WorldWideScience

Sample records for timber creek crossing

  1. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Little Timber Creek Crossing, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Topical report, August 1991--January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Environmental Restoration Systems; Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Environmental Restoration Systems]|[Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents results of a survey conducted over the period of August 5--7, 1991, at the Little Timber Creek crossing in Gloucester County, New Jersey, where three pipelines, constructed in 1950, 1960, and 1990, cross the creek and associated wetlands. The old side of the ROW, created by the installation of the 1960 pipeline, was designed to contain a raised peat bed over the 1950 pipeline and an open-water ditch over the 1960 pipeline. The new portion of the ROW, created by installation of the 1990 pipeline, has an open-water ditch over the pipeline (resulting from settling of the backfill) and a raised peat bed (resulting from rebound of compacted peat). Both the old and new ROWs contain dense stands of herbs; the vegetation on the old ROW was more similar to that in the adjacent natural area than was vegetation in the new ROW. The ROW increased species and habitat diversity in the wetlands. It may contribute to the spread of purple loosestrife and affect species sensitive to habitat fragmentation.

  2. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Little Timber Creek Crossing, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Topical report, August 1991--January 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents results of a survey conducted over the period of August 5--7, 1991, at the Little Timber Creek crossing in Gloucester County, New Jersey, where three pipelines, constructed in 1950, 1960, and 1990, cross the creek and associated wetlands. The old side of the ROW, created by the installation of the 1960 pipeline, was designed to contain a raised peat bed over the 1950 pipeline and an open-water ditch over the 1960 pipeline. The new portion of the ROW, created by installation of the 1990 pipeline, has an open-water ditch over the pipeline (resulting from settling of the backfill) and a raised peat bed (resulting from rebound of compacted peat). Both the old and new ROWs contain dense stands of herbs; the vegetation on the old ROW was more similar to that in the adjacent natural area than was vegetation in the new ROW. The ROW increased species and habitat diversity in the wetlands. It may contribute to the spread of purple loosestrife and affect species sensitive to habitat fragmentation

  3. 75 FR 27507 - Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... restrict vessel traffic in the regulated area within Big Timber Creek. DATES: Comments and related material...-AA08 Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... in June with a rain date of the first Saturday in July. This Safety Zone is necessary to provide for...

  4. Aesthetic Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard

    to its sustainable profile. In parallel to this, new production methods and further refined timber products have been developed. Among these are the engineered timber-based product Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) that show enhanced structural properties compared to unrefined timber. However, the question...... is what happens to the aesthetic qualities of wood as a building material in this process? What does it mean to the experience and perception of CLT that it is processed to products whose properties differ significantly from those of wood in its raw form? Based on the hypothesis that CLT possesses...... an undefined aesthetic potential that may innovate how we construct and perceive timber architecture, the overall aim of the thesis is to inquire into the architectural and aesthetic qualities of CLT. Through three chapters this thesis examines and discusses 1) the architectural qualities of CLT, 2...

  5. Aesthetic Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard

    in the great importance wood has had as a building material throughout history as a naturally occurring, strong, light and workable construction material with various multi-sensuous qualities and great applicability. Over the last two decades, wood as a building material has gained renewed focus, partly due...... to its sustainable profile. In parallel to this, new production methods and further refined timber products have been developed. Among these are the engineered timber-based product Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) that show enhanced structural properties compared to unrefined timber. However, the question......) the materiality of CLT, and 3) how one can deal with these qualitative aspects in the design process. This leads to: firstly, the development of an explicit model to help structuring the analysis and evaluation of the materiality of CLT, and secondly, a clarification and articulation of the aesthetic qualities...

  6. Field performance of timber bridges. 5, Little Salmon Creek stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. A. Kainz; G. J. Porter

    The Little Salmon Creek bridge was constructed in November 1988 on the Allegheny National Forest in Pennsylvania. The bridge is a simple span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26-ft long and 16-ft wide. The bridge is unique in that it is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber. The...

  7. Chapter 1: CLT Introduction to cross-laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan Gagnon; E.M.(Ted) Bilek; Lisa Podesto; Pablo Crespell

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT), a new generation of engineered wood product developed initially in Europe, has been gaining increased popularity in residential and non-residential applications in several countries. Many impressive low- and mid-rise buildings built around the world using CLT showcase the many advantages this product has to offer to the construction...

  8. Chapter 4: Lateral design of cross-laminated timber buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Phil Line; Shiling Pei; Steven E. Pryor

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product that was developed approximately two decades ago in Europe and has since been gaining in popularity. Based on the experience of European researchers and designers, it is believed that CLT can provide the U.S. market the opportunity to build mid- and high-rise wood buildings. This Chapter presents a summary of...

  9. Chapter 5: Connections Connections in cross-laminated timber buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mohammad; Bradford Douglas; Douglas Rammer; Steven E. Pryor

    2013-01-01

    The light weight of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products combined with the high level of prefabrication involved, in addition to the need to provide wood-based alternative products and systems to steel land concrete, have significantly contributed to the development of CLT products and systems, especially in mid-rise buildings (5 to 9 stories). While this product is...

  10. On the Architectural Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2010-01-01

    as interior surface. The qualities which have been found to be particularly interesting seen from an architectural point of view, are those related to its property of being a plate and provider of a simple building system as well as to its great workability and high level of details in both production......In resent years wood as a building material has gain renewed focus and with that new production methods and wooden products have been developed. One of these products is Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) which, by means of high-technology production and a distinctive construction with layers of lamellae...

  11. Two age populations of zircons from the Timber Creek kimberlites, Northern Territory, as determined by laser-ablation ICP-MS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousova, E.A.; Jackson, S.E.; O'Reilly, S.Y.; Griffin, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Two populations of kimberlitic zircon are present in the Timber Creek kimberlites, Northern Territory. Laser-ablation ICP-MS U-Pb dating yields an age of 1483 ± 15 (2σ) Ma for the main group and an age of 179 ± 2 Ma for the other group. This distinction of two age groups is strongly supported by Hf isotope data on the same zircons. Although the trace-element patterns of both populations are typical of mantle-derived zircons, the 'young' population has slightly higher concentrations of most trace elements, but has lower Hf, Nb, Ta and Pb contents. The distinct differences in trace-element contents and Hf isotopic composition of the two zircon populations indicate that they were derived from different magma sources. The dating results indicate that the emplacement age of the Timber Creek kimberlites cannot be older than the age of the 'young' zircon population (i.e. 179 ± 2 Ma). This clarifies the inconsistency between the previously reported SHRIMP age of the Timber Creek zircons (1462 ± 53 Ma) and the much younger age (1200Ma) of the sediments of the Victoria River Basin into which these kimberlites have intruded. The Timber Creek kimberlites are a newly recognised extension of the widespread Jurassic kimberlite activity known in Western Australia and South Australia. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  12. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  13. Field performance of timber bridges. 11, Spearfish Creek stress-laminated box-beam bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; K. Stanfill-McMillan

    The Spearfish Creek bridge was constructed in 1992 in Spearfish, South Dakota. It is a single-span, stress-laminated, box-beam superstructure. Performance of the bridge is being monitored for 5 years, beginning at installation. This report summarizes results for the first 3-1/2 years of monitoring and includes information on the design, construction, and field...

  14. Effects of Timber Harvest on Fog Drip and Streamflow, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Keppeler

    2007-01-01

    Within the second-growth redwood forest of the Caspar Creek watershed, fog drip was measured in 1998 at 12 sites where heavy fog drip was expected. The following year, two one-ha plots were each instrumented with six randomly sited 1.35 m2 fog-drip collectors and one additional collector in a nearby clearcut. Fog-drip totals were highly variable...

  15. The Dendrochronological Dating of Timber Crossings in West Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife

    2006-01-01

    complete sapwood, to bark edge, preserved. Skjern Bridge, across the Skjern River and also in west Jutland, is medieval in date, with phases from the 12th to 14th centuries. The bridge is one element in a complex of activity by the river including an earlier ford, a fish weir contemporary with the bridge......The dendrochronological analyses of a large number of timbers from two sites are described. Nybro causeway in west Jutland, Denmark, which was built in the 8th century AD, consists of numerous phases, identifiable due to the large number of dendrochronologically dated timbers, of which many had...

  16. Chapter 8: Fire Performance of Cross-Laminated Timber Assemblies (2012 US Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Dagenais; Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2012-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a promising wood-based structural component and has potential to provide cost-effective building solutions for residential, commercial and institutional buildings as well as large industrial facilities. Market acceptance of CLT requires that it meets the applicable building code requirements.

  17. Field performance of timber bridges. 4, Graves Crossing stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter

    The Graves Crossing bridge was constructed October 1991 in Antrim County, Michigan, as part of the demonstration timber bridge program sponsored by the USDA Forest Service. The bridge is a two-span continuous, stress-laminated deck superstructure and it is 36-ft long and 26-ft wide. The bridge is one of the first stress-laminated deck bridges to be built of sawn lumber...

  18. Calculation of deflection for cross laminated timber floor panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarić Ljiljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analytically calculated values of effective flexural stiffness and deflections of five-layer CLT panels height 14 cm due to the payload defined in Eurocode 1 for floors in residential buildings are compared. Effective flexural stiffness was calculated using Gamma method, K-method and Kreuzinger's analogy. Three floor panels with identical height but with different combinations of lamination thicknesses in cross-layers were analyzed. The panels are 4.5 meters long and 1 meter wide. Lamination thicknesses in cross-sections of panels are 33,4 cm+21,9 cm, then 33 cm+22,5 cm and 52,8 cm.

  19. Ecological Survey of Valuable Non-Timber Plant Resources in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Abstract. The density and diversity of plant species producing valued non-timber products in two moist rainforests in. Southeastern Nigeria were studied. The two forests are Cross-River North Forest Reserve, Cross River State and. Stubbs Creek Forest Reserve, Akwa Ibom State. Twenty- three plant species with the ...

  20. Ecological Survey of Valuable Non-Timber Plant Resources in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The density and diversity of plant species producing valued non-timber products in two moist rainforests in Southeastern Nigeria were studied. The two forests are Cross-River North Forest Reserve, Cross River State and Stubbs Creek Forest Reserve, Akwa Ibom State. Twenty- three plant species with the distribution as ...

  1. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  2. Overview of a Project to Quantify Seismic Performance Factors for Cross Laminated Timber Structures in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Omar Amini; John W. van de Lindt; Shiling Pei; Douglas Rammer; Phil Line; Marjan Popovski

    2014-01-01

    Cross-laminated Timber (CLT) has been extensively used in Europe and is now gaining momentum in North America; both Canada and more recently the U.S. Construction projects have shown that CLT can effectively be used as an alternative construction material in mid-rise structures and has significant potential in commercial and industrial buildings. In the United States,...

  3. Evaluation of the load carrying capacity of large cross section coniferous timber in standing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arriaga, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 85 large section timber pieces (Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus pinaster Alt. found in a number of old buildings were visually analyzed and graded pursuant to Spanish standard UNE 56544 and German standard 4074. The object was to formulate a non-destructive method to reliably and effectively determine the mechanical properties of existing timber structures with large cross sections. A new system is proposed based on the chief visual grading parameters and consisting in a single grade; the percentage of rejections with this system is low. In this regard, a specific strength class is established for large cross section members in existing coniferous wood structures, namely F14/E9/D380 (MOR of 14 N/mm2, MOE of 9 kN/mm2 and characteristic density of 380 kg/m3. The use of ultrasonic velocity is proposed to define the next higher strength class - F16/E10/D380, to which timber with velocities of 4,900 m/s or over would be assigned.

    Se han clasificado visualmente 85 piezas de madera de gruesa sección (Pino silvestre y Pino pinaster procedentes de varios edificios antiguos de acuerdo con las normas UNE 56544 y DIN 4074. El objetivo es establecer una metodología no destructiva para asignar propiedades mecánicas a las piezas de estructuras existentes de madera con gruesas escuadrías con un nivel de seguridad y de rendimiento aceptables. Se propone un único grado de calidad con un porcentaje bajo de rechazos, aplicando los principales parámetros de la clasificación visual. De esta forma, se establece una clase resistente específica para las piezas de gruesa escuadría de estructuras de madera de conifera existentes definida como FI4/E9/D380 (resistencia característica a flexión igual a 14 N/mm2, módulo de elasticidad de 9 kN/mn2 y densidad característica de 380 kg/m3. Para alcanzar una clase resistente superior se propone utilizar el parámetro añadido de la

  4. Fire Resistance of Large-Scale Cross-Laminated Timber Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henek, Vladan; Venkrbec, Václav; Novotný, Miloslav

    2017-12-01

    Wooden structures are increasingly being used in the construction of residential buildings. A common and often published reason to avoid wooden structures is their insufficient fire resistance, which reduces bearing capacity. For this reason, composite sandwich structures began to be designed to eliminate this drawback, as well as others. Recently, however, the trend is for a return to the original, wood-only variant and a search is underway for new technical means of improving the properties of such structures. Many timber structure technologies are known, but structures made from cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels have been used very often in recent years. CLT panels, also known as X-LAM, are currently gaining popularity in Europe. In the case of CLT panels composed of several layers of boards, they can be said to offer a certain advantage in that after the surface layer of a board has burnt and the subsurface layer has dried, oxygen is not drawn to the unburned wood for further combustion and thus the burning process ceases. CLT panels do not need to be specially modified or coated with fire resistant materials, although they are usually lined with gypsum-fibre fire resistant boards due to guidelines set out in the relevant standards. This paper presents a new method for the assessment of load-bearing perimeter walls fabricated from CLT panels without the use of an inner fire-retardant lining to ensure fire resistance at the level required by European standards (i.e. those harmonized for the Czech construction industry). The calculations were verified through laboratory tests which show that better parameters can be achieved during the classification of structures from the fire resistance point of view. The aim of the article is to utilize the results of assessment and testing by an accredited laboratory in order to demonstrate the possibilities of using CLT panels for the construction of multistorey as well as multi-purpose buildings in the Czech Republic.

  5. Social Networks of Corruption in the Vietnamese and Lao Cross-Border Timber Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    To, P.X.; Mahanty, S.; Dressler, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Although corruption is a core issue in discourses on Southeast Asian states and the region's illegal timber trade, its specific meanings, characteristics, and role are poorly understood. Our ethnographic study of corruption and timber trade in the lower Mekong uncovers the relationships, dealings,

  6. Cross Laminated Timber – Properties and Use for Building Purposes: A Review From the Experience of Swiss Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter NIEMZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the mechanical and physicalproperties of cross laminated timber (solid woodpanels in the building industry and its use in timberconstruction is presented. Structure-propertyrelations for solid wood based materials arediscussed. Important properties, such as strength,sorption, diffusion, thermal conductivity in relation tothe board structure are presented. By varying thestructure, the properties can be optimized over awide range. The focus of this publication lies onexperimental works performed by Swiss researchersat the ETH Zürich.

  7. Hygrothermal Properties of Cross Laminated Timber and Moisture Response of Wood at High Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSayegh, George

    Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a new wood-based material composed of cross laminated wood boards that form a structural panel. This study focuses on identifying the appropriate methods to determine the hygrothermal properties of CLTs fabricated with Canadian and European Lumber. The laboratory tests carried out in this study will help establish heat, air and moisture response properties to be used for hygrothermal simulation to assess the durability of CLTs in building envelope construction. Measurement of water vapour permeability, liquid water absorption, sorption isotherms, thermal conductivity, and air permeability were performed on three Canadian CLT specimens composed of Hem-Fir, Eastern Spruce-Pine-Fir, and Western Spruce-Pine-Fir and one European specimen composed of Spruce. The hygrothermal properties of CLT, considered in this study, appear to be similar to commonly used wood specimens reported in the literature. However, liquid water absorption coefficients of CLT were found to be generally lower than common wood species, possibly due to the presence of glue between the wood layers which limits the moisture movement across the specimen. On the other hand, the air permeability across the CLT specimens varied due to the glue discontinuity within the specimen which led some CLTs to be permeable, however all the European specimens were found to be impermeable. This study also critically analyzed the significance of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at high relative humidity, measured by means of a pressure plate apparatus and humidity chambers, on the moisture management performance of a wood-frame stucco wall, using the hygrothermal simulation tool hygIRC-2D. The simulation results indicate that the prediction of the moisture response of a wood-frame stucco wall assembly depends significantly on the method adopted to derive the EMC of wood at high RH.

  8. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Deep Creek and Brandy Branch crossings, Nassau County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of surveys conducted July 14-18, 1992, at the Deep Creek and the Brandy Branch crossings of a pipeline installed during May 1991 in Nassau County, Florida. Both floodplains supported bottomland hardwood forests. The pipeline at the Deep Creek crossing was installed by means of horizontal directional drilling after the ROW had been clear-cut, while the pipeline at the Brandy Branch crossing was installed by means of conventional open trenching. Neither site was seeded or fertilized. At the time of sampling, a dense vegetative community, made up primarily of native perennial herbaceous species, occupied the ROW within the Deep Creek floodplain. The Brandy Branch ROW was vegetated by a less dense stand of primarily native perennial herbaceous plants. Plant diversity was also lower at the Brandy Branch crossing than at the Deep Creek crossing. The results suggest that some of the differences in plant communities are related to the more hydric conditions at the Brandy Branch floodplain.

  9. Dry creek long-term watershed study: effects of timber harvest on hydrology and sediment export in headwater streams in Southwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.B. Summer; C. Rhett Jackson; D. Jones; M. Miwa

    2006-01-01

    Properly established streamside management zones (SMZs) reduce potential impacts of timber harvesting on stream hydro-period and sediment fluxes. Effects of upland silvicultural practices on stream hydrology and effects of partial harvesting within SMZs on water quality are not well documented. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of these forest...

  10. Encroachment Dynamics of Juniperus virginiana L. and Mesic Hardwood Species into Cross Timbers Forests of North-Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Hoff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Timbers forests, typically dominated by Quercus stellata Wangenh. and Q. marilandica Muenchh., are the transition zone between eastern deciduous forest and prairie in the southern Great Plains. Fire exclusion beginning in the mid-1900s has led to increasing stand density and encroachment of fire-intolerant Juniperus virginiana L. and mesic hardwood. We measured current forest structure and tree ages of 25 stands (130 plots in north-central Oklahoma to characterize the extent and dynamics of encroachment. The respective basal area and stand density of the overstory (diameter at breast height; dbh > 10 cm were 19.0 m2 ha−1 and 407 trees ha−1 with Q. stellata comprising 43% of basal area and 42% of stand density. Quercus marilandica represented only 3% of basal area and 4% of overstory density. Juniperus virginiana represented 7% of basal area and 14% of stand density while mesic hardwoods, e.g., Celtis spp., Ulmus spp., Carya spp., 33% of basal area and stand density. The sapling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (68% and J. virginiana (25% while the seedling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (74%. The majority of Quercus recruited into the overstory between 1910–1970, while recruitment of J. virginiana and mesic hardwoods began more recently (post 1950s. Growth rate, based on the relationship between age and dbh, was faster for mesic hardwoods than for J. virginiana and Q. stellata. These results indicate that removal of recurrent surface fire as a disturbance agent has significantly altered forest composition in the Cross Timbers region by allowing encroachment of J. virginiana and fire-intolerant, mesic hardwoods. This increases wildfire risk because J. virginiana is very flammable and will alter how these forests respond to future drought and other disturbance events.

  11. Determination of the elastic and stiffness characteristics of cross-laminated timber plates from flexural wave velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Andrea; Schoenwald, Stefan; Van Damme, Bart; Fausti, Patrizio

    2017-07-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an engineered wood with good structural properties and it is also economically competitive with the traditional building construction materials. However, due to its low volume density combined with its high stiffness, it does not provide sufficient sound insulation, thus it is necessary to develop specific acoustic treatments in order to increase the noise reduction performance. The material's mechanical properties are required as input data to perform the vibro-acoustic analyses necessary during the design process. In this paper the elastic constants of a CLT plate are derived by fitting the real component of the experimental flexural wave velocity with Mindlin's dispersion relation for thick plates, neglecting the influence of the plate's size and boundary conditions. Furthermore, its apparent elastic and stiffness properties are derived from the same set of experimental data, for the plate considered to be thin. Under this latter assumption the orthotropic behaviour of an equivalent thin CLT plate is described by using an elliptic model and verified with experimental results.

  12. Timber Curtain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Timber Curtain is a site specific architectural installation, which is part of a research project conducted at the Aarhus School of Architecture as collaboration between Ph.D. and associate professor Niels Martin Larsen and the author. Through a digitally scripted associative model we performed s...... of pinewood timber, machined with a CMS Antares 5-axis CNC router. The digital process generation and simulation was implemented with Rhinoceros 3D, Grasshopper and GHPython, and AlphaCAM was used for preparing the CNC-routing....

  13. A cross-continental comparison of plant and beetle responses to retention of forest patches during timber harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan C. Baker; Charles B. Halpern; Timothy J. Wardlaw; Christel Kern; Graham J. Edgar; Russell J. Thomson; Richard E. Bigley; Jerry F. Franklin; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Lena Gustafsson; Samuel Johnson; Brian J. Palik; Thomas A. Spies; Ashley Steel; Jan Weslien; Joachim Strengbom

    2016-01-01

    Timber harvest can adversely affect forest biota. Recent research and application suggest that retention of mature forest elements ('retention forestry'), including unharvested patches (or 'aggregates') within larger harvested units, can benefit biodiversity compared to clearcutting. However, it is unclear whether these benefits can be generalized...

  14. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry

    2017-01-01

    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 50 (STARTH00250050) on Town Highway 25, crossing Lewis Creek, Starksboro, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STARTH00250050 on Town Highway 25 crossing Lewis Creek, Starksboro, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  16. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30 (BRNATH00470030) on Town Highway 47, crossing Locust Creek, Barnard, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Song, Donald L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRNATH00470030 on Town Highway 47 crossing Locust Creek, Barnard, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 6 (ALBUTH00150006) on Town Highway 15, crossing Mud Creek, Alburg, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ALBUTH00150006 on Town Highway 15 crossing Mud Creek, Alburg, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  18. Pipeline Corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1992 Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to identify representative impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of the survey July 1992, at the Mills Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. Data were collected from three wetland communities along the 1991 pipeline and compared with predisturbance data obtained in a June 1991 survey. Within one year after pipeline installation, 50% of the soil surface of the ROW in the scrub-shrub community was covered by emergent vegetation. Average wetland values for the ROW in 1992 were lower than in 1991, indicating that the removal of woody plants resulted in a community composed of species with greater fidelity to wetlands. In the emergent marsh community after one year, the average percentage of surface covered by standing water was greater in the ROW than in the adjacent natural areas. The ROW in the forested wetland community also contained standing water, although none was found in the natural forest areas. The entire study site remains a wetland, with the majority of plant species in all sites being either obligate or facultative wetland species. Weighted and unweighted average wetland indices for each community, using all species, indicated wetland vegetation within the newly established ROW.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 17 (NEWHTH00200017) on Town Highway 20, crossing Little Otter Creek, New Haven, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NEWHTH00200017 on Town Highway 20 crossing Little Otter Creek, New Haven, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence Valley physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 10.8-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and wetland basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is shrubland on the downstream right overbank. The surface cover of the downstream left overbank, the upstream right overbank and the upstream left overbank is wetland and pasture. In the study area, Little Otter Creek has a meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.0007 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 97 ft and an average bank height of 5 ft. The channel bed material ranges from silt and clay to cobble. Medium sized silt and clay is the channel material upstream of the approach cross-section and downstream of the exit cross-section. The median grain size (D50) of the silt and clay channel bed material is 1.52 mm (0.005 ft), which was used for contraction and abutment scour computations. From the approach cross-section, under the bridge, and to the exit cross-section, stone fill is the channel bed material. The median grain size (D50) of the stone fill channel bed material is 95.7 mm (0.314 ft). The stone fill median grain size was used solely for armoring computations. The geomorphic assessment at the

  20. Bridge-scour analysis on Cuchillo Negro Creek at the Interstate 25 crossing near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemeyer, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A sediment-transport model to simulate channel change was applied to a 1-mile reach of Cuchillo Negro Creek at the Interstate 25 crossing at Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, using the Bridge-Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (BRI-STARS). The 500-year flood discharge was estimated to be 10,700 cubic feet per second. The 100-year, 500-year, and regional maximum discharges were used to design synthetic and discretized hydrographs using a flood volume equation. The regional maximum discharge relation was developed for New Mexico based on 259 streamflow-gaging stations' maximum peak discharge. The regional maximum-peak discharge for the site was determined to be 81,700 cubic feet per second. Bed-material particle-size distribution was determined for six size classes ranging from 1 to 30 millimeters. The median diameter was 4.6 millimeters at the bed surface and 9.0 millimeters 13 feet below the bed surface. Bed-material discharge for use in the model was estimated to be 18,770 tons per day using hydraulic properties, water temperature, and Yang's gravel equation. Channel-change simulations showed a maximum channel degradation of 1.38 feet for the regional maximum-peak discharge hydrograph.

  1. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  2. timber for structural use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    As a result of effect of geographical location on timber properties, there is need for constant determination of properties of timber. This paper presents the results of experimental tests carried out on three Apa (Afzelia bipindensis) timber logs grown in Kwara State, south-western periphery of the North Central Zone of Nigeria ...

