WorldWideScience

Sample records for time sharing systems

  1. The People's Time Sharing System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; Benson, W.H.

    1973-01-01

    A set of programs running under a multiprogramming batch operating system on the CDC 6600 which provide remote users with a time sharing service is described. The basis for the system is the ability of a user program to create job control statements during execution, thereby tricking the operating

  2. Design principles of a resource sharing real-time-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliss, B.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for developing a resource sharing real time system are given. Resource sharing necessitates extra precautions for guaranteeing stable operating conditions. Some relevant measures to insure reliability and maintainability of the system are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Library Information System Time-Sharing (LISTS) Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald V.

    The Library Information System Time-Sharing (LISTS) experiment was based on three innovations in data processing technology: (1) the advent of computer time-sharing on third-generation machines, (2) the development of general-purpose file-management software and (3) the introduction of large, library-oriented data bases. The main body of the…

  4. Sojourn time tails in processor-sharing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egorova, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The processor-sharing discipline was originally introduced as a modeling abstraction for the design and performance analysis of the processing unit of a computer system. Under the processor-sharing discipline, all active tasks are assumed to be processed simultaneously, receiving an equal share of

  5. Sharing Real-Time Objects in Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erland Ketil; Havn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    microcontrollers connected by a RS-485 bus. The demo system shows that it is relatively simple to implement a distributed embedded system with the provided API, and the latency of the communication service is predictable. A low coupling to hardware makes it easy to port to another platform and/or another network...

  6. A STUDY OF SOME SOFTWARE PARAMETERS IN TIME-SHARING SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is made of some existing time-sharing computer systems and an exploration of various software characteristics is conducted. This...of the various parameters upon the average response cycle time, the average number in the queue awaiting service , the average length of time a user is

  7. Extending a HSF-enabled open-source real-time operating system with resource sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Behnam, M.; Petters, S.M.; Zijlstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from well-defined, independently analyzed subsystems. To support resource sharing within two-level, fixed priority scheduled HSFs, two synchronization protocols based on the stack resource policy (SRP)

  8. Protocol-transparent resource sharing in hierarchically scheduled real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from well-defined, independently analyzed subsystems. To support resource sharing within two-level HSFs, three synchronization protocols based on the stack resource policy (SRP) have recently been

  9. Shared random access memory resource for multiprocessor real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.; Hardy, W.H. II

    1977-01-01

    A shared random-access memory resource is described which is used within real-time data acquisition and control systems with multiprocessor and multibus organizations. Hardware and software aspects are discussed in a specific example where interconnections are done via a UNIBUS. The general applicability of the approach is also discussed

  10. Characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell system with the time shared fuel supplying approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Youngseung; Kwon, Jungmin; Kim, Hyun; Cho, Hyejung; Song, Inseob

    2013-01-01

    DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) systems usually employ two pumps for supplying the methanol solution. The conventional system configuration, however, may bring about free flow from the methanol reservoir and malfunctions in the self-priming of the pumps. When instruments such as check valves and pressure regulators are applied, they result in excessive weight and control system malfunctions. In this paper, a light and robust DMFC system is proposed. By using the time sharing approach to supply fuel with a 3-way valve, free flow does not occur because only one inlet is opened at one time which means that both the circulation flow from gas liquid separator and the fuel flow from the methanol cartridge are not allowed to be opened at same time. As a result, back flow and self-priming problems do not occur. This makes the system stable and robust due to the removal of both the check valves and the fluctuation from unstable back pressure. Stabilized system doesn't need excessive battery buffering and recycling water any more, which are responsible for the heavy system. The proposed system performs the same level of power and efficiency with the conventional system. Adaptability is also carried out in various environmental temperature conditions. - Highlights: ►A light and robust DMFC system is proposed. ► The circulation pump is able to self-prime by itself after long term storage. ► The time sharing approach to supply fuel enables to control the methanol concentration precisely. ► The methanol concentration is controlled without free flow and the back flow from the fuel feeding pump. ► The excessive buffer of the batteries and the recycling water level are reduced

  11. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time sharing between NOAA meteorological... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite... Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”) satellite systems. When calculating the protection areas for a NOAA...

  12. Expressing Environment Assumptions and Real-time Requirements for a Distributed Embedded System with Shared Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Fernandes, João Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In a distributed embedded system, it is often necessary to share variables among its computing nodes to allow the distribution of control algorithms. It is therefore necessary to include a component in each node that provides the service of variable sharing. For that type of component, this paper...

  13. Load sharing in distributed real-time systems with state-change broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Chang, Yi-Chieh

    1989-01-01

    A decentralized dynamic load-sharing (LS) method based on state-change broadcasts is proposed for a distributed real-time system. Whenever the state of a node changes from underloaded to fully loaded and vice versa, the node broadcasts this change to a set of nodes, called a buddy set, in the system. The performance of the method is evaluated with both analytic modeling and simulation. It is modeled first by an embedded Markov chain for which numerical solutions are derived. The model solutions are then used to calculate the distribution of queue lengths at the nodes and the probability of meeting task deadlines. The analytical results show that buddy sets of 10 nodes outperform those of less than 10 nodes, and the incremental benefit gained from increasing the buddy set size beyond 15 nodes is insignificant. These and other analytical results are verified by simulation. The proposed LS method is shown to meet task deadlines with a very high probability.

  14. SKED software system. Revision D. Time-shared SUPERSKED. Manual 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snapper, A.G.; Inglis, G.

    1977-01-01

    A modified version of State Notation was developed for both hardware and software design of laboratory procedures involving control sequences that vary as a function of the behavior of the experimental subjects. The SKED program was refined and integrated into the OS/8 and time-share systems developed by DEC to take advantage of the development of mass-storage devices and the sophistication of the operating system. The current system consists of the mass-storage devices and the sophistication of the operating system. The current system consists of a two-pass compiler with an optional third-pass listing, a set of programs for identifying and merging data acquisition files, and a sophisticated system monitor that can be used to start, stop, load, and modify as many as 12 independent process control and data acquisition procedures. CCL was modified to accept standard DEC Execute, Compile, and Load commands with special switch options to control the compiling of procedures designed in state notation. Three different methods are available to acquire data from as many as 12 independent stations. The system includes a parameter file and dialog that permits the user to configure his system. Four different clocks, the UDC controller, EAE units, line-printers and other specialized devices may be included. The available memory may be partitioned between the process control section and the OS/8 background. Finally, the number of digital input and output interface lines may be assigned to 12 stations in a flexible manner, by means of an interactive dialog. The system can be configured on any BK OS/8 machine or in the background. 44 figures, 28 tables.

  15. Universal algorithm of time sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, I.N.; Fedyun'kin, E.D.

    1979-01-01

    Timesharing system algorithm is proposed for the wide class of one- and multiprocessor computer configurations. Dynamical priority is the piece constant function of the channel characteristic and system time quantum. The interactive job quantum has variable length. Characteristic recurrent formula is received. The concept of the background job is introduced. Background job loads processor if high priority jobs are inactive. Background quality function is given on the base of the statistical data received in the timesharing process. Algorithm includes optimal trashing off procedure for the jobs replacements in the memory. Sharing of the system time in proportion to the external priorities is guaranteed for the all active enough computing channels (back-ground too). The fast answer is guaranteed for the interactive jobs, which use small time and memory. The external priority control is saved for the high level scheduler. The experience of the algorithm realization on the BESM-6 computer in JINR is discussed

  16. Mean sojourn times for phase-type discriminatory processor sharing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haviv, M.; van der Wal, J.

    2008-01-01

    In a discriminatory processor sharing (DPS) queueing model, each job (or customer) belongs to one out of finitely many classes. The arrival processes are Poisson. Classes differ with respect to arrival rates and service time distributions. Moreover, classes have different priority levels. All jobs

  17. Equipment calibration with a microprocessor connected to a time-sharing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, G.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.; Szafran, S.

    1981-01-01

    In H.E.P., it is common practice to test and calibrate equipment at different stages (design, construction checks, setting up and running periods) with a dedicated mini or micro-computer (such as CERN CAVIAR). An alternative solution has been developed in which such tasks are split between a microprocessor (Motorola 6800), and a host computer; this allows an easy and cheap multiplication of independant testing set-ups. The local processor is limited to CAMAC data acquisition, histogramming and simple processing, but its computing power is enhanced by a connection to a host time-sharing system via a MUMM multiplexor described in a separate paper. It is thus possible to perform sophisticated computations (fits etc...) and to use the host disk space to store calibration results for later use. In spite of the use of assembly language, a software structure has been devised to ease the constitution of an application program. This is achieved by the interplay of three levels of facilities: macro-instructions, library of subroutines, and Patchy controlled pieces of programs. A comprehensive collection of these is kept in the form of PAM files on the host computer. This system has been used to test calorimeter modules for the UA 1 experiment. (orig.)

  18. Expressing Environment Assumptions and Real-time Requirements for a Distributed Embedded System with Shared Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Fernandes, João Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In a distributed embedded system, it is often necessary to share variables among its computing nodes to allow the distribution of control algorithms. It is therefore necessary to include a component in each node that provides the service of variable sharing. For that type of component, this paper...... for the component. The CPN model can be used to validate the environment assumptions and the requirements. The validation is performed by execution of the model during which traces of events and states are automatically generated and evaluated against the requirements....

  19. WCET analysis in shared resources real-time systems with TDMA buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rihani, H.; Moy, M.; Maiza, C.; Altmeyer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Predictability is an important aspect in real-time and safety-critical systems, where non-functional properties -- such as the timing behavior -- have high impact on the system correctness. As many safety-critical systems have a growing performance demand, simple, but outdated architectures are not

  20. Evaluation of a Connectionless NoC for a Real-Time Distributed Shared Memory Many-Core System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, J.H.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Real-time embedded systems like smartphones tend to comprise an ever increasing number of processing cores. For scalability and the need for guaranteed performance, the use of a connection-oriented network-on-chip (NoC) is advocated. Furthermore, a distributed shared memory architecture is preferred

  1. A Karaoke System with Real-Time Media Merging and Sharing Functions for a Cloud-Computing-Integrated Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Her-Tyan Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs, smartphones, and tablets have increased in popularity and are extremely efficient for work-related, social, and entertainment uses. Popular entertainment services have also attracted substantial attention. Thus, relevant industries have exerted considerable efforts in establishing a method by which mobile devices can be used to develop excellent and convenient entertainment services. Because cloud-computing technology is mature and possesses a strong computing processing capacity, integrating this technology into the entertainment service function in mobile devices can reduce the data load on a system and maintain mobile device performances. This study combines cloud computing with a mobile device to design a karaoke system that contains real-time media merging and sharing functions. This system enables users to download music videos (MVs from their mobile device and sing and record their singing by using the device. They can upload the recorded song to the cloud server where it is merged with real-time media. Subsequently, by employing a media streaming technology, users can store their personal MVs in their mobile device or computer and instantaneously share these videos with others on the Internet. Through this process, people can instantly watch shared videos, enjoy the leisure and entertainment effects of mobile devices, and satisfy their desire for singing.

  2. Conception and production of a time sharing system for a Mitra-15 CII mini-computer dedicated to APL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Rene

    1977-01-01

    The installation of a time-sharing system on a mini-computer poses several interesting problems. These technical problems are especially interesting when the goal is to equitably divide the physical resources of the machine amongst users of a high level, conservational language like APL. Original solutions were necessary to be able to retain the rapidity and performances of the original hard and software. The system has been implemented in such way that several users may simultaneously access logical resources, such as the library zones their read/write requests are managed by semaphores which may also be directly controlled by the APL programmer. (author) [fr

  3. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  4. 47 CFR 73.1715 - Share time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Share time. 73.1715 Section 73.1715... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1715 Share time. Operation is permitted by two or more... considered part of their licenses. (a) If the licenses of stations authorized to share time do not specify...

  5. Modeling of the time sharing for lecturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Shakhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of modernization of the Russian system of higher education, it is necessary to analyze the working time of the university lecturers, taking into account both basic job functions as the university lecturer, and others.The mathematical problem is presented for the optimal working time planning for the university lecturers. The review of the documents, native and foreign works on the study is made. Simulation conditions, based on analysis of the subject area, are defined. Models of optimal working time sharing of the university lecturers («the second half of the day» are developed and implemented in the system MathCAD. Optimal solutions have been obtained.Three problems have been solved:1 to find the optimal time sharing for «the second half of the day» in a certain position of the university lecturer;2 to find the optimal time sharing for «the second half of the day» for all positions of the university lecturers in view of the established model of the academic load differentiation;3 to find the volume value of the non-standardized part of time work in the department for the academic year, taking into account: the established model of an academic load differentiation, distribution of the Faculty number for the positions and the optimal time sharing «the second half of the day» for the university lecturers of the department.Examples are given of the analysis results. The practical application of the research: the developed models can be used when planning the working time of an individual professor in the preparation of the work plan of the university department for the academic year, as well as to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the administrative decisions in the development of local university regulations.

  6. 47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260 Section 25.260 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  7. Sojourn time asymptotics in processor-sharing queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, S.C.; Núñez Queija, R.; Zwart, B.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the Processor-Sharing (PS) discipline has attracted a great deal of attention in the queueing literature. While the PS paradigm emerged in the sixties as an idealization of round-robin scheduling in time-shared computer systems, it has recently captured renewed interest as

  8. Sojourn times in finite-capacity processor-sharing queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, S.C.; Boxma, O.J.; Hegde, N.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the need to develop simple parsimonious models for evaluating the performance of wireless data systems, we consider finite-capacity processor-sharing systems. For such systems, we analyze the sojourn time distribution, which presents a useful measure for the transfer delay of documents

  9. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  10. New Technologies: Real-time Telepathology Systems-Novel Cost-effective Tools for Real-time Consultation and Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Gabriel; Regelman, Dan; Maronpot, Robert; Rosenstock, Moti; Nyska, Abraham

    2017-12-01

    Real-time telepathology for use in investigative and regulated preclinical toxicology studies is now feasible. Newly developed microscope-integrated telepathology systems enable geographically remote stakeholders to view the live histopathology slide as seen by the study pathologist within the microscope. Simultaneous online viewing and dialog between study pathologist and remote colleagues is an efficient and cost-effective means for consultation, pathology working groups, and peer review, facilitating good science and economic benefits by enabling more timely and informed clinical decisions.

  11. Towards Modern Collaborative Knowledge Sharing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Świrski, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The development of new technologies still accelerates. As a result the requirement of easy access to high quality information is essential in modern scientific society. We believe that new cloud-based online system will replace the old system of books and magazines in the future. This is mainly because contemporary system of journal and conference publications appears to be outdated, especially in such domains as computer science, because process of publishing of an article takes too much time. In this book a new approach of sharing knowledge is proposed. The main idea behind this new approach is to take advantage of collaboration techniques used in industry to share the knowledge and build teams which work on the same subject at different locations. This will allow to accelerate the exchange of information between scientists and allow to build global teams of researchers who deal with the same scientific subjects. Furthermore, an easy access to structured knowledge will facilitate cross domain cooperation. T...

  12. Passenger Sharing of the High-Speed Railway from Sensitivity Analysis Caused by Price and Run-time Based on the Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ning

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, governments around the world are active in constructing the high-speed railway. Therefore, it is significant to make research on this increasingly prevalent transport.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, we simulate the process of the passenger’s travel mode choice by adjusting the ticket fare and the run-time based on the multi-agent system (MAS.Findings: From the research we get the conclusion that increasing the run-time appropriately and reducing the ticket fare in some extent are effective ways to enhance the passenger sharing of the high-speed railway.Originality/value: We hope it can provide policy recommendations for the railway sectors in developing the long-term plan on high-speed railway in the future.

  13. Inter-Firm Information Sharing in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: a call for timely but limited access to customer information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Busing

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP suggest that supply chain management and tight control over scheduling jobs within the supply chain are key tactical planning issues. Modern ERP software packages, in conjunction with the World Wide Web, allow for automated exchange of information within a company and also between two or more companies (i.e., conveyance of customer information to suppliers of parts and components for the purposes of effective planning and control. While ease of information exchange between a customer and supplier is increasingly critical to the success of modern-day planning and control efforts, the issue of information security is also a very real concern. Suppliers can benefit from gaining access to a customer's dispatch list and material requirements plan (MRP in order to determine real-time priority of jobs in queue at various work centers within their own organization. Other customer information, however, should remain secure and unavailable to supplier firms for competitive reasons such as threat of forward integration. This paper presents a previously tested priority-sequencing rule that explicitly considers downstream shop conditions in determining which job to run next The rule proves to perform well on mean flow time and lateness as well as on variability of these measures. The rule is extended here to incorporate the case where a downstream work center is outside official corporate boundaries. With the call for free exchange of information comes the threat of other, perhaps proprietary, information being accessed by vendors or others outside the official corporate boundaries. The paper will propose information that should be freely exchanged between customers and suppliers and information that should remain secure. Finally, practical measures to manage access to web-enabled ERP information will be proposed.

  14. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  15. Shared governance in a clinic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michelle M; Costanzo, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Shared governance in health care empowers nurses to share in the decision-making process, which results in decentralized management and collective accountability. Share governance practices have been present in hospitals since the late 1970s. However, shared governance in ambulatory care clinics has not been well established. The subjects of this quality project included staff and administrative nurses in a clinic system. The stakeholder committee chose what model of shared governance to implement and educated clinic staff. The Index of Professional Nursing Governance measured a shared governance score pre- and postimplementation of the Clinic Nursing Council. The Clinic Nursing Council met bimonthly for 3 months during this project to discuss issues and make decisions related to nursing staff. The Index of Professional Nursing Governance scores indicated traditional governance pre- and postimplementation of the Clinic Nursing Council, which is to be expected. The stakeholder committee was beneficial to the initial implementation process and facilitated staff nurse involvement. Shared governance is an evolutionary process that develops empowered nurses and nurse leaders.

  16. Flow Sharing Systems for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This contribution reports about some analytical and simulation/experimental studies carried out on different flow control systems for mobile applications with respect to their ability to do flow sharing. All systems have two parallel actuators and are considered regarding functionality...

  17. Data sharing system for lithography APC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

  18. Sharing Ideas: Tough Times Encourage Colleges to Collaborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul; Blumenstyk, Goldie; Sander, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Tough times are encouraging colleges to share resources in a variety of areas, including campus security, research, and degree programs. Despite its veneer of cooperation, higher education is a competitive industry, where resource sharing is eyed warily. But the recession is chipping away at that reluctance, and institutions are pursuing…

  19. Reliable file sharing in distributed operating system using web RTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukiya, Rajesh

    2017-12-01

    Since, the evolution of distributed operating system, distributed file system is come out to be important part in operating system. P2P is a reliable way in Distributed Operating System for file sharing. It was introduced in 1999, later it became a high research interest topic. Peer to Peer network is a type of network, where peers share network workload and other load related tasks. A P2P network can be a period of time connection, where a bunch of computers connected by a USB (Universal Serial Bus) port to transfer or enable disk sharing i.e. file sharing. Currently P2P requires special network that should be designed in P2P way. Nowadays, there is a big influence of browsers in our life. In this project we are going to study of file sharing mechanism in distributed operating system in web browsers, where we will try to find performance bottlenecks which our research will going to be an improvement in file sharing by performance and scalability in distributed file systems. Additionally, we will discuss the scope of Web Torrent file sharing and free-riding in peer to peer networks.

  20. Pension systems, intergenerational risk sharing and inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate intergenerational risk sharing in two-pillar pension systems with a pay-as-you-go pillar and a funded pillar. We consider shocks in productivity, depreciation of capital and inflation. The funded pension pillar can be either defined contribution or defined benefit, with benefits

  1. CULTURAL FEATURES SHARED BY INFORMATION SYSTEMS USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Maldonado

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems may arise when organizational culture is not considered in the development of information systems, such as difficulties in system implementation, since users do not accept changes in their work cultures. However, current methodology designs do not contemplate cultural factors. The objective of this investigation was to identify the main cultural features shared by the users of information systems in an Argentinean university. As result of this work it was possible to identify the memes shared by the members of the community selected, and to categorize such memes according to their incidence grade. This work seeks to be an initial step towards the construction of systems that evolve along with the organizational culture they are an integral part of.

  2. Shared performance monitor in a multiprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George; Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2012-07-24

    A performance monitoring unit (PMU) and method for monitoring performance of events occurring in a multiprocessor system. The multiprocessor system comprises a plurality of processor devices units, each processor device for generating signals representing occurrences of events in the processor device, and, a single shared counter resource for performance monitoring. The performance monitor unit is shared by all processor cores in the multiprocessor system. The PMU comprises: a plurality of performance counters each for counting signals representing occurrences of events from one or more the plurality of processor units in the multiprocessor system; and, a plurality of input devices for receiving the event signals from one or more processor devices of the plurality of processor units, the plurality of input devices programmable to select event signals for receipt by one or more of the plurality of performance counters for counting, wherein the PMU is shared between multiple processing units, or within a group of processors in the multiprocessing system. The PMU is further programmed to monitor event signals issued from non-processor devices.

  3. Absolute symbolic addressing, a structure making time-sharing easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debraine, P.

    1968-08-01

    Time-sharing of computers asks for a certain number of conditions, particularly, an efficient dynamic loading of programs and data. This paper indicates a paging method making linkages with a minimum of table-looking operations. The principle is to use associative memory registers for calling blocks of physical memory, the block address being given by the concatenation of a file number (located in a base register) and a page number (located in the instruction proper). The position within the block is given by a displacement located in the instruction. A second associated base register contains the local part (page number + displacement) of the base address. This extended base register system allows executing programs in a very large programming complex without loss of time. The addresses are fixed at assembly time and the blocks can be loaded anywhere without modification for execution. The various problems associated with the execution of complex programs are presented in this context and shown to be easily solved by the proposed system, the realization of which would be very easy starting from the computer structures existing now. (author) [fr

  4. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  5. Time Out with Half-Time: Job Sharing in the Nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Job sharing is a form of employment often overlooked by the average worker. Eight women were interviewed for this qualitative research study on the benefits and drawbacks of job sharing. Rather than simply allowing more time for them to spend with their children or on domestic chores, job sharing provided unanticipated opportunities to enjoy a…

  6. Time-sharing visual and auditory tracking tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Pamela S.; Vidulich, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment is described which examined the benefits of distributing the input demands of two tracking tasks as a function of task integrality. Visual and auditory compensatory tracking tasks were utilized. Results indicate that presenting the two tracking signals in two input modalities did not improve time-sharing efficiency. This was attributed to the difficulty insensitivity phenomenon.

  7. GRAPHIC, time-sharing magnet design computer programs at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes three magnet design computer programs in use at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron of Argonne National Laboratory. These programs are used in the time sharing mode in conjunction with a Tektronix model 4012 graphic display terminal. The first program in called TRIM, the second MAGNET, and the third GFUN. (U.S.)

  8. Controlling shareholders and market timing in share issuance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urzua Infante, F.; Larrain, B.

    2013-01-01

    We examine market timing in the equity issuance of firms controlled by large shareholders using a hand-collected data set of controlling shareholders' ownership stakes in Chile between 1990 and 2009. When a firm issues shares, the controlling shareholder can either maintain or change his ownership

  9. Synchronization resources in heterogeneous environments: Time-sharing, real-time and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.; Vega, J.; Pacios, L.; Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.

    2006-01-01

    The asynchronous event distribution system (AEDS) was built to provide synchronization resources within the TJ-II local area network. It is a software system developed to add 'soft synchronization' capabilities to the TJ-II data acquisition, control and analysis environments. 'Soft synchronization' signifies that AEDS is not a real-time system. In fact, AEDS is based on TCP/IP over ETHERNET networks. However, its response time is adequate for practical purposes when synchronization requirements can support some delay between event dispatch and message reception. Event broadcasters (or synchronization servers in AEDS terminology) are Windows computers. Destination computers (or synchronization clients) were also Windows machines in the first version of AEDS. However, this fact imposed a very important limitation on synchronization capabilities. To overcome this situation, synchronization clients for different environments have been added to AEDS: for time-sharing operating systems (Unix and Linux), real-time operating systems (OS-9 and VxWorks) and Java applications. These environments have different synchronization primitives, requiring different approaches to provide the required uniform functionality. This has been achieved with POSIX thread library synchronization primitives (mutex and condition variables) on Unix/Linux systems, IPC mechanisms for concurrent processes on OS-9 and VxWorks real-time operating systems, and 'synchronized-wait/notify' primitives on Java virtual machines

  10. Synchronization resources in heterogeneous environments: Time-sharing, real-time and Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: augusto.pereira@ciemat.es; Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacios, L. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The asynchronous event distribution system (AEDS) was built to provide synchronization resources within the TJ-II local area network. It is a software system developed to add 'soft synchronization' capabilities to the TJ-II data acquisition, control and analysis environments. 'Soft synchronization' signifies that AEDS is not a real-time system. In fact, AEDS is based on TCP/IP over ETHERNET networks. However, its response time is adequate for practical purposes when synchronization requirements can support some delay between event dispatch and message reception. Event broadcasters (or synchronization servers in AEDS terminology) are Windows computers. Destination computers (or synchronization clients) were also Windows machines in the first version of AEDS. However, this fact imposed a very important limitation on synchronization capabilities. To overcome this situation, synchronization clients for different environments have been added to AEDS: for time-sharing operating systems (Unix and Linux), real-time operating systems (OS-9 and VxWorks) and Java applications. These environments have different synchronization primitives, requiring different approaches to provide the required uniform functionality. This has been achieved with POSIX thread library synchronization primitives (mutex and condition variables) on Unix/Linux systems, IPC mechanisms for concurrent processes on OS-9 and VxWorks real-time operating systems, and 'synchronized-wait/notify' primitives on Java virtual machines.

  11. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  12. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis

    Full Text Available During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  13. How to handle part-time, flex-time, and job-sharing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, L

    2001-01-01

    Offering employment structures other than traditional full-time positions in your practice can help you draw excellent job applicants and also can enable you to increase morale, job satisfaction, and productivity. However, there are many decisions you must make when offering a part-time, flex-time, or job-sharing position. This article explores the pros and cons of offering alternative job structures. It suggests ways to make part-time, flex-time, or job-sharing positions work most effectively, both for the employee and for your practice. In addition, this article suggests which positions are best suited to alternative structures.

  14. System Dynamics Modeling for Supply Chain Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yang

    In this paper, we try to use the method of system dynamics to model supply chain information sharing. Firstly, we determine the model boundaries, establish system dynamics model of supply chain before information sharing, analyze the model's simulation results under different changed parameters and suggest improvement proposal. Then, we establish system dynamics model of supply chain information sharing and make comparison and analysis on the two model's simulation results, to show the importance of information sharing in supply chain management. We wish that all these simulations would provide scientific supports for enterprise decision-making.

  15. Fair-share scheduling algorithm for a tertiary storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakl, Pavel; Sumbera, Michal; Lauret, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Any experiment facing Peta bytes scale problems is in need for a highly scalable mass storage system (MSS) to keep a permanent copy of their valuable data. But beyond the permanent storage aspects, the sheer amount of data makes complete data-set availability onto live storage (centralized or aggregated space such as the one provided by Scalla/Xrootd) cost prohibitive implying that a dynamic population from MSS to faster storage is needed. One of the most challenging aspects of dealing with MSS is the robotic tape component. If a robotic system is used as the primary storage solution, the intrinsically long access times (latencies) can dramatically affect the overall performance. To speed the retrieval of such data, one could organize the requests according to criterion with an aim to deliver maximal data throughput. However, such approaches are often orthogonal to fair resource allocation and a trade-off between quality of service, responsiveness and throughput is necessary for achieving an optimal and practical implementation of a truly faire-share oriented file restore policy. Starting from an explanation of the key criterion of such a policy, we will present evaluations and comparisons of three different MSS file restoration algorithms which meet fair-share requirements, and discuss their respective merits. We will quantify their impact on a typical file restoration cycle for the RHIC/STAR experimental setup and this, within a development, analysis and production environment relying on a shared MSS service [1].

  16. On the performance of spectrum sharing systems with multiple antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the capacity of spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems over Rayleigh fading channels. More specifically, we present closed-form capacity formulas for such systems with and without optimal power

  17. Capacity analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Serpedin, Erchin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. First the capacity of a single-user SS spatial multiplexing system is investigated in two scenarios that assume

  18. Resource Distribution Approaches in Spectrum Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich K. Jondral

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly difficult to satisfy growing demands for spectrum with the conventional policy of fixed spectrum allocation. To overcome this problem, flexible/dynamic spectrum sharing methods that can significantly improve spectrum utilization of the spectrum have gained increasing interest recently. This paper presents two dynamic spectrum sharing approaches, a centralized and a decentralized one. The centralized approach is based on hierarchical trading. Each level of hierarchy is composed of “markets” that are associated with a certain spatial area and trading occurrence frequency, whereas area size and trading occurrence frequency depend on the hierarchy level. The decentralized approach is based on game-theory. There, it is assumed that the operators are averse to unequal payoffs and act unselfishly, enabling a stable and sustainable community. Numerical results show that, in the observed scenario, both proposals outperform the reference case of fixed resource allocation significantly in terms of utilized bandwidth. Whereas, negotiation costs for spectrum brokerage appear in the centralized approach, nonnegligible amounts of spectrum are lost in the decentralized approach due to collisions. Thus, a hybrid of centralized and decentralized approach that exploits the benefits of both is also considered.

  19. Sharing Hydrologic Data with the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Piasecki, M.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.

    2009-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system to support the sharing of hydrologic data consisting of databases connected using the internet through web services as well as software for data discovery, access and publication. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. A data model, the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM), provides community defined semantics needed to allow sharing information from diverse data sources. A defined set of CUAHSI HIS web services allows for the development of data services, which scale from centralized data services which support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and EPA Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), in a standard way; to distributed data services which allow users to establish their own server and publish their data. User data services are registered to a central HIS website, and they become searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. HIS utilizes both an XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML schema used for data transmission that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the ODM is implemented as relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and communicate using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user’s preferred analysis environment, using community defined semantics, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. Users wishing to share or publish their data through CUAHSI

  20. Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

    2010-08-01

    Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

  1. Shared use agreements and leisure time physical activity in North Carolina public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Troy A; Kanters, Michael A; Bocarro, Jason N; Floyd, Myron F; Edwards, Michael B; Suau, Luis J

    2017-02-01

    Although increasing community access to public schools through shared use agreements (SUAs) has been a recommended strategy for promoting physical activity (PA) among national, state and local organizations, empirical evidence examining the efficacy of SUAs is limited. This study examined the degree of usage and production of PA among schools with shared use, and how variation in PA output is related to characteristics of the school, type of activity, facility type, and when activity occurs. Data were collected in 20 schools across North Carolina using System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) and Structured Physical Activity Surveys (SPAS) to assess PA in school athletic facilities during out of school time. Findings indicated that although schools had a policy of shared or open use, most facilities were empty during non-school hours. Hierarchal linear regression models also showed that formal programming was positively associated with both use and PA levels. Given the abundance of empty facilities, community groups in need of space to facilitate structured PA programs should pursue avenues of sharing facilities with public schools. Furthermore, to increase the efficacy of shared use, structured physical activity programs may be needed. Future studies are encouraged to further explore the effects of the specific types of shared use programs on PA production as well other aspects of the built environment surrounding schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Qualitative Analysis of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data Sharing with Care Partners: To Share or Not to Share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchman, Michelle L; Allen, Nancy A; Colicchio, Vanessa D; Wawrzynski, Sarah E; Sparling, Kerri M; Hendricks, Krissa L; Berg, Cynthia A

    2018-01-01

    Little research exists regarding how real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) data sharing plays a role in the relationship between patients and their care partners. To (1) identify the benefits and challenges related to RT-CGM data sharing from the patient and care partner perspective and (2) to explore the number and type of individuals who share and follow RT-CGM data. This qualitative content analysis was conducted by examining publicly available blogs focused on RT-CGM and data sharing. A thematic analysis of blogs and associated comments was conducted. A systematic appraisal of personal blogs examined 39 blogs with 206 corresponding comments. The results of the study provided insight about the benefits and challenges related to individuals with diabetes sharing their RT-CGM data with a care partner(s). The analysis resulted in three themes: (1) RT-CGM data sharing enhances feelings of safety, (2) the need to communicate boundaries to avoid judgment, and (3) choice about sharing and following RT-CGM data. RT-CGM data sharing occurred within dyads (n = 46), triads (n = 15), and tetrads (n = 2). Adults and children with type 1 diabetes and their care partners are empowered by the ability to share and follow RT-CGM data. Our findings suggest that RT-CGM data sharing between an individual with diabetes and their care partner can complicate relationships. Healthcare providers need to engage patients and care partners in discussions about best practices related to RT-CGM sharing and following to avoid frustrations within the relationship.

  3. System towards the touristic information sharing amongst portuguese speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. M. Moura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Global and efficient communication has always been a goal to expanding touristic destinations in order to potentiate the growth of the sector and the sustainable development of the regions concerned. With the emergence of the new information technologies, the creation of networks for information sharing became a reality. This facilitated the implementation of benchmarking actions and programs between touristic destinations involved in cooperation projects. The Internet development, as an inexpensive infrastructure, allowed breaking many access barriers faced by many touristic destinations, due to the lack of investment funds in these areas. The inherent cost of design, installation and maintenance of networked computer systems are currently a fraction of the initial implementation cost of a traditional system, even allowing for the standardization of all the technology applied. The article exposes the problematical issues concerning the creation of networks for information sharing and proposes a model for the development of a distributed information system as the support infrastructure to such a network. Thus, the organized exploitation of a decentralized information flow allows the creation of synergies amongst the agents involved and, at the same time, the maximization of the development of the emerging touristic destinations. Such s network towards the sustainable development of the touristic destinations of Portuguese speaking countries of enables the development of processes of continuous enhancement of the global performance, processes that are oriented to the pursuit of competitivity, sustainability and quality of touristic products.

  4. Classification of cognitive systems dedicated to data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, Lidia; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper will be presented classification of new cognitive information systems dedicated to cryptographic data splitting and sharing processes. Cognitive processes of semantic data analysis and interpretation, will be used to describe new classes of intelligent information and vision systems. In addition, cryptographic data splitting algorithms and cryptographic threshold schemes will be used to improve processes of secure and efficient information management with application of such cognitive systems. The utility of the proposed cognitive sharing procedures and distributed data sharing algorithms will be also presented. A few possible application of cognitive approaches for visual information management and encryption will be also described.

  5. Switch/router architectures shared-bus and shared-memory based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aweya, James

    2018-01-01

    A practicing engineer's inclusive review of communication systems based on shared-bus and shared-memory switch/router architectures. This book delves into the inner workings of router and switch design in a comprehensive manner that is accessible to a broad audience. It begins by describing the role of switch/routers in a network, then moves on to the functional composition of a switch/router. A comparison of centralized versus distributed design of the architecture is also presented. The author discusses use of bus versus shared-memory for communication within a design, and also covers Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and configuration tools. Written in a simple style and language to allow readers to easily understand and appreciate the material presented, Switch/Router Architectures: Shared-Bus and Shared-Memory Based Systems discusses the design of multilayer switches—starting with the basic concepts and on to the basic architectures. It describes the evolution of multilayer switch designs and highli...

  6. Programming a Distributed System Using Shared Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; Bal, H.E.; Kaashoek, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Building the hardware for a high-performance distributed computer system is a lot easier than building its software. The authors describe a model for programming distributed systems based on abstract data types that can be replicated on all machines that need them. Read operations are done locally,

  7. Energy efficient cross layer design for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    We propose a cross layer design that optimizes the energy efficiency of spectrum sharing systems. The energy per good bit (EPG) is considered as an energy efficiency metric. We optimize the secondary user's transmission power and media access frame

  8. A novel secret image sharing scheme based on chaotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Wang, Chuanjun; Li, Qiong; Niu, Xiamu

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new secret image sharing scheme based on chaotic system and Shamir's method. The new scheme protects the shadow images with confidentiality and loss-tolerance simultaneously. In the new scheme, we generate the key sequence based on chaotic system and then encrypt the original image during the sharing phase. Experimental results and analysis of the proposed scheme demonstrate a better performance than other schemes and confirm a high probability to resist brute force attack.

  9. Implementation of a Shared Resource Financial Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, T.; Gerlach, R.; Israel, M.; Bobin, S.

    2010-01-01

    CF-6 Norris Cotton Cancer Center (NCCC), an NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center at Dartmouth Medical School, administers 12 Life Sciences Shared Resources. These resources are diverse and offer multiple products and services. Previous methods for tracking resource use, billing, and financial management were time consuming, error prone and lacked appropriate financial management tools. To address these problems, we developed and implemented a web-based application with a built-in authorization system that uses Perl, ModPerl, Apache2, and Oracle as the software infrastructure. The application uses a role-based system to differentiate administrative users with those requesting services and includes many features requested by users and administrators. To begin development, we chose a resource that had an uncomplicated service, a large number of users, and required the use of all of the applications features. The Molecular Biology Core Facility at NCCC fit these requirements and was used as a model for developing and testing the application. After model development, institution wide deployment followed a three-stage process. The first stage was to interview the resource manager and staff to understand day-to-day operations. At the second stage, we generated and tested customized forms defining resource services. During the third stage, we added new resource users and administrators to the system before final deployment. Twelve months after deployment, resource administrators reported that the new system performed well for internal and external billing and tracking resource utilization. Users preferred the application's web-based system for distribution of DNA sequencing and other data. The sample tracking features have enhanced day-to-day resource operations, and an on-line scheduling module for shared instruments has proven a much-needed utility. Principal investigators now are able to restrict user spending to specific accounts and have final approval of the

  10. Sharing possibilities amongst CDMA Mobile Satellite Systems, and impacts of terminal characteristics on sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambace, Luís Antonio Waack; Ceballos, Décio Castilho

    CDMA Mobile Satellite Systems (CDMA MSS) are able to co-directional, co-frequency and co-coverage sharing, and they are strongly interdependent in case of such a sharing. It is also known that the success of any telecommunication project is the use of the correct media to each task. Operators have a clear sight of such a media adequacy in traditional systems, but not necessarily in the case of Mobile Satellite Systems. This creates a risk that a wrong market objective operator causes trouble to other systems. This paper deals with the sharing alternatives for up to four CDMA MSS operating in the same frequency band, and analysts both: satellite to user downlink and user to satellite uplink. The influence of several items in capacity is here treated. The scope includes: downlink power flux density: code availability; single system internal interference; inter-system interference; diversity schemes: average link impairments, margins; user cooperation; terminal specifications and the dependence of the insulation between RHCP and LHCP with fade.

  11. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  12. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Beck, A.; Beck, S. May-Tal; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bertozzi, W.; Biselli, A.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkanov, B. I.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Shneor, R.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Wood, S. A.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.; aff16

    2014-10-01

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe, and 208Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.

  13. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Beck, A.; Beck, S. M. -T.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bertozzi, W.; Biselli, A.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkanov, B. I.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. M.; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Rossi, P.; Sabatie, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Shneor, R.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Wood, S. A.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.

    2014-10-16

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using C-12, Al-27, Fe-56, and Pb-208 targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.

  14. Smartphone's Operating Systems and market share

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Andreu, Javier

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, mobile phone’s market has changed people’s communication ways. Several technological improvements have been reached mainly in the last fifteen years, making possible to add new features to mobile phones. As devices became more popular and included new services, a market grew around them. The following pages contain a market analysis from the different members of the mobile phone’s industry: manufacturers, operating system companies, operators, developers and custom...

  15. Shared control on lunar spacecraft teleoperation rendezvous operations with large time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-kun, Zhang; Hai-yang, Li; Rui-xue, Huang; Jiang-hui, Liu

    2017-08-01

    Teleoperation could be used in space on-orbit serving missions, such as object deorbits, spacecraft approaches, and automatic rendezvous and docking back-up systems. Teleoperation rendezvous and docking in lunar orbit may encounter bottlenecks for the inherent time delay in the communication link and the limited measurement accuracy of sensors. Moreover, human intervention is unsuitable in view of the partial communication coverage problem. To solve these problems, a shared control strategy for teleoperation rendezvous and docking is detailed. The control authority in lunar orbital maneuvers that involves two spacecraft as rendezvous and docking in the final phase was discussed in this paper. The predictive display model based on the relative dynamic equations is established to overcome the influence of the large time delay in communication link. We discuss and attempt to prove via consistent, ground-based simulations the relative merits of fully autonomous control mode (i.e., onboard computer-based), fully manual control (i.e., human-driven at the ground station) and shared control mode. The simulation experiments were conducted on the nine-degrees-of-freedom teleoperation rendezvous and docking simulation platform. Simulation results indicated that the shared control methods can overcome the influence of time delay effects. In addition, the docking success probability of shared control method was enhanced compared with automatic and manual modes.

  16. Shared Communications: Volume 2. In-Depth Systems Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, LF

    2004-09-22

    This report is the second of two documents that examine the literature for actual examples of organizations and agencies that share communications resources. While the primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system (ITS) communications involving transit, examples will not be limited to rural activities, nor to ITS implementation, nor even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. The first document of this series, ''Shared Communications: Volume I. A Summary and Literature Review'', defines the meaning of the term ''shared communication resources'' and provides many examples of agencies that share resources. This document, ''Shared Communications: Volume II. In-Depth Systems Research'', reviews attributes that contributed to successful applications of the sharing communication resources concept. A few examples of each type of communication sharing are provided. Based on the issues and best practice realworld examples, recommendations for potential usage and recommended approaches for field operational tests are provided.

