spent fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys discharged from a nuclear fuel reprocessing step are exposed to a grain boundary embrittling atmosphere to cause grain boundary destruction. This causes grain boundary fractures to the zirconium crystal grains as the matrix of nuclear fuels and then precipitation products precipitated to the grain boundary fractures are removed. The zirconium constituting the nuclear fuel cladding tube and other ingredient elements contained in the precipitation products are separated in this removing step and they are separately stored respectively. As a result, zirconium constituting most part of the composition of the spent nuclear fuel cladding tubes can be stored safely at a low activity level. (Takahashi, M.)

  20. Status of spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, I.K.; Hinschberger, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how several new-generation shopping cask systems are being developed for safe and economical transport of commercial spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes for the generating sites to a federal geologic repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Primary objectives of the from-reactor spent fuel cask development work are: to increase cask payloads by taking advantage of the increased at-reactor storage time under the current spent fuel management scenario, to facilitate more efficient cask handling operations with reduced occupational radiation exposure, and to promote standardization of the physical interfaces between casks and the shipping and receiving facilities. Increased cask payloads will significantly reduce the numbers of shipments, with corresponding reductions in transportation costs and risks to transportation workers, cask handling personnel, and the general public

  1. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  2. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  3. Short communication: Limit feeding dairy heifers: effect of feed bunk space and provision of a low-nutritive feedstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Kitts, B L; Devries, T J

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the behavioral effects of providing limit-fed dairy heifers an increased amount of feed bunk space compared with recommended feed bunk allowance, and to determine if the effects of provision of extra bunk space would be comparable to those seen when limit-fed heifers are provided a low-nutritive feedstuff. Twelve Holstein dairy heifers (381.1 ± 44.8 d of age, 417.3 ± 47.9 kg), divided into groups of 4, were exposed to each of 3 treatments using a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 7-d periods. The treatments were (1) 0.68 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.68), (2) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.34), and (3) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer with an additional 0.34 m of feed bunk space available for free-choice straw (TMR-S). The total mixed ration was fed once daily at a restricted level (1.83% of body weight) and contained (dry matter basis) 19.9% alfalfa/grass haylage, 20.1% corn silage, 49.6% high-moisture corn, and 10.4% protein supplement. Group dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily. Behavior at the feed bunk was recorded for the last 4 d of each treatment period. Due to the provision of straw, DMI was highest on the TMR-S treatment compared with the other treatments (9.4 vs. 7.8 kg/d). Heifers spent the most time feeding when on the TMR-S treatment (147.7 min/d), with no difference in feeding time between the limit-fed TMR treatments (64.5 min/d). Within the TMR-S treatment, feeding time on the straw was 76.9 min/d; thus, the rate of consumption of only the TMR was similar across all treatments. Unrewarded time at the feed bunk (when no feed was present) did not differ between treatments. Heifers did not differ in competitive behavior when on the limit-fed TMR treatments (13.1 displacements/heifer per day). However, while on the TMR-S treatment, heifers displaced each other more frequently (23.8 displacements/heifer per day) than while on the other 2 treatments. Overall, results suggest that neither

  4. The spent fuel safety experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmms, G.A.; Davis, F.J.; Ford, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting an ongoing investigation of the consequences of taking fuel burnup into account in the design of spent fuel transportation packages. A series of experiments, collectively called the Spent Fuel Safety Experiment (SFSX), has been devised to provide integral benchmarks for testing computer-generated predictions of spent fuel behavior. A set of experiments is planned in which sections of unirradiated fuel rods are interchanged with similar sections of spent PWR fuel rods in a critical assembly. By determining the critical size of the arrays, one can obtain benchmark data for comparison with criticality safety calculations. The integral reactivity worth of the spent fuel can be assessed by comparing the measured delayed critical fuel loading with and without spent fuel. An analytical effort to model the experiments and anticipate the core loadings required to yield the delayed critical conditions runs in parallel with the experimental effort

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  6. Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan

    1994-01-01

    This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository

  7. Spent fuel: prediction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almassy, M.Y.; Bosi, D.M.; Cantley, D.A.

    1979-07-01

    The need for spent fuel disposal performance modeling stems from a requirement to assess the risks involved with deep geologic disposal of spent fuel, and to support licensing and public acceptance of spent fuel repositories. Through the balanced program of analysis, diagnostic testing, and disposal demonstration tests, highlighted in this presentation, the goal of defining risks and of quantifying fuel performance during long-term disposal can be attained

  8. Spent fuel. Dissolution and oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1989-03-01

    Data from studies of the low temperature air oxidation of spent fuel were retrieved in order to provide a basis for comparison between the mechanism of oxidation in air and corrosion in water. U 3 O 7 is formed by diffusion of oxygen into the UO 2 lattice. A diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the fuel matric was calculated for 25 degree C to be in the range of 10 -23 to 10 -25 m 2 /s. The initial rates of U release from spent fuel and from UO 2 appear to be similar. The lowest rates (at 25 degree c >10 -4 g/(m 2 d)) were observed under reducing conditions. Under oxidizing conditions the rates depend mainly of the nature and concentraion of the oxidant and/or on corbonate. In contact with air, typical initial rates at room temperature were in the range between 0.001 and 0.1 g/(m 2 d). A study of apparent U solubility under oxidizing conditions was performed and it was suggested that the controlling factor is the redox potential at the UO 2 surface rather than the E h of the bulk solution. Electrochemical arguments were used to predict that at saturation, the surface potential will eventually reach a value given by the boundaries at either the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 or the U 3 O 7 /schoepite stability field, and a comparison with spent fuel leach data showed that the solution concentration of uranium is close to the calculated U solubility at the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 boundary. The difference in the cumulative Sr and U release was calculated from data from Studsvik laboratory. The results reveal that the rate of Sr release decreases with the square root of time under U-saturated conditions. This time dependence may be rationalized either by grain boundary diffusion or by diffusion into the fuel matrix. Hence, there seems to be a possibility of an agreement between the Sr release data, structural information and data for oxygen diffusion in UO 2 . (G.B.)

  9. Learning Style versus Time Spent Studying and Career Choice: Which Is Associated with Success in a Combined Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n?=?492) from the fall semester course completed…

  10. Dynamic Maize Responses to Aphid Feeding Are Revealed by a Time Series of Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Assays1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzin, Vered; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Richter, Annett; Schmelz, Eric A.; Schoettner, Matthias; Schäfer, Martin; Ahern, Kevin R.; Meihls, Lisa N.; Kaur, Harleen; Huffaker, Alisa; Mori, Naoki; Degenhardt, Joerg; Mueller, Lukas A.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    As a response to insect attack, maize (Zea mays) has inducible defenses that involve large changes in gene expression and metabolism. Piercing/sucking insects such as corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) cause direct damage by acquiring phloem nutrients as well as indirect damage through the transmission of plant viruses. To elucidate the metabolic processes and gene expression changes involved in maize responses to aphid attack, leaves of inbred line B73 were infested with corn leaf aphids for 2 to 96 h. Analysis of infested maize leaves showed two distinct response phases, with the most significant transcriptional and metabolic changes occurring in the first few hours after the initiation of aphid feeding. After 4 d, both gene expression and metabolite profiles of aphid-infested maize reverted to being more similar to those of control plants. Although there was a predominant effect of salicylic acid regulation, gene expression changes also indicated prolonged induction of oxylipins, although not necessarily jasmonic acid, in aphid-infested maize. The role of specific metabolic pathways was confirmed using Dissociator transposon insertions in maize inbred line W22. Mutations in three benzoxazinoid biosynthesis genes, Bx1, Bx2, and Bx6, increased aphid reproduction. In contrast, progeny production was greatly decreased by a transposon insertion in the single W22 homolog of the previously uncharacterized B73 terpene synthases TPS2 and TPS3. Together, these results show that maize leaves shift to implementation of physical and chemical defenses within hours after the initiation of aphid feeding and that the production of specific metabolites can have major effects in maize-aphid interactions. PMID:26378100

  11. Temperament and dominance relate to feeding behaviour and activity in beef cattle: implications for performance and methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; Somarriba, M; Duthie, C A; Troy, S; Roehe, R; Rooke, J; Haskell, M J; Turner, S P

    2018-04-02

    In beef cattle, feeding behaviour and activity are associated with feed efficiency and methane (CH4) emissions. This study aimed to understand the underlying traits responsible for the contribution of cattle behaviour to individual differences in feed efficiency, performance and CH4 emissions. A total of 84 steers (530±114 kg BW) of two different breeds (crossbreed Charolais and Luing) were used. The experiment was a 2×2×3 factorial design with breed, basal diets (concentrate v. mixed) and dietary treatments (no additive, calcium nitrate or rapeseed cake) as the main factors. The individual dry matter intake (DMI; kg) was recorded daily and the BW was measured weekly over a 56-day period. Ultrasound fat depth was measured on day 56. Based on the previous data, the indexes average daily gain, food conversion and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. The frequency of meals, the duration per visit and the time spent feeding per day were taken as feeding behaviour measures. Daily activity was measured using the number of steps, the number of standing bouts and the time standing per day. Agonistic interactions (including the number of contacts, aggressive interactions, and displacements per day) between steers at the feeders were assessed as indicators of dominance. Temperament was assessed using the crush score test (which measures restlessness when restrained) and the flight speed on release from restraint. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression models. Steers that spent more time eating showed better feed efficiency (P=0.039), which can be due to greater secretion of saliva. Feeding time was longer with the mixed diet (P<0.001), Luings (P=0.009) and dominant steers (P=0.032). Higher activity (more steps) in the pen was associated with poorer RFI, possibly because of higher energy expenditure for muscle activity. Frequent meals contributed to a reduction in CH4 emissions per kg DMI. The meal frequency was higher with a mixed diet (P

  12. 'Oh no, no, no, we haven׳t got time to be doing that': Challenges encountered introducing a breast-feeding support intervention on a postnatal ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Louise; Magill-Cuerden, Julia; McCourt, Christine

    2015-08-01

    to identify elements in the environment of a postnatal ward which impacted on the introduction of a breast-feeding support intervention. a concurrent, realist evaluation including practice observations and semi-structured interviews. a typical British maternity ward. five midwives and two maternity support workers were observed. Seven midwives and three maternity support workers were interviewed. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant authorities. a high level of non-compliance with the intervention was driven by a lack of time and staff, and the ward staffs׳ lack of control of the organisation of their time and space. This was compounded by a propensity towards task orientation, workload reduction and resistance to change - all of which supported the existing medical approach to care. Limited support for the intervention was underpinned by staff willingness to reconsider their views and a widespread frustration with current ways of working. this small, local study suggests that the environment and working conditions on a typical British postnatal ward present significant barriers to the introduction of breast-feeding support interventions requiring a relational approach to care. midwives and maternity support workers need to be able to control their time and space, and feel able to provide the relational care they perceive that women need, before breast-feeding support interventions can be successfully implemented in practice. Frustration with current ways of working, and a willingness to consider other approaches, could be harnessed to initiate change that would benefit health professionals and the women and families in their care. However, without appropriate leadership or facilitation for change, this could alternatively encourage learned helplessness and passive resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. O tempo na trajetória das famílias que buscam a justiça Time spent by families in search for justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Ribeiro dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudar o tempo em sua multiplicidade de entendimentos é importante para os profissionais psicossociais na medida em que a experiência de atuação com famílias em litígio e que buscam a justiça exige celeridade. Como conciliar os diferentes tempos do indivíduo, da família, da lei, do juiz, do profissional nas decisões sobre a família? A sociedade exige que a Justiça seja feita de forma mais rápida, mas os prazos estabelecidos em lei nem sempre são compatíveis com o tempo "exigido" pelo indivíduo ou pela sociedade. Por outro lado os prazos processuais têm a função de proteger a sociedade em seus anseios.To study time, in its multiplicity of understanding, is important for psychosocial professionals inasmuch as the experience of dealing with families who are in dispute and search for Justice demand celerity. How to reconcile the different times of the individual, the family, the law, the judge and the professional in the decisions about the family? Society demands that Justice is made in the fastest way but the terms stablished by law are not always compatible with the term "required" by the individual or the society. On the other hand, the process terms have to protect the society in its spectations.