  3. Henretta Creek reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumphrey, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Teck Coal Ltd. operates 6 open-pit coal mines, of which 5 are located in the Elk Valley in southeastern British Columbia. The Fording River Operations (FRO) began in 1971 in mining areas in Eagle Mountain, Turnbull Mountain and Henretta Valley. The recovery of approximately 5 million tons of coal from the Henretta Creek Valley posed significant challenges to mine planners, hydrologists and environmental experts because the coal had to be recovered from the valley flanks and also from under the main valley floor, on which the fish-bearing Henretta Creek runs. The Henretta Dragline Mining project was described along with the water control structures and fisheries management efforts for the cutthroat trout. A detailed Environmental Impact Assessment and Stage 1 mining report for the Henretta Valley area was completed in December 1990. FRO was granted a mining and reclamation permit in 1991. A temporary relocation of 1,270 metres was required in in April 1997 in order to enable mining on both sides and below the creek bed. Among the innovative construction techniques was a diversion of Henretta Creek through large diameter steel culverts and a specialized crossing of the creek to allow fish passage. The first water flowed through the reclaimed Henretta Creek channel in late 1998 and the first high flow occurred in the spring of 2000. Teck coal FRO then launched an annual fish and fish habitat monitoring program which focused on the Henretta Creek Reclaimed Channel and Henretta Lake. This document presented the results from the final year, 2006, and a summary of the 7 year aquatic monitoring program. It was concluded that from mining through to reclamation, the Henretta project shows the commitment and success of mining and reclamation practices at Teck Coal. Indicators of the project's success include riparian zone vegetation, fisheries re-establishment, aquatic communities and habitat utilization by terrestrial and avian species. 33 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Assessing effects of changing land use practices on sediment loads in Panther Creek, north coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Ann Madej; Greg Bundros; Randy Klein

    2012-01-01

    Revisions to the California Forest Practice Rules since 1974 were intended to increase protection of water quality in streams draining timber harvest areas. The effects of improved timber harvesting methods and road designs on sediment loading are assessed for the Panther Creek basin, a 15.4 km2 watershed in Humboldt County, north coastal...

  5. Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber...

  6. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  7. 1970 Oregon timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    The 1970 Oregon timber harvest of 7.98 billion board feet was the lowest recorded since the recession year of 1961 when 7.41 billion board feet of timber was produced. The 1970 log production figure was 12.8 percent below the 1969 harvest, the second consecutive year of declining production in Oregon.

  8. Timber salvage economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Timber salvage is commonly done following natural disturbances, to recover some value from damaged forests. Decision making about salvage, however, is affected by ownership objectives, the nature of the damage agent, site factors, and the strength of the local timber market. For profit-maximizing landowners, salvage decisions must balance the cost of harvesting...

  9. Caspar Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    2001-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection have gauged streamflow, and suspended sediment and precipitation since 1962 in the 473 ha North Fork and the 424 ha South Fork of the 2167 ha Caspar Creek in the Jackson Demonstation State Forest in northwestern California. Within the two Caspar...

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 59 (NWPCVT01050059) on State Route 105 crossing an unnamed Mud Creek Tributary, Newport, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NWPCVT01050059 on state route 105 crossing an unnamed Mud Creek tributary, Newport, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  11. Timber Products Supply and Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Robert C. Abt

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes historical, current, and projected timber inventories and timber product outputs from southern forests. It also attempts to place these quantities in national and international perspectives. Timber is the most valuable commercial commodity taken from most forests, and its removal strongly influences the character of those forests. Timber is...

  12. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric...

  13. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric comput...

  14. 1970 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall

    1971-01-01

    Washington's 1970 timber harvest of 6.46 billion board feet was 7.8 percent below the near record harvest of 7 billion board feet established in 1969. Timber harvests on all public lands declined 13 percent with a 9.0-percent reduction in western Washington and a 22.9-percent drop in eastern Washington. State lands led the decline in public production with a 142-...

  15. Mobile mine timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodous, J.; Kubac, J.; Novak, Z.; Skrobalek, J.; Zajic, K.

    1982-04-15

    A mobile timbering of enclosure-support type designed for reinforcing a cleaning space in deep coal mines is patented. The assembly consists of one frame to which a shield is hinged with the upper section, from one hydraulic stand attached to the frame and upper section or shield, and from the mobile device. The essence of the invention is that the extension lower part of each hydraulic stand is placed and hinged in the support, which on one side enters the profile guide, formed in the frame, and from the other side is attached to the adjustment (stopping) cylinder whose opposite part is hinged to the frame. Between the shield and the upper part there is a built-in resting device. The high effect of operation of the proposed element of the mobile timbering is that with comparatively small difference in height of the support places, there is a large range of element of the timbering even with the use of hydraulic stands with one telescope. The shaped guide and the support places are made so that there is optimal use of the bearing capacity of the stands, and as a result there is high support reaction and advantageous loading of individual parts of the timbering. The universal assembly design of the upper part makes it possible to use the timbering even with technology of working with timbering that is moved backwards.

  16. RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...

  17. Timber resources of southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett

    1979-01-01

    This report presents statistics from a 1973 inventory of timber resources of Douglas County and from a 1974 inventory of timber resources of Coos, Curry, Jackson, and Josephine Counties, Oregon. Tables presented are of forest area and of timber volume, growth, and mortality.

  18. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  19. Radioactivity of timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    1996-03-01

    In autumn 1993, Finnish timber was analysed for radiocaesium ( 134 Cs, 137 Cs) and potassium ( 40 K). 137 originated mainly from fallout of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. Traces of nuclear weapons fallout also contributed to the 137 Cs contents of wood, bark and phloem of trees. The analysed material consisted 87 samples of logs of Norway spruce, Scots pine, birch and European aspen. The samples were from 47 municipalities. Radiation doses from 137 Cs in timber used as building materials were estimated for loghouses constructed of domestic wood. (18 refs.)

  20. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impact on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1991 survey. Topical report, June 1991--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL (United States); Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted in June 1991 at the Mill Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. One pipeline had been installed through the wetland in 1966, and another was scheduled to be installed later in 1991. Data were collected along the existing pipeline ROW and also along the planned ROW for use as baseline data in future studies. Four separate communities were surveyed. A scrub-shrub wetland and a forested wetland were sampled along the existing ROW where the planned pipeline was to be installed. A mixed vegetation community was sampled along the existing ROW, west of where the planned pipeline would joint the ROW. A marsh community was sampled along the route of the planned pipeline. All plant species found on the ROW of the scrub-shrub community were also present in the adjacent natural areas. The vegetation on the ROW of the forested wetland community also consisted mostly of species found in the adjacent natural areas. In the mixed vegetation community, a small drainage channel present on the ROW, possibly resulting from the pipeline construction, provided habitat for a number of obligate species not found in other areas of this community. Differences noted among different areas of this community were also attributed to slight variations in elevation.

  1. Timber Production and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Brian C. Murray

    2003-01-01

    Timber production has been the foundation of active forest management for over a century. The science and economics of forest management were developed 1.50 years ago, but for years, the focus was on activity at the stand level, with very little attention to market phenomena such as price behavior, demand factors, substitution, and market structure. That has changed as...

  2. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  3. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  4. Defects in hardwood timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J...

  5. timber for structural use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Logs of Apa timber were air-dried and along the stem, 324 pieces of test specimens were prepared for determination of their strength properties using a universal testing machine (UTM). FS50AT model, (specimen prepared included 108 samples for tensile strengths parallel to grain, 108 samples for compression parallel to ...

  6. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (FERRTH00190032) on Town Highway 19, crossing the South Slang Little Otter Creek, Ferrisburgh, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FERRTH00190032 on Town Highway 19 crossing the South Slang Little Otter Creek (Hawkins Slang Brook), Ferrisburg, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence Valley physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 8.00-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of wetlands upstream and downstream of the bridge with trees and pasture on the wide flood plains. In the study area, the South Slang Little Otter Creek has a meandering channel with essentially no channel slope, an average channel top width of 932 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from clay to sand. Sieve analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the sample is coarse silt and clay and thus a medium grain size by use of sieve analysis was indeterminate. The median grain size was assumed to be a course silt with a size (D50) of 0.061mm (0.0002 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 2, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 19 crossing of the South Slang Little Otter Creek is a 45-ft-long, twolane bridge consisting of one 42-foot concrete box-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face

  7. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  8. Topology Optimization and Robotic Fabrication of Advanced Timber Space-frame Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Amir, Oded; Eversmann, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    -based topology optimization with digital procedures for rationalization and robotic assembly of bespoke timber members, through a procedural, cross-application workflow. Through this, a direct chaining of optimization and robotic fabrication is established, in which optimization data is driving subsequent...... processes solving timber joint intersections, robotically controlling member prefabrication, and spatial robotic assembly of the optimized timber structures. The implication of this concept is studied through pilot fabrication and load-testing of a full scale prototype structure....

  9. Timber resources of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal P. Kingsley; Carl E. Mayer

    1970-01-01

    Under the authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of May 22, 1928, and subsequent amendments, the Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of all states to provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation. A resurvey of the timber resources of Ohio was made in 1966 and 1967 by...

  10. Maine timber industries - a periodic assessment of timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Peter R. Lammert; Richard H. Widmann

    1985-01-01

    This periodic evaluation of statewide industrial timber output is based on a survey of the primary wood manufacturing plants located in Maine in 1981. It contains statistics on industrial timber harvest and plant wood reciepts and on the production and disposition of the manufacturing residues for the year. The 438.7 million ft? (12.4 million m?) of industrial...

  11. Supply Chain Planning for a Timber Harvesting Plus Sale Tender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Holoubek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Czech State Forest Enterprise has been inviting timber-harvesting tenders while insisting on the forestry company purchasing the timber from the felled trees as well. To win, a tender must offer the greatest difference between the price of the timber purchased and the cost of the operations. Thus, the forest companies are now facing new problem: apart from minimizing the logging costs they are searching for a cross-cutting and mill-distribution strategy that maximizes the selling price of the harvested timber. The optimization model devised by the present paper provides support for finding an optimal timber selling strategy and, as an important contribution, include a detailed plan for cross-cutting the logs and assign them to the particular customers. We keep the support accessible via common office software and the cross-cutting and customer-assigning problem is formulated as a linear programming model for EXCEL, a particular real-world problem is solved and, using expert comparison, the model appears to provide very good results.

  12. Timber floors strengthened with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research

  13. Timber designers' manual

    CERN Document Server

    Ozelton, E C

    2008-01-01

    This major reference manual covers both overall and detail design of structural timber, including aspects such as shear deflection, creep, dynamic and lateral stability considerations for flexural members.Available for the first time in paperback, the Third Edition was substantially revised to take account of the many changes since the previous edition was published in 1984. It is based on British Standard BS 5268-2: 2002, which brought design concepts closer to European practice and Eurocode 5.Features of the Third Edition include:* information on bolt values including

  14. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....

  15. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental expos...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  16. Gender analysis of non-timber forest products utilization by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines gender roles in Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) utilization by adjoining communities to Cross River National Park (CRNP), Oban Division. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire administered on 110 respondents randomly selected from these communities. These were ...

  17. Building aggregate timber supply models from individual harvest choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym Polyakov; David N. Wear; Robert Huggett

    2009-01-01

    Timber supply has traditionally been modelled using aggregate data. In this paper, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products for the US state of North Carolina from a stand-level harvest choice model applied to detailed forest inventory. The simulated elasticities of pulpwood supply are much lower than reported by previous studies. Cross price...

  18. 36 CFR 223.187 - Determinations of unprocessed timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generally recognized by the industry as setting a selling standard; and, (ii) A statement by the... setting a selling standard. (3) Lumber, construction timbers, or cants for remanufacture, except western... or better, with a maximum cross section of 2,000 square centimeters (310 square inches) for any...

  19. Probabilistic Modeling of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, J.D.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2005-01-01

    The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present pro...... probabilistic model for these basic properties is presented and possible refinements are given related to updating of the probabilistic model given new information, modeling of the spatial variation of strength properties and the duration of load effects.......The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present...

  20. Moment Capacity of Timber Reinforced with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter

    of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang......When designing timber trusses it is often found that the cross section controlling the dimensions of the top chord is located at a joint with a moment peak. However, the timber volume affected by the moment peak is rather limited and by embedding a punched metal plate in this area a reinforcement......-Nail System, type GNA 20 S with a thickness of 1 mm. The tests and the results are described....

  1. Modeling the Effects of Knots in Structural Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Christina

    was established, which describes variations of radial growth direction and fiber orientation related to knots in timber. The adaptability of the paradigm allows practically any softwood knot and its effect on surrounding wood material to be modeled with an accuracy that is limited only by input data. The knot......The main purpose of the pursued research presented in this thesis is to increase knowledge of the effects of knots in structural timber so that characteristics of weaker timber may be determined and applied to improve current grading techniques. In the process, a three-dimensional fiber paradigm...... axis may be curved, and the knot cross-section oval with its vertical and horizontal axis increasing from the pith of the stem at chosen rates. Varying spiral gain with the radius of the annual growth layers may also be included in the paradigm. In the description of the fiber paradigm, considerations...

  2. Investigation of the Carrs Creek geofoam project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The I88 culvert crossing of Carrs Creek in Sidney, NY collapsed during the record setting Mid : Atlantic States Flood of June 2006. Rapid construction with geofoam as lightweight fill enabled : partial reopening of I88 by Labor Day 2006. Shortly a...

  3. Timber resource statistics for southwest Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978 timber-resource inventory of six counties in southwest Washington: Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Pacific, Skamania, and Wahkiakum. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  4. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1980 timber resource inventory of the 16 forested counties in Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  5. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  6. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  7. Effectiveness of timber harvesting BMPs: monitoring spatial and temporal dynamics of dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus in a low-gradient watershed, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram DaSilva; Y. Jun Xu; George Ice; John Beebe; Richard Stich

    2012-01-01

    To test effectiveness of Louisiana’s voluntary best management practices (BMPs) at preventing water quality degradation from timber harvesting activities, a study with BACI design was conducted from 2006 through 2010 in the Flat Creek Watershed, north-central Louisiana. Water samples for nutrient analyses and measurements of stream flow and of in-stream dissolved...

  8. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obtained. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...

  9. The 2005 RPA timber assessment update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; Peter J. Ince; John R. Mills; Xiaoping. Zhou

    2007-01-01

    This update reports changes in the Nation's timber resource since the Analysis of the Timber Situation in the United States was completed in 2003. Prospective trends in demands for and supplies of timber, and the factors that affect these trends are examined. These trends include changes in the U.S. economy, increased salvage of British Columbia beetle-killed...

  10. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Patricia M. Bassett; Colin D. MacLean

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1990-91 timber resource inventory of Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The inventory was conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  11. Timber products output and timber harvests in Alaska: an addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Richard W. Haynes

    2008-01-01

    Updated projections of demand for Alaska timber were published July 2006. Their application in land management planning for the Tongass National Forest has resulted in numerous questions and requests for clarification. This note discusses a broad range of these questions from the context of why we do projections, the model we used, the assumptions that determine the...

  12. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 9690-109] Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application...: Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC; Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e...

  13. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  14. Evaluation of recycled timber members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the residual shear capacity of large Douglas-fir timbers used in a military facility in Ardeen Hills, MN. A S-point and 4-point bending test was used to determine the effects of checks and splits on the shear strength capacity. Experimental results are compared to past shear and flexural studies.

  15. Timber management opportunities in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry H. Webster

    1960-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters serves the people in managing state forest lands and in helping private owners manage their forest lands. To produce more timber from Pennsylvania forests, the Department applies many different forestry practices. But the more effort it spends in one direction, the less it can spend in others. So the Department must...

  16. Probabilistic modeling of timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2007-01-01

    The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) [Joint Committee of Structural Safety. Probabilistic Model Code, Internet Publ...

  17. Selection of Nepalese Timber for Small Wind Turbine Blade Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, R.; Acharya, Parash; Freere, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the selection of Nepalese timber for development of small wind turbine blades on the basis of locally based low cost timbers, along with the selection of coatings to protect the timber from weathering. The selection criterion of timber includes timber mechanical properties, we...

  18. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  19. Mtwapa Creek, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: trophic ecology, fish, Mtwapa, Kenya. Abstract—~The trophic status of common fish species in Mtwapa creek on the Kenyan coast was studied. Both the ..... indices. Species that did not include detritus in their diet had much lower fullness indices than those that took detritus, planktonic and benthic organisms.

  20. Tropical Timbers of the World,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Investigacion sobre el fomento de la produccion de los bosques del noreste de Nicaragua. Laboratorio de Productos Forestales IICA-CATIE, Turrialba. FAO Rome...Coigue gave salt penetrations of about 3 to 24 mm. Uses: Furniture components, cabinet work, flooring, millwork, cooperage, an all purpose timber in...SF: 82 VEN 5. Rome. 2. FAO. 1973. Investigacion sobre el fomento de la produccion de los bosques del noreste de Nicaragua: propiedades y usos de quince

  1. Composite structure made of concrete and timber

    OpenAIRE

    Kozjan, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Thesis work is dealing with behavior of composite structure made of concrete and timber. First the scope of the document is introduced following by description of the problem and explaining the purpose and goals. Continuing of the document is presented composite structure concrete-timber. The composite material is described, composite structure is represent, stated are reasons of coupling concrete and timber and the typical connection in composite structure are represented. Thesis describes c...

  2. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  3. Floodplain and wetlands assessment of the White Oak Creek Embayment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report describes the proposed methods for dealing with contaminants that have accumulated in White Oak Creek, White Oak Lake, and the White Oak Creek Embayment as a result of process releases and discharges from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Alternative methods of cleaning up the area which were considered in accordance with regulatory guidelines are listed, and information supporting the selected methods is provided. Also included are results of a site survey conducted at the White Oak Creek Embayment and the expected effects of the proposed control structures on the floodplain and wetlands. The appendix contains figures showing the nine cross-sections of the stream channel surveyed during studies of the White Oak Creek area.

  4. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Cassadaga Creek Tributary Crossing, Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. Topical report, August 1992--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 3-4, 1992, at the Cassadaga wetlands crossing in Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. The pipeline at this site was installed during February and March 1981. After completion of pipeline installation, the ROW was fertilized, mulched, and seeded with annual ryegrass. Two adjacent sites were surveyed in this study: a forested wetland and an emergent wetlands Eleven years after pipeline installation, the ROW at both sites supported diverse vegetative communities. Although devoid of large woody species, the ROW within the forested wetland had a dense vegetative cover. The ROW within the emergent wetland had a slightly less dense and more diverse vegetative community compared with that in the adjacent natural areas (NAs). The ROW within the emergent wetland also had a large number of introduced species that were not present in the adjacent NAs. The ROW, with its emergent marsh plant community, provided habitat diversity within the forested wetlands Because the ROW contained species not found within the adjacent NAs, overall species diversity was increased.

  5. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  6. Reliability Analysis of Structural Timber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2000-01-01

    types of redundancy and non-linearity are considered. The statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined by reliability analysis. Next, more complex systems are considered modelling the mechanical behaviour of timber roof elements I stressed skin panels made of timber. Using...

  7. Timber resource of Missouri's Riverborder, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Arnold J. Ostrom

    1975-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Riverborder Forest Survey Unit shows that neither the total volume of growing stock nor of sawtimber changed significantly between 1959 and 1972. Area of commercial forest land declined slightly. Presents statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership and use in 1972.

  8. Timber-concrete composite floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different

  9. Timber resource statistics for western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  10. Timber price dynamics following a natural catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2000-01-01

    Catastrophic shocks to existing stocks of a renewable resource can cause long-run price shifts. With timber, these long-run price shifts may be accompanied by a short-run price drop due to salvage. Hurricane Hugo damaged 20 percent of southern pine timber in the South Carolina Coastal Plain in 1989. To estimate the...

  11. Mechanical grading of round timber beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Thomas M. Gorman; James W. Evans; Joseph F. Murphy

    2006-01-01

    Current procedures used to sort round timber beams into structural grades rely on visual grading methods and property assignments based on modification of clear wood properties. This study provides the technical basis for mechanical grading of 228 mm (9 in.) diameter round timbers. Test results on 225 round Engelmann spruce–alpine fir–lodgepole pine beams demonstrate...

  12. Merging Areas In Timber Mart South Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    1999-01-01

    For over twenty years, Timber Mart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from Southern forests. These long-term price series have been a critical resource for research into timber price and supply trends in the southern United States. Such analyses rely on consistent temporal and spatial reporting units, but these units have not always been...

  13. Timber rivets in structural composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Marshall Begel; Bruce Craig

    2004-01-01

    Timber rivet connections, originally developed for use with glulam construction, may be a viable option for use with structural composite lumber (SCL) products. Tests were conducted on small samples to assess the performance and predictability of timber rivet connections in parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). The test joint configurations...

  14. Species independent strength grading of structural timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenshorst, G.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Timber as a construction material has been used for millennia, but the research field covering the prediction of the strength of structural timber is still in development. Currently, the common conception is that the determination of strength properties has to be determined for every wood species

  15. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of a Norwegian sports arena with a structural system of glulam frames. The robustness evaluation is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling...... of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). The results show that the requirements for robustness of the structure are highly related to the modelling of the snow load used on the structures when ‘removal of a limited part...

  16. Strengthening of timber beams using FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing need for the reinforcement of timber beams (required due to deterioration or damage to the material or change of use has led to the development of new methods of reinforcement with modern materials. In the recent years the use of fibre reinforced polymers (FRP as reinforcement materials for structures has been made possible thanks to the increased availability and lower costs. This paper presents FRP bars as products for strengthening timber structures. Strengthening timber with glass, carbon and basalt FRP can provide better features of timber beams, such as improved load capacity, rigidity and ductility. Also, the paper describes the theoretical model developed in order to predict the flexural capacity and flexural stiffness of timber beams reinforced with FRP bars.

  17. The Materiality of Novel Timber Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, wood as a building material has gained renewed focus and, in parallel, new production methods and further refined timber products have been developed. Many of these novel timber building materials have gained significantly enhanced technical qualities, and the question is whether...... analysis and evaluation of materials and their role in architecture.......In recent years, wood as a building material has gained renewed focus and, in parallel, new production methods and further refined timber products have been developed. Many of these novel timber building materials have gained significantly enhanced technical qualities, and the question is whether...... this is at the expense of wood’s sensuous and poetic qualities. The proposed method to deal with these questions is to develop a discursive model that can clarify aspects essential for analyzing and discussing the materiality of timber in its contemporary engineered forms. Firstly, this paper presents a theoretical...

  18. Forests, timber and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariève; Marfo, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Based on detailed income data of 478 rural households, the nexus between forest, trees and rural livelihoods in Ghana is investigated and applied to assess implications of the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) between the EU and Ghana on illegal logging. It is found that, after crops, environ...... and benefits to trees on farm and fallow land to those occupying and cultivating the land. Such efforts would provide incentive for timber production and thus enhance rural livelihoods, while combatting illegal logging, deforestation and forest degradation........ Rather than focusing on social safeguards to mitigate any perceived or real negative impacts in the short-term, policy makers in Ghana—and the donors supporting them—should focus on other aspects of the VPA, notably forest policy reforms and in particular reforms that devolve management rights...... to its illegal nature. Yet, when the likely incomes from illegal timber harvesting as estimated by other studies are compared with this study’s comprehensive livelihood data, it is obvious that an imagined full implementation of the VPA would have limited impact on the majority of rural households...

  19. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author

  20. Inventory analysis of the timber industry in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope The timber sector, i.e., forestry and timber industry, plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of Ghana through timber products export. Timber production in this sector is associated with increasing environmental burdens in terms of use of materials and

  1. Market Dynamics and Optimal Timber Salvage After a Natural Catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2004-01-01

    Forest-based natural catastrophes are regular features of timber production in the United States, especially from hurricanes, fires, and insect and disease outbreaks. These catastrophes affect timber prices and result in economic transfers. We develop a model of timber market dynamics after such a catastrophe that shows how timber salvage affects the welfare of...

  2. Structural Reliability of the Nigerian Grown Abura Timber Bridge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural performance as timber bridge beams. Samples of the Nigerian grown Abura timber were bought from timber market, seasoned naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a moisture content of ...

  3. The Beaver Creek story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, W.H.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  4. CONTEMPORARY SLOVENIAN TIMBER ARCHITECTURE INTERNATIONAL RECOGNIZED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Kitek Kuzman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The book presents Slovenia' s contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of high-quality wood. In the past, wood was used primarily in the construction of farm buildings, but now timber architecture is used for everything from residences and office buildings to public buildings such as community centres and schools. Timber construction is becoming increasingly popular. Apart from larger companies taking this approach, a great number of wooden houses have sprung up, built either on personal initiative or with the support of carpenter workshops. Slovenian timber architecture has taken a new approach to environmental and energy-efficiency problems and received great international recognition. The book discusses over fifty projects built over a ten-year period, and includes descriptions, photographs, and plans. The projects include residential areas, administration, and office, as well as tourist, educational, and industrial buildings. Timber architecture is presented as an integral part of the Slovenian landscape. The monograph will be useful to designers and future experts in their planning of optimal timber buildings and will highlight the main benefits of using timber construction.

  5. Nondestructive Strength Grading of Structural Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kuklík

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the investigation of the use of non-destructive testing methods for the grading of structural timber and for the determination of the performance of structural timber elements. The investigations dealt with the ultrasonic method and the methods of longitudinal and transverse vibrations. The usability of these methods was verified at samples with the structural dimensions. The principle of the work lies in the search for statistic relationships between parameters characterising the timber quality (e.g. bending strength, modulus of elasticity and magnitudes measured by the above mentioned non-destructive testing methods (e.g. natural frequency, dynamic modulus of elasticity.

  6. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  7. System Reliability of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    For reduction of the risk of collapse in the event of loss of structural element(s), a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design a collapse-resistant structure that is insensitive to accidental circumstances e.g. by incorporating characteristics like redundancy, ties, ductility, key ...... elements, alternate load path(s) etc. in the structural design. In general these characteristics can have a positive influence on system reliability of a structure however, in Eurocodes ductility is only awarded for concrete and steel structures but not for timber structures. It is well......-called statical system effect, will usually increase the reliability of the whole structural system and give an extra safety margin compared to the deterministic code results. The aim of this fact sheet is to outline the relationship between system reliability and the characteristics ductility and redundancy....