  17. Towards automatic decision support for bike-sharing system design

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Beek, Maurice H.; Gnesi, Stefania; Latella, Diego; Massink, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Public bike-sharing systems are a popular means of sustainable urban mobility, but their successful introduction in a city stands or falls with their specific designs. What kind of bikes and docking stations are needed, how many and where to install them? How to avoid as much as possible that stations are completely empty or full for some period? Hence, a bike-sharing system can be seen both as a highly (re)configurable system and as a collective adaptive system. In this paper, we present two...

  18. A Desktop Screen Sharing System based on Various Connection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Nobuo

    Recently it became very common to use information devices such as PCs during presentations and discussions. In these situations, a need arises for techniques that allow a smooth switch of presenters without changing cables, or an easy screen sharing in case of remote videoconferences. In this paper, we propose a desktop screen sharing system that can be used for such purposes and situations. For that, we designed an automatic control of connections in the VNC system that can be operated remotely over the network. We also suggested an interface that assigns a role such as “Screen sender" or “Screen receiver" to each terminal. In the proposed system, while sharing a screen between multiple terminals, one can easily display and browse the screen without having to understand how the others are connected. We also implemented a “role card" using contactless IC card, where roles are assigned only by placing the card in the IC reader.

  19. 'Y' a distributed resource sharing system in nuclear research environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu-Zeletin, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper outlines the rationales for the transition from HMINET-2 to a distributed resource sharing system in Hahn-Meitner-Institute for Nuclear Research. The architecture and rationales for the planned new distributed resource system (Y) in HMI are outlined. The introduction of a distributed operating system is a prerequisite for a resource-sharing system. Y will provide not only the integration of networks of different qualities (high speed back-bone, LANs of different technologies, ports to national X.25 network and satellite) at hardware level, but also an integrated global user view of the whole system. This will be designed and implemented by decoupling the user-view from the hardware topology by introducing a netwide distributed operating system. (Auth.)

  20. A shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS for real-time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sangwon; Neto, André C.; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Park, Kaprai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We implemented a shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS. • We implemented an EPICS module supporting device and driver support. • We implemented an example EPICS IOC and CSS OPI for evaluation. - Abstract: The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a multi-platform C++ middleware designed for the implementation of real-time control systems. It currently supports the Linux, Linux + RTAI, VxWorks, Solaris and MS Windows platforms. In the fusion community MARTe is being used at JET, COMPASS, ISTTOK, FTU and RFX in fusion [1]. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a standard framework for the control systems in KSTAR and ITER, is a set of software tools and applications which provide a software infrastructure for use in building distributed control systems to operate devices. For a MARTe based application to cooperate with an EPICS based application, an interface layer between MARTe and EPICS is required. To solve this issue, a number of interfacing solutions have been proposed and some of them have been implemented. Nevertheless, a new approach is required to mitigate the functional limitations of existing solutions and to improve their performance for real-time applications. This paper describes the design and implementation of a shared memory based interface between MARTe and EPICS

  1. A shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS for real-time applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sangwon, E-mail: yunsw@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neto, André C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Park, Kaprai [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • We implemented a shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS. • We implemented an EPICS module supporting device and driver support. • We implemented an example EPICS IOC and CSS OPI for evaluation. - Abstract: The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a multi-platform C++ middleware designed for the implementation of real-time control systems. It currently supports the Linux, Linux + RTAI, VxWorks, Solaris and MS Windows platforms. In the fusion community MARTe is being used at JET, COMPASS, ISTTOK, FTU and RFX in fusion [1]. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a standard framework for the control systems in KSTAR and ITER, is a set of software tools and applications which provide a software infrastructure for use in building distributed control systems to operate devices. For a MARTe based application to cooperate with an EPICS based application, an interface layer between MARTe and EPICS is required. To solve this issue, a number of interfacing solutions have been proposed and some of them have been implemented. Nevertheless, a new approach is required to mitigate the functional limitations of existing solutions and to improve their performance for real-time applications. This paper describes the design and implementation of a shared memory based interface between MARTe and EPICS.

  2. Performance analysis of distributed beamforming in a spectrum sharing system

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a distributed beamforming scheme (DBF) in a spectrum sharing system where multiple secondary users share the spectrum with the licensed primary users under an interference temperature constraint. We assume that DBF is applied at the secondary users. We first consider optimal beamforming and compare it with the user selection scheme in terms of the outage probability and bit-error rate performance. Since perfect feedback is difficult to obtain, we then investigate a limited feedback DBF scheme and develop an outage probability analysis for a random vector quantization (RVQ) design algorithm. Numerical results are provided to illustrate our mathematical formalism and verify our analysis. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Performance analysis of distributed beamforming in a spectrum sharing system

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a distributed beamforming scheme (DBF) in a spectrum sharing system where multiple secondary users share the spectrum with the licensed primary users under an interference temperature constraint. We assume that DBF is applied at the secondary users. We first consider optimal beamforming and compare it with the user selection scheme in terms of the outage probability and bit-error rate performance. Since perfect feedback is difficult to obtain, we then investigate a limited feedback DBF scheme and develop an outage probability analysis for a random vector quantization (RVQ) design algorithm. Numerical results are provided to illustrate our mathematical formalism and verify our analysis. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Reliability analysis of load-sharing systems with memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dewei; Jiang, Chendi; Park, Chanseok

    2018-02-22

    The load-sharing model has been studied since the early 1940s to account for the stochastic dependence of components in a parallel system. It assumes that, as components fail one by one, the total workload applied to the system is shared by the remaining components and thus affects their performance. Such dependent systems have been studied in many engineering applications which include but are not limited to fiber composites, manufacturing, power plants, workload analysis of computing, software and hardware reliability, etc. Many statistical models have been proposed to analyze the impact of each redistribution of the workload; i.e., the changes on the hazard rate of each remaining component. However, they do not consider how long a surviving component has worked for prior to the redistribution. We name such load-sharing models as memoryless. To remedy this potential limitation, we propose a general framework for load-sharing models that account for the work history. Through simulation studies, we show that an inappropriate use of the memoryless assumption could lead to inaccurate inference on the impact of redistribution. Further, a real-data example of plasma display devices is analyzed to illustrate our methods.

  5. A CORBA sharing and messaging server-client information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, H.; Pereira, J.P.A.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The design and implementation of a CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) system has been evaluated to control and remotely operate experiments through an internet/intranet connection. The main objective of this framework is to share an experiment in a multi-user environment, possibly running over a supervisor administration. This should be done in a scalable and extensible framework for data acquisition, independent of conditions such as network infrastructures, operating system or data exchange protocols

  6. Timing system for PLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.S.; Kim, M.S.; Won, S.C.; Choi, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The PLS timing system consists of a master oscillator, a repetition rate pulse generator, a storage ring rf synchronizing system, and a rf driver and kicker trigger system composed of a fixed delay module and variable delay modules. All the timing modules are installed in the VME crates and controlled by the 32 bit microprocessors, and communicating with the Host computer via Ethernet. This paper describes the architectural design of this system as well as the requirements of performance

  7. The Time 'Onewayness' Shared by Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzetta, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The measure of the mutation, or change, any material elementary particle unceasingly undergoes, is defined as that of the displacement of a point moving in a three-dimensional Euclidean space, at the velocity of light, on a trajectory decomposable in a rotation and a translation. The rotation accounts for the spin angular momentum of the particle, the translation for its change of location. Then, an elementary mutation is proportional to an elementary interval of universal time. The connection between space and time is such that the operation of universal time conjugation, that is, the change of sign of t, involves space inversion, so coinciding with the operation currently defined as TCP. It implies that to a given physical process, another equally possible one corresponds in which the sequence of events (that still follow the same time course) is reversed, and actors are the enantiomorphic counterparts (anti-particles instead of particles, and vice versa) of those playing in the first physical process. Since no alternative is left to any elementary particle, that exists in that it undergoes an everlasting mutation, the unidirectionality of time must not be understood as a choice between two alternative directions. Many formalisms of Special Relativity can be derived from the above definition of the mutation of a material elementary particle. Anyhow, some discordances seems to crop out whose discussion is beyond the purpose of the present paper

  8. Sharing Steps in the Workplace: Changing Privacy Concerns Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nanna Gorm; Shklovski, Irina

    2016-01-01

    study of a Danish workplace participating in a step counting campaign. We find that concerns of employees who choose to participate and those who choose not to differ. Moreover, privacy concerns of participants develop and change over time. Our findings challenge the assumption that consumers...

  9. Simulation of load-sharing in standalone distributed generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajewole, Titus O.; Craven, Robert P. M.; Kayode, Olakunle; Babalola, Olufisayo S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a study on load-sharing among the component generating units of a multi-source electric microgrid that is operated as an autonomous ac supply-mode system. Emerging trend in power system development permits deployment of microgrids for standalone or stand-by applications, thereby requiring active- and reactive power sharing among the discrete generating units contained in hybrid-source microgrids. In this study, therefore, a laboratory-scale model of a microgrid energized with three renewable energy-based sources is employed as a simulation platform to investigate power sharing among the power-generating units. Each source is represented by a source emulator that captures the real operational characteristics of the mimicked generating unit and, with implementation of real-life weather data and load profiles on the model; the sharing of the load among the generating units is investigated. There is a proportionate generation of power by the three source emulators, with their frequencies perfectly synchronized at the point of common coupling as a result of balance flow of power among them. This hybrid topology of renewable energy-based microgrid could therefore be seamlessly adapted into national energy mix by the indigenous electric utility providers in Nigeria.

  10. Dynamic load-sharing characteristic analysis of face gear power-split gear system based on tooth contact characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Hu, Yahui

    2018-04-01

    The bend-torsion coupling dynamics load-sharing model of the helicopter face gear split torque transmission system is established by using concentrated quality standard, to analyzing the dynamic load-sharing characteristic. The mathematical models include nonlinear support stiffness, time-varying meshing stiffness, damping, gear backlash. The results showed that the errors collectively influenced the load sharing characteristics, only reduce a certain error, it is never fully reached the perfect loading sharing characteristics. The system load-sharing performance can be improved through floating shaft support. The above-method will provide a theoretical basis and data support for its dynamic performance optimization design.

  11. Internet Data Distribution – extending real-time data sharing throughout the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yoksas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Unidata Program Center (Unidata of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR is involved in three international collaborations whose goals are extension of real-time data delivery-to and sharing-of locally held datasets-by educational institutions throughout the Americas. These efforts are based on the use of Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD system which is built on top of its proven Local Data Manager Version 6 (LDM-6 technology. The Unidata IDD is an event-driven network of cooperating Unidata LDM servers that distributes discipline-neutral data products in near real-time over wide-area networks. The IDD, a collaboration of over 150 mostly North American institutions of higher education, has been the primary source of real-time atmospheric science data for the US university community for over a decade,. In addition to providing a highly reliable mechanism for delivering real-time data, the IDD allows users to easily share locally held datasets.

  12. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  13. Time-Varying Transition Probability Matrix Estimation and Its Application to Brand Share Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tomoaki; Hino, Hideitsu; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    In a product market or stock market, different products or stocks compete for the same consumers or purchasers. We propose a method to estimate the time-varying transition matrix of the product share using a multivariate time series of the product share. The method is based on the assumption that each of the observed time series of shares is a stationary distribution of the underlying Markov processes characterized by transition probability matrices. We estimate transition probability matrices for every observation under natural assumptions. We demonstrate, on a real-world dataset of the share of automobiles, that the proposed method can find intrinsic transition of shares. The resulting transition matrices reveal interesting phenomena, for example, the change in flows between TOYOTA group and GM group for the fiscal year where TOYOTA group's sales beat GM's sales, which is a reasonable scenario.

  14. Time-Varying Transition Probability Matrix Estimation and Its Application to Brand Share Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Chiba

    Full Text Available In a product market or stock market, different products or stocks compete for the same consumers or purchasers. We propose a method to estimate the time-varying transition matrix of the product share using a multivariate time series of the product share. The method is based on the assumption that each of the observed time series of shares is a stationary distribution of the underlying Markov processes characterized by transition probability matrices. We estimate transition probability matrices for every observation under natural assumptions. We demonstrate, on a real-world dataset of the share of automobiles, that the proposed method can find intrinsic transition of shares. The resulting transition matrices reveal interesting phenomena, for example, the change in flows between TOYOTA group and GM group for the fiscal year where TOYOTA group's sales beat GM's sales, which is a reasonable scenario.

  15. The TRISTAN timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakawa, Junji; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kawamoto, Takashi; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kikutani, Eiji

    1990-01-01

    The TRISTAN accelerator complex comprises four accelerators: a 200 MeV electron linac for positron production, a 2.5 GeV linac, an 8 GeV accumulation ring (AR) and a 30 GeV main ring (MR). The TRISTAN timing system is divided into fast and slow timing systems. The fast timing system supplies timing signals (fast timing) for devices whose operation is synchronized with bunched beams from either the linac or the AR. These signals are also used in various beam monitors and beam feedback systems. The slow timing system generates trigger signals (slow timing) in order to achieve synchronization between the magnetic field and the rf accelerating voltage of the AR or MR. These triggers are also used for the automatic operation of machines. The TRISTAN timing system fulfills the following features with the required flexibility and extensibility while in the operation mode: (1) the linac gun trigger signals and the AR revolution clock are synchronized within ≅ 100 ps in timing accuracy, and a short pulse (≅ 1.5 ns) from the linac is injected and accumulated into an arbitrarily selected bucket of AR for a long time; (2) bucket matching between the AR and MR is achieved within ±6 ps in timing accuracy and a single bunched beam from the AR is injected into an arbitrarily selected bucket of the MR; (3) the slow timing system manages the operation mode of the AR and MR with both flexibility and extensibility; (4) the synchronization signals are transmitted through coaxial cables over a circumference of 3 km from the main control room. (orig.)

  16. Children's Perspectives on Everyday Experiences of Shared Residence: Time, Emotions and Agency Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Gry Mette D.

    2010-01-01

    Shared residence is often presented as an arrangement that is in the best interests of the child following the divorce of its parents. Based on in-depth interviews with Norwegian children who have experienced shared residence, this article seeks to explore some dilemmas concerning time, agency and the children's emotions. Three characteristics of…

  17. System collaboration and Information Sharing through Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Grubisic, Maja; Marsic, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is realization of system collaboration and information sharing between devices through Internet of Things. Internet of Things is a network of things, where a thing can be any device capable of acquiring an IP address. Internet of Things has been discussed in many domains. Companies are exploring the full potential of it, with the purpose of automating their services and optimizing their productivity. In this thesis we have conducted a systematic research review to inv...

  18. Statistics of Shared Components in Complex Component Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Andrea; Gherardi, Marco; Caselle, Michele; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Osella, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    Many complex systems are modular. Such systems can be represented as "component systems," i.e., sets of elementary components, such as LEGO bricks in LEGO sets. The bricks found in a LEGO set reflect a target architecture, which can be built following a set-specific list of instructions. In other component systems, instead, the underlying functional design and constraints are not obvious a priori, and their detection is often a challenge of both scientific and practical importance, requiring a clear understanding of component statistics. Importantly, some quantitative invariants appear to be common to many component systems, most notably a common broad distribution of component abundances, which often resembles the well-known Zipf's law. Such "laws" affect in a general and nontrivial way the component statistics, potentially hindering the identification of system-specific functional constraints or generative processes. Here, we specifically focus on the statistics of shared components, i.e., the distribution of the number of components shared by different system realizations, such as the common bricks found in different LEGO sets. To account for the effects of component heterogeneity, we consider a simple null model, which builds system realizations by random draws from a universe of possible components. Under general assumptions on abundance heterogeneity, we provide analytical estimates of component occurrence, which quantify exhaustively the statistics of shared components. Surprisingly, this simple null model can positively explain important features of empirical component-occurrence distributions obtained from large-scale data on bacterial genomes, LEGO sets, and book chapters. Specific architectural features and functional constraints can be detected from occurrence patterns as deviations from these null predictions, as we show for the illustrative case of the "core" genome in bacteria.

  19. Statistics of Shared Components in Complex Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mazzolini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many complex systems are modular. Such systems can be represented as “component systems,” i.e., sets of elementary components, such as LEGO bricks in LEGO sets. The bricks found in a LEGO set reflect a target architecture, which can be built following a set-specific list of instructions. In other component systems, instead, the underlying functional design and constraints are not obvious a priori, and their detection is often a challenge of both scientific and practical importance, requiring a clear understanding of component statistics. Importantly, some quantitative invariants appear to be common to many component systems, most notably a common broad distribution of component abundances, which often resembles the well-known Zipf’s law. Such “laws” affect in a general and nontrivial way the component statistics, potentially hindering the identification of system-specific functional constraints or generative processes. Here, we specifically focus on the statistics of shared components, i.e., the distribution of the number of components shared by different system realizations, such as the common bricks found in different LEGO sets. To account for the effects of component heterogeneity, we consider a simple null model, which builds system realizations by random draws from a universe of possible components. Under general assumptions on abundance heterogeneity, we provide analytical estimates of component occurrence, which quantify exhaustively the statistics of shared components. Surprisingly, this simple null model can positively explain important features of empirical component-occurrence distributions obtained from large-scale data on bacterial genomes, LEGO sets, and book chapters. Specific architectural features and functional constraints can be detected from occurrence patterns as deviations from these null predictions, as we show for the illustrative case of the “core” genome in bacteria.

  20. Shared Electronic Health Record Systems: Key Legal and Security Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ellen K; Skipenes, Eva; Hausken, Marie F; Skeie, Svein; Østbye, Truls; Iversen, Marjolein M

    2017-11-01

    Use of shared electronic health records opens a whole range of new possibilities for flexible and fruitful cooperation among health personnel in different health institutions, to the benefit of the patients. There are, however, unsolved legal and security challenges. The overall aim of this article is to highlight legal and security challenges that should be considered before using shared electronic cooperation platforms and health record systems to avoid legal and security "surprises" subsequent to the implementation. Practical lessons learned from the use of a web-based ulcer record system involving patients, community nurses, GPs, and hospital nurses and doctors in specialist health care are used to illustrate challenges we faced. Discussion of possible legal and security challenges is critical for successful implementation of shared electronic collaboration systems. Key challenges include (1) allocation of responsibility, (2) documentation routines, (3) and integrated or federated access control. We discuss and suggest how challenges of legal and security aspects can be handled. This discussion may be useful for both current and future users, as well as policy makers.

  1. Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Insights on Equity from a Survey of Bike Share System Owners and Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The number of public bike share systems has been increasing rapidly across the United States over the past five to 10 years. To date, most academic research around bike share in the U.S. has focused on the logistics of planning and operationalizing s...

  2. Digital Distributed Control System Design: Control Policy for Shared Objects in HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shuqiao; Huang Xiaojin

    2014-01-01

    HTR-PM is an HTR demonstration plant with a structure of two modules feeding one steam turbine. Compared with the structure of one single reactor feeding one turbine, there are more devices shared between these two modules. When they are operated, the shared components are prone to introduce collisions or even logical deadlocks for different technical processes. The future commercial HTR-PM plants are supposed to comprise more modules for a larger turbine, thus the collision problem introduced by the shared components may become severer. Therefore, how to design suitable policies in the distributed control system (DCS) to relieve the collisions during using these shared devices is a new and also a very important problem. In this paper, the classifications of the shared devices are first addressed, and then how to identify the shared objects of an NPP is proposed. Furthermore, a general model for the control logic design is proposed, taking into consideration the collision avoidance, time delay and fairness. The example of how to apply the schemes to relieve the conflicts and deadlocks in the processes of using the shared devices in fuel element cycling system is illustrated. (author)

  3. Data Sharing in DHT Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Claudia; Del Pilar Villamil, María; Labbé, Cyril; Serrano-Alvarado, Patricia

    The evolution of peer-to-peer (P2P) systems triggered the building of large scale distributed applications. The main application domain is data sharing across a very large number of highly autonomous participants. Building such data sharing systems is particularly challenging because of the “extreme” characteristics of P2P infrastructures: massive distribution, high churn rate, no global control, potentially untrusted participants... This article focuses on declarative querying support, query optimization and data privacy on a major class of P2P systems, that based on Distributed Hash Table (P2P DHT). The usual approaches and the algorithms used by classic distributed systems and databases for providing data privacy and querying services are not well suited to P2P DHT systems. A considerable amount of work was required to adapt them for the new challenges such systems present. This paper describes the most important solutions found. It also identifies important future research trends in data management in P2P DHT systems.

  4. Accelerator-timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, E.; Heine, E.

    1985-01-01

    Along the NIKHEF accelerator in Amsterdam (Netherlands), at several places a signal is needed for the sychronisation of all devices with the acceleration process. In this report, basic principles and arrangements of this timing system are described

  5. On the performance of spectrum sharing systems with multiple antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the capacity of spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems over Rayleigh fading channels. More specifically, we present closed-form capacity formulas for such systems with and without optimal power and rate adaptation. A lower bound on the capacity is also derived to characterize the scaling law of the capacity. Results show that increasing the number of antennas has a negative effect on the system capacity in the low signal-to-noise (SNR) regime and the scaling law at high SNR is similar to the conventional MIMO systems. In addition, a lower bound on the capacity of the SS keyhole MIMO channels is analyzed. We also present a capacity analysis of SS MIMO maximal ratio combining (MRC) systems and the results show that the capacity of such systems always decreases with the increase of the number of antennas. Numerical results are finally given to illustrate our analysis. © 2012 ICST.

  6. On multiuser switched diversity transmission for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users share the spectrum with primary users. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting the user among those that satisfy the interference constraints and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level. The first scheme selects the user with the maximum SNR at the receiver, whereas in the second scheme the users are scanned in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition, we consider two power adaptive settings. In the on/off power adaptive setting, the users transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not while in the full power adaptive setting, the users vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results of our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load of both schemes. © 2012 ICST.

  7. Discrete-Time Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also describe discrete-time systems in terms of difference ... A more modern alternative, especially for larger systems, is to convert ... In other words, ..... picture?) State-variable equations are also called state-space equations because the ...

  8. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh’s shared bike system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents’ health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers’ properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers. PMID:28859121

  9. A remote instruction system empowered by tightly shared haptic sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kagawa, Tsuneo; Utsumiya, Kouichi

    2007-09-01

    We present a system to realize an on-line instruction environment among physically separated participants based on a multi-modal communication strategy. In addition to visual and acoustic information, commonly used communication modalities in network environments, our system provides a haptic channel to intuitively conveying partners' sense of touch. The human touch sensation, however, is very sensitive for delays and jitters in the networked virtual reality (NVR) systems. Therefore, a method to compensate for such negative factors needs to be provided. We show an NVR architecture to implement a basic framework that can be shared by various applications and effectively deals with the problems. We take a hybrid approach to implement both data consistency by client-server and scalability by peer-to-peer models. As an application system built on the proposed architecture, a remote instruction system targeted at teaching handwritten characters and line patterns on a Korea-Japan high-speed research network also is mentioned.

  10. Part-time and Job-Share Careers Among Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, ...

  11. Calculation of retention time tolerance windows with absolute confidence from shared liquid chromatographic retention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Paul G; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T

    2015-09-18

    Compound identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a tedious process, mainly because authentic standards must be run on a user's system to be able to confidently reject a potential identity from its retention time and mass spectral properties. Instead, it would be preferable to use shared retention time/index data to narrow down the identity, but shared data cannot be used to reject candidates with an absolute level of confidence because the data are strongly affected by differences between HPLC systems and experimental conditions. However, a technique called "retention projection" was recently shown to account for many of the differences. In this manuscript, we discuss an approach to calculate appropriate retention time tolerance windows for projected retention times, potentially making it possible to exclude candidates with an absolute level of confidence, without needing to have authentic standards of each candidate on hand. In a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates run among seven different labs, the new approach calculated tolerance windows that were significantly more appropriate for each retention projection than global tolerance windows calculated for retention projections or linear retention indices. Though there were still some small differences between the labs that evidently were not taken into account, the calculated tolerance windows only needed to be relaxed by 50% to make them appropriate for all labs. Even then, 42% of the tolerance windows calculated in this study without standards were narrower than those required by WADA for positive identification, where standards must be run contemporaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and Analysis for an Operator's Action Sharing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeonsub; Seong, Nokyu

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, contrary to HRP approach, no more FPD is introduced because there is no room to install. The same workstation and the same LDP should be utilized for ream transparency. A action sharing system will be introduced at ShinKori 3,4 MCR, and further applied to other APR1400 plant if necessary. The project started and applied by the end of 2014. Despite benefit of action sharing system, there are lots of challenges to overcome such as traffic load, and interfaces. The challenges have been analyzed thoroughly. Traffic load can be reduced through vector graphics, video driver, and capture and compressing techniques. Furthermore interfaces for action sharing system are developed and evaluated to reduce secondary workload. Advanced digital control rooms have lots of advantages compared to analog control room. They can integrate all process variables into more comprehensible forms. Advanced alarm processor can suppress trivial alarms, and P and ID based mimic isplays can be integrated with context sensitive menu for referencing. Moreover computer based procedures have been introduced at more advanced MCR. Because all these display appears at flat panel display (FPD), they can be easily modified if necessary. These days newly introduced MCRs are advanced types, and analog control rooms are no more built. In spite of this trend, advanced control rooms have shortage in view of team transparency. For example, shift supervisor cannot tell which devices reactor operator is manipulating. APR1400 MCR has large display panel to share the same situation awareness among crew member. Because LDP has fixed display comparing switchable display in FPD, situation awareness can be enhanced. However, even LDP cannot show the active device that crew member are manipulating due to either limited number of devices in LDP or no demarcation for the active device. During construction of ShinKori 3/4, the demarcation box for the active device has been introduced and called an Active

  13. Real-time telemedicine using shared three-dimensional workspaces over ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Peter; Forsey, David R.; Hutchison, Susan

    1999-03-01

    During the past five years a high speed ATM network has been developed at UBC that provides a campus testbed, a local testbed to the hospitals, and a National testbed between here and the BADLAB in Ottawa. This testbed has been developed to combine a commercial shared audio/video/whiteboard environment coupled with a shared interactive 3-dimensional solid model. This solid model ranges from a skull reconstructed from a CT scan with muscles and an overlying skin, to a model of the ventricle system of the human brain. Typical interactions among surgeon, radiologist and modeler consist of having image slices of the original scan shared by all and the ability to adjust the surface of the model to conform to each individuals perception of what the final object should look like. The purpose of this interaction can range from forensic reconstruction from partial remains to pre-maxillofacial surgery. A joint project with the forensic unit of the R.C.M.P. in Ottawa using the BADLAB is now in the stages of testing this methodology on a real case beginning with a CT scan of partial remains. A second study underway with the department of Maxiofacial reconstruction at Dalhousie University in Halifax Nova Scotia and concerns a subject who is about to undergo orthognathic surgery, in particular a mandibular advancement. This subject has been MRI scanned, a solid model constructed of the mandible and the virtual surgery constructed on the model. This model and the procedure have been discussed and modified by the modeler and the maxillofacial specialist using these shared workspaces. The procedure will be repeated after the actual surgery to verify the modeled procedure. The advantage of this technique is that none of the specialists need be in the same room, or city. Given the scarcity of time and specialists this methodology shows great promise. In November of this last year a shared live demonstration of this facial modeler was done between Vancouver and Dalhousie University in

  14. Implementing Journaling in a Linux Shared Disk File System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preslan, Kenneth W.; Barry, Andrew; Brassow, Jonathan; Cattelan, Russell; Manthei, Adam; Nygaard, Erling; VanOort, Seth; Teigland, David; Tilstra, Mike; O'Keefe, Matthew; hide

    2000-01-01

    In computer systems today, speed and responsiveness is often determined by network and storage subsystem performance. Faster, more scalable networking interfaces like Fibre Channel and Gigabit Ethernet provide the scaffolding from which higher performance computer systems implementations may be constructed, but new thinking is required about how machines interact with network-enabled storage devices. In this paper we describe how we implemented journaling in the Global File System (GFS), a shared-disk, cluster file system for Linux. Our previous three papers on GFS at the Mass Storage Symposium discussed our first three GFS implementations, their performance, and the lessons learned. Our fourth paper describes, appropriately enough, the evolution of GFS version 3 to version 4, which supports journaling and recovery from client failures. In addition, GFS scalability tests extending to 8 machines accessing 8 4-disk enclosures were conducted: these tests showed good scaling. We describe the GFS cluster infrastructure, which is necessary for proper recovery from machine and disk failures in a collection of machines sharing disks using GFS. Finally, we discuss the suitability of Linux for handling the big data requirements of supercomputing centers.

  15. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...

  16. Value co-creation in sharing systems: Airbnb guests' participation in value co-creation practices

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Pedro Poças Reis da

    2018-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Marketing and Strategy Sharing systems, i.e., systems of economic actors who participate in a flow of exchange enabled or managed by a physical or virtual platform, have captured the interest of the industry and academia, for its disruptive innovation, growth curves, flexible supply and potential to extract value from underused resources. Given its novelty, marketing research on such systems is underwhelming. Timely, marketing researchers, have been e...

  17. Shared Task System Description: Frustratingly Hard Compositionality Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Martinez Alonso, Hector; Rishøj, Christian

    2011-01-01

    , and the likelihood of long translation equivalents in other languages. Many of the features we considered correlated significantly with human compositionality scores, but in support vector regression experiments we obtained the best results using only COALS-based endocentricity scores. Our system was nevertheless......We considered a wide range of features for the DiSCo 2011 shared task about compositionality prediction for word pairs, including COALS-based endocentricity scores, compositionality scores based on distributional clusters, statistics about wordnet-induced paraphrases, hyphenation...

  18. Optimal task partition and state-dependent loading in heterogeneous two-element work sharing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Xing, Liudong; Ben-Haim, Hanoch; Dai, Yuanshun

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world systems such as multi-channel data communication, multi-path flow transmission and multi-processor computing systems have work sharing attributes where system elements perform different portions of the same task simultaneously. Motivated by these applications, this paper models a heterogeneous work-sharing system with two non-repairable elements. When one element fails, the other element takes over the uncompleted task of the failed element upon finishing its own part; the load level of the remaining operating element can change at the time of the failure, which further affects its performance, failure behavior and operation cost. Considering these dynamics, mission success probability (MSP), expected mission completion time (EMCT) and expected cost of successful mission (ECSM) are first derived. Further, optimization problems are formulated and solved, which find optimal task partition and element load levels maximizing MSP, minimizing EMCT or minimizing ECSM. Effects of element reliability, performance, operation cost on the optimal solutions are also investigated through examples. Results of this work can facilitate a tradeoff analysis of different mission performance indices for heterogeneous work-sharing systems. - Highlights: • A heterogeneous work-sharing system with two non-repairable elements is considered. • The optimal work distribution and element loading problem is formulated and solved. • Effects of element reliability, performance, operation cost on the optimal solutions are investigated.

  19. Time-dependent fiber bundles with local load sharing. II. General Weibull fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S Leigh; Newman, William I

    2009-12-01

    Fiber bundle models (FBMs) are useful tools in understanding failure processes in a variety of material systems. While the fibers and load sharing assumptions are easily described, FBM analysis is typically difficult. Monte Carlo methods are also hampered by the severe computational demands of large bundle sizes, which overwhelm just as behavior relevant to real materials starts to emerge. For large size scales, interest continues in idealized FBMs that assume either equal load sharing (ELS) or local load sharing (LLS) among fibers, rules that reflect features of real load redistribution in elastic lattices. The present work focuses on a one-dimensional bundle of N fibers under LLS where life consumption in a fiber follows a power law in its load, with exponent rho , and integrated over time. This life consumption function is further embodied in a functional form resulting in a Weibull distribution for lifetime under constant fiber stress and with Weibull exponent, beta. Thus the failure rate of a fiber depends on its past load history, except for beta=1 . We develop asymptotic results validated by Monte Carlo simulation using a computational algorithm developed in our previous work [Phys. Rev. E 63, 021507 (2001)] that greatly increases the size, N , of treatable bundles (e.g., 10(6) fibers in 10(3) realizations). In particular, our algorithm is O(N ln N) in contrast with former algorithms which were O(N2) making this investigation possible. Regimes are found for (beta,rho) pairs that yield contrasting behavior for large N. For rho>1 and large N, brittle weakest volume behavior emerges in terms of characteristic elements (groupings of fibers) derived from critical cluster formation, and the lifetime eventually goes to zero as N-->infinity , unlike ELS, which yields a finite limiting mean. For 1/21 but with 0

  20. Capacity analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    This paper considers a spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. First the capacity of a single-user SS spatial multiplexing system is investigated in two scenarios that assume different receivers. To explicitly show the capacity scaling law of SS MIMO systems, some approximate capacity expressions for the two scenarios are derived. Next, we extend our analysis to a multiple user system with zero-forcing receivers (ZF) under spatially-independent scheduling and analyze the sum-rate. Furthermore, we provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different parameters on the multiuser diversity gain. Our results show that the secondary system with a smaller number of transmit antennas Nt and a larger number of receive antennas Nr can achieve higher capacity at lower interference temperature Q, but at high Q the capacity follows the scaling law of the conventional MIMO systems. However, for a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system, the secondary system with small Nt and large Nr can achieve the highest capacity throughout the entire region of Q. For a ZF SS spatial multiplexing system with scheduling, the asymptotic sum-rate scales like Ntlog2(Q(KNtNp-1)/Nt), where Np denotes the number of antennas of the primary receiver and K represents the number of secondary transmitters.

  1. Energy efficient cross layer design for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2016-10-06

    We propose a cross layer design that optimizes the energy efficiency of spectrum sharing systems. The energy per good bit (EPG) is considered as an energy efficiency metric. We optimize the secondary user\\'s transmission power and media access frame length to minimize the EPG metric. We protect the primary user transmission via an outage probability constraint. The non-convex targeted problem is optimized by utilizing the generalized convexity theory and verifying the strictly pseudo-convex structure of the problem. Analytical results of the optimal power and frame length are derived. We also used these results in proposing an algorithm, which guarantees the existence of a global optimal solution. Selected numerical results show the improvement of the proposed system compared to other systems. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  3. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  4. Performance analysis of distributed beamforming in a spectrum sharing system

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we consider a distributed beamforming scheme (DBF) in a spectrum sharing system where multiple secondary users share the spectrum with some licensed primary users under an interference temperature constraint. We assume that the DBF is applied at the secondary users. We first consider optimal beamforming and compare it with the user selection scheme in terms of the outage probability and bit error rate performance metrics. Since perfect feedback is difficult to obtain, we then investigate a limited feedback DBF scheme and develop an analysis for a random vector quantization design algorithm. Specifically, the approximate statistics functions of the squared inner product between the optimal and quantized vectors are derived. With these statistics, we analyze the outage performance. Furthermore, the effects of channel estimation error and number of primary users on the system performance are investigated. Finally, optimal power adaptation and cochannel interference are considered and analyzed. Numerical and simulation results are provided to illustrate our mathematical formalism and verify our analysis. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Cross-Layer Design in Dynamic Spectrum Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadmand A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a dynamic spectrum sharing system consisting of a primary user, whose licensed spectrum is allowed to be accessed by a secondary user as long as it does not violate the prescribed interference limit inflicted on the primary user. Assuming the Nakagami- block-fading environment, we aim at maximizing the performance of secondary user's link in terms of average spectral efficiency (ASE and error performance under the specified packet error rate (PER and average interference limit constraints. To this end, we employ a cross-layer design policy which combines adaptive power and coded discrete M-QAM modulation scheme at the physical layer with a truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ protocol at the data link layer, and simultaneously satisfies the aforementioned constraints. Numerical results affirm that the secondary link of spectrum sharing system combining ARQ with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC achieves significant gain in ASE depending on the maximum number of retransmissions initiated by the ARQ protocol. The results further indicate that the ARQ protocol essentially improves the packet loss rate performance of the secondary link.

  7. A VM-shared desktop virtualization system based on OpenStack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Zhu, Mingfa; Xiao, Limin; Jiang, Yuanjie

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing popularity of cloud computing, desktop virtualization is rising in recent years as a branch of virtualization technology. However, existing desktop virtualization systems are mostly designed as a one-to-one mode, which one VM can only be accessed by one user. Meanwhile, previous desktop virtualization systems perform weakly in terms of response time and cost saving. This paper proposes a novel VM-Shared desktop virtualization system based on OpenStack platform. The paper modified the connecting process and the display data transmission process of the remote display protocol SPICE to support VM-Shared function. On the other hand, we propose a server-push display mode to improve user interactive experience. The experimental results show that our system performs well in response time and achieves a low CPU consumption.

  8. Time to consider sharing data extracted from trials included in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Wolfenden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the debate regarding shared clinical trial data has shifted from whether such data should be shared to how this is best achieved, the sharing of data collected as part of systematic reviews has received little attention. In this commentary, we discuss the potential benefits of coordinated efforts to share data collected as part of systematic reviews. Main body There are a number of potential benefits of systematic review data sharing. Shared information and data obtained as part of the systematic review process may reduce unnecessary duplication, reduce demand on trialist to service repeated requests from reviewers for data, and improve the quality and efficiency of future reviews. Sharing also facilitates research to improve clinical trial and systematic review methods and supports additional analyses to address secondary research questions. While concerns regarding appropriate use of data, costs, or the academic return for original review authors may impede more open access to information extracted as part of systematic reviews, many of these issues are being addressed, and infrastructure to enable greater access to such information is being developed. Conclusion Embracing systems to enable more open access to systematic review data has considerable potential to maximise the benefits of research investment in undertaking systematic reviews.

  9. UAS CNPC Satellite Link Performance - Sharing Spectrum with Terrestrial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide for the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the National Airspace System, the control and non-payload communications (CNPC) link connecting the ground-based pilot with the unmanned aircraft must be highly reliable. A specific requirement is that it must operate using aviation safety radiofrequency spectrum. The 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) provided a potentially suitable allocation for radio line-of-sight (LOS), terrestrial based CNPC link at 5030-5091 MHz. For a beyond radio line-of-sight (BLOS), satellite-based CNPC link, aviation safety spectrum allocations are currently inadequate. Therefore, the 2015 WRC will consider the use of Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) bands to provide BLOS CNPC under Agenda Item 1.5. This agenda item requires studies to be conducted to allow for the consideration of how unmanned aircraft can employ FSS for BLOS CNPC while maintaining existing systems. Since there are terrestrial Fixed Service systems also using the same frequency bands under consideration in Agenda Item 1.5 one of the studies required considered spectrum sharing between earth stations on-board unmanned aircraft and Fixed Service station receivers. Studies carried out by NASA have concluded that such sharing is possible under parameters previously established by the International Telecommunications Union. As the preparation for WRC-15 has progressed, additional study parameters Agenda Item 1.5 have been proposed, and some studies using these parameters have been added. This paper examines the study results for the original parameters as well as results considering some of the more recently proposed parameters to provide insight into the complicated process of resolving WRC-15 Agenda Item 1.5 and achieving a solution for BLOS CNPC for unmanned aircraft.

  10. The Mice Drawer System Tissue Sharing Program (MDS-TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biticchi, Roberta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Cilli, Michele; Cotronei, Vittorio; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Pignataro, Salvatore; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Tasso, Roberta; Tavella, Sara

    obtain from the animals sent to the ISS as much as possible information including also microgravity induced modifications of tissues other than bone, we associated to the MDS experiment several international group from Italian, American, Japanese Universities and from NASA and JAXA labs and we created a Tissue Sharing Program (TSP). In total 17 groups from 6 countries were involved in the program. The MDS payload containing three PTN-transgenic mice (Tg) and three wild type (Wt) mice was launched with the Shuttle STS-128, on August, 28 2009 and the MDS transferred to the ISS for three months. The payload re-entry was with the Shuttle STS-129 on November, 27 2009 in Florida. Unfortunately during this period 3 mice (two Wt and one Tg) died due to a spinal cord lesion probably occurred during the shuttle lift off, a liver pathology and a failure of the food delivery system respectively. All the three dead mice were however frozen for subsequent skeletal analysis. The remaining 3 mice had a normal behavior during the flight and appeared in excellent health conditions at the time of landing. During the MDS stay at the ISS several physical parameters were under daily check. With regard to the animal health status checking, the daily water consumption for each individual mouse revealed to be one of the most important parameter. Immediately after landing the mice were sacrificed, blood parameter were measured and all different tissues were dissected. Samples from almost the entire organism are now under investigation by the TSP team. A ground replica of the flight experiment ("ground control") was performed at the University of Genova from November 2009 to the second week of February 2010. Some of the initial results from the flight and the ground control experiments are presented in the individual abstracts.

  11. Optimal Sequential Resource Sharing and Exchange in Multi-Agent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yuanzhang

    2014-01-01

    Central to the design of many engineering systems and social networks is to solve the underlying resource sharing and exchange problems, in which multiple decentralized agents make sequential decisions over time to optimize some long-term performance metrics. It is challenging for the decentralized agents to make optimal sequential decisions because of the complicated coupling among the agents and across time. In this dissertation, we mainly focus on three important classes of multi-agent seq...