  14. Feeding behavior of Nellore cattle fed high concentrations of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco Van Cleef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% crude glycerin in Nellore cattle diets and its effects on feeding behavior parameters. It were used 30 animals with 277.7kg BW and 18 months old, which were kept in feedlot in individual pens during 103 days (21 adaptation and 82 data collection. The animals were assigned (initial weight in blocks and submitted to the following treatments: G0; G7.5; G15; G22.5; and G30, corresponding to control group, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin in the diet dry matter, respectively. The feeding behavior (feeding, idle, ruminating, number of chews, feeding efficiency and ruminating efficiency were evaluated for three days. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design, analyzing contrasts and observing the significance of linear, quadratic and control treatment × glycerin treatments effects. The inclusion up to 30% crude glycerin in diets of Nellore cattle altered the feeding efficiency, expressed in g NDF h-1, the ruminating efficiency relative to NDF, the time and number of chews per ruminal bolus, facilitating the feed ingestion and directly influencing the time spent on feeding.

  15. Correlation between depression and burden observed in informal caregivers of people suffering from dementia with time spent on caregiving and dementia severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of thestudy is to compare data on the examined populationof informal caregivers of people sufferingfrom dementia with previous studies, aswell as to assess the correlation between (i) depressiondetermined on the basis of the Centerfor Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scaleand (ii) caregiver...... dementia fromdifferent backgrounds were evaluated usingthe Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale and the Centerfor Epidemiologic Studies DepressionScale. Demographic data about the time devotedto caregiving and the number of hoursspend on caregiving weekly were gathered. Thetype of dementia and its stage were...... registeredusing the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS).With the aid of the Statistica StatSoft program,mutual correlations between the parameterswere measured. The study was conducted withinthe framework of AAL UnderstAID – a platformthat supports and helps to understandand assist caregivers in the care...

  16. Time budgets of Snow Geese Chen caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii in mixed flocks: Implications of body size, ambient temperature and family associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Body size affects foraging and forage intake rates directly via energetic processes and indirectly through interactions with social status and social behaviour. Ambient temperature has a relatively greater effect on the energetics of smaller species, which also generally are more vulnerable to predator attacks than are larger species. We examined variability in an index of intake rates and an index of alertness in Lesser Snow Geese Chen caerulescens caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii wintering in southwest Louisiana. Specifically we examined variation in these response variables that could be attributed to species, age, family size and ambient temperature. We hypothesized that the smaller Ross's Geese would spend relatively more time feeding, exhibit relatively higher peck rates, spend more time alert or raise their heads up from feeding more frequently, and would respond to declining temperatures by increasing their proportion of time spent feeding. As predicted, we found that Ross's Geese spent more time feeding than did Snow Geese and had slightly higher peck rates than Snow Geese in one of two winters. Ross's Geese spent more time alert than did Snow Geese in one winter, but alert rates differed by family size, independent of species, in contrast to our prediction. In one winter, time spent foraging and walking was inversely related to average daily temperature, but both varied independently of species. Effects of age and family size on time budgets were generally independent of species and in accordance with previous studies. We conclude that body size is a key variable influencing time spent feeding in Ross's Geese, which may require a high time spent feeding at the expense of other activities. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  17. Sorption of lead from aqueous solutions by spent tea leaf | Yoshita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pb) from solution. The Pb removal by the spent tea leaf adsorbent depended on pretreatment of spent tea leaf, adsorption contact time and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pretreatment conditions were confirmed to be that tea leaf was ground ...

  18. Health-Related Physical Fitness, BMI, physical activity and time spent at a computer screen in 6 and 7-year-old children from rural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Elżbieta; Mleczko, Edward; Bergier, Józef; Markowska, Małgorzata; Nowak-Starz, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of the effect of various forms of physical activity, BMI, and time devoted to computer games on the level of Health-Related Physical Fitness (H-RF) in 6-7-year-old children from Polish rural areas. The study covered 25,816 children aged 6-7: 12,693 girls and 13,123 boys. The evaluations included body height and weight, and 4 H-RF fitness components (trunk strength, explosive leg power, arm strength and flexibility). The BMI was calculated for each child. The Questionnaire directed to parents was designed to collect information concerning the time devoted by children to computer games, spontaneous and additional physical activity. The strength of the relationships between dependent and independent variables was determined using the Spearman's rank correlation (RSp), and the relationship by using the regression analysis. The BMI negatively affected the level of all the H-RF components analysed (p=0.000). The negative effect of computer games revealed itself only with respect to flexibility (p=0.000), explosive leg power (p=0.000) and trunk muscle strength (p=0.000). A positive effect of spontaneous activity was observed for flexibility (p=0.047), explosive leg power (p=0.000), and arm strength (p=0.000). Additional activity showed a positive relationship with trunk muscles strength (p=0.000), and explosive leg power (p=0.000). The results of studies suggest that it is necessary to pay attention to the prevention of diseases related with the risk of obesity and overweight among Polish rural children as early as at pre-school age. There is also a need during education for shaping in these children the awareness of concern about own body, and the need for active participation in various forms of physical activity.

  19. Kalman filtering applied to a reagent feed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, C.D.; Croson, D.V.; Feeley, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Kalman filter solves a troublesome measurement noise problem and, at the same time, improves nuclear safety by detecting leaks to the process' feed tanks. To demonstrate how this technology of optimal estimation can be exploited, this article presents a systematic plan and example of how a Kalman filter was proven in industrial use on a reagent analyzer. A process to recycle uranium from spent fuel elements uses a reagent stream containing boron to dissolve the fuel. The boron is the neutron poison that prevents a nuclear chain reaction during the uranium dissolution. The purpose of the Kalman filter for this system is to reduce the uncertainty in the boron concentration measurement. The filter also provides incipient fault detection by estimating the unmeasured state of any unpoisoned solution, which would dilute the boron solution, entering the feed vessel

  20. Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs

  1. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  2. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  3. OPTIMATION OF TIME AND CATALYST/FEED RATIO IN CATALYTIC CRACKING OF WASTE PLASTICS FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION USING Cr/NATURAL ZEOLITE CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimation of time and catalyst/feed ratio in catalytic cracking of waste plastics fraction to gasoline fraction using Cr/Natural Zeolite catalyst has been studied.The natural zeolite was calcined by using nitrogen gas at 500 oC for 5 hours. The chromium supported on to the zeolite was prepared by ion exchange methode with Cr(NO33.9H2O solution with chromium/zeolite concentration of 1% (w/w. The zeolite samples were then calcined  with nitrogen gas at 500 oC for 2 hours, oxidyzed with oxygen gas and reduced with hydrogen at 400 oC for 2 hours. The characterization of the zeolite catalyst by means of Si/Al ratio by UV-Vis spectroscopy, acidity with pyridine vapour adsorption and Na, Ca and Cr contents by atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS. The catalyst activity test was carried out in the cracking process of waste plastics fraction with boiling point range of 150 - 250 °C (consisted of C12 - C16 hydrocarbons at 450 oC for 30 min, 60 min and 90 min, and catalyst/feed ratio 1/1, 1/2, 1/3, ¼ (w/w. The result of catalyst activity test  showed  that  the maximum number  conversion of gasoline fraction (C5-C11 is 53,27% with relatively low coke formation using 1/3 catalyst/feed ratio and the cracking time of 60 min.. This  catalyst has  Si/Al ratio = 1,21 (w/w , acidity = 0,16 mmol/g and Na content = 0,81%, Ca content = 0,15% and Cr content 0,24%.   Keywords: zeolite, catalytic cracking, gasoline, chromium.

  4. CeasIng Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA): impact on weight gain, time to full feeds and caffeine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Margaret; Ying, Lei; Wright, Audrey; Stewart, Alice; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E; Shadbolt, Bruce; Todd, David A

    2014-09-01

    In our previous randomised controlled trial (RCT), we have shown in preterm babies (PBs) Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA (method 1)) compared with cycling off continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) gradually (method 2) or cycling off CPAP gradually with low flow air/oxygen during periods off CPAP (method 3) reduces CPAP cessation time in PBs CPAP; the CICADA method, does not adversely affect weight gain, time to reach full feeds and may reduce time to cease caffeine in PBs <30 weeks gestation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Containing method for spent fuel and spent fuel containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi; Hanada, Yoshine.

    1996-01-01

    Upon containing spent fuels, a metal vessel main body and a support spacer having fuel containing holes are provided. The support spacer is disposed in the inside of the metal vessel main body, and spent fuel assemblies are loaded in the fuel containing holes. Then, a lid is welded at the opening of the metal vessel main body to provide a sealing state. In this state, heat released from the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the wall of the metal vessel main body via the support spacer. Since the support spacer has a greater heat conductivity than gases, heat of the spent fuel assemblies tends to be released to the outside, thereby capable of removing heat of the spent fuel assemblies effectively. In addition, since the surfaces of the spent fuel assemblies are in contact with the inner surface of the fuel containing holes of the support spacer, impact-resistance and earthquake-resistance are ensured, and radiation from the spent fuel assemblies is decayed by passing through the layer of the support spacer. (T.M.)

  6. Stress and disease resilience differences related to emergence time for first feeding in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesto, Manuel; Madsen, Lone; Andersen, Nikolaj Reducha

    2018-01-01

    Salmonid individuals show a relatively high variability in the time required to abandon the gravel nest where they hatch, the so-called "emergence time". Different behavioral and physiological traits have been shown to be associated to that emergence time in wild salmonids. In general, early- and...

  7. WWER spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C C; Lettington, C [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs.

  8. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  9. Spent fuel management overview: a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Crijns, M.J.; Dyck, P.H.; Fukuda, K.; Mourogov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper defines the main spent fuel management strategies and options, highlights the challenges for spent fuel storage and gives an overview of the regional balances of spent fuel storage capacity and spent fuel arising. The relevant IAEA activities in the area of spent fuel management are summarised. (author)

  10. Software to improve spent fuel measurements using the FDET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, P.; Beddingfield, D.; Lestone, J.; Pelowitz, D.; Sprinkle, J.; Bytchkov, V.; Starovich, Z.; Harizanov, I.; Vellejo-Luna, J.; Lavender, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Vast quantities of spent fuel are available for safeguard measurements, primarily in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) of the former Soviet Union. This spent fuel, much of which consists of long cooling time material, is going to become less unique in the world safeguards arena as reprocessing projects or permanent repositories continue to be delayed or postponed. The long cooling time of many of the spent fuel assemblies in the CIS countries being prepared for intermediate term storage promotes the possibility of increased accuracy in spent fuel assays. An important point to consider for the future that could advance safeguards measurements for re-verification and inspection measurements would be to determine what safeguards requirements should be imposed upon this 'new' class of spent fuel. Improvements in measurement capability will obviously affect the safeguards requirements. What most significantly enables this progress in spent fuel measurements is the improvement in computer processing power and software enhancements leading to user-friendly Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's). The software used for these projects significantly reduces the IAEA inspector's time both learning and operating computer and data acquisition systems. While at the same time by standardizing the spent fuel measurements it is possible to increase reproducibility and reliability of the measurement data. The inclusion of various analysis algorithms into the operating environment, which can be performed in real time upon the measurement data, can also lead to increases in safeguard reliability and improvements in efficiency to plant operations. (author)

  11. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  12. The psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, J.; Eraenen, L.

    1999-03-01

    In this report the potential psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal to inhabitants of a community are assessed on the basis of earlier research. In studying the situation, different interpretations and meanings given to nuclear power are considered. First, spent fuel disposal is studied as fear-arousing and consequently stressful situation. Psychosomatic effects of stress and coping strategies used by an individual are presented. Stress as a collective phenomenon and coping mechanisms available for a community are also assessed. Stress reactions caused by natural disasters and technological disasters are compared. Consequences of nuclear power plant accidents are reviewed, e.g. research done on the accident at Three Mile Island power plant. Reasons for the disorganising effect on a community caused by a technological disaster are compared to the altruistic community often seen after natural disasters. The potential reactions that a spent fuel disposal plant can arouse in inhabitants are evaluated. Both short-term and long-term reactions are evaluated as well as reactions under normal functioning, after an incident and as a consequence of an accident. Finally an evaluation of how the decision-making system and citizens' opportunity to influence the decision-making affect the experience of threat is expressed. As a conclusion we see that spent fuel disposal can arouse fear and stress in people. However, the level of the stress is probably low. The stress is at strongest at the time of the starting of the spent fuel disposal plant. With time people get used to the presence of the plant and the threat experienced gets smaller. (orig.)