  8. Timber - Material of the Future - Examples of Small Wooden Architectural Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żmijewki, Tomasz; Wojtowicz-Jankowska, Dorota

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present various types of wood-based products, classified as engineered timber, while specifying the implications of their structural properties for their forms. Timber is used as a construction material due to its fire resistance, good structural characteristics and insulating properties. The advent of new technologies of wood processing and wood-based materials production has converted timber into a high-tech material, thus encouraging the architects to consider it ever more often in their projects. As wooden technologies overcome constraints, timber begins to compete with steel and concrete. The design characteristics of new wood-based products allow wooden structures to be higher, have larger spans, and more diverse forms than ever. Wood-based materials include materials made of solid wood, veneers, strand, and wood which, due to its inferior quality, would otherwise be unfit for constructions. Elements and layers of these products are glued using different kinds of strong and water-resistant adhesives. The article presents the history of development of new wood technologies, discussing increasingly popular wood-based materials such as glued laminated timber, cross-laminated timber, or structural composite lumber. The paper analyses their technical and fire-resistance properties, and points to ecological aspect, as factors contributing to the growing popularity of these materials. Finally, the timber’s characteristics are contrasted with those of steel and concrete. The article lists examples of wooden objects representing the so-called small architecture structures from across Europe. They illustrate the potential, the uniqueness and the versatility that wood-based materials offer for constructors and architects. All these features form sufficient grounds for stating that timber truly is a construction material of the 21st century.

  9. Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...... and steel. However, reliability models applied to timber were always related to individual components but not the systems. as any real structure is a complex system, system behaviour must be of a particular interest. In the chapter 1 of this document an overview of stochastic models for strength and loads...... (deterministic, probabilistic and risk based approaches) of the robustness are given. Chapter 3 deals more detailed with the robustness of timber structures....

  10. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek...-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry, South Holston, Watauga, and.... Watauga and Wilbur reservoirs are along the Watauga River. Beaver Creek and Clear Creek reservoirs are on...

  11. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sassone, Mario SASSONE

    2011-01-01

    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies....

  12. CONTEMPORARY SLOVENIAN TIMBER ARCHITECTURE INTERNATIONAL RECOGNIZED

    OpenAIRE

    Manja Kitek Kuzman

    2014-01-01

    The book presents Slovenia' s contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of high-quality wood. In the past, wood was used primarily in the construction of farm buildings, but now timber architecture is used for everything fro...

  13. Framework for Robustness Assessment of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for the design and analysis of robustness of timber structures. This is actualized by a more4 frequent use of advanced types of timber structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure. Combined with increased requirements...... are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  14. Ohio's timber harvest revealed in stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Quigley

    1955-01-01

    Timber is an important resource in Ohio, and cutting records are an essential part of a forest resource appraisal. However, finding out just how much timber is cut in the State during any one year is a big job. Occasionally in the past, wood-using industries have been surveyed to determine the volume cut by species and product, but the variety of industries, the large...

  15. Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project: Clean Creeks, Healthy Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  16. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  17. Profitability of timber harvesting and timber transportation enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamaeki, J.

    1996-01-01

    In co-operation with the major companies contracting out forestry work and Statistics Finland, Metsaeteho carried out a project with the objective of analysing the economic profitability of timber harvesting and transportation enterprises in 1994. The calculation of profitability was based on utilisation of last livelihoods taxation data (EVR) that Statistics Finland was in possession of. The basic material comprised data that the companies contracting out forestry work had full-time entrepreneurs. There were 255 forestry machine contractor enterprises and 270 trucking enterprises. Statistics Finland was responsible for computations of the results of the project. The calculation of the indicators of profitability was based on the recommendations of Yritystutkimusneuvottelukunta, a committee looking into the functioning of enterprises. The year 1994 was a good year from the viewpoint of profitability of both forestry machine contractors as well as trucking enterprises. With full depreciations and salary adjustments attended to, both enterprise groups still showed a mean profitability of ca. 8 %. The yield of invested capital was ca. 25 %. The differences in profitability among enterprises were great in both groups and in different parts of the country

  18. Michigan timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Reports forest-industry trends, production and receipts of industrial roundwood, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products for Michigan's timber industry in 2004. Also reports logging residue generated from timber harvest operations in Michigan as well as the generation and disposition of wood and bark residue generated by...

  19. The timber industries of New Hampshire and Vermont: a periodic assessment of timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Nicolas Engalichev; William C. Gove

    1986-01-01

    This periodic evaluation of statewide industrial timber output is based on canvasses of the primary wood manufacturing plants in New Hampshire and Vermont. The report contains statistics on industrial timber products and plant wood receipts in 1982, and the production and disposition of the manufacturing plant residues that resulted. The 129.4 million cubic feet (3.7...

  20. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  1. Activity of the Mill Creek and Mission Creek fault strands of the San Andreas fault through the San Gorgonio Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.; Valentine, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present new observations that constrain the recent slip history of the Mill Creek and Mission Creek strands of the San Andreas fault. These faults are the northern strands of a complex series of strike-slip and thrust faults through the San Gorgonio Pass stepover, an important structural barrier that affects seismic hazard in southern California. Understanding the activity on each of the faults in this complex region will reveal the potential for large, throughgoing San Andreas fault ruptures. The Mill Creek fault strand cuts the base of the upper Raywood Flat fill, a 50 m thick package of debris-flow deposits. However, the upper section of these deposits overlap, and are not cut by the fault. On the surface of this deposit, a 15 m-wide channel, flanked by bouldery debris-flow levees, crosses the projection of the Mill Creek fault without evidence of offset. We collected boulder-top samples for cosmogenic exposure age-dating of these levees and present preliminary results. Additionally, we mapped inset terraces along the incised channel of the East Fork Whitewater River drainage that also do not show evidence of fault offset, and we collected a depth profile through the uppermost Raywood Flat fill in order to further assess its age. Along the Mission Creek strand, newly devegetated B4 airborne lidar data reveals fault scarps cutting across hillslopes and alluvial fans between the San Bernardino strand and lower Raywood Flat for a distance of 4 km. We identify a lateral offset of 4-6 m in an alluvial fan deposit within a tributary of Banning canyon, and sampled a suite of boulders to estimate the age of this deposit. This site shows that the Mission Creek fault is active and could rupture through the San Gorgonio Pass, bypassing the structural complexity of the San Gorgonio Pass thrust to the south. Conversely, the Mill Creek fault appears to be inactive through the pass since the latest Pleistocene.

  2. Value of timber continues to increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2007-01-01

    The state owned company, Lesy SR (state forests) enjoys great power in the timber industry. It can influence which timber processing companies in Slovakia will be successful and which will not have easy access to the raw material. It manages half of the forests in Slovakia. It is the only seller of timber in this country. Four years ago, the former cabinet appointed banker, Karol Vins, as the director of the company. And he started making changes. He centralized the timber business and thousands of people left the company. The goal was clear -to increase quality and efficiency. The economic performance of the company improved. The company has finally managed to post a profit. Last year, the government changed and so has the director of the company The former banker was replaced by a new head from a forestry research background, Jozef Mindas. He approves of some of the changes introduced by his predecessor and plans to continue implementing them, although there also those he would like to change. The new manager is not concerned regarding the big change from research where he used to work in the past to director of a big company and rejects the allegation that he was nominated by HZDS. I was approached as an expert and I won a tender. I have never been a member of a political party, he stated. He appreciates that his predecessor managed to revitalize the company, which was assisted by the positive effect of out-sourcing. But on the other hand, during transformation forests were not divided up correctly. The division into units did not always take into account the specific requirements of forestry, i.e. some employees in forest units have too much work and some, working in another forest unit, less. We have to make sure that the workload is approximately at the same level everywhere. He is aware of the fact that Lesy SR, which controls two thirds of the timber market, effectively decides which factory will succeed and which one will not. But he adds that Lesy SR do

  3. Reinforcement and recovery of timber structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alves Dias

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of timber structures is a reason for constant concern because their deterioration often involves compromising the historical patrimony, besides endangering the safety of the structure, and consequently, of their users. Many are the examples of churches, residences or other constructions where this manifestation is a fact. The technique of reinforcing structurally endangered pieces with the addition of natural or synthetic fibers, is an alternative that has been researched. In the group of synthetic fibers, fiberglass, carbon and aramid ones are included. On the other hand, it has been frequent in the restoration of old buildings, especially in Europe, the employment of materials that were not available in the past, aiming to achieve structural, acoustic and aesthetic benefits. On an existing timber structure floor, a concrete slab has been carried out, with an appropriate connection system among the parts, constituting the composite timber-concrete structures. This alternative has been considered as extraordinarily viable, because it gathers a series of convenience related with the durability and it presents better mechanic performance than conventional timber structures. In this work, the state-of-the-art of the use of fibers as structural reinforcement and of the timber-concrete composite structures, is presented.

  4. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  5. Preliminary timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin D. MacLean; Janet L. Ohmann; Patricia M. Bassett

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1989 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula region of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  6. Methodology for safety evaluation of existing timber elements

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Hélder S.

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Civil The past decades have seen a renewed interest in timber research related topics. As instance, timber engineering is not only confined to the design of new construction with innovative wood based products, but also an increasing awareness for the preservation of existing timber structures is visible in nowadays society. Therefore, arises the need for a better understanding of timber performance as a construction material aiming at a bette...

  7. Tropical Timber Identification using Backpropagation Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Andayani, U.; Fatihah, N.; Hakim, L.; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Each and every type of wood has different characteristics. Identifying the type of wood properly is important, especially for industries that need to know the type of timber specifically. However, it requires expertise in identifying the type of wood and only limited experts available. In addition, the manual identification even by experts is rather inefficient because it requires a lot of time and possibility of human errors. To overcome these problems, a digital image based method to identify the type of timber automatically is needed. In this study, backpropagation neural network is used as artificial intelligence component. Several stages were developed: a microscope image acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction using gray level co-occurrence matrix and normalization of data extraction using decimal scaling features. The results showed that the proposed method was able to identify the timber with an accuracy of 94%.

  8. Managing for timber and biodiversity in the Congo Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasi, Robert; Billand, Alain; van Vliet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-use forest management is considered by many as a preferable alternative to single-use, generally timber-dominant, management models. In the Congo Basin rainforests, integration of timber and non-timber forest resources plays a key role in the subsistence and market economies of rural...

  9. Safety of timber : An analysis of quality control options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovryga, A.; Stapel, P.; Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    The quality assurance of timber properties is important for the safety of timber structures. In the current study, the quality control options of timber are analysed under the prism of the different growth regions. Therefore, these options - machine and output control - are simulated in accordance

  10. probabilistic evaluation of eur robabilistic evaluation of eur a timber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    of fire safety [11]. A timber structure can be to be as economical, as structurally sound and aesthetically pleasing as concrete and s counterparts, but without addressing the issue of safety these ... perception of the public is that timber is combust therefore it is .... condition. γ = 1.0 is the partial safety factor for timber in fire and ...

  11. Recommendations for sustainable development of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina H. Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...

  12. A second look a North Dakota's timber lands, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    The second inventory of North Dakota forest resources shows a decline in commercial forest area between 1954 and 1980. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber forest resources. A forest type map is included.

  13. Enviromentally Sound Timber Extracting Techniques for Small Tree Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihai Wang

    1999-01-01

    Due to large area disturbed and great deal of energy cost during-its operations, introducing or applying the appropriate timber extracting techniques could significantly reduce the impact of timber extraction operations to forest environment while pursuing the reasonable operation costs. Four environmentally sound timber extraction techniques for small tree harvesting...

  14. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... of the currently approved information collection 0596-0066 Advertised Timber for Sale. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Advertised Timber for Sale. OMB Number: 0596-0066. Expiration Date of Approval: April 30...

  15. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobette E Jones

    Full Text Available The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010 involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management

  16. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  17. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  18. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  19. Projected US timber and primary forest product market impacts of climate change mitigation through timber set-asides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Whereas climate change mitigation involving payments to forest landowners for accumulating carbon on their land may increase carbon stored in forests, it will also affect timber supply and prices. This study estimated the effect on US timber and primary forest product markets of hypothetical timber set-aside scenarios where US forest landowners would be paid to forego...

  20. Timber RAM. . .a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel I. Navon

    1971-01-01

    Timber RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a long-range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-use management. Timber RAM can produce cutting and reforestation schedules and related harvest and economic reports. Each schedule optimizes an index of performance, subject to periodic constraints on revenues, costs, and, harvest levels. Periodic...

  1. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project...

  2. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  3. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... documents that timber rights allocation is associated with both bureaucratic and political corruption. The latter comes in two forms. First, the findings suggest that well-established relationships exist between politicians and senior bureaucrats on the one side and large-scale timber firms on the other...

  4. The natural channel of Brandywine Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, M.G.

    1955-01-01

    This study of the channel of Brandy wine Creek, Pennsylvania, consists of three parts. The first is an analysis of the changes which take place in the width, depth, velocity, slope of the water surface, suspended load, and roughness factor with changing discharge below the bankfull stage at each of several widely separated cross sections of the channel. Expressed as functions of the discharge, it is found that the variables behave systematically. In every section studied, as the discharge increases, the velocity increases to about the 0.6 power, depth to the 0.4, and load to the 2.0 power of the discharge. The roughness decreases to the 0.2 power of the discharge. The relative magnitudes and the direction of these variations are similar to those which have been observed in other rivers in the United States, primarily in the West. Some modifications of the hypotheses applicable to the western rivers are probably required because on Brandywine Creek the difference between the materials on the bed and in the banks is considerably greater than it is on most of the western rivers studied. In the second part of the paper the progressive changes of the same variables in the downstream direction with increasing discharge at a given frequency are described. Despite the disorderly appearance of the stream, it is found that the variables display a progressive, orderly change in the downstream direction when traced from the headwater tributaries through the trunk stream of Brandywine Creek. At a given frequency of flow, width increases with discharge to about the 0.5 power. Depth increases downstream somewhat less rapidly, while the slope and roughness both decrease in the downstream direction. Despite a decrease in the size of the material on the bed, both the mean velocity and the mean bed velocity increase downstream. The rates of change of these variables are in close accord with the changes observed on rivers flowing in alluvium and in stable irrigation canals. These

  5. Return Spawning/Rearing Habitat to Anadromous/Resident Fish within the Fishing Creek to Legendary Bear Creek Analysis Area Watersheds; 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Jr., Emmit E. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-03-01

    This project is a critical component of currently on-going watershed restoration effort in the Lochsa River Drainage, including the Fishing (Squaw) Creek to Legendary Bear (Papoose) Creek Watersheds Analysis Area. In addition, funding for this project allowed expansion of the project into Pete King Creek and Cabin Creek. The goal of this project is working towards the re-establishment of healthy self-sustaining populations of key fisheries species (spring Chinook salmon, steelhead, bull trout, and westslope cutthroat trout) through returning historic habitat in all life stages (spawning, rearing, migration, and over-wintering). This was accomplished by replacing fish barrier road crossing culverts with structures that pass fish and accommodate site conditions.

  6. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  7. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  8. Projecting Timber Inventory at the Product Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The research presented describes a methodology for distributing the volume on each FIA (USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  9. (Eds.) Proceedings: Mass Timber Research Workshop 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Williamson; Robert J. Ross

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings, including key points and identified research needs, that evolved from the Mass Timber Research Workshop, which was held at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), November 3–4, 2015. The purpose of the workshop was to bring design professionals, researchers, and industry leaders together to examine the state-of-the-art in mass...

  10. Space-time modeling of timber prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongriorno

    2006-01-01

    A space-time econometric model was developed for pine sawtimber timber prices of 21 geographically contiguous regions in the southern United States. The correlations between prices in neighboring regions helped predict future prices. The impulse response analysis showed that although southern pine sawtimber markets were not globally integrated, local supply and demand...

  11. Timber resource of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton L. Essex; John S. Jr. Spencer

    1974-01-01

    The third timber inventory of Missouri's Eastern Ozarks Forest Survey Unit shows that there was a substantial gain in the volume of growing stock and smaller but sizable gain in the volume of sawtimber between 1959 and 1972; however, the area of commercial forest land declined slightly. This report gives statistical highlights and tables presenting detailed...

  12. Architectural and structural qualities in timber joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Design of joints in timber structures is crucial to reach both elegant and structural efficient designs. Design of joints should therefore be an integral part of the conceptual design phase. Traditionally this is not the case, and joints are often solely designed and analysed in the engineering d...

  13. Residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  14. Probabilistic Modeling of Graded Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established on ...

  15. Evaluation of Nondestructive Underwater Timber Inspection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    possible to codice their presnce. Figure 1. Characteristics of marine borers. 3 Table 1. Accuracy Requirements for Timber Piles [Nomenclature at end of...Athens GA NAVSEASYSCOM Code OOC-D. Washington. DC: Codk PMS 395 A 3. Washington. DC; Code PMS 395 A2. Wasi~ington. DC; Codic PMS 396.3311 (Rekas), Wash

  16. Non-timber forest products in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Kamelamela; James B. Friday; Tamara Ticktin; Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forests provide a wide array of non-timber forest products for both traditional and modern uses. Flowers, vines, and ferns are collected for creating garlands or lei for hula dances and parades. Lei made from materials gathered in the forest are made for personal use and sold, especially during graduation times. Bamboo is harvested for structures and for...

  17. Pocket Checklists of Indonesian timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prawira, Soewanda A.; Tantra, I.G.M.; Whitmore, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Indonesia as yet does not have a comprehensive account of the forest trees which reach timber size (35 cm dbh = 14 inch or 105 cm gbh = 42 inch). A project has been started in August 1983 by the Botany Section of the Forest Research Institute in Bogor, Indonesia, to prepare pocket checklists of the

  18. timber joists subjected to creep-rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Wood experiences a significant loss of strength and stiffness when loaded over period of time. This phenomenon is known as creep-rupture. Several models were developed for the estimation of the reduction of load carrying capacity of timber with time. In this paper, the results of time dependent structural reliability analysis ...

  19. IMPACTS OF TIMBER LEGALITY VERIFICATION SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION ON THE SUSTAINABILITY OF TIMBER INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvida Yosefi Suryandari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available International market requires producers to proof the legality of their wood products to address the issues of illegal logging and illegal trade. Timber Legality Verification System (TLVS has been prepared by the Government of Indonesia that covering the upstream and downstream wood industries. This paper aims to evaluate gaps in the implementation of TLVS policy and its impact on the sustainability of timber industry. This study was using gap, descriptive and costs-structure analyzes. The study was conducted in three provinces, namely: DKI Jakarta, West Java and D.I. Yogyakarta. Research found that the effectiveness of the TLVS implementation was low due to relatively rapid policy changes. This situation became disincetive for investments in timber business. Private sector perceived that TLVS policy should be applied in the upstream of timber business. Hence, the industry and market in the downstream have not been fully support to this system. Furthermore, TLVS policy implementation was considered ineffective by timber industry as well as private forest managers, especially by micro industry and smallholder private forests. This situation threatened the sustainability of timber industry and private forests. Therefore, Institutions should be strengthened in order to improve the quality of human resources and the competitiveness of products.

  20. Creep Properties of Walikukun (Schouthenia ovata Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Awaludin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an evaluation of creep constants of Walikukun (Schoutheniaovata timber beams when rheological model of four solid elements, which is obtained byassembling Kelvin and Maxwell bodies in parallel configuration, was adopted. Creep behaviorobtained by this method was further discussed and compared with creep behavior developedusing phenomenological model of the previous study. Creep data of previous study was deformationmeasurement of Walikukun beams having cross-section of 15 mm by 20 mm with a clearspan of 550 mm loaded for three weeks period under two different room conditions: with andwithout Air Conditioner. Creep behavior given by both four solid elements model and phenomenological(in this case are power functions had good agreement during the period of creepmeasurement, but they give different prediction of creep factor beyond this period. The powerfunction of phenomenological model could give a reasonable creep prediction, while for the foursolid elements model a necessary modification is required to adjust its long-term creep behavior.

  1. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  2. Information transfer during the timber transaction period in West Virginia. USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. McGill; Daniel J. Magill; James Kochenderfer; W. Mark Ford; Tom Schuler

    2006-01-01

    Timber harvesting has long-lasting impacts on the productivity and aesthetics of private forests. In many instances, landowners who possess high quality timber are at a competitive disadvantage during timber transactions--the time between a decision by the landowner to sell timber and the completion of the timber harvesting operation--as they may lack understanding of...

  3. An analysis of the timber situation in Alaska: 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; David J. Brooks

    1990-01-01

    Current conditions in Alaska timber markets are reviewed relative to the past two decades. Major issues in the outlook for Alaska timber markets are considered. Recent studies are used to develop projections of Alaska timber products output, timber harvest, and timber harvest by owner. The assumptions these projections depend on include the level of harvest on Native...

  4. Timber Curtain: Designing with material capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahmy, Maya; Larsen, Niels Martin

    2015-01-01

    Timber Curtain explores relations between digital precision and material indeterminacy. It is an installation engaging spatially through its presence as a 1:1 architectural component as well as it is exploring novel technologies in the architectural design process from the very beginning of the g...... of pinewood, processed with a 5-axis CNC router. The digital process generation and simulation is implemented with Rhinoceros 3D, Grasshopper and GHPython, and AlphaCAM was used for preparing the CNC-milling....

  5. Reduction of Smoke-Generation Ability of Construction Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokrovskaya Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reduction of smoke-generation ability for construction timber is of high importance as the smokes and toxic combustion products generating in the course of these materials burning are one of the most dangerous fire factors which threaten life and health of people. According to data presented by Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation, rate of mortality due to smoke and toxic combustion gases is more than 70% of total number of people deaths in fires. In this paper, influence of phosphorus-containing modifiers to smoke-generation ability of timber, and also dependence of smoke-generation ability on chemical reactivity of the modifier in interaction with timber has been studied. The problem on fumigation at construction timber burning can be solved by development of chemical compositions efficiently reacting with the surface layer of the timber so that diffusion of solid carbonaceous particles from the timber surface into atmosphere decreases.

  6. Markets, Government Policy, and China’s Timber Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno

    2012-01-01

    China’s domestic demand and exports of wood products are rising rapidly compared to domestic supply. The determinants of timber supply in China were investigated with panel data from 25 provinces from 1999 to 2009. The results indicated that China’s timber supply had responded to both market forces, reflected by timber prices largely determined by world demand and...

  7. Ranking independent timber investments by alternative investment criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Mills; Gary E. Dixon

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 231 independent timber investments were ranked by internal rate of return, present net worth per acre and the benefit cost ratio—the last two discounted by 3, 6.4. 7.5. and 10 percent—to determine if the different criteria had a practical influence on timber investment ranking. The samples in this study were drawn from a group of timber investments...

  8. Landscape-scale quantification of fire-induced change in canopy cover following mountain pine beetle outbreak and timber harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, T. Ryan; Kolden, Crystal A.; Vaillant, Nicole M.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M.S.; Kreitler, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    Across the western United States, the three primary drivers of tree mortality and carbon balance are bark beetles, timber harvest, and wildfire. While these agents of forest change frequently overlap, uncertainty remains regarding their interactions and influence on specific subsequent fire effects such as change in canopy cover. Acquisition of pre- and post-fire Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the 2012 Pole Creek Fire in central Oregon provided an opportunity to isolate and quantify fire effects coincident with specific agents of change. This study characterizes the influence of pre-fire mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) and timber harvest disturbances on LiDAR-estimated change in canopy cover. Observed canopy loss from fire was greater (higher severity) in areas experiencing pre-fire MPB (Δ 18.8%CC) than fire-only (Δ 11.1%CC). Additionally, increasing MPB intensity was directly related to greater canopy loss. Canopy loss was lower for all areas of pre-fire timber harvest (Δ 3.9%CC) than for fire-only, but among harvested areas, the greatest change was observed in the oldest treatments and the most intensive treatments [i.e., stand clearcut (Δ 5.0%CC) and combination of shelterwood establishment cuts and shelterwood removal cuts (Δ 7.7%CC)]. These results highlight the importance of accounting for and understanding the impact of pre-fire agents of change such as MPB and timber harvest on subsequent fire effects in land management planning. This work also demonstrates the utility of multi-temporal LiDAR as a tool for quantifying these landscape-scale interactions.

  9. Assessment of timber piles in Clallam County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arun K.; Tyler, Ross; Arnette, Clyde G.; Anthony, Ronald W.

    1998-03-01

    Timber bridges are very common in state and rural highway systems. According to the National Bridge Inventory (NBI), there are 41,743 timber bridges in the United States and another 42,102 bridges with timber decks as a part of the superstructure. As these bridges age, there is a critical need for reliable inspection and assessment methods for evaluating timber members. Under an FHWA mandate, these bridges also need to be evaluated for scour susceptibility. Knowledge of the length of timber piles supporting the bridge is a vital component in calculating scour resistance of a bridge. However, records of timber pile lengths are often nonexistent or incomplete due to the construction practices for timber piles. This paper presents nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques used for assessing timber piles on 10 bridges in Clallam County, Washington. Stress wave velocity and resistance drilling techniques were used to determine the presence of and quantify the extent of decay in the piles. A longitudinal stress wave technique was used for determining the length of timber piles. Determination of piles with decay aided in establishing maintenance and repair needs on the bridge substructures. Pile length estimates enabled Clallam County Road Department to determine the scour-susceptibility of these bridges.