  12. Sojourn time asymptotics in Processor Sharing queues with varying service rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egorova, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Zwart, B.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper addresses the sojourn time asymptotics for a GI/GI/⋅ queue operating under the Processor Sharing (PS) discipline with stochastically varying service rate. Our focus is on the logarithmic estimates of the tail of sojourn-time distribution, under the assumption that the job-size

  13. Sojourn time asymptotics in the M/G/1 processor sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Zwart (Bert); O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe show for the M/G/1 processor sharing queue that the service time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu$, $nu$ non-integer, iff the sojourn time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu $. This result is derived from a new expression for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform

  14. JKJ accelerator timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, C.; Mori, Y.; Yoshii, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    2001-01-01

    The JKJ (JAERl-KEK Joint Project) accelerator complex consists of the linear accelerator, 3 GeV and 50 GeV synchrotrons. To minimize the beam loss during the beam transfer from the 3 GeV synchrotron to the 50 GeV one, the synchronization of the two RF system of the rings is very important. To reduce the background from the high and low momentum neutron, the neutron beam chopper will be employed. The 3 GeV RF will be also synchronized to the chopper timing when the beam goes to the neutron facility. The whole timing control system of these accelerators and chopper will be described. (author)

  15. Type VI Secretion System Toxins Horizontally Shared between Marine Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dor Salomon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is a widespread protein secretion apparatus used by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver toxic effector proteins into adjacent bacterial or host cells. Here, we uncovered a role in interbacterial competition for the two T6SSs encoded by the marine pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. Using comparative proteomics and genetics, we identified their effector repertoires. In addition to the previously described effector V12G01_02265, we identified three new effectors secreted by T6SS1, indicating that the T6SS1 secretes at least four antibacterial effectors, of which three are members of the MIX-effector class. We also showed that the T6SS2 secretes at least three antibacterial effectors. Our findings revealed that many MIX-effectors belonging to clan V are "orphan" effectors that neighbor mobile elements and are shared between marine bacteria via horizontal gene transfer. We demonstrated that a MIX V-effector from V. alginolyticus is a functional T6SS effector when ectopically expressed in another Vibrio species. We propose that mobile MIX V-effectors serve as an environmental reservoir of T6SS effectors that are shared and used to diversify antibacterial toxin repertoires in marine bacteria, resulting in enhanced competitive fitness.

  16. A Dynamic Approach to Rebalancing Bike-Sharing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiariotti, Federico; Pielli, Chiara; Zanella, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2018-02-08

    Bike-sharing services are flourishing in Smart Cities worldwide. They provide a low-cost and environment-friendly transportation alternative and help reduce traffic congestion. However, these new services are still under development, and several challenges need to be solved. A major problem is the management of rebalancing trucks in order to ensure that bikes and stalls in the docking stations are always available when needed, despite the fluctuations in the service demand. In this work, we propose a dynamic rebalancing strategy that exploits historical data to predict the network conditions and promptly act in case of necessity. We use Birth-Death Processes to model the stations' occupancy and decide when to redistribute bikes, and graph theory to select the rebalancing path and the stations involved. We validate the proposed framework on the data provided by New York City's bike-sharing system. The numerical simulations show that a dynamic strategy able to adapt to the fluctuating nature of the network outperforms rebalancing schemes based on a static schedule.

  17. A Dynamic Approach to Rebalancing Bike-Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Chiariotti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bike-sharing services are flourishing in Smart Cities worldwide. They provide a low-cost and environment-friendly transportation alternative and help reduce traffic congestion. However, these new services are still under development, and several challenges need to be solved. A major problem is the management of rebalancing trucks in order to ensure that bikes and stalls in the docking stations are always available when needed, despite the fluctuations in the service demand. In this work, we propose a dynamic rebalancing strategy that exploits historical data to predict the network conditions and promptly act in case of necessity. We use Birth-Death Processes to model the stations’ occupancy and decide when to redistribute bikes, and graph theory to select the rebalancing path and the stations involved. We validate the proposed framework on the data provided by New York City’s bike-sharing system. The numerical simulations show that a dynamic strategy able to adapt to the fluctuating nature of the network outperforms rebalancing schemes based on a static schedule.

  18. The Mason Water Data Information System (MWDIS): Enabling data sharing and discovery at George Mason University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C.; Da Silva, A. L.; Nunes, A.; Haddad, J.; Lawler, S.

    2014-12-01

    Enabling effective data use and re-use in scientific investigations relies heavily not only on data availability but also on efficient data sharing discovery. The CUAHSI led Hydrological Information Systems (HIS) and supporting products have paved the way to efficient data sharing and discovery in the hydrological sciences. Based on the CUAHSI-HIS framework concepts for hydrologic data sharing we developed a unique system devoted to the George Mason University scientific community to support university wide data sharing and discovery as well as real time data access for extreme events situational awareness. The internet-based system will provide an interface where the researchers will input data collected from the measurement stations and present them to the public in form of charts, tables, maps, and documents. Moreover, the system is developed in ASP.NET MVC 4 using as Database Management System, Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2, and hosted by Amazon Web Services. Currently the system is supporting the Mason Watershed Project providing historical hydrological, atmospheric and water quality data for the campus watershed and real time flood conditions in the campus. The system is also a gateway for unprecedented data collection of hurricane storm surge hydrodynamics in coastal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay providing not only access to historical data but recent storms such as Hurricane Arthur. Future research includes coupling the system to a real-time flood alert system on campus, and besides providing data on the World Wide Web, to foment and provide a venue for interdisciplinary collaboration within the water scientists in the region.

  19. Music2Share - Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, Ton; Epema, Dick H.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; van Steen, Martinus Richardus; van Steen, Maarten

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  20. Music2Share --- Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, T.; Epema, D.; Hartel, P.; Lagendijk, I.; van Steen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  1. Information-sharing tendency on Twitter and time evolution of tweeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H. W.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, K.; Choi, M. Y.

    2013-03-01

    While topics on Twitter may be categorized according to their predictability and sustainability, some topics have characteristics depending on the time scale. Here we propose a good measure for the transition of sustainability, which we call the information-sharing tendency, and find that the unpredictability on Twitter is provoked by the exposure of Twitter users to external environments, e.g., mass media and other social network services. In addition, it is demonstrated that the numbers of articles and comments on on-line newspapers serve as plausible measures of exposure. From such measures of exposure, the time evolution of tweeting can be described, when the information-sharing tendency is known.

  2. Reliability demonstration test for load-sharing systems with exponential and Weibull components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Xu

    Full Text Available Conducting a Reliability Demonstration Test (RDT is a crucial step in production. Products are tested under certain schemes to demonstrate whether their reliability indices reach pre-specified thresholds. Test schemes for RDT have been studied in different situations, e.g., lifetime testing, degradation testing and accelerated testing. Systems designed with several structures are also investigated in many RDT plans. Despite the availability of a range of test plans for different systems, RDT planning for load-sharing systems hasn't yet received the attention it deserves. In this paper, we propose a demonstration method for two specific types of load-sharing systems with components subject to two distributions: exponential and Weibull. Based on the assumptions and interpretations made in several previous works on such load-sharing systems, we set the mean time to failure (MTTF of the total system as the demonstration target. We represent the MTTF as a summation of mean time between successive component failures. Next, we introduce generalized test statistics for both the underlying distributions. Finally, RDT plans for the two types of systems are established on the basis of these test statistics.

  3. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  4. The time slice system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, J.

    1990-01-01

    We have designed a fast readout system for silicon microstrip detectors which could be used at HERA, LHC, and SSC. The system consists of an analog amplifier-comparator chip (AACC) and a digital time slice chip (DTSC). The analog ship is designed in dielectric isolated bipolar technology for low noise and potential radiation hardness. The DTSC is built in CMOS for low power use and high circuit density. The main implementation aims are low power consumption and compactness. The architectural goal is automatic data reduction, and ease of external interface. The pipelining of event information is done digitally in the DTSC. It has a 64 word deep level 1 buffer acting as a FIFO, and a 16 word deep level 2 buffer acting as a dequeue. The DTSC also includes an asynchronous bus interface. We are first building a scaled up (100 μm instead of 25 μm pitch) and slower (10 MHz instead of 60 MHz) version in 2 μm CMOS and plan to test the principle of operation of this system in the Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) of the ZEUS detector at HERA. Another very important development will be tested there: the radiation hardening of the chips. We have started a collaboration with a rad-hard foundry and with Los Alamos National Laboratories to test and evaluate rad-hard processes and the final rad-hard product. Initial data are very promising, because radiation resistance of up to many Mrad have been achieved. (orig.)

  5. Working Memory Span Development: A Time-Based Resource-Sharing Model Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gavens, Nathalie; Vergauwe, Evie; Gaillard, Vinciane; Camos, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    The time-based resource-sharing model (P. Barrouillet, S. Bernardin, & V. Camos, 2004) assumes that during complex working memory span tasks, attention is frequently and surreptitiously switched from processing to reactivate decaying memory traces before their complete loss. Three experiments involving children from 5 to 14 years of age…

  6. Sharing Time and the Poetic Patterning of Caribbean Independence: The Narrative Architecture of Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Aa, Jef

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the narrative architecture and interactional uptake of a school child's story about independence in Barbados during sharing time. It is found that an institutional focus on standard resources impacts both teachers' and children's sociolinguistic behavior. Ethnopoetic analysis brings out the child's patterned use of narrative…

  7. The interplay of couple's shared time, women's intimacy, and intradyadic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milek, Anne; Butler, Emily A; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, spending time together should be central for couples to build intimacy and should be associated with less relationship stress; however, few empirical studies have examined these links. The present study used 14 days of diary data from 92 women to investigate the interplay between the amount of time they spent with their partner (shared time), intimacy, and daily stress originating inside the relationship (intradyadic stress) on a within- and between-personal level. Multilevel analyses revealed moderation patterns: For example, when women spent more time with their partners than usual on a weekday with low levels of intradyadic stress, they reported higher intimacy. These associations varied substantially between women and were weaker on the weekend or on days with high levels of intradyadic stress. At the between-person level, higher average shared time appeared to buffer the negative association between intradyadic stress and intimacy. Our results suggest that daily fluctuations in intradyadic stress, intimacy, and shared time may have different implications compared with aggregated amounts of those variables. Spending more time together on a weekday with low intimacy might be linked to more intradyadic stress, but aggregated over the long run, spending more time together may provide opportunities for stress resolution and help couples to maintain their intimacy. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Universal failure model for multi-unit systems with shared functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovoi, Vitali

    2013-01-01

    A Universal Failure Model (UFM) is proposed for complex systems that rely on a large number of entities for performing a common function. Economy of scale or other considerations may dictate the need to pool resources for common purpose, but the resulting strong coupling precludes the grouping of those components into modules. Existing system-level failure models rely on modularity for reducing modeling complexity, so the UFM will fill an important gap in constructing efficient system-level models. Conceptually, the UFM resembles cellular automata (CA) infused with realistic failure mechanisms. Components’ behavior is determined based on the balance between their strength (capacity) and their load (demand) share. If the load exceeds the components’ capacity, the component fails and its load share is distributed among its neighbors (possibly with a time delay and load losses). The strength of components can degrade with time if the load exceeds an elastic threshold. The global load (demand) carried by the system can vary over time, with the peak values providing shocks to the system (e.g., wind loads in civil structures, electricity demand, stressful activities to human bodies, or drought in an ecosystem). Unlike the models traditionally studied by CA, the focus of the presented model is on the system reliability, and specifically on the study of time-to-failure distributions, rather than steady-state patterns and average time-to-failure characteristics. In this context, the relationships between the types of failure distributions and the parameters of the failure model are discussed

  9. Multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems with priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassouridis, A.; Koller, R.

    1983-01-01

    The well-known multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems without priorities is extended to M/G/1 systems with priority classes. The average response time t/sub j/(x) and the average waiting time w/sub j/(x) for a j-class job, which requires a total service of x sec, are analytically calculated. Some figures demonstrate how the priority classes and the total number of different levels affect the behaviour of the functions t/sub j/(x) and w/sub j/(x). In addition, the foreground-background algorithm with priorities, which is not yet covered in the literature, is treated as a special case of the multilevel processor-sharing algorithm. 8 references.

  10. Secure Real-Time Monitoring and Management of Smart Distribution Grid using Shared Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Ganem, Hervé; Jorguseski, Ljupco

    2017-01-01

    capabilities. Thanks to the advanced measurement devices, management framework, and secure communication infrastructure developed in the FP7 SUNSEED project, the Distribution System Operator (DSO) now has full observability of the energy flows at the medium/low voltage grid. Furthermore, the prosumers are able......, where the smart grid ICT solutions are provided through shared cellular LTE networks....

  11. Achievable capacity of a spectrum sharing system over hyper fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ekin, Sabit; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Ç elebi, Hasari Burak; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Serpedin, Erchin

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive radio with spectrum sharing feature is a promising technique to address the spectrum under-utilization problem in dynamically changing environments. In this paper, achievable capacity gain of spectrum sharing systems over dynamic fading

  12. Joint opportunistic beam and spectrum selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems with limited feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Tourki, Kamel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing an unlicensed secondary user (SU) to share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) under acceptable interference levels to the primary

  13. Students' Acceptance of File Sharing Systems as a Tool for Sharing Course Materials: The Case of Google Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Alaa

    2017-01-01

    Students' perceptions about both ease of use and usefulness are fundamental factors in determining their acceptance and successful use of technology in higher education. File sharing systems are one of these technologies and can be used to manage and deliver course materials and coordinate virtual teams. The aim of this study is to explore how…

  14. Shared robotic system: automated pipette calibration and pipette tip filter assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, J.H. Jr.; Dyches, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    At the Savannah River Laboratory a Zymate Laboratory Automation System has been developed to perform two completely independent tasks within one work cell. One operation is the precise calibration of pipettes; the other is the assembly of a filter in a pipette tip. Since neither task requires full robot time, the shared system is an economical means of robotizing both processes. These are tedious, repetitive, time consuming tasks; and human operators fail to yield constant results. Automation insures a repeatable process which increases product quality

  15. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  16. International Nuclear Information System: Researchers' Platform for Knowledge Sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizal Yusof; Habibah Adnan; Samsurdin Ahamad

    2011-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an organization under the United Nations (UN), which serves to disseminate accurate information about the nuclear world. In accordance with its role, an International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established in 1970, provides the opportunities for member countries under the auspices of the IAEA to share information, expertise and knowledge, particularly in the nuclear field. Malaysia has become a member since 1978, and the first country input was posted in the 1980's. INIS member countries are supervised by a specially appointed liaison officers to monitor and oversee matters related to that. Each issue is associated with 49 subject matter (subject heading) will be checked and recorded by using Win fibre before being sent to the INIS database at IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Material received will be distributed directly to all IAEA member states through the INIS web site and CD distribution to subscribers countries. Today, INIS is still a successful nuclear-related information provider through nearly 3 million data have been recorded including journals, reports, scientific papers, patents, nuclear laws, the web sites contents, and many more. (author)

  17. [Part-time medical specialist training; experiences with job-sharing for trainee internists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, K; Nauta, S; Stuyt, P M

    2004-02-14

    Due to various factors such as social changes, an increasing number of couples with two incomes, and a growing proportion of female doctors, there has been a growing demand for part-time work in recent years. This is also true for resident physicians. Objections such as a discontinuity in care and the decline in the quality of education frequently prevent resident physicians from working part-time. Over the past two years, the University Medical Centre Nijmegen, the Netherlands, has experimented with job-sharing on clinical wards for resident physicians in internal medicine. This approach works well in practice, as long as a number of conditions, including the proper transfer of medical information and good communication, are satisfied. Job-sharing is one means of satisfying the growing demand for part-time work among resident physicians and specialists.

  18. Switch and examine transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a switch and examine transmit diversity algorithm for spectrum sharing cognitive networks. We consider a cognitive network composed of a primary link that employs constant rate and constant power transmission scheme

  19. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  20. Video Sharing System Based on Wi-Fi Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Qidi Lin; Hewei Yu; Jinbin Huang; Weile Liang

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a video sharing platform based on WiFi, which consists of camera, mobile phone and PC server. This platform can receive wireless signal from the camera and show the live video on the mobile phone captured by camera. In addition, it is able to send commands to camera and control the camera's holder to rotate. The platform can be applied to interactive teaching and dangerous area's monitoring and so on. Testing results show that the platform can share ...

  1. ATLAS Global Shares Implementation in the PanDA Workload Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system for ATLAS across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. While analysis tasks are submitted to PanDA by over a thousand users following personal schedules (e.g. PhD or conference deadlines), production campaigns are scheduled by a central Physics Coordination group based on the organization’s calendar. The Physics Coordination group needs to allocate the amount of Grid resources dedicated to each activity, in order to manage sharing of CPU resources among various parallel campaigns and to make sure that results can be achieved in time for important deadlines. While dynamic and static shares on batch systems have been around for a long time, we are trying to move away from local resource partitioning and manage shares at a global level in the PanDA system. The global solution is not straightforward, given different requirements of the activities (number of cores, memory, I/O and CPU intensity), the heterogeneity of Grid resources (site/H...

  2. Understanding the organization of sharing economy in agri-food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miralles, Isabel; Dentoni, Domenico; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of sharing economy initiatives in agri-food systems, the recent literature has still not unravelled what sharing exactly entails from an organizational standpoint. In light of this knowledge gap, this study aims to understand which resources are shared, and how, in a

  3. Timing system observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to augment Synchronized Time Stamp Support authored by Jim Kowalkowski. This document provides additional documentation to clarify and explain software involved in timing operations of the accelerator

  4. Internet Protocol Display Sharing Solution for Mission Control Center Video System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of broadcast television as a constant source of information throughout the NASA manned space flight Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the current Video Transport System (VTS) characteristics provides the ability to visually enhance real-time applications as a broadcast channel that decision making flight controllers come to rely on, but can be difficult to maintain and costly. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) of the Mission Operations Facility Division (MOFD) has been tasked to provide insight to new innovative technological solutions for the MCC environment focusing on alternative architectures for a VTS. New technology will be provided to enable sharing of all imagery from one specific computer display, better known as Display Sharing (DS), to other computer displays and display systems such as; large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and other offsite centers using IP networks. It has been stated that Internet Protocol (IP) applications are easily readied to substitute for the current visual architecture, but quality and speed may need to be forfeited for reducing cost and maintainability. Although the IP infrastructure can support many technologies, the simple task of sharing ones computer display can be rather clumsy and difficult to configure and manage to the many operators and products. The DS process shall invest in collectively automating the sharing of images while focusing on such characteristics as; managing bandwidth, encrypting security measures, synchronizing disconnections from loss of signal / loss of acquisitions, performance latency, and provide functions like, scalability, multi-sharing, ease of initial integration / sustained configuration, integration with video adjustments packages, collaborative tools, host / recipient controllability, and the utmost paramount priority, an enterprise solution that provides ownership to the whole

  5. Part-time and job-share careers among pharmacy practice faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan

    2014-04-17

    Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, service, and scholarship responsibilities, as well as outcomes before and after changes in appointment, are described. Advantages and disadvantages, including advice for other colleges of pharmacy, are presented. Alternate appointments may be a key factor in retaining highly qualified faculty members who continue to bring their expertise to teaching, precepting, and scholarship within a college or school of pharmacy.

  6. The Effects of Abandonment Options on Investment Timing and Profit Sharing of FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper incorporates cooperative game theory into a real option method in a foreign direct investment setting and examines the operational decisions of a multinational corporation in a cooperative framework, where the corporation is endowed with an abandonment option and shares its profit with the host country. In particular, we investigate how the abandonment options affect the optimal investment timing and the optimal profit share of a foreign direct investment using a real option game method. We show that the flexibility of the abandonment option induces the corporation to investment earlier, which indicates the negative effects on investment trigger. The result is consistent with intuition since the abandonment option provides insurance and thus reduces the overall risk of the project. We also find that the introduction of the abandonment option reduces the optimal profit share in a cooperative framework and in turn the lower profit share increases the investment trigger, thereby having a positive effect on the investment threshold to hinder the investment. By numerical analysis, we find that the overall effect of the abandonment options is inversely related to the investment trigger. These findings provide quantitative analysis about the decisions regarding cooperation in international investment extraction projects.

  7. Incentives for Part-Time Faculty to Participate in the Shared Governance Process within the Institution of California Community Colleges (CCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, Kristen J.

    2012-01-01

    The involvement of part-time faculty tends to be even lower than the engagement level of full-time faculty who partake in the system of shared governance in the California Community Colleges (CCC). During a time when state funds are diminishing, there is a projection of retirement for many community college leaders (Fulton-Calkins & Milling,…

  8. Psychological reality and the role of the teacher in early-education sharing time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafi, Abdullah T.

    1994-01-01

    The study of children's language development has been strongly influenced since the 1950s by linguistic research. How well, however, has the education of young children incorporated the concept of psychological reality, which interrelates the child's perceptual and cognitive development with linguistic and non-linguistic events in his/her environment? In reply to this question, the paper concentrates on"sharing time", known also as"show and tell", which has both affective and cognitive value. Although sharing time is a student-centered activity, the teacher plays a pivotal role in establishing its context, structure and norms. Feedback from the teacher and peers promotes language development, and the growth of curiosity and inquisitiveness. The article is derived from experience in teaching kindergarten teachers to conduct sharing time periods in Saudi Arabia. Practical suggestions are made for the implementation of the activity, in the interests of encouraging spontaneous and personalized language rather than focusing on evaluation of students' competence in the formal aspects of language development.

  9. Intelligence and temporal accuracy of behaviour: unique and shared associations with reaction time and motor timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Linus; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2011-10-01

    Intelligence is associated with accuracy in a wide range of timing tasks. One source of such associations is likely to be individual differences in top-down control, e.g., sustained attention, that influence performance in both temporal tasks and other cognitively controlled behaviours. In addition, we have studied relations between intelligence and a simple rhythmic motor task, isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), and found a substantial component of that relation, which is independent of fluctuations in top-down control. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether such bottom-up mechanisms are involved also in the relation between intelligence and reaction time (RT) tasks. We thus investigated whether common variance between the ISIP and RT tasks underlies their respective associations with intelligence. Two hundred and twelve participants performed a simple RT task, a choice RT task and the ISIP task. Intelligence was assessed with the Raven SPM Plus. The analysed timing variables included mean and variability in the RT tasks and two variance components in the ISIP task. As predicted, RT and ISIP variables were associated with intelligence. The timing variables were positively intercorrelated, and a principal component analysis revealed a substantial first principal component that was strongly related to all timing variables, and positively correlated with intelligence. Furthermore, a commonality analysis demonstrated that the relations between intelligence and the timing variables involved a commonality between the timing variables as well as unique contributions from choice RT and ISIP. We discuss possible implications of these findings and argue that they support our main hypothesis, i.e., that relations between intelligence and RT tasks have a bottom-up component.

  10. Time-resolved echo-shared parallel MRA of the lung: observer preference study of image quality in comparison with non-echo-shared sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.; Puderbach, M.; Zaporozhan, J.; Plathow, C.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Ley, S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of time-resolved echo-shared parallel MRA of the lung. The pulmonary vasculature of nine patients (seven females, two males; median age: 44 years) with pulmonary disease was examined using a time-resolved MRA sequence combining echo sharing with parallel imaging (time-resolved echo-shared angiography technique, or TREAT). The sharpness of the vessel borders, conspicuousness of peripheral lung vessels, artifact level, and overall image quality of TREAT was assessed independently by four readers in a side-by-side comparison with non-echo-shared time-resolved parallel MRA data (pMRA) previously acquired in the same patients. Furthermore, the SNR of pulmonary arteries (PA) and veins (PV) achieved with both pulse sequences was compared. The mean voxel size of TREAT MRA was decreased by 24% compared with the non-echo-shared MRA. Regarding the sharpness of the vessel borders, conspicuousness of peripheral lung vessels, and overall image quality the TREAT sequence was rated superior in 75-76% of all cases. If the TREAT images were preferred over the pMRA images, the advantage was rated as major in 61-71% of all cases. The level of artifacts was not increased with the TREAT sequence. The mean interobserver agreement for all categories ranged between fair (artifact level) and good (overall image quality). The maximum SNR of TREAT did not differ from non-echo-shared parallel MRA (PA: TREAT: 273±45; pMRA: 280±71; PV: TREAT: 273±33; pMRA: 258±62). TREAT achieves a higher spatial resolution than non-echo-shared parallel MRA which is also perceived as an improved image quality. (orig.)

  11. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  12. Physician as partner or salesman? Shared decision-making in real-time encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2009-07-01

    The results of recent research have led to the increased advocacy of shared decision-making regarding medical treatment. Nonetheless, only a limited number of studies have focused on the process of decision-making in real-time encounters. The present paper aims to document and analyze this process. Specifically, we assess whether these decisions are the result of partnership or of persuasive tactics based on power and hierarchical relationships. We will describe and analyze different strategies used by pediatric gastroenterologists in breaking bad news encounters, as well as their consequences. The analysis is based on a multi-method, multi-participant phenomenological study on breaking bad news to adolescents and their families regarding a chronic illness. It included 17 units of analysis (actual encounters and 52 interviews with physicians, parents and adolescents). Data were collected from three hospitals in Northern Israel using observations and audiotapes of diagnosis disclosure encounters and audio-taped interviews with all participants. The analysis identified eight different presentation tactics used in actual encounters during which physicians made various use of language, syntax and different sources of power to persuade patients to agree with their preferred treatment choice. The tactics included various ways of presenting the illness, treatment and side effects; providing examples from other success or failure stories; sharing the decision only concerning technicalities; and using plurals and authority. The findings suggest that shared decision-making may be advocated as a philosophical tenet or a value, but it is not necessarily implemented in actual communication with patients. Rather, treatment decisions tend to be unilaterally made, and a variety of persuasive approaches are used to ensure agreement with the physician's recommendation. The discussion is focused on the complexity of sharing a decision, especially in the initial bad news encounter

  13. Operating System Support for Shared Hardware Data Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    2.1.4 Systolic Priority Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.1.5 Abstract Datatype Processors...intelligent software support is necessary to achieve good perfor- mance from HWDSs in the presence of overflow and sharing. 2.1.5 Abstract Datatype ...abstract datatype processors, which accelerate data types with mechanisms and performance similar to HWDSs. Abstract datatype instructions can reduce

  14. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A; Finucane, Hilary K; Murabito, Joanne M; Tung, Joyce Y; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-11-09

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10(-70)) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10(-12)). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (Ppuberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  15. From Data-Sharing to Model-Sharing: SCEC and the Development of Earthquake System Science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquake system science seeks to construct system-level models of earthquake phenomena and use them to predict emergent seismic behavior—an ambitious enterprise that requires high degree of interdisciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration. This presentation will explore model-sharing structures that have been successful in promoting earthquake system science within the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These include disciplinary working groups to aggregate data into community models; numerical-simulation working groups to investigate system-specific phenomena (process modeling) and further improve the data models (inverse modeling); and interdisciplinary working groups to synthesize predictive system-level models. SCEC has developed a cyberinfrastructure, called the Community Modeling Environment, that can distribute the community models; manage large suites of numerical simulations; vertically integrate the hardware, software, and wetware needed for system-level modeling; and promote the interactions among working groups needed for model validation and refinement. Various socio-scientific structures contribute to successful model-sharing. Two of the most important are “communities of trust” and collaborations between government and academic scientists on mission-oriented objectives. The latter include improvements of earthquake forecasts and seismic hazard models and the use of earthquake scenarios in promoting public awareness and disaster management.

  16. A Comparison of Job Satisfaction and General Well-Being for Job Sharing and Part-Time Female Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Debbie

    1996-01-01

    Explores factors that influence how women cope with multiple roles. Discusses implications of a study that investigated job sharing as a part-time employment alternative for women (n=4 job-sharing nurses and n=4 part-time nurses) wanting a healthier balance between home and work life. (SNR)

  17. Blockchain-Empowered Fair Computational Resource Sharing System in the D2D Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-device (D2D communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges when building a satisfactory resource sharing system in the D2D network. Specifically, user mobility is one of the top concerns for designing a cooperative D2D computational resource sharing system since mutual communication may not be stably available due to user mobility. A previous endeavour has demonstrated and proven how connectivity can be incorporated into cooperative task scheduling among users in the D2D network to effectively lower average task execution time. There are doubts about whether this type of task scheduling scheme, though effective, presents fairness among users. In other words, it can be unfair for users who contribute many computational resources while receiving little when in need. In this paper, we propose a novel blockchain-based credit system that can be incorporated into the connectivity-aware task scheduling scheme to enforce fairness among users in the D2D network. Users’ computational task cooperation will be recorded on the public blockchain ledger in the system as transactions, and each user’s credit balance can be easily accessible from the ledger. A supernode at the base station is responsible for scheduling cooperative computational tasks based on user mobility and user credit balance. We investigated the performance of the credit system, and simulation results showed that with a minor sacrifice of average task execution time, the level of fairness can obtain a major enhancement.

  18. Reliability analysis of repairable multi-state system with common bus performance sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huan; Yang, Jun; Mo, Huadong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an instantaneous availability model for repairable multi-state system (MSS) with common bus performance sharing is proposed. The repairable MSS consists of some multi-state units and a common bus performance redistribution system. Each unit in the system has several performance levels and must satisfy its individual random demand. A unit can transmit the surplus performance to other units in real time through the common bus performance redistribution system, if it has a performance that exceeds its demand. The entire system fails if the demand of any unit is not satisfied. A new method based on the combination of the stochastic process method and the universal generating function technique is suggested to evaluate the instantaneous availability and the mean instantaneous performance deficiency of the proposed repairable MSS. Two examples are given for applications in the end

  19. Analysis on Time Window of Shared Parking in Hospitals Based on Parking Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are essential components of a city; huge traffic demand is generated and attracted, causing contradiction between parking supply and demand. By sharing parking berths, limited space can serve more demand which is beneficial to alleviating parking problems. Aimed at improving the capacity of shared parking, the paper analyzes four parking groups in typical hospitals, which are medical staff, outpatients, emergency patients, and visiting groups. The parking demand of medical staff is rigid. For outpatients and visiting groups, longer walking distance is acceptable and more attention is paid to parking fee. By contrast, emergency patients can accept shorter walking distance and focus more on convenience due to urgency. Under this circumstance, parking behaviors selection models are established by means of Multinomial Logit Model. On this basis, time value is adopted to calculate the tolerance of alterative parking time. Moreover, this paper explores the variation of time window, under different parking impedance. A case study is conducted and suggests that start and end point of a certain time window can be influenced by external factors.

  20. A Comprehensive Optimization Strategy for Real-time Spatial Feature Sharing and Visual Analytics in Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Shao, H.

    2017-12-01

    For geospatial cyberinfrastructure enabled web services, the ability of rapidly transmitting and sharing spatial data over the Internet plays a critical role to meet the demands of real-time change detection, response and decision-making. Especially for the vector datasets which serve as irreplaceable and concrete material in data-driven geospatial applications, their rich geometry and property information facilitates the development of interactive, efficient and intelligent data analysis and visualization applications. However, the big-data issues of vector datasets have hindered their wide adoption in web services. In this research, we propose a comprehensive optimization strategy to enhance the performance of vector data transmitting and processing. This strategy combines: 1) pre- and on-the-fly generalization, which automatically determines proper simplification level through the introduction of appropriate distance tolerance (ADT) to meet various visualization requirements, and at the same time speed up simplification efficiency; 2) a progressive attribute transmission method to reduce data size and therefore the service response time; 3) compressed data transmission and dynamic adoption of a compression method to maximize the service efficiency under different computing and network environments. A cyberinfrastructure web portal was developed for implementing the proposed technologies. After applying our optimization strategies, substantial performance enhancement is achieved. We expect this work to widen the use of web service providing vector data to support real-time spatial feature sharing, visual analytics and decision-making.

  1. Perspective of public law in rearrangement of profit sharing system agricultural land in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsil; Susilowati, IF; Wardhana, M.

    2018-01-01

    Review of the Shared Revenue Act for better regulatory system is an important issue as a more realistic and highly feasible agrarian reform policy. The rearrangement of agricultural land tenure systems is difficult to implement because it must be done simultaneously and thoroughly plus the support of large economic and political cost allocations; Instead, allowing the use of land in market mechanisms violating the principles of fairness on profit sharing. So it needs agrarian policies that are gradual and more realistic, such as revision of Act on profit sharing. In the previous research, the characteristics of the land sharing system in Indonesia are: (1) The Revenue Sharing Agreement is seen as a personal relationship subject to the private of law, not public rules; (2) found character of unequal Patron-client relationship between landowner and farmer; (3) Different revenue sharing systems and tend to position smallholders as weak and defeated. This study aims to discuss the State’s ‘interference’ in changing the profit sharing system by limiting individual freedom on the basis of a ‘new’ perspective of profit sharing as a relative legal relation. In the future, the profit-sharing system should be able to provide legal protection for farmers, as well as landowners.

  2. The LCLS Timing Event System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusatko, John; Allison, S.; Browne, M.; Krejcik, P.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The Linac Coherent Light Source requires precision timing trigger signals for various accelerator diagnostics and controls at SLAC-NAL. A new timing system has been developed that meets these requirements. This system is based on COTS hardware with a mixture of custom-designed units. An added challenge has been the requirement that the LCLS Timing System must co-exist and 'know' about the existing SLC Timing System. This paper describes the architecture, construction and performance of the LCLS timing event system.

  3. Individual Differences and Time-Sharing Ability: A Critical Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the mythical innkeeper for which it is named. The paradigm involves the following steps: I) The user chooses a factor solution of interest as a "target...A) L L(T) L(C) LL L(A) A ACT ) A(C) Individual Differences and Time-Sharing Abilities Page 41 TABLE 21: LATENT ROOT PARALLEL A’ALYSIS -- DIFFERENCE...753 10 C(A) .350 11 L .711 12 L(T) .399 13 L(C) .650 14 LL .740 15 L(A) .521 16 A .504 17 ACT ) .489 18 A(C) .559 19 A(L) .545 7. FIGURE 1. LATENT

  4. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  5. Ad Hoc Wireless Networking and Shared Computation for Autonomous Multirobot Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Hall, Jason S.; Horning, James; Romano, Marcello

    2009-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.40734 A wireless ad hoc network is introduced that enables inter-robot communication and shared computation among multiple robots with PC/104-based single board computers running the real-time application interface patched Linux operating system. Through the use of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc technology and User Datagram Protocol, each robot is able to exchange data without the need of a centralized router ...

  6. Cyber Physical Systems for User Reliability Measurements in a Sharing Economy Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Aria; Jeong, Junho; Kim, Yeichang

    2017-08-13

    As the sharing economic market grows, the number of users is also increasing but many problems arise in terms of reliability between providers and users in the processing of services. The existing methods provide shared economic systems that judge the reliability of the provider from the viewpoint of the user. In this paper, we have developed a system for establishing mutual trust between providers and users in a shared economic environment to solve existing problems. In order to implement a system that can measure and control users' situation in a shared economic environment, we analyzed the necessary factors in a cyber physical system (CPS). In addition, a user measurement system based on a CPS structure in a sharing economic environment is implemented through analysis of the factors to consider when constructing a CPS.

  7. Time Shared Optical Network (TSON): a novel metro architecture for flexible multi-granular services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Georgios S; Triay, Joan; Amaya, Norberto; Qin, Yixuan; Cervelló-Pastor, Cristina; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2011-12-12

    This paper presents the Time Shared Optical Network (TSON) as metro mesh network architecture for guaranteed, statistically-multiplexed services. TSON proposes a flexible and tunable time-wavelength assignment along with one-way tree-based reservation and node architecture. It delivers guaranteed sub-wavelength and multi-granular network services without wavelength conversion, time-slice interchange and optical buffering. Simulation results demonstrate high network utilization, fast service delivery, and low end-to-end delay on a contention-free sub-wavelength optical transport network. In addition, implementation complexity in terms of Layer 2 aggregation, grooming and optical switching has been evaluated. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. Concurrent systems and time synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Mark; Grathoff, Annette

    2018-05-01

    In the majority of scientific fields, system dynamics is described assuming existence of unique time for the whole system. However, it is established theoretically, for example, in relativity theory or in the system theory of time, and validated experimentally that there are different times and time scales in a variety of real systems - physical, chemical, biological, social, etc. In spite of this, there are no wide-ranging scientific approaches to exploration of such systems. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to study systems with this property. We call them concurrent systems because processes in them can go, events can happen and actions can be performed in different time scales. The problem of time synchronization is specifically explored.

  9. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  10. Two-way cooperative AF relaying in spectrum-sharing systems: Enhancing cell-edge performance

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These important findings provide fresh perspectives for system designers to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users in next-generation broadband spectrum-sharing wireless systems. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Techniques for Reducing Consistency-Related Communication in Distributed Shared Memory System

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaenepoel, W; Bennett, J.K.; Carter, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Distributed shared memory 8DSM) is an abstraction of shared memory on a distributed memory machine. Hardware DSM systems support this abstraction at the architecture level; software DSM systems support the abstraction within the runtime system. One of the key problems in building an efficient software DSM system is to reduce the amount of communication needed to keep the distributed memories consistent. In this paper we present four techniques for doing so: 1) software release consistency; 2)...

  12. Temporal Proof Methodologies for Real-Time Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    real time systems that communicate either through shared variables or by message passing and real time issues such as time-outs, process priorities (interrupts) and process scheduling. The authors exhibit two styles for the specification of real - time systems . While the first approach uses bounded versions of temporal operators the second approach allows explicit references to time through a special clock variable. Corresponding to two styles of specification the authors present and compare two fundamentally different proof

  13. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    0196 or 413 545-0720 PI E-mail Address: krithi@nirvan.cs.umass.edu, stankovic(ocs.umass.edu Grant or Contract Title: Dependable Real - Time Systems Grant...Dependable Real - Time Systems " Grant or Contract Number: N00014-85-k-0398 L " Reporting Period: 1 Oct 87 - 30 Sep 91 , 2. Summary of Accomplishments ’ 2.1 Our...in developing a sound approach to scheduling tasks in complex real - time systems , (2) developed a real-time operating system kernel, a preliminary

  14. Official Union Time Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  15. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2013-06-01

    We propose three adaptive transmission techniques aiming to maximize the capacity of a multiple-input-single-output (MISO) secondary system under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network. In the first scheme, namely the best antenna selection (BAS) scheme, the antenna maximizing the capacity of the secondary link is used for transmission. We then propose an orthogonal space time bloc code (OSTBC) transmission scheme using the Alamouti scheme with transmit antenna selection (TAS), namely the TAS/STBC scheme. The performance improvement offered by this scheme comes at the expense of an increased complexity and delay when compared to the BAS scheme. As a compromise between these schemes, we propose a hybrid scheme using BAS when only one antenna verifies the interference condition and TAS/STBC when two or more antennas are illegible for communication. We first derive closed-form expressions of the statistics of the received signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) at the secondary receiver (SR). These results are then used to analyze the performance of the proposed techniques in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of transmit antennas, and the average bit error rate (BER). This performance is then illustrated via selected numerical examples. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Meanings and robustness: Propositions for enhancing benefit sharing in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernita van Wyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Given increased pressure on natural resources to deliver benefits, complex trade-offs and the regulation of behaviours in relation to benefits is of key concern. Behaviours that signify resistance to the rules according to which benefits are allocated prompt us to consider causal links and feedbacks between benefits, perceptions of benefits, meanings attached to the benefits, and the regulatory instruments that mediate the distribution of benefits. An understanding of how meanings influence the perception of benefits exposes the complexity inherent in how people perceive and allocate value to natural resource benefits. Meanings are personal, sometimes overlapping, context dependent and variable across space and time. A challenge in directing resource user behaviour in common pool resources is that the relationship between the resource and resource use is typically not interpreted to include the manner in which users associate resource benefits with meanings. We propose that collective ordering of meanings and associated rules help to direct behaviours and in doing so they contribute to the purposeful maintenance of desirable elements of a social-ecological system (i.e. robustness. Using an example, we illustrate how tensions around benefit sharing are rooted in the emergence and changing prioritisation of contexts and meanings over time. The importance of eliciting, ordering and sanctioning of meanings is emphasised. We conclude by discussing the implications for robustness and benefit sharing in social-ecological systems and we comment on the usefulness and limitations of the framework.

  17. Caltrans WeatherShare Phase II System: An Application of Systems and Software Engineering Process to Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-25

    In cooperation with the California Department of Transportation, Montana State University's Western Transportation Institute has developed the WeatherShare Phase II system by applying Systems Engineering and Software Engineering processes. The system...

  18. A METHOD OF AND A SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING ACCESS TO A SHARED RESOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method and a system of controlling access of data items to a shared resource, wherein the data items each is assigned to one of a plurality of priorities, and wherein, when a predetermined number of data items of a priority have been transmitted to the shared resource, that priority...

  19. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  20. Efficiency of performing pulmonary procedures in a shared endoscopy unit: procedure time, turnaround time, delays, and procedure waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Lee, Mui Yok; Wang, Chunhong; Hussein, Nurmalah B M; Selvi, Kalai; Tee, Augustine

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of performing pulmonary procedures in the endoscopy unit in a large teaching hospital. A prospective study from May 20 to July 19, 2013, was designed. The main outcome measures were procedure delays and their reasons, duration of procedural steps starting from patient's arrival to endoscopy unit, turnaround time, total case durations, and procedure wait time. A total of 65 procedures were observed. The most common procedure was BAL (61%) followed by TBLB (31%). Overall procedures for 35 (53.8%) of 65 patients were delayed by ≥ 30 minutes, 21/35 (60%) because of "spillover" of the gastrointestinal and surgical cases into the time block of pulmonary procedure. Time elapsed between end of pulmonary procedure and start of the next procedure was ≥ 30 minutes in 8/51 (16%) of cases. In 18/51 (35%) patients there was no next case in the room after completion of the pulmonary procedure. The average idle time of the room after the end of pulmonary procedure and start of next case or end of shift at 5:00 PM if no next case was 58 ± 53 minutes. In 17/51 (33%) patients the room's idle time was >60 minutes. A total of 52.3% of patients had the wait time >2 days and 11% had it ≥ 6 days, reason in 15/21 (71%) being unavailability of the slot. Most pulmonary procedures were delayed due to spillover of the gastrointestinal and surgical cases into the block time allocated to pulmonary procedures. The most common reason for difficulty encountered in scheduling the pulmonary procedure was slot unavailability. This caused increased procedure waiting time. The strategies to reduce procedure delays and turnaround times, along with improved scheduling methods, may have a favorable impact on the volume of procedures performed in the unit thereby optimizing the existing resources.