  13. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neto, André C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Wallander, Anders [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, Young-Kuk, E-mail: ykim@cnu.ac.kr [Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation.

  14. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Neto, André C.; Wallander, Anders; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation

  15. Spent fuel treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  16. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  17. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  18. Efficacy of a Feed Dispenser for Horses in Decreasing Cribbing Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mazzola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cribbing is an oral stereotypy, tends to develop in captive animals as a means to cope with stress, and may be indicative of reduced welfare. Highly energetic diets ingested in a short time are one of the most relevant risk factors for the development of cribbing. The aim of this study was to verify whether feeding cribbing horses through a dispenser that delivers small quantities of concentrate when activated by the animal decreases cribbing behaviour, modifies feeding behaviour, or induces frustration. Ten horses (mean age 14 y, balanced for sex, breed, and size (mean height 162 cm, were divided into two groups of 5 horses each: Cribbing and Control. Animals were trained to use the dispenser and videorecorded continuously for 15 consecutive days from 1 h prior to feeding to 2 h after feeding in order to measure their behaviours. The feed dispenser, Quaryka®, induced an increase in time necessary to finish the ration in both groups of horses (P<0.05. With Quaryka, cribbers showed a significant reduction of time spent cribbing (P<0.05. After removal of the feed dispenser (Post-Quaryka, cribbing behaviour significantly increased. The use of Quaryka may be particularly beneficial in horses fed high-energy diets and ingesting the food too quickly.

  19. The feeding practices and structure questionnaire: construction and initial validation in a sample of Australian first-time mothers and their 2-year olds

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-01-01

    Background Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children’s eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (

  20. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  2. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations...... of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin...... at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations...

  3. Effect of supplement level on herbage intake and feeding behaviour of Italian Brown cows grazing on Alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Villa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer grazing of dairy cows on mountain pastures often leads to a fall in production or in body condition when the pasture is not adequately supplemented with concentrate feeds (Malossini et al., 1992; Bovolenta et al., 1998. An abundant use of concentrates may result into a reduction of herbage intake according to a substitution rate mechanism (Faverdin et al., 1991. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation level on herbage intake, milk yield and feeding behaviour (time spent grazing and ruminating of dairy cows at pasture, combining the use of an electronic bitemeter and a double marker method for the estimation of intake.

  4. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD's work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools

  5. Comparison of feeding behavior between two different-sized groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Hanya, Goro

    2015-05-13

    Group-living animals face intragroup scramble and intergroup contest competitions. Many studies have shown that larger groups bear the costs of intragroup scramble competition, which negatively affects the reproductive success of females. Unlike most primate species, Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest show increased reproductive success with group size. However, it remains unclear how group size affects the behavior of macaques. The present study examined the effects of group size on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques in the Yakushima coastal forest. We investigated 9-13 adult females from two different-sized groups via focal animal sampling during October 2012-August 2013. We compared the feeding behavior, including patch use, between the two groups. The larger group had a larger home range and spent more time feeding, especially on mature leaves. This suggests that intragroup feeding competition should be more intense in the larger group than in the smaller group. The feeding of mature leaves might enable the larger group to increase the number of co-feeding individuals. Contrary to the predictions that the larger group travels longer distances and spends more time moving, the smaller group traveled longer distances, and spent more time moving, although the number of visited patches did not differ between the two groups. The immediate consequences of the loss of inter-group encounters could accumulate as daily travel costs, considering that group size is associated with inter-group dominance and that intergroup aggressive encounters occur frequently in the Yakushima coastal forest. This suggests that the smaller group has increased travel costs as a result of intergroup contest competition, which leads to decline in reproductive success. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Spent fuel element storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukaji, Hideo; Yamashita, Rikuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To always keep water level of a spent fuel cask pit equal with water level of spent fuel storage pool by means of syphon principle. Constitution: The pool water of a spent fuel storage pool is airtightly communicated through a pipe with the pool water of a spent fuel cask, and a gate is provided between the pool and the cask. Since cask is conveyed into the cask pit as the gate close while conveying, the pool water level is raised an amount corresponding to the volume of the cask, and water flow through scattering pipe and the communication pipe to the storage pool. When the fuel is conveyed out of the cask, the water level is lowered in the amount corresponding to the volume in the cask pit, and the water in the pool flow through the communication pipe to the cask pit. (Sekiya, K.)

  7. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  8. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Pattantyus, P.

    1999-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian spent fuel storage is presented. This includes wet and dry interim storage. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is nor planned, as dry technologies have found wide acceptance. The Canadian nuclear program is sustained by commercial Ontario Hydro CANDU type reactors, since 1971, representing 13600 MW(e) of installed capacity, able to produce 9200 spent fuel bundles (1800 tU) every year, and Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick CANDU reactors each producing 685 MW(e) and about 100 tU of spent fuel annually. The implementation of various interim (wt and dry) storage technologies resulted in simple, dense and low cost systems. Economical factors determined that the open cycle option be adopted for the CANDU type reactors rather that recycling the spent fuel. Research and development activities for immobilization and final disposal of nuclear waste are being undertaken in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  9. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs

  10. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  11. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  12. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding | Earlé ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of time by the South African cliff swallow was determined and use of energy calculated by using equations for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditure was during the feeding of nestlings when 9,22 h were spent foraging. The cost of 127 kJ for building a nest is ...

  13. Cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding for newborn infants unable to fully breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Anndrea; New, Karen; Davies, Mark W

    2016-08-31

    months of age; proportion not fully feeding at hospital discharge; proportion not fully breastfeeding at three months of age; proportion not fully breastfeeding at six months of age; average time per feed (minutes); length of stay; and physiological events of instability such as bradycardia, apnoea, and low oxygen saturation. For continuous variables such as weight gain, mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. For categorical outcomes such as mortality, the relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs were reported. The experimental intervention was cup feeding and the control intervention was bottle feeding in all five studies included in this review. One study reported weight gain as g/kg/day and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (MD -0.60, 95% CI -3.21 to 2.01); while a second study reported weight gain in the first seven days as grams/day and also showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (MD -0.10, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.16). There was substantial variation in results for the majority of breastfeeding outcomes, except for not breastfeeding at three months (three studies) (typical RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.97) which favoured cup feeding. Where there was moderate heterogeneity meta-analysis was performed: not breastfeeding at six months (two studies) (typical RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.95); not fully breastfeeding at hospital discharge (four studies) (typical RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.71).Two studies reported average time to feed which showed no difference between the two groups. Two studies assessed length of hospital stay and there was considerable variation in results and in the direction of effect. Only one study has reported gestational age at discharge, which showed no difference between the two groups (MD -0.10, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.34). As the majority of infants in the included studies are preterm infants, no recommendations can be made for cup feeding term infants due to the lack of

  14. Supplemental feeding alters migration of a temperate ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer D; Kauffman, Matthew J; Monteith, Kevin L; Scurlock, Brandon M; Albeke, Shannon E; Cross, Paul C

    Conservation of migration requires information on behavior and environmental determinants. The spatial distribution of forage resources, which migration exploits, often are altered and may have subtle, unintended consequences. Supplemental feeding is a common management practice, particularly for ungulates in North America and Europe, and carryover effects on behavior of this anthropogenic manipulation of forage are expected in theory, but have received limited empirical evaluation, particularly regarding effects on migration. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to evaluate the influence of winter feeding on migration behavior of 219 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) from 18 fed ranges and 4 unfed ranges in western Wyoming. Principal component analysis revealed that the migratory behavior of fed and unfed elk differed in distance migrated, and the timing of arrival to, duration on, and departure from summer range. Fed elk migrated 19.2 km less, spent 11 more days on stopover sites, arrived to summer range 5 days later, resided on summer range 26 fewer days, and departed in the autumn 10 days earlier than unfed elk. Time-to-event models indicated that differences in migratory behavior between fed and unfed elk were caused by altered sensitivity to the environmental drivers of migration. In spring, unfed elk migrated following plant green-up closely, whereas fed elk departed the feedground but lingered on transitional range, thereby delaying their arrival to summer range. In autumn, fed elk were more responsive to low temperatures and precipitation events, causing earlier departure from summer range than unfed elk. Overall, supplemental feeding disconnected migration by fed elk from spring green-up and decreased time spent on summer range, thereby reducing access to quality forage. Our findings suggest that ungulate migration can be substantially altered by changes to the spatial distribution of resources, including those of anthropogenic origin, and that

  15. Supplemental feeding alters migration of a temperate ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer D; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Cross, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of migration requires information on behavior and environmental determinants. The spatial distribution of forage resources, which migration exploits, often are altered and may have subtle, unintended consequences. Supplemental feeding is a common management practice, particularly for ungulates in North America and Europe, and carryover effects on behavior of this anthropogenic manipulation of forage are expected in theory, but have received limited empirical evaluation, particularly regarding effects on migration. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to evaluate the influence of winter feeding on migration behavior of 219 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) from 18 fed ranges and 4 unfed ranges in western Wyoming. Principal component analysis revealed that the migratory behavior of fed and unfed elk differed in distance migrated, and the timing of arrival to, duration on, and departure from summer range. Fed elk migrated 19.2 km less, spent 11 more days on stopover sites, arrived to summer range 5 days later, resided on summer range 26 fewer days, and departed in the autumn 10 days earlier than unfed elk. Time-to-event models indicated that differences in migratory behavior between fed and unfed elk were caused by altered sensitivity to the environmental drivers of migration. In spring, unfed elk migrated following plant green-up closely, whereas fed elk departed the feedground but lingered on transitional range, thereby delaying their arrival to summer range. In autumn, fed elk were more responsive to low temperatures and precipitation events, causing earlier departure from summer range than unfed elk. Overall, supplemental feeding disconnected migration by fed elk from spring green-up and decreased time spent on summer range, thereby reducing access to quality forage. Our findings suggest that ungulate migration can be substantially altered by changes to the spatial distribution of resources, including those of anthropogenic origin, and that

  16. The effect of structural design parameters on FPGA-based feed-forward space-time trellis coding-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing channel encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passas, Georgios; Freear, Steven; Fawcett, Darren

    2010-08-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based feed-forward space-time trellis code (FFSTTC) encoders can be synthesised as very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) designs. Evaluation of their FPGA implementation can lead to conclusions that help a designer to decide the optimum implementation, given the encoder structural parameters. VLSI architectures based on 1-bit multipliers and look-up tables (LUTs) are compared in terms of FPGA slices and block RAMs (area), as well as in terms of minimum clock period (speed). Area and speed graphs versus encoder memory order are provided for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and 8 phase shift keying (8-PSK) modulation and two transmit antennas, revealing best implementation under these conditions. The effect of number of modulation bits and transmit antennas on the encoder implementation complexity is also investigated.