  10. Radiation modification of timber in people's Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, S.; Panayotov, P.; Diakova, V.; Nikolova, M.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation-chemical modification of timber improves the mechanical quality and the biological stability. Timber of beech, poplar, alder, fir, oak, and pine trees is soaked with polymer-forming compounds as vinylacetate, methylmethacrylate, styrene, acrylonitrile or monomer mixtures and then irradiated by 60 Co #betta#-rays. The total conversion of the monomer soaked in timber depends mainly on the chemical nature of the modificator and the integral irradiation dose. Data on static hardness, pressure strength, impact strength, static bending strength, and humidity of modified timber are given

  11. Long term contracts signed in Slovak timber business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2005-01-01

    The Slovak timber business is changing. The state-owned company, SR Forests, which cuts more then 50% of Slovak timber has signed long term agreements with major domestic timber processing companies - Smrecina, the Rettenmeier Tatra Timber saw mill in Liptovsky Mikulas and two paper mills - Mondi SCP Ruzomberok and Kappa Sturovo. In the past, only quarterly contracts were signed. Now, for the first time, two-year contracts have been signed that should help the timber processing industry and the forestry sector. The General Director of Lesy SR (SR Forests), Karol Vins, hopes for better sale prices. Company headquarters wants to maintain better control of prices than under the old system of timber sales by its branches. In the opinion of the General Director of the Forestry Section at the Ministry of Agriculture, long term contracts will guarantee a stable delivery of timber to processing companies, giving investors in new production capacity a better position in negotiations with banks regarding financing. According to K. Vins, long term contracts have so far only been negotiated with major timber processing companies which are mostly controlled by foreign capital and therefore have good payment discipline. The Association of the Timber Processing Industry is unhappy regarding developments and Lesy SR has not invited domestic companies to these negotiations

  12. Seismic retrofitting of timber framed walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 1755 earthquake that destroyed Lisbon, an innovative anti-seismic structural system was developed consisting of a timber skeleton, that included timber framed masonry walls. After more than 250 years these structures need rehabilitation to face the present demands. The research presented in this paper aimed at experimentally characterizing the cyclic behaviour of timber framed walls reinforced with three different methods, namely: (i elastic-plastic dampers on diagonal braces, (ii reinforcement of timber connections with steel plates, (iii application of a reinforced rendering. The elastic-plastic damper showed an unsymmetrical behaviour and some difficulties to implement in practice. The strengthening with reinforced render led to an initial stiffness increase but showed a limited deformation capacity. The walls with reinforcing steel plates at the timber connections showed the best behaviour in terms of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation.Después del terremoto de 1755 que destruyó Lisboa, un sistema estructural antisísmico muy innovador fue desarrollado. El sistema consistió en un esqueleto de madera, que incluyó la construcción de muros de mampostería con un entramado de madera. Transcurridos más de 250 años, estas estructuras necesitan rehabilitación para poder hacer frente a los requisitos estructurales actuales. La investigación presentada en este trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar experimentalmente el comportamiento cíclico de los muros con entramado de madera reforzados con tres métodos diferentes: (i amortiguadores elasto-plásticos, (ii refuerzo de las conexiones de madera con placas de acero, (iii aplicación de un mortero reforzado. El amortiguador elasto-plástico mostró un comportamiento asimétrico y algunas dificultades para aplicarlo en la práctica. El refuerzo con mortero reforzado condujo a un aumento de la rigidez inicial, pero reveló una capacidad de deformación limitada. Los muros con

  13. Mechanical properties of structural maritime pine sawn timber from Galicia (Pinus pinaster Ait. ssp. atlantica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo, J.; Hermoso, E.; Fernandez-Golfin, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of maritime pine sawn timber in structural applications requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. Standards have changed, however, since the last research on this timber was performed. In the present study, 491 beams of maritime pine from Gaelic, of structural-use size but different cross-section, were tested according to these modified standards. Each beam was visually graded according to standard UNE 56.544 and subjected to a four point bending test. The strength classes assigned by the visual grades awarded suggest this material to have greater structural capacity than that currently assumed. The relationships between the modulus of elasticity, strength and density were also examined. (Author) 25 refs.

  14. Form Exploration of Folded Plate Timber Structures based on Performance Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter Von

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an explorative study on applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) elements in shell structures. Previous studies of plate tensegrity, folded plate roofs interacting with stabilising steel-based systems and studies inspired by origami show a widening range of possibilities...... to develop timber-based shells. Steadily rising interest in rationality during pre-fabrication, transport and on-site construction in contemporary industrialised production increases the competitiveness of CLT-based elements and systems and the architectural applications are getting more common and more...... experimental. Folded plate structures which are the focus of this paper present several issues of structural importance – potential mechanisms, subdivision of surfaces etc. – and the hereby presented study aims at exploring developed typologies, using computer tools for developed optimisation procedures...

  15. Puente Willow Creek en Monterrey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the 10 awards given every year by the Prestressed Concrete Institute for the most outstanding prestressed concrete projects, two have been awarded in California this year, one of them to the Willow Creek bridge, near Monterrey. The prestressed, double T girders of this bridge were made at a workshop, a great distance from the bridge site. These are 24 m long, 1.35 m high, and are stabilized by transversal diaphragms, 20 cm in thickness. The table deck is of reinforced concrete, being 8.85 m wide and 20 cm thick. The structure is straightforward, slender, and adapts itself pleasantly to the background. It has seven spans and crosses over a secondary road, in addition to bridging the Willow stream. The supporting piles are hollow, of rectangular cross section, and over them a cross beam carries the five girders and the deck itself. The end abutments consist of vertical reinforced concrete walls, and supporting, soil filled, structures. The above information was supplied by the California Road Department.De los diez premios que anualmente concede el Prestressed Concrete Institute para las obras de hormigón pretensado más notables, dos han correspondido a California y uno de ellos al puente de Willow Creek, situado en la región de Monterrey. Las vigas de hormigón pretensado, con sección en forma de doble T, se prefabricaron en un taller situado a gran distancia del puente. Tienen 24 m de longitud y 1,35 m de canto, estando arriostradas con diafragmas transversales de 20 cm de espesor. La losa del tablero, de hormigón armado, tiene 8,85 m de anchura y 20 cm de espesor. La estructura es sencilla, esbelta y armoniza perfectamente con el paisaje que la circunda. Tiene siete tramos y salva un paso inferior secundario y el arroyo Willow. Los soportes, se apoyan sobre pilotes, algunos de gran altura; son huecos, de sección rectangular y terminan en una cruceta que sirve de sostén a las cinco vigas que soportan la losa del tablero. Los estribos

  16. Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Daniel R. Rider; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  17. Nebraska timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Dennis M. Adams; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Nebraska forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  18. Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Jeff Settle; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  19. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  20. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  1. Appropriateness of Probit-9 in development of quarantine treatments for timber and timber commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Schortemeyer; Ken Thomas; Robert A. Haack; Adnan Uzunovic; Kelli Hoover; Jack A. Simpson; Cheryl A. Grgurinovic

    2011-01-01

    Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment...

  2. On the Architectural Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2010-01-01

    glued together crosswise, possesses structural capacities which are out of woods nature. Several research studies have clarified that CLT has many qualities within the engineering field but knowledge regarding its applications and aesthetics is more insufficient. Thus, the purpose of this paper...... is to look into in what way this material is interesting seen from an architectural point of view. The paper deals with aspects like workability and accuracy as result of high-technology production, architectural freedom due to the materials technical properties, its tactile and visual qualities when exposed...... as interior surface. The qualities which have been found to be particularly interesting seen from an architectural point of view, are those related to its property of being a plate and provider of a simple building system as well as to its great workability and high level of details in both production...

  3. Field evaluation of timber preservation treatments for highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jake J. Bigelow; Carol A. Clausen; Stan T. Lebow; Lowell Greimann

    2007-01-01

    Timber material repair and replacement cost for timber bridges is a considerable expense to highway agencies in Iowa, especially to county road departments. To address these needs, the objectives of this investigation was to study the field effectiveness of various treatment alternatives used on Iowa roadway projects and to determine if the current specifications and...

  4. Timber resources of western Oregon—highlights and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of a timber resource inventory of western Oregon made between 1973 and 1976. Detailed tables give land and forest area, timber volume, growth, and mortality for western Oregon and for southwest Oregon, west-central Oregon, and northwest Oregon.

  5. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log or...

  6. Field investigations of historic covered timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Travis Hosteng; Brent. Phares

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration is sponsoring a comprehensive research program on Historic Covered Timber Bridges in the USA. This national program's main purpose is to develop improved methods to preserve, rehabililate, and restore the timber bridge trusses that were developed during the early 1800s, and in many cases are still in service today. The overall...

  7. Lateral testing of glued laminated timber tudor arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Philip Line

    2016-01-01

    Glued laminated timber Tudor arches have been in wide use in the United States since the 1930s, but detailed knowledge related to seismic design in modern U.S. building codes is lacking. FEMA P-695 (P-695) is a methodology to determine seismic performance factors for a seismic force resisting system. A limited P-695 study for glued laminated timber arch structures...

  8. Measuring Net Investment and Productivity in Timber Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear

    1994-01-01

    An index number approach is developed for measuring changes in inputs, outputs, and total factor productivity in a timber-producing sector. These methods are applied to timber production in the U.S. South for the period 1952 to 1985. Results suggest that development of the sector may be described by an adjustment phase between 1952 and 1962 and a growth phase between...

  9. 125 Timber Dealers' Perception of their Knowledge of the Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. This study investigated timber dealers' knowledge of the forest law and regulations in Uyo Senatorial District. Five timber markets were selected through two-stage sampling. Data were collected from 238 traders in the selected markets using structured questionnaires and subjected to descriptive and inferential ...

  10. Projecting national forest inventories for the 2000 RPA timber assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Mills; Xiaoping. Zhou

    2003-01-01

    National forest inventories were projected in a study that was part of the 2000 USDA Forest Service Resource Planning Act (RPA) timber assessment. This paper includes an overview of the status and structure of timber inventory of the National Forest System and presents 50-year projections under several scenarios. To examine a range of possible outcomes, results are...

  11. Assessment of demand and supply of timber products in Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines demand and supply of timber products in Benue State Nigeria with a view to highlighting the responsiveness of forest policy implementation. The scope of the study lies on plantation establishment targets and costs for 1999 to 2003, actual plantation establishment, timber supply and demand from ...

  12. Locally reinforced timber joints with expanded tube fasteners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The study presented focuses on the development of a novel timber joint. Traditional timber joints with mechanical fasteners, particular dowel type fasteners, such as bolts exhibit a low strength and an unreliable stiffness and ductility caused by the presence of hole clearance and the unpredictable

  13. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximate percentage of man power, animal power, machine power and skyline harvesting are 72, 15, 8 and 5%, respectively. Turkish General Directorate of Forestry's timber harvesting machines total amount was 448 in 1982, 859 in 1998, 457 in 2005 and 376 in 2009. Timber harvesting machines amount was reduced ...

  14. Influence Of Density On The Durabilities Of Three Ghanaian Timbers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of factors influencing wood durability shows although density varies depending on trunk position, its role appears controversial for many timber species. Thus, for the first time, the influence of density on the durability of three Ghanaian timbers (Nauclea diderrichii (de Wild.) Merr., Nesogordonia papaverifera (A. Chev ...

  15. Public Timber Supply under Multiple-Use Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of the world, substantial shares of timber inventories are managed by government agencies. The objective of this chapter is to examine the potential influence of public timber production on market structure as well as on prices, harvest quantities, and economic welfare. National forest management in the United States is used as a tractable case study, but...

  16. Comparative durability of timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Brian K. Brashaw

    2017-01-01

    As engineers begin to utilize life-cycle-cost design approaches for timber bridges, there is a necessity for more reliable data about their durability and expected service life. This paper summarizes a comprehensive effort to assess the current condition of more than one hundred timber highway bridge superstructures throughout the United States. This national study was...

  17. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... wood and 41 species belonging to 25 families were utilized as timber. Three tree species; Quercus incana, Cedrus deodara and Taxus wallichiana was found endangered. There is a dire need to conserve these species. Key words: Ethnobotany, fuel wood, timber species, Kaghan valleys, Khyber Pakhtoon ...

  18. Temporal Aggregation and Testing For Timber Price Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes

    2004-01-01

    Different harvest timing models make different assumptions about timber price behavior. Those seeking to optimize harvest timing are thus first faced with a decision regarding which assumption of price behavior is appropriate for their market, particularly regarding the presence of a unit root in the timber price time series. Unfortunately for landowners and investors...

  19. Whole tree transportation system for timber processing depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lancaster; Tom Gallagher; Tim  McDonald; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for alternative energy has led those who are interested in producing sustainable energy from renewable timber to devise new concepts to satisfy those demands. The concept of timber processing depots, where whole stem trees will be delivered for future processing into wood products and high quality energy fuel, has led to the re-evaluation of our...

  20. Product diversification in South Africa's commercial timber plantations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results indicate that producing a product mix rather than a single product improves aggregated financial returns and lowers investment risk over multiple rotation periods. The optimum mixture depended on past timber price correlations for pulpwood and sawn timber in South Africa between 1980 and 2011. This ideal ...

  1. Trends in economic scarcity of U.S. timber commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. E. Skog; C. D. Risbrudt

    Prompted by continuing concern that timber-based commodities are becoming increasingly scarce, this paper presents information on changes in real prices (prices deflated by the general producer price index) of timber commodities as potential indicators of economic scarcity. Data updating previous studies are shown for sawlog stumpage, delivered sawlogs, and lumber;...

  2. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2009-01-01

    as a parallel system. A measure of ductile behaviour is introduced. For different values of this measure the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation where correlation between the strength of structural elements and load models for permanent and live load are introduced. The results......The present paper considers robustness evaluation of timber structures where the ductile behavior of joints of timber material is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a structural timber system...... indicate the reliability of a structural timber ystem can be increased apprximately 20 % awarding the ductile behaviour. At last the paper discusses possible structural timber systems which have potential for providing ductility and redundancy....

  3. Geophysical Characterization of the Hilton Creek Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, A. K.; Macy, K. P.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Polet, J.

    2016-12-01

    , various models of the Hilton Creek Fault System and cross-sections through focal mechanism and earthquake catalogs, and will attempt to integrate these observations into a single fault geometry model.

  4. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  5. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  6. Currents and siltation at Dharamtar creek, Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Kolhatkar, V.M.; Fernandes, A.A.

    Hydrographic data collected in Dharamtar Creek during 1976-77 have been analysed. This showed that the waters in the Creek are well mixed and the salinity varied with the tide. The tidal currents are found to be generally strong. The distribution...

  7. 33 CFR 117.197 - Sonoma Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sonoma Creek. 117.197 Section 117.197 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.197 Sonoma Creek. The draw of the Northwestern...

  8. Compatibility of timber and non-timber forest product management in natural tropical forests: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, M.R.; García-Fernández, C.; Shiel, D.; Nasi, R.; Herrero-Jáuregui, C.; Cronkleton, P.; Ingram, V.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests could satisfy multiple demands for goods and services both for present and future generations. Yet integrated approaches to natural forest management remain elusive across the tropics. In this paper we examine one combination of uses: selective harvesting of timber and non-timber

  9. Use of timber in shipbuilding industry: Identification and analysis of timber from shipwrecks off Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sujatha, M.; Rao, R.V.; Rao, K.S.

    The use of timber in the boatbuilding or shipbuilding industry is as old as the construction of boats and ships. Various kinds of timber are used in different regions of India in the construction of vessels. The Yuktikalpataru (the wishing tree...

  10. Buck Creek River Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

    2009-04-01

    Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

  11. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  12. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 7. Forest ecology and timber management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arland S. Harris; Wilbur A. Farr

    1974-01-01

    Large-scale use of the timber resource of southeast Alaska began in 1953 after long efforts to establish a timber industry. Development and present status of the industry and present management of the timber resource are summarized, stressing the biological basis for timber management activities in southeast Alaska today. Ecological and silvicultural considerations...

  13. Exploring the future of timber resources in the high forest zone of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.; Arts, B.J.M.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Kyereh, B.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ghana's forests, particularly the timber resources, face an uncertain future, because of high deforestation rate, a rapidly declining timber resource base, rapid population growth and increasing demand for timber. This paper explores the future development of timber resource in Ghana by constructing

  14. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek... schedule of Snake Creek Bridge in Islamorada, Florida. This deviation will result in the bridge opening...

  15. Mass movement and storms in the drainage basin of Redwood Creek, Humboldt County, California: a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Janda, Richard J.; Nolan, K. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Numerous active landslides are clearly significant contributors to high sediment loads in the Redwood Creek basin. Field and aerial-photograph inspections indicate that large mass-movement features, such as earthflows and massive streamside debris slides, occur primarily in terrain underlain by unmetamorphosed or slightly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. These features cannot account for stream sediment derived from schist. Observed lithologic heterogeneity of stream sediment therefore suggests that large-scale mass movement is only one part of a complex suite of processes supplying sediment to streams in this basin. Other significant sediment contributors include various forms of fluvial erosion and small-scale discrete mass failures, particularly on oversteepened hillslopes adjacent to perennial streams. Photo-interpretive studies of landslide and timber-harvest history adjacent to Redwood Creek, together with analysis of regional precipitation and runoff records for six flood-producing storms between 1953 and 1975, indicate that loci and times of significant streamside landsliding are influenced by both local storm intensity and streamside logging. Analysis of rainfall records and historic accounts indicates that the individual storms comprising a late-19th-century series of storms in northwestern California were similar in magnitude and spacing to those of the past 25 years. The recent storms apparently initiated more streamside landslides than comparable earlier storms, which occurred prior to extensive road construction and timber harvest. Field observations and repeated surveys of stake arrays at 10 sites in the basin indicate that earthflows are especially active during prolonged periods of moderate rainfall; but that during brief intense storms, fluvial processes are the dominant erosion mechanism. Stake movement occurs mostly during wet winter months. Spring and summer movement was detected at some moist streamside sites. Surveys of stake arrays in two

  16. Quantifying ratios of suspended sediment sources in forested headwater streams following timber-harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachels, A. A.; Bladon, K. D.; Bywater-Reyes, S.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, timber-harvesting has increased fine sediment inputs to streams due to increased hillslope and streambank erosion and mass wasting along roads. However, under modern best management practices, the relative importance and variability of these sources is poorly understood. We present preliminary results from an ongoing study investigating the primary sources of suspended sediment in Oregon Coast Range streams influenced by timber harvesting. We instrumented two catchments, Enos Creek (harvested 2016) and Scheele Creek (reference) in fall 2016. Phillips samplers (5-6 per catchment) have been deployed longitudinally down the streams to enable robust characterization of suspended sediments—the collected samples integrate the chemical signatures of upstream sediment exports. We will collect samples monthly over 2 wet seasons and return to the laboratory to analyze the sediment using source fingerprinting approaches. The fingerprinting technique compares the chemical properties of stream sediment samples with the chemical properties of potential source areas, including 1) roads, 2) stream banks, and 3) hillslopes. To design a robust model for sediment-source identification, different types of chemical data are required—we will analyze sediment samples using a combination of: a) stable isotopes and C/N ratios (i.e., δ15N, δ13C, and C/N), b) geochemistry (Fe, K, and Ca), and c) radiogenic isotopes (137Cs and 210Pb). At the harvested site, the C/N ratios of the streambanks (17.9 ± 3.8) and the hillslopes (26.4 ± 4.8) are significantly different from one another (p = .016). C/N ratios of the suspended sediment (20.5 ± 2.0) are intermediate values between potential endmembers and behave conservatively with transport. The C/N ratios of the suspended sediment appear unaffected by roads (18.9 ± 8.7) along specific sections of the stream, suggesting that roads are not a primary sediment contributor. Under this assumption, the suspended sediment is, on

  17. Tensile properties of machine strength graded timber for glued laminated timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Solli, Kjell-Helge

    1999-01-01

    Special setting values based on tensile properties of Norway spruce are established for four different strength grading machines. The machines included are Computermatic, Cook-Bolinder, Ersson and Dynagrade.The study shows that the yield of timber to be used in tension, such as laminations...... for glulam, may be increased by basing the setting values on test results of the tensile properties rather than using the strength classes definen in EN338....

  18. System Reliability of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Čizmar, Dean

    2011-01-01

    . An evaluation method of the ductile behaviour is introduced. For different ductile behaviours, the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation. A correlation between the strength of the structural elements is introduced. The results indicate that the reliability of a structural timber system......The present paper considers the evaluation of timber structures with the focus on robustness due to connection ductility. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework applied to a simplified mechanical system. The structural timber system is depicted as a parallel system...... can be significantly increased due to the ductile behavior....

  19. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  20. Continuous Turbidity Monitoring in the Indian Creek Watershed, Tazewell County, Virginia, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of miles of natural gas pipelines are installed annually in the United States. These pipelines commonly cross streams, rivers, and other water bodies during pipeline construction. A major concern associated with pipelines crossing water bodies is increased sediment loading and the subsequent impact to the ecology of the aquatic system. Several studies have investigated the techniques used to install pipelines across surface-water bodies and their effect on downstream suspended-sediment concentrations. These studies frequently employ the evaluation of suspended-sediment or turbidity data that were collected using discrete sample-collection methods. No studies, however, have evaluated the utility of continuous turbidity monitoring for identifying real-time sediment input and providing a robust dataset for the evaluation of long-term changes in suspended-sediment concentration as it relates to a pipeline crossing. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with East Tennessee Natural Gas and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study to monitor the effects of construction of the Jewell Ridge Lateral natural gas pipeline on turbidity conditions below pipeline crossings of Indian Creek and an unnamed tributary to Indian Creek, in Tazewell County, Virginia. The potential for increased sediment loading to Indian Creek is of major concern for watershed managers because Indian Creek is listed as one of Virginia's Threatened and Endangered Species Waters and contains critical habitat for two freshwater mussel species, purple bean (Villosa perpurpurea) and rough rabbitsfoot (Quadrula cylindrical strigillata). Additionally, Indian Creek contains the last known reproducing population of the tan riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri). Therefore, the objectives of the U.S. Geological Survey monitoring effort were to (1) develop a continuous turbidity monitoring network that attempted to measure real-time changes in suspended sediment (using

  1. Survey of the Pagoda Timber Roof in Derneburg Castle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perria, E.; Sieder, M.; Hoyer, S.; Krafczyk, C.

    2017-05-01

    The work analyses the historical roof of Derneburg Castle, in the municipality of Holle, Hildesheim's district, Lower Saxony, Germany. The roof is assembled according to Laves Balken's system (Laves beam's system), developed by the architect Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves (1788-1864). The system has the peculiarity to consist of beams that are split along the half of the cross section, and maintained diverged by wooden wedges, distributed along the length of the beam. The system increases the height of the beam, and elevates the bending capacity of it (Weber, 1964). The work has been developed in the frame of an interdisciplinary project in the fields of architecture, engineering and photogrammetry. Main aim of the project is the developing of a structural model to understand the load-carrying capacity of Laves Balken's system from the laser-scanning model. For this reason, extensive surveys and photo documentation were collected on three areas of the roof construction, characterized by three peculiar usage of Laves Balken's system. The work presents the survey of the pagoda-roof that covers the tower of the castle, and problems that can be encountered during the survey of very complex timber constructions.

  2. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park II...

  3. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  4. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    . The statistical fits have generally been made using all data (100%) and the lower tail (30%) of the data. The Maximum Likelihood Method and the Least Square Technique have been used to estimate the statistical parameters in the selected distributions. 8 different databases are analysed. The results show that 2......Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from approximately 6700 specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analyses and fits to the following distributions types have been investigated: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull......-parameter Weibull (and Normal) distributions give the best fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the LogNormal distribution generally gives poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used....

  5. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from a large number of specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analysis and fits have been investigated for the following distribution types: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull....... The statistical fits have generally been made using all data and the lower tail of the data. The Maximum Likelihood Method and the Least Square Technique have been used to estimate the statistical parameters in the selected distributions. The results show that the 2-parameter Weibull distribution gives the best...... fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the Log Normal distribution generally gives a poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used. The implications on the reliability level of typical structural elements and on partial safety factors...

  6. Form Exploration of Folded Plate Timber Structures based on Performance Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Von Buelow, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an explorative study on applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) elements in shell structures. Previous studies of plate tensegrity, folded plate roofs interacting with stabilising steel-based systems and studies inspired by origami show a widening range of possibilities...... experimental. Folded plate structures which are the focus of this paper present several issues of structural importance – potential mechanisms, subdivision of surfaces etc. – and the hereby presented study aims at exploring developed typologies, using computer tools for developed optimisation procedures...... with interaction from the designer....

  7. A Comparative Study on Timber Productivity by Timber Firms in Ghana as Influenced by Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Martin Amoah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the major problems that confront the timber industry in Ghana are: The industries inability to diversify value-added products for export as well as decline in export volumes, prices, and number of sawmills which are actively engaged in the production and exportation of wood products especially the locally-owned. Furthermore, the capacity of forest sector has also reduced. These developments present a challenge to the local entrepreneurs in the face of globalization; and for that matter, the need to conduct an empirical comparative study into the issues to find solutions to mitigate them is now.The average number of products exported ware 3 and 4 by the locally- and foreign-owned firms respectively. In general, both categories of firms showed declines in eight low export prices of wood products from 2000 to 2008. Air-dried and kiln-dried lumber were the dominant products exported by both categories of firms. The foreign-owned timber firms exported ten high-priced timber products and eight by their counterparts; this makes the foreign-owned firms more diversified than the locally-owned firms. It is also worthy of note that, more than half (59% of the foreign-owned firms exported between 4 and 6 products while less than one-fourth (23% of the locally-owned firms exported the same number of products. Only one foreign owned firm exported products of 10 and above. Again the foreign owned - firms concentrated more on value added products while the locally-owned - firms specialized on primary products. This suggests that the foreign-owned firms are more efficient than their local counterparts.Statistical analysis conducted on all the products using (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test indicated that the differences were not statistically significant. Finally, the timber firms in Ghana should take innovative measures to diversify and maximize the recovery rate of volume and value of timber products especially the locally owned–firms so that they can

  8. Tritium at the Steel Creek Landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.; Heffner, J.D.; Fledderman, P.D.; Littrell, J.W.; Hayes, D.W.; Dodgen, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1997 and January 1998, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) collected routine weekly grab samples from the Savannah River near the Steel Creek Boat Landing

  9. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  10. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  11. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.... Forest Service in its sales and forestry practices. U.S. Forest Service personnel may be available for...

  12. Compression strength perpendicular to grain of structural timber and glulam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Pedersen, Torben N.