  1. Real-time sharing of gaze data between multiple eye trackers-evaluation, tools, and advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Marcus; Niehorster, Diederick C; Cornelissen, Tim; Garde, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Technological advancements in combination with significant reductions in price have made it practically feasible to run experiments with multiple eye trackers. This enables new types of experiments with simultaneous recordings of eye movement data from several participants, which is of interest for researchers in, e.g., social and educational psychology. The Lund University Humanities Laboratory recently acquired 25 remote eye trackers, which are connected over a local wireless network. As a first step toward running experiments with this setup, demanding situations with real time sharing of gaze data were investigated in terms of network performance as well as clock and screen synchronization. Results show that data can be shared with a sufficiently low packet loss (0.1 %) and latency (M = 3 ms, M A D = 2 ms) across 8 eye trackers at a rate of 60 Hz. For a similar performance using 24 computers, the send rate needs to be reduced to 20 Hz. To help researchers conduct similar measurements on their own multi-eye-tracker setup, open source software written in Python and PsychoPy are provided. Part of the software contains a minimal working example to help researchers kick-start experiments with two or more eye trackers.

  2. Enhanced power sharing in microgrids using the modified droop and virtual line impedance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghasafari, M.A.; Lopes, L.A.C.; Williamson, S. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Power Electronics and Energy Research Group

    2009-06-15

    The microgrid is the local electricity network which connects several distributed energy systems. This paper proposed a control strategy which provided better power sharing than that of other control systems with low sensibility to the line unbalances, with fast and non-oscillatory responses. These distributed sources (which can include solar panels) were connected together using inverters in a low voltage microgrid. Power equations of the system were considered and presented from the droop strategy point of view and the importance of including virtual impedances in the control system was considered. The performance of the system was verified by means of simulations. Several illustrations and graphs were presented, including a simplified power stage of the system; power sharing variations by change in the first source voltage phase; power sharing variations as the first source voltage magnitude changes; power sharing variations by change in the system steady state frequency; and apparent power changes by change in the system steady state frequency. The control system and its levels was also illustrated including its four levels, namely an inverter current control loop; inverter voltage control loop; virtual resistance loop; and droop control loop. It was concluded that the control scheme for isolated microgrids yielded good speed, power sharing, and efficiency with small transient oscillations. The system could make good power sharing insensitive to the line unbalance. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  3. Automation through the PIP [Program Implementation Plan] concurrence system improves information sharing among DOE [Dept. of Energy] managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imholz, R.M.; Berube, D.S.; Peterson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Program Implementation Plan (PIP) Concurrence System is designed to improve information sharing within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and between DOE and the Field. Effectively sharing information enables DOE managers to make more informed, effective decisions. The PIP Concurrence System improved information sharing among DOE managers by defining the automated process for concurring on a DOE document, thus reducing the time required to concur on the document by 75%. The first step in defining an automated process is to structure the process for concurring on a document. Only those DOE managers with approved access could review certain parts of a document on a concurrence system. Remember that the concurrence process is a sign off procedure unlike a commentary process in which comments may not be restricted to certain people. The commentary process is the beginning of the concurrence process. The commentary process builds a document; the concurrence process approves it. 6 refs., 7 figs

  4. Optimized Architectural Approaches in Hardware and Software Enabling Very High Performance Shared Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    There are issues encountered in high performance storage systems that normally lead to compromises in architecture. Compute clusters tend to have compute phases followed by an I/O phase that must move data from the entire cluster in one operation. That data may then be shared by a large number of clients creating unpredictable read and write patterns. In some cases the aggregate performance of a server cluster must exceed 100 GB/s to minimize the time required for the I/O cycle thus maximizing compute availability. Accessing the same content from multiple points in a shared file system leads to the classical problems of data "hot spots" on the disk drive side and access collisions on the data connectivity side. The traditional method for increasing apparent bandwidth usually includes data replication which is costly in both storage and management. Scaling a model that includes replicated data presents additional management challenges as capacity and bandwidth expand asymmetrically while the system is scaled. ...

  5. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals food Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Bertazzoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different food chain stages. The analysis is carried out on primary and secondary data: around 2400 financial statements concerning 480 enterprises from 2003 to 2007 and stakeholders’ interviews. Results show that value is usually created in the processing and distribution stages, to the detriment of the primary sector, and that the retail managing practices tend to impose damaging structural changes on farms whose profitability is at times becoming sustainable only thanks to European subsidies. To conclude, there is evidence of inadequate definition of strategic and network alliance along the chain. Competitiveness is still a concept achieved by single food chain stages against others and food chain internal competition entails a declining sustainability of small farms and enterprises.

  6. Switch and examine transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a switch and examine transmit diversity algorithm for spectrum sharing cognitive networks. We consider a cognitive network composed of a primary link that employs constant rate and constant power transmission scheme with automatic-and-repeat request (ARQ) protocol, while the secondary link is composed of a fixed power multiple-antenna secondary transmitter and a single antenna receiver. Our objective is to develop a low complex transmit diversity algorithm at the secondary transmitter that maximizes the performance of the secondary link in terms of the effective throughput while maintaining a predetermined maximum loss in the packet rate of the primary link. In achieving this objective, we develop an algorithm that selects the best antenna, which maintains the quality of the secondary link in terms of signal-to-noise ratio above a specific threshold, based on overhearing the acknowledgment (ACK) and negative acknowledgment (NACK) feedback messages transmitted over the primary link. We also develop closed form expressions for the bit error rates and the effective throughput of the secondary link. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Time-Sharing-Based Synchronization and Performance Evaluation of Color-Independent Visual-MIMO Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Ho; Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ki-Doo

    2018-05-14

    In the field of communication, synchronization is always an important issue. The communication between a light-emitting diode (LED) array (LEA) and a camera is known as visual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), for which the data transmitter and receiver must be synchronized for seamless communication. In visual-MIMO, LEDs generally have a faster data rate than the camera. Hence, we propose an effective time-sharing-based synchronization technique with its color-independent characteristics providing the key to overcome this synchronization problem in visual-MIMO communication. We also evaluated the performance of our synchronization technique by varying the distance between the LEA and camera. A graphical analysis is also presented to compare the symbol error rate (SER) at different distances.

  8. Developing Expert System for Tuberculosis Diagnose to Support Knowledge Sharing in the Era of National Health Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidya, L.

    2017-03-01

    National Health Insurance has been implemented since 1st January 2014. A number of new policies have been established including multilevel referral system. The multilevel referral system classified health care center into three levels, it determined that the flow of patient treatment should be started from first level health care center. There are 144 kind of diseases that must be treat in the first level which mainly consists of general physicians. Unfortunately, competence of the physician in the first level may not fulfil the standard competence yet. To improved the physisians knowledge, government has created many events to accelerate knowledge sharing. However, it still needs times and many resources to give significan results. Expert system is kind of software that provide consulting services to non-expert users in accordance with the area of its expertise. It can improved effectivity and efficiency of knowledge sharing and learning. This research was developed a model of TB diagnose expert system which comply with the standard procedure of TB diagnosis and regulation. The proposed expert system has characteristics as follows provide facility to manage multimedia clinical data, supporting the complexity of TB diagnosis (combine rule-based and case-based expert system), interactive interface, good usability, multi-platform, evolutionary.

  9. The Information Tekhnology Share In Management Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zeina Maya Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Management Information System growth cause change of role from all manager in decision making the information technology. While prima facie reason for the usage of information technology in business to support such a manner so that information system may operate better OBrienamp Marakas 2004. Its meaning with existence of information tekhnology in management information system SIM company management decision making which initially often pursued by many factor of non technical become accurately is relevant complete and on schedule

  10. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans. Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical less/more discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family—one domesticated, and one wild—make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition.Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given 9 trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker and colleagues (2011.The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar nonverbal quantitative abilities across

  11. Domain-general involvement of the posterior frontolateral cortex in time-based resource-sharing in working memory: An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergauwe, E.; Hartstra, E.; Barrouillet, P.; Brass, M.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is often defined in cognitive psychology as a system devoted to the simultaneous processing and maintenance of information. In line with the time-based resource-sharing model of working memory (TBRS; Barrouillet and Camos, 2015; Barrouillet et al., 2004), there is accumulating

  12. Locating Portable Stations to Support the Operation of Bike Sharing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-26

    Redistributing bikes has been a major challenge for the daily operation of bike sharing system around the world. Existing literature explore solution strategies that rely on pick-up-and-delivery routing as well as user incentivization approaches. The...

  13. Initial Stage Reference Search : Driver Simulators to Test Shared Controls, Limited Autonomy Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This literature review and reference scanning focuses on the use of driver simulators for semiautonomous (or shared control) vehicle systems (2012present), including related research from other modes of transportation (e.g., rail or aviation). Foc...

  14. Underlay Spectrum Sharing Techniques with In-Band Full-Duplex Systems using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed; Amin, Osama; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PUs) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-interference introduced at the primary network may dramatically impede

  15. Framework for managing shared knowledge in an information systems outsourcing context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both information systems (IS) outsourcing and knowledge management are well-established business phenomena. The integration of shared knowledge in an IS outsourcing arrangement, represents the blending of organisational knowledge with external...

  16. A Microeconomic Approach to Intelligent Resource Sharing in Multiagent Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jaeho; Durfee, Edmund H

    1995-01-01

    .... Our techniques allow agents to nearly optimize their communication behavior in a self-organizing and distributed fashion, involving the use of a microeconomic pricing system based on economic laws...

  17. Sharing Year 2000 Testing Information on DOD Information Technology Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether planning for year 2000 testing is adequate to ensure that mission critical DoD information technology systems will continue to operate properly after the year 2000...

  18. The Great Recession And Increased Cost Sharing In European Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Raffaele; Lee, John Tayu; Hone, Thomas; Filippidis, Filippos T; Millett, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    European health systems are increasingly adopting cost-sharing models, potentially increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for patients who use health care services or buy medications. Government policies that increase patient cost sharing are responding to incremental growth in cost pressures from aging populations and the need to invest in new health technologies, as well as to general constraints on public expenditures resulting from the Great Recession (2007-09). We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to examine changes from 2006-07 to 2013 in out-of-pocket expenditures among people ages fifty and older in eleven European countries. Our results identify increases both in the proportion of older European citizens who incurred out-of-pocket expenditures and in mean out-of-pocket expenditures over this period. We also identified a significant increase over time in the percentage of people who incurred catastrophic health expenditures (greater than 30 percent of the household income) in the Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain. Poorer populations were less likely than those in the highest income quintile to incur an out-of-pocket expenditure and reported lower mean out-of-pocket expenditures, which suggests that measures are in place to provide poorer groups with some financial protection. These findings indicate the substantial weakening of financial protection for people ages fifty and older in European health systems after the Great Recession. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimensional time-bin entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takesue, Hiroki; Inoue, Kyo

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scheme for quantum secret sharing (QSS) that uses a modulated high-dimensional time-bin entanglement. By modulating the relative phase randomly by {0,π}, a sender with the entanglement source can randomly change the sign of the correlation of the measurement outcomes obtained by two distant recipients. The two recipients must cooperate if they are to obtain the sign of the correlation, which is used as a secret key. We show that our scheme is secure against intercept-and-resend (IR) and beam splitting attacks by an outside eavesdropper thanks to the nonorthogonality of high-dimensional time-bin entangled states. We also show that a cheating attempt based on an IR attack by one of the recipients can be detected by changing the dimension of the time-bin entanglement randomly and inserting two 'vacant' slots between the packets. Then, cheating attempts can be detected by monitoring the count rate in the vacant slots. The proposed scheme has better experimental feasibility than previously proposed entanglement-based QSS schemes

  20. The Advanced LIGO timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, Imre; Factourovich, Maxim; Marka, Szabolcs; Marka, Zsuzsa; Raics, Zoltan; Bork, Rolf; Heefner, Jay; Schwinberg, Paul; Sigg, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational wave detection using a network of detectors relies upon the precise time stamping of gravitational wave signals. The relative arrival times between detectors are crucial, e.g. in recovering the source direction, an essential step in using gravitational waves for multi-messenger astronomy. Due to the large size of gravitational wave detectors, timing at different parts of a given detector also needs to be highly synchronized. In general, the requirement toward the precision of timing is determined such that, upon detection, the deduced (astro-) physical results should not be limited by the precision of timing. The Advanced LIGO optical timing distribution system is designed to provide UTC-synchronized timing information for the Advanced LIGO detectors that satisfies the above criterium. The Advanced LIGO timing system has modular structure, enabling quick and easy adaptation to the detector frame as well as possible changes or additions of components. It also includes a self-diagnostics system that enables the remote monitoring of the status of timing. After the description of the Advanced LIGO timing system, several tests are presented that demonstrate its precision and robustness.

  1. Coping with the knowledge sharing barriers in Product Service Systems design

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoni, Marco; Larsson, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the knowledge sharing process that characterizes Product Service Systems (PSS) design, drawing on data from an in-depth study in the Swedish manufacturing industry. It categorizes and describes the most relevant knowledge sharing barriers affecting early PSS development phases, discussing them in terms of capabilities to be included in a knowledge engineering system to fulfil the increasing need for knowledge in product-service design. To cope with these barriers, the auth...

  2. Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: A Measure of System Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jodyn E; Jacobson, Peter D; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2018-04-01

    To measure public trust in a health information sharing in a broadly defined health system (system trust), inclusive of health care, public health, and research; to identify individual characteristics that predict system trust; and to consider these findings in the context of national health initiatives (e.g., learning health systems and precision medicine) that will expand the scope of data sharing. Survey data (n = 1,011) were collected in February 2014. We constructed a composite index of four dimensions of system trust-competency, fidelity, integrity, and trustworthiness. The index was used in linear regression evaluating demographic and psychosocial predictors of system trust. Data were collected by GfK Custom using a nationally representative sample and analyzed in Stata 13.0. Our findings suggest the public's trust may not meet the needs of health systems as they enter an era of expanded data sharing. We found that a majority of the U.S. public does not trust the organizations that have health information and share it (i.e., the health system) in one or more dimensions. Together, demographic and psychosocial factors accounted for ~18 percent of the observed variability in system trust. Future research should consider additional predictors of system trust such as knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs to inform policies and practices for health data sharing. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves de Campos, Thiago

    This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same

  4. Design-time performance analysis of component-based real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarev, E.

    2009-01-01

    In current real-time systems, performance metrics are one of the most challenging properties to specify, predict and measure. Performance properties depend on various factors, like environmental context, load profile, middleware, operating system, hardware platform and sharing of internal resources.

  5. A Hierarchical Transactive Energy Management System for Energy Sharing in Residential Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most Nahida Akter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework to develop a hierarchical energy management system (EMS for energy sharing among neighbouring households in residential microgrids. The houses in residential microgrids are categorized into three different types, traditional, proactive and enthusiastic, based on the inclusion of solar photovoltaic (PV systems and battery energy storage systems (BESSs. Each of these three houses has an individual EMS, which is defined as the primary EMS. Two other EMSs (secondary and tertiary are also considered in the proposed hierarchical energy management framework for the purpose of effective energy sharing. The intelligences of each EMS are presented in this paper for the purpose of energy sharing in a residential microgrid along with the priorities. The effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical framework is evaluated on a residential microgrid in Australia. The analytical results clearly reflect that the proposed scheme effectively and efficiently shares the energy among neighbouring houses in a residential microgrid.

  6. Achievable capacity of a spectrum sharing system over hyper fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ekin, Sabit

    2009-11-01

    Cognitive radio with spectrum sharing feature is a promising technique to address the spectrum under-utilization problem in dynamically changing environments. In this paper, achievable capacity gain of spectrum sharing systems over dynamic fading environments is studied. For the analysis, a theoretical fading model called hyper fading model that is suitable to the dynamic nature of cognitive radio channel is proposed. Closed-form expression of probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for secondary users in spectrum sharing systems are derived. In addition, the capacity gains achievable with spectrum sharing systems in high and low power regions are obtained. Numerical simulations are performed to study the effects of different fading figures, average powers, interference temperature, and number of secondary users on the achievable capacity.

  7. Caribbean corals house shared and host-specific microbial symbionts over time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nathaniel D; Vollmer, Steven V

    2016-08-01

    The rise of coral diseases has triggered a surge of interest in coral microbial communities. But to fully understand how the coral microbiome may cause or respond to disease, we must first understand structure and variation in the healthy coral microbiome. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiomes of 100 healthy coral colonies from six Caribbean coral species (Acropora cervicornis, A. palmata, Diploria labyrinthiformis, Diploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and P. furcata) across four reefs and three time points over 1 year. We found host species to be the strongest driver of coral microbiome structure across site and time. Analysis of the core microbiome revealed remarkable similarity in the bacterial taxa represented across coral hosts and many bacterial phylotypes shared across all corals sampled. Some of these widespread bacterial taxa have been identified in Pacific corals, indicating that a core coral microbiome may extend across oceans. Core bacterial phylotypes that were unique to each coral were taxonomically diverse, suggesting that different coral hosts provide persistent, divergent niches for bacteria. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  9. Nuclear physics. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, O; Sargsian, M; Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Hakobyan, H; Higinbotham, D W; Braverman, M; Brooks, W K; Gilad, S; Adhikari, K P; Arrington, J; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Beck, A; May-Tal Beck, S; Bedlinskiy, I; Bertozzi, W; Biselli, A; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Forest, T; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkanov, B I; Isupov, E L; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Korover, I; Kuhn, S E; Kubarovsky, V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Mustapha, B; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Roy, P; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Shneor, R; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Wood, S A; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I

    2014-10-31

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using (12)C, (27)Al, (56)Fe, and (208)Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Shared visual attention and memory systems in the Drosophila brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno van Swinderen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective attention and memory seem to be related in human experience. This appears to be the case as well in simple model organisms such as the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations affecting olfactory and visual memory formation in Drosophila, such as in dunce and rutabaga, also affect short-term visual processes relevant to selective attention. In particular, increased optomotor responsiveness appears to be predictive of visual attention defects in these mutants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further explore the possible overlap between memory and visual attention systems in the fly brain, we screened a panel of 36 olfactory long term memory (LTM mutants for visual attention-like defects using an optomotor maze paradigm. Three of these mutants yielded high dunce-like optomotor responsiveness. We characterized these three strains by examining their visual distraction in the maze, their visual learning capabilities, and their brain activity responses to visual novelty. We found that one of these mutants, D0067, was almost completely identical to dunce(1 for all measures, while another, D0264, was more like wild type. Exploiting the fact that the LTM mutants are also Gal4 enhancer traps, we explored the sufficiency for the cells subserved by these elements to rescue dunce attention defects and found overlap at the level of the mushroom bodies. Finally, we demonstrate that control of synaptic function in these Gal4 expressing cells specifically modulates a 20-30 Hz local field potential associated with attention-like effects in the fly brain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study uncovers genetic and neuroanatomical systems in the fly brain affecting both visual attention and odor memory phenotypes. A common component to these systems appears to be the mushroom bodies, brain structures which have been traditionally associated with odor learning but which we propose might be also involved in generating oscillatory brain activity

  11. Information-Sharing Application Standards for Integrated Government Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    process functionality into core business and global enterprise services that are available to each agency as needed. Figure 7. FEA Segment Map99 As...to SOA Environments – eLearning ,” n.d., http://www.sei.cmu.edu/training/v06.cfm. 102 Software AG, “Your Guide to SOA Success,” n.d., http...Development. “Migrating Legacy Systems to SOA Environments – eLearning ,” (n.d.) http://www.sei.cmu.edu/training/v06.cfm (accessed October 29, 2010

  12. Expanding Bicycle-Sharing Systems: Lessons Learnt from an Analysis of Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Thomas, Tom; Brussel, M J G; van Maarseveen, M F A M

    2016-01-01

    Bike-sharing programs, with initiatives to increase bike use and improve accessibility of urban transit, have received increasing attention in growing number of cities across the world. The latest generation of bike-sharing systems has employed smart card technology that produces station-based data or trip-level data. This facilitates the studies of the practical use of these systems. However, few studies have paid attention to the changes in users and system usage over the years, as well as the impact of system expansion on its usage. Monitoring the changes of system usage over years enables the identification of system performance and can serve as an input for improving the location-allocation of stations. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of the expansion of a bicycle-sharing system on the usage of the system. This was conducted for a bicycle-sharing system in Zhongshan (China), using operational usage data of different years following system expansion. To this end, we performed statistical and spatial analyses to examine the changes in both users and system usage between before and after the system expansion. The findings show that there is a big variation in users and aggregate usage following the system expansion. However, the trend in spatial distribution of demand shows no substantial difference over the years, i.e. the same high-demand and low-demand areas appear. There are decreases in demand for some old stations over the years, which can be attributed to either the negative performance of the system or the competition of nearby new stations. Expanding the system not only extends the original users' ability to reach new areas but also attracts new users to use bike-sharing systems. In the conclusions, we present and discuss the findings, and offer recommendations for the further expansion of system.

  13. Expanding Bicycle-Sharing Systems: Lessons Learnt from an Analysis of Usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available Bike-sharing programs, with initiatives to increase bike use and improve accessibility of urban transit, have received increasing attention in growing number of cities across the world. The latest generation of bike-sharing systems has employed smart card technology that produces station-based data or trip-level data. This facilitates the studies of the practical use of these systems. However, few studies have paid attention to the changes in users and system usage over the years, as well as the impact of system expansion on its usage. Monitoring the changes of system usage over years enables the identification of system performance and can serve as an input for improving the location-allocation of stations. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of the expansion of a bicycle-sharing system on the usage of the system. This was conducted for a bicycle-sharing system in Zhongshan (China, using operational usage data of different years following system expansion. To this end, we performed statistical and spatial analyses to examine the changes in both users and system usage between before and after the system expansion. The findings show that there is a big variation in users and aggregate usage following the system expansion. However, the trend in spatial distribution of demand shows no substantial difference over the years, i.e. the same high-demand and low-demand areas appear. There are decreases in demand for some old stations over the years, which can be attributed to either the negative performance of the system or the competition of nearby new stations. Expanding the system not only extends the original users' ability to reach new areas but also attracts new users to use bike-sharing systems. In the conclusions, we present and discuss the findings, and offer recommendations for the further expansion of system.

  14. It's all in the timing: calibrating temporal penalties for biomedical data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weiyi; Wan, Zhiyu; Yin, Zhijun; Gaupp, James; Liu, Yongtai; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Malin, Bradley A

    2018-01-01

    Biomedical science is driven by datasets that are being accumulated at an unprecedented rate, with ever-growing volume and richness. There are various initiatives to make these datasets more widely available to recipients who sign Data Use Certificate agreements, whereby penalties are levied for violations. A particularly popular penalty is the temporary revocation, often for several months, of the recipient's data usage rights. This policy is based on the assumption that the value of biomedical research data depreciates significantly over time; however, no studies have been performed to substantiate this belief. This study investigates whether this assumption holds true and the data science policy implications. This study tests the hypothesis that the value of data for scientific investigators, in terms of the impact of the publications based on the data, decreases over time. The hypothesis is tested formally through a mixed linear effects model using approximately 1200 publications between 2007 and 2013 that used datasets from the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes, a data-sharing initiative of the National Institutes of Health. The analysis shows that the impact factors for publications based on Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes datasets depreciate in a statistically significant manner. However, we further discover that the depreciation rate is slow, only ∼10% per year, on average. The enduring value of data for subsequent studies implies that revoking usage for short periods of time may not sufficiently deter those who would violate Data Use Certificate agreements and that alternative penalty mechanisms may need to be invoked. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, W.; Steimel, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System

  17. Bacterial intelligence: imitation games, time-sharing, and long-range quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sarangam; Pal, Sukla

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria are far more intelligent than we can think of. They adopt different survival strategies to make their life comfortable. Researches on bacterial communication to date suggest that bacteria can communicate with each other using chemical signaling molecules as well as using ion channel mediated electrical signaling. Though in past few decades the scopes of chemical signaling have been investigated extensively, those of electrical signaling have received less attention. In this article, we present a novel perspective on time-sharing behavior, which maintains the biofilm growth under reduced nutrient supply between two distant biofilms through electrical signaling based on the experimental evidence reported by Liu et al., in 2017. In addition, following the recent work by Humphries et al. Cell 168(1):200-209, in 2017, we highlight the consequences of long range electrical signaling within biofilm communities through spatially propagating waves of potassium. Furthermore, we address the possibility of two-way cellular communication between artificial and natural cells through chemical signaling being inspired by recent experimental observation (Lentini et al. 2017) where the efficiency of artificial cells in imitating the natural cells is estimated through cellular Turing test. These three spectacular observations lead us to envisage and devise new classical and quantum views of these complex biochemical networks that have never been realized previously.

  18. Versatile timing system for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, N.H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This System consists of the Master Timing Transmitter and the Local Timing Receivers. The Master Timing Transmitter located in the control room initiates timing messages, abort messages and precise delay messages. A sync message is sent when one of the other three is not being sent. The Local Timing Receiver, located in the equipment area, decodes the incoming messages and generates 6 MHz, 3MHz and 1 MHz continuous clocks. A 250 KHz sync clock is derived from the sync messages, to which all pulse outputs are synchronized. The Local Timing Receiver also provides two ON-OFF delay counters of 64 bits each, and one OFF delay counter of 32 bits. Detection of abort messages and an out-of-sync signal will automatically disable all outputs

  19. Job Sharing: A Part-Time Career for a Fuller Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally A.; Mikitka, Kathleen F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes job sharing as a rewarding alternative for those who wish to combine a career with child rearing, education, avocations, or leisure activities. Advantages and drawbacks for employers and suggestions for prospective job sharers are elaborated. (SK)

  20. Asymmetric exclusion processes with site sharing in a one-channel transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mingzhe; Hawick, Ken; Marsland, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This Letter investigates two-species totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with site sharing in a one-channel transport system. In the model, different species of particles may share the same sites, while particles of the same species may not (hard-core exclusion). The site-sharing mechanism is applied to the bulk as well as the boundaries. Such sharing mechanism within the framework of the TASEP has been largely ignored so far. The steady-state phase diagrams, currents and bulk densities are obtained using a mean-field approximation and computer simulations. The presence of three stationary phases (low-density, high-density, and maximal current) are identified. A comparison on the stationary current with the Bridge model [M.R. Evans, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995) 208] has shown that our model can enhance the current. The theoretical calculations are well supported by Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Evaluating interface characteristics for shared lighting systems in the office environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werff, T.C.F.; Niemantsverdriet, K.; van Essen, H.A.; Eggen, J.H.

    IoT developments make shared systems, such as lighting systems, increasingly connected. From an interaction perspective, this offers opportunities for personal control. Especially for lighting, the benefits of personal control have been underlined by research. However, how to design interfaces that

  2. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology : The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal

  3. Integration of MDSplus in real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2006-01-01

    RFX-mod makes extensive usage of real-time systems for feedback control and uses MDSplus to interface them to the main Data Acquisition system. For this purpose, the core of MDSplus has been ported to VxWorks, the operating system used for real-time control in RFX. Using this approach, it is possible to integrate real-time systems, but MDSplus is used only for non-real-time tasks, i.e. those tasks which are executed before and after the pulse and whose performance does not affect the system time constraints. More extensive use of MDSplus in real-time systems is foreseen, and a real-time layer for MDSplus is under development, which will provide access to memory-mapped pulse files, shared by the tasks running on the same CPU. Real-time communication will also be integrated in the MDSplus core to provide support for distributed memory-mapped pulse files

  4. Cooperative AF Relaying in Spectrum-Sharing Systems: Outage Probability Analysis under Co-Channel Interferences and Relay Selection

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    For cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in spectrum-sharing wireless systems, secondary users share spectrum resources originally licensed to primary users to communicate with each other and, thus, the transmit power of secondary

  5. Learned parametrized dynamic movement primitives with shared synergies for controlling robotic and musculoskeletal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar eRückert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A salient feature of human motor skill learning is the ability to exploitsimilarities across related tasks.In biological motor control, it has been hypothesized that muscle synergies,coherent activations of groups of muscles, allow for exploiting shared knowledge.Recent studies have shown that a rich set of complex motor skills can be generated bya combination of a small number of muscle synergies.In robotics, dynamic movement primitives are commonlyused for motor skill learning. This machine learning approach implements a stable attractor systemthat facilitates learning and it can be used in high-dimensional continuous spaces. However, it does not allow for reusing shared knowledge, i.e. for each task an individual set of parameters has to be learned.We propose a novel movement primitive representationthat employs parametrized basis functions, which combines the benefits of muscle synergiesand dynamic movement primitives. For each task asuperposition of synergies modulates a stable attractor system.This approach leads to a compact representation of multiple motor skills andat the same time enables efficient learning in high-dimensional continuous systems.The movement representation supports discrete and rhythmic movements andin particular includes the dynamic movement primitive approach as a special case.We demonstrate the feasibility of the movement representation in three multi-task learning simulated scenarios.First, the characteristics of the proposed representation are illustrated in a point-mass task.Second, in complex humanoid walking experiments,multiple walking patterns with different step heights are learned robustly and efficiently.Finally, in a multi-directional reaching task simulated with a musculoskeletal modelof the human arm, we show how the proposed movement primitives can be used tolearn appropriate muscle excitation patterns and to generalize effectively to new reaching skills.

  6. Request queues for interactive clients in a shared file system of a parallel computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin

    2015-08-18

    Interactive requests are processed from users of log-in nodes. A metadata server node is provided for use in a file system shared by one or more interactive nodes and one or more batch nodes. The interactive nodes comprise interactive clients to execute interactive tasks and the batch nodes execute batch jobs for one or more batch clients. The metadata server node comprises a virtual machine monitor; an interactive client proxy to store metadata requests from the interactive clients in an interactive client queue; a batch client proxy to store metadata requests from the batch clients in a batch client queue; and a metadata server to store the metadata requests from the interactive client queue and the batch client queue in a metadata queue based on an allocation of resources by the virtual machine monitor. The metadata requests can be prioritized, for example, based on one or more of a predefined policy and predefined rules.

  7. System-Level Shared Governance Structures and Processes in Healthcare Systems With Magnet®-Designated Hospitals: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Carlisa M; Hayne, Arlene N

    The purpose was to identify and describe structures and processes of best practices for system-level shared governance in healthcare systems. Currently, more than 64.6% of US community hospitals are part of a system. System chief nurse executives (SCNEs) are challenged to establish leadership structures and processes that effectively and efficiently disseminate best practices for patients and staff across complex organizations, geographically dispersed locations, and populations. Eleven US healthcare SCNEs from the American Nurses Credentialing Center's repository of Magnet®-designated facilities participated in a 35-multiquestion interview based on Kanter's Theory of Organizational Empowerment. Most SCNEs reported the presence of more than 50% of the empowerment structures and processes in system-level shared governance. Despite the difficulties and complexities of growing health systems, SCNEs have replicated empowerment characteristics of hospital shared governance structures and processes at the system level.

  8. E-Token Energy-Aware Proportionate Sharing Scheduling Algorithm for Multiprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupuleti Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available WSN plays vital role from small range healthcare surveillance systems to largescale environmental monitoring. Its design for energy constrained applications is a challenging issue. Sensors in WSNs are projected to run separately for longer periods. It is of excessive cost to substitute exhausted batteries which is not even possible in antagonistic situations. Multiprocessors are used in WSNs for high performance scientific computing, where each processor is assigned the same or different workload. When the computational demands of the system increase then the energy efficient approaches play an important role to increase system lifetime. Energy efficiency is commonly carried out by using proportionate fair scheduler. This introduces abnormal overloading effect. In order to overcome the existing problems E-token Energy-Aware Proportionate Sharing (EEAPS scheduling is proposed here. The power consumption for each thread/task is calculated and the tasks are allotted to the multiple processors through the auctioning mechanism. The algorithm is simulated by using the real-time simulator (RTSIM and the results are tested.

  9. "Why Can't We Share?" after 9/11: The Critical Role of Stakeholders in the Process of Planning Inter-Organizational Information Integration System (IOIS) Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    The problem of information sharing and coordination was made starkly evident by the September 11th attacks. September 11th illuminated the problems that justice agencies had in sharing information in a timely and collaborative nature without an interoperable data-sharing system. A number of government audits and justice agency leaders have sought…

  10. The Needs for Information and Knowledge Sharing through Microsoft Office Sharepoint System (MOSS) in Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhiah Jamalludin; Manisah Saedon; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Sufian Norazam Mohamed Aris

    2011-01-01

    This paper explain in detail the advantage of using Microsoft Office Sharepoint System or Sharepoint-Knowledge Management System (SP-KMS) use as a platform for knowledge sharing among Nuclear Malaysia staffs. SP-KMS was launched in early June 2010 for Technical Programme starting with Technical Support Division, Radiation Safety and Health Division, Engineering Division and Reactor Technology Division. The uses of SP-KMS then expand in other division that need knowledge sharing such as Research Institute of Management Center (RIMC) and Agricultural and Biosciences Division. (author)

  11. Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: Implications for Biobanking and Electronic Health Record Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodyn Platt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biobanks are made all the more valuable when the biological samples they hold can be linked to health information collected in research, electronic health records, or public health practice. Public trust in such systems that share health information for research and health care practice is understudied. Our research examines characteristics of the general public that predict trust in a health system that includes researchers, health care providers, insurance companies and public health departments. We created a 119-item survey of predictors and attributes of system trust and fielded it using Amazon’s MTurk system (n = 447. We found that seeing one’s primary care provider, having a favorable view of data sharing and believing that data sharing will improve the quality of health care, as well as psychosocial factors (altruism and generalized trust were positively and significantly associated with system trust. As expected, privacy concern, but counterintuitively, knowledge about health information sharing were negatively associated with system trust. We conclude that, in order to assure the public’s trust, policy makers charged with setting best practices for governance of biobanks and access to electronic health records should leverage critical access points to engage a diverse public in joint decision making.

  12. Medical high-resolution image sharing and electronic whiteboard system: A pure-web-based system for accessing and discussing lossless original images in telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Li, Ying; Chen, Xin; Yang, Sheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Hongjun; Feng, Zhengquan; Nian, Yongjian; Qiu, Mingguo

    2015-09-01

    There are various medical image sharing and electronic whiteboard systems available for diagnosis and discussion purposes. However, most of these systems ask clients to install special software tools or web plug-ins to support whiteboard discussion, special medical image format, and customized decoding algorithm of data transmission of HRIs (high-resolution images). This limits the accessibility of the software running on different devices and operating systems. In this paper, we propose a solution based on pure web pages for medical HRIs lossless sharing and e-whiteboard discussion, and have set up a medical HRI sharing and e-whiteboard system, which has four-layered design: (1) HRIs access layer: we improved an tile-pyramid model named unbalanced ratio pyramid structure (URPS), to rapidly share lossless HRIs and to adapt to the reading habits of users; (2) format conversion layer: we designed a format conversion engine (FCE) on server side to real time convert and cache DICOM tiles which clients requesting with window-level parameters, to make browsers compatible and keep response efficiency to server-client; (3) business logic layer: we built a XML behavior relationship storage structure to store and share users' behavior, to keep real time co-browsing and discussion between clients; (4) web-user-interface layer: AJAX technology and Raphael toolkit were used to combine HTML and JavaScript to build client RIA (rich Internet application), to meet clients' desktop-like interaction on any pure webpage. This system can be used to quickly browse lossless HRIs, and support discussing and co-browsing smoothly on any web browser in a diversified network environment. The proposal methods can provide a way to share HRIs safely, and may be used in the field of regional health, telemedicine and remote education at a low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coinduction in concurrent timed systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 264, č. 2 (2010), s. 177-197 ISSN 1571-0661 Grant - others:EU Projekt(XE) EU.ICT.DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : timed discrete-event systems * partial Mealy automata * functional stream calculus * synchronous composition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1571066110000794

  14. OLYMPUS DISS - A Readily Implemented Geographic Data and Information Sharing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necsoiu, D. M.; Winfrey, B.; Murphy, K.; McKague, H. L.

    2002-12-01

    Electronic information technology has become a crucial component of business, government, and scientific organizations. In this technology era, many enterprises are moving away from the perception that information repositories are only a tool for decision-making. Instead, many organizations are learning that information systems, which are capable of organizing and following the interrelations between information and both the short-term and strategic organizational goals, are assets themselves, with inherent value. Olympus Data and Information Sharing System (DISS) is a system developed at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to solve several difficult tasks associated with the management of geographical, geological and geophysical data. Three of the tasks were to (1) gather the large amount of heterogeneous information that has accumulated over the operational lifespan of CNWRA, (2) store the data in a central, knowledge-based, searchable database and (3) create quick, easy, convenient, and reliable access to that information. Faced with these difficult tasks CNWRA identified the requirements for designing such a system. Key design criteria were: (a) ability to ingest different data formats (i.e., raster, vector, and tabular data); (b) minimal expense using open-source and commercial off-the-shelf software; (c) seamless management of geospatial data, freeing up time for researchers to focus on analyses or algorithm development, rather than on time consuming format conversions; (d) controlled access; and (e) scalable architecture to meet new and continuing demands. Olympus DISS is a solution that can be easily adapted to small and mid-size enterprises dealing with heterogeneous geographic data. It uses established data standards, provides a flexible mechanism to build applications upon and output geographic data in multiple and clear ways. This abstract is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views or

  15. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  16. Cooperative storage of shared files in a parallel computing system with dynamic block size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2015-11-10

    Improved techniques are provided for parallel writing of data to a shared object in a parallel computing system. A method is provided for storing data generated by a plurality of parallel processes to a shared object in a parallel computing system. The method is performed by at least one of the processes and comprises: dynamically determining a block size for storing the data; exchanging a determined amount of the data with at least one additional process to achieve a block of the data having the dynamically determined block size; and writing the block of the data having the dynamically determined block size to a file system. The determined block size comprises, e.g., a total amount of the data to be stored divided by the number of parallel processes. The file system comprises, for example, a log structured virtual parallel file system, such as a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS).

  17. Load-Sharing Characteristics of Power-Split Transmission System Based on Deformation Compatibility and Loaded Tooth Contact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement the uniform load distribution of the power-split transmission system, a pseudostatic model is built. Based on the loaded tooth contact analysis (LTCA technique, the actual meshing process of each gear pair is simulated and the fitting curve of time-varying mesh stiffness is obtained. And then, the torsional angle deformation compatibility conditions are proposed according to the closed-loop characteristic of power flow, which will be combined with the torque equilibrium conditions and elastic support conditions to calculate the transfer torque of each gear pair. Finally, the load-sharing coefficient of the power-split transmission system is obtained, and the influences of the installation errors are analyzed. The results show that the above-mentioned installation errors comprehensively influence the load-sharing characteristics, and the reduction of only one error could not effectively achieve perfect load-sharing characteristics. Allowing for the spline clearance floating and constrained by the radial spacing ring, the influence of the floating pinion is analyzed. It shows that the floating pinion can improve the load-sharing characteristics. Through the comparison between the theoretical and related experimental data, the reasonability and feasibility of the above-proposed method and model are verified.

  18. Explicit time integration of finite element models on a vectorized, concurrent computer with shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertsen, Noreen D.; Belytschko, Ted

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of a nonlinear explicit program on a vectorized, concurrent computer with shared memory is described and studied. The conflict between vectorization and concurrency is described and some guidelines are given for optimal block sizes. Several example problems are summarized to illustrate the types of speed-ups which can be achieved by reprogramming as compared to compiler optimization.

  19. Shared leadership in multiteam systems: how cockpit and cabin crews lead each other to safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienefeld, Nadine; Grote, Gudela

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of shared leadership within and across teams in multiteam systems (MTS) on team goal attainment and MTS success. Due to different and sometimes competing goals in MTS, leadership is required within and across teams. Shared leadership, the effectiveness of which has been proven in single teams, may be an effective strategy to cope with these challenges. We observed leadership in 84 cockpit and cabin crews that collaborated in the form of six-member MTS aircrews (N = 504) during standardized simulations of an in-flight emergency. Leadership was coded by three trained observers using a structured observation system. Team goal attainment was assessed by two subject matter experts using a checklist-based rating tool. MTS goal attainment was measured objectively on the basis of the outcome of the simulated flights. In successful MTS aircrews, formal leaders and team members displayed significantly more leadership behaviors, shared leadership by pursers and flight attendants predicted team goal attainment, and pursers' shared leadership across team boundaries predicted cross-team goal attainment. In cockpit crews, leadership was not shared and captains' vertical leadership predicted team goal attainment regardless of MTS success. The results indicate that in general, shared leadership positively relates to team goal attainment and MTS success,whereby boundary spanners' dual leadership role is key. Leadership training in MTS should address shared rather than merely vertical forms of leadership, and component teams in MTS should be trained together with emphasis on boundary spanners' dual leadership role. Furthermore, team members should be empowered to engage in leadership processes when required.