  17. Survey of experience with dry storage of spent nuclear fuel and update of wet storage experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Spent fuel storage is an important part of spent fuel management. At present about 45,000 t of spent water reactor fuel have been discharged worldwide. Only a small fraction of this fuel (approximately 7%) has been reprocessed. The amount of spent fuel arisings will increase significantly in the next 15 years. Estimates indicate that up to the year 2000 about 200,000 t HM of spent fuel could be accumulated. In view of the large quantities of spent fuel discharged from nuclear power plants and future expected discharges, many countries are involved in the construction of facilities for the storage of spent fuel and in the development of effective methods for spent fuel surveillance and monitoring to ensure that reliable and safe operation of storage facilities is achievable until the time when the final disposal of spent fuel or high level wastes is feasible. The first demonstrations of final disposal are not expected before the years 2000-2020. This is why the long term storage of spent fuel and HLW is a vital problem for all countries with nuclear power programmes. The present survey contains data on dry storage and recent information on wet storage, transportation, rod consolidation, etc. The main aim is to provide spent fuel management policy making organizations, designers, scientists and spent fuel storage facility operators with the latest information on spent fuel storage technology under dry and wet conditions and on innovations in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Quantitative analysis of diet structure by real-time PCR, reveals different feeding patterns by two dominant grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Wu, Huihui; McNeill, Mark Richard; Qin, Xinghu; Ma, Jingchuan; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Studies on grasshopper diets have historically employed a range of methodologies, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, some methodologies are qualitative instead of quantitative. Others require long experimental periods or examine population-level effects, only. In this study, we used real-time PCR to examine diets of individual grasshoppers. The method has the advantage of being both fast and quantitative. Using two grasshopper species, Oedaleus asiaticus and Dasyhippus barbipes, we designed ITS primer sequences for their three main host plants, Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis and Cleistogenes squarrosa and used real-time PCR method to test diet structure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lowest detection efficiency of the three grass species was ~80% with a strong correlation between actual and PCR-measured food intake. We found that Oedaleus asiaticus maintained an unchanged diet structure across grasslands with different grass communities. By comparison, Dasyhippus barbipes changed its diet structure. These results revealed why O. asiaticus distribution is mainly confined to Stipa-dominated grassland, and D. barbipes is more widely distributed across Inner Mongolia. Overall, real-time PCR was shown to be a useful tool for investigating grasshopper diets, which in turn offers some insight into grasshopper distributions and improved pest management. PMID:27562455

  19. Modeling and real time simulation of an HVDC inverter feeding a weak AC system based on commutation failure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankour, Mohamed; Khiat, Mounir; Ghomri, Leila; Chaker, Abdelkader; Bessalah, Mourad

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents modeling and study of 12-pulse HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) based on real time simulation where the HVDC inverter is connected to a weak AC system. In goal to study the dynamic performance of the HVDC link, two serious kind of disturbance are applied at HVDC converters where the first one is the single phase to ground AC fault and the second one is the DC link to ground fault. The study is based on two different mode of analysis, which the first is to test the performance of the DC control and the second is focalized to study the effect of the protection function on the system behavior. This real time simulation considers the strength of the AC system to witch is connected and his relativity with the capacity of the DC link. The results obtained are validated by means of RT-lab platform using digital Real time simulator Hypersim (OP-5600), the results carried out show the effect of the DC control and the influence of the protection function to reduce the probability of commutation failures and also for helping inverter to take out from commutation failure even while the DC control fails to eliminate them. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Real-Time Analysis of Online Product Reviews by Means of Multi-Layer Feed-Forward Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Decker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the quantitative analysis of online product reviews (OPRs has become a popular manifestation of marketing intelligence activities focusing on products that are frequently subject to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM. Typical elements of OPRs are overall star ratings, product at- tribute scores, recommendations, pros and cons, and free texts. The first three elements are of pa r- ticular interest because they provide an aggregate view of reviewers’ opinions about the products of interest. However, the significance of individual product attributes in the overall evaluation pro c- ess  can  vary  in  the  course  of  time.  Accordingly,  ad  hoc  analyses  of  OPRs  that  have  been downloaded at a certain point in time are of limited value for dynamic eWOM monitoring because of their snapshot character. On the other hand, opinion platforms can increase the meaningfulness of the OPRs posted there and, therewith, the usefulness of the platform as a whole, by directing eWOM activities to those product attributes that really matter at present. This paper therefore in- troduces a neural network-based approach that allows the dynamic tracking of the influence the posted scores of product attributes have on the overall star ratings of the concerning products. By using an elasticity measure, this approach supports the identification of those attributes that tend to lose or gain significance in the product evaluation process over time. The usability of this ap- proach is demonstrated using real OPR data on digital cameras and hotels.

  2. Comparison of spent fuel management fee collection alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Engel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Five alternative methods for recovering the costs of spent fuel management were evaluated. These alternatives consist of collecting the fee for various components of spent fuel management cost (AFR basin storage, transportation from AFR basin to the repository, packaging, repository, R and D, and government overhead) at times ranging from generation of power to delivery of the spent fuel to the government. The five fee collection mechanisms were analyzed to determine how well they serve the interests of the public and the electricity ratepayer

  3. Spent-fuel transport: available as needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, L.

    1976-01-01

    As a result of the general uncertainty as to when commercial reprocessing will actually take place in the United States (U.S.) and the long lead times now required before bringing a spent-fuel cask system in operation, it appears that serious problems can arise by 1979-1980 in cask capacity availability. Compounding the uncertainty with respect to cask capacity availability is the position taken by some of the U.S. railroad systems and some state and local governmental agencies in imposing restraints in the movement of spent fuel. By utility companies taking risk in committing to casks in advance of the actual requirement dates and by cask suppliers assuming the risks of licensing, costs, and delivery schedules, this potential bottleneck could be minimized

  4. Impact analysis of spent fuel jacket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the analyses performed in support of the reracking of the High Flux Isotope Reactor pool, it became necessary to prove the structural integrity of the spent fuel jacket assemblies subjected to gravity drop that result from postulated accidents associated with the handling of these assemblies while submerged in the pool. The spent fuel jacket assemblies are an integral part of the reracking project, and serve to house fuel assemblies. The structure integrity of the jacket assemblies from loads that result from impact from a height of 10 feet onto specified targets has been performed analytically using the computer program LS-DYNA3D. Nine attitudes of the assembly at the time of impact have been considered. Results of the analyses show that there is no failure of the assemblies as a result of the impact scenarios considered

  5. The effects of feeding unpredictability and classical conditioning on pre-release training of white-lipped peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S C Nogueira

    Full Text Available Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3 and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled. The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2 than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3. The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1 and the following control phase (C2 than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2, also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild.

  6. The effects of feeding unpredictability and classical conditioning on pre-release training of white-lipped peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Selene S C; Abreu, Shauana A; Peregrino, Helderes; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio L G

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. Thus, using white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), a vulnerable Neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. Associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclusion of this approach in pre-release training protocols. The experimental design comprised predictable feeding phases (control phases: C1, C2 and C3) and unpredictable feeding phases (U1- signaled and U2- non-signaled). The animals explored more during the signaled and non-signaled unpredictable phases and during the second control phase (C2) than during the other two predictable phases (C1 and C3). The peccaries also spent less time feeding during the signaled unpredictable phase (U1) and the following control phase (C2) than during the other phases. Moreover, they spent more time in aggressive encounters during U1 than the other experimental phases. However, the animals did not show differences in the time they spent on affiliative interactions or in the body weight change during the different phases. The signaled unpredictability, besides improving foraging behavior, showing a prolonged effect on the next control phase (C2), also increased the competition for food. The signaled feeding unpredictability schedule, mimicking wild conditions by eliciting the expression of naturalistic behaviors in pre-release training, may be essential to fully prepare them for survival in the wild.

  7. ENVI Model Development for Korean Nuclear Spent Fuel Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sunyoung; Jeong, Yon Hong; Han, Jae-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Hwang, Yong-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be operated from 2051. This paper presents the ENVI code developed by GoldSim Software to simulate options for managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in South Korea. The ENVI is a simulator to allow decision-makers to assist to evaluate the performance for spent nuclear fuel management. The multiple options for managing the spent nuclear fuel including the storage and transportation are investigated into interim storage, permanent disposal in geological repositories and overseas and domestic reprocessing. The ENVI code uses the GoldSim software to simulate the logistics of the associated activities. The result by the ENVI model not only produces the total cost to compare among the multiple options but also predict the sizes and timings of different facilities required. In order to decide the policy for spent nuclear management this purpose of this paper is to draw the optimum management plan to solve the nuclear spent fuel issue in the economical aspects. This paper is focused on the development of the ENVI's logic and calculations to simulate four options(No Reprocessing, Overseas Reprocessing, Domestic Reprocessing, and Overseas and Domestic Reprocessing) for managing the spent nuclear fuel in South Korea. The time history of the spent nuclear fuel produced from both the existing and future NPP's can be predicted, based on the Goldsim software made available very user friendly model. The simulation result will be used to suggest the strategic plans for the spent nuclear fuel management.

  8. ENVI Model Development for Korean Nuclear Spent Fuel Options Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sunyoung; Jeong, Yon Hong; Han, Jae-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Hwang, Yong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be operated from 2051. This paper presents the ENVI code developed by GoldSim Software to simulate options for managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in South Korea. The ENVI is a simulator to allow decision-makers to assist to evaluate the performance for spent nuclear fuel management. The multiple options for managing the spent nuclear fuel including the storage and transportation are investigated into interim storage, permanent disposal in geological repositories and overseas and domestic reprocessing. The ENVI code uses the GoldSim software to simulate the logistics of the associated activities. The result by the ENVI model not only produces the total cost to compare among the multiple options but also predict the sizes and timings of different facilities required. In order to decide the policy for spent nuclear management this purpose of this paper is to draw the optimum management plan to solve the nuclear spent fuel issue in the economical aspects. This paper is focused on the development of the ENVI's logic and calculations to simulate four options(No Reprocessing, Overseas Reprocessing, Domestic Reprocessing, and Overseas and Domestic Reprocessing) for managing the spent nuclear fuel in South Korea. The time history of the spent nuclear fuel produced from both the existing and future NPP's can be predicted, based on the Goldsim software made available very user friendly model. The simulation result will be used to suggest the strategic plans for the spent nuclear fuel management

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  10. Effect of supplementation with linseed or a blend of aromatic spices and time on feed on fatty acid composition, meat quality and consumer liking of meat from lambs fed dehydrated alfalfa or corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Bianchi, G; Bentancur, O; Garibotto, G

    2017-05-01

    Cross-bred lambs (n=72) were fed finishing diets using a factorial arrangement of treatments: BASAL DIET (alfalfa pellets or corn), SUPPLEMENT (none, linseed or aromatic spices), TIME ON FEED (41 or 83days). Carcass and meat quality traits, fatty acid composition, color stability and consumer liking were determined. Feeding alfalfa improved sensory ratings and fatty acid composition of lamb. However, corn or longer alfalfa feeding would be recommended if heavier and fatter carcasses are sought. Consumer liking and fatty acid composition of lamb were improved with addition of spices and linseed, respectively. But additional antioxidant strategies should be considered to delay meat color deterioration during storage if lambs are fed corn-linseed for 83days. Although alfalfa basal diet and linseed supplementation improved fatty acid composition, feeding the basal diets for at least 41days resulted in low n-3 fatty acid concentrations in muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Container for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The container of the present invention comprises a container main body having a body portion which can contain spent fuel assemblies and a lid, and heat pipes having an evaporation portion disposed along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies to be contained and a condensation portion exposed to the outside of the container main body. Further, the heat pipe is formed spirally at the evaporation portions so as to surround the outer circumference of the spent fuel assemblies, branched into a plurality of portions at the condensation portion, each of the branched portion of the condensation portion being exposed to the outside of the container main body, and is tightly in contact with the periphery of the slit portions disposed to the container main body. Then, since released after heat is transferred to the outside of the container main body from the evaporation portion of the heat pipe along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies by way of the condensation portion of the heat pipes exposed to the outside of the container main body, the efficiency of the heat transfer is extremely improved to enhance the effect of removing heat of spent fuel assemblies. Further, cooling effect is enhanced by the spiral form of the evaporation portion and the branched condensation portion. (N.H.)

  12. Antifeedant activity of xanthohumol and supercritical carbon dioxide extract of spent hops against stored product pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, J; Hurej, M; Rój, E; Popłoński, J; Kośny, L; Huszcza, E

    2015-08-01

    Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops, and a supercritical carbon dioxide extract of spent hops were studied for their antifeedant activity against stored product insect pests: Sitophilus granarius L., Tribolium confusum Duv. and Trogoderma granarium Everts. Xanthohumol exhibited medium deterrent activity against the adults of S. granarius L. and larvae of T. confusum Duv. The spent hops extract was more active than xanthohumol towards the adults of T. confusum Duv. The potential application of the crude spent hops extract as a feeding deterrent against the stored product pests is proposed.