    1998-01-01

    . Nonetheless test results show that the levels of characteristic compression strength perpendicular to grain are of the same order for structural timber and glulam. The values are slightly lower than those appearing in EN 1194 and less than half of those appearing in EN 338. The paper presents a numerical......The characteristic strength values for compression perpendicular to grain as they appear in EN 338 (structural timber) and EN 1194 (glulam) are currently up for discussion. The present paper provides experimental results based on EN 1193 that may assist in the correct assignment of such strength...... values. The dominant failure mode of glulam specimens is shown to be fundamentally different from that of structural timber specimens. Glulam specimens often show tension perpendicular to grain failure before the compression strength value is reached. Such failure mode is not seen for structural timber...

  13. Profitability of Clerodendrum volubile (eweta) , a non-timber forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timber Forest product, in Okitipupa, Ondo State Nigeria. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in the selection of markets and respondents. The sample size was 60 and instrument of data collection was structured and ...

  14. Minimizing corrosive action in timber bridges treated with waterborne preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; James P. Wacker

    2007-01-01

    This work will briefly review published literature and current research activities on the corrosion of metals in contact with wood treated with waterborne alternatives to CCA. In addition, recommendations to minimize these corrosive effects in timber bridges will be discussed.

  15. Timber box dams - an alternative for small power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lia, Leif

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses timber dams as an alternative concrete or stone filling dams for small power plants. Old knowledge, advantages and disadvantages are mentioned as well as some examples and environmental aspects

  16. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : volume ii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  17. Creosote treated timber in the Alaskan marine environment : Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ADOT&PF is responsible for many structures that incorporate wood pilings and other timber in Alaska waters. Most are treated with preservative to inhibit marine borers : that will quickly destroy unprotected wood. Creosote is generally the most econo...

  18. Wolf Creek Generating Station containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Neises, G.J.; Howard, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a CONTEMPT-LT/28 containment model that has been developed by Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC) to predict containment pressure and temperature behavior during the postulated events at Wolf Creek Generating Station (WCGS). The model has been validated using data provided in the WCGS Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR). CONTEMPT-LT/28 model has been used extensively at WCGS to support plant operations, and recently, to support its 4.5% thermal power uprate project

  19. Reliability based Robustness of Timber Structures through NDT Data Updating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a framework for reliability-based assessment of timber structures / members using data gathered from non-destructive test results. These results are used for modeling an update of the mechanical characteristics of timber, using Bayesian methods. Results gathered from ultrasound...... of the structure, thus, being possible to evaluate reliability based in time dependent factors, as well to categorize that structure in terms of robustness. For exemplification of the underlined concepts, three different types of structures are studied....

  20. Dowelled structural connections in laminated bamboo and timber

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Thomas Peter; Sharma, Bhavna; Harries, Kent; Ramage, Michael Hector

    2015-01-01

    Structural sections of laminated bamboo can be connected using methods common in timber engineering, however the different material properties of timber and laminated bamboo suggest that the behaviour of connections in the two materials would not be the same. This study investigates the dowelled connection, in which a connector is passed through a hole in the material, and load is resisted by shear in the connector and embedment into the surrounding material. Steel dowels were used in a conne...

  1. Machine vision for timber grading singularities detection and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittawe, Mohamad Mazen; Sidibé, Désiré; Beya, Ouadi; Mériaudeau, Fabrice

    2017-11-01

    This article deals with machine vision techniques applied to timber grading singularities. Timber used for architectural purposes must satisfy certain mechanical requirements, and, therefore, must be mechanically graded to ensure the manufacturer that the product complies with the requirements. However, the timber material has many singularities, such as knots, cracks, and presence of juvenile wood, which influence its mechanical behavior. Thus, identifying those singularities is of great importance. We address the problem of timber defects segmentation and classification and propose a method to detect timber defects such as cracks and knots using a bag-of-words approach. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed methods are efficient and can improve grading machines performances. We also propose an automated method for the detection of transverse knots, which allows the computation of knot depth ratio (KDR) images. Finally, we propose a method for the detection of juvenile wood regions based on tree rings detection and the estimation of the tree's pith. The experimental results show that the proposed methods achieve excellent results for knots detection, with a recall of 0.94 and 0.95 on two datasets, as well as for KDR image computation and juvenile timber detection.

  2. Analysis of ground-water flow in the Madison aquifer using fluorescent dyes injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  3. Timbered masonry for earthquake resistance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutu, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their structural system is basically the same: the wooden structural system bears mainly the horizontal loads while the masonry supports the gravity loads. The study includes a brief report on the seismicity of each country where this traditional type of building made of timbered framed masonry is found, together with the description of these buildings’ constructive systems.

    Europa es un continente que está sujeto a una significativa actividad sísmica. Por esta razón, se debe analizar el comportamiento sísmico, no sólo de las nuevas estructuras, diseñadas sobre la base de códigos más exigentes, sino también de los diversos tipos de estructuras antiguas. En este artículo se analizan las estructuras constituidas por mampostería y madera, que se pueden encontrar en Portugal, Turquía, Francia, Inglaterra, Grecia, Rumania, Italia, España, Alemania y Escandinavia. Aunque estas estructuras presentan diferencias en cuanto a detalles constructivos, su sistema estructural es idéntico: el sistema estructural de madera absorbe principalmente las cargas horizontales, mientras que la mampostería garantiza la resistencia a la acción de la gravedad. El estudio presentado incluye un breve informe acerca de la sismicidad de los países en que existe el tipo de construcción mencionado, conjuntamente con la descripción de los sistemas constructivos específicos de cada país.

  4. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek, North Dakota, with a watershed dominated by prairie potholes. During a decadal period of wet conditions, Pipestem Creek contained evaporated water that had approximately half the isotopic evaporative enrichment signal found in most evaporated permanent wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from the headwaters with distance downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporation. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 43 to 2653 ha and varying primarily with discharge. The average value (just over 600 ha) was well above the surface area of Pipestem Creek network (245 ha). This estimate of contributing area indicated that Prairie Pothole wetlands were important sources of stream fl

  6. A Peek into 'Alamogordo Creek'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 On its 825th Martian day (May 20, 2006), NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped for the weekend to place its instrument arm onto the soil target pictured here, dubbed 'Alamogordo Creek.' Two views from the panoramic camera, acquired at about noon local solar time, are at the top. Below them is a close-up view from the microscopic imager. At upper left, a false-color view emphasizes differences among materials in rocks and soil. It combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. At upper right is an approximately true-color rendering made with the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters. The microscopic-imager frame covers the area outlined by the white boxes in the panoramic-camera views, a rectangle 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. As Opportunity traverses to the south, it is analyzing soil and rocks along the way for differences from those seen earlier. At this site, the soil contains abundant small spherical fragments, thought to be hematite-rich concretions, plus finer-grained basaltic sand. Most of the spherical fragments seen in the microscopic image are smaller than those first seen at the rover's landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' some five kilometers (3.1 miles) to the north. However, a few larger spherical fragments and other rock fragments can also be seen in the panoramic-camera images.

  7. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  8. Geology of the Quartz Creek Pegmatite District, Gunnison County Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer H.; Trites, A.F.

    1952-01-01

    The Quartz Creek pegmatite district includes an area about 29 square miles in the vicinity of Quartz Creek in Gunnison County,. Colo. This area contains 1,803 pegmatites that are intruded into pre-Cambrian rocks.

  9. Plankton biodiversity of Dharamtar creek adjoining Mumbai harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    rich plankton community. However, recent industrial development along the banks of creek may pose the problem due to waste disposal into this creek system. Losses of marine life diversity are largely the results of conflicting uses, in particular...

  10. Plankton of the Narmada estuary and adjacent creeks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; JiyalalRam, M.J.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    Phytoplankton pigments and abundance of zooplankton in the Narmada Estuary, Bukki Creek and Dahej Creek were studied from March to September, 1979. The river sustained an appreciable quantity of phytoplankton pigments with relatively higher values...

  11. Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw-Swiatek Dorota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. In this study effects of cypress knees as vegetation resistance factor on Turkey Creek watershed discharge calculation were analyzed. The Turkey Creek watershed is a 3rd order stream system draining an approximate area of 5,240 ha. It is located at 33°08' N latitude and 79°47' W longitude, approximately 60 km north-west of City of Charleston in South Carolina (USA. Turkey Creek (WS 78 is typical of other watersheds in the south Atlantic coastal plain. In the case of Turkey Creek watershed, one of the main channels and riparian floodplain vegetation contains cypress trees. Cypress trees live in moist or swampy regions along the Atlantic coastal plain. The cypress trees are characterized by the unique root system called knees that appear just above the water line, up to 1.2 m above water surface. This study is conducted to examine the effects of roughness of cypress knee as related to its shape (diameter and height on discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. Hydraulic characteristics of the cypress knees were determined by field inventory in selected cross-section along the main stream channel. The Pasche method was used to calculate the total Darcy–Weisbach friction factor in discharge capacity calculation of the study watershed. The results of this study show that the effect of vegetation shape in the Pasche approach is significant. If the variability of vegetation stem diameter is taken into consideration in the calculations, an increase by 10–32% in the values of friction coefficients occurs.

  12. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cutting of standing timber by local rural residents for appropriate subsistence uses, such as firewood or... materials for subsistence uses, and the noncommerical gathering of dead or downed timber for firewood, shall...

  13. 78 FR 73818 - Information Collection; Timber Sale Contract Operations and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... by laws, regulations, and/or timber sale policies. Each contract specifies information the contractor... plans, requests, agreements, and notices necessary for operations under the terms of the contracts... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Timber Sale Contract Operations...

  14. Development of minimum standards for hardwoods used in producing underground coal mine timbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd G. Timson

    1978-01-01

    This note presents minimum standards for raw material used in the production of sawn, split, and round timbers for the underground mining industry. The standards are based on a summary of information gathered from many mine-timber producers.

  15. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  16. Numerical and experimental study of moisture-induced stress and strain field developments in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2013-01-01

    shrinkage and the inhomogeneity of the material. To obtain a better understanding of how stresses develop during climatic variations, the field histories of stresses (and strains) in cross sections in their entirety need to be studied. The present paper reports on experiments and numerical simulations......When solid wood dries from a green condition to a moisture content used for further processing, moisture-induced fracture and stresses can occur. The drying stresses arise because of internal deformation constraints that are strongly affected by the cross-sectional moisture gradient differential...... concerned with analysing the development of strains and stresses during the drying of 15-mm-thick discs of Norway spruce timber log. The samples were dried at 23 °C and relative humidity of 64 % from a green condition to equilibrium moisture content. The moisture gradient in the longitudinal direction...

  17. Value of timber and agricultural products in the United States, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McKeever; J. L. Howard

    1996-01-01

    In the United States, timber and agriculture are two important components of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The purpose of this study was to quantify the volume and value of timber in the U.S. economy in 1991 and compare the value of timber with that of agriculture. Combined, timber and agriculture accounted for 6.2 percent of total GDP in 1991, and 13.2 percent of...

  18. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  19. 77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. The proposed change would... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking entitled ``Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD'' in...

  20. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... operation of the Baltimore County highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require the...

  1. 76 FR 7131 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mantua Creek, Paulsboro, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mantua Creek, Paulsboro, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Bridge, at mile 1.7, across Mantua Creek at Paulsboro, NJ. The requested change would have allowed the...; Mantua Creek, Paulsboro, NJ'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 18665-18667). The rulemaking would have...

  2. 78 FR 64189 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... governs the U.S. Route 130 lift Bridge over Raccoon Creek at mile marker 1.8 in Bridgeport, NJ. Bridge....8, across Raccoon Creek in Bridgeport, NJ. NJDOT provided the Coast Guard with the bridge tender...

  3. Bedload and nearbed detritus transport in a tidal saltmarsh creek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.; Cattrijsse, A.; Wielemaker, A.

    1996-01-01

    Bedload and nearbed transport of coarse (>1 mm) detritus particles were investigated in a tidal creek of a salt marsh in the Westerschelde estuary (south-west Netherlands). Using a fyke net positioned on the creek bottom, hourly transport through the creek was measured during 14 flood-ebb cycles in

  4. A Comparative Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J. Cole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT and glulam. The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m2, whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.

  5. A Probabilistic Approach for Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obatined. Therefore the structure can be considered......A probabilistic based robustness analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...

  6. Risks, Information and Short-Run Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase wood mobilization have highlighted the need to appraise drivers of short-run timber supply. The current study aims to shed further light on harvesting decisions of private forest owners, by investigating optimal harvesting under uncertainty, when timber revenues are invested on financial markets and uncertainty is mitigated by news releases. By distinguishing between aggregate economic risk and sector specific risks, the model studies in great detail optimal harvesting-investment decisions, with particular emphasis on the non-trivial transmission of risk on optimal harvesting, and on the way private forest owners react to news and information. The analysis of the role played by information in harvesting decisions is a novelty in forest economic theory. The presented model is highly relevant from a policy—information is a commonly used forest policy instrument—as well as a practical perspective, since the mechanism of risk transmission is at the basis of timber pricing.

  7. Experimental In-Plane Evaluation of Light Timber Walls Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Branco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the satisfactory seismic performance of timber buildings can be partially attributed to the material characteristics of the wood itself and to the lightness of its own structure. The aim of this paper is to analyze the in-plane behavior of light timber walls panels through a series of monotonic and cyclic tests, and to evaluate how the sheathing material and the fixation to the base influence the overall response of the wall. Five tests are presented and discussed while the reliability of an analytical method to predict the response of the walls is studied. The sheathing material revealed to be important in the overall response of the wall. Moreover, the type of fixation to the base also revealed to be important in the in-plane response of timber walls. In-plane stiffnesses, static ductility, energy dissipation and damping ratio have been quantified.

  8. Development of a six-year research needs assessment for timber transportation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry J. Wipf; Michael A. Ritter; Sheila Rimal Duwadi; Russell C. Moody

    1993-01-01

    A timber bridge, once a thing of the past, is now becoming a thing of the present. Interest in timber bridges and other transportation structures has been rapidly increasing. Much of this is due to new technologies in design and construction as well as advances in material manufacturing and presevative treatments. Although timber bridges and other transportation...

  9. An economic analysis of mine-timber marketing in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry H. Webster

    1956-01-01

    Coal mines have long provided a major outlet for the timber products of West Virginia. Although the structure and operation of mine-timber markets is little understood, the efficiency of the marketing system undoubtedly affects the decisions of most of the 130,000 farm and other private timber-growing enterprises in the state.

  10. An analysis of the timber situation in the United States: 1952 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century, national assessments of supply and demand trends for timber have helped shape perceptions of future commodity consumption and resource trends. These perceptions have guided forest policy. Since 1952, U.S. timber harvest has risen by nearly 67 percent, accompanied by growing timber inventories on both public and private lands, but there has been...

  11. Reliability-Based Calibration of Load Duration Factors for Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Svensson, Staffan; Stang, Birgitte Friis Dela

    2005-01-01

    John Dalsgaard Sørensen, Staffan Svensson, Birgitte Dela Stang : Reliability-Based Calibration of Load Duration Factors for Timber Structures     Abstract :   The load bearing capacity of timber structures decrease with time depending on the type of load and timber. Based on representative limit ...

  12. Likelihood of Timber Management on Nonindustrial Private Forests: Evidence From Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig; Karen J. Lee; Robert J. Moulton

    1990-01-01

    Research on timber management tendencies by nonindustrial private forest owners, while sometimes conflicting, provides useful information to support policy analyses of timber supply and investment behavior. Numerous research studies regarding tree planting, intermediate stand treatments, and timber harvesting are reviewed. Conclusive research findings include that: (1...

  13. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  14. Forensic timber identification: It's time to integrate disciplines to combat illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor E. Dormontt; Markus Boner; Birgit Braun; Gerhard Breulmann; Bernd Degen; Edgard Espinoza; Shelley Gardner; Phil Guillery; John C. Hermanson; Gerald Koch; Soon Leong Lee; Milton Kanashiro; Anto Rimbawanto; Darren Thomas; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Yafang Yin; Johannes Zahnen; Andrew J. Lowe

    2015-01-01

    The prosecution of illegal logging crimes is hampered by a lack of available forensic timber identification tools, both for screening of suspectmaterial and definitive identification of illegally sourcedwood. Reputable timber traders are also struggling to police their own supply chains and comply with the growing requirement for due diligence with respect to timber...

  15. Using TPO data to estimate timber demand in support of planning on the Tongass National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels; Michael D. Paruszkiewicz; Susan J. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for logs, lumber, residues, and niche products, and timber harvest by owner are developed by using a trend-based analysis. This is the fifth such analysis performed since 1990 to assist planners in meeting statutory requirements for estimating planning cycle demand for timber from the Tongass National...

  16. How might FIA deliver more information on status and trends of non-timber forest products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Prisley

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program (including the Timber Products Output portion) are critical for assessing the sustainability of US timber production. Private sector users of this information rely on it for strategic planning, and their strong support of the FIA program has helped to ensure funding and program viability. Non-timber forest products...

  17. 36 CFR 294.24 - Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber cutting, sale, or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.24 Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Wild Land Recreation. The cutting, sale, or removal of timber is...

  18. 75 FR 10455 - Information Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for... information collection, Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on...: Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data. OMB Number: 0596-0017. Expiration Date of Approval: June 30, 2010...

  19. Impacts on South Carolina timber production over the last five decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinglong Mo; Thomas Straka; Richard Harper

    2013-01-01

    Timberland ownership patterns and national forest timber harvesting policy have undergone significant changes in South Carolina over the past five decades. Timber output studies for the state commonly focused on short time frames and seldom addressed timberland ownership patterns in detail. We describe fifty-year timber output for South Carolina, allowing us to address...

  20. Environmental life cycle assessment to enhance the sustainability of the timber sector in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The timber sector, i.e. forestry and timber industry, is an important industry in Ghana. It provides a significant contribution to Ghana’s foreign exchange earnings through wood products export, provides jobs and incomes for numerous local economies and communities. The timber production in

  1. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  2. Analysis of the Strength of Timber and Glulam Timber Beams with Steel Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Putra Usman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a tropical country with abundant tropical timber that can be used as a building material. Wood is a renewable material, thus making it an environmentally friendly construction material. However, the dimensional limitations of solid wood may pose problems in structural constructions. Wood material also has some disadvantages, such as brittle failure. However, the ductility of wood can be increased because of plasticity occurring in the compression zone. Wood material with good ductility can be obtained by reinforcing it in the tensile zone. This study is about the strength of wood material for use as a material for structural elements. Based on the analytical findings, the bending capacity of wood can be improved by adding reinforcements to the tensile zone.

  3. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  4. Sedimentation Study and Flume Investigation, Mission Creek, Santa Barbara, California; Corte Madera Creek, Marin County, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    .... An existing concrete-lined flood control channel on Corte Madera Creek in Marin County, California lacks a debris basin at its upstream terminus and carries significant bed load through a supercritical flow reach...

  5. How Fern Creek Is Beating Goliath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Margaret; Galatowitsch, Patrick; Hefferin, Keri; Highland, Shanita

    2013-01-01

    The "David" is Fern Creek Elementary, a small urban school in Orlando, Florida, that serves an overwhelmingly disadvantaged student population. The "Goliaths" are the mountains of problems that many inner-city students face--poverty, homelessness, mobility, instability, limited parent involvement, and violent neighborhood…

  6. Chelsea Sandwich, LLC (MA0003280) | Chelsea Creek ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    EPA and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP) have developed final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for seven bulk petroleum storage facilities located along Chelsea River (Creek) in Chelsea and Revere, Massachusetts to meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act.

  7. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  8. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  9. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    Mercury content of the water column estimated along Thana Creek/Bombay Harbour gave a standing stock of about 77 kg in excess of the expected background. Mercury concentration in sediment from 23 locations which varied from 0.17 to 8.21 ppm (dry...

  10. Factors That Determine The Uses Of Some Timber Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Four wood-based industries were sampled namely, furniture, fuel wood selling, building construction/ carpentry and wood carving. ... This indicates that sawmills are the major sources of producing various timber species needed for wood works in the study area.

  11. structural reliability of the nigerian grown abura timber bridge beam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR. J. I. AGUWA

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... hardwoods and Abura is one of them. Most timber used in the building construction are softwoods but in structures like bridges and railway sleepers, hardwoods are specially used. [5]. Construction activities using vast quantities of locally available raw materials are major steps towards industrialization and ...

  12. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ecosystem health, wildlife habitat, or recreational and scenic uses; to reduce the risk of harm posed by.... 292.46 Section 292.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.46 Timber harvesting...

  13. characterisation and grading of two selected timber species grown

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    south-western rain forest area, sliced into 2” by 12” size before seasoning naturally and their structural/strength properties were determined at a .... most fringe forest in the Savanna zones of Nigeria [14]. X. aethiopica is a member of the family ... Reticulitermes speratus [18]. Stress grading is the process of assigning a timber.

  14. Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mean compression stress values of 51.85 N/mm2 and 5.00 N/mm2 parallel (//g) and perpendicular (┴g) to grain respectively. ANOVA showed that ... Keywords: Compression, stress, timber, parallel, perpendicular, grain and plantation. INRODUCTION ..... Bucuresti. Pp. 6. USFPL (United States Forest Products Laboratory).

  15. Some Guidelines For Reduced Impact Timber Harvesting Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... raw materials for building and mining industries, energy and non wood products. Unfortunately, indiscriminate exploitation for timber, charcoal and other products, frequent destructive woodland fires and expansion of agricultural activities have of recent contributed to eroding the environmental importance and ecological ...

  16. SURVEY ON NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS IN BAUCHI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    allow for the production of bush meats, rattan, bamboo, traditional medicines, honey and other forest food. Key Words: NTFPs ... wild plant products other than timber harvested from forests, savannahs and other natural vegetation types. This definition includes the use of wood for canoes, woodcarvings, local house ...

  17. Optimal timber harvest scheduling with spatially defined sediment objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Hof; Michael Bevers

    2000-01-01

    This note presents a simple model formulation that focuses on the spatial relationships over time between timber harvesting and sediment levels in water runoff courses throughout the watershed being managed. A hypothetical example is developed to demonstrate the formulation and show how sediment objectives can be spatially defined anywhere in the watershed. Spatial...

  18. Relationships between harvest of American ginseng and hardwood timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Prisley; James Chamberlain; Michael McGuffin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to quantify the relationship between American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and timber inventory and harvest. This was done through compilation and analysis of county-level data from public datasets: ginseng harvest data from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service (USFS) forest inventory and analysis (FIA)...

  19. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia E Ahmed

    Full Text Available The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  20. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  1. Supply and demand of timber for wood turning in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Douglas S. Powell; Douglas S. Powell

    1987-01-01

    An analytical report on the volume of wood used by the wood-turning industry in Maine, and the volume of timber from the state's timberlands that may be suitable for turnstock. Findings are based on the third forest resource survey of Maine timberlands, and an industry canvass of primary manufacturing mills using wood from Maine timberlands, both conducted in 1982...

  2. Timber market research, private forests, and policy rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2004-01-01

    The development of the profession and practice of forestry in the United States can be linked to urgent concerns regarding timber shortages in the late 19th century (Williams 1989). These were based largely on perceived failures of forest landowners to protect or invest enough in the productive capacity of their forests (Manthy 1977). The South, as the only major...

  3. DURABLE TIMBERS (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. and Celtis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    However, scanty information exists for the efficacy of extracts from tropical timbers in conferring durability, while CCA and other deadly inor- ganic preservative impregnated wood continue to be the commonest treated lumber worldwide amid much apprehension, as they pose health and ecological problems. As would be ex ...

  4. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 3Department of Botany, Post Graduate College Abbottabad, Pakistan. Accepted 17 March, 2011. A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration.

  5. Wyoming's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Timothy P. Spoelma; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2005-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Wyoming's 2000 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Wyoming's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  6. Projecting southern timber supply for multiple products by subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Abt; Frederick W. Cubbage; Karen L. Abt

    2009-01-01

    While timber supply modeling has been of importance in the wood-producing regions of the United States for decades, it is only more recently that the technology and data have allowed disaggregation of supply and demand to substate regions, including product specific breakdowns and endogenous land use and plantation changes. Using southwide data and an economic supply...

  7. 75 FR 63419 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... with the contract terms. 36 CFR 223.35. Generally, the Performance Bond, as defined in 13 CFR 115.10, ensures that the Principal, as defined in 13 CFR 115.10, complies with all contract terms and conditions... timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public or private landowners. DATES...

  8. Determining modulus of elasticity of ancient structural timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houjiang Zhang; Lei Zhu; Yanliang Sun; Xiping Wang; Haicheng Yan

    2011-01-01

    During maintenance of ancient timber architectures, it is important to determine mechanical properties of the wood component materials non-destructively and effectively, so that degraded members may be replaced or repaired to avoid structural failure. Experimental materials are four larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.) components, which were taken down from the...

  9. Pennsylvania hardwood timber bridges : field performance after 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Carlito Calil

    2004-01-01

    Several hardwood demonstration timber bridges were built by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation in the early nineteen nineties. These bridge superstructures are of the recently developed stress-laminated deck design-type using Red Oak lumber laminations that were pressure-treated with creosote preservatives. This paper will describe the data acquisition...

  10. Steam bending qualities of eight timber species of Ghana | Ayarkwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steam bending qualities of eight lesser used timber species of Ghana have been studied and compared with the quality of Mahogany (Khaya spp), a fast diminishing noble species, with the view to providing information for the furniture and glulam industries. Wood samples collected from three ecological forest zones of ...

  11. Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... The results of the marketing margin reveal that charcoal commanded the highest margin of ₦2500, followed by bush meat (₦300), while wrapping had the ...

  12. Forest management planning for timber production: a sequential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna P. Rustagi

    1978-01-01

    Explicit forest management planning for timber production beyond the first few years at any time necessitates use of information which can best be described as suspect. The two-step approach outlined here concentrates on the planning strategy over the next few years without losing sight of the long-run productivity. Frequent updating of the long-range and short-range...