  20. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Berg, J.L. van den; Boucherie, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  1. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue and the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not applicable for computational purposes. This paper derives

  2. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  3. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  4. Fermi Timing and Synchronization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.; Staples, J.; Doolittle, L.; Byrd, J.; Ratti, A.; Kaertner, F.X.; Kim, J.; Chen, J.; Ilday, F.O.; Ludwig, F.; Winter, A.; Ferianis, M.; Danailov, M.; D'Auria, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Fermi FEL will depend critically on precise timing of its RF, laser and diagnostic subsystems. The timing subsystem to coordinate these functions will need to reliably maintain sub-100fs synchronicity between distant points up to 300m apart in the Fermi facility. The technology to do this is not commercially available, and has not been experimentally demonstrated in a working facility. Therefore, new technology must be developed to meet these needs. Two approaches have been researched by different groups working with the Fermi staff. At MIT, a pulse transmission scheme has been developed for synchronization of RF and laser devices. And at LBL, a CW transmission scheme has been developed for RF and laser synchronization. These respective schemes have advantages and disadvantages that will become better understood in coming years. This document presents the work done by both teams, and suggests a possible system design which integrates them both. The integrated system design provides an example of how choices can be made between the different approaches without significantly changing the basic infrastructure of the system. Overall system issues common to any synchronization scheme are also discussed

  5. Fermi Timing and Synchronization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, R.; Staples, J.; Doolittle, L.; Byrd, J.; Ratti, A.; Kaertner, F.X.; Kim, J.; Chen, J.; Ilday, F.O.; Ludwig, F.; Winter, A.; Ferianis, M.; Danailov, M.; D' Auria, G.

    2006-07-19

    The Fermi FEL will depend critically on precise timing of its RF, laser and diagnostic subsystems. The timing subsystem to coordinate these functions will need to reliably maintain sub-100fs synchronicity between distant points up to 300m apart in the Fermi facility. The technology to do this is not commercially available, and has not been experimentally demonstrated in a working facility. Therefore, new technology must be developed to meet these needs. Two approaches have been researched by different groups working with the Fermi staff. At MIT, a pulse transmission scheme has been developed for synchronization of RF and laser devices. And at LBL, a CW transmission scheme has been developed for RF and laser synchronization. These respective schemes have advantages and disadvantages that will become better understood in coming years. This document presents the work done by both teams, and suggests a possible system design which integrates them both. The integrated system design provides an example of how choices can be made between the different approaches without significantly changing the basic infrastructure of the system. Overall system issues common to any synchronization scheme are also discussed.

  6. Costs and Benefits of a Shared Digital Long-Term Preservation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa-Pekka Keskitalo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the cost-benefit analysis of digital long-term preservation (LTP that was carried out in the context of the Finnish National Digital Library Project (NDL in 2010. The analysis was based on the assumption that as many as 200 archives, libraries, and museums will share an LTP system. The term ‘system’ shall be understood as encompassing not only information technology, but also human resources, organizational structures, policies and funding mechanisms. The cost analysis shows that an LTP system will incur, over the first 12 years, cumulative costs of €42 million, i.e. an average of €3.5 million per annum. Human resources and investments in information technology are the major cost factors. After the initial stages, the analysis predicts annual costs of circa €4 million. The analysis compared scenarios with and without a shared LTP system. The results indicate that a shared system will have remarkable benefits. At the development and implementation stages, a shared system shows an advantage of €30 million against the alternative scenario consisting of five independent LTP solutions. During the later stages, the advantage is estimated at €10 million per annum. The cumulative cost benefit over the first 12 years would amount to circa €100 million.

  7. Reliability Analysis of Load-Sharing K-out-of-N System Considering Component Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The K-out-of-N configuration is a typical form of redundancy techniques to improve system reliability, where at least K-out-of-N components must work for successful operation of system. When the components are degraded, more components are needed to meet the system requirement, which means that the value of K has to increase. The current reliability analysis methods overestimate the reliability, because using constant K ignores the degradation effect. In a load-sharing system with degrading components, the workload shared on each surviving component will increase after a random component failure, resulting in higher failure rate and increased performance degradation rate. This paper proposes a method combining a tampered failure rate model with a performance degradation model to analyze the reliability of load-sharing K-out-of-N system with degrading components. The proposed method considers the value of K as a variable which is derived by the performance degradation model. Also, the load-sharing effect is evaluated by the tampered failure rate model. Monte-Carlo simulation procedure is used to estimate the discrete probability distribution of K. The case of a solar panel is studied in this paper, and the result shows that the reliability considering component degradation is less than that ignoring component degradation.

  8. Predicting multiprocessing efficiency on the Cray multiprocessors in a (CTSS) time-sharing environment/application to a 3-D magnetohydrodynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    A formula is derived for predicting multiprocessing efficiency on Cray supercomputers equipped with the Cray Time-Sharing System (CTSS). The model is applicable to an intensive time-sharing environment. The actual efficiency estimate depends on three factors: the code size, task length, and job mix. The implementation of multitasking in a three-dimensional plasma magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, TEMCO, is discussed. TEMCO solves the primitive one-fluid compressible MHD equations and includes resistive and Hall effects in Ohm's law. Virtually all segments of the main time-integration loop are multitasked. The multiprocessing efficiency model is applied to TEMCO. Excellent agreement is obtained between the actual multiprocessing efficiency and the theoretical prediction

  9. An e-consent-based shared EHR system architecture for integrated healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Joachim; Bott, Oliver J; Pretschner, Dietrich P; Haux, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    Virtual integration of distributed patient data promises advantages over a consolidated health record, but raises questions mainly about practicability and authorization concepts. Our work aims on specification and development of a virtual shared health record architecture using a patient-centred integration and authorization model. A literature survey summarizes considerations of current architectural approaches. Complemented by a methodical analysis in two regional settings, a formal architecture model was specified and implemented. Results presented in this paper are a survey of architectural approaches for shared health records and an architecture model for a virtual shared EHR, which combines a patient-centred integration policy with provider-oriented document management. An electronic consent system assures, that access to the shared record remains under control of the patient. A corresponding system prototype has been developed and is currently being introduced and evaluated in a regional setting. The proposed architecture is capable of partly replacing message-based communications. Operating highly available provider repositories for the virtual shared EHR requires advanced technology and probably means additional costs for care providers. Acceptance of the proposed architecture depends on transparently embedding document validation and digital signature into the work processes. The paradigm shift from paper-based messaging to a "pull model" needs further evaluation.

  10. Governance of global health research consortia: Sharing sovereignty and resources within Future Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-02-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia that conduct programs of research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). An ethical framework has been developed that describes how the governance of consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and LMICs should be structured to promote health equity. It encompasses initial guidance for sharing sovereignty in consortia decision-making and sharing consortia resources. This paper describes a first effort to examine whether and how consortia can uphold that guidance. Case study research was undertaken with the Future Health Systems consortium, performs research to improve health service delivery for the poor in Bangladesh, China, India, and Uganda. Data were thematically analysed and revealed that proposed ethical requirements for sharing sovereignty and sharing resources are largely upheld by Future Health Systems. Facilitating factors included having a decentralised governance model, LMIC partners with good research capacity, and firm budgets. Higher labour costs in the US and UK and the funder's policy of allocating funds to consortia on a reimbursement basis prevented full alignment with guidance on sharing resources. The lessons described in this paper can assist other consortia to more systematically link their governance policy and practice to the promotion of health equity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal Cross-Layer Design for Energy Efficient D2D Sharing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2016-11-23

    In this paper, we propose a cross-layer design, which optimizes the energy efficiency of a potential future 5G spectrum-sharing environment, in two sharing scenarios. In the first scenario, underlying sharing is considered. We propose and minimize a modified energy per good bit (MEPG) metric, with respect to the spectrum sharing user’s transmission power and media access frame length. The cellular users, legacy users, are protected by an outage probability constraint. To optimize the non-convex targeted problem, we utilize the generalized convexity theory and verify the problem’s strictly pseudoconvex structure. We also derive analytical expressions of the optimal resources. In the second scenario, we minimize a generalized MEPG function while considering a probabilistic activity of cellular users and its impact on the MEPG performance of the spectrum sharing users. Finally, we derive the associated optimal resource allocation of this problem. Selected numerical results show the improvement of the proposed system compared with other systems.

  12. Dense time discretization technique for verification of real time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makackas, Dalius; Miseviciene, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Verifying the real-time system there are two different models to control the time: discrete and dense time based models. This paper argues a novel verification technique, which calculates discrete time intervals from dense time in order to create all the system states that can be reached from the initial system state. The technique is designed for real-time systems specified by a piece-linear aggregate approach. Key words: real-time system, dense time, verification, model checking, piece-linear aggregate

  13. An approach to medical knowledge sharing in a hospital information system using MCLink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Akiko; Inoue, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Masaharu; Kasahara, Shin; Maeda, Yukihiro; Umesato, Yoshimasa; Kondo, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-01

    Clinicians often need access to electronic information resources that answer questions that occur in daily clinical practice. This information generally comes from publicly available resources. However, clinicians also need knowledge on institution-specific information (e.g., institution-specific guidelines, choice of drug, choice of laboratory test, information on adverse events, and advice from professional colleagues). This information needs to be available in real time. This study characterizes these needs in order to build a prototype hospital information system (HIS) that can help clinicians get timely answers to questions. We previously designed medical knowledge units called Medical Cells (MCs). We developed a portal server of MCs that can create and store medical information such as institution-specific information. We then developed a prototype HIS that embeds MCs as links (MCLink); these links are based on specific terms (e.g., drug, laboratory test, and disease). This prototype HIS presents clinicians with institution-specific information. The HIS clients (e.g., clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and laboratory technicians) can also create an MCLink in the HIS using the portal server in the hospital. The prototype HIS allowed efficient sharing and use of institution-specific information to clinicians at the point of care. This study included institution-specific information resources and advice from professional colleagues, both of which might have an important role in supporting good clinical decision making.

  14. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  15. Space-Time Reference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  16. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  17. A real time monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Horacio; Galdoz, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    A real time monitoring system is described. It was initially developed to be used as a man-machine interface between a basic principles simulator of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and the operators. This simulator is under construction at the Bariloche Atomic Center's Process Control Division. Due to great design flexibility, this system can also be used in real plants. The system is designed to be run on a PC XT or AT personal computer with high resolution graphics capabilities. Three interrelated programs compose the system: 1) Graphics Editor, to build static image to be used as a reference frame where to show dynamically updated data. 2) Data acquisition and storage module. It is a memory resident module to acquire and store data in background. Data can be acquired and stored without interference with the operating system, via serial port or through analog-to-digital converter attached to the personal computer. 3) Display module. It shows the acquired data according to commands received from configuration files prepared by the operator. (Author) [es

  18. Predictive routing for autonomous mobility-on-demand systems with ride-sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso Mora, J.; Wallar, Alex; Rus, Daniela; Bicchi, A.; Maciejewski, T.

    2017-01-01

    Ride-sharing, or carpooling, systems with autonomous vehicles will provide efficient and reliable urban mobility on demand. In this work we present a method for dynamic vehicle routing that leverages historical data to improve the performance of a network of self-driving taxis. In particular, we

  19. Capacity limits of spectrum-sharing systems over hyper-fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ekin, Sabit

    2011-01-20

    Cognitive radio (CR) with spectrum-sharing feature is a promising technique to address the spectrum under-utilization problem in dynamically changing environments. In this paper, the achievable capacity gain of spectrum-sharing systems over dynamic fading environments is studied. To perform a general analysis, a theoretical fading model called hyper-fading model that is suitable to the dynamic nature of CR channel is proposed. Closed-form expressions of probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for secondary users (SUs) in spectrum-sharing systems are derived. In addition, the capacity gains achievable with spectrum-sharing systems in high and low power regions are obtained. The effects of different fading figures, average fading powers, interference temperatures, peak powers of secondary transmitters, and numbers of SUs on the achievable capacity are investigated. The analytical and simulation results show that the fading figure of the channel between SUs and primary base-station (PBS), which describes the diversity of the channel, does not contribute significantly to the system performance gain. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Integrity of the Tax System after BEPS: A Shared Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Gribnau (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe international tax system is the result of the interaction of different actors who share the responsibility for its integrity. States and multinational corporations both enjoy to a certain extent freedom of choice with regard to their tax behaviour – which entails moral

  1. Analytical derivation of traffic patterns in cache-coherent shared-memory systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Sparsø, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method to derive the worst-case traffic pattern caused by a task graph mapped to a cache-coherent shared-memory system. Our analysis allows designers to rapidly evaluate the impact of different mappings of tasks to IP cores on the traffic pattern. The accuracy...

  2. The integrity of the tax system after BEPS : A shared responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The international tax system is the result of the interaction of different actors who share the responsibility for its integrity. States and multinational corporations both enjoy to a certain extent freedom of choice with regard to their tax behaviour – which entails moral responsibility. Making,

  3. Capacity limits of spectrum-sharing systems over hyper-fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ekin, Sabit; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Ç elebi, Hasari Burak; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Serpedin, Erchin

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) with spectrum-sharing feature is a promising technique to address the spectrum under-utilization problem in dynamically changing environments. In this paper, the achievable capacity gain of spectrum-sharing systems over dynamic fading environments is studied. To perform a general analysis, a theoretical fading model called hyper-fading model that is suitable to the dynamic nature of CR channel is proposed. Closed-form expressions of probability density function (PDF) and cumulative density function (CDF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for secondary users (SUs) in spectrum-sharing systems are derived. In addition, the capacity gains achievable with spectrum-sharing systems in high and low power regions are obtained. The effects of different fading figures, average fading powers, interference temperatures, peak powers of secondary transmitters, and numbers of SUs on the achievable capacity are investigated. The analytical and simulation results show that the fading figure of the channel between SUs and primary base-station (PBS), which describes the diversity of the channel, does not contribute significantly to the system performance gain. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Design and implementation of real-time wireless projection system based on ARM embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhaohua; Tang, Hao; Huang, Junhua

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the shortage of existing real-time screen sharing system, a real-time wireless projection system is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed system, a weight-based frame deletion strategy combined sampling time period and data variation is proposed. By implementing the system on the hardware platform, the results show that the system can achieve good results. The weight-based strategy can improve the service quality, reduce the delay and optimize the real-time customer service system [1].

  5. Realigning Shared Governance With Magnet® and the Organization's Operating System to Achieve Clinical Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Janette V; Girard, Anita S; Foad, Wendy

    2018-03-01

    In 2012, an academic medical center successfully overhauled a 15-year-old shared governance to align 6 house-wide and 30 unit-based councils with the new Magnet Recognition Program® and the organization's operating system, using the processes of LEAN methodology. The redesign improved cross-council communication structures, facilitated effective shared decision-making processes, increased staff engagement, and improved clinical outcomes. The innovative structural and process elements of the new model are replicable in other health institutions.

  6. Risk mitigation of shared electronic records system in campus institutions: medical social work practice in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow Yong, Lai Meng; Tan, Amanda Wei Li; Loo, Cecilia Lay Keng; Lim, Esther Li Ping

    2014-10-01

    In 2013, the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Campus initiated a shared electronic system where patient records and documentations were standardized and shared across institutions within the Campus. The project was initiated to enhance quality of health care, improve accessibility, and ensure integrated (as opposed to fragmented) care for best outcomes in our patients. In mitigating the risks of ICT, it was found that familiarity with guiding ethical principles, and ensuring adherence to regulatory and technical competencies in medical social work were important. The need to negotiate and maneuver in a large environment within the Campus to ensure proactive integrative process helped.

  7. Impact-parameter-averaged probability of 3dσ - Vacancy sharing in heavy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, D.K.; McDaniel, F.D.; Zoran, V.; Szilagyi, Z.; Piticu, I.; Fluerasu, D.; Enulescu, A.; Dumitriu, D.; Bucur, B.I.; Ciortea, C.

    1993-01-01

    The probabilities for the 3dσ molecular vacancy sharing in the 0.08 - 1.75 MeV/u F, Co, Ni, Cu + Bi collisions have been estimated by using integral X-ray spectrum measurement. The analytic two-state exponential model of Nikitin has been applied to 3dσ -2p 3/2 vacancy sharing in these collisions systems. This describes satisfactory the velocity dependence at low energies, < 0.5 MeV/u, but around 1 MeV/u the velocity dependence changes its character, indicating departure from the hypotheses of the model. (Author)

  8. Relational time in anyonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, A.; Brennen, G. K.; Osborne, T. J.; Milburn, G. J.; Stace, T. M.

    2018-03-01

    In a seminal paper [Phys. Rev. D 27, 2885 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevD.27.2885], Page and Wootters suggest that time evolution could be described solely in terms of correlations between systems and clocks, as a means of dealing with the "problem of time" stemming from vanishing Hamiltonian dynamics in many theories of quantum gravity. Their approach seeks to identify relational dynamics given a Hamiltonian constraint on the physical states. Here we present a "state-centric" reformulation of the Page and Wootters model better suited to cases where the Hamiltonian constraint is satisfied, such as anyons emerging in Chern-Simons theories. We describe relational time by encoding logical "clock" qubits into topologically protected anyonic degrees of freedom. The minimum temporal increment of such anyonic clocks is determined by the universality of the anyonic braid group, with nonuniversal models naturally exhibiting discrete time. We exemplify this approach by using SU (2) 2 anyons and discuss generalizations to other states and models.

  9. Blockchain and value systems in the sharing economy: The illustrative case of Backfeed

    OpenAIRE

    Pazaitis , Alex; De Filippi , Primavera; Kostakis , Vasilis

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This article explores the potential of blockchain technology in enabling a new system of value that will better support the dynamics of social sharing. Our study begins with a discussion of the evolution of value perceptions in the history of economic thought. Starting with a view on value as a coordination mechanism that defines meaningful action within a certain context, we associate the price system with the establishment of capitalism and the industrial economy. We...

  10. Recent improvements in the performance of the muiltitasked TORT on time-shared Cray computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Coarse-grained angular domain decomposition of the mesh sweep algorithm has been implemented in ORNL's three dimensional transport code TORT for Cray's macrotasking environment on platforms running the UNICOS operating system. A performance model constructed earlier is reviewed and its main result, namely the identification of the sources of parallelization overhead, is used to motivate the present work. The sources of overhead treated here are: redundant operations in the angular loop across participating tasks; repetitive task creation; lock utilization to prevent overwriting the flux moment arrays accumulated by the participating tasks. Substantial reduction in the parallelization overhead is demonstrated via sample runs with fixed tunning, i.e. zero CPU hold time. Up to 50% improvement in the wall clock speedup over the previous implementation with autotunning is observed in some test problems

  11. Using Simulated Partial Dynamic Run-Time Reconfiguration to Share Embedded FPGA Compute and Power Resources across a Swarm of Unpiloted Airborne Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney David

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We show how the limited electrical power and FPGA compute resources available in a swarm of small UAVs can be shared by moving FPGA tasks from one UAV to another. A software and hardware infrastructure that supports the mobility of embedded FPGA applications on a single FPGA chip and across a group of networked FPGA chips is an integral part of the work described here. It is shown how to allocate a single FPGA's resources at run time and to share a single device through the use of application checkpointing, a memory controller, and an on-chip run-time reconfigurable network. A prototype distributed operating system is described for managing mobile applications across the swarm based on the contents of a fuzzy rule base. It can move applications between UAVs in order to equalize power use or to enable the continuous replenishment of fully fueled planes into the swarm.

  12. SCI-Clone/32 - a distributed real time simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in engineering and in particular digital computers has enabled the simulation manufacturers to deliver a realism of a kind undreamt of a decade ago. 32-bit computers ranging in processor power from several hundred thousand instructions per second to many millions are at the heart of each simulator. Gould has pioneered digital computers in simulation with real time systems using shared memory, parallel processors, 64KByte cache, and shadow memory. The market is planning for higher iteration rates, lower life cycle costs, and the development of part task products. These can be met by distributing the tasks amongst nodal computers having a unique architecture for sharing data variables with minimal contention. (Auth.)

  13. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems: Tradeoffs and performance analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a number of adaptive transmission techniques in order to improve the performance of the secondary link in a spectrum sharing system. We first introduce the concept of minimum-selection maximum ratio transmission (MS-MRT) as an adaptive variation of the existing MRT (MRT) technique. While in MRT all available antennas are used for transmission, MS-MRT uses the minimum subset of antennas verifying both the interference constraint (IC) to the primary user and the bit error rate (BER) requirements. Similar to MRT, MS-MRT assumes that perfect channel state information (CSI) is available at the secondary transmitter (ST), which makes this scheme challenging from a practical point of view. To overcome this challenge, we propose another transmission technique based on orthogonal space-time block codes with transmit antenna selection (TAS). This technique uses the full-rate full-diversity Alamouti scheme in order to maximize the secondary\\'s transmission rate. The performance of these techniques is analyzed in terms of the average spectral efficiency (ASE), average number of transmit antennas, average delay, average BER, and outage performance. In order to give the motivation behind these analytical results, the tradeoffs offered by the proposed schemes are summarized and then demonstrated through several numerical examples.

  14. PV systems for remote villages: Service-learning and communal sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, J.; Soper, P.; Prasitpianchai, S.; Villanueva, D.; Alegria, L.; Rux, A.

    1999-07-01

    The remote village of Malvas in the Andes seems typical of many in Peru. The 500 descendants of the Quechua once ruled by the Inca have no electricity, no running water, one telephone, and mud adobe houses. At a 10,000-foot altitude, residents survive with subsistence farming. A group designed and installed a photovoltaic system to provide a vaccine refrigerator, lights, and a transceiver radio system in the town medical clinic last August. They installed light systems in four other town medical clinics in January. This project involves service-learning: combining service with academic subject matter, in this case solar engineering. Key elements of the project also include: letting people define their needs, sustainable infrastructure development, community sharing of installation and virtual ownership (to go along with almost everything else that is shared in common).

  15. Two-way cooperative AF relaying in spectrum-sharing systems: Enhancing cell-edge performance

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-09-01

    In this contribution, two-way cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying technique is integrated into spectrumsharing wireless systems to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users (SUs). In order to share the available spectrum resources originally dedicated to primary users (PUs), the transmit power of a SU is optimized with respect to the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers. By analyzing outage probability and achievable data rate at the base station and at a cell-edge SU, our results reveal that the uplink performance is dominated by the average tolerable interference power at primary receivers, while the downlink always behaves like conventional one-way AF relaying and its performance is dominated by the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These important findings provide fresh perspectives for system designers to improve spectral efficiency of secondary users in next-generation broadband spectrum-sharing wireless systems. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. International Cyber Incident Repository System: Information Sharing on a Global Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Amanda L.; Evans, PhD, Nathaniel; Tanzman, Edward A.; Israeli, Daniel

    2017-02-02

    According to the 2016 Internet Security Threat Report, the largest number of cyber attacks were recorded last year (2015), reaching a total of 430 million incidents throughout the world. As the number of cyber incidents increases, the need for information and intelligence sharing increases, as well. This fairly large increase in cyber incidents is driving the need for an international cyber incident data reporting system. The goal of the cyber incident reporting system is to make available shared and collected information about cyber events among participating international parties. In its 2014 report, Insurance Industry Working Session Readout Report-Insurance for CyberRelated Critical Infrastructure Loss: Key Issues, on the outcomes of a working session on cyber insurance, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security observed that “many participants cited the need for a secure method through which organizations could pool and share cyber incident information” and noted that one underwriter emphasized the importance of internationally harmonized data taxonomies. This cyber incident data reporting system could benefit all nations that take part in reporting incidents to provide a more common operating picture. In addition, this reporting system could allow for trending and anticipated attacks and could potentially benefit participating members by enabling them to get in front of potential attacks. The purpose of this paper is to identify options for consideration for such a system in fostering cooperative cyber defense.

  17. Time Error Analysis of SOE System Using Network Time Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Jong Yong; Park, Geun Ok; Park, Heui Youn

    2005-01-01

    To find the accuracy of time in the fully digitalized SOE (Sequence of Events) system, we used a formal specification of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) Version 3, which is used to synchronize time keeping among a set of distributed computers. Through constructing a simple experimental environments and experimenting internet time synchronization, we analyzed the time errors of local clocks of SOE system synchronized with a time server via computer networks

  18. How the Senate and the President Affect the Timing of Power-sharing Rule Changes in the US House

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Sin; Arthur Lupia

    2013-01-01

    A new model and related empirical work explain how the Senate and President affect the timing of power-sharing rule changes in the US House. We argue that shifts in the Senate's or President's preferences (e.g., a new majority party in the Senate; a new president) reshape House members' expectations about which legislative outcomes are achievable. Reshaped expectations, in turn, can alter House members' perceptions of the consequences of reallocating power among themselves. We prove that such...

  19. Sharing economy as a new business model for energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, P.; Schwabe, F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sharing economy as new business model for Energy Storage Operators. • More attractiveness of Battery Storage Systems. • Optimal Dimensioning of Battery Storage Systems for sharing economy application. - Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESS) are the candidate solution to integrate the high amount of electric power generated by volatile renewable energy sources into the electric grid. However, even though the investment costs of some ESS technologies have decreased over the last few years, few business models seem to be attractive for investors. In most of these models, ESS are applied only for one use case, such as primary control reserve. In this study, a business model based on the sharing economy principle has been developed and analyzed. In this model, the energy storage operator offers its storage system to different kinds of customers. Each customer uses the ESS for their single use case. A set of different use cases has been identified to make the operation of the ESS profitable (e.g. peak shaving, self-consumption and day-ahead market participation). Different kinds of stationary batteries (lithium-ion, sodium-sulfur and vanadium redox-flow) have been considered as energy storage technologies, which differ both in their investment costs and their technical properties, such as round-trip efficiency. The simulation of the business model developed showed that a sharing economy-based model may increase the profitability of operating a battery storage system compared to the single use case business model. Additionally, larger battery dimensions regarding power and capacity were found to be profitable and resulted in an increased revenue stream.

  20. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we consider the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for the spectrum sharing (SS) in cognitive radio (CR) systems with a multi-antenna energy harvesting (EH) primary receiver (PR). The PR uses the antenna switching (AS) technique that assigns a subset of the PR\\'s antennas to harvest the energy from the radio frequency (RF) signals sent by the secondary transmitter (ST), and assigns the rest of the PR\\'s antennas to decode the information data. In this context, the primary network allows the secondary network to use the spectrum as long as the interference induced by the secondary transmitter (ST)\\'s signals is beneficial for the energy harvesting process at the PR side. The objective of this work is to show that the spectrum sharing is beneficial for both the SR and PR sides and leads to a win-win situation. To illustrate the incentive of the spectrum sharing cognitive system, we evaluate the mutual outage probability (MOP) introduced in [1] which declares an outage event if the PR or the secondary receiver (SR) is in an outage. Through the simulation results, we show that the performance of our system in terms of the MOP is always better than the performance of the system in the absence of ST and improves as the ST-PR interference increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  1. Part-time work and job sharing in health care: is the NHS a family-friendly employer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branine, Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and level of flexible employment in the National Health Service (NHS) by investigating the extent to which part-time work and job sharing arrangements are used in the provision and delivery of health care. It attempts to analyse the reasons for an increasing number of part-timers and a very limited number of job sharers in the NHS and to explain the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern of employment. Data collected through the use of questionnaires and interviews from 55 NHS trusts reveal that the use of part-time work is a tradition that seems to fit well with the cost-saving measures imposed on the management of the service but at the same time it has led to increasing employee dissatisfaction, and that job sharing arrangements are suitable for many NHS employees since the majority of them are women with a desire to combine family commitments with career prospects but a very limited number of employees have had the opportunity to job share. Therefore it is concluded that to attract and retain the quality of staff needed to ensure high performance standards in the provision and delivery of health care the NHS should accept the diversity that exists within its workforce and take a more proactive approach to promoting a variety of flexible working practices and family-friendly policies.

  2. Optimal loading and protection of multi-state systems considering performance sharing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Hui; Shi, Daimin; Ding, Yi; Peng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Engineering systems are designed to carry the load. The performance of the system largely depends on how much load it carries. On the other hand, the failure rate of the system is strongly affected by its load. Besides internal failures, such as fatigue and aging process, systems may also fail due to external impacts such as nature disasters and terrorism. In this paper, we integrate the effect of loading and protection of external impacts on multi-state systems with performance sharing mechanism. The objective of this research is to determine how to balance the load and protection on system elements. An availability evaluation algorithm of the proposed system is suggested and the corresponding optimization problem is solved utilizing genetic algorithms. - Highlights: • Performance sharing of multi-state systems is considered. • The effect of load on system elements is analyzed. • Joint optimization model of element loading and protection is formulated. • Genetic Algorithms are adapted to solve the reliability optimization problem.

  3. Principles of cooperation across systems: from human sharing to multicellularity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    From cells to societies, several general principles arise again and again that facilitate cooperation and suppress conflict. In this study, I describe three general principles of cooperation and how they operate across systems including human sharing, cooperation in animal and insect societies and the massively large-scale cooperation that occurs in our multicellular bodies. The first principle is that of Walk Away: that cooperation is enhanced when individuals can leave uncooperative partners. The second principle is that resource sharing is often based on the need of the recipient (i.e., need-based transfers) rather than on strict account-keeping. And the last principle is that effective scaling up of cooperation requires increasingly sophisticated and costly cheater suppression mechanisms. By comparing how these principles operate across systems, we can better understand the constraints on cooperation. This can facilitate the discovery of novel ways to enhance cooperation and suppress cheating in its many forms, from social exploitation to cancer.

  4. A Standard for Sharing and Accessing Time Series Data: The Heliophysics Application Programmers Interface (HAPI) Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriff, J. D.; King, T. A.; Weigel, R. S.; Faden, J.; Roberts, D. A.; Harris, B. T.; Lal, N.; Boardsen, S. A.; Candey, R. M.; Lindholm, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Heliophysics Application Programmers Interface (HAPI), a new interface specification that both large and small data centers can use to expose time series data holdings in a standard way. HAPI was inspired by the similarity of existing services at many Heliophysics data centers, and these data centers have collaborated to define a single interface that captures best practices and represents what everyone considers the essential, lowest common denominator for basic data access. This low level access can serve as infrastructure to support greatly enhanced interoperability among analysis tools, with the goal being simplified analysis and comparison of data from any instrument, model, mission or data center. The three main services a HAPI server must perform are 1. list a catalog of datasets (one unique ID per dataset), 2. describe the content of one dataset (JSON metadata), and 3. retrieve numerical content for one dataset (stream the actual data). HAPI defines both the format of the query to the server, and the response from the server. The metadata is lightweight, focusing on use rather than discovery, and the data format is a streaming one, with Comma Separated Values (CSV) being required and binary or JSON streaming being optional. The HAPI specification is available at GitHub, where projects are also underway to develop reference implementation servers that data providers can adapt and use at their own sites. Also in the works are data analysis clients in multiple languages (IDL, Python, Matlab, and Java). Institutions which have agreed to adopt HAPI include Goddard (CDAWeb for data and CCMC for models), LASP at the University of Colorado Boulder, the Particles and Plasma Interactions node of the Planetary Data System (PPI/PDS) at UCLA, the Plasma Wave Group at the University of Iowa, the Space Sector at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab (APL), and the tsds.org site maintained at George Mason University. Over the next year, the adoption of a

  5. Shared Urban Greywater Recycling Systems: Water Resource Savings and Economic Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V.L. Hunt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The water industry is becoming increasingly aware of the risks associated with urban supplies not meeting demands by 2050. Greywater (GW recycling for non-potable uses (e.g., urinal and toilet flushing provides an urban water management strategy to help alleviate this risk by reducing main water demands. This paper proposes an innovative cross connected system that collects GW from residential buildings and recycles it for toilet/urinal flushing in both residential and office buildings. The capital cost (CAPEX, operational cost (OPEX and water saving potential are calculated for individual and shared residential and office buildings in an urban mixed-use regeneration area in the UK, assuming two different treatment processes; a membrane bioreactor (MBR and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW. The Net Present Value (NPV method was used to compare the financial performance of each considered scenario, from where it was found that a shared GW recycling system (MBR was the most economically viable option. The sensitivity of this financial model was assessed, considering four parameters (i.e., water supply and sewerage charges, discount rate(s, service life and improved technological efficiency, e.g., low flush toilets, low shower heads, etc., from where it was found that shared GW systems performed best in the long-term.

  6. An enhanced Ada run-time system for real-time embedded processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced Ada run-time system has been developed to support real-time embedded processor applications. The primary focus of this development effort has been on the tasking system and the memory management facilities of the run-time system. The tasking system has been extended to support efficient and precise periodic task execution as required for control applications. Event-driven task execution providing a means of task-asynchronous control and communication among Ada tasks is supported in this system. Inter-task control is even provided among tasks distributed on separate physical processors. The memory management system has been enhanced to provide object allocation and protected access support for memory shared between disjoint processors, each of which is executing a distinct Ada program.

  7. Parent-Child Shared Time From Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042

  8. Parent-child shared time from middle childhood to late adolescence: developmental course and adjustment correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Share point 2013 Implementation Strategy for Supporting KM System Requirements in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Abdul Muin Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge Management system (KMS or KM System) is an important tool for knowledge intensive organization such as Nuclear Malaysia. In June 2010, MS Share Point 2007 was deployed as a tool for KM System in Nuclear Malaysia and was functioning correctly until the end of 2013, whereby the system failed due to software malfunction and inability of the infrastructure to support its continuous operation and usage expansion. This led to difficulties for users to access their operational data and information, hence hampering access to one of the most important tool for KM System in Nuclear Malaysia. However, recently a newer and updated version of the system for example Share point 2013 was deployed to meet the same objectives. Learning from previous failures, the tool has been analyzed at various stages of technical and management reviews. The implementation of this newer version has been designed to overcome most of the deficiencies faced by the older version, both from the software and infrastructure point of views. The tool has performed very well ever since its commissioning from December 2014 till today. As it is still under warranty till March 2016, minimum maintenance issues have been experienced and any problems have been rectified promptly. This paper describes the implementation strategy in preparing the design information of software and hardware architecture of the new tool to overcome the problems of older version, in order to provide a better platform for KM System in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  10. A hybrid solar chemical looping combustion system with a high solar share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid solar chemical looping combustion system is presented. • This hybrid CLC system integrates a CLC plant with a solar thermal energy plant. • The oxygen carrier particles are used for chemical and sensible thermal energy storage. • A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. • The calculations show a total solar share of around 60% can be achieved. - Abstract: A novel hybrid solar chemical looping combustion (Hy-Sol-CLC) is presented, in which the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system are employed to provide thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. This hybrid aims to take advantage of key features of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system that are desirable for solar energy systems, notably their inherent chemical and sensible energy storage systems, the relatively low temperature of the “fuel” reactor (to which the concentrated solar thermal energy is added in a hybrid) relative to that of the final temperature of the product gas and the potential to operate the fuel reactor at a different pressure to the heated gas stream. By this approach, it is aimed to achieve high efficiency of the solar energy, infrastructure sharing, economic synergy, base load power generation and a high solar fraction of the total energy. In the proposed Hy-Sol-CLC system, a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for fuel reactor while for the storage of the oxygen carrier particles two reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC. A heat exchanger is also proposed to provide independent control of the temperatures of the storage reservoirs from those of solar fuel and air reactors. The system is simulated using Aspen Plus software for the average diurnal profile of normal irradiance for Port Augusta, South Australia. The operating temperature of the fuel reactor, solar absorption efficiency, solar share, fraction of the solar thermal energy stored within the solar reactor, the fractions of sensible and

  11. Systems, Shocks and Time Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Nick

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Modelling strategies * Are time-bomb phenomena important? * Heuristic approaches to time-bomb phenomena * Three rational approaches to TBP * Two irrational approaches * Conclusions * References

  12. Time Warp Operating System (TWOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation, TWOS is complete implementation of Time Warp mechanism - distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation.

  13. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  14. Role of time in symbiotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawala, A.K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    All systems have a dynamics which reflects the changes in the system in time and, therefore, have to maintain a notion of time, either explicitly or implicitly. Traditionally, the notion of time in constructed systems has been implicitly specified at design time through rigid structures such as sampled data systems which operate with a fixed time tick, feedback systems which are designed reflecting a fixed time scale for the dynamics of the system as well as the controller responses, etc. In biological systems, the sense of time is a key element but it is not rigidly structured, even though all such systems have a clear notion of time. We define the notion of time in systems in terms of temporal locality, time scale and time horizon. Temporal locality gives the notion of the accuracy with which the system knows about the current time. Time scale reflects the scale indicating the smallest and the largest granularity considered. It also reflects the reaction time. The time horizon indicates the time beyond which the system considers to be distant future and may not take it into account in its actions. Note that the temporal locality, time scale and the time horizon may be different for different types of actions of a system, thereby permitting the system to use multiple notions of time concurrently. In multi agent systems each subsystem may have its own notion of time but when intentions take place a coordination is necessary. Such coordination requires that the notions of time for different agents of the system be consistent. Clearly, the consistency requirement in this case does not mean exactly identical but implies that different agents can coordinate their actions which must take place in time. When the actions only require a determinate ordering the required coordination is much less severe than the case requiring actions to take place at the same time.

  15. Data and Models as Social Objects in the HydroShare System for Collaboration in the Hydrology Community and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D. P.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Hooper, R. P.; Maidment, D. R.; Dash, P. K.; Stealey, M.; Yi, H.; Gan, T.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Li, Z.; Morsy, M. M.; Crawley, S.; Ramirez, M.; Sadler, J.; Xue, Z.; Bandaragoda, C.

    2016-12-01

    How do you share and publish hydrologic data and models for a large collaborative project? HydroShare is a new, web-based system for sharing hydrologic data and models with specific functionality aimed at making collaboration easier. HydroShare has been developed with U.S. National Science Foundation support under the auspices of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) to support the collaboration and community cyberinfrastructure needs of the hydrology research community. Within HydroShare, we have developed new functionality for creating datasets, describing them with metadata, and sharing them with collaborators. We cast hydrologic datasets and models as "social objects" that can be shared, collaborated around, annotated, published and discovered. In addition to data and model sharing, HydroShare supports web application programs (apps) that can act on data stored in HydroShare, just as software programs on your PC act on your data locally. This can free you from some of the limitations of local computing capacity and challenges in installing and maintaining software on your own PC. HydroShare's web-based cyberinfrastructure can take work off your desk or laptop computer and onto infrastructure or "cloud" based data and processing servers. This presentation will describe HydroShare's collaboration functionality that enables both public and private sharing with individual users and collaborative user groups, and makes it easier for collaborators to iterate on shared datasets and models, creating multiple versions along the way, and publishing them with a permanent landing page, metadata description, and citable Digital Object Identifier (DOI) when the work is complete. This presentation will also describe the web app architecture that supports interoperability with third party servers functioning as application engines for analysis and processing of big hydrologic datasets. While developed to support the

  16. Design and Analysis for an Operator's Action Sharing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeonsub; Seong, Nokyu [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In the paper, contrary to HRP approach, no more FPD is introduced because there is no room to install. The same workstation and the same LDP should be utilized for ream transparency. A action sharing system will be introduced at ShinKori 3,4 MCR, and further applied to other APR1400 plant if necessary. The project started and applied by the end of 2014. Despite benefit of action sharing system, there are lots of challenges to overcome such as traffic load, and interfaces. The challenges have been analyzed thoroughly. Traffic load can be reduced through vector graphics, video driver, and capture and compressing techniques. Furthermore interfaces for action sharing system are developed and evaluated to reduce secondary workload. Advanced digital control rooms have lots of advantages compared to analog control room. They can integrate all process variables into more comprehensible forms. Advanced alarm processor can suppress trivial alarms, and P and ID based mimic isplays can be integrated with context sensitive menu for referencing. Moreover computer based procedures have been introduced at more advanced MCR. Because all these display appears at flat panel display (FPD), they can be easily modified if necessary. These days newly introduced MCRs are advanced types, and analog control rooms are no more built. In spite of this trend, advanced control rooms have shortage in view of team transparency. For example, shift supervisor cannot tell which devices reactor operator is manipulating. APR1400 MCR has large display panel to share the same situation awareness among crew member. Because LDP has fixed display comparing switchable display in FPD, situation awareness can be enhanced. However, even LDP cannot show the active device that crew member are manipulating due to either limited number of devices in LDP or no demarcation for the active device. During construction of ShinKori 3/4, the demarcation box for the active device has been introduced and called an Active

  17. Dynamic provisioning of a HEP computing infrastructure on a shared hybrid HPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Konrad; Fleig, Georg; Hauth, Thomas; Quast, Günter; Janczyk, Michael; Von Suchodoletz, Dirk; Wiebelt, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Experiments in high-energy physics (HEP) rely on elaborate hardware, software and computing systems to sustain the high data rates necessary to study rare physics processes. The Institut fr Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is a member of the CMS and Belle II experiments, located at the LHC and the Super-KEKB accelerators, respectively. These detectors share the requirement, that enormous amounts of measurement data must be processed and analyzed and a comparable amount of simulated events is required to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Classical HEP computing centers are dedicated sites which support multiple experiments and have the required software pre-installed. Nowadays, funding agencies encourage research groups to participate in shared HPC cluster models, where scientist from different domains use the same hardware to increase synergies. This shared usage proves to be challenging for HEP groups, due to their specialized software setup which includes a custom OS (often Scientific Linux), libraries and applications. To overcome this hurdle, the EKP and data center team of the University of Freiburg have developed a system to enable the HEP use case on a shared HPC cluster. To achieve this, an OpenStack-based virtualization layer is installed on top of a bare-metal cluster. While other user groups can run their batch jobs via the Moab workload manager directly on bare-metal, HEP users can request virtual machines with a specialized machine image which contains a dedicated operating system and software stack. In contrast to similar installations, in this hybrid setup, no static partitioning of the cluster into a physical and virtualized segment is required. As a unique feature, the placement of the virtual machine on the cluster nodes is scheduled by Moab and the job lifetime is coupled to the lifetime of the virtual machine. This allows for a seamless integration with the jobs sent by other user groups and honors the fairshare

  18. Dynamic provisioning of a HEP computing infrastructure on a shared hybrid HPC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Konrad; Fleig, Georg; Hauth, Thomas; Janczyk, Michael; Quast, Günter; von Suchodoletz, Dirk; Wiebelt, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Experiments in high-energy physics (HEP) rely on elaborate hardware, software and computing systems to sustain the high data rates necessary to study rare physics processes. The Institut fr Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is a member of the CMS and Belle II experiments, located at the LHC and the Super-KEKB accelerators, respectively. These detectors share the requirement, that enormous amounts of measurement data must be processed and analyzed and a comparable amount of simulated events is required to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Classical HEP computing centers are dedicated sites which support multiple experiments and have the required software pre-installed. Nowadays, funding agencies encourage research groups to participate in shared HPC cluster models, where scientist from different domains use the same hardware to increase synergies. This shared usage proves to be challenging for HEP groups, due to their specialized software setup which includes a custom OS (often Scientific Linux), libraries and applications. To overcome this hurdle, the EKP and data center team of the University of Freiburg have developed a system to enable the HEP use case on a shared HPC cluster. To achieve this, an OpenStack-based virtualization layer is installed on top of a bare-metal cluster. While other user groups can run their batch jobs via the Moab workload manager directly on bare-metal, HEP users can request virtual machines with a specialized machine image which contains a dedicated operating system and software stack. In contrast to similar installations, in this hybrid setup, no static partitioning of the cluster into a physical and virtualized segment is required. As a unique feature, the placement of the virtual machine on the cluster nodes is scheduled by Moab and the job lifetime is coupled to the lifetime of the virtual machine. This allows for a seamless integration with the jobs sent by other user groups and honors the fairshare

  19. Reflexive reasoning for distributed real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and use of reflexive reasoning in real-time, distributed knowledge-based applications. Recently there has been a great deal of interest in agent-oriented systems. Implementing such systems implies a mechanism for sharing knowledge, goals and other state information among the agents. Our techniques facilitate an agent examining both state information about other agents and the parameters of the knowledge-based system shell implementing its reasoning algorithms. The shell implementing the reasoning is the Distributed Artificial Intelligence Toolkit, which is a derivative of CLIPS.