  13. Effect of Bambara nut and cowpea intercropped with maize at different times on nutritive quality of maize for ruminant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanite, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Bambara nut and cowpea planted with maize at different times on nutritive quality of maize forage were investigated. The study was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design and the treatments were combination of crop types (Bambara nut-maize (MB and Cowpea-maize (MC and planting times of legumes (2 wks before planting maize, 2WBPM and 2 wks after planting maize, 2WAPM, and sole maize (as control. An experimental field measuring 19 m � 11 m was divided into 3 replicates; each replicate was sub-divided into 5 plots of dimension 3 m2 each, with 1 m and 2 m inter-plots and inter-blocks spacing respectively. Maize forage samples were harvested on each plot at 10 wks after planting, oven-dried, milled and analyzed to evaluate the chemical composition, mineral composition, in vitro gas production and post-incubation characteristics. Results revealed significant differences (P<0.05 among treatments with the highest (95.00% and least DM (92.12% values were recorded for MB 2WBPM and MC 2WAPM, respectively. CP values ranged from 10.36% in MB 2WBPM to 15.67% in MC 2WBPM but not significantly different from 14.19 % recorded for sole maize. Ash ranged from 7.00% in MB 2WAPM to 10.00% in sole maize. MC 2WBPM and sole maize had the highest (50.63% and least (38.40% in ADF content (P<0.05. ADL value (7.25% observed in MB 2WBPM was the highest, compared to the least (5.00% in sole maize. Sole maize recorded the least (40.40% and highest (25.91% cellulose and hemicellulose contents, respectively while MC 2WAPM had the highest (50.88% and lowest (15.80% values for cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively. Ca content (4.55g/kg of MB 2WAPM was lower than the other treatments. P content ranged from 3.54 g/kg in MB 2WAPM to 12.02 g/kg in MC 2WAPM. Gas production rates only varied (P<0.05 at the 3rd, 6th, 24th and 48th hours of incubation. MB 2WBPM yielded highest values of short chain fatty acids (0.09 �mol and metabolizable energy (3.08 MJ/kg while MB

  14. Validation of a newly developed hexaplex real-time PCR assay for screening for presence of GMOs in food, feed and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrdt, C; Krech, A B; Wurz, A; Wulff, D

    2010-03-01

    For years, an increasing number and diversity of genetically modified plants has been grown on a commercial scale. The need for detection and identification of these genetically modified organisms (GMOs) calls for broad and at the same time flexible high throughput testing methods. Here we describe the development and validation of a hexaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening assay covering more than 100 approved GMOs containing at least one of the GMO targets of the assay. The assay comprises detection systems for Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens NOS terminator, Figwort Mosaic Virus 34S promoter and two construct-specific sequences present in novel genetically modified soybean and maize that lack common screening elements. Additionally a detection system for an internal positive control (IPC) indicating the presence or absence of PCR inhibiting substances was included. The six real-time PCR systems were allocated to five detection channels showing no significant crosstalk between the detection channels. As part of an extensive validation, a limit of detection (LOD(abs)) GMOs in processed and unprocessed food, feed and seed samples with high efficiency.

  15. Development and validation of duplex, triplex, and pentaplex real-time PCR screening assays for the detection of genetically modified organisms in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ingrid; Block, Annette; Sebah, Daniela; Debode, Frédéric; Morisset, Dany; Grohmann, Lutz; Berben, Gilbert; Stebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Zel, Jana; Busch, Ulrich

    2013-10-30

    Worldwide, qualitative methods based on PCR are most commonly used as screening tools for genetically modified material in food and feed. However, the increasing number and diversity of genetically modified organisms (GMO) require effective methods for simultaneously detecting several genetic elements marking the presence of transgenic events. Herein we describe the development and validation of a pentaplex, as well as complementary triplex and duplex real-time PCR assays, for the detection of the most common screening elements found in commercialized GMOs: P-35S, T-nos, ctp2-cp4-epsps, bar, and pat. The use of these screening assays allows the coverage of many GMO events globally approved for commercialization. Each multiplex real-time PCR assay shows high specificity and sensitivity with an absolute limit of detection below 20 copies for the targeted sequences. We demonstrate by intra- and interlaboratory tests that the assays are robust as well as cost- and time-effective for GMO screening if applied in routine GMO analysis.

  16. Relationships between feeding behavior and average daily gain in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fagundes Cunha Lage

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported relationship between eating behavior and performance in feedlot cattle. The evaluation of behavior traits demands high degree of work and trained manpower, therefore, in recent years has been used an automated feed intake measurement system (GrowSafe System ®, that identify and record individual feeding patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between feeding behavior traits and average daily gain in Nellore calves undergoing feed efficiency test. Date from 85 Nelore males was recorded during the feed efficiency test performed in 2012, at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, Instituto de Zootecnia, São Paulo State. Were analyzed the behavioral traits: time at feeder (TF, head down duration (HD, representing the time when the animal is actually eating, frequency of visits (FV and feed rate (FR calculated as the amount of dry matter (DM consumed by time at feeder (g.min-1. The ADG was calculated by linear regression of individual weights on days in test. ADG classes were obtained considering the average ADG and standard deviation (SD being: high ADG (>mean + 1.0 SD, medium ADG (± 1.0 SD from the mean and low ADG (time of head down than medium or high gain animals (P<0.05. Were observed significant effects of ADG class on FR (P<0.01, high ADG animals consumed more feed per time (g.min-1 than the low and medium ADG animals. No diferences were observed (P>0.05 among ADG classes for FV, indicating that these traits are not related to each other. These results shows that the ADG is related to the agility in eat food and not to the time spent in the bunk or to the number of visits in a range of 24 hours.

  17. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B S; Park, Y S; Oh, S C; Kim, S H; Cho, M W; Hong, D H

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  18. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H.

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation's policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  19. Modulatory effect of fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Shetty, A K; Salimath, P V

    2005-06-01

    To elucidate the effect of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric (10%) on disaccharidases activities, the specific activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases viz., sucrase, maltase and lactase were measured in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes and amelioration of these activities during diabetes was clearly visible by supplementing fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric in the diet. However during diabetes renal disaccharidases activities were significantly lower than those in the control rats. Fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric supplementations were beneficial in alleviating the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes, however not much change in the activities of sucrase and lactase was observed upon feeding. This positive influence of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases clearly indicates their beneficial role in the management of diabetes.

  20. Spent Pot Lining Characterization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Gustavo; Hassan, Mohamed I.

    2017-09-01

    Spent pot lining (SPL) management represents a major concern for aluminum smelters. There are two key elements for spent pot lining management: recycling and safe storage. Spent pot lining waste can potentially have beneficial uses in co-firing in cement plants. Also, safe storage of SPL is of utmost importance. Gas generation of SPL reaction with water and ignition sensitivity must be studied. However, determining the feasibility of SPL co-firing and developing the required procedures for safe storage rely on determining experimentally all the necessary SPL properties along with the appropriate test methods, recognized by emissions standards and fire safety design codes. The applicable regulations and relevant SPL properties for this purpose are presented along with the corresponding test methods.

  1. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and Department of Energy (DOE) estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented for the next 20 years, through the year 2007. The eventual needs for additional spent fuel storage capacity are estimated. These estimates are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December 1987 and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to DOE through the 1988 RW-859 data survey and by DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 12 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs

  2. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  3. Economics of National Waste Terminal Storage Spent Fuel Pricing Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    The methodology for equitably pricing commercial nuclear spent fuel management is developed, and the results of four sample calculations are presented. The spent fuel management program analyzed places encapsulated spent fuel in bedded salt while maintaining long-term retrievability. System design was reasonable but not optimum. When required, privately-owned Away From Reactor (AFR) storage is provided and the spent fuel placed in AFR storage is eventually transported to final storage. Applicable Research and Development and Government Overhead are included. The cost of each component by year was estimated from the most recent applicable data source available. These costs were input to the pricing methodology to establish a one-time charge whose present value exactly recovered the present value of the expenditure flow. The four cases exercised were combinations of a high and a low quantity of spent fuel managed, with a single repository (venture) or a multiple repository (campaign) approach to system financial structure. The price for spent fuel management calculated ranged from 116 to 152 dollars (1978) per kilogram charged initially to the reactor. The effect of spent fuel receiving rate on price is illustrated by the fact that the extremes of price did not coincide with the cases having the extremes of undiscounted cost. These prices for spent fuel management are comparable in magnitude to other fuel cycle costs. The range of variation is small because of compensating effects, i.e., additional costs for high early deliveries (AFR and transportation) versus lower present value of future revenue for later delivery cases. The methodology contains numerous conservative assumptions, provisions for contingencies, and covers the complete set of spent fuel management expenses

  4. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, J.A.; Gravalos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    There are presently nine Light Water Reactors in operation, representing around a 34% of the overall electricity production. In the early years, a small amount of spent fuel was sent to be reprocessed, although this policy was cancelled in favor of the open cycle option. A state owned company, ENRESA, was created in 1984, which was given the mandate to manage all kinds of radioactive wastes generated in the country. Under the present scenario, a rough overall amount of 7000 tU of spent fuel will be produced during the lifetime of the plants, which will go into final disposal. (author)

  5. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  6. Transport device of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a transport device of spent fuel particularly used in a fast breeder, which can enhance accessibility to travelling mechanism portions and exchangeability thereof to facilitate maintenance in the event of failure. Structure: On a travelling floor, which has a function to shield radioactive rays, extending in a direction of transporting spent fuel and being formed with a break passing through in a direction wall thickness, a travelling body is moved along the break. The travelling body has a support rod member mounted thereon, and the support rod member is moved within the break, the support rod member having a fuel support pocket suspended therefrom. (Furukawa, Y.)

  7. Recovery of decommissioning and spent fuel charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermanis, G.

    1982-01-01

    The licensing and financial aspects of NPP decommissioning, deactivation and dismantling of radioactive equipment in the USA are considered. Data on the costs of spent fuel transport and conservation are given. The state of the problem development in other countries is briefly described. It is pointed out that the technical aspect of the problem is much better studied than that of license-financial problem. At the same time in contrast to TPP NPP use is connected with considerable expenses after the end of a power plant sevice time

  8. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    In this research, the remote handling technology was developed for the ACP application. The ACP gives a possible solution to reduce the rapidly cumulative amount of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. The remote technologies developed in this work are a slitting device, a voloxidizer, a modified telescopic servo manipulator and a digital mock-up. A slitting device was developed to declad the spent fuel rod-cuts and collect the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets. A voloxidizer was developed to convert the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets obtained from the slitting process in to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. Experiments were performed to test the capabilities and remote operation of the developed slitting device and voloxidizer by using simulated rod-cuts and fuel in the ACP hot cell. A telescopic servo manipulator was redesigned and manufactured improving the structure of the prototype. This servo manipulator was installed in the ACP hot cell, and the target module for maintenance of the process equipment was selected. The optimal procedures for remote operation were made through the maintenance tests by using the servo manipulator. The ACP digital mockup in a virtual environment was established to secure a reliability and safety of remote operation and maintenance. The simulation for the remote operation and maintenance was implemented and the operability was analyzed. A digital mockup about the preliminary conceptual design of an enginnering-scale ACP was established, and an analysis about a scale of facility and remote handling was accomplished. The real-time diagnostic technique was developed to detect the possible fault accidents of the slitting device. An assessment of radiation effect for various sensors was also conducted in the radiation environment.

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  10. Spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert

    1976-01-01

    To begin with, the author explains the reasons for intermediate storage of fuel elements in nuclear power stations and in a reprocessing plant and gives the temperature and radioactivity curves of LWR fuel elements after removal from the reactor. This is followed by a description of the facilities for fuel element storage in a reprocessing plant and of their functions. Futher topics are criticality and activity control, the problem of cooling time and safety systems. (HR) [de

  11. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 2. Intestinal transit time, stomach emptying and digestibility in short-term feeding studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M; Nugteren, D H

    1989-01-01

    The influence of jojoba oil (JO) incorporation in the diet on stomach emptying and intestinal transit time, and the digestion and absorption of JO were investigated in short-term feeding studies in rats. The animals were fed purified diets containing 18% (w/w) fat, of which half consisted of a mixture of lard and sunflower seed oil (SF) supplemented with an equivalent amount of JO. The control animals were fed a mixture of lard and SF (18%). No treatment-related differences were observed in the rate of stomach emptying or the intestinal transit time. Comparative lipid analysis of lymph, intestinal content, intestinal mucosa and faeces indicated that most of the ingested JO was degraded and absorbed. Part of the JO was present as wax ester in the lymph. Hydrolysis of JO was much slower than that of triacylglycerols and continued in the alimentary tract beyond the small intestine due to bacterial processes. JO did not influence the absorption of the conventional fat.