  13. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  14. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (f) of this section. For capitalization of carrying charges, see section 1016(a)(1)(A). Amounts paid... valuation and accounting. (1) With a view to logical and reasonable valuation of timber, the taxpayer shall... audit, by the owner of the property in the light of the most reliable and accurate information available...

  15. Removing other Tree Species does not benefit the Timber Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The endemic canopy tree Cephalosphaera usambarensis is a valuable timber species in montane rainforest of Tanzania. Here we evaluate an experiment in which mature trees of species other than C. usambarensis were removed from an area in the East Usambara Mountains. We compared stage/size structure of the ...

  16. Wood Removals and Timber Use in New York, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Thomas D. Martin; Richard H. Widmann; Richard H. Widmann

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates removals and timber output of New York. Results are based on survey of primary processing mills located in the state and of mills in other states that used wood from New York. Incorporates additional studies conducted during standard statewide forest inventories. Contains statistics of industrial roundwood production and the production and final end use of...

  17. The residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  18. Timber resource of Minnesota's Aspen-Birch Unit, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Arnold J. Ostrom

    1979-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Minnesota's Aspen-Birch Unit shows solid gains in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1962 and 1977, but a 13% decline in commercial forest area. This report gives statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area a well as timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use.

  19. Theory of timber connections with slender dowel type fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan; Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    A theory on the lateral load-carrying capacity of timber connections with slender fasteners is presented. The base of the theory is the coupled mechanical phenomena acting in the connection, while the wood and the slender fastener deform and yield prior to failure. The objective is to derive...

  20. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  1. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Jean M. Daniels; Mike Thompson

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2007, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  2. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Sacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except...

  3. Timber resource statistics for Oregon, January 1, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Grover A. Choate

    1974-01-01

    Timber resource statistics as of January 1, 1973, for the State of Oregon show total land area, commercial timberland area, and growing stock and sawtimber inventory volumes by county and owner group. Growth and removals are shown by Forest Survey inventory unit for 1972. Each National Forest is updated to January 1, 1973, as well as each Bureau of Land Management...

  4. Timber resource statistics for Washington, January 1, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Grover A. Choate

    1974-01-01

    Timber resource statistics to January 1, 1973, for the State of Washington show total land area, commercial timberland area, and growing stock and sawtimber inventory volumes by county and owner group. Growth and removals are shown by Forest Survey inventory unit for 1972. Each National Forest is updated to January 1, 1973.

  5. Fusarium Damping-off of two Timber Species ( Terminalia Ivorensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of the damping–off disease of two timber species Terminalia ivorensis and Nauclea diderrichii sown in ground granite, sharp river sand, topsoil and sawdust was assessed at the nursery site of the Department of. Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt. The experiment was laid out in a ...

  6. TRIM timber projections: an evaluation based on forest inventory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Mills

    1989-01-01

    Two consecutive timberland inventories collected from permanent plots in the natural pine type in North Carolina were used to evaluate the timber resource inventory model (TRIM). This study compares model predictions with field measurements and examines the effect of inventory data aggregation on the accuracy of projections. Projections were repeated for two geographic...

  7. The privately owned timber resources of western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1983-01-01

    Timber resource statistics from a 1973-76 inventory are presented for private timberland in western Oregon. Inventories usually classify private owners as either forest industry or nonindustrial private. For this report, however, the nonindustrial private classification has been further disaggregated into farmer, individual, and corporate owners. For all private owner...

  8. Finite element analysis of composite concrete-timber beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. S. FORTI

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the search for sustainable construction, timber construction is gaining in popularity around the world. Sustainably harvested wood stores carbon dioxide, while reforestation absorbs yet more CO2. One technique involves the combination of a concrete slab and a timber beam, where the two materials are assembled by the use of flexible connectors. Composite structures provide reduced costs, environmental benefits, a better acoustic performance, when compared to timber structures, and maintain structural safety. Composite structures combine materials with different mechanical properties. Their mechanical performance depends on the efficiency of the connection, which is designed to transmit shear longitudinal forces between the two materials and to prevent vertical detachment. This study contributes with the implementation of a finite element formulation for stress and displacement determination of composite concrete-timber beams. The deduced stiffness matrix and load vector are presented along to numerical examples. Numerical examples are compared to the analytical equations available in Eurocode 5 and to experimental data found in the literature.

  9. Contribution of timber exports to economic growth in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the contribution of timber exports to the economic growth in Nigeria, using an econometric approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Johansen Co-integration techniques were respectively used to test for unit root and examine the relationship between the variables used. In addition, Granger ...

  10. Sustainable management of non-timber forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

    2001-01-01

    If policy on sustainable management of non-timber forest resources (NTFR) is to be implemented successfully, then recognition that there is no "one size fits all" policy is essential. Policies and their implementation practice have to be tailored to local ecological, economic, cultural and political circumstances. This complexity and the diversity of species...

  11. an assessment of timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    forest products (NTFPs) are particularly in important part of multiple-use strategies, because they increase the range of income generating options for forest dependent villagers while avoiding some of the ecological costs of timber exploitation. As efforts are being geared to check-mate wanton destruction of the remaining ...

  12. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration. A questionnaire was used as a survey instrument to obtain desired data. For this study, 10 villages were randomly ...

  13. Gender analysis of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) collection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Millions of people, especially those living in rural areas in developing countries collect Non-Timber Forest products (NTFPs) daily. Women are known to play a prominent role in forestry and agricultural production in Nigeria despite not been captured as economically productive. This work looked into gender dimension ...

  14. In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal timber species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The over exploitation of African mahogany in tropical forest has threatened the genetic base of this useful timber and medicinal tree species and as such, an experiment was conducted on the in vitro culture of Khaya grandifoliola, an endangered tree species commonly found in the high forest zones of West Africa to explore ...

  15. Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data used were obtained from 90 sellers of these forest products through purposive sampling of markets in the area. Results showed that the average age of sellers was 42 years, while 63.2% ...

  16. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  17. Timber Production In The Dense Humid Forest Of Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 60% of all timber exploited in Cameroon is made of a few species, namely, Triplochiton scleroxylon (Ayous), Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sapelli), Lophira alata (Azobe), Baillonella toxisperma (Moabi), Afzelia bipindensis (Red Doussie) and Afzelia pachyloba (White Doussie). Triplochiton scleroxylon is the most ...

  18. Implementing timber legality assurance regime in Ghana: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illegal logging has contributed significantly to slowing the march towards sustainable forest management in Ghana. Illegal logging has been found to thrive in environment where regulatory controls are not adequate. Stakeholders are concerned about the verification of legal compliance for timber harvesting and processing ...

  19. ECOLOGICAL EFFECT OF TIMBER EXPRACTION IN OHIMINI LGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    According to Wilson. (2007) a major source of deforestation is the logging industry driven particularly by. China and Japan. Generally the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity (Wikipedia, 2007). In many countries massive timber extraction.

  20. Sustainability of forestry and timber industry in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and a thorough understanding of the sustainability issues in the timber sector of Ghana. This understanding will help to identify and bridge the sustainability gap to avoid the imminent depletion of the natural forest resources. The sector was assessed by means of a

  1. The Four Corners timber harvest and forest products industry, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Charles E. Keegan; Alfred L. Chase; Mike T. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    This report traces the flow of timber harvested in the "Four Corners" States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) during calendar year 2002, describes the composition and operations of the region's primary forest products industry, and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as...

  2. The Effect of Urban Sprawls on Timber Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen A. Barlow; Ian A Munn; David A. Cleaves; David L. Evans

    1998-01-01

    In Mississippi and Alabama, urban population growth is pushing development into rural areas. To study the impact of urbanization on timber harvesting, census and forest inventory data were combined in a geographic information system, and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between several variables and harvest probabilities....

  3. The effect of fissures on the strength of structural timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñiguez, Guillermo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed measurements of drying fissures were carried out on 28 pieces of gross cross-section structural Scots pine timber. Different parameters have been proposed to measure their magnitude: length, depth, thickness and slope of grain, as well as an index of area in the neutral axis plane (ratio of effective to total surface. The parameters of fissures have been related to bending strength, shear strength, modulus of elasticity and rupture energy obtained from mechanical tests, considering whether rupture is due to bending or shear. All of the fissures observed allows to classify the pieces as MEG according to the UNE 56544 standard. To quantify the magnitude of fissures the index of areas is proposed, while mechanical properties can be quantified by rupture energy. Analysis of the results does not show any relation between the fissures analyzed and the mode of failure, their magnitude and mechanical properties..

    Se han realizado mediciones detalladas de las fendas de secado en 28 piezas de madera de pino silvestre de gran escuadría. Se han propuesto diferentes parámetros para medir su magnitud en longitud, profundidad, grosor e inclinación, así como un índice de áreas en el plano medio de rasante (superficie eficaz respecto a superficie total. Se han relacionado los parámetros de fendas con resistencia a flexión, resistencia a cortante, módulo de elasticidad y energía de rotura obtenidos mediante ensayos mecánicos, teniendo en cuenta si la rotura se produce por flexión o por cortante. Todas las fendas observadas permiten clasificar las piezas como MEG según la norma UNE 56544. Se propone cuantificar las fendas mediante el índice de áreas y las propiedades mecánicas mediante la energía de rotura. El análisis realizado no muestra una relación significativa entre las fendas analizadas, los modos de rotura o las propiedades mecánicas.

  4. Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

  5. Mathematical modelling of flooding at Magela Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardavas, I.

    1989-01-01

    The extent and frequency of the flooding at Magela Creek can be predicted from a mathematical/computer model describing the hydrological phases of surface runoff. Surface runoff involves complex water transfer processes over very inhomogeneous terrain. A simple mathematical model of these has been developed which includes the interception of rainfall by the plant canopy, evapotranspiration, infiltration of surface water into the soil, the storage of water in surface depressions, and overland and subsurface water flow. The rainfall-runoff model has then been incorporated into a more complex computer model to predict the amount of water that enters and leaves the Magela Creek flood plain, downstream of the mine. 2 figs., ills

  6. The macroinvertebrates of Magela Creek, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, R.

    1982-04-01

    The littoral zones of five permanent billabongs in Magela Creek were sampled monthly for macroinvertebrates. Greatest numbers of taxa and individuals were caught in the late wet season and early dry season in the shallow billabongs; in the deep billabongs, seasonal variations were not so marked. These changes appeared to be associated with the development of macrophytes, which offered food and shelter to the invertebrate fauna. The dominant groups were the Chironomidae, Oligochaetae and Ephemeroptera. The seasonal patterns of the catches were sufficiently consistent for future samples to be able to be compared with these initial ones with some confidence that any changes are real. This work is part of a larger study into the biota and water quality of Magela Creek designed to provide data on aquatic communities before mining of the Ranger uranium deposit starts

  7. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the

  8. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years' data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143

  9. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  10. Case Studies on Timber Defects of Selected Traditional Houses in Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Haniza Ishak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adverse environmental conditions on building materials and the extent of damage caused depends on both the materials used and the environmental conditions. Although timber is a diminishing resource, it is still widely used in today's construction. In Malaysia, timber is one of the main components of many historic buildings. Appropriate maintenance of such buildings requires an understanding of timber defects and its related problems. Timber defects are classified into two major groups: non-biological and biological deteriorations. Non-biological deterioration consists of physical decay, excessive moisture content, dimensional instability and chemical deterioration. These defects are mainly caused by the timber in service being subjected to environmental exposure. The most common and destructive timber biological deteriorations are those due to dry rot, we t rot as well as insect attacks . A study based on seven selected houses was conducted to identify the most common building defects, specifically on timber components amongst traditional Malay houses in Malacca, Malaysia, A building condition survey was carried out to determine the effect of the environment towards timber buildings and their main components. Data collected were based on the investigation and visual observation of the selected case studies. Findings of this research will serve as an indicator towards maintaining the buildings' timber components in good condition in order that the buildings' life span could be extended and primarily to conserve the valuable traditional timber houses in a historical city.

  11. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING TIMBER FROM PLANTATION FOREST TREATED WITH PLASTIC AND CCB FOR MARINE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, timber  estate or plantation forest plays an important role on wooden based industries.  However, the  plantation timber  quality is relatively low.  Some treatments  have been developed to improve  its low quality, such as preservation with CCB (Chromate Copper Boron and impregnation with plastic compounds. This study is to compare the durability of timber treated with  plastic and CCB,  non-treated from plantation forest timber  as well  as from natural  forest. The plantation timber  studied were  jeungjing  (Paraserianthes falcataria, damar  (Agathis sp., pinus  (Pinus merkusii, and rubberwood (Hevea brasilliensis. Non-treated timbers that usually used for marine construction were ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri, jati/teak  (Tectona grandis, laban (Vitex pubescens and merbau  (Instia bijuga. After  6 and 12 months,  the results showed that CCB  preserved  timber  were  more durable  than plastic  impregnated timber  and non- treated timber. Wood samples were mostly attacked by marine borer organisms from the family of  Pholadidae  and Teredinidae. The experiment results revealed the possibility of using those plantation forest timber species for marine construction purposes.

  12. The Patroon Creek Contamination Migration Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, K.; Zafran, A.; Moore, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Shaw performed a Site Investigation (SI) for sediment within the Unnamed Tributary of the Patroon Creek, a section of the Patroon Creek, and the Three Mile Reservoir as part of the overall contract with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to remediate the Colonie Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The Unnamed Tributary formerly flowed through the former Patroon Lake, which was located on the main site property and was used as a landfill for radiological and chemical wastes. The objective of the investigation was to determine the absence/presence of radioactive contamination within the three Areas of Concern (AOC). In order to accomplish this objective, Shaw assembled a team to produce a Technical Memorandum that provided an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions related to the Patroon Creek. Upon completion and analysis of the Technical Memorandum, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was constructed and a Technical Planning Program (TPP) was held to develop a Sediment Investigation Work Plan and Sediment Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan. A total of 32 sample locations were analyzed using on-site direct gamma scans with a Pancake Geiger-Mueller (PGM) instrument for screening purposes and samples were analyzed at on-site and off-site laboratories. The highest interval from each core scan was selected for on-site analysis utilizing a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Eight of these samples were sent off-site for gamma/alpha spectroscopy confirmation. The data collected during the SI indicated that the U-238 cleanup criterion was exceeded in sediment samples collected from two locations within the Unnamed Tributary but not in downstream sections of Patroon Creek or Three Mile Reservoir. Future actions for impacted sediment in the Unnamed Tributary will be further evaluated. Concentrations of U-238 and Th-232 in all other off-site sediment samples collected from the Unnamed Tributary, Patroon Creek, and

  13. Peak discharge, flood frequency, and peak stage of floods on Big Cottonwood Creek at U.S. Highway 50 near Coaldale, Colorado, and Fountain Creek below U.S. Highway 24 in Colorado Springs, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Stevens, Michael R.; Mommandi, Amanullah; Khan, Aziz R.

    2017-12-14

    period of 1 year, or the 1-year storm), which is a statistically common (high probability) storm. The Big Cottonwood Creek site is downstream from the Hayden Pass Fire burn area, which dramatically altered the hydrology of the watershed and caused this statistically rare (low probability) flood from a statistically common (high probability) storm. The peak flood stage at the cross section closest to the U.S. Highway 50 culvert was 6,438.32 feet (ft) above the North American Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88).The August 29, 2016, flood at the Fountain Creek site had an estimated annual exceedance probability of 0.5505 (return period equal to the 1.8-year flood). The August 29, 2016, flood event was caused by a precipitation event having an annual exceedance probability of 1.0 (return period of 1 year, or the 1-year storm). The peak stage during this flood at the cross section closest to the U.S. Highway 24 bridge was 5,832.89 ft (NAVD 88).Slope-area indirect discharge measurements were carried out at the Big Cottonwood Creek and Fountain Creek sites to estimate peak discharge of the August 23, 2016, flood and August 29, 2016, flood, respectively. The USGS computer program Slope-Area Computation Graphical User Interface was used to compute the peak discharge by adding the surveyed cross sections with Manning roughness coefficient assignments to the high-water marks. The Manning roughness coefficients for each cross section were estimated in the field using the Cowan method.

  14. Beam to Column Timber Joints with Pretensioned Bolts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashikawa T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pretension in bolts on hysteretic response of timber joints exposed to a bending had been reported by the authors, but the cyclic tests were carried out at small displacement level which might not be applicable for earthquake-resistance design. In this study, similar cyclic tests but at large displacement levels were conducted. Beam to column timber joints with steel side plates were fabricated and continuously loaded until failure. At connection, the bolts were pretension in four different magnitudes: 0 kN, 5 kN, 10 kN and 15 kN. The results showed that frictional action between the steel side plates and wood member as a result of bolt pretensioning significantly increased the (frictional hysteretic damping and the equivalent viscous damping ratio. It is obvious from the test results that the pretension force in bolts has no influence on the maximum joint resistance but decreases the joint rotational deformation.

  15. Local timber firm looking forward to develop on medium term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCS Lorant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to outline the challenges faced by a local timber company in struggle to resist on medium-term on the market. There will be revealed the challenges the company is facing, and also the ways to adapt to the changing world of timber industry. There will be presented a short history of the founding and the evolution of the company on the local and international market, pointing out the relevant events which have marked the life of the company during the years. There will also be presented a short review of the competition on the market and the marketing strategy and policies which the company is using to be able to face the new challenges.

  16. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    . The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith......A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem...... taken to bending failure and the relations between compression damage and bending strength and stiffness were established. The results showed that significant reductions of bending strength of dry timber are only caused by such wind induced compression damages that are easily recognised at a planed...

  17. Probabilistic representation of duration of load effects in timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades......; the effect of load duration is in general referred as duration of load (DOL) effect. Several research projects did address the DOL effect in the past and a number of different damage models, based on experimental evidence, have been formulated to describe the phenomenon. In the present paper, three different...... models for the representation of damage accumulation in timber are considered. The parameters of these models are calibrated by the use of test data whereas uncertainties associated with the model formulation and limited sample size are considered. The DOL effect is usually taken into account in code...

  18. Performance of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthened Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the use of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SFRP for retrofit of timber beams. A total of 10-full scale specimens were tested. Two different timber preservatives and two different bonding agents were investigated. Strengthening was characterized using load deflection diagrams. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance load-carrying capacity and energy absorption characteristics using the technique of SFRP. Of the two types of preservatives investigated, the technique appears to be more effective for the case of creosote-treated specimens, where up to a 51% improvement in load-carrying capacity and a 460% increase in the energy absorption capacity were noted. Effectiveness of the bonding agent used was dependent on the type of preservative the specimen had been treated with.

  19. The supply and demand situation for oak timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Quigley

    1971-01-01

    Twenty oak species in the eastern United States account for one-third of the hardwood sawtimber volume and almost 10 percent of both hardwood and softwood growing-stock volume. The oak-hickory and oak-pine forest types occupy about 38 percent of the forest land in the eastern United States. Oak timber volume is increasing. Annual growth exceeds annual removals by about...

  20. Chain of custody certification: an assessment of Ghanaian timber sector

    OpenAIRE

    Attah, A.; Ioras, F.; Ratnasingam, J.; Abrudan, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Although Europe represents a major market for Ghana, information on how local companies are addressing chain of custody certification is scarce. A survey of 103 timber firms, in particular, was conducted in order to determine the current status of chain of custody certification in Ghana. Results collated indicate that the readiness to adopt chain of custody certification among the sector was low. The lack of stakeholders? awareness and price premium was cited as the primar...

  1. Plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix

    OpenAIRE

    García-Velázquez, Ángel; Amado-Moreno, María Guadalupe; Campbell-Ramírez, Héctor Enrique; Brito-Páez, Reyna Arcelia; Toscano-Palomar, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to develop plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix. In the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, Mexico, the agricultural activities and the maquiladora industry are the main source of income in the region.  However, agricultural activities generate wastes that contribute heavily to pollution of Mexicali and its valley. The burning of agricultural waste is a traditional practice in the Valley, and is done in order to prepare the soil for the next cro...

  2. Timber productivity research gaps for extensive forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.C. Irland

    2011-01-01

    On extensive areas of small scale forests, significant opportunities for improving the value of future timber harvests while also improving other resource values are now being missed. A new focus on practical extensive management research is needed, especially as implementation of intensive practices has been declining in many areas, and new ‘‘close to nature’’...

  3. Numerical simulation on behaviour of timber-concrete composite beams in fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Hu, Xiamin; Zhang, Bing; Minli, Yao

    2017-08-01

    This paper established sequentially coupled thermal-mechanical models of timber--concrete composite (TCC) beams by finite element software ANSYS to investigate the fire resistance of TCC beam. Existing experimental results were used to verify the coupled thermal-mechanical model. The influencing parameters consisted of the width of timber beam, the thickness of the concrete slab and the timber board. Based on the numerical results, the effects of these parameters on fire resistance of TCC beams were investigated in detail. The results showed that modeling results agreed well with test results, and verified the reliability of the finite element model. The width of the timber beam had a significant influence on the fire resistance of TCC beams. The fire resistance of TCC beams would be enhanced by increasing the width of timber beam, the thickness of concrete slab and the timber board.

  4. WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF TIMBERLAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN THE U.S. TIMBER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many forest product firms in the U.S. either divested their timberlands to timber investment management organizations (TIMOs and conservation organizations or converted their corporate structures from C corporations to real estate investment trusts (REITs. All landowners sold smaller timberland tracts for nonforestry uses. Reduced timber supplies from conservation organizations and timberland loss to other nonforestry uses have consequences on producer and consumer surpluses in the U.S. timber markets. Equilibrium displacement model has been employed to evaluate the welfare changes in U.S. timber markets attributed to timberland ownership changes. Net reduction of timber supply contributed to the reduction of social surplus by $43 million in 2006. Compared to the $33 billion plus U.S. timber markets, this welfare reduction was small. Overall, this article explains the shifts of economic surpluses among producers and net surplus reduction for the society attributed to timberland ownership changes in the United States.

  5. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenbrock, C.; Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed

  6. Sustainability and Security: Timber Certification in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Ivanova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of sustainable development initiatives since the 1990’s reflected an emphasis on integrated solutions to economic development, socio-political stability and environmental health in the global community. In the same context the traditional concept of security needed to be open in two directions. First, the notion of security should no longer be applied only to the military realm, but also to the economic, the societal, the environmental, and the political fields. Second, the referent object of the “security” should not be conceptualized solely in terms of the state, but should embrace the individual below the state, and the international system above it. The forests industry timber certification in Asia-Pacific region has been selected as a case study because it is an excellent example to illustrate the links between the sustainable development and the environmental security, including also certain elements of economic security. This article is presenting a critical overview of the forest industry and the status of timber certification globally, with an emphasis on Asia – Pacific countries applying the Systemic Thinking approach. In conclusion, an outlook is presented concerning the future of timber certification and possible impacts on security and sustainable development.

  7. Assessment of Carrying Capacity of Timber Element Using SBRA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Wood as a building material has a significant perspective in the context of nonrenewable energy sources and production of greenhouse gas emissions. The subject of this paper is to verify the carrying capacity of the timber element using the probabilistic method Simulation Based Reliability Assessment (SBRA). The simulation is performed for one million cycles. Key factors decreasing the strength of wooden material at the time include the duration of the loads, and combinations thereof. Inconsiderable factor affecting the strength of wood is also the humidity. Continuous beam with three fields (length 15 m, glued laminated timber, and strength class GL 36 according to the DIN EN 1194) is placed in an environment with a thermal-humidity regime of the 2nd class according to the EC 5. Average life of carrying timber structure is estimated to be 50 years. The simulation results show that there is no risk of failure of wood during the first year. The probability of failure is common in the 10 years of its life. Then, wooden element already meets only a reduced level of reliability.

  8. Some background of monitoring and NDT also useful for timber structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Jochen Horst; Boller, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Extension of the life of existing and historic timber structures has increased steadily in the last decade. Sustainability and low carbon emission have influenced activities in the construction industry. In the frame of the European COST Action FP 1101, several activities related to timber structures have been clustered. The COST Action FP 1101 consists of three working groups, namely Assessment (Working Group 1), Reinforcement (Working Group 2) and Monitoring (Working Group 3) of Timber Stru...

  9. Evaluation of glued laminated timber beams of cedrinho (Erisma uncinatum Warm.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho; André Luiz Zangiácomo; Marcelo Rodrigo Carreira; Antonio Alves Dias; Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr

    2013-01-01

    Glued laminated timber (glulam) is assembled layers of bonded pieces of timber. In Brazil, the use of native species timber to produce structural elements of glulam does not occur in satisfactory technological conditions. This is because the properties and performance of native species of wood, under various service conditions, are not entirely known. This study aims at determining and to relate the dynamic modulus of elasticity (EMvt ) and the static modulus of elasticity (EM ), the modulus...

  10. Hardwood timber sales on state forests in Indiana: characteristics influencing costs and prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Vasievich; W. L., Jr. Mills; Heidi R. Cherry

    1997-01-01

    Timber sales conducted on State-owned forests in INdiana from 1982 to 1994 were analyzed to determine changes in costs and prices and the effect of sale conditions on costs and prices. The data set included 445 sales that ranged in size from less than 1 acre to more than 500 acres. Sales were predominantly partial cuts in mature hardwood timber. Marked timber volume...

  11. The Level of Utilization of Secondary Timber Species among Furniture Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antwi-Boasiako

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Inadequate supply of wood raw material is one of the major obstacles for the global furniture industry’s growth. Several secondary timbers/Lesser-Utilized-Species (LUS that could substitute the scarce traditional timbers for furniture production exist in tropical forests. However, the industry continuously faces persistent timber shortages. The extent to which manufacturers utilize LUS as alternatives is unclear, which this study sought to ascertain. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 300 Timber Firms from Ghana primarily through questionnaires using the stratified random sampling technique. Results: Continuous decline and non-availability of preferred traditional timbers and competition from imported furniture were the main challenges confronting the furniture industry. Data obtained indicated that most manufacturers (85% hardly use any LUS; 44% of these mentioned lack of information on their properties and prospective uses and 32% attributed it to non-availability on the domestic timber markets. However, 22% of these producers rely on traditionally ‘well-known’ timbers (e.g. mixed red wood, Guarea cedrata and Tectona grandis owing to their strength properties, 20% due to their strength and durability and 14% because of their strength and aesthetic properties. Many LUS (with prospects for furniture-making available in great quantities in many tropical forests could substitute the over-dependent timbers. However, information on their properties and uses are hardly available to local producers, which affects their popularity among timber suppliers and manufacturers. Conclusion: To improve on the level of utilization of secondary timbers, wood workers must be supplied with comprehensive information about their properties and economic values. This will contribute to reducing pressure on the primary timbers, ensuring consistent supply of timber and keeping the sector operational.