  20. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  1. UnLynx: A Decentralized System for Privacy-Conscious Data Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froelicher David

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current solutions for privacy-preserving data sharing among multiple parties either depend on a centralized authority that must be trusted and provides only weakest-link security (e.g., the entity that manages private/secret cryptographic keys, or leverage on decentralized but impractical approaches (e.g., secure multi-party computation. When the data to be shared are of a sensitive nature and the number of data providers is high, these solutions are not appropriate. Therefore, we present UnLynx, a new decentralized system for efficient privacy-preserving data sharing. We consider m servers that constitute a collective authority whose goal is to verifiably compute on data sent from n data providers. UnLynx guarantees the confidentiality, unlinkability between data providers and their data, privacy of the end result and the correctness of computations by the servers. Furthermore, to support differentially private queries, UnLynx can collectively add noise under encryption. All of this is achieved through a combination of a set of new distributed and secure protocols that are based on homomorphic cryptography, verifiable shuffling and zero-knowledge proofs. UnLynx is highly parallelizable and modular by design as it enables multiple security/privacy vs. runtime tradeoffs. Our evaluation shows that UnLynx can execute a secure survey on 400,000 personal data records containing 5 encrypted attributes, distributed over 20 independent databases, for a total of 2,000,000 ciphertexts, in 24 minutes.

  2. Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Niebert, Peter

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, FORMATS 2003, held in Marseille, France in September 2003. The 19 revised full papers presented together with an invited paper and the abstracts of ...... systems, discrete time systems, timed languages, and real-time operating systems....... of two invited talks were carefully selected from 36 submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. All current aspects of formal method for modeling and analyzing timed systems are addressed; among the timed systems dealt with are timed automata, timed Petri nets, max-plus algebras, real-time......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, FORMATS 2003, held in Marseille, France in September 2003. The 19 revised full papers presented together with an invited paper and the abstracts...

  3. KETERAMPILAN METAKOGNITIF DAN HASIL BELAJAR KOGNITIF SISWA DENGAN PEMBELAJARAN READING CONCEPT MAP-TIMED PAIR SHARE (REMAP-TMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatia Rosyida

    2016-04-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran Reading-Concept Map-Timed Pair Share (Remap-TmPS terhadap keterampilan metakognitif dan hasil belajar kognitif. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen semu dengan desain penelitian Pretes-Postest Nonequivalent Control Group Design. Sampel penelitian ini adalah kelas X MIA 2 dan X MIA 3 di SMAN 2 Batu. Data keterampilan metakognitif  dan hasil belajar kognitif diperoleh dari tes essay. Data tersebut dianalisis mengunakan uji anacova. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pembelajaran biologi berbasis Remap-TmPS berpengaruh terhadap keterampilan metakognitif dan hasil belajar kognitif siswa.

  4. A Measurement Study of the Structured Overlay Network in P2P File-Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of P2P file-sharing applications has been developing to meet the needs of large scale demands. The structured overlay network, also known as DHT, has been used in these applications to improve the scalability, and robustness of the system, and to make it free from single-point failure. We believe that the measurement study of the overlay network used in the real file-sharing P2P systems can provide guidance for the designing of such systems, and improve the performance of the system. In this paper, we perform the measurement in two different aspects. First, a modified client is designed to provide view to the overlay network from a single-user vision. Second, the instances of crawler programs deployed in many nodes managed to crawl the user information of the overlay network as much as possible. We also find a vulnerability in the overlay network, combined with the character of the DNS service, a more serious DDoS attack can be launched.

  5. Two decades of tax-sharing system reform in China: a comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yanfeng; Wang Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two decades have passed since the Tax-sharing System Reform began in China.We discuss deep-seated problems in the financial management system.We contend that from the point of fiscal relations among different levels of government,the marked decline of the central government's fiscal revenue as a share of the national total indicates that the macroeconomic regulation and control function of the central government has weakened;from the point of the form of fiscal revenue,the constant downward trend of the proportion of the tax revenue indicates that the old problem of excessive types of fiscal revenue forms have reappeared;from the perspective of tax structure,although the proportion of direct taxes has grown,turnover tax continues to account for the majority of tax revenue and the unbalanced dual-subject tax system has changed little,which indicates China's tax structure has brought about stagnation.We believe that China's tax reform should be incorporated into the medium-term fiscal planning in order to solve deep-seated problems in operation of the financial management system.

  6. [Part-time medical specialist training; experiences with job-sharing for trainee internists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, K.; Nauta, S.; Stuyt, P.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to various factors such as social changes, an increasing number of couples with two incomes, and a growing proportion of female doctors, there has been a growing demand for part-time work in recent years. This is also true for resident physicians. Objections such as a discontinuity in care and

  7. Memorized discrete systems and time-delay

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book examines discrete dynamical systems with memory—nonlinear systems that exist extensively in biological organisms and financial and economic organizations, and time-delay systems that can be discretized into the memorized, discrete dynamical systems. It book further discusses stability and bifurcations of time-delay dynamical systems that can be investigated through memorized dynamical systems as well as bifurcations of memorized nonlinear dynamical systems, discretization methods of time-delay systems, and periodic motions to chaos in nonlinear time-delay systems. The book helps readers find analytical solutions of MDS, change traditional perturbation analysis in time-delay systems, detect motion complexity and singularity in MDS; and determine stability, bifurcation, and chaos in any time-delay system.

  8. Shared decision making in the Netherlands, is the time ripe for nationwide, structural implementation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, T.T. van der; Veenendaal, H. van; Drenthen, T.; Versluijs, M.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Timmermans, D.

    2011-01-01

    WHAT ABOUT POLICY REGARDING SDM? The Dutch health care system has been reformed in 2006 to make it more patient-oriented and demand-driven. We shortly describe four strategies of this health care reform. Although research projects are now fully spread over the country, a coordinated research agenda

  9. Real Time Advanced Clustering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Spampinato

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system to gather information from a stationary camera to identify moving objects. The proposed solution makes only use of motion vectors between adjacent frames, obtained from any algorithm. Starting from them, the system is able to retrieve clusters of moving objects in a scene acquired by an image sensor device. Since all the system is only based on optical flow, it is really simple and fast, to be easily integrated directly in low cost cameras. The experimental results show fast and robust performance of our method. The ANSI-C code has been tested on the ARM Cortex A15 CPU @2.32GHz, obtaining an impressive fps, about 3000 fps, excluding optical flow computation and I/O. Moreover, the system has been tested for different applications, cross traffic alert and video surveillance, in different conditions, indoor and outdoor, and with different lenses.

  10. Real-time systems architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendall, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore some of the design issues in online data acquisition and monitoring systems for high-energy physics experiments. In particular it concentrates on the multi-processor aspects of the design of existing and planned experiments. The central problem to be solved by these systems is the readout and checking of the apparatus, and the recording and perhaps some processing of the data. (Auth.)

  11. Joint accurate time and stable frequency distribution infrastructure sharing fiber footprint with research network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtěch, J.; Šlapák, M.; Škoda, P.; Radil, J.; Havliš, O.; Altmann, M.; Münster, P.; Velč, R.; Kundrát, J.; Altmannová, L.; Vohnout, R.; Horváth, T.; Hůla, M.; Smotlacha, V.; Čížek, Martin; Pravdová, Lenka; Řeřucha, Šimon; Hrabina, Jan; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 027101. ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : accurate time * stable frequency * wavelength division multiplexing * bidirectional reciprocal path * Sagnac effect Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  12. Virtualization of the ATLAS software environment on a shared HPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Gamel, Anton Josef; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The shared HPC cluster NEMO at the University of Freiburg has been made available to local ATLAS users through the provisioning of virtual machines incorporating the ATLAS software environment analogously to a WLCG center. This concept allows to run both data analysis and production on the HPC host system which is connected to the existing Tier2/Tier3 infrastructure. Schedulers of the two clusters were integrated in a dynamic, on-demand way. An automatically generated, fully functional virtual machine image provides access to the local user environment. The performance in the virtualized environment is evaluated for typical High-Energy Physics applications.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTRIC BICYCLE FOR A SHARING SYSTEM IN PRAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deleenheer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By means of a development of an e-bike sharing system the Electromobility Project wants to provide an alternative way of comfortable transportation for students and staff of the CTU, primarily to commute between different campuses. The research for this project contains at least three different fields of study, namely electric vehicle and docking station development, intelligent transport systems and management and economics of transportation and telecommunication. After briefly stating general requirements for the sharing system, this paper focuses on the development of the electric bicycle. First an ideal bike design is defined. Then necessary motor power and battery capacity are calculated by estimating characteristics of cycling in Prague. A prototype was developed by converting a normal bicycle to an electric bicycle. Being equipped with devices for e-bike monitoring, controlling and data recording for a post trip analysis, this prototype is also intended to have an educational value for future students in the project. Results consist of an electrical bicycle configuration that matches the requirements and a sketch of an ideal e-bike for this project.

  14. Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed

  15. Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); CNISM and CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno (Italy); Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)

    2006-01-15

    For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed.

  16. Parallel compression of data chunks of a shared data object using a log-structured file system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2016-10-25

    Techniques are provided for parallel compression of data chunks being written to a shared object. A client executing on a compute node or a burst buffer node in a parallel computing system stores a data chunk generated by the parallel computing system to a shared data object on a storage node by compressing the data chunk; and providing the data compressed data chunk to the storage node that stores the shared object. The client and storage node may employ Log-Structured File techniques. The compressed data chunk can be de-compressed by the client when the data chunk is read. A storage node stores a data chunk as part of a shared object by receiving a compressed version of the data chunk from a compute node; and storing the compressed version of the data chunk to the shared data object on the storage node.

  17. Study on the standardization of hospital information system for medical image information sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Chil; Kwon, Su Ja

    2001-01-01

    As the adoption of PACS and hospital information system among university hospitals and hospital level institutions grows bigger, the need of sharing and transferring medical information among medical institutions is rising. For the medical information, which is saved in the hospital medical system, to be transferred within the same hospital, domestic, or foreign medical institutions, a standard protocol is necessary. But realistically, most of the domestic hospitals do not abide by H7L which is the HIS standard and so, information transferring is not possible as of present. As such, the purpose of this research is to implement the information between HIS and PACS to an international standard by constructing HL7 messages through HL7 Interface, which will eventually make possible information transferring between different hospitals. Our research team has developed a method which will make the PACS equip hospitals that do not follow HL7 standard which will make possible to transfer information between HIS and PACS through HL7 Message. By constructing message files, which follow the form of HL7 Message in the HL7 Interface, they can be transferred to PACS through the ftp protocol. The realization of the HIS/OCS Interface through HL7 enables data transferring between domestic and foreign medical institutions possible by implementing the international standard in the PACS and HIS data transferring process. The HL7 that our research team has developed made patient data transfer between medical institutions possible. The Interface is for a specific system model and in order for the data transfer between different systems to be realized, interfaces that are fit for each system must be needed. If the Interface is improvised and implemented to each hospital's information system, the data sharing among medical institutions can be broadened

  18. Joint opportunistic beam and spectrum selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems with limited feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.

    2014-11-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing an unlicensed secondary user (SU) to share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) under acceptable interference levels to the primary receiver (PU-Rx). In this paper, we consider a secondary link composed of a secondary transmitter (SU-Tx) equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna secondary receiver (SU-Rx). The secondary link is allowed to share the spectrum with a primary network composed of multiple PUs communicating over distinct frequency spectra with a primary base station. We develop a transmission scheme where the SU-Tx initially broadcasts a set of random beams over all the available primary spectra for which the PU-Rx sends back the index of the spectrum with the minimum interference level, as well as information that describes the interference value, for each beam. Based on the feedback information on the PU-Rx, the SU-Tx adapts the transmitted beams and then resends the new beams over the best primary spectrum for each beam to the SU-Rx. The SU-Rx selects the beam that maximizes the received signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) to be used in transmission over the next frame. We consider three cases for the level of feedback information describing the interference level. In the first case, the interference level is described by both its magnitude and phase; in the second case, only the magnitude is considered; and in the third case, we focus on a q-bit description of its magnitude. In the latter case, we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean-square-error sense. We also develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics and the capacity and bit error rate of the secondary link and present numerical results that study the impact of the different system parameters.

  19. Does a kidney-sharing alliance have to sacrifice cold ischemic time for better HLA matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniscu, Gabriel C; Plant, William; Pocock, Phil; Forsythe, John L R

    2002-05-27

    The Scotland-Northern Ireland Kidney Allocation Alliance was created in August 1998. The purpose was to optimize the transplant service through increased regional exchange, higher quality matched kidneys, and better organ distribution. An analysis was performed on prospectively collected data regarding retrieval and transplant activity. The degree of HLA matching, the cold ischemic time (CIT), the balance of exchange, and graft survival were analyzed for a 2-year period after the introduction of the new alliance and compared with the last year before alliance. There was a 17.7% increase in the number of transplants performed. In the 2-year period, 78% of kidneys were exported from the retrieving center compared with 55% in the prealliance year, (Pexchanged within the Alliance (P>0.05, Student's t test). The largest center was a net importer of kidneys, whereas small and medium-sized centers balanced their exchange within the 2-year period. The 1-year transplant survival rate improved from 81.5% in the prealliance year to 88.4% at the end of the second year. The introduction of a regional kidney allocation alliance has improved the degree of HLA matching and increased the exchange of organs, without a significant increase in the CIT and any detrimental effect on graft survival.

  20. Information sharing systems and teamwork between sub-teams: a mathematical modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Hamid; Namdari, Alireza; Keyser, Thomas K.; Drzymalski, Julie

    2017-12-01

    Teamwork contributes to a considerable improvement in quality and quantity of the ultimate outcome. Collaboration and alliance between team members bring a substantial progress for any business. However, it is imperative to acquire an appropriate team since many factors must be considered in this regard. Team size may represent the effectiveness of a team and it is of paramount importance to determine what the ideal team size exactly should be. In addition, information technology increasingly plays a differentiating role in productivity and adopting appropriate information sharing systems may contribute to improvement in efficiency especially in competitive markets when there are numerous producers that compete with each other. The significance of transmitting information to individuals is inevitable to assure an improvement in team performance. In this paper, a model of teamwork and its organizational structure are presented. Furthermore, a mathematical model is proposed in order to characterize a group of sub-teams according to two criteria: team size and information technology. The effect of information technology on performance of team and sub-teams as well as optimum size of those team and sub-teams from a productivity perspective are studied. Moreover, a quantitative sensitivity analysis is presented in order to analyze the interaction between these two factors through a sharing system.

  1. Performance analysis of switch-based multiuser scheduling schemes with adaptive modulation in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2014-04-01

    This paper focuses on the development of multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, two scheduling schemes are proposed for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme focuses on optimizing the average spectral efficiency by selecting the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the relatively high feedback required by the first scheme, a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity is proposed, where the base station (BS) scans the secondary users in a sequential manner until a user whose channel quality is above an acceptable predetermined threshold is found. We develop expressions for the statistics of the signal-to-interference and noise ratio as well as the average spectral efficiency, average feedback load, and the delay at the secondary BS. We then present numerical results for the effect of the number of users and the interference constraint on the optimal switching threshold and the system performance and show that our analysis results are in perfect agreement with the numerical results. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The effects of activity-travel context and individual attitudes on car-sharing decisions under travel time uncertainty : a hybrid choice modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    People's daily decision to use car-sharing rather than other transport modes for conducting a specific activity has been investigated recently in assessing the market potential of car-sharing systems. Most studies have estimated transport mode choice models with an extended choice set using

  3. Unleashing Lessons: Sharing Stories About the Fine Art of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    NASA leaders have a responsibility to share their unique oral histories with junior-level employees on whom NASA's future depends. This presentation will give a few examples of how the imaginative, flexible art of systems engineering is as necessary to mission success as is the rigorous, disciplined side of engineering. Engineering space systems involves many disciplines propulsion, loads, dynamics, and so forth that are based on the foundations of scientific principles and methodology and the application of the laws of physics. The term rocket scientist is an apt term, considering that the underlying chemical properties of propellants and the subatomic properties of materials must be understood to harness the powerful energy necessary to escape Earth's gravity in machines that can withstand the stresses and forces to which they are subjected, not to mention the harsh space environments in which they must work. This is a simplistic, yet illustrative, explanation of the scientific side of the engineer s challenge. Bringing together these individual parts into a solid system goes beyond the science of engineering to employ the art of systems engineering. Systems engineers are known for their ability to integrate various solutions to meet or exceed challenging requirements. As the old adage goes, measure twice and cut once. The act of measuring is balancing rigid, inflexible requirements with creative compromises to attain the optimum solution to the challenge of space flight. Then, we cut out those answers that are too risky, expensive, dangerous, and so forth. The process of sharing stories about the little-discussed art of engineering, also known as the art of compromise, will equip the workforce to subjectively judge the best right answer from among the many presented, while objectively integrating the various piece parts into a unified whole.

  4. Time Sharing Between Robotics and Process Control: Validating a Model of Attention Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher Dow; Gutzwiller, Robert S; Vieane, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin A; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jess

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the strategic task overload management (STOM) model that predicts task switching when concurrence is impossible. The STOM model predicts that in overload, tasks will be switched to, to the extent that they are attractive on task attributes of high priority, interest, and salience and low difficulty. But more-difficult tasks are less likely to be switched away from once they are being performed. In Experiment 1, participants performed four tasks of the Multi-Attribute Task Battery and provided task-switching data to inform the role of difficulty and priority. In Experiment 2, participants concurrently performed an environmental control task and a robotic arm simulation. Workload was varied by automation of arm movement and both the phases of environmental control and existence of decision support for fault management. Attention to the two tasks was measured using a head tracker. Experiment 1 revealed the lack of influence of task priority and confirmed the differing roles of task difficulty. In Experiment 2, the percentage attention allocation across the eight conditions was predicted by the STOM model when participants rated the four attributes. Model predictions were compared against empirical data and accounted for over 95% of variance in task allocation. More-difficult tasks were performed longer than easier tasks. Task priority does not influence allocation. The multiattribute decision model provided a good fit to the data. The STOM model is useful for predicting cognitive tunneling given that human-in-the-loop simulation is time-consuming and expensive. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. End-to-end performance of cooperative relaying in spectrum-sharing systems with quality of service requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Asghari, Vahid Reza; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    We propose adopting a cooperative relaying technique in spectrum-sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems to more effectively and efficiently utilize available transmission resources, such as power, rate, and bandwidth, while adhering to the quality

  6. A 'Universal Time' system for ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp, Gerhard; Cole, R.; Behler, K.; Fitzek, M.; Heimann, P.; Lohs, A.; Lueddecke, K.; Neu, G.; Schacht, J.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, Th.; Zilker, M.

    2003-01-01

    For the new generation of intelligent controllers for plasma diagnostics, discharge control and long-pulse experiment control a new time system supporting steady state real-time operation has been devised. A central unit counts time at nanosecond resolution, covering more than the experiment lifetime. The broadcast time information serves local units to perform application functions such as current time readout, trigger generation and sample time measurement. Time is treated as a precisely measured quantity like other physical quantities. Tagging all detected events and sampled values with measured times as [value; time]-entities facilitates real-time data analysis, steady state protocolling and time-sorted archiving

  7. Sharing clinical information across care settings: the birth of an integrated assessment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrard Jean-Claude

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population ageing, the emergence of chronic illness, and the shift away from institutional care challenge conventional approaches to assessment systems which traditionally are problem and setting specific. Methods From 2002, the interRAI research collaborative undertook development of a suite of assessment tools to support assessment and care planning of persons with chronic illness, frailty, disability, or mental health problems across care settings. The suite constitutes an early example of a "third generation" assessment system. Results The rationale and development strategy for the suite is described, together with a description of potential applications. To date, ten instruments comprise the suite, each comprising "core" items shared among the majority of instruments and "optional" items that are specific to particular care settings or situations. Conclusion This comprehensive suite offers the opportunity for integrated multi-domain assessment, enabling electronic clinical records, data transfer, ease of interpretation and streamlined training.

  8. Sharing clinical information across care settings: the birth of an integrated assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Leonard C; Berg, Katherine; Fries, Brant E; Henrard, Jean-Claude; Hirdes, John P; Steel, Knight; Morris, John N

    2009-01-01

    Background Population ageing, the emergence of chronic illness, and the shift away from institutional care challenge conventional approaches to assessment systems which traditionally are problem and setting specific. Methods From 2002, the interRAI research collaborative undertook development of a suite of assessment tools to support assessment and care planning of persons with chronic illness, frailty, disability, or mental health problems across care settings. The suite constitutes an early example of a "third generation" assessment system. Results The rationale and development strategy for the suite is described, together with a description of potential applications. To date, ten instruments comprise the suite, each comprising "core" items shared among the majority of instruments and "optional" items that are specific to particular care settings or situations. Conclusion This comprehensive suite offers the opportunity for integrated multi-domain assessment, enabling electronic clinical records, data transfer, ease of interpretation and streamlined training. PMID:19402891

  9. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Cummins, Steven; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14,699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip count were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11,293: 95% CI 5169 to 17,416). Events that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have unintended short-term effects on travel behaviour. These findings suggest that limiting transportation options may have the potential to increase population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of cycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Joint switched multi-spectrum and transmit antenna diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.

    2013-10-01

    In spectrum sharing systems, a secondary user (SU) is allowed to share the spectrum with a primary (licensed) network under the condition that the interference observed at the receivers of the primary users (PU-Rxs) is below a predetermined level. In this paper, we consider a secondary network comprised of a secondary transmitter (SU-Tx) equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna secondary receiver (SU-Rx) sharing the same spectrum with multiple primary users (PUs), each with a distinct spectrum. We develop transmit antenna diversity schemes at the SU-Tx that exploit the multi-spectrum diversity provided by the existence of multiple PUs so as to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the SU-Rx. In particular, assuming bounded transmit power at the SU-Tx, we develop switched selection schemes that select the primary spectrum and the SU-Tx transmit antenna that maintain the SNR at the SU-Rx above a specific threshold. Assuming Rayleigh fading channels and binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) transmission, we derive the average bit-error-rate (BER) and average feedback load expressions for the proposed schemes. For the sake of comparison, we also derive a BER expression for the optimal selection scheme that selects the best antenna/spectrum pair that maximizes the SNR at the SU-Rx, in exchange of high feedback load and switching complexity. Finally, we show that our analytical results are in perfect agreement with the simulation results. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Prostate Cancer Patients' Understanding of the Gleason Scoring System: Implications for Shared Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagai, Erin K; Miller, Suzanne M; Kutikov, Alexander; Diefenbach, Michael A; Gor, Ronak A; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Chen, David Y T; Fleszar, Sara; Roy, Gem

    2018-01-15

    The Gleason scoring system is a key component of a prostate cancer diagnosis, since it indicates disease aggressiveness. It also serves as a risk communication tool that facilitates shared treatment decision-making. However, the system is highly complex and therefore difficult to communicate: factors which have been shown to undermine well-informed and high-quality shared treatment decision-making. To systematically explore prostate cancer patients' understanding of the Gleason scoring system (GSS), we assessed knowledge and perceived importance among men who had completed treatment (N = 50). Patients were administered a survey that assessed patient knowledge and patients' perceived importance of the GSS, as well as demographics, medical factors (e.g., Gleason score at diagnosis), and health literacy. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify associations with patient knowledge and perceived importance of the GSS. The sample was generally well-educated (48% with a bachelor's degree or higher) and health literate (M = 12.9, SD = 2.2, range = 3-15). Despite this, patient knowledge of the GSS was low (M = 1.8, SD = 1.4, range = 1-4). Patients' understanding of the importance of the GSS was moderate (M = 2.8, SD = 1.0, range = 0-4) and was positively associated with GSS knowledge (p decision-making. Future studies are needed to explore the potential utility of a simplified Gleason grading system and improved patient-provider communication.

  12. Cascaded systems analysis of charge sharing in cadmium telluride photon-counting x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A

    2018-05-01

    by up to 25% at the Nyquist frequency relative to EI systems. Additionally, unlike EI systems, the MTF of spectroscopic systems is strongly dependent on photon energy, which results in energy-bin-dependent spatial resolution in spectroscopic systems. The PDF-transfer approach to modeling signal transfer through SPC and spectroscopic x-ray imaging systems provides a framework for understanding system performance. Application of this approach demonstrated that charge sharing artificially inflates the SPC image signal and degrades the MTF of SPC and spectroscopic systems relative to energy-integrating systems. These results further motivate the need for anticharge-sharing circuits to mitigate the effects of charge sharing on SPC and spectroscopic x-ray image quality. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  14. Theory of planned behavior and knowledge sharing among nurses in patient computer management system: The role of distributive justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarminah Samad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between Theory of Planned Behavior and knowledge sharing among nurses in Patient Computer Management System. Consequently, it determined the moderating effect of distributive justice on the relationship between Theory Planned Behavior and knowledge sharing. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. The research was based on a correlational and cross-sectional study which involved a total of 336 nurses. Data was collected based on random sampling via self-administered questionnaires. Partial Least Squares (PLS (Version 3.0 analysis was used to analyze the data. The study revealed that Theory of Plan Behavior components were significantly related to knowledge sharing. These components were also found to have a significant and positive influence on knowledge sharing. The study revealed that distributive justice had significantly moderated the relationship between two components of Theory Planned Behavior (attitude and subjective norm and knowledge sharing.

  15. A Typology of Benefit Sharing Arrangements for the Governance of Social-Ecological Systems in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimo Abraham. Nkhata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores and interprets relevant literature to construct a typology of benefit sharing arrangements for the governance of social-ecological systems in developing countries. The typology comprises three generic categories of benefit sharing arrangements: collaborative, market-oriented, and egalitarian. We contend that the three categories provide a useful basis for exploring and classifying the different societal arrangements required for governance of social-ecological systems. The typology we present is founded on a related set of explicit assumptions that can be used to explore and better understand the linkages among ecosystem services, benefit sharing, and governance. Issues that are strongly related to sustainability in developing countries form the core basis of our assumptions. Our aim is not to write a definitive exposition, but to spark debate and engage ongoing dialogue on governance and benefit sharing in the field of social-ecological systems.

  16. Production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  17. The Comprehensive Biomechanics and Load-Sharing of Semirigid PEEK and Semirigid Posterior Dynamic Stabilization Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternatives to conventional rigid fusion have been proposed for several conditions related to degenerative disc disease when nonoperative treatment has failed. Semirigid fixation, in the form of dynamic stabilization or PEEK rods, is expected to provide compression under loading as well as an intermediate level of stabilization. This study systematically examines both the load-sharing characteristics and kinematics of these two devices compared to the standard of internal rigid fixators. Load-sharing was studied by using digital pressure films inserted between an artificially machined disc and two loading fixtures. Rigid rods, PEEK rods, and the dynamic stabilization system were inserted posteriorly for stabilization. The kinematics were quantified on ten, human, cadaver lumbosacral spines (L3-S1 which were tested under a pure bending moment, in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The magnitude of load transmission through the anterior column was significantly greater with the dynamic device compared to PEEK rods and rigid rods. The contact pressures were distributed more uniformly, throughout the disc with the dynamic stabilization devices, and had smaller maximum point-loading (pressures on any particular point within the disc. Kinematically, the motion was reduced by both semirigid devices similarly in all directions, with slight rigidity imparted by a lateral interbody device.

  18. Joint multiuser switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme selects the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the high feedback load associated with the first scheme, we develop a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity where the base station scans the users in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition to these two selection schemes, we consider two power adaptive settings at the secondary users based on the amount of interference available at the secondary transmitter. In the On/Off power setting, users are allowed to transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not, while in the full power adaptive setting, the users are allowed to vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results for our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load for both schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Joint multiuser switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Serpedin, Erchin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme selects the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the high feedback load associated with the first scheme, we develop a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity where the base station scans the users in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition to these two selection schemes, we consider two power adaptive settings at the secondary users based on the amount of interference available at the secondary transmitter. In the On/Off power setting, users are allowed to transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not, while in the full power adaptive setting, the users are allowed to vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results for our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load for both schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  1. Sharing regulatory data as tools for strengthening health systems in the Region of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varley Dias Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Regulatory transparency is an imperative characteristic of a reliable National Regulatory Authority. In the region of the Americas, the process of building an open government is still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs. This study assessed the transparency status of RRAs, focusing on various medicine life-cycle documents (the Medicine Dossier, Clinical Trial Report, and Inspection Report as tools for strengthening health systems. Based on a narrative (nonsystematic review of RRA regulatory transparency, transparency status was classified as one of two types: public disclosure of information (intra-agency data and data- and work-sharing (inter-agency data. The risks/benefits of public disclosure of medicine-related information were assessed, taking into account 1 the involvement and roles of multiple stakeholders (health care professionals, regulators, industry, community, and academics and 2 the protection of commercial and personal confidential data. Inter-agency data- and work-sharing was evaluated in the context of harmonization and cooperation projects that focus on regulatory convergence. Technical and practical steps for establishing an openness directive for the pharmaceutical regulatory environment are proposed to improve and strengthen health systems in the Americas. Addressing these challenges requires leadership from entities such as the Pan American Health Organization to steer and support collaborative regional alliances that advance the development and establishment of a trustworthy regulatory environment and a sustainable public health system in the Americas, using international successful initiatives as reference and taking into account the domestic characteristics and experiences of each individual country.

  2. Sharing regulatory data as tools for strengthening health systems in the Region of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Varley Dias; Ramalho, Pedro I; Silveira, Dâmaris

    2016-05-01

    Regulatory transparency is an imperative characteristic of a reliable National Regulatory Authority. In the region of the Americas, the process of building an open government is still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs) and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs). This study assessed the transparency status of RRAs, focusing on various medicine life-cycle documents (the Medicine Dossier, Clinical Trial Report, and Inspection Report) as tools for strengthening health systems. Based on a narrative (nonsystematic) review of RRA regulatory transparency, transparency status was classified as one of two types: public disclosure of information (intra-agency data) and data- and work-sharing (inter-agency data). The risks/benefits of public disclosure of medicine-related information were assessed, taking into account 1) the involvement and roles of multiple stakeholders (health care professionals, regulators, industry, community, and academics) and 2) the protection of commercial and personal confidential data. Inter-agency data- and work-sharing was evaluated in the context of harmonization and cooperation projects that focus on regulatory convergence. Technical and practical steps for establishing an openness directive for the pharmaceutical regulatory environment are proposed to improve and strengthen health systems in the Americas. Addressing these challenges requires leadership from entities such as the Pan American Health Organization to steer and support collaborative regional alliances that advance the development and establishment of a trustworthy regulatory environment and a sustainable public health system in the Americas, using international successful initiatives as reference and taking into account the domestic characteristics and experiences of each individual country.

  3. Analysis of Free-floating Bike Sharing and Insights on System Operations : or Analyzing Mobility Patterns and Imbalance of Free Floating Bike Sharing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Aritra Pal (ORCID ID 0000-0002-2256-2464) Yu Zhang (ORCID ID 0000-0003-1202-626X) Changhyun Kwon (ORCID ID 0000-0001-8455-6396) Bike Sharing is a sustainable mode of urban mobility, not only for regular commuters but also for casual users and tourist...

  4. Distinct and shared cognitive functions mediate event- and time-based prospective memory impairment in normal ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonneaud, Julie; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Bon, Laetitia; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an action at a specific point in the future. Regarded as multidimensional, PM involves several cognitive functions that are known to be impaired in normal aging. In the present study, we set out to investigate the cognitive correlates of PM impairment in normal aging. Manipulating cognitive load, we assessed event- and time-based PM, as well as several cognitive functions, including executive functions, working memory and retrospective episodic memory, in healthy subjects covering the entire adulthood. We found that normal aging was characterized by PM decline in all conditions and that event-based PM was more sensitive to the effects of aging than time-based PM. Whatever the conditions, PM was linked to inhibition and processing speed. However, while event-based PM was mainly mediated by binding and retrospective memory processes, time-based PM was mainly related to inhibition. The only distinction between high- and low-load PM cognitive correlates lays in an additional, but marginal, correlation between updating and the high-load PM condition. The association of distinct cognitive functions, as well as shared mechanisms with event- and time-based PM confirms that each type of PM relies on a different set of processes. PMID:21678154

  5. Real-time sharing and expression of migraine headache suffering on Twitter: a cross-sectional infodemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago D; DosSantos, Marcos F; Danciu, Theodora; DeBoer, Misty; van Holsbeeck, Hendrik; Lucas, Sarah R; Aiello, Christine; Khatib, Leen; Bender, MaryCatherine A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; DaSilva, Alexandre F

    2014-04-03

    Although population studies have greatly improved our understanding of migraine, they have relied on retrospective self-reports that are subject to memory error and experimenter-induced bias. Furthermore, these studies also lack specifics from the actual time that attacks were occurring, and how patients express and share their ongoing suffering. As technology and language constantly evolve, so does the way we share our suffering. We sought to evaluate the infodemiology of self-reported migraine headache suffering on Twitter. Trained observers in an academic setting categorized the meaning of every single "migraine" tweet posted during seven consecutive days. The main outcome measures were prevalence, life-style impact, linguistic, and timeline of actual self-reported migraine headache suffering on Twitter. From a total of 21,741 migraine tweets collected, only 64.52% (14,028/21,741 collected tweets) were from users reporting their migraine headache attacks in real-time. The remainder of the posts were commercial, re-tweets, general discussion or third person's migraine, and metaphor. The gender distribution available for the actual migraine posts was 73.47% female (10,306/14,028), 17.40% males (2441/14,028), and 0.01% transgendered (2/14,028). The personal impact of migraine headache was immediate on mood (43.91%, 6159/14,028), productivity at work (3.46%, 486/14,028), social life (3.45%, 484/14,028), and school (2.78%, 390/14,028). The most common migraine descriptor was "Worst" (14.59%, 201/1378) and profanity, the "F-word" (5.3%, 73/1378). The majority of postings occurred in the United States (58.28%, 3413/5856), peaking on weekdays at 10:00h and then gradually again at 22:00h; the weekend had a later morning peak. Twitter proved to be a powerful source of knowledge for migraine research. The data in this study overlap large-scale epidemiological studies, avoiding memory bias and experimenter-induced error. Furthermore, linguistics of ongoing migraine reports

  6. Dynamics of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmanan, Muthusamy

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of chaotic systems, a patently nonlinear phenomenon, has emerged as a highly active interdisciplinary research topic at the interface of physics, biology, applied mathematics and engineering sciences. In this connection, time-delay systems described by delay differential equations have developed as particularly suitable tools for modeling specific dynamical systems. Indeed, time-delay is ubiquitous in many physical systems, for example due to finite switching speeds of amplifiers in electronic circuits, finite lengths of vehicles in traffic flows, finite signal propagation times in biological networks and circuits, and quite generally whenever memory effects are relevant. This monograph presents the basics of chaotic time-delay systems and their synchronization with an emphasis on the effects of time-delay feedback which give rise to new collective dynamics. Special attention is devoted to scalar chaotic/hyperchaotic time-delay systems, and some higher order models, occurring in different bran...

  7. Real-Time Operating Systems for Multicore Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Honda, Shinya; Takada, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Multicore systems-on-chip have become popular inthe design of embedded systems in order to simultaneously achieve high performance and low power consumption. On the software side, real-time operating systems are necessary in orderto handle growing complexity of embedded software. This paper describes requirements, design principles and implementation techniques for real-time operating systems to be used inasymmetric multicore systems.

  8. Archtecture of distributed real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Leung, Cheuk

    2013-01-01

    CRAFTERS (Constraint and Application Driven Framework for Tailoring Embedded Real-time System) project aims to address the problem of uncertainty and heterogeneity in a distributed system by providing seamless, portable connectivity and middleware. This thesis contributes to the project by investigating the techniques that can be used in a distributed real-time embedded system. The conclusion is that, there is a list of specifications to be meet in order to provide a transparent and real-time...

  9. Research Directions in Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes a survey of published research in real time systems . Material is presented that provides an overview of the topic, focusing on...communications protocols and scheduling techniques. It is noted that real - time systems deserve special attention separate from other areas because of...formal tools for design and analysis of real - time systems . The early work on applications as well as notable theoretical advances are summarized

  10. A Real-Time Systems Symposium Preprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Real - Time Systems Symposium Preprint Interim Tech...estimate of the occurence of the error. Unclassii ledSECUqITY CLASSIF’ICA T" NO MI*IA If’ inDI /’rrd erter for~~ble. ’Corrputnqg A REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM...ABSTRACT This technical report contains a preprint of a paper accepted for presentation at the REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM, Arlington,

  11. Real-time multi-function entry / exit management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, Kazuhisa; Kurosawa, Akihiko; Asano, Norikazu; Onoue, Ryuji; Eguchi, Shohei; Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Hori, Naohiko; Ueda, Hisao; Kanda, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent radiation accident and its expansion, more integrated management system is required to safety management for radiation workers in the nuclear facilities. Therefore, JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have developed innovative real-time multi-function entry/exit management system which managed worker's exposed dose and position under the joint developed patent. This system is sharing worker's data among workers and server manager who is inside of or outside of building, such as worker's positing, health condition and exposed dose. It consists of mobile equipments, receivers, LAN, and servers system. This report summarizes the system to be installed in the JMTR. (author)

  12. Toward Implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems Data Sharing Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Uhlir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the views of the authors and not necessarily those of their institutions of employment or affiliation. This article was first written as a “white paper” for the Group on Earth Observations (GEO under Task DA-06-01, “Furthering the Practical Application of the Agreed GEOSS Data Sharing Principles,” which was led beginning in 2006 by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA of the International Council for Science (ISCU under the auspices of the GEO Architecture and Data Committee. We would like to thank the many individuals who helped facilitate the writing of the article or its review. These include Michael Rast, Michael Tanner, and Masami Onoda of the GEO Secretariat, and Kathleen Cass of the CODATA Secretariat, all of whom provided a great deal of project guidance and administrative support; Charles Barton, Australian National University, and Jack Hill, the U.S. Geological Survey, for their contributions to the drafting of the article; Santiago Borrero, Dora Ann Lange Canhos, Yukiko Fukasaku, Huadong Guo, Alexei Gvishiani, Bernard Minster, Steve Rossouw, and Fraser Taylor for providing review comments on earlier drafts; and the many representatives to GEO from its Member States or Affiliated Organizations, who also provided significant substantive comments and suggestions. We also acknowledge the strong support and encouragement of José Achache, Director of the GEO Secretariat, who recognized early on the importance of this effort. Finally, we wish to thank the editors of the Journal of Space Law and the CODATA Data Science Journal, for their assistance with the publishing of this article.

  13. Virtualization of the ATLAS software environment on a shared HPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Schnoor, Ulrike; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-Performance Computing (HPC) and other research cluster computing resources provided by universities can be useful supplements to the collaboration’s own WLCG computing resources for data analysis and production of simulated event samples. The shared HPC cluster "NEMO" at the University of Freiburg has been made available to local ATLAS users through the provisioning of virtual machines incorporating the ATLAS software environment analogously to a WLCG center. The talk describes the concept and implementation of virtualizing the ATLAS software environment to run both data analysis and production on the HPC host system which is connected to the existing Tier-3 infrastructure. Main challenges include the integration into the NEMO and Tier-3 schedulers in a dynamic, on-demand way, the scalability of the OpenStack infrastructure, as well as the automatic generation of a fully functional virtual machine image providing access to the local user environment, the dCache storage element and the parallel file sys...