  12. Timed feeding of mice modulates light-entrained circadian rhythms of reticulated platelet abundance and plasma thrombopoietin and affects gene expression in megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Paul S; Sheward, John; Scholefield, Emma; French, Karen; Horn, Jacqueline M; Holmes, Megan C; Harmar, Anthony J

    2009-07-01

    Circadian (c. 24 h) rhythms of physiology are entrained to either the environmental light-dark cycle or the timing of food intake. In the current work the hypothesis that rhythms of platelet turnover in mammals are circadian and entrained by food intake was explored in mice. Mice were entrained to 12 h light-dark cycles and given either ad libitum (AL) or restricted access (RF) to food during the light phase. Blood and megakaryocytes were then collected from mice every 4 h for 24 h. It was found that total and reticulated platelet numbers, plasma thrombopoietin (TPO) concentration and the mean size of mature megakaryocytes were circadian but not entrained by food intake. In contrast, a circadian rhythm in the expression of Arnt1 in megakaryocytes was entrained by food. Although not circadian, the expression in megakaryocytes of Nfe2, Gata1, Itga2b and Tubb1 expression was downregulated by RF, whereas Ccnd1 was not significantly affected by the feeding protocol. It is concluded that circadian rhythms of total platelet number, reticulated platelet number and plasma TPO concentration are entrained by the light-dark cycle rather than the timing of food intake. These findings imply that circadian clock gene expression regulates platelet turnover in mammals.

  13. Feeding ecology of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, S C; Ostro, L E; Yeager, C P; Horwich, R

    1998-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) from March 1994 to April 1995 in the Community Baboon Sanctuary in northern Belize, Central America. Activity and diet composition were recorded using continuous focal animal sampling. Diet composition was compared with the relative abundance of plant parts eaten by the howlers within the study site. The study animals spent an average of 24.4% of their time feeding, 61.9% resting, and approximately 9.8% traveling. In contrast to previously published reports on A. pigra, we found the diet composition to be similar to that of other Alouatta species (conforming to the folivore/frugivore profile), with 41% of feeding time spent eating fruit, 45% foliage, and 11% flowers. This contrast may indicate a wide degree of dietary flexibility that allows A. pigra to inhabit a variety of habitat types. We suggest that a high level of resource abundance throughout the year makes the Community Baboon Sanctuary excellent habitat for Alouatta pigra.

  14. Studies on recycling and utilization of spent catalysts. Preparation of active hydrodemetallization catalyst compositions from spent residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, Meena; Stanislaus, Antony [Petroleum Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat (Kuwait)

    2007-02-15

    Spent catalysts form a major source of solid wastes in the petroleum refining industries. Due to environmental concerns, increasing emphasis has been placed on the development of recycling processes for the waste catalyst materials as much as possible. In the present study the potential reuse of spent catalysts in the preparation of active new catalysts for residual oil hydrotreating was examined. A series of catalysts were prepared by mixing and extruding spent residue hydroprocessing catalysts that contained C, V, Mo, Ni and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with boehmite in different proportions. All prepared catalysts were characterized by chemical analysis and by surface area, pore volume, pore size and crushing strength measurements. The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodemetallization (HDM) activities of the catalysts were evaluated by testing in a high pressure fixed-bed microreactor unit using Kuwait atmospheric residue as feed. A commercial HDM catalyst was also tested under similar operating conditions and their HDS and HDM activities were compared with that of the prepared catalysts. The results revealed that catalyst prepared with addition of up to 40 wt% spent catalyst to boehmite had fairly high surface area and pore volume together with large pores. The catalyst prepared by mixing and extruding about 40 wt% spent catalyst with boehmite was relatively more active for promoting HDM and HDS reactions than a reference commercial HDM catalyst. The formation of some kind of new active sites from the metals (V, Mo and Ni) present in the spent catalyst is suggested to be responsible for the high HDM activity of the prepared catalyst. (author)

  15. Nuclear spent fuel dry storage in the EWA reactor shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieleszczenko, W.; Moldysz, A.; Hryczuk, A.; Matysiak, T.

    2001-01-01

    The EWA reactor was in operation from 1958 until February 1995. Then it was subjected to the decommissioning procedure. Resulting from a prolonged operation of Polish research reactors a substantial amount of nuclear spent fuel of various types, enrichment and degree of burnup have been accumulated. The technology of storage of spent nuclear fuel foresees the two stages of wet storing in a water pool (deferral period from tens to several dozens years) and dry storing (deferral period from 50 to 80 years). In our case the deferral time in the water environment is pretty significant (the oldest fuel elements have been stored in water for more than 40 years). Though the state of stored fuel elements is satisfactory, there is a real need for changing the storage conditions of spent fuel. The paper is covering the description of philosophy and conceptual design for construction of the spent fuel dry storage in the decommissioned EWA reactor shaft. (author)

  16. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W.; Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose

  17. Behaviour of spent fuel assemblies during extended storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This report is the final report of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Behaviour of Spent Fuel Assemblies During Extended Storage (BEFAST, Phase I, 1981-86). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 11 institutes (10 countries: Austria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Japan, Sweden, USA and USSR) participating in the BEFAST CRP during the time period 1981-86. Names of participating institutes and chief investigators are given. The interim spent fuel storage has been recognized as an important independent step in the nuclear fuel cycle. Due to the delay in commercial reprocessing of spent fuel in some cases it should be stored up to 30-50 years or more before reprocessing or final disposal. This programme was evaluated by all its participants and observers as very important and helpful for the nuclear community and it was decided to continue it further (1986-91) as BEFAST, Phase II

  18. An economic analysis of spent fuel management and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    1998-01-01

    Spent fuel management is becoming a key issue not only in the countries that have already experienced years of nuclear operation but also in the Asian countries that started nuclear utilization rather lately. This paper summarizes the key aspects that essentially determine optimal conditions for desired spent fuel management strategies from the engineering-economic point of view, in both national and regional perspectives. The term 'desired' is intended to highlight positive and beneficial aspects of such strategies, namely mobile and timely exploitation of spent fuel storage. Among all, the economy of scale, the economy of scope, the learning-by-doing effect, and benefits of R and D are reviewed theoretically and empirically, and the paper overviews to what extent these factors are implemented in solving spent fuel management strategy optimization problem. (author)

  19. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattantyus, P.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian Spent Fuel Management is described. This includes wet and dry interim storage, transportation issues and future plans regarding final disposal based on deep underground emplacement in stable granite rock. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is not planned, as dry storage technologies have found wide acceptance. (author)

  20. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  1. A safety study on the wet storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Hoo Kun; Choi, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Geun

    1989-02-01

    This study is to provide data related with a basic design of the spent fuel storage facility in the field of radiation and to establish the safety assessment methodology of away from reactor spent fuel storage facility. This is in progress and continue upto the year of 1991. The mathematical model which predict the quantity of environmental release of fission and corrosion products from spent fuel received and stored in wet storage facility operated in normal conditions was prepared. The decay characteristic of domestic spent fuels are analysed and then the coefficients for the prediction of the decay heat by simple formular was determined. This correlations could predict decay heat of spent fuel with ±10% difference from ORIGEN2 results. The release factor of cobalt out of PWR spent fuel in PIE pool is 7.97 x 10-12∼8.49 x 10-11 Ci/ sec-rod, which appears to be linear without being connected with the types of fuel defects, but that of cesium varies with the defect type and the exposure time in water. In water condition, release factor of uranium out of CANDU fuel pellets appears to be about 5 x 10-8/day, whose tendency is similar to that of cesium of the latter half of the exposure time of water. (Author)

  2. Effects of actinide compositional variability in the U.S. spent fuel inventory on partitioning-transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michaels, G.E.; Hanson, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    The partitioning and transmutation concept (P-T) has as a mission the reduction by many orders of magnitude of certain undesirable nuclides in the waste streams. Given that only a very small fiction of spent fuel can be rejected by a P-T enterprise, a P-T system must therefore be capable of accommodating a wide range of spent fuel characteristics. Variability of nuclide composition (i.e. the feed material for transmutation devices) may be important because virtually all transmutation systems propose to configure TRU nuclides recovered from discharged LWR fuel in critical or near-critical cores. To date, all transmutation system core analyses assume nonvariable nuclide concentrations for startup and recycle cores. Using the Department of Energy (DOES) Characteristic Data Base (CDB) and the ORIGEN2 computer code, the current and projected spent fuel discharges until the year 2016 have been categorized according to combinations of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, fuel age (cooling time) and reactor type (boiling-water or pressurized-water reactor). In addition to quantifying the variability of nuclide composition in current and projected LWR fuel discharge, the variability of the infinite multiplication factor (K ∞ ) is calculated for both fast (ALMR) and thermal (accelerator-based) transmuter systems. It is shown that actinide compositional variations are potentially significant and warrant further investigation. (authors)

  3. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  4. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su' ud, Zaki [Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 Nuclear Physics and Bio (Indonesia); Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nuclear Physics and Bio Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  5. Competition during the milk-feeding stage influences the development of feeding behavior of pair-housed dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how the feeding behavior of pair-housed calves develops in response to reduced teat and feed place availability. Twenty Holstein bull calves were pair housed and provided with milk replacer (MR) and grain concentrate ad libitum via either (1) 1 teat and feed bucket/pen, such that calves could not feed simultaneously [competitive feeding (CF)] or (2) 2 teats and feed buckets/pen [noncompetitive feeding (NCF)]. The calves were weaned during wk 7 of life by incrementally diluting the MR. Postweaning, all pens were managed identically and offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum via 2 feed buckets/pen (NCF) in period 1 (wk 8 and 9) and period 3 (wk 12 and 13) and exposed to a competitive challenge with CF in period 2 (wk 10 and 11). Feeding times and competitive interactions were recorded from video for 3 d/wk in wk 2, 4, and 6 and 2 d/wk in wk 8 to 13. Meal criteria were used to calculate daily meal frequency, meal time, and synchronized meal time (the percentage of meal time when calves within the pen were engaged in simultaneous meals). Milk replacer intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with calves in CF pens having lower MR intake (wk 2: 8.3 vs. 10.0 L/calf per day for CF vs. NCF), but compensating by increasing intake to a greater extent over time (wk 4-5: 13.3 vs. 11.7 L/d for CF vs. NCF). Corresponding to MR intake, meal frequencies and feeding times evolved differently over this period, increasing in CF pens and decreasing in NCF pens (wk 2: 5.8 vs. 11.1 and wk 4-6: 6.2 vs. 5.1 meals/d for CF vs. NCF). Calves in CF pens also spent less time engaged in synchronized meals (28 vs. 51% of meal time; standard error=7.1) and displaced each other 5 times more frequently during synchronized eating. Postweaning, calves in previously CF pens maintained 5 times greater displacement frequencies and had fewer overlapping meals than calves in previously NCF pens (34.5 vs. 40.7% of meals, respectively). Postweaning, when calves

  6. The feeding practices and structure questionnaire: construction and initial validation in a sample of Australian first-time mothers and their 2-year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children’s eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (years). Methods Data were from 462 mothers and children (age 21–27 months) from the NOURISH trial. Items from five questionnaires and two study-specific items were submitted to a priori item selection, allocation and verification, before theoretically-derived factors were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Construct validity of the new factors was examined by correlating these with child eating behaviours and weight. Results Following expert review 10 factors were specified. Of these, 9 factors (40 items) showed acceptable model fit and internal reliability (Cronbach’s α: 0.61-0.89). Four factors reflected non-responsive feeding practices: ‘Distrust in Appetite’, ‘Reward for Behaviour’, ‘Reward for Eating’, and ‘Persuasive Feeding’. Five factors reflected structure of the meal environment and limits: ‘Structured Meal Setting’, ‘Structured Meal Timing’, ‘Family Meal Setting’, ‘Overt Restriction’ and ‘Covert Restriction’. Feeding practices generally showed the expected pattern of associations with child eating behaviours but none with weight. Conclusion The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) provides a new reliable and valid measure of parental feeding practices, specifically maternal responsiveness to children’s hunger/satiety signals facilitated by routine and structure in feeding. Further validation in more diverse samples is required. PMID:24898364

  7. THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHIA ROSSI ROLIM LOPES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

  8. MTR radiological database for SRS spent nuclear fuel facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    A database for radiological characterization of incoming Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel has been developed for application to the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin spent fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This database provides a quick quantitative check to determine if SRS bound spent fuel is radiologically bounded by the Reference Fuel Assembly used in the L-Basin and RBOF authorization bases. The developed database considers pertinent characteristics of domestic and foreign research reactor fuel including exposure, fuel enrichment, irradiation time, cooling time, and fuel-to-moderator ratio. The supplied tables replace the time-consuming studies associated with authorization of SRS bound spent fuel with simple hand calculations. Additionally, the comprehensive database provides the means to overcome resource limitations, since a series of simple, yet conservative, hand calculations can now be performed in a timely manner and replace computational and technical staff requirements