  12. Timber vs. composite/plastic pile fender systems in Pearl Harbor maintenance cost comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Alling, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document The Navy has traditionally used treated timber materials for fender systems for piers and wharves in Pearl Harbor. In recent years, the costs associated with the use of timber have escalated and the Navy has begun to use plastic piles at installations around the world to replace timber fender systems. Plastic fender systems are more expensive, but have greater energy absorption capabilities and are more resilient to environmental decay. To det...

  13. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  14. Stora Enso Timber rajab Imaverre uue tehase Jaapani turu tarvis / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2004-01-01

    Metsatööstuskontsern Stora Enso Timber ehitab Imaverre liimpuidutehase, mis hakkab tootma liimpuittalasid peamiselt Jaapani turu jaoks. Diagramm. Lisa: Pankurid peavad Stora Enso sammu Eestile kasulikuks

  15. This is hardcore: CNC prototypes for timber cores: Designing multi-storey timber buildings from the inside out

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Axel; Larsson, Magnus; Girhammar, Ulf Arne

    2014-01-01

    No architect will make a dent in the universe by designing an excellent services shaft or HVAC system, and yet architects could certainly do a lot worse than focusing on redefining the hidden innards supporting our built environment. Digitally manufactured building designs made from wood can help produce extraordinary cores for multistorey timber buildings. This study aims at investigating the possibilities of such novel building cores. Based on the thesis that contemporary technologies suppo...

  16. Timber Regulation and Value Chain in Community-Based Timber Enterprise and Smallholder Forestry in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Pulhin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest tenure reform has no doubt attained significant gains in promoting social justice and equity in the forest sector, through legal recognition of the communities’ property rights over forest lands in many developing countries. This includes the right to harvest and market trees that the communities planted. Along these lines, the Philippines’ community-based forest management (CBFM and smallholder forestry have the potential to meet the country’s wood demand and contribute to its poverty alleviation goal. Realities on the ground, however, make this lofty aspiration seems too far-fetched. Formal and informal barriers along the timber value chain restrict the growth and obstruct opportunities for community-based timber enterprises (CBTEs and smallholder forestry. Using the case of CBFM and smallholder forestry in the Visayas and Mindanao Islands in the Philippines, respectively, this paper examines the hurdles posed by regulations and informal practices, such as restrictive policies and increased transaction costs, through a segment analysis of the timber value chain. It argues that failure to address these barriers would lead to the decline of CBTEs and smallholder enterprises, thus undermining the merits of the forest tenure reform.

  17. Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.; Carney, Stephanie M.; Tabet, David E.; Johnson, Cari L.

    2010-01-01

    The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

  18. Bear Creek Project. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of certain mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from nine known ore bodies will take place over a period of ten years (estimated); a mill with a nominal capacity of 1000 tons per day of ore will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The waste material (tailings) from the mill, also produced at a rate of about 1000 tons per day, will be stored onsite in an impoundment. Environmental impacts and adverse effects are summarized

  19. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  20. Total Hydrocarbon (THC) of the Lower Kolo Creek in Otuogidi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic wild life and habitats are affected by pollution through physical contact, absorption and inhalation. This study was carried out to investigate the THC values of lower Kolo creek in Otuogidi Bayelsa State – Nigeria for 12 months. THC of sediment and water covering wet and dry season obtained from the creek were ...

  1. Concentration of heavy metals in a Niger Delta Mangrove Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of some heavy metals, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg, and total hydrocarbon content (THC) were assessed in the surface waters of a Niger Delta mangrove creek (Buguma Creek). Samples were collected between November 2004 and October 2006 from five stations. The minimum and maximum ...

  2. Preliminary Chemical and Biological Assessment of Ogbe Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    comprising 15 species and 106 zooplankton made up of 14 species were collected from the creek, mostly pollution tolerant species. Toxic plankton such as ... provides economically valuable food resources. Creeks are .... 1134 pp. Carmichael W. W. (1995) Cyanobacterial toxins In Manual on Harmful Marine Micro algae.

  3. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest... Rangeland Project area. The analysis will determine if a change in management direction for livestock grazing is needed to move existing resource conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area...

  4. 75 FR 52463 - Safety Zone; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule..., NJ. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life and property on navigable waters while... support the Route 130 Bridge spanning the Raccoon Creek in Bridgeport, NJ. A barge will be used to...

  5. Utilizing Creeks for Integrated Rural Coastal Development of Ilaje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural communities in the country are blessed with resources which need to be exploited to achieve rural development. This study examines the Utilization of Creeks for Integrated Coastal Development of Ilaje Area of Nigeria. The primary goal of the study is to carry out inventory on creek resources and how best it could be ...

  6. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  7. Wolf Creek quality trend analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, W.J. II; Lindsay, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Wolf Creek quality trend analysis program has been designed with three primary objectives in mind: (1) to provide a statistically relevant diagnostic and trend identification tool to improve plant availability and reliability; (2) to communicate clearly and concisely need-to-know information to management personnel; and (3) to provide an additional method of obtaining corrective actions to significant quality issues. The analysis methodology uses a relatively sophisticated computer program to continuously evaluate a large data base of current, significant problems. The evaluation process groups similar problems according to their alphanumeric codes and highlights these problems whenever they exceed an established statistical control limit. A root cause analysis is performed by quality department personnel who then combine the various computer-generated graphical summaries into a short, concise trend analysis report. Other essential features of the program include measures for following identified adverse trends and implementing formal corrective actions when necessary. The results of diagnostic and trend analysis graphical summaries are considered important additions to the corrective action program at Wolf Creek. The report provides all levels of management with concise and easily interpreted information concerning quality indicators and trends

  8. Hoe Creek 1990 quarterly sampling cumulative report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crader, S.E.; Huntington, G.S.

    1991-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for benzene and for total phenols three times during 1990. This report summarizes the results of these sampling events and compares the results with those obtained in previous years. Possible further options for remediation of the Hoe Creek site was addressed. Three underground coal gasification (UCG) burns were performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in 1976, 1977, and 1979 at the Hoe Creek site, which is about 20 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming. As a result of these burns, there has been considerable contamination of groundwater by various organic compounds. There have been three efforts at remediating this situation. In 1986 and again in 1987, contaminated water was pumped out, treated, and reinjected. In 1989, the water was pumped, treated, and sprayed into the atmosphere. Benzene and total phenols have been monitored at various monitoring wells as the site during 1990. The highest detected benzene concentration in 1990 was 220 {mu}g/L, and the highest total phenols concentration was 430 {mu}g/L. It is apparent that contamination is still above baseline levels, although the concentration of total phenols is far less than immediately after the burns. The burned coal seams are still releasing organic compounds into the groundwater that passes through them.

  9. Oxalic acid as an assisting agent for the electrodialytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....

  10. Water Quality of Peralta and Courtland Creek Oakland, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A.; Zhen, K. L.; Ponce, X.; Johnson, A.; Varela, N.; Quintero, D.; Hernandez, G.; Oghogho, E.

    2014-12-01

    Authors: Allan Ahumada, Aminah Butler, Mellany Davis, Yarely Guzman, Micah Johnson, Xochitl Ponce, Kim Zhen Abstract: Beginning in the summer of 2012 and continuing to the present time our group has been assessing the water quality of Courtland Creek, which flows from Northeast to Southwest in East Oakland, California. During the summer of 2014 we began assessing the water quality at nearby Peralta Creek to compare the health of Courtland Creek with another one within the same watershed. In making our assessment we have analyzed samples collected from three different sites along both creeks for Nitrate, Phosphate, and Ammonia concentration levels. Additionally, we conducted benthic macroinvertebrate surveys at one site along each creek. Preliminary results indicate that nitrate levels in Courtland Creek waters are very high, which we believe is the result of human and animal waste entering into the creek. There were also unusually high levels of Phosphate and Ammonia detected in creek waters. Such high concentrations were noted in a past study and in an attempt to address this problem we initiated a native plant restoration project at one particular site located at the intersection of Courtland and Thompson avenues. This effort has resulted in a reduction in levels of Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia. The average levels of these compounds in waters collected near the restoration site were lower than those found in samples collected at other sites. However, they are still well above levels that are harmful to invertebrates and fish. Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia concentration levels in samples collected from Peralta Creek were significantly lower than those collected from Courtland Creek. For example, the maximum level of nitrate detected in Courtland Creek waters was 50 PPM while the maximum found in Peralta Creek waters was 15 PPM. We have concluded that the observed high levels of various compounds are the result of animal waste and human feces spilling directly

  11. Simulation of Water Quality in the Tull Creek and West Neck Creek Watersheds, Currituck Sound Basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Currituck Sound was initiated in 2005 to evaluate the water chemistry of the Sound and assess the effectiveness of management strategies. As part of this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate current sediment and nutrient loadings for two distinct watersheds in the Currituck Sound basin and to determine the consequences of different water-quality management scenarios. The watersheds studied were (1) Tull Creek watershed, which has extensive row-crop cultivation and artificial drainage, and (2) West Neck Creek watershed, which drains urban areas in and around Virginia Beach, Virginia. The model simulated monthly streamflows with Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 for Tull Creek and West Neck Creek, respectively. The daily sediment concentration coefficient of determination was 0.19 for Tull Creek and 0.36 for West Neck Creek. The coefficient of determination for total nitrogen was 0.26 for both watersheds and for dissolved phosphorus was 0.4 for Tull Creek and 0.03 for West Neck Creek. The model was used to estimate current (2006-2007) sediment and nutrient yields for the two watersheds. Total suspended-solids yield was 56 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. Total nitrogen export was 45 percent lower, and total phosphorus was 43 percent lower in the urban watershed than in the agricultural watershed. A management scenario with filter strips bordering the main channels was simulated for Tull Creek. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model estimated a total suspended-solids yield reduction of 54 percent and total nitrogen and total phosphorus reductions of 21 percent and 29 percent, respectively, for the Tull Creek watershed.

  12. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long

  13. NDE investigation of the timber foundation in the historic Kennecott Mine Concentration Mill Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Xiping Wang; Douglas R. Rammer; Bessie M. Woodward

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Park Service acquired the National Historic Copper Mine at Kennecott, Alaska, in 1998. There was uncertainty about the condition of the timber-cribbing foundation supporting the concentration mill, the largest building in the mine complex. A comprehensive on-site evaluation of the timber cribbing foundation was performed in summer 2009. The inspection...

  14. Harvesting choices and timber supply among landowners in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Xing Sun; Brett J. Butler; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2015-01-01

    The recent rise of institutional timberland ownership has led to a significant change in the structure and conduct of the timber industry in the United States. In this study,we apply a two-period harvest model to assess the timber harvesting behavior of various landowners at the stand level by utilizing USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data for nine...

  15. Field performance of timber bridges. 7, Connell Lake stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Hislop; M. A. Ritter

    The Connell Lake bridge was constructed in early 1991 on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, as a demonstration bridge under the Timber Bridge Initiative. The bridge is a stress-laminated deck structure with an approximate 36-ft length and 18-ft width and is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge constructed in Alaska. Performance of the bridge was monitored...

  16. Clustering Timber Harvests and the Effects of Dynamic Forest Management Policy on Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    1998-01-01

    To integrate multiple uses (mature forest and commodity production) better on forested lands, timber management strategies that cluster harvests have been proposed. One such approach clusters harvest activity in space and time, and rotates timber production zones across the landscape with a long temporal period (dynamic zoning). Dynamic zoning has...

  17. 77 FR 29537 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... laminated), transmission timbers and pole keys, and for quality control and inspection of timber products...

  18. Timber resource statistics for non-federal forest land in northwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1986 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the 10 counties (Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Hood River, Marion, Multnomah , Polk, Tillamook, Washington, and Yamhill) in northwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  19. Identifying and evaluating environmental impacts associated with timber harvest scheduling policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Randall; Robert W. Sassaman

    1979-01-01

    Expected impacts on the ecosystem and nontimber benefits (that is, people's use of the resources—recreation, hunting, fishing, swimming, etc.) resulting from alternative timber harvest scheduling policies are identified and evaluated for the Mount Hood National Forest. Environmental criteria are established and used in evaluations of timber harvest and...

  20. Market of innovative timber products in Europe and Serbia and their contribution to climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of researching the market of glued laminated timber as the most frequent innovative timber product in constructing timber framed residential facilities in Europe and Serbia. The research included the development of production, consumption and trade flows for the most significant countries in the European Union and Serbia. Additionally, the paper gives characteristics of this innovative timber product regarding dimensions, allowed deviations of dimensions defined in adequate European standard, wood species it is made of and fire resistance. The last part of the paper shows results of econometric modeling of the impact of building timber-framed houses on the consumption of glued laminated timber in Austria as one of the countries belonging to the group of the largest consumers of this innovative timber product in Europe. Taking into consideration that the substitution of classic building materials, primarily concrete, steel and aluminum, with glued laminated timber in residential construction contributes to the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission and climate change mitigation, research results of the effects of such substitution are presented in the last chapter in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  1. Estimating bridge stiffness using a forced-vibration technique for timber bridge health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Xiping Wang; Brian Brashaw; Robert J. Ross

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to refine a global dynamic testing technique for evaluating the overall stiffness of timber bridge superstructures. A forced vibration method was used to measure the frequency response of several simple-span, sawn timber beam (with plank deck) bridges located in St. Louis County, Minnesota. Static load deflections were also measured to...

  2. Deterioration rates of blowndown timber and potential problems associated with product recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Aho; James M. Cahill

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes published reports of deterioration and product recovery studies conducted on dead timber. Decay rates experienced in blowndown timber are presented for western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), Douglasfir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and...

  3. A method for estimating operability and location of the timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Mark H. Hansen; Pamela J. Jakes

    1986-01-01

    Operability is the relative ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Using data collected during standard statewide forest inventories, we developed a method for classifying timber by operability class based on seven operability components.

  4. Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sinha, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a good solution for the decentralized energy production in off-grid regions of developing countries. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the mechanical testing and choice of timber for wind blades, testing of different coa...

  5. Field performance of stress-laminated highway bridges constructed with glued laminated timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Wacker

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the field performance of three stress-laminated deck timber bridges located in Wisconsin, New York, and Arizona. The deck superstructures of these single-span highway bridges is comprised of full-span glued laminated timber (glulam) beam laminations manufactured with southern pine, hem fir/red maple combination, and/or Douglas fir lumber species....

  6. Timber bridge evaluation : a global nondestructive approach using impact generated FRFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus Morison; C.D. Van Karsen; H.A. Evensen; J.B. Ligon; J.R. Erickson; R.J. Ross; J.W. Forsman

    2002-01-01

    Bridges require periodic inspections to ensure the safety of those using the structure. A visual inspection has historically been the most common form of investigation for timber bridges. This poses many problems when inspecting bridge timbers since often the damage is internal, leaving no visible signs of decay on the surface. Localized nondestructive evaluation (NDE...

  7. The effects of population growth on timber management and inventories in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Rei Liu; J. Michael Foreman; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1999-01-01

    Expanding human populations may have important effects on the availability of timber from private lands in the South. To examine the effects of development on timber supply, the authors compared the density of populations and various site variables with expert opinions on the future location of commercial timberland for a study site in Virginia. Population density is a...

  8. Drivers of Housing Demolition Decision Making and the Impact on Timber Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry John Forsythe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates housing demolition and timber waste recovery – with the aim to identify ways of improving recovery. Using case studies the research focused on demolisher decision making, their onsite processes and the associated network of participants that influence timber recovery. From the data, a process model was developed that identifies and orders the drivers of demolition decision making. One aspect of the model identified the initiators of demolition and the waste created, including issues revolving around the demolition feedstock. Another aspect covers organisational business drivers and includes site safety, productivity, economies of scale, market value of waste and supply chain entrepreneurship. A third component deals with project specific drivers including the recurring cost versus income equation that impacts on the viability of project level decisions. The model includes a typology of the operational onsite response to the above drivers. Here, the deconstruction approach was found to provide high timber recovery mainly used where high-value timber waste was involved; the miscellaneous salvage approach provided some recovery of high and low-value timber; the crunch and dump approach provided low recovery or dumping at landfill and was used where low and no-value timber was involved. An expected increase in supply of these latter timber categories creates a significant need to increase the market value of currently low value timber groups. Designing for deconstruction is also posed as a long term strategy for this. 

  9. Timber resource statistics for all forest land, except national forests, in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1987 timber resource inventory of all forest land, except National Forests, in the 17 counties (Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties) in eastern Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  10. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in west-central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985-86 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the four counties (Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn) in west-central Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  11. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the five counties (Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, and Josephine) in southwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  12. Timber rattlesnakes and Louisiana pine snakes of the West Gulf Coastal Plain: hypotheses of decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    1997-01-01

    Timber rattlesnakes (Croatlus horridus) and Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus ruthveni) are large-bodies snakes occurring on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Both species are thoguht to be declining due to increasing habitat alteration. Timber rattlesnakes occur in closed canopy hardwood and pine-hardwood forests, and...

  13. 36 CFR 223.193 - Procedures for reporting acquisition and disposition of unprocessed Federal timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the calendar year listing, by company, from whom the timber was acquired; the date of acquisition... certificate stating that: (i) The certifier has read and understands the form; (ii) The certifier is eligible... applicable laws. (b) Transfer of unprocessed National Forest System timber. Each person who transfers to...

  14. 32 CFR 644.508 - Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA) on sale of timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA) on sale of timber. 644.508 Section 644.508 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  15. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting... or designated by forest officers may be cut and removed for personal use for domestic purposes...

  16. Live-load performance evaluation of historic covered timber bridges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwon Seo; Travis K. Hosteng; Brent M. Phares; James P. Wacker

    2015-01-01

    The National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation Program (NHCBP), sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), was established to preserve the covered timber bridge structures that were constructed in the early 1800s. Today, many of the approximately 880 covered timber bridges still in existence in the United States are closed to vehicular traffic;...

  17. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to resolve caribou management and timber harvesting issues in west central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hervieux

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.

  18. Analysis of the Interaction Between Timber Markets and the Forest Resources of Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold

    2004-01-01

    The abundant timber resources of Maine are critical to the State's timber economy; thus, when the 1995 forest inventory indicated a 20% decline in softwood growing stock, there was great concern by industry and government. Furthermore, declining near-term softwood growing stock levels were forecast. To better understand what was occurring in Maine's forest,...

  19. Sustainable forest management of tropical forests can reduce carbon emissions and stabilize timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Sasaki; G.P. Asner; Yude Pan; W. Knorr; P.B. Durst; H.O. Ma; I. Abe; A.J. Lowe; L.P. Koh

    2016-01-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change has provided opportunities to manage tropical forests for timber production and carbon emission reductions. To determine the appropriate loggingtechniques, we analyzed potential timber production and carbon emission reductions under two logging techniques over a 40-year period of selective...

  20. Time-of-Flight Adjustment Procedure for Acoustic Measurements in Structural Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbiel F. Llana; Guillermo Iñiguez-Gonzalez; Francisco Arriaga; Xiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of timber length on time-of-flight acoustic longitudinal measurements was investigated on the structural timber of four Spanish species: radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), laricio pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Time-of-flight longitudinal measurements were conducted on 120 specimens of...

  1. Laboratory investigation of fire protection coatings for creosote-treated timber railroad bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Robert H. White; James P. Wacker; Stan T. Lebow; Mark A. Dietenberger; Samuel L. Zelinka; Nicole M. Stark

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of timber railroad bridge fires increases, so has the need to develop protective measures to reduce the risk from accidental ignitions primarily caused by hot metal objects. Of the six barrier treatments evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to protect timbers from fires sourced with ignition from hot metal objects only one intumescent coating...

  2. Creosote retention levels of timber highway bridge superstructures in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Douglas M. Crawford; Merv O. Eriksson

    2003-01-01

    Environmental concerns about preservative bleeding (or migrating) from timber bridges have increased in recent years. This preliminary study examined the creosote retention levels at six timber highway bridges in Michigan's lower peninsula during the summer of 2000. Several test core samples were removed from the bridge superstructures (four bleeders and two...

  3. Development of a smart timber bridge girder with fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Ursula Deza; Brent M. Phares; Terry J. Wipf

    2010-01-01

    Past timber bridge evaluation and maintenance efforts in the USA have principally focused on the internal integrity of timber components using various non-destructive evaluation tools to supplement visual inspection data. This project is part of a comprehensive effort to develop smart structure concepts for improving the long-term performance, maintenance, and...

  4. Simplified Analytical Model for a Queen-Post Covered Timber Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    F Fanous; D. Rammer; T. Wipf

    2013-01-01

    During the 19th century, the economic material to build bridges was timber due to its abundant availability, cost, and ease of construction. Many of the well-known timber bridge types are the Burr arch, Town lattice, Howe, Queen and King type of trusses. This paper summarizes an investigation that was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration and the USDA Forest...

  5. Predicting moisture state of timber members in a continuously varying climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan; Turk, Goran; Hozjan, Tomaz

    2011-01-01

    A prerequisite for a sensible estimate of moisture induced stresses in timber members is an accurate prediction of the members’ moisture states during their service life. There are, however, an infinite number of possible moisture states for an arbitrary timber member in a natural varying climate...

  6. Analysis of timber and coating material on an iron anchor recovered off Aguada Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Rao, B.R.; Shashikala, S.; Rao, R.V.; Khedekar, V.D.

    is 4.37 m and is made of two timbers joined together with nine nails (pins) (Figure 3). The thickness of each timber varies from 20 to 30 cm. Inci- dentally the length of the stock is much longer than the anchor. A well-preserved uniform thin layer...

  7. Timber harvesting, processing, and employment in the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative region: changes and economic assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Raettig; Harriet H. Christensen

    1999-01-01

    The Northwest economic adjustment initiative (NWEAI) provides economic assistance to a region including western Washington, western Oregon, and northern California. Timber harvests have fallen markedly in this region since 1990. The forest products industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the region, and employment has followed the downward trend in timber...

  8. Effect of web stiffness on the bending behaviour of timber composite I-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racher, P.; Bocquet, J.F.; Bouchair, A.

    2007-01-01

    The design of timber I-beams with glued OSB web is currently based on simplified analytical model and experimental works. At the ultimate limit state, normal forces in the flanges and shear stresses in the web govern the load-carrying capacity of the beams. Applications in industrial or commercial buildings requires cross-section with greater height. In this paper, the effect of the slenderness of the web is analysed through an experimental program and a finite element model. For beams with finger-jointed flanges and butt-joints between web panels, the effective stiffness and the bending capacity are evaluated considering a web of 12 mm in thickness and height varying from 225 to 495 mm. The experimental values of the effective stiffness were compared to the theoretical evaluation taking into account the shear deformations of the web. For highest heights of the cross-section, the results shown that the ultimate capacity is governed by the plate behaviour of the web, resulting in the failure of the glued joint. On this basis, the internal behaviour is examined using a three-dimensional finite element modelling. The effect of the mains parameters such as the relative stiffness of the components and the gap between web panels is investigated. The stress concentration in the area of the web joint is analysed and a new design criterion is calibrated

  9. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  10. Multi-Scalar Modelling for Free-form Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poinet, Paul; Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    in the segmentation strategy of glue-laminated timber structures that depend on structural requirements and the different types of constraints related to fabrication, transportation and assembly. Where current working practices decouple segmentation processes within a discrete digital workflow, this research aims...... to integrate and negotiate the different parameters that drive the same segmentation strategy within a continuous environment. The research is developed in close collaboration with two industry partners – Buro Happold and DesignToProduction – and focuses on the implementation of Multi-Scalar Modelling concepts...

  11. Smart timber bridges for in-situ evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Xiaobin; Kainz, James; Peterson, Michael L.; Landis, Eric N.

    1998-03-01

    It has become well known that the roadway infrastructure in the United States has been deteriorating over the pst 20 years. Recently, the Federal Highway Administration has listed nearly 50 percent of the countries bridges as either structural deficient or functionally obsolete. In this group, approximately 75 percent are located on rural or secondary roads and are in the small to medium span range. In order to prioritize the structures in most need of repair or replacement, inspection methods need to be introduced that will take into account all types of bridges including those constructed of concrete, steel and timber.

  12. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  13. 31 CFR 593.510 - Transactions related to the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. 593.510 Section 593.510... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. Except as otherwise... into the United States of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia are authorized. ...

  14. 31 CFR 593.205 - Prohibition on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... round log or timber product originating in Liberia. 593.205 Section 593.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia. Except as otherwise... section, the importation into the United States, directly or indirectly, of any round log or timber...

  15. The transport of zinc and manganese tracers across the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Calf, G.E.; Davison, A.; Easey, J.F.; Morley, A.

    1983-01-01

    A study has been made of the transport of 54 Mn and 65 Zn released into Magela Creek near Jabiru and into the Leichhardt Billabong on the Magela Plains. Near Jabiru, both isotopes were systematically removed from the surface water by adsorption on the bottom sediments. The 54 Mn was preferentially removed initially; the 65 Zn adsorption became relatively more significant further downstream. Systematic differences are thought to reflect the time-dependent evolution of the species distribution in fresh water systems. The heavy metal tracers injected into the Leichhardt Billabong were non-selectively removed by the vegetation as the radioactive plume crossed onto the shallow flood plain

  16. Observations on the seasonal distribution of native fish in a 10-kilometer reach of San Bernardino Creek, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. O. Minckley

    2013-01-01

    San Bernardino Creek is a northern tributary of the Río Yaqui that originates in the United States and crosses the International Border just east of Douglas, Arizona/Agua Prieta, Sonora and immediately south of San Bernardino/Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge. Six of eight Río Yaqui native fishes occur in this reach:four minnows, a sucker, and a poeciliid....