  14. Methods and apparatuses for information analysis on shared and distributed computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Shawn J [Richland, WA; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar [Richland, WA; Cowley, Wendy E [Richland, WA; Nieplocha, Jarek [Richland, WA

    2011-02-22

    Apparatuses and computer-implemented methods for analyzing, on shared and distributed computing systems, information comprising one or more documents are disclosed according to some aspects. In one embodiment, information analysis can comprise distributing one or more distinct sets of documents among each of a plurality of processes, wherein each process performs operations on a distinct set of documents substantially in parallel with other processes. Operations by each process can further comprise computing term statistics for terms contained in each distinct set of documents, thereby generating a local set of term statistics for each distinct set of documents. Still further, operations by each process can comprise contributing the local sets of term statistics to a global set of term statistics, and participating in generating a major term set from an assigned portion of a global vocabulary.

  15. Capacity of spectrum sharing Cognitive Radio systems over Nakagami fading channels at low SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of Cognitive Radio (CR) spectrum sharing systems at low power regime. We focus on Nakagami fading channels. We formally define the low power regime and present closed form expressions of the capacity in the low power regime under various types of interference and/or power constraints, depending on the available channel state information (CSI) of the cross link (CL) between the secondary user transmitter and the primary user receiver. We explicitly characterize two regimes where either the interference constraint or the power constraint dictates the optimal power profile. Our framework also highlights the effects of different fading parameters on the secondary link ergodic capacity. Interestingly, we show that the low power regime analysis provides a specific insight on the capacity behavior of CR that has not been reported by previous studies. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. 29 CFR 780.407 - System must be nonprofit or operated on a share-crop basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false System must be nonprofit or operated on a share-crop basis... Requirements Under Section 13(b)(12) The Irrigation Exemption § 780.407 System must be nonprofit or operated on... on facilities of any irrigation system unless the ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways in...

  17. Simulation modelling of central order processing system under resource sharing strategy in demand-driven garment supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K.; Thomassey, S.; Zeng, X.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proposed a central order processing system under resource sharing strategy for demand-driven garment supply chains to increase supply chain performances. We examined this system by using simulation technology. Simulation results showed that significant improvement in various performance indicators was obtained in new collaborative model with proposed system.

  18. The SEEK: a platform for sharing data and models in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Katy; Owen, Stuart; du Preez, Franco; Krebs, Olga; Mueller, Wolfgang; Goble, Carole; Snoep, Jacky L

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology research is typically performed by multidisciplinary groups of scientists, often in large consortia and in distributed locations. The data generated in these projects tend to be heterogeneous and often involves high-throughput "omics" analyses. Models are developed iteratively from data generated in the projects and from the literature. Consequently, there is a growing requirement for exchanging experimental data, mathematical models, and scientific protocols between consortium members and a necessity to record and share the outcomes of experiments and the links between data and models. The overall output of a research consortium is also a valuable commodity in its own right. The research and associated data and models should eventually be available to the whole community for reuse and future analysis. The SEEK is an open-source, Web-based platform designed for the management and exchange of systems biology data and models. The SEEK was originally developed for the SysMO (systems biology of microorganisms) consortia, but the principles and objectives are applicable to any systems biology project. The SEEK provides an index of consortium resources and acts as gateway to other tools and services commonly used in the community. For example, the model simulation tool, JWS Online, has been integrated into the SEEK, and a plug-in to PubMed allows publications to be linked to supporting data and author profiles in the SEEK. The SEEK is a pragmatic solution to data management which encourages, but does not force, researchers to share and disseminate their data to community standard formats. It provides tools to assist with management and annotation as well as incentives and added value for following these recommendations. Data exchange and reuse rely on sufficient annotation, consistent metadata descriptions, and the use of standard exchange formats for models, data, and the experiments they are derived from. In this chapter, we present the SEEK platform

  19. One-way shared memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Standard multicore processors use the shared main memory via the on-chip caches for communication between cores. However, this form of communication has two limitations: (1) it is hardly time-predictable and therefore not a good solution for real-time systems and (2) this single shared memory...... is a bottleneck in the system. This paper presents a communication architecture for time-predictable multicore systems where core-local memories are distributed on the chip. A network-on-chip constantly copies data from a sender core-local memory to a receiver core-local memory. As this copying is performed...... in one direction we call this architecture a one-way shared memory. With the use of time-division multiplexing for the memory accesses and the network-on-chip routers we achieve a time-predictable solution where the communication latency and bandwidth can be bounded. An example architecture for a 3...

  20. Research on Multiple-Split Load Sharing Characteristics of 2-Stage External Meshing Star Gear System in Consideration of Displacement Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Mo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the multiple-split load sharing mechanism of gears in two-stage external meshing planetary transmission system of aeroengine. According to the eccentric error, gear tooth thickness error, pitch error, installation error, and bearing manufacturing error, we performed the meshing error analysis of equivalent angles, respectively, and we also considered the floating meshing error caused by the variation of the meshing backlash, which is from the floating of all gears at the same time. Finally, we obtained the comprehensive angle meshing error of the two-stage meshing line, established a refined mathematical computational model of 2-stage external 3-split loading sharing coefficient in consideration of displacement compatibility, got the regular curves of the load sharing coefficient and load sharing characteristic curve of full floating multiple-split and multiple-stage system, and took the variation law of the floating track and the floating quantity of the center wheel. These provide a scientific theory to determine the load sharing coefficient, reasonable load distribution, and control tolerances in aviation design and manufacturing.

  1. The Advanced Photon Source injection timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source consists of five accelerators. The injection timing system provides the signals required to cause a bunch emitted from the electron gun to navigate through intermediate accelerators to a specific bucket (1 out of 1296) within the storage ring. Two linacs and a positron accumulator ring operate at 60Hz while a booster synchrotron ramps and injects into the storage ring at 2Hz. The distributed, modular VME/VXI-based injection timing system is controlled by two EPICS-based input/output controllers (IOCs). Over 40 VME/VXI cards have been developed to implement the system. Card types range from 352MHz VXI timing modules to VME-based fiber optic fanouts and logic translators/drivers. All timing is distributed with fiber optics. Timing references are derived directly from machine low-level rf of 9.77MHz and 352MHz. The timing references provide triggers to programmable delay generators. Three grades of timing are provided. Precision timing is derived from commercial digital delay generators, intermediate precision timing is obtained from VXI 8-channel digital delay generators which provide timing with 25ns peak-to-peak jitter, and modest precision timing is provided by the APS event system. The timing system is fully integrated into the APS EPICS-based control system

  2. Reactive nitrogen losses from China's food system for the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengru; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna; Ma, Lin

    2017-12-15

    Food production in China has been changing fast as a result of socio-economic development. This resulted in an increased use of nitrogen (N) in food production, and also to increased reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses to the environment, causing nitrogen pollution. Our study is the first to quantify future Nr losses from China's food system for the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). We show that Nr losses differ largely among SSPs. We first qualitatively described the five SSP storylines for China with a focus on food production and consumption. Next, we interpreted these SSP scenarios quantitatively for 2030 and 2050, using the NUFER (NUtrient Flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use) model to project the Nr losses from China's food system. The results indicate that Nr losses from future food system in China are relatively low for SSP1 and SSP2, and relatively high for SSP3 and SSP4. In SSP5 Nr losses from China's food system are projected to be slightly lower than the level of today. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the impacts of deploying a shared self-driving urban mobility system: An agent-based model applied to the city of Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Martinez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changes that might result from the large-scale uptake of a shared and self-driving fleet of vehicles in a mid-sized European city. The work explores two different self-driving vehicle concepts – a ridesharing system (Shared Taxi, which emulates a taxi-like system where customers accept small detours from their original direct path and share part of their ride with others and a dynamic bus-like service with minibuses (Taxi-Bus, where customers pre-book their service at least 30 min in advance (permanent bookings for regular trips should represent most requests and walk short distances to a designated stop. Under the premise that the “upgraded” system should as much as possible deliver the same trips as today in terms of origin, destination and timing, and that it should also replace all car and bus trips, it looks at impacts on car fleet size, volume of travel and parking requirements. Mobility output and CO2 emissions are also detailed in two different time scales (24 h. average and peak-hour only. The obtained results suggest that a full implementation scenario where the existing metro service is kept and private car, bus and taxi mobility would be replaced by shared modes would significantly reduce travelled vehicle.kilometres and CO2 emissions.

  4. A flexible time recording and time correlation analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenhav, N.J.; Leiferman, G.; Segal, Y.; Notea, A.

    1983-01-01

    A system was developed to digitize and record the time intervals between detection event pulses, feed to its input channels from a detection device. The accumulated data is transferred continuously in real time to a disc through a PDP 11/34 minicomputer. Even though the system was designed for a specific scope, i.e., the comparative study of passive neutron nondestructive assay methods, it can be characterized by its features as a general purpose time series recorder. The time correlation analysis is performed by software after completion of the data accumulation. The digitizing clock period is selectable and any value, larger than a minimum of 100 ns, may be selected. Bursts of up to 128 events with a frequency up to 10 MHz may be recorded. With the present recorder-minicomputer combination, the maximal average recording frequency is 40 kHz. (orig.)

  5. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Horn Clauses for Communicating Timed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hojjat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Languages based on the theory of timed automata are a well established approach for modelling and analysing real-time systems, with many applications both in industrial and academic context. Model checking for timed automata has been studied extensively during the last two decades; however, even now industrial-grade model checkers are available only for few timed automata dialects (in particular Uppaal timed automata, exhibit limited scalability for systems with large discrete state space, or cannot handle parametrised systems. We explore the use of Horn constraints and off-the-shelf model checkers for analysis of networks of timed automata. The resulting analysis method is fully symbolic and applicable to systems with large or infinite discrete state space, and can be extended to include various language features, for instance Uppaal-style communication/broadcast channels and BIP-style interactions, and systems with infinite parallelism. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  7. Development of a solar-powered electric bicycle in bike sharing transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisuwignjo, S.; Siradjuddin, I.; Rifa'i, M.; Putri, R. I.

    2017-06-01

    The increasing mobility has directly led to deteriorating traffic conditions, extra fuel consumption, increasing automobile exhaust emissions, air pollution and lowering quality of life. Apart from being clean, cheap and equitable mode of transport for short-distance journeys, cycling can potentially offer solutions to the problem of urban mobility. Many cities have tried promoting cycling particularly through the implementation of bike-sharing. Apparently the fourth generation bikesharing system has been promoted utilizing electric bicycles which considered as a clean technology implementation. Utilization of solar power is probably the development keys in the fourth generation bikesharing system and will become the standard in bikesharing system in the future. Electric bikes use batteries as a source of energy, thus they require a battery charger system which powered from the solar cells energy. This research aims to design and implement electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. It is necessary to develop an electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. The study was conducted by means of experimental method which includes the design, manufacture and testing controller systems. The designed fuzzy algorithm have been planted in EEPROM microcontroller ATmega8535. The charging current was set at 1.2 Amperes and the full charged battery voltage was observed to be 40 Volts. The results showed a fuzzy logic controller was able to maintain the charging current of 1.2 Ampere with an error rate of less than 5% around the set point. The process of charging electric bike lead acid batteries from empty to fully charged was 5 hours. In conclusion, the development of solar-powered electric bicycle controlled using fuzzy logic controller can keep the battery charging current in solar-powered electric bicycle to remain stable. This shows that the fuzzy algorithm can be used as

  8. The TdeV timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deVillers, P.; Lliev, B.; Larsen, J.M.; Strong, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the timing system that provides the clock and trigger signals used to synchronize power supplies, waveforms, gas injection, plasma control, diagnostic equipments and data-acquisition systems on TdeV (Tokamak de Varennes). The two major components of the timing system are the MPB Encoder and Decoder CAMAC modules which are linked via ta fibre optic cable (timing highway) carrying a 1 MHz master clock and timing events. The Decoders generate the synchronization signals with a resolution of 1 μs upon recognition of timing events encoded on the timing highway by the Encoder modules. The integration of these programmable CAMAC modules, developed to meet the requirements of TdeV, allows the design of a distributed timing system with a simple but flexible architecture

  9. Forecasting the Electricity Demand and Market Shares in Retail Electricity Market Based on System Dynamics and Markov Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyou Yan; Chao Qin; Mingjian Nie; Le Yang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the deregulation of retail electricity market, consumers can choose retail electric suppliers freely, and market entities are facing fierce competition because of the increasing number of new entrants. Under these circumstances, forecasting the changes in all market entities, when market share stabilized, is important for suppliers making marketing decisions. In this paper, a market share forecasting model was established based on Markov chain, and a system dynamics model was construct...

  10. Shared technologies in the development of the Titan 250 gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knodle, M.S.; Novaresi, M.A. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States). Titan Gas Turbine Systems Division

    2009-07-01

    Development of the Titan 250 industrial gas turbine system began in 2005 in response to demands from the petroleum industry and electricity producers for higher performance industrial gas turbine products in the 15-30 MW (25,000-45,000 hp) power range. The Titan 250 is Solar Turbine's most powerful package and its evolutionary hybrid-type design approach was based on shared aerodynamic, thermal, mechanical, and combustion technologies borrowed from the Taurus 65TM, Titan 130TM, and Mercury 50TM gas turbine systems. It produces 50 per cent more power than the Titan 130, while providing 40 per cent shaft efficiency with significantly fewer emissions. Thorough combustion system testing, use of proven materials, and hot section cooling provided a solid design basis. The engine is a two-shaft design that includes a 16-stage axial-flow compressor, a dry low emissions combustor for low NOx and CO output, a two-stage gas producer turbine operating at a turbine rotor inlet temperature of 1204 degrees C, and a three-stage, all-shrouded blade power turbine for maximum efficiency. The design also minimizes maintenance intervals to increase equipment availability. The gas turbine and gas compressor have been tested in component, subsystem, and full-scale development, and will be starting field operation in late 2009 to verify performance and mechanical integrity under all operating conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 26 figs.

  11. Verifying duration properties of timed transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.; Li, Xiaoshan

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for formal real-time systems development:Requirements and high level design decisions are time interval properties and are therefore specified in the Duration Calculus (DC), while implementations are described bytimed transition systems (TTS). A link from implementati...

  12. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  13. Synchronization of timing systems on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, J.; Sichta, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) facility clock system which has four related timing subsystems: the TFTR shot clock, the Neutral Beams clocks, the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) system clock, and the Disruption Trigger System. These systems have been integrated to support increasingly fast sampling rates in data acquisition and greater accuracy in the firing of the Neutral Beams and ICRF systems during TFTR shots

  14. Resource-Parameterized Timing Analysis of Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Legay, Axel; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    on a specic platform. For the same reason, a configuration of platforms cannot be independent from applications in most cases. This paper proposes a new analysis framework of real-time systems where an application and a platform can be analyzed in a fully independent way such that not only the application...

  15. Army Secure Operating System: Information Security for Real Time Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Eric

    1984-01-01

    The Army Secure Operating System (ASOS) project, under the management of the U.S. Army CECOM organization, will provide real time systems software necessary for fielding modern Battlefield Automation Systems...

  16. Time Optimal Control Laws for Bilinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Bichiou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the feedforward and state feedback suboptimal time control for a subset of bilinear systems, namely, the control sequence and reaching time. This paper proposes a method that uses Block pulse functions as an orthogonal base. The bilinear system is projected along that base. The mathematical integration is transformed into a product of matrices. An algebraic system of equations is obtained. This system together with specified constraints is treated as an optimization problem. The parameters to determine are the final time, the control sequence, and the states trajectories. The obtained results via the newly proposed method are compared to known analytical solutions.

  17. Parallel checksumming of data chunks of a shared data object using a log-structured file system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2016-09-06

    Checksum values are generated and used to verify the data integrity. A client executing in a parallel computing system stores a data chunk to a shared data object on a storage node in the parallel computing system. The client determines a checksum value for the data chunk; and provides the checksum value with the data chunk to the storage node that stores the shared object. The data chunk can be stored on the storage node with the corresponding checksum value as part of the shared object. The storage node may be part of a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS), and the client may comprise, for example, a Log-Structured File System client on a compute node or burst buffer. The checksum value can be evaluated when the data chunk is read from the storage node to verify the integrity of the data that is read.

  18. Shared pledge shared vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussaha, Ali; Diatta, Christian Sina

    2005-01-01

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a pledge by African leaders to eradicate poverty and to promote sustainable growth and development. NEPAD is a 'new framework of interaction with the rest of the world, including the industrialised countries and multilateral organizations.' The agenda is based on regional priorities and development plans and its implementation relies on African ownership and management. As a UN system organisation, the IAEA strongly supports the priorities identified in the Millennium Declaration and the New Partnership for Africa's Development. As a technical agency, the IAEA shares its recognized core competencies and technical expertise in support of NEPAD goals. Efforts aim at strengthening institutional capacity building in nuclear sciences and technology and promoting the sustainable application of nuclear techniques for social and economic development. The IAEA has a membership of 34 African countries. The Agency supports them under its technical cooperation programme through provision of expertise, training opportunities and equipment in priority areas identified by the countries themselves. For many African Member States, meeting basic human needs through the implementation of poverty alleviation strategies remains the top priority on the agenda for national development plans and international cooperation programmes. In the context of sustainable development, special attention is being paid to enlarging the contribution of isotopes and nuclear techniques in major areas of economic and social significance and to promoting regional cooperation in nuclear science and technology related fields. As a partner in development, the Agency has promoted and undertaken programmes to support African countries' efforts to address priority development issues particularly in the areas of health care, food and agriculture and water resources development. The IAEA technical cooperation mechanism includes support to the African Regional

  19. An USB-based time measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xi; Liu Shubin; An Qi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we report the electronics of a timing measurement system of PTB(portable TDC board), which is a handy tool based on USB interface, customized for high precision time measurements without any crates. The time digitization is based on the High Performance TDC Chip (HPTDC). The real-time compensation for HPTDC outputs and the USB master logic are implemented in an ALTERA's Cyclone FPGA. The architecture design and logic design are described in detail. Test of the system showed a time resolution of 13.3 ps. (authors)

  20. Model Checking Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2018-01-01

    This chapter surveys timed automata as a formalism for model checking real-time systems. We begin with introducing the model, as an extension of finite-state automata with real-valued variables for measuring time. We then present the main model-checking results in this framework, and give a hint...

  1. Modular specification of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inal, Recep

    1994-01-01

    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notation...

  2. The Share of Internal Organs and Viscera in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Reared in Different Growth Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cocan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment we followed the influence of growth system on the share of internal organs and viscera by the total body mass on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The importance of this study results from the need to reach as favourable slaughter yield. For this, were slaughtered 25 rainbow trout from the Fiad trout farm (conventional farm, Bistriţa-Năsăud County (control group – M, respectively 25 rainbow trout grown in a recirculating system arranged in Cluj-Napoca (experimental group – E. Body weight of the studied specimens was 228.96±1.21 g – M group, respectively 229.40±1.24 g – E group, the difference between the two groups being insignificant (p>0.05. The slaughter yield was favorable for E group – 90.55±0.03%, compared with M group – 89.23±0.05% (p<0.001. We analyzed the total gravimetric share of the internal organs and viscera at trout from the two groups and individual weights of esophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca, medium intestine and duodenum, rectum, liver, pancreas, heart, spleen, air bladder and kidney. The results showed a higher share of this organs at trout from the Fiad trout farm (M group, except stomach (2.38±0.01g – M group vs. 2.45±0.008 g – E group; p<0.05, and liver respectively (4.83±0.02 g – M group vs. 5.36±0.04 g – E group; p<0.001. In accordance with the values obtained, the resulting conclusion is that in the recirculating system, due to optimal environmental conditions, trout have a higher slaughter yield compared with those of conventional farm, accumulating in the same time fat reserves deposited in the liver.

  3. A Collaborative Semantic Annotation System in Health: Towards a SOA Design for Knowledge Sharing in Ambient Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Guerrero-Contreras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People nowadays spend more and more time performing collaborative tasks at anywhere and anytime. Specifically, professionals want to collaborate with each other by using advanced technologies for sharing knowledge in order to improve/automatize business processes. Semantic web technologies offer multiple benefits such as data integration across sources and automation enablers. The conversion of the widespread Content Management Systems into its semantic equivalent is a relevant step, as this enables the benefits of the semantic web to be extended. The FLERSA annotation tool makes it possible. In particular, it converts the Joomla! CMS into its semantic equivalent. However, this tool is highly coupled with that specific Joomla! platform. Furthermore, ambient intelligent (AmI environments can be seen as a natural way to address complex interactions between users and their environment, which could be transparently supported through distributed information systems. However, to build distributed information systems for AmI environments it is necessary to make important design decisions and apply techniques at system/software architecture level. In this paper, a SOA-based design solution consisting of two services and an underlying middleware is combined with the FLERSA tool. It allows end-users to collaborate independently of technical details and specific context conditions and in a distributed, decentralized way.

  4. Job Sharing Through Part Time Contracts. A Consideration in the Context of Declining School Enrolments in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna

    Two questionnaires were sent to all school boards and a sample of teachers in Ontario to assess how receptive boards and teachers are to job sharing as an alternative work pattern in schools affected by declining enrollment. The report gives the background of the concept of job sharing and an analysis of the benefits, work situations, and problems…

  5. Temporal isolation in an HSF-enabled real-time kernel in the presence of shared resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Parmer, G.; Gleixner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) have been extensively investigated as a paradigm for facilitating temporal isolation between components that need to be integrated on a single shared processor. To support resource sharing within two-level, fixed priority scheduled HSFs, two synchronization

  6. Tailoring Shared Governance to the Needs and Opportunities of the Times. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.13.13

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. Judson

    2013-01-01

    Shared governance between the administration and faculty has been traditional for most public universities, but varies considerably in its nature and effectiveness. In the United States it probably takes its most structured form at the University of California. There are good reasons for having shared governance, and yet it tends to be poorly…

  7. Distributed metadata servers for cluster file systems using shared low latency persistent key-value metadata store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Pedone, Jr., James M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Ting, Dennis P. J.; Ionkov, Latchesar A.; Grider, Gary

    2017-12-26

    A cluster file system is provided having a plurality of distributed metadata servers with shared access to one or more shared low latency persistent key-value metadata stores. A metadata server comprises an abstract storage interface comprising a software interface module that communicates with at least one shared persistent key-value metadata store providing a key-value interface for persistent storage of key-value metadata. The software interface module provides the key-value metadata to the at least one shared persistent key-value metadata store in a key-value format. The shared persistent key-value metadata store is accessed by a plurality of metadata servers. A metadata request can be processed by a given metadata server independently of other metadata servers in the cluster file system. A distributed metadata storage environment is also disclosed that comprises a plurality of metadata servers having an abstract storage interface to at least one shared persistent key-value metadata store.

  8. Sharing the Licensed Spectrum of Full-Duplex Systems Using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PU) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-interference introduced at the primary network may dramatically impede the secondary user (SU) opportunity to access the spectrum. In this work, we attempt to tackle this problem through the use of the so-called improper Gaussian signaling. Such a signaling technique has demonstrated its superiority in improving the overall performance in interference limited networks. Particularly, we assume a system with a SU pair working in half-duplex mode that uses improper Gaussian signaling while the FD PU pair implements the regular proper Gaussian signaling techniques. First, we derive a closed form expression for the SU outage probability and an upper bound for the PU outage probability. Then, we optimize the SU signal parameters to minimize its outage probability while maintaining the required PU quality-of-service based on the average channel state information. Finally, we provide some numerical results that validate the tightness of the PU outage probability bound and demonstrate the advantage of employing the improper Gaussian signaling to the SU in order to access the spectrum of the FD PU.

  9. Overall Bike Effectiveness as a Sustainability Metric for Bike Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bike sharing systems (BSS have been widely accepted as an urban transport scheme in many cities around the world. The concept is recently expanded and followed by many cities to offer citizen a “green” and flexible transportation scheme in urban areas. Many works focus on the issues of bike availability while the bike performance, i.e., life cycle issues and its sustainability, for better management has been abandoned. As a consequence, mismanagement of BSS would lead to cost inefficiency and, the worst case, end with operation termination. This study proposes a design science approach by developing an Overall Bike Effectiveness (OBE framework. By incorporating the concept of overall equipment analysis (OEE, the proposed framework is used to measure the bike utilization. Accordingly, the OBE is extended into Theoretical OBE to measure the sustainability of the early-stage of BSS. The framework has been verified and evaluated using a real dataset of BSS. The proposed method provides valuable results for benchmarking, life cycle analysis, system expansion and strategy planning toward sustainability. The paper concludes with a discussion to show the impact of the proposed approach into the real practices of BSS including an outlook toward sustainability of BSS.

  10. Sharing the Licensed Spectrum of Full-Duplex Systems using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed; Amin, Osama; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PU) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-inteference introducsed at the primary network may dramatically impede the secondary user (SU) opportunity to access the spectrum. In this work, we attempt to tackle this problem through the use of so called improper Gaussian signaling (IGS). Such a signaling technique has demonstrated its superiority in improving the overall performance in interference limited networks. Particularly, we assume a system with a SU pair working in half-duplex mode that uses IGS while the FD PU pair implements the regular proper Gaussiam signaling techniques. Frist, we derive a closed form expression for the SU outage probability while maintaining the required PU quality-of-service based on the average channel state information. Finally, we provide some numerical results that validate the tightness of the PU outage probability bound and demonstrate the advantage of employing IGS to the SU in order to access the spectrum of the FD PU.

  11. Sharing the Licensed Spectrum of Full-Duplex Systems using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-01-06

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PU) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-inteference introducsed at the primary network may dramatically impede the secondary user (SU) opportunity to access the spectrum. In this work, we attempt to tackle this problem through the use of so called improper Gaussian signaling (IGS). Such a signaling technique has demonstrated its superiority in improving the overall performance in interference limited networks. Particularly, we assume a system with a SU pair working in half-duplex mode that uses IGS while the FD PU pair implements the regular proper Gaussiam signaling techniques. Frist, we derive a closed form expression for the SU outage probability while maintaining the required PU quality-of-service based on the average channel state information. Finally, we provide some numerical results that validate the tightness of the PU outage probability bound and demonstrate the advantage of employing IGS to the SU in order to access the spectrum of the FD PU.

  12. Full and Open Access to Data in the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS): Implementing the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Uhlir, P. F.; Gabrinowicz, J. I.

    2008-12-01

    Full and open access to data from remote sensing platforms and other sources can facilitate not only scientific research but also the more widespread and effective use of scientific data for the benefit of society. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) is a major international initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) to develop "coordinated, comprehensive and sustained Earth observations and information." In 2005, GEO adopted the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles, which call for the "full and open exchange of data, metadata, and products shared within GEOSS, recognizing relevant international instruments and national policies and legislation." These Principles also note that "All shared data, metadata, and products will be made available with minimum time delay and at minimum cost" and that "All shared data, metadata, and products being free of charge or no more than cost of reproduction will be encouraged for research and education." GEOSS Task DA-06-01, aimed at developing a set of recommended implementation guidelines for the Principles, was established in 2006 under the leadership of CODATA, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology of the International Council for Science (ICSU). An international team of authors has developed a draft White Paper on the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles and a proposed set of implementation guidelines. These have been carefully reviewed by independent reviewers, various GEO Committees, and GEO National Members and Participating Organizations. It is expected that the proposed implementation guidelines will be discussed at the GEO-V Plenary in Budapest in November 2008. The current version of the proposed implementation guidelines recognizes the importance of good faith, voluntary adherence to the Principles by GEO National Members and Participating Organizations. It underscores the value of reuse and re-dissemination of GEOSS data with minimum restrictions, not only within GEOSS itself but on the part of

  13. Shared Contract-Obedient Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Lozes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing verification techniques for message-passing programs suppose either that channel endpoints are used in a linear fashion, where at most one thread may send or receive from an endpoint at any given time, or that endpoints may be used arbitrarily by any number of threads. The former approach usually forbids the sharing of channels while the latter limits what is provable about programs. In this paper we propose a midpoint between these techniques by extending a proof system based on separation logic to allow sharing of endpoints. We identify two independent mechanisms for supporting sharing: an extension of fractional shares to endpoints, and a new technique based on what we call reflexive ownership transfer. We demonstrate on a number of examples that a linear treatment of sharing is possible.

  14. Increasing Power by Sharing Information from Genetic Background and Treatment in Clustering of Gene Expression Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Zaki Alrashid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of gene expression time series gives insight into which genes may be co-regulated, allowing us to discern the activity of pathways in a given microarray experiment. Of particular interest is how a given group of genes varies with different conditions or genetic background. This paper develops
a new clustering method that allows each cluster to be parameterised according to whether the behaviour of the genes across conditions is correlated or anti-correlated. By specifying correlation between such genes,more information is gain within the cluster about how the genes interrelate. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that kills the motor neurons and results in death within 2 to 3 years from the symptom onset. Speed of progression for different patients are heterogeneous with significant variability. The SOD1G93A transgenic mice from different backgrounds (129Sv and C57 showed consistent phenotypic differences for disease progression. A hierarchy of Gaussian isused processes to model condition-specific and gene-specific temporal co-variances. This study demonstrated about finding some significant gene expression profiles and clusters of associated or co-regulated gene expressions together from four groups of data (SOD1G93A and Ntg from 129Sv and C57 backgrounds. Our study shows the effectiveness of sharing information between replicates and different model conditions when modelling gene expression time series. Further gene enrichment score analysis and ontology pathway analysis of some specified clusters for a particular group may lead toward identifying features underlying the differential speed of disease progression.

  15. Secondary access based on sensing and primary ARQ feedback in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of primary/secondary spectrum sharing, we propose a randomized secondary access strategy with access probabilities that are a function of both the primary automatic repeat request (ARQ) feedback and the spectrum sensing outcome. The primary terminal operates in a time slotted fashion and is active only when it has a packet to send. The primary receiver can send a positive acknowledgment (ACK) when the received packet is decoded correctly. Lack of ARQ feedback is interpreted as erroneous reception or inactivity. We call this the explicit ACK scheme. The primary receiver may also send a negative acknowledgment (NACK) when the packet is received in error. Lack of ARQ feedback is interpreted as an ACK or no-transmission. This is called the explicit NACK scheme. Under both schemes, when the primary feedback is interpreted as a NACK, the secondary user assumes that there will be retransmission in the next slot and accesses the channel with a certain probability. When the primary feedback is interpreted as an ACK, the secondary user accesses the channel with either one of two probabilities based on the sensing outcome. Under these settings, we find the three optimal access probabilities via maximizing the secondary throughput given a constraint on the primary throughput. We compare the performance of the explicit ACK and explicit NACK schemes and contrast them with schemes based on either sensing or primary ARQ feedback only. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Cooperative AF Relaying in Spectrum-Sharing Systems: Outage Probability Analysis under Co-Channel Interferences and Relay Selection

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Minghua

    2012-11-01

    For cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in spectrum-sharing wireless systems, secondary users share spectrum resources originally licensed to primary users to communicate with each other and, thus, the transmit power of secondary transmitters is strictly limited by the tolerable interference powers at primary receivers. Furthermore, the received signals at a relay and at a secondary receiver are inevitably interfered by the signals from primary transmitters. These co-channel interferences (CCIs) from concurrent primary transmission can significantly degrade the performance of secondary transmission. This paper studies the effect of CCIs on outage probability of the secondary link in a spectrum-sharing environment. In particular, in order to compensate the performance loss due to CCIs, the transmit powers of a secondary transmitter and its relaying node are respectively optimized with respect to both the tolerable interference powers at the primary receivers and the CCIs from the primary transmitters. Moreover, when multiple relays are available, the technique of opportunistic relay selection is exploited to further improve system performance with low implementation complexity. By analyzing lower and upper bounds on the outage probability of the secondary system, this study reveals that it is the tolerable interference powers at primary receivers that dominate the system performance, rather than the CCIs from primary transmitters. System designers will benefit from this result in planning and designing next-generation broadband spectrum-sharing systems.

  17. Underlay Spectrum Sharing Techniques with In-Band Full-Duplex Systems using Improper Gaussian Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-10-26

    Sharing the spectrum with in-band full-duplex (FD) primary users (PUs) is a challenging and interesting problem in the underlay cognitive radio (CR) systems. The self-interference introduced at the primary network may dramatically impede the secondary user (SU) opportunity to access the spectrum. To tackle this problem, we use the so-called improper Gaussian signaling. Particularly, we assume the downlink transmission of a SU that uses improper Gaussian signaling while the FD PU pair implements the regular proper Gaussian signaling. First, we derive a closed form expression and an upper bound for the SU and PUs outage probabilities, respectively. Second, we optimize the SU signal parameters to minimize its outage probability while maintaining the required PUs quality-of-service based on the average channel state information (CSI). Moreover, we provide the conditions to reap merits from employing improper Gaussian signaling at the SU. Third, we design the SU signal parameters based on perfect knowledge of its direct link instantaneous CSI and investigate all benefits that can be achieved at both the SU and PUs. Finally, we provide some numerical results that demonstrate the advantages of using improper Gaussian signaling to access the spectrum of the FD PUs.

  18. Spectrum sharing opportunities of full-duplex systems using improper Gaussian signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Sharing the licensed spectrum of full-duplex (FD) primary users (PU) brings strict limitations on the underlay cognitive radio operation. Particularly, the self interference may overwhelm the PU receiver and limit the opportunity of secondary users (SU) to access the spectrum. Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) has demonstrated its superiority in improving the performance of interference channel systems. Throughout this paper, we assume a FD PU pair that uses proper Gaussian signaling (PGS), and a half-duplex SU pair that uses IGS. The objective is to maximize the SU instantaneous achievable rate while meeting the PU quality-of-service. To this end, we propose a simplified algorithm that optimizes the SU signal parameters, i.e, the transmit power and the circularity coefficient, which is a measure of the degree of impropriety of the SU signal, to achieve the design objective. Numerical results show the merits of adopting IGS compared with PGS for the SU especially with the existence of week PU direct channels and/or strong SU interference channels.

  19. Adaptive rate transmission for spectrum sharing system with quantized channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2011-03-01

    The capacity of a secondary link in spectrum sharing systems has been recently investigated in fading environments. In particular, the secondary transmitter is allowed to adapt its power and rate to maximize its capacity subject to the constraint of maximum interference level allowed at the primary receiver. In most of the literature, it was assumed that estimates of the channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link and the interference level are made available at the secondary transmitter via an infinite-resolution feedback links between the secondary/primary receivers and the secondary transmitter. However, the assumption of having infinite resolution feedback links is not always practical as it requires an excessive amount of bandwidth. In this paper we develop a framework for optimizing the performance of the secondary link in terms of the average spectral efficiency assuming quantized CSI available at the secondary transmitter. We develop a computationally efficient algorithm for optimally quantizing the CSI and finding the optimal power and rate employed at the cognitive transmitter for each quantized CSI level so as to maximize the average spectral efficiency. Our results give the number of bits required to represent the CSI sufficient to achieve almost the maximum average spectral efficiency attained using full knowledge of the CSI for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Achievable rate of spectrum sharing cognitive radio systems over fading channels at low-power regime

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2014-11-01

    We study the achievable rate of cognitive radio (CR) spectrum sharing systems at the low-power regime for general fading channels and then for Nakagami fading. We formally define the low-power regime and present the corresponding closed-form expressions of the achievable rate lower bound under various types of interference and/or power constraints, depending on the available channel state information of the cross link (CL) between the secondary-user transmitter and the primary-user receiver. We explicitly characterize two regimes where either the interference constraint or the power constraint dictates the optimal power profile. Our framework also highlights the effects of different fading parameters on the secondary link (SL) ergodic achievable rate. We also study more realistic scenarios when there is either 1-bit quantized channel feedback from the CL alone or 2-bit feedback from both the CL and the SL and propose simple power control schemes and show that these schemes achieve the previously achieved rate at the low-power regime. Interestingly, we show that the low-power regime analysis provides a specific insight into the maximum achievable rate behavior of CR that has not been reported by previous studies.

  1. Adaptive rate transmission for spectrum sharing system with quantized channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Salem, Ahmed H.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of a secondary link in spectrum sharing systems has been recently investigated in fading environments. In particular, the secondary transmitter is allowed to adapt its power and rate to maximize its capacity subject to the constraint of maximum interference level allowed at the primary receiver. In most of the literature, it was assumed that estimates of the channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link and the interference level are made available at the secondary transmitter via an infinite-resolution feedback links between the secondary/primary receivers and the secondary transmitter. However, the assumption of having infinite resolution feedback links is not always practical as it requires an excessive amount of bandwidth. In this paper we develop a framework for optimizing the performance of the secondary link in terms of the average spectral efficiency assuming quantized CSI available at the secondary transmitter. We develop a computationally efficient algorithm for optimally quantizing the CSI and finding the optimal power and rate employed at the cognitive transmitter for each quantized CSI level so as to maximize the average spectral efficiency. Our results give the number of bits required to represent the CSI sufficient to achieve almost the maximum average spectral efficiency attained using full knowledge of the CSI for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Scala for Real-Time Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Java served well as a general-purpose language. However, during its two decades of constant change it has gotten some weight and legacy in the language syntax and the libraries. Furthermore, Java's success for real-time systems is mediocre. Scala is a modern object-oriented and functional language...... with interesting new features. Although a new language, it executes on a Java virtual machine, reusing that technology. This paper explores Scala as language for future real-time systems....

  3. Failure analysis of real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalashgar, A.; Stoelen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights essential aspects of real-time software systems that are strongly related to the failures and their course of propagation. The significant influence of means-oriented and goal-oriented system views in the description, understanding and analysing of those aspects is elaborated. The importance of performing failure analysis prior to reliability analysis of real-time systems is equally addressed. Problems of software reliability growth models taking the properties of such systems into account are discussed. Finally, the paper presents a preliminary study of a goal-oriented approach to model the static and dynamic characteristics of real-time systems, so that the corresponding analysis can be based on a more descriptive and informative picture of failures, their effects and the possibility of their occurrence. (author)

  4. Circadian systems biology: When time matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Fuhr

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript we review the combination of experimental methodologies, bioinformatics and theoretical models that have been essential to explore this remarkable timing-system. Such an integrative and interdisciplinary approach may provide new strategies with regard to chronotherapeutic treatment and new insights concerning the restoration of the circadian timing in clock-associated diseases.

  5. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input...

  6. Multi-processor system for real-time flow estimation in medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Jensen, Jesper Lomborg; Antonius, Peter

    1997-01-01

    the processed data. The generous bandwidth of the links makes it easy to balance the computational load among the processors.In order to manage the shared system memory and to make use of the parallel processing capabilities of the system, a real-time multitasking kernel has been developed. The kernel uses...

  7. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finster, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure

  8. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Felix [NWF I - Mathematik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  9. Fermion Systems in Discrete Space-Time

    OpenAIRE

    Finster, Felix

    2006-01-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  10. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    2007-05-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  11. Advances in Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Samarjit

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Farber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects.

  12. uncertain dynamic systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lakshmikantham

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic feedback control problem is that of obtaining some desired stability property from a system which contains uncertainties due to unknown inputs into the system. Despite such imperfect knowledge in the selected mathematical model, we often seek to devise controllers that will steer the system in a certain required fashion. Various classes of controllers whose design is based on the method of Lyapunov are known for both discrete [4], [10], [15], and continuous [3–9], [11] models described by difference and differential equations, respectively. Recently, a theory for what is known as dynamic systems on time scales has been built which incorporates both continuous and discrete times, namely, time as an arbitrary closed sets of reals, and allows us to handle both systems simultaneously [1], [2], [12], [13]. This theory permits one to get some insight into and better understanding of the subtle differences between discrete and continuous systems. We shall, in this paper, utilize the framework of the theory of dynamic systems on time scales to investigate the stability properties of conditionally invariant sets which are then applied to discuss controlled systems with uncertain elements. For the notion of conditionally invariant set and its stability properties, see [14]. Our results offer a new approach to the problem in question.

  13. Real-time systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Phillip A

    2004-01-01

    "Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis, Third Edition is essential for students and practicing software engineers who want improved designs, faster computation, and ultimate cost savings. Chapters discuss hardware considerations and software requirements, software systems design, the software production process, performance estimation and optimization, and engineering considerations."--Jacket.