  9. Spent Fuel Transfer to Dry Storage Using Unattended Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hwan; Park, Soo Jin

    2009-01-01

    There are 4 CANDU reactors at Wolsung site together with a spent fuel dry storage associated with unit 1. These CANDU reactors, classified as On-Load Reactor (OLR) for Safeguards application, change 16- 24 fuel bundles with fresh fuel in everyday. Especially, the spent fuel bundles are transferred from spent fuel bays to dry storage throughout a year because of the insufficient capacity of spent fuel pond. Safeguards inspectors verify the spent fuel transfer to meet safeguards purposes according to the safeguards criteria by means of inspector's presence during the transfer campaign. For the verification, 60-80 person-days of inspection (PDIs) are needed during approximately 3 months for each unit. In order to reduce the inspection effort and operators' burden, an Unattended Monitoring System (UMS) was designed and developed by the IAEA for the verification of spent fuel bundles transfers from wet storage to dry storage. Based on the enhanced cooperation of CANDU reactors between the ROK and the IAEA, the IAEA installed the UMS at Wolsung unit 2 in January 2005 at first. After some field trials during the transfer campaign, this system is being replaced the traditional human inspection since September 1, 2006 combined with a Short Notice Inspection (SNI) and a near-real time Mailbox Declaration

  10. Conditioning of spent nuclear fuel for permanent disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or open-quotes pyroprocessing,close quotes provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and preclude the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory

  11. Conditioning of spent nuclear fuel for permanent disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development. This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or pyroprocessing, provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (> 99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and that avoid the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory

  12. LSDS Development for Isotopic Fissile Assay in Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je; Park, Geun Il; Lee, Jung Won; Song, Kee Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    As an option to reduce a spent fuel and reuse an existing fissile material in spent fuel, sodium fast reactor SFR program linked with pyro-processing is under development in KAERI. A uranium-TRU mixture through a pyro-process is used to fabricate SFR fuel. An assay of isotopic fissile content plays an important role in an optimum design of storage site and reuse of fissile materials of spent fuel. Lead slowing down spectrometer LSDS is being developed in KAERI to analyze isotopic fissile material content. LSDS has several features: direct fissile assay, near real time fissile assay, no influence from radiation background, fissile isotopic assay and applicable to spent fuel and recycled fuel. Based on the designed geometry, neutron energy resolution was investigated. The neutron energy spectrum was analyzed as well. Spent fuel emits large number of neutrons by spontaneous fission. Neutron generator must overcome the neutron background to get the pure fission signals from fissile materials. Neutron generator is planned to have compact system with one section electron linac which is easy maintenance, less cost and high neutron yield. The LSD has the power to resolve the fission characteristics from each fissile material. This feature can analyze the content of isotopic fissile. From 1keV to 0.1eV energy range, the energy resolution is enough to get the individual fissile fission signatures. The dominant fission signature is shown below 1eV for each fissile isotope. The neutron generation system with target was designed to get fission signals by fissile materials. The system was decided to overcome neutron backgrounds and to get good counting statistics. Finally, an accurate fissile material content will contribute to safety of spent fuel reuse in future nuclear energy system and optimum design of spent fuel storage site. Additionally, an accurate fissile material content will increase international transparence and credibility for the reuse of PWR spent fuel.

  13. LSDS Development for Isotopic Fissile Assay in Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Park, Chang Je; Park, Geun Il; Lee, Jung Won; Song, Kee Chan

    2011-01-01

    As an option to reduce a spent fuel and reuse an existing fissile material in spent fuel, sodium fast reactor SFR program linked with pyro-processing is under development in KAERI. A uranium-TRU mixture through a pyro-process is used to fabricate SFR fuel. An assay of isotopic fissile content plays an important role in an optimum design of storage site and reuse of fissile materials of spent fuel. Lead slowing down spectrometer LSDS is being developed in KAERI to analyze isotopic fissile material content. LSDS has several features: direct fissile assay, near real time fissile assay, no influence from radiation background, fissile isotopic assay and applicable to spent fuel and recycled fuel. Based on the designed geometry, neutron energy resolution was investigated. The neutron energy spectrum was analyzed as well. Spent fuel emits large number of neutrons by spontaneous fission. Neutron generator must overcome the neutron background to get the pure fission signals from fissile materials. Neutron generator is planned to have compact system with one section electron linac which is easy maintenance, less cost and high neutron yield. The LSD has the power to resolve the fission characteristics from each fissile material. This feature can analyze the content of isotopic fissile. From 1keV to 0.1eV energy range, the energy resolution is enough to get the individual fissile fission signatures. The dominant fission signature is shown below 1eV for each fissile isotope. The neutron generation system with target was designed to get fission signals by fissile materials. The system was decided to overcome neutron backgrounds and to get good counting statistics. Finally, an accurate fissile material content will contribute to safety of spent fuel reuse in future nuclear energy system and optimum design of spent fuel storage site. Additionally, an accurate fissile material content will increase international transparence and credibility for the reuse of PWR spent fuel

  14. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex

  15. Effects of growth pattern and dietary protein level during rearing on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing and laying period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of growth patterns (GP) and dietary crude protein levels (CP) during rearing (2–22 weeks of age) on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing

  16. Collective processing device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Noboru.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a sealing vessel, a transporting device for transporting spent fuels to the sealing vessel, a laser beam cutting device for cutting the transported spent fuels, a dissolving device for dissolving the cut spent fuels, and a recovering device for recovering radioactive materials from the spent fuels during processing. Reprocessing treatments comprising each processing of dismantling, shearing and dissolving are conducted in the sealing vessel can ensure a sealing barrier for the radioactive materials (fissionable products and heavy nuclides). Then, since spent fuels can be processed in a state of assemblies, and the spent fuels are easily placed in the sealing vessel, operation efficiency is improved, as well as operation cost is saved. Further, since the spent fuels can be cut by a remote laser beam operation, there can be prevented operator's exposure due to radioactive materials released from the spent fuels during cutting operation. (T.M.)

  17. Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the diet of white leghorn layers. ... Evaluation was based on egg yolk colour intensity measured based on Roche colour fan scores, potassium dichromate grades and consumer preference scores on raw, boiled and fried egg samples. Egg production, feed ...

  18. Hop acid-rich spent craft brewer's yeast modulates gut bacterial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha and beta hop acids (humulones and lupulones) from Humulus lupulus are inhibitors of Gram-positive organisms and important natural antibiotics for beer fermentation and carbohydrate feed stocks for biofuel production. Recent observations (Bryant and Cohen) of high levels of hop acids in spent ...

  19. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  20. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs

  1. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. An Analysis of Effect of Break-up Timing on the Necessity of a Feed-and-Bleed Operation in the case of TLOFW with Local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    A Feed-and-bleed (F and B) operation is a process to cool the reactor by the primary side directly. If adequate residual heat removal through the secondary side is not available, the heat can be removed from the RCS by F and B operation. A total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident is used to represent an accident involving the failure of cooling by the secondary cooling system. Even if the secondary cooling system fails, the RCS can be cooled by F and B transients when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with a TLOFW accident occurs. During an F and B transient, the RCS has a residual heat removal mechanism. If the break size is large, an F and B transient continuously occurs if the SIS is available. If the break size is small to sufficiently decrease the RCS pressure, the SIS cannot inject the coolant, causing the F and B transient to terminate. After the termination of the F and B transient, the residual heat cannot be removed, and the necessity of an F and B operation increases. The operators may hesitate to initiate F and B operation if a clear cue is not provided, since its initiation implies the radioactive coolant releases into the containment. Therefore, the necessity of F and B operation is needed to be identified. The factors affected the necessity of F and B operation are the availability of the safety injection system and safety depressurization system, water inventory in the primary and secondary cooling systems, break size in a loss-of-coolant accident, and time of accident occurrence. The necessity of F and B operation can be changed according to different timing of break-up despite same break size. Moreover, different timing of break-up makes the operators more complicated. To identify effect of timing of break-up, a thermohydraulic analysis was performed using the MARS code. This study is expected to provide a useful guideline to identify the necessity of an F and B operation under combined accident

  3. Reuse of Hydrotreating Spent Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.M.; Menoufy, M.F.; Amhed, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    All hydro treating catalysts used in petroleum refining processes gradually lose activity through coking, poisoning by metal, sulfur or halides or lose surface area from sintering at high process temperatures. Waste hydrotreating catalyst, which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company (after 5 years lifetime) compared with the same fresh catalyst were used in the present work. Studies are conducted on partial extraction of the active metals of spent catalyst (Mo and Ni) using three leaching solvents,4% oxidized oxalic acid, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide and 10% citric acid. The leaching experiments are conducting on the de coked extrude [un crushed] spent catalyst samples. These steps are carried out in order to rejuvenate the spent catalyst to be reused in other reactions. The results indicated that 4% oxidized oxalic acid leaching solution gave total metal removal 45.6 for de coked catalyst samples while NaOH gave 35% and citric acid gave 31.9 % The oxidized leaching agent was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate the metal removal, and the rejuvenated catalyst was characterized by the unchanged crystalline phase The rejuvenated catalyst was applied for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of vacuum gas oil as a feedstock, under different hydrogen pressure 20-80 bar in order to compare its HDS activity

  4. Spent nuclear fuel in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peev, P.; Kalimanov, N.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria is characterized by two major stages. The first stage consisted of providing a scientific basis for the programme for development of the nuclear energy sector in the country and was completed with the construction of an experimental water-water reactor. At present, spent nuclear fuel from this reactor is placed in a water filled storage facility and will be transported back to Russia. The second stage consisted of the construction of the 6 NPP units at the Kozloduy site. The spent nuclear fuel from the six units is stored in at reactor pools and in an additional on-site storage facility which is nearly full. In order to engage the government of the country with the on-site storage problems, the new management of the National Electric Company elaborated a policy on nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management. The underlying policy is de facto the selection of the 'deferred decision' option for its spent fuel management. (author)

  5. Spent nuclear fuel storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshio; Kashiwagi, Eisuke; Sekikawa, Tsutomu.

    1997-01-01

    Containing tubes for containing spent nuclear fuels are arranged vertically in a chamber. Heat releasing fins are disposed horizontal to the outer circumference of the containing tubes for rectifying cooling air and promoting cooling of the containing tubes. Louvers and evaporation sides of heat pipes are disposed at a predetermined distance in the chamber. Cooling air flows from an air introduction port to the inside of the chamber and takes heat from the containing tubes incorporated with heat generating spent nuclear fuels, rising its temperature and flows off to an air exhaustion exit. The direction for the rectification plate of the louver is downward from a horizontal position while facing to the air exhaustion port. Since the evaporation sides of the heat pipes are disposed in the inside of the chamber and the condensation side of the heat pipes is disposed to the outside of the chamber, the thermal energy can be recovered from the containing tubes incorporated with spent nuclear fuels and utilized. (I.N.)

  6. Modular dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Long term uncertainties in US spent fuel reprocessing and storage policies and programs are forcing the electric utilities to consider means of storing spent fuel at the reactor site in increasing quantitities and for protracted periods. Utilities have taken initial steps in increasing storage capacity. Existing wet storage pools have in many cases been reracked to optimize their capacity for storing spent fuel assemblies

  7. Spent fuel storage process equipment development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jae Sol; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1990-02-01

    Nuclear energy which is a major energy source of national energy supply entails spent fuels. Spent fuels which are high level radioactive meterials, are tricky to manage and need high technology. The objectives of this study are to establish and develop key elements of spent fuel management technologies: handling equipment and maintenance, process automation technology, colling system, and cleanup system. (author)

  8. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of time by the South African cliff swallow was determined and use of energy calculated by using equations for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditur.e was during the feeding of nestlings when 9,22 h were spent foraging. The cost of 127 kJ for building a nest is ...