  14. Domain-general involvement of the posterior frontolateral cortex in time-based resource-sharing in working memory: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Evie; Hartstra, Egbert; Barrouillet, Pierre; Brass, Marcel

    2015-07-15

    Working memory is often defined in cognitive psychology as a system devoted to the simultaneous processing and maintenance of information. In line with the time-based resource-sharing model of working memory (TBRS; Barrouillet and Camos, 2015; Barrouillet et al., 2004), there is accumulating evidence that, when memory items have to be maintained while performing a concurrent activity, memory performance depends on the cognitive load of this activity, independently of the domain involved. The present study used fMRI to identify regions in the brain that are sensitive to variations in cognitive load in a domain-general way. More precisely, we aimed at identifying brain areas that activate during maintenance of memory items as a direct function of the cognitive load induced by both verbal and spatial concurrent tasks. Results show that the right IFJ and bilateral SPL/IPS are the only areas showing an increased involvement as cognitive load increases and do so in a domain general manner. When correlating the fMRI signal with the approximated cognitive load as defined by the TBRS model, it was shown that the main focus of the cognitive load-related activation is located in the right IFJ. The present findings indicate that the IFJ makes domain-general contributions to time-based resource-sharing in working memory and allowed us to generate the novel hypothesis by which the IFJ might be the neural basis for the process of rapid switching. We argue that the IFJ might be a crucial part of a central attentional bottleneck in the brain because of its inability to upload more than one task rule at once. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, K C

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  16. Invited review: Experimental design, data reporting, and sharing in support of animal systems modeling research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J P; Hanigan, M D; White, R R

    2016-12-01

    The National Animal Nutrition Program "National Research Support Project 9" supports efforts in livestock nutrition, including the National Research Council's committees on the nutrient requirements of animals. Our objective was to review the status of experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition literature and to provide suggestions for the advancement of animal nutrition research and the ongoing improvement of field-applied nutrient requirement models. Improved data reporting consistency and completeness represent a substantial opportunity to improve nutrition-related mathematical models. We reviewed a body of nutrition research; recorded common phrases used to describe diets, animals, housing, and environmental conditions; and proposed equivalent numerical data that could be reported. With the increasing availability of online supplementary material sections in journals, we developed a comprehensive checklist of data that should be included in publications. To continue to improve our research effectiveness, studies utilizing multiple research methodologies to address complex systems and measure multiple variables will be necessary. From the current body of animal nutrition literature, we identified a series of opportunities to integrate research focuses (nutrition, reproduction and genetics) to advance the development of nutrient requirement models. From our survey of current experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition, we identified 4 key opportunities to advance animal nutrition knowledge: (1) coordinated experiments should be designed to employ multiple research methodologies; (2) systems-oriented research approaches should be encouraged and supported; (3) publication guidelines should be updated to encourage and support sharing of more complete data sets; and (4) new experiments should be more rapidly integrated into our knowledge bases, research programs and practical applications. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  17. Evolutionary Game Theory-Based Evaluation of P2P File-Sharing Systems in Heterogeneous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Matsuda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer (P2P file sharing is one of key technologies for achieving attractive P2P multimedia social networking. In P2P file-sharing systems, file availability is improved by cooperative users who cache and share files. Note that file caching carries costs such as storage consumption and processing load. In addition, users have different degrees of cooperativity in file caching and they are in different surrounding environments arising from the topological structure of P2P networks. With evolutionary game theory, this paper evaluates the performance of P2P file sharing systems in such heterogeneous environments. Using micro-macro dynamics, we analyze the impact of the heterogeneity of user selfishness on the file availability and system stability. Further, through simulation experiments with agent-based dynamics, we reveal how other aspects, for example, synchronization among nodes and topological structure, affect the system performance. Both analytical and simulation results show that the environmental heterogeneity contributes to the file availability and system stability.

  18. Building effective workforce management practices through shared governance and technology systems integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krive, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In integrated delivery networks (IDNs) with complex management structures, shared governance in nursing is a proven model for health care delivery. After Advocate Health Care, the largest IDN in Illinois, implemented shared governance in its nursing, clinical, and non-clinical departments and restructured the organization's technology use, it benefited greatly from a new, shared decision-making process. After listening to business consultants, clinical professionals, and information technology experts, hospitals should take the blended, or comprehensive, approach to new projects. They can succeed by promoting communication supported by an integrated computer platform that helps nursing and business executives reach a consensus. Traditional modes of operation, in which individual administrative, clinical, and technology departments separately introduce innovation, do not deliver an advantage. However, models that incorporate open communication, integration, and knowledge sharing will help large IDNs and other complex health care organizations make the best possible use of their resources and investments.

  19. Optimal Cross-Layer Design for Energy Efficient D2D Sharing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    modified energy per good bit (MEPG) metric, with respect to the spectrum sharing user’s transmission power and media access frame length. The cellular users, legacy users, are protected by an outage probability constraint. To optimize the non

  20. Distributed digital real-time control system for TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.B. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Felici, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paley, J.I.; Duval, B.P.; Moret, J.-M.; Coda, S.; Sauter, O.; Fasel, D.; Marmillod, P. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • A new distributed digital control system for the TCV tokamak has been commissioned. • Data is shared in real-time between all nodes using the reflective memory. • The customised Linux OS allows achieving deterministic and low latency behaviour. • The control algorithm design in Simulink together with the automatic code generation using Embedded Coder allow rapid algorithm development. • Controllers designed outside the TCV environment can be ported easily. • The previous control system functions have been emulated and improved. • New capabilities include MHD control, profile control, equilibrium reconstruction. - Abstract: A new digital feedback control system (named the SCD “Système de Contrôle Distribué”) has been developed, integrated and used successfully to control TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable) plasmas. The system is designed to be modular, distributed, and scalable, accommodating hundreds of diagnostic inputs and actuator outputs. With many more inputs and outputs available than previously possible, it offers the possibility to design advanced control algorithms with better knowledge of the plasma state and to coherently control all TCV actuators, including poloidal field (PF) coils, gas valves, the gyrotron powers and launcher angles of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive system (ECRH/ECCD) together with diagnostic triggering signals. The system consists of multiple nodes; each is a customised Linux desktop or embedded PC which may have local ADC and DAC cards. Each node is also connected to a memory network (reflective memory) providing a reliable, deterministic method of sharing memory between all nodes. Control algorithms are programmed as block diagrams in Matlab-Simulink providing a powerful environment for modelling and control design. The C code is generated automatically from the Simulink block diagram and compiled, with the Simulink Embedded Coder (SEC, formerly Real-Time Workshop Embedded

  1. Temporal logics and real time expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, J A

    1996-10-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert systems, where a fixed (and usually small) response time must be guaranteed. One such expert system, Fagan's VM, is reviewed, and a delineation is given of how to formally describe and reason with time in medical protocols. It is shown that Petri net theory is a useful tool to check the correctness of formalised protocols.

  2. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  3. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  4. Real-time ISEE data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Baker, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time ISEE data system directed toward predicting geomagnetic substorms and storms is discussed. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution.

  5. Timing system control software in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.; Phinney, N.

    1985-04-01

    A new timing system that allows precision (approx.1 to 2 ns) control of the trigger times of klystrons, beam position monitors, and other devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis at up to 360 Hz is in operation in the first third of the SLAC linear accelerator. The control software is divided between a central host VAX and local Intel 8086-based microprocessor clusters. Facilities exist to set up and adjust the timing of devices or groups of devices independently for beam pulses having different destinations and purposes, which are run in an interlaced fashion during normal machine operation. Upgrading of the system is currently underway, using a new version of the Programmable Delay Unit CAMAC module to allow pipelining of timing information for three machine pulses. An overview of the current state of the system is presented in this paper, with an emphasis on software control

  6. A Shared Scratchpad Memory with Synchronization Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Enggaard; Maroun, Emad Jacob; Kristensen, Andreas Toftegaard

    2017-01-01

    Multicore processors usually communicate via shared memory, which is backed up by a shared level 2 cache and a cache coherence protocol. However, this solution is not a good fit for real-time systems, where we need to provide tight guarantees on execution and memory access times. In this paper, we...... propose a shared scratchpad memory as a time-predictable communication and synchronization structure, instead of the level 2 cache. The shared on-chip memory is accessed via a time division multiplexing arbiter, isolating the execution time of load and store instructions between processing cores....... Furthermore, the arbiter supports an extended time slot where an atomic load and store instruction can be executed to implement synchronization primitives. In the evaluation we show that a shared scratchpad memory is an efficient communication structure for a small number of processors; in our setup, 9 cores...

  7. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  8. Fluctuations of the experience of togetherness within the team over time: task-cohesion and shared understanding throughout a sporting regular season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbousson, Jérôme; Fortes-Bourbousson, Marina

    2017-06-01

    Based on a diagnosis action research design, the present study assessed the fluctuations of the team experience of togetherness. Reported experiences of 12 basketball team members playing in the under-18 years old national championship were studied during a four-month training and competitive period. Time series analysis (Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average procedures) served to describe temporal properties of the way in which the fluctuations of task-cohesion and shared understanding were step-by-step experienced over time, respectively. Correlations, running-correlations and cross-lagged correlations were used to describe the temporal links that governed the relationships between both phenomena. The results indicated that the task-cohesion dimensions differed mainly for shared understanding dynamics in that their time fluctuations were not embedded in external events, and that the variations in shared understanding tend to precede 'individual attractions to the task' variations with seven team practical sessions. This study argues for further investigation of how 'togetherness' is experienced alternatively as a feeling of cohesion or shared understanding. Practitioner Summary: The present action research study investigated the experience that the team members have to share information during practice, and the subsequent benefices on team cohesion. Results call for specific interventions that make team members accept the fluctuating nature of team phenomena, to help them maintaining their daily efforts.

  9. Earnings Sharing in the U.S. Social Security System: A Microsimulation Analysis of Future Female Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M.; Reznik, Gayle L.; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As part of an ongoing effort to analyze the distributional implications of potential policy reforms to the U.S. Social Security system, we consider the widely discussed reform of earnings sharing. Such an approach has been viewed as a way to "update" Social Security's family benefits based on marital status and as a means to…

  10. Sum-rate analysis of spectrum sharing spatial multiplexing MIMO systems with zero-forcing and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Serpedin, Erchin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a multiuser spectrum sharing (SS) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with zero-forcing (ZF) operating in a Rayleigh fading environment. We provide an asymptotic sum-rate analysis to investigate the effects of different

  11. NSLS-II booster timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheblakov, P.; Karnaev, S.; De Long, J.

    2012-01-01

    NSLS-II light source includes the main storage ring with beam lines and injection part consisting of 200 MeV linac, a full-energy 3 GeV booster synchrotron and two transport lines. The booster timing system is a part of NSLS-II timing system which uses hardware from MicroResearch Finland: Event Generator (EVG) and Event Receivers (EVRs). The booster timing is based on the events coming from NSLS-II EVG: 'Pre-Injection', 'Injection', 'Pre-Extraction', 'Extraction'. These events are referenced to the selected RF bucket of the storage ring and correspond to the first RF bucket of the booster. EVRs provide triggers both for the injection and the extraction pulse devices. EVRs also provide the timing of booster cycle operation and generation of events for cycle-to-cycle updates of pulsed and ramping parameters, and synchronization of the booster beam instrumentation devices. This paper describes the final design of the booster timing system. The timing system functional diagrams and block diagram are presented. (authors)

  12. A Shared Decision-Making System for Diabetes Medication Choice Utilizing Electronic Health Record Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Peng-Fei; Tian, Yu; Ren, Jing-Jing; Li, Jing-Song

    2017-09-01

    The use of a shared decision-making (SDM) process in antihyperglycemic medication strategy decisions is necessary due to the complexity of the conditions of diabetes patients. Knowledge of guidelines is used as decision aids in clinical situations, and during this process, no patient health conditions are considered. In this paper, we propose an SDM system framework for type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients that not only contains knowledge abstracted from guidelines but also employs a multilabel classification model that uses class-imbalanced electronic health record (EHR) data and that aims to provide a recommended list of available antihyperglycemic medications to help physicians and patients have an SDM conversation. The use of EHR data to serve as a decision-support component in decision aids helps physicians and patients to reach a more intuitive understanding of current health conditions and allows the tailoring of the available knowledge to each patient, leading to a more effective SDM. Real-world data from 2542 T2DM inpatient EHRs were substituted by 77 features and eight output labels, i.e., eight antihyperglycemic medications, and these data were utilized to build and validate the recommendation model. The multilabel recommendation model exhibited stable performance in every single-label classification and showed the ability to predict minority positive cases in which the average recall value of the eight classes was 0.9898. As a whole multilabel classifier, the recommendation model demonstrated outstanding performance, with scores of 0.0941 for Hamming Loss, 0.7611 for Accuracy exam , 0.9664 for Recall exam , and 0.8269 for F exam .

  13. System reliability time-dependent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debernardo, H.D.

    1991-06-01

    A probabilistic methodology for safety system technical specification evaluation was developed. The method for Surveillance Test Interval (S.T.I.) evaluation basically means an optimization of S.T.I. of most important system's periodically tested components. For Allowed Outage Time (A.O.T.) calculations, the method uses system reliability time-dependent models (A computer code called FRANTIC III). A new approximation, which was called Independent Minimal Cut Sets (A.C.I.), to compute system unavailability was also developed. This approximation is better than Rare Event Approximation (A.E.R.) and the extra computing cost is neglectible. A.C.I. was joined to FRANTIC III to replace A.E.R. on future applications. The case study evaluations verified that this methodology provides a useful probabilistic assessment of surveillance test intervals and allowed outage times for many plant components. The studied system is a typical configuration of nuclear power plant safety systems (two of three logic). Because of the good results, these procedures will be used by the Argentine nuclear regulatory authorities in evaluation of technical specification of Atucha I and Embalse nuclear power plant safety systems. (Author) [es

  14. Emergency automatic signalling system using time scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayavel, P.; Surenderanath, S.; Rathnavel, P.; Prakash, G.

    2018-04-01

    It is difficult to handle traffic congestion and maintain roads during traffic mainly in India. As the people migrate from rural to urban and sub-urban areas, it becomes still more critical. Presently Roadways is a standout amongst the most vital transportation. At the point when a car crash happens, crisis vehicles, for example, ambulances and fire trucks must rush to the mischance scene. There emerges a situation where a portion of the crisis vehicles may cause another car crash. Therefore it becomes still more difficult for emergency vehicle to reach the destination within a predicted time. To avoid that kind of problem we have come out with an effective idea which can reduce the potential in the traffic system. The traffic system is been modified using a wireless technology and high speed micro controller to provide smooth and clear flow of traffic for ambulance to reach the destination on time. This is achieved by using RFID Tag at the ambulance and RFID Reader at the traffic system i.e., traffic signal. This mainly deals with identifying the emergency vehicle and providing a green signal to traffic signal at time of traffic jam. — By assigning priorities to various traffic movements, we can control the traffic jam. In some moments like ambulance emergency, high delegates arrive people facing lot of trouble. To overcome this problem in this paper we propose a time priority based traffic system achieved by using RFID transmitter at the emergency vehicle and RFID receiver at the traffic system i.e., traffic signal. The signal from the emergency vehicle is sent to traffic system which after detecting it sends it to microcontroller which controls the traffic signal. If any emergency vehicle is detected the system goes to emergency system mode where signal switch to green and if it is not detected normal system mode.

  15. Complex New Product Development projects - How the Project Manager’s Information Sharing With Core Actors Changes Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    2013-01-01

    A heavily burdened project manager must ensure effective information sharing with actors inside and outside the organization because this is a necessary condition for a new product development (NPD) project to achieve its objectives. Knowledge, however, on who actually assists a project manager...... with the information sharing during NPD projects is limited; therefore, this study of longitudinal objective email data (4658 emails) during a NPD project contributes to theory and practice by advancing our understanding of when and how the project manager establishes relationships with different core actors inside...

  16. The ARGUS time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, R.; Klinger, T.; Salomon, R.; Schubert, K.R.; Stiewe, J.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.

    1985-01-01

    The time-of-flight system of the ARGUS detector at the DORIS e + e - storage ring consists of 64 barrel scintillation counters covering 75% of 4π, and 2x48 end cap counters, covering 17% of 4π. The barrel counters are viewed by two phototubes each, while the end cap counters have one tube only. The time-of-flight system serves as a part of the fast trigger and identifies charged particles. The time resolution achieved during the first year of ARGUS operation is 210 ps for Bhabhas (which are used for the off-line monitoring of the system), and 220 ps for hadrons, both in barrel and end cap counters. This converts into a three standard deviation mass separation up to 700 MeV/c between pions and kaons and 1200 MeV/c between kaons and protons. Electrons can be separated from heavier particles up to 230 MeV/c. (orig.)

  17. a Continuous-Time Positive Linear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsup Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a computational method to construct positive realizations with sparse matrices for continuous-time positive linear systems with multiple complex poles. To construct a positive realization of a continuous-time system, we use a Markov sequence similar to the impulse response sequence that is used in the discrete-time case. The existence of the proposed positive realization can be analyzed with the concept of a polyhedral convex cone. We provide a constructive algorithm to compute positive realizations with sparse matrices of some positive systems under certain conditions. A sufficient condition for the existence of a positive realization, under which the proposed constructive algorithm works well, is analyzed.

  18. Multi-objective optimization for the maximization of the operating share of cogeneration system in District Heating Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Versace, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined Heat and Power plants and civil/residential energy uses. • CHP plant supported by auxiliary boilers and thermal energy storage. • Definition of optimal operational strategies for cogeneration plants for District Heating. • Optimal-sized Thermal Energy Storage and a hybrid operational strategy. • Maximization of cogeneration share and reduction of time of operation of auxiliary boilers. - Abstract: The aim of the paper is to define optimal operational strategies for Combined Heat and Power plants connected to civil/residential District Heating Networks. The role of a reduced number of design variables, including a Thermal Energy Storage system and a hybrid operational strategy dependent on the storage level, is considered. The basic principle is to reach maximum efficiency of the system operation through the utilization of an optimal-sized Thermal Energy Storage. Objective functions of both energetic and combined energetic and economic can be considered. In particular, First and Second Law Efficiency, thermal losses of the storage, number of starts and stops of the combined heat and power unit are considered. Constraints are imposed to nullify the waste of heat and to operate the unit at its maximum efficiency for the highest possible number of consecutive operating hours, until the thermal tank cannot store more energy. The methodology is applied to a detailed case study: a medium size district heating system, in an urban context in the northern Italy, powered by a combined heat and power plant supported by conventional auxiliary boilers. The issues involving this type of thermal loads are also widely investigated in the paper. An increase of Second Law Efficiency of the system of 26% (from 0.35 to 0.44) can be evidenced, while the First Law Efficiency shifts from about 0.74 to 0.84. The optimization strategy permits of combining the economic benefit of cogeneration with the idea of reducing the energy waste and exergy losses.

  19. Cooperative Testing of Uncontrollable Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2008-01-01

    the SUT against the test purpose as long as the SUT reacts to our moves in a cooperative style. We present an operational framework of cooperative winning strategy generation, test case derivation and execution. The test method is proved to be sound and complete. Preliminary experimental results indicate......Abstract. This paper deals with targeted testing of timed systems with uncontrollable behavior. The testing activity is viewed as a game between the tester and the system under test (SUT) towards a given test purpose. The SUT is modeled as Timed Game Automaton and the test purpose is specified...... in Timed CTL formula. We can employ a timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to check if the test purpose is ture w.r.t. the model, and if yes, to generate a winning strategy and use it for black-box conformance testing. Specifically, we show that in case the checking yields a negative result, we can still test...

  20. On the Symbolic Verification of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how to analyze a timed system symbolically. That is, given a symbolic representation of a set of (timed) states (as an expression), we describe how to determine an expression that represents the set of states that can be reached either by firing a discrete transition...... or by advancing time. These operations are used to determine the set of reachable states symbolically. We also show how to symbolically determine the set of states that can reach a given set of states (i.e., a backwards step), thus making it possible to verify TCTL-formulae symbolically. The analysis is fully...... symbolic in the sense that both the discrete and the continuous part of the state space are represented symbolically. Furthermore, both the synchronous and asynchronous concurrent composition of timed systems can be performed symbolically. The symbolic representations are given as formulae expressed...

  1. A distributed real-time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuynman, F.; Hertzberger, L.O.

    1984-07-01

    A distributed real-time operating system, Fados, has been developed for an embedded multi-processor system. The operating system is based on a host target approach and provides for communication between arbitrary processes on host and target machine. The facilities offered are, apart from process communication, access to the file system on the host by programs on the target machine and monitoring and debugging of programs on the target machine from the host. The process communication has been designed in such a way that the possibilities are the same as those offered by the Ada programming language. The operating system is implemented on a MC 68000 based multiprocessor system in combination with a Unix host. (orig.)

  2. Job Sharing: Is It in Your Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Thyra K.

    This paper reports the results of a survey of 1,277 libraries in Illinois which investigated the status of job sharing in armed forces, college and university, community college, government, law, medical, public, religious, and special libraries and library systems. Job sharing is described as the division of one full-time job between two or more…

  3. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities

  4. REAL-TIME INTELLIGENT MULTILAYER ATTACK CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subbhulakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS takes the lion’s share of the current security infrastructure. Detection of intrusions is vital for initiating the defensive procedures. Intrusion detection was done by statistical and distance based methods. A threshold value is used in these methods to indicate the level of normalcy. When the network traffic crosses the level of normalcy then above which it is flagged as anomalous. When there are occurrences of new intrusion events which are increasingly a key part of system security, the statistical techniques cannot detect them. To overcome this issue, learning techniques are used which helps in identifying new intrusion activities in a computer system. The objective of the proposed system designed in this paper is to classify the intrusions using an Intelligent Multi Layered Attack Classification System (IMLACS which helps in detecting and classifying the intrusions with improved classification accuracy. The intelligent multi layered approach contains three intelligent layers. The first layer involves Binary Support Vector Machine classification for detecting the normal and attack. The second layer involves neural network classification to classify the attacks into classes of attacks. The third layer involves fuzzy inference system to classify the attacks into various subclasses. The proposed IMLACS can be able to detect an intrusion behavior of the networks since the system contains a three intelligent layer classification and better set of rules. Feature selection is also used to improve the time of detection. The experimental results show that the IMLACS achieves the Classification Rate of 97.31%.

  5. SHARING HIGH-RESOLUTION MODELS AND INFORMATION ON WEB: THE WEB MODULE OF BIM3DSG SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rechichi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BIM3DSG system is described here. It is an ad hoc designed BIM system created for Cultural Heritage applications. It proposes some solutions to solve some issues related to the use of BIM in this field. First, it tries to resolve the problem of managing huge, complex, high resolution and heterogeneous 3D models, and then it offers a practical, easy and efficient solution for a wide sharing of data and information.

  6. On the performance of spectrum sharing systems with two-way relaying and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2012-08-01

    In this letter, we consider a spectrum sharing network with two-way relaying and multi-user diversity. More specifically, one secondary transmitter with the best channel quality is selected and splits its partial power to relay its received signals to the primary users by using the amplify-and-forward relaying protocol. We derive a tight approximation for the resulting outage probability. Based on this formula, the performance of the spectral sharing region and the cell coverage are analyzed. Numerical results are given to verify our analysis and are discussed to illustrate the advantages of our newly proposed scheme. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  7. End-to-end performance of cooperative relaying in spectrum-sharing systems with quality of service requirements

    KAUST Repository

    Asghari, Vahid Reza

    2011-07-01

    We propose adopting a cooperative relaying technique in spectrum-sharing cognitive radio (CR) systems to more effectively and efficiently utilize available transmission resources, such as power, rate, and bandwidth, while adhering to the quality of service (QoS) requirements of the licensed (primary) users of the shared spectrum band. In particular, we first consider that the cognitive (secondary) user\\'s communication is assisted by an intermediate relay that implements the decode-and-forward (DF) technique onto the secondary user\\'s relayed signal to help with communication between the corresponding source and the destination nodes. In this context, we obtain first-order statistics pertaining to the first- and second-hop transmission channels, and then, we investigate the end-to-end performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative relaying system under resource constraints defined to assure that the primary QoS is unaffected. Specifically, we investigate the overall average bit error rate (BER), ergodic capacity, and outage probability of the secondary\\'s communication subject to appropriate constraints on the interference power at the primary receivers. We then consider a general scenario where a cluster of relays is available between the secondary source and destination nodes. In this case, making use of the partial relay selection method, we generalize our results for the single-relay scheme and obtain the end-to-end performance of the cooperative spectrum-sharing system with a cluster of L available relays. Finally, we examine our theoretical results through simulations and comparisons, illustrating the overall performance of the proposed spectrum-sharing cooperative system and quantify its advantages for different operating scenarios and conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  9. Real-Time Operating System/360

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  10. Hierarchical organization of the circadian timing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, Mariska van

    2006-01-01

    In order to cope with and to predict 24-hour rhythms in the environment, most, if not all, organisms have a circadian timing system. The most important mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain. Over the years, it has become

  11. Abstraction of Dynamical Systems by Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    To enable formal verification of a dynamical system, given by a set of differential equations, it is abstracted by a finite state model. This allows for application of methods for model checking. Consequently, it opens the possibility of carrying out the verification of reachability and timing re...

  12. Joint switched multi-spectrum and transmit antenna diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    . In this paper, we consider a secondary network comprised of a secondary transmitter (SU-Tx) equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna secondary receiver (SU-Rx) sharing the same spectrum with multiple primary users (PUs), each with a distinct spectrum

  13. Transfer entropy in physical systems and the arrow of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Richard E.; Lizier, Joseph T.; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments have cemented the realization that many concepts and quantities in thermodynamics and information theory are shared. In this paper, we consider a highly relevant quantity in information theory and complex systems, the transfer entropy, and explore its thermodynamic role by considering the implications of time reversal upon it. By doing so we highlight the role of information dynamics on the nuanced question of observer perspective within thermodynamics by relating the temporal irreversibility in the information dynamics to the configurational (or spatial) resolution of the thermodynamics. We then highlight its role in perhaps the most enduring paradox in modern physics, the manifestation of a (thermodynamic) arrow of time. We find that for systems that process information such as those undergoing feedback, a robust arrow of time can be formulated by considering both the apparent physical behavior which leads to conventional entropy production and the information dynamics which leads to a quantity we call the information theoretic arrow of time. We also offer an interpretation in terms of optimal encoding of observed physical behavior.

  14. Time step rescaling recovers continuous-time dynamical properties for discrete-time Langevin integration of nonequilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David A; Chodera, John D; Crooks, Gavin E

    2014-06-19

    When simulating molecular systems using deterministic equations of motion (e.g., Newtonian dynamics), such equations are generally numerically integrated according to a well-developed set of algorithms that share commonly agreed-upon desirable properties. However, for stochastic equations of motion (e.g., Langevin dynamics), there is still broad disagreement over which integration algorithms are most appropriate. While multiple desiderata have been proposed throughout the literature, consensus on which criteria are important is absent, and no published integration scheme satisfies all desiderata simultaneously. Additional nontrivial complications stem from simulating systems driven out of equilibrium using existing stochastic integration schemes in conjunction with recently developed nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Here, we examine a family of discrete time integration schemes for Langevin dynamics, assessing how each member satisfies a variety of desiderata that have been enumerated in prior efforts to construct suitable Langevin integrators. We show that the incorporation of a novel time step rescaling in the deterministic updates of position and velocity can correct a number of dynamical defects in these integrators. Finally, we identify a particular splitting (related to the velocity Verlet discretization) that has essentially universally appropriate properties for the simulation of Langevin dynamics for molecular systems in equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and path sampling contexts.

  15. Switch: a planning tool for power systems with large shares of intermittent renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fripp, Matthias

    2012-06-05

    Wind and solar power are highly variable, so it is it unclear how large a role they can play in future power systems. This work introduces a new open-source electricity planning model--Switch--that identifies the least-cost strategy for using renewable and conventional generators and transmission in a large power system over a multidecade period. Switch includes an unprecedented amount of spatial and temporal detail, making it possible to address a new type of question about the optimal design and operation of power systems with large amounts of renewable power. A case study of California for 2012-2027 finds that there is no maximum possible penetration of wind and solar power--these resources could potentially be used to reduce emissions 90% or more below 1990 levels without reducing reliability or severely raising the cost of electricity. This work also finds that policies that encourage customers to shift electricity demand to times when renewable power is most abundant (e.g., well-timed charging of electric vehicles) could make it possible to achieve radical emission reductions at moderate costs.

  16. Robust synthesis for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Traonouez, Luois-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Specification theories for real-time systems allow reasoning about interfaces and their implementation models, using a set of operators that includes satisfaction, refinement, logical and parallel composition. To make such theories applicable throughout the entire design process from an abstract...... of introducing small perturbations into formal models. We address this problem of robust implementations in timed specification theories. We first consider a fixed perturbation and study the robustness of timed specifications with respect to the operators of the theory. To this end we synthesize robust...... specification to an implementation, we need to reason about the possibility to effectively implement the theoretical specifications on physical systems, despite their limited precision. In the literature, this implementation problem has been linked to the robustness problem that analyzes the consequences...

  17. Real-time ISEE data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Baker, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic substorms and storms would be of great scientific and commercial interest. A real-time ISEE data system directed toward this purpose is discussed in detail. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution. 6 figures, 1 table

  18. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  19. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R., E-mail: Dariusch.Hadizadeh@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, Juergen [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Bostroem, Azize [Department of Neurosurgery, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn, Deutschland (Germany); Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm{sup 3} and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  20. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Gieseke, Juergen; Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth; Kukuk, Guido M.; Bostroem, Azize; Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm 3 and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  1. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-based monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  2. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-base monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  3. Performance evaluation of real time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Saravanan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The Real Time Radiography (RTR) system can be studied completely by knowing the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the whole system. The MTF curve is a special form of contrast/detail-size diagram in which the image contrast is plotted against the spatial frequency of a test object measured in line-pairs per millimetre (lp/mm). MTF curves are widely used to measure the characteristics of optical equipment, particularly for assessing the contribution of individual items in a complex imaging transfer system. Codes of practice indicate that the image intensifier systems should be checked periodically to assess its performance through the use of MTF curves and step wedges for contrast ratio. Authors, instead, suggest the use of performance curves which are simple to obtain and can be easily interpreted by radiographers. (author)

  4. Development of the real time monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Tadashi; Kaburaki, Hideo

    1996-10-01

    Large-scale simulation technique is studied at the Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering (CCSE) for the computational science research in nuclear fields. Visualization and animation processing technique are studied and developed for efficient understanding of simulation results. The real time monitor system, in which on-going simulation results are transferred from a supercomputer or workstation to a graphic workstation and are visualized and recorded, is described in this report. This system is composed of the graphic workstation and the video equipment connected to the network. The control shell programs are the job-execution shell for simulations on supercomputers, the file-transfer shell for output files for visualization, and the shell for starting visualization tools. Special image processing technique and hardware are not necessary in this system and the standard visualization tool AVS and the UNIX commands are used, so that this system can be implemented and applied in various computer environments. (author)

  5. The RHIC real time data link system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.

    1997-01-01

    The RHIC Real Time Data Link (RTDL) System distributes to all locations around the RHIC ring machine parameters of general interest to accelerator systems and users. The system, along with supporting host interface, is centrally located. The RTDL System is comprised of two module types: the Encoder Module (V105) and the Input Module (V106). There is only one V105 module, but many (up to 128) Input Modules. Multiple buffered outputs are provided for use locally or for retransmission to other RHIC equipment locations. Machine parameters are generated from the V115 Waveform Generator Module (WFG) or from machine hardware and coupled directly through a fiber optic serial link to one of the V106 input channels

  6. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  7. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-04-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  8. D and D knowledge management information tool - a web based system developed to share D and D knowledge worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.; Upadhyay, H.; Shoffner, P. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street,EC2100, Miami, FL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) work is a high risk and technically challenging enterprise within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. During the past three decades, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management has been in charge of carrying out one of the largest environmental restoration efforts in the world: the cleanup of the Manhattan Project legacy. In today's corporate world, worker experiences and knowledge that have developed over time represent a valuable corporate asset. The ever-dynamic workplace, coupled with an aging workforce, presents corporations with the ongoing challenge of preserving work-related experiences and knowledge for cross-generational knowledge transfer to the future workforce [5]. To prevent the D and D knowledge base and expertise from being lost over time, the DOE and the Applied Research Center at Florida International University (FIU) have developed the web-based Knowledge Management Information Tool (KM-IT) to capture and maintain this valuable information in a universally available and easily accessible and usable system. The D and D KM-IT was developed in collaboration with DOE Headquarters (HQ), the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), and the ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] Centers at Savannah River Sites to preserve the D and D information generated and collected by the D and D community. This is an open secured system that can be accessed from https://www.dndkm.org over the web and through mobile devices at https://m.dndkm.org. This knowledge system serves as a centralized repository and provides a common interface for D and D-related activities. It also improves efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge and promotes the reuse of existing knowledge. It is a community-driven system that facilitates the gathering, analyzing, storing, and sharing of knowledge and information within the D and D community. It assists the DOE D and D community in identifying potential solutions

  9. D and D knowledge management information tool - a web based system developed to share D and D knowledge worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, L.; Upadhyay, H.; Shoffner, P.

    2013-01-01

    Deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) work is a high risk and technically challenging enterprise within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. During the past three decades, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management has been in charge of carrying out one of the largest environmental restoration efforts in the world: the cleanup of the Manhattan Project legacy. In today's corporate world, worker experiences and knowledge that have developed over time represent a valuable corporate asset. The ever-dynamic workplace, coupled with an aging workforce, presents corporations with the ongoing challenge of preserving work-related experiences and knowledge for cross-generational knowledge transfer to the future workforce [5]. To prevent the D and D knowledge base and expertise from being lost over time, the DOE and the Applied Research Center at Florida International University (FIU) have developed the web-based Knowledge Management Information Tool (KM-IT) to capture and maintain this valuable information in a universally available and easily accessible and usable system. The D and D KM-IT was developed in collaboration with DOE Headquarters (HQ), the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), and the ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] Centers at Savannah River Sites to preserve the D and D information generated and collected by the D and D community. This is an open secured system that can be accessed from https://www.dndkm.org over the web and through mobile devices at https://m.dndkm.org. This knowledge system serves as a centralized repository and provides a common interface for D and D-related activities. It also improves efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge and promotes the reuse of existing knowledge. It is a community-driven system that facilitates the gathering, analyzing, storing, and sharing of knowledge and information within the D and D community. It assists the DOE D and D community in identifying potential solutions

  10. On Real-Time Operating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    1Ri2 193 ONREAL-TIME OPERATING SYS EMS(U MAYLAN UN V COLLG PARK DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE S LEVI ET AL APR 87 CS-TR-1838 NOSO14-87-K-9124 UNCLASSIFIED...and processes. In each instance the abstraction takes the form of some non- physical resource and benefits both the system and the user. ...The...service, which is important as an inter-process service (for physical synchronization) as well as an internal service for a process. A time service in a

  11. A real-time radiation mapping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoggins, W.A.; VanEtten, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype of a real-time radiation mapping system, Ranger, was developed to respond to an accident involving the release of plutonium for the Department of Energy's Accident Response Group. In 1987 Ranger demonstrated that it can provide an efficient method of monitoring large areas of land for radioactive contamination. With the experience gained from the operation of the prototype, the external computer and software are being upgraded in order to obtain a fully operational system. The new system uses the prototype's commercially available line-of-sight microwave system for determining position and the same radiation detection instruments. The data obtained from the radiation detection instrument(s) are linked back to the external computer along with the relative position of the measurement through the ranging system. The data are displayed on a gridded map as colored circles and permanently stored in real-time. The different colors represent different contamination levels. Contours can be drawn using the permanently stored data. 4 figs

  12. Online Operation Guidance of Computer System Used in Real-Time Distance Education Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Aiguo

    2011-01-01

    Computer system is useful for improving real time and interactive distance education activities. Especially in the case that a large number of students participate in one distance lecture together and every student uses their own computer to share teaching materials or control discussions over the virtual classrooms. The problem is that within…

  13. Voices of the Caribou People: a participatory videography method to document and share local knowledge from the North American human-Rangifer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Bali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available "Voices of the Caribou People" is a participatory videography project for documenting and sharing the local knowledge of caribou-user communities about social-ecological changes. The project was conducted in partnership with indigenous people who share a long and close relationship with caribou and self-identify as the "Caribou People." The Caribou People desired to share their knowledge, experiences, challenges, and coping strategies with other indigenous communities and with scientists and wildlife managers. Six communities in the North American Arctic participated in the project, with 99 people interviewed about the ecological, cultural, spiritual, and nutritional aspects of their relationship with caribou. The Caribou People wished to tell their stories with their own voices, without the filter of a researcher's interpretations of their messages. The communities defined three project goals, i.e., documentation, communication, and sharing of knowledge, and we identified methodological challenges associated with these goals. Through videography, we sought to overcome these challenges and accomplish community goals, which formed the basis for our project's evaluation. Participants reported changes and concerns ranging from impacts of oil and gas exploration, mining activities, nonlocal hunting, and high energy costs to impacts of climate-related conditions. All interviews were made available in the public domain via the Internet for sharing. In the view of the communities, videography preserved their legacy and served as a repository of traditional knowledge in changing times; visual images were seen as a powerful medium to communicate with policy makers and the public at large and were seen as a preferred informal, unstructured approach. We have (1 described the approach of the Voices of the Caribou People project as a collaborative video methodology and (2 discussed the effectiveness of this method in meeting the goals of participatory

  14. Cost-effectiveness Assessment of 5G Systems with Cooperative Radio Resource Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nikolikj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By use of techno-economic analysis of heterogeneous hierarchical cell structures and spectral efficiencies of the forthcoming advanced radio access technologies, this paper proposes various cost-efficient capacity enlargement strategies evaluated through the level of the production cost per transferred data unit and achievable profit margins. For the purpose of maximizing the aggregate performance (capacity or profit, we also assess the cooperative manners of radio resource sharing between mobile network operators, especially in the cases of capacity over-provisioning, when we also determine the principles to provide guaranteed data rates to a particular number of users. The results show that, for heavily loaded office environments, the future 5G pico base stations could be a preferable deployment solution. Also, we confirm that the radio resource management method with dynamic resource allocation can significantly improve the capacity of two comparably loaded operators which share the resources and aim to increase their cost effectiveness.

  15. Ditching the Disc: The Effects of Cloud-Based Image Sharing on Department Efficiency and Report Turnaround Times in Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew B; Young, Elizabeth; Harada, Scott; Winkler, Nicole; Riegert, Joanna; Jones, Tony; Hu, Nan; Stein, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    In screening mammography, accessing prior examination images is crucial for accurate diagnosis and avoiding false-positives. When women visit multiple institutions for their screens, these "outside" examinations must be retrieved for comparison. Traditionally, prior images are obtained by faxing requests to other institutions and waiting for standard mail (film or CD-ROM), which can greatly delay report turnaround times. Recently, advancements in cloud-based image transfer technology have opened up more efficient options for examination transfer between institutions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cloud-based image transfer on mammography department workflow, time required to obtain prior images, and report turnaround times. Sixty screening examinations requiring prior images were placed into two groups (30 each). The control group used the standard institutional protocol for requesting prior images: faxing requests and waiting for mailed examinations. The experimental group used a cloud-based transfer for both requesting and receiving examinations. The mean number of days between examination request and examination receipt was measured for both groups and compared. The mean number of days from examination request to receipt was 6.08 days (SD 3.50) in the control group compared with 3.16 days (SD 3.95) in the experimental group. Using a cloud-based image transfer to obtain prior mammograms resulted in an average reduction of 2.92 days (P = .0361; 95% confidence interval 0.20-5.65) between examination request and receipt. This improvement in system efficiency is relevant for interpreting radiologists working to improve reporting times and for patients anxious to receive their mammography results. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. To share and be shared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2018-01-01

    to another. To a certain degree, they share their everyday lives, things, places, memories, and past/future, but as the ones who move back and forth, they belong a little less in each place. This article is about children who are shared between their parent, households and siblings. They are shared...

  17. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment.

  18. The Effect of Infrastructure Sharing in Estimating Operations Cost of Future Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace industry are extremely serious about reducing the cost and improving the performance of launch vehicles both manned or unmanned. In the aerospace industry, sharing infrastructure for manufacturing more than one type spacecraft is becoming a trend to achieve economy of scale. An example is the Boeing Decatur facility where both Delta II and Delta IV launch vehicles are made. The author is not sure how Boeing estimates the costs of each spacecraft made in the same facility. Regardless of how a contractor estimates the cost, NASA in its popular cost estimating tool, NASA Air force Cost Modeling (NAFCOM) has to have a method built in to account for the effect of infrastructure sharing. Since there is no provision in the most recent version of NAFCOM2002 to take care of this, it has been found by the Engineering Cost Community at MSFC that the tool overestimates the manufacturing cost by as much as 30%. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess the impact of infrastructure sharing so that better operations cost estimates may be made.

  19. SHMS Hodoscopes and Time of Flight System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craycraft, Kayla; Malace, Simona

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (Jefferson Lab) upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV, a new magnetic focusing spectrometer, the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS), was installed in experimental Hall C. The detector stack consists of horizontal drift chambers for tracking, gas Cerenkov and Aerogel detectors and a lead glass calorimeter for particle identification. A hodoscope system consisting of three planes of scintillator detectors (constructed by James Madison University) and one plane of quartz bars (built by North Carolina A&T State University) is used for triggering and time of flight measurements. This presentation consists of discussion of the installation, calibration, and characterization of the detectors used in this Time of Flight system. James Madison University, North Carolina A&T State University.

  20. TWOS - TIME WARP OPERATING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenot, S. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Time Warp Operating System (TWOS) is a special-purpose operating system designed to support parallel discrete-event simulation. TWOS is a complete implementation of the Time Warp mechanism, a distributed protocol for virtual time synchronization based on process rollback and message annihilation. Version 2.5.1 supports simulations and other computations using both virtual time and dynamic load balancing; it does not support general time-sharing or multi-process jobs using conventional message synchronization and communication. The program utilizes the underlying operating system's resources. TWOS runs a single simulation at a time, executing it concurrently on as many processors of a distributed system as are allocated. The simulation needs only to be decomposed into objects (logical processes) that interact through time-stamped messages. TWOS provides transparent synchronization. The user does not have to add any more special logic to aid in synchronization, nor give any synchronization advice, nor even understand much about how the Time Warp mechanism works. The Time Warp Simulator (TWSIM) subdirectory contains a sequential simulation engine that is interface compatible with TWOS. This means that an application designer and programmer who wish to use TWOS can prototype code on TWSIM on a single processor and/or workstation before having to deal with the complexity of working on a distributed system. TWSIM also provides statistics about the application which may be helpful for determining the correctness of an application and for achieving good performance on TWOS. Version 2.5.1 has an updated interface that is not compatible with 2.0. The program's user manual assists the simulation programmer in the design, coding, and implementation of discrete-event simulations running on TWOS. The manual also includes a practical user's guide to the TWOS application benchmark, Colliding Pucks. TWOS supports simulations written in the C programming language. It is designed