  9. Interdemic variation in the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri: correlations among hypoxia, morphology, and feeding performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaack, S.; Chapman, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive change in one character may affect associated, but functionally unrelated, characters in adaptive or nonadaptive ways. For example, adaptive change in gill size (i.e., larger gills in hypoxic habitats) may alter adjacent feeding structures and therefore have indirect effects on feeding behavior. This study examines whether differences in total gill filament length among populations of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri correlate with variation in trophic structures and feeding performance. Morphological measurements revealed larger total gill filament length in populations from low-oxygen habitats. Differences in external and internal morphology of the trophic apparatus correlated with those found in gills and suggest a reduction in food capture and processing ability in fish with larger respiratory apparatus. In paired feeding trials on a novel prey type, large-gilled fish spent more time feeding than small-gilled fish of the same body size without ingesting more food. This suggests less efficient food uptake in large-gilled fish from hypoxic habitats. We suggest that variation in gill size facilitates the broad habitat distribution of B. neumayeri but may limit the success of phenotypes crossing physicochemical gradients. (author)

  10. Capabilities for processing shipping casks at spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.H.; Arnett, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Spent fuel is received at a storage facility in heavily shielded casks transported either by rail or truck. The casks are inspected, cooled, emptied, decontaminated, and reshipped. The spent fuel is transferred to storage. The number of locations or space inside the building provided to perform each function in cask processing will determine the rate at which the facility can process shipping casks and transfer spent fuel to storage. Because of the high cost of construction of licensed spent fuel handling and storage facilities and the difficulty in retrofitting, it is desirable to correctly specify the space required. In this paper, the size of the cask handling facilities is specified as a function of rate at which spent fuel is received for storage. The minimum number of handling locations to achieve a given throughput of shipping casks has been determined by computer simulation of the process. The simulation program uses a Monte Carlo technique in which a large number of casks are received at a facility with a fixed number of handling locations in each process area. As a cask enters a handling location, the time to process the cask at that location is selected at random from the distribution of process time. Shipping cask handling times are based on experience at the General Electric Storage Facility, Morris, Illinois. Shipping cask capacity is based on the most recent survey available of the expected capability of reactors to handle existing rail or truck casks

  11. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, J.; Sanz, A.; Joy, M.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3) than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1). Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days) to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour. (Author)

  12. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  13. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  14. NRC analysis of the environmental impacts and licensing policies for expanded spent fuel storage in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.V. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the findings of the U.S. environmental impact studies on spent fuel storage to the year 2000, addresses design criteria for independent spent fuel storage installations and expresses the position of the NRC for licensing expanded spent fuel storage capabilities until such time as final solutions are established

  15. NRC Analysis of the environmental impacts and licensing policies for expanded spent fuel storage in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, V.S.

    1978-01-01

    The findings of the U.S. environmental impact studies on spent fuel storage to the year 2000 are reviewed, the design criteria for independent spent fuel storage installations are addressed and the position of the NRC for licensing expanded spent fuel storage capabilities, until such time as final solutions are established, is expressed. (author)

  16. Mechanical and thermomechanical calculations related to the storage of spent nuclear-fuel assemblies in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1980-05-01

    A generic test of the geologic storage of spent-fuel assemblies is being made at Nevada Test Site. The spent-fuel assemblies were emplaced at a depth of 420 m (1370 ft) below the surface in a typical granite and will be retrieved at a later time. The early time, close-in thermal history of this type of repository is being simulated with spent-fuel and electrically heated canisters in a central drift, with auxiliary heaters in two parallel side drifts. Prior to emplacement of the spent-fuel canisters, preliminary calculations were made using a pair of existing finite-element codes, ADINA and ADINAT

  17. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  18. Overview of spent fuel management and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.; Ernst, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel worldwide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. Some projections of spent fuel inventories to the year 2006 are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  20. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  1. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  2. Application of spent fuel treatment technology to plutonium immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Ackerman, J.P.; Gay, E.C., Johnson, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the electrometallurgical treatment technology being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to convert certain spent nuclear fuels into waste forms that are suitable for disposal in a geological repository for nuclear waste. The spent fuels of interest are those that cannot be safely stored for a long time in their current condition, and those that cannot be qualified for repository disposal. This paper explores the possibility of applying this electrometallurgical treatment technology to immobilization of surplus fissile materials, primarily plutonium. Immobilization of surplus fissile materials by electrometallurgical treatment could be done in the same facilities, at the same time. and in the same equipment as the proposed treatment of the present inventory of spent nuclear fuel. The cost and schedule savings of this simultaneous treatment scheme would be significant

  3. Feeding behavior of crossbred steers fed diets containing babassu mesocarp meal and corn in kernels or ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the use of babassu mesocarp meal (BMM and corn in different physical forms on the feeding behavior of crossbred young bulls of a dairy breed. Twenty-four crossbred (Nellore vs. Holstein steers (307.35 kg were fed four experimental diets containing two levels of inclusion of the babassu mesocarp meal (0 and 412.4 g/kg and corn in two physical forms (kernels or ground for 98 days. Data was collected on three days during the finishing phase, with observations every five minutes, for 24 hours. When the activities performed by the animals were evaluated as a function of the period of the day, the physical form of the corn showed interaction with the BMM inclusion level on the time spent feeding and on other activities. When the activities were evaluated over the day, the defecation frequency was affected and decreased as BMM was included. The feeding time was longer at the moments that followed feed supply, whereas the time used for other activities increased during the morning period, regardless of the diet utilized. Rumination and idle times were affected by the period of the day and remained high during the night and morning periods. There was increase in feeding time and dry matter rumination efficiencies and neutral detergent fiber as BMM was added to the diet. The number of rumination chews per bolus, however, decreased as BMB was included. Inclusion of babassu mesocarp meal increases the animal feeding time but the physical form of corn does not change its feeding behavior.

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  5. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  6. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  7. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  8. Feeding response of Ips paraconfusus to phloem and phloem metabolites of Heterobasidion annosum-inoculated ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNee, William R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Storer, Andrew J; Wood, David L; Gordon, Thomas R

    2003-05-01

    In studies of feeding by the bark beetle, Ips paraconfusus, two pine stilbenes (pinosylvin and pinosylvin methyl ether), ferulic acid glucoside, and enantiomers of the four most common sugars present in ponderosa pine phloem (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and raffinose) did not stimulate or reduce male feeding when assayed on wet alpha-cellulose with or without stimulatory phloem extractives present. When allowed to feed on wet alpha-cellulose containing sequential extracts (hexane, methanol, and water) of ponderosa pine phloem, methanol and water extractives stimulated feeding, but hexane extractives did not. Males confined in wet alpha-cellulose containing aqueous or organic extracts of culture broths derived from phloem tissue and containing the root pathogen. Heterobasidion annosum, ingested less substrate than beetles confined to control preparations. In an assay using logs from uninoculated ponderosa pines, the mean lengths of phloem in the digestive tracts increased as time spent feeding increased. Males confined to the phloem of basal logs cut from ponderosa pines artificially inoculated with H. annosum ingested significantly less phloem than beetles in logs cut from trees that were (combined) mock-inoculated or uninoculated and did not contain the pathogen. However, individual pathogen-containing treatments were not significantly different from uninoculated controls. It was concluded that altered feeding rates are not a major factor which may explain why diseased ponderosa pines are colonized by I. paraconfusus.

  9. Real time PCR of Nor~1 (aflD) gene of aflatoxin producing fungi and its correlative quantization to aflatoxin levels in South African compound feeds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Iheanacho, HE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available and additives. Contaminations of these feeds by AFs and its possible transmission into edible materials like milk, egg and organs of the body, are a serious problem. Expression of the Nor~1 (aflD) gene is the main factor responsible for AFs production...

  10. ADSORPTION ONTO BREWERS' SPENT GRAIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin and are the ... production of bio-plastics and bio-fuel, to agricultural uses as animal feed and ... Hot Plate with Magnetic Stirrer. HJ-3D. England. 2010. Oven. DHG 9101-2A. Searchtech UK.

  11. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors. 2003 conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    An International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The conference gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of the art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts and international co-operation in this area should take. The conference confirmed that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage. While the next step can be reprocessing or disposal, all spent fuel or high level waste from reprocessing must sooner or later be disposed of. The duration of interim storage is now expected to be much longer than earlier projections (up to 100 years and beyond). The storage facilities will have to be designed for these longer storage times and also for receiving spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in the different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. Utilities, vendors and regulators alike are addressing this adequately. The IAEA wishes to express appreciation to all chairs and co-chairs as well as all authors for their presentations to the conference and papers included in these proceedings.

  12. Storage of spent fuel from power reactors. 2003 conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    An International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The conference gave an opportunity to exchange information on the state of the art and prospects of spent fuel storage, to discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing the national policies in this field and to identify the most important directions that national efforts and international co-operation in this area should take. The conference confirmed that the primary spent fuel management solution for the next decades will be interim storage. While the next step can be reprocessing or disposal, all spent fuel or high level waste from reprocessing must sooner or later be disposed of. The duration of interim storage is now expected to be much longer than earlier projections (up to 100 years and beyond). The storage facilities will have to be designed for these longer storage times and also for receiving spent fuel from advanced fuel cycle practices (i.e. high burnup and MOX spent fuel). It was noted that the handling and storage of spent fuel is a mature technology and meets the stringent safety requirements applicable in the different countries. The changes in nuclear policy and philosophy across the world, and practical considerations, have made storage a real necessity in the nuclear power industry. Utilities, vendors and regulators alike are addressing this adequately. The IAEA wishes to express appreciation to all chairs and co-chairs as well as all authors for their presentations to the conference and papers included in these proceedings

  13. HTGR spent fuel storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.; Holder, N.D.

    1979-04-01

    This report documents a study of alternate methods of storing high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) spent fuel. General requirements and design considerations are defined for a storage facility integral to a fuel recycle plant. Requirements for stand-alone storage are briefly considered. Three alternate water-cooled storage conceptual designs (plug well, portable well, and monolith) are considered and compared to a previous air-cooled design. A concept using portable storage wells in racks appears to be the most favorable, subject to seismic analysis and economic evaluation verification

  14. Spent nuclear fuel sampling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report proposes a strategy for sampling the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in the 105-K Basins (105-K East and 105-K West). This strategy will support decisions concerning the path forward SNF disposition efforts in the following areas: (1) SNF isolation activities such as repackaging/overpacking to a newly constructed staging facility; (2) conditioning processes for fuel stabilization; and (3) interim storage options. This strategy was developed without following the Data Quality Objective (DQO) methodology. It is, however, intended to augment the SNF project DQOS. The SNF sampling is derived by evaluating the current storage condition of the SNF and the factors that effected SNF corrosion/degradation

  15. Dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.

    1993-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear's plans to build and operate dry storage facilities at each of its two nuclear power station sites in Scotland are explained. An outline of where waste materials arise as part of the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power stations, the volumes for each category of high-, intermediate-and low-level wastes and the costs involved are given. The present procedure for the spent fuels from Hunterston-B and Torness stations is described and Scottish Nuclear's aims of driving output up and costs down are studied. (UK)

  16. Spent fuel canister docking station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The

  17. Spent fuel storage requirements 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and utility estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented through the year 2005. The ultimate needs for additional storage capacity are estimated. These estimtes are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December, 1986, and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA) through the 1987 RW-859 data survey. 14 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  18. Spent fuel reprocessing past experience and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.

    1983-09-01

    A large experience has been gathered from the early fifties till now in the field of spent fuel reprocessing. As the main efforts in the world have been made for developping the reactors and the fuel fabrication industry to feed them, the spent fuel reprocessing activities came later and have not yet reached the industrial maturity existing to day for plants such as PWRs. But in the principal nuclear countries spent fuel reprocessing is to day considered as a necessity with two simultaneous targets: 1. Recovering the valuable materials, uranium and plutonium. 2. Conditionning the radioactive wastes to ensure safe definitive storage. The paper reviews the main steps: 1. Reprocessing for thermal reactor fuels: large plants are already operating or in construction, but in parallel a large effort of R and D is still under way for improvements. 2. The development of fast breeder plants implies associated fuel reprocessing facilities: pilot plants have demonstrated the closing of the cycle. The main difficulties encountered will be examined and particularly the importance of taking into account the problems of effluents processing and wastes storage [fr

  19. An Indian perspective for transportation and storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    The spent fuel discharged from the reactors are temporarily stored at the reactor pool. After a certain cooling time, the spent fuel is moved to the storage locations either on or off reactor site depending on the spent fuel management strategy. As India has opted for a closed fuel cycle for its nuclear energy development, reprocessing of the spent fuel, recycling of the reprocessed plutonium and uranium and disposal of the wastes from the reprocessing operations forms the spent fuel management strategy. Since the reprocessing operations are planned to match the nuclear energy programme, storage of the spent fuel in ponds are adopted prior to reprocessing. Transport of the spent<