  17. Application of modern timber structure in short and medium span bridges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Fu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of problems about Chinese bridges with short and medium span recent years were analyzed in this paper. The necessity and feasibility of modern timber structure applied in short and medium span bridges in China were also put forward. The results showed that the short and medium span bridges had many problems, such as monotonous structural forms, serious environmental pollution, multiple bridge defects and difficulty in maintenance. With the development of connection and maintenance technology of modern timber structure and its advantages of light self-weight, environmental coordination, high carrying capacity, excellent durability and abundant structural forms, it was necessary and feasible to apply modern timber structure in short and medium span bridges in China. More emphasis on the construction of modern timber structure should be conducted to expand its application scopes and improve the construction proportion of short and medium span timber bridges.

  18. A EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS ON TIMBER CONCRETE COMPOSITE GIRDER BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Shogo

    In applying the glulam timber to the large-sized structures, the new types of connections have been developed. In presence, there are a few joint systems using steel plates and bolts. However, those systems are not always adequately satisfied with durability. Therefore, the new joint system by prestressing was developed. In Nagano prefecture, the timber-concrete composite bridge was provided as the standard design of timber bridges, and the joint system is by prestressing. In case of concrete girder, work of prestress decrease by elastic strain, creep, and etc. However, timber-concrete composite girder is not cleared numerically. In this study, we discussed the effective prestress on timber-concrete composite girder based on time-dependent of prestress checked in existing bridge, and we suggest the evaluation method of it.

  19. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two methods of reintroduction are being simultaneously evaluated at Duncan Creek. Recolonization is occurring by introducing adult chum salmon from the Lower Gorge (LG) population into Duncan Creek and allowing them to naturally reproduce. The supplementation strategy required adults to be collected and artificially spawned, incubated, reared, and released at the mouth of Duncan Creek. All eggs from the artificial crossings at Washougal Hatchery were incubated and the fry reared to release size at the hatchery. The Duncan Creek chum salmon project was very successful in 2003-04, providing knowledge and experience that will improve program execution in future years. The gear used to collect adult brood stock was changed from tangle nets to beach seines. This increased efficiency and the speed at which adults could be processed in the field, and most likely reduced stress on the adults handled. Certain weaknesses exposed in past seasons still exist and new ones were exposed (e.g. inadequate incubation and rearing space at Washougal Hatchery for any large salvage operation and having to move the rearing troughs outside the raceway in 2004). Egg-to-fry survival rates of 64% and 58% showed that the channels are functioning at the upper end of what can be expected from them. Possibly the most important event this season was the ability to strontium mark and release all naturally-produced fry from the spawning channels. Channel and floodplain modifications reduced the likelihood that floods will damage the channels and negatively impact survival rates.

  20. Sherman Creek Hatchery, annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. Monitoring and evaluation is preformed by the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program. From 1988 to 1998, the principle sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year period. The most recent information from the

  1. Sherman Creek Hatchery, annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Sherman Creek Hatchery's primary objective is the restoration and enhancement of the recreational and subsistence fishery in Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The Sherman Creek Hatchery (SCH) was designed to rear 1.7 million kokanee fry for acclimation and imprinting during the spring and early summer. Additionally, it was designed to trap all available returning adult kokanee during the fall for broodstock operations and evaluations. Since the start of this program, the operations on Lake Roosevelt have been modified to better achieve program goals. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Colville Confederated Tribe form the interagency Lake Roosevelt Hatcheries Coordination Team (LRHCT) which sets goals and objectives for both Sherman Creek and the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and serves to coordinate enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake. The primary changes have been to replace the kokanee fingerling program with a yearling (post smolt) program of up to 1,000,000 fish. To construct and operate twenty net pens to handle the increased production. The second significant change was to rear up to 300,000 rainbow trout fingerling at SCH from July through October, for stocking into the volunteer net pens. This enables the Spokane Tribal Hatchery (STH) to rear additional kokanee to further the enhancement efforts on Lake Roosevelt. Current objectives include increased use of native/indigenous stocks where available for propagation into Upper Columbia River Basin Waters. The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program (LRFEP) is responsible for monitoring and evaluation on the Lake Roosevelt Projects. From 1988 to 1998, the principal sport fishery on Lake Roosevelt has shifted from walleye to include rainbow trout and kokanee salmon (Underwood et al. 1997, Tilson and Scholz 1997). The angler use, harvest rates for rainbow and kokanee and the economic value of the fishery has increased substantially during this 10-year

  2. Bear Creek Project. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Bear Creek Project consists of mining and milling operations involving uranium ore deposits located in Converse County, Wyoming. Mining of uranium from six known ore bodies will take place over ten years; a 1000 tons ore/day will be constructed and operated as long as ore is available. The tailings will be stored onsite in an impoundment. The project would convert 2700 acres from grazing use to mining/milling activities for about ten years. Mining would disturb a total of 1600 acres but, because of reclamation, the max acreage disturbed at any one time would be about 1000 acres, the average being about 650 acres. Dose rates were computed for an individual in a ranch house at the nearest ranch. Conditions for the protection of the environment are proposed. Possible environmental impacts evaluated cover air, land, water, soil, vegetation, wildlife, and community. A benefit-cost analysis is made

  3. Bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrea C; Balk, David E

    2007-08-01

    A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included: (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in the casket; (d) digging graves by hand; (e) each individual throwing a handful of dirt into the grave before covering, called giving a "farewell handshake"; (f) covering the grave completely by hand; (g) building a house over the grave; (h) waiting 4 days before burial; (i) using medicine/purification; and (j) adhering to socialized mourning period. Cultural values of family, community, religion, importance of the number 4, Indian medicine, and the meaning of death contributed to the development of these rituals.

  4. Thermal evolution of the central Halls Creek Orogen, northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodorkos, S.; Cawood, P.A.; Oliver, N.H.S.

    1999-01-01

    relatively cold (∼350degC) when intruded by the Fletcher Creek Granite at ca 1850 Ma. but were subsequently heated rapidly to 700-800degC during peak metamorphism at ca 1845 Ma. Repeated injection of mafic magmas caused multiple remelting of the metasedimentary wall rocks, with mappable increases in leucosome volume that show a strong spatial relationship to these intrusives. This mafic igneous activity prolonged the elevated geotherm and ensured that the rocks remained very hot (≥650degC) for at least 10 million years. The Mabel Downs Tonalite was emplaced during amphibolite facies metamorphism, with intrusion commencing at ca 1835 Ma. Its compositional heterogeneity, and the presence of mutual cross-cutting relations between ductile shear zones and multiple injections of mingled magma suggest that it was emplaced syn-D 3 . Broad-scale folding attributable to F 4 was accompanied by widespread intrusion of granitoids, and F 4 fold limbs are truncated by large, mostly brittle retrograde S 4 shear zones. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Assessments of the market prospects for Myanmar timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Maung-Win

    2001-08-01

    Myanmar has been exporting teak and hardwood logs and conversions for a long time. It is found that there are three types of market situations with regard to logs and conversions. They are: situation that the demand of the market is strong; situation that the market has just picked up; situation that the demand is sluggish. Countries where the demand is strong are India, Thailand and Malaysia. Countries where the market is picking up are Singapore, PRC and the Middle East. Similarly, Europe's market is on the rise. Japan, Korea, Hong Kong and Pakistan markets are sluggish temporarily. North America's market can be said to be sluggish too. It is found that Australia has not been buying timber directly from Myanmar for the last few years and that it may not be in a position to buy Myanmar teak voluminously in the near future either. This paper is therefore a report focused on Myanmar Timber Enterprises' endeavour to earn foreign exchange in US Dollars and its assessment and evaluation of the market. The international market situation is studied and each country's situation focused on and presented. (author)

  6. A review on environmental education in Myanmar Timber Enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin-Zaw

    2001-08-01

    Environmental education in the Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE) began formally in 1996. Environmental considerations had been incorporated in the deparmental instructions and operation manuals of extraction and wood processing since the emergence of MTE, then named STate Timber Board in 1948, but the modern concept of environmental conservation for sustainable development was introduced to the staff of MTE beginning only in 1996. The training contents constitute the defintion of environmental conservation as sustainable development, global environmental awareness, Myanmar's participation in global environmental undertakings, national institution and awareness progammes, the concept of reduced impact logging, code of harvesting, and above all, the environmental impact assessment (EIA) methodology as a tool for environmental management. In the MTE, 20 officers have been trained at a two-week workshop on EIA; 180 trainees from the Extraction Department, mostly the persons in charge of extraction ranges, have been trained at five-day short and mobile trainings on EIA around the country; and 948 officers and subordinate staff have been trained at the vocational training centres of MTE covering the above outline of the course, depending upon the training duration and trainees' rank, up to the end of December, 2000. Evaluation on EIA workshop and some training courses, problems and constraints encountered at the trainings and suggestions sought are also discussed in the paper. (author)

  7. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug.  This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude.  The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation.  Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise.  These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw

  8. Chemical Properties of Juvenile Latex Timber Clone Rubber wood Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaiza Ahmad Zaki; Suhaimi Muhammed; Amran Shafie; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2012-01-01

    Latex timber clone (LTC) rubber wood trees were introduced by Lembaga Getah Malaysia (LGM) for obtaining good yield of latex as well as the quality timber. Two juvenile clones namely RRIM2009 and RRIM2024 were selected for measuring the chemical properties based on TAPPI standards and were assessed at different height levels (top, middle and bottom). These chemical properties of wood can serve as an indicator for predicting the wood behavior for specific end usage. The findings revealed that there were significant variation between the clones and the highest value was obtained at the bottom portion except for lignin content. Clone RRIM2009 exhibited higher percentage of ash content (0.80 %) and lignin content (17.30 %). While Clone RRIM2024 has greater value of holocellulose content (58.58 %) and alpha-cellulose content (41.41 %). According to the different height levels, top portion exhibited highest lignin content (17.64 % for RRIM2009 and 16.75 % for RRIM2024). While bottom portion exhibited highest holocellulose (58.93 % for RRIM2009 and 60.56 % for RRIM2024), highest alpha-cellulose (39.75 % for RRIM2009 and 43.02 % for RRIM2024) and highest ash content (0.85 % for RRIM2009 and 0.71 % for RRIM2024). As a whole, clone RRIM2024 gave higher value except for lignin and ash content compared to RRIM2009. Thus, the potential of using such LTC rubber wood trees for specific purposes is promising. (author)

  9. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  10. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish

  11. Understanding the relationships between American ginseng harvest and hardwood forests inventory and timber harvest to improve co-management of the forests of eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Stephen Prisley; Michael McGuffin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of American ginseng have been harvested from the hardwood forests of eastern United States, along-side timber, since the mid-1700s. Very little is known about this non-timber commodity relative to timber, although significant volumes of ginseng root have been harvested from the same forests along with timber. The harvest of ginseng correlated positively and...

  12. Application of GPS and GIS to map channel features in Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    A 12-km reach of Walnut Creek was mapped at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Jasper County, Iowa to identify and prioritize areas of the stream channel in need of further investigation or restoration. Channel features, including streambank conditions, bottom sediment materials and thickness, channel cross-sections, debris dams, tile lines, tributary creeks, and cattle access points, were located to one-meter accuracy with global positioning system (GPS) equipment and described while traversing the stream. The GPS data were exported into a Geographic Information System (GIS) format, and field descriptions were added to create a series of coverages. Channel features were coupled with existing land cover data for analysis. Left and right streambank erosion rates varied from slight in many areas to severe at outside meander bends, debris dams or cattle access points. Erosion estimates from this study suggest that stream banks contribute about 50 percent of the annual suspended sediment load in the channel. Substrate materials varied from bare or thinly mantled pre-Illinoian till to thick silty muck (> 0.3 m) behind some debris dams and cattle access points. Occurrences of sand and gravel areas were generally restricted to cattle access areas and bridge crossings. A total of 81 debris dams were identified in the stream channel, ranging from fallen trees and beaver dams to several large debris dams. Numerous tile lines (52 total) and tributary creeks (45 total) were mapped as contributing flow to the main channel. Cross-sections measured at 34 locations indicated Walnut Creek averages 10.64 m wide and 2.77 m deep, with the width and depth increasing downstream. Channelization and tile discharge in row crop land use areas have contributed to increased bed degradation and channel widening throughout the watershed. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of a one-time detailed mapping program to characterize stream system variability and identify

  13. Beaver dams and channel sediment dynamics on Odell Creek, Centennial Valley, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rebekah; Meyer, Grant A.

    2014-01-01

    Beaver dams in streams are generally considered to increase bed elevation through in-channel sediment storage, thus, reintroductions of beaver are increasingly employed as a restoration tool to repair incised stream channels. Here we consider hydrologic and geomorphic characteristics of the study stream in relation to in-channel sediment storage promoted by beaver dams. We also document the persistence of sediment in the channel following breaching of dams. Nine reaches, containing 46 cross-sections, were investigated on Odell Creek at Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Centennial Valley, Montana. Odell Creek has a snowmelt-dominated hydrograph and peak flows between 2 and 10 m3 s- 1. Odell Creek flows down a fluvial fan with a decreasing gradient (0.018-0.004), but is confined between terraces along most of its length, and displays a mostly single-thread, variably sinuous channel. The study reaches represent the overall downstream decrease in gradient and sediment size, and include three stages of beaver damming: (1) active; (2) built and breached in the last decade; and (3) undammed. In-channel sediment characteristics and storage were investigated using pebble counts, fine-sediment depth measurements, sediment mapping and surveys of dam breaches. Upstream of dams, deposition of fine (≤ 2 mm) sediment is promoted by reduced water surface slope, shear stress and velocity, with volumes ranging from 48 to 182 m3. High flows, however, can readily transport suspended sediment over active dams. Variations in bed-sediment texture and channel morphology associated with active dams create substantial discontinuities in downstream trends and add to overall channel heterogeneity. Observations of abandoned dam sites and dam breaches revealed that most sediment stored above beaver dams is quickly evacuated following a breach. Nonetheless, dam remnants trap some sediment, promote meandering and facilitate floodplain development. Persistence of beaver dam sediment

  14. Water chemistry - Thornton Creek Restoration Project Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA has designed and is currently implementing a hyporheic monitoring plan for the Thornton Creek watershed in North Seattle. This work is being conducted for...

  15. Missing link between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet; Ponce, David A.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    The next major earthquake to strike the ~7 million residents of the San Francisco Bay Area will most likely result from rupture of the Hayward or Rodgers Creek faults. Until now, the relationship between these two faults beneath San Pablo Bay has been a mystery. Detailed subsurface imaging provides definitive evidence of active faulting along the Hayward fault as it traverses San Pablo Bay and bends ~10° to the right toward the Rodgers Creek fault. Integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface—a geometric relationship that has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard. A direct link enables simultaneous rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults, a scenario that could result in a major earthquake (M = 7.4) that would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact.

  16. Tidal flow characteristics at Kasheli (Kalwa/ Bassein creek), Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Tidal flow characteristics of waters at Kasheli, connected to the sea through Thane and Bassein Creeks in Bombay, Maharashtra, India are investigated based on tide and current observations carried out in 1980-81. The results establish that the tidal...

  17. Ecology of phytoplankton from Dharmatar Creek, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Phytoplankton pigment, cell count and species diversity wee studied at five locations in Dharamtar Creek during September 1984 to November 1985. Chemical parameters indicated a healthy system free of any environmental stress. The water...

  18. Missing link between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet; Ponce, David; Parsons, Tom; Hart, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The next major earthquake to strike the ~7 million residents of the San Francisco Bay Area will most likely result from rupture of the Hayward or Rodgers Creek faults. Until now, the relationship between these two faults beneath San Pablo Bay has been a mystery. Detailed subsurface imaging provides definitive evidence of active faulting along the Hayward fault as it traverses San Pablo Bay and bends ~10° to the right toward the Rodgers Creek fault. Integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface-a geometric relationship that has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard. A direct link enables simultaneous rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults, a scenario that could result in a major earthquake ( M = 7.4) that would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact.

  19. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  20. Holes Creek, Water Resources Development. Volume 2. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    habitation site of undetermined cultural affiliation, is located on the left bank of Holes Creek, west of Lamme Road and north of Bellbrook Road. The...HC-2 From Springboro Pike to Lamme Road HC-3 From Lamme Road to Alexandersville- Bellbrook Road HC-4 From Alexandersville- Bellbrook Road to Mad River...undetermined cultural affiliation, is located on the left bank of Holes Creek, west of Lamme Road, and north of Bellbrook Road. Site 33MY306, the Joseph

  1. Simulation of streamflow and estimation of recharge to the Edwards aquifer in the Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek watersheds, south-central Texas, 1951-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, constructed three watershed models using the Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN (HSPF) to simulate streamflow and estimate recharge to the Edwards aquifer in the Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek watersheds in south-central Texas. The three models were calibrated and tested with available data collected during 1992–2003. Simulations of streamflow and recharge were done for 1951–2003. The approach to construct the models was to first calibrate the Hondo Creek model (with an hourly time step) using 1992–99 data and test the model using 2000–2003 data. The Hondo Creek model parameters then were applied to the Verde Creek and San Geronimo Creek watersheds to construct the Verde Creek and San Geronimo Creek models. The simulated streamflows for Hondo Creek are considered acceptable. Annual, monthly, and daily simulated streamflows adequately match measured values, but simulated hourly streamflows do not. The accuracy of streamflow simulations for Verde Creek is uncertain. For San Geronimo Creek, the match of measured and simulated annual and monthly streamflows is acceptable (or nearly so); but for daily and hourly streamflows, the calibration is relatively poor. Simulated average annual total streamflow for 1951–2003 to Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek is 45,400; 32,400; and 11,100 acre-feet, respectively. Simulated average annual streamflow at the respective watershed outlets is 13,000; 16,200; and 6,920 acre-feet. The difference between total streamflow and streamflow at the watershed outlet is streamflow lost to channel infiltration. Estimated average annual Edwards aquifer recharge for Hondo Creek, Verde Creek, and San Geronimo Creek watersheds for 1951–2003 is 37,900 acrefeet (5.04 inches), 26,000 acre-feet (3.36 inches), and 5,940 acre-feet (1.97 inches), respectively. Most of the recharge (about 77 percent for the three watersheds

  2. A mangrove creek restoration plan utilizing hydraulic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Darryl E; Mitsch, William J

    2017-11-01

    Despite the valuable ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems they remain threatened around the globe. Urban development has been a primary cause for mangrove destruction and deterioration in south Florida USA for the last several decades. As a result, the restoration of mangrove forests has become an important topic of research. Using field sampling and remote-sensing we assessed the past and present hydrologic conditions of a mangrove creek and its connected mangrove forest and brackish marsh systems located on the coast of Naples Bay in southwest Florida. We concluded that the hydrology of these connected systems had been significantly altered from its natural state due to urban development. We propose here a mangrove creek restoration plan that would extend the existing creek channel 1.1 km inland through the adjacent mangrove forest and up to an adjacent brackish marsh. We then tested the hydrologic implications using a hydraulic model of the mangrove creek calibrated with tidal data from Naples Bay and water levels measured within the creek. The calibrated model was then used to simulate the resulting hydrology of our proposed restoration plan. Simulation results showed that the proposed creek extension would restore a twice-daily flooding regime to a majority of the adjacent mangrove forest and that there would still be minimal tidal influence on the brackish marsh area, keeping its salinity at an acceptable level. This study demonstrates the utility of combining field data and hydraulic modeling to aid in the design of mangrove restoration plans.

  3. Surface-water resources of Polecat Creek basin, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L.L.

    1956-01-01

    A compilation of basic data on surface waters in Polecat Creek basin is presented on a monthly basis for Heyburn Reservoir and for Polecat Creek at Heyburn, Okla. Chemical analyses are shown for five sites in the basin. Correlation of runoff records with those for nearby basins indicates that the average annual runoff of the basin above gaging station at Heyburn is 325 acre-feet per square mile. Estimated duration curves of daily flow indicate that under natural conditions there would be no flow in Polecat Creek at Heyburn (drainage area, 129 square miles) about 16 percent of the time on an average, and that the flow would be less than 3 cubic feet per second half of the time. As there is no significant base flow in the basin, comparable low flows during dry-weather periods may be expected in other parts of the basin. During drought periods Heyburn Reservoir does not sustain a dependable low-water flow in Polecat Creek. Except for possible re-use of the small sewage effluent from city of Sapulpa, dependable supplies for additional water needs on the main stem will require development of supplemental storage. There has been no regular program for collection of chemical quality data in the basin, but miscellaneous analyses indicate a water of suitable quality for municipal and agricultural uses in Heyburn Reservoir and Polecat Creek near Heyburn. One recent chemical analysis indicates the possibility of a salt pollution problem in the Creek near Sapulpa. (available as photostat copy only)

  4. Timbered Architecture in the Regions of the Walddeutsche Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrehorowicz – Gaber, Hanna

    2017-10-01

    The centuries-old Polish history, its complicated fortunes and borders changing over the centuries have caused the cultural heritage to be a reflection of the fate of the inhabitants, the intermingling of ethnic groups and the common formation of the culture of the region. The cultural area of southern Poland is particularly full of layers, where diverse historical and geographical influences blend together. That is why the presence of the common construction type for the wooden objects on the two ends of southern Poland, in two different geographical realms, is such an interesting testimony of the Polish cultural melting pot. The main area of the occurrence of the timbered architecture is the borderland of Germany, the Czech Republic and Poland. This type of houses was built for the first time in the Middle Ages in the area of Upper Lusatia, then this type of housing has spread to northern Czech Republic and the western part of Lower Silesia. In Poland, there are two main clusters of the occurrence of timbered structures: in Lower Silesia and in the Subcarpathian province, where this type of buildings has been rooted with the German settlers, called the Walddeutsche in this area. The colonisation was also accompanied by the model of settlement village systems moved from the west, the development of the plot, and this specific type of construction. The architecture of the Jasielsko-Sanockie Valleys and the Dynowskie foothills is an interesting, though a very poor form in relation to the Sudeten houses, as the architecture non-recurring in other Polish regions has been formed as a result of the intermingling of the cultures. In this area, the houses and farm buildings with the timbered structures were used most often by farmers and they were not too impressive, so that the residents did not notice their uniqueness. Today, in the natural landscape, they disappear one by one, as a result of lack of maintenance and the replacement of the old materials with objects of a

  5. CREEK Project's Nekton Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  6. CREEK Project's Microzooplankton Seasonal Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  7. CONTRIBUTION TO THE POTENTIAL OF USING FRP MATERIALS IN THE REHABILITATION AND STABILIZATION OF TIMBERED BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Čejka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wooden log, timbered perimeter and interior walls ranked among the most common building constructions used from the Early Middle Ages. In most cases, the local natural resources, i.e. wood, clay, straw and stone, were used for building houses with wooden framing. This article outlines typical defects and failures of timbered houses, “classic” techniques for the rehabilitation of these defects and failures indicating the potential of using composite materials based on high- strength fibres and epoxy resin in the rehabilitation and strengthening of timbered buildings.

  8. Probabilistic Robustness Analysis of Timber Structures—Results from EU COST Action E55:WG3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from Working Group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55—‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental exposur...... scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  9. Robustness Analysis of a Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour in Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic approach for structural robustness assessment for a timber structure built a few years ago. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability based framework for robustness assessment. The complex timber structure with a large number of failure modes...... is modelled by only a few dominant failure modes. A component based robustness analysis is performed based on reliability indices of remaining elements after assumed failure of selected critical elements. Two different approaches are used; first failure of elements is assumed to be brittle and second where...... material ductility of timber is taken into account. The robustness is expressed and evaluated by a robustness index....

  10. Timber Harvest Effects on Sediment and Water Yields and Analysis of Sediment Load Calculation Methods in the Interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elverson, C.; Karwan, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Timber harvest practices have a long-standing association with changes in water and sediment yields. We quantify the trends in water and sediment yields in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in relation to management practices with linear regression and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From 1991 to 2013, an increase in water yield resulted from both clearcutting and thinning treatments, with monthly water yield rate increases of 13-57% and annual water yield increases up to 210 mm (40%) in the clearcut watershed. Following treatment, annual sediment yields increased in the clearcut watershed by 40-131% and the thinned watershed by 33-163%, both relative to the control watershed, with statistically-significant monthly load increases in the year immediately following treatment. Water and sediment yield changes do not follow the same post-treatment patterns. Water yields increased immediately following treatment and, over time, gradually dropped towards pre-harvest levels. Annual sediment yields increased in some years after the harvest, but in some cases the increase was years after treatment. Monthly sediment yields increased in the first year following the clearcut harvest, but elevated monthly loads following the partial cut harvest came years later. Hence, we investigate the changes in sediment yield through an examination of water yield and sediment concentration and in response to events. We test the sensitivity of our results to different methods for computing sediment yields based on total suspended solids concentration and continuous discharge measurements. Flow-weighted sediment yield averaged 24% higher than sediment yield computed from linear-interpolated total suspended solids concentration values. During typical summer and fall conditions, flow-weighting was found to overweight storm measurements and produce large sediment yield estimates. Further work is suggested to test methods of calculating monthly sediment yields with irregularly

  11. Applying Physically Representative Watershed Modelling to Assess Peak and Low Flow Response to Timber Harvest: Application for Watershed Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Anderson, A.; Silins, U.; Craig, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Forest harvesting, insects, disease, wildfire, and other disturbances can combine with climate change to cause unknown changes to the amount and timing of streamflow from critical forested watersheds. Southern Alberta forest and alpine areas provide downstream water supply for agriculture and water utilities that supply approximately two thirds of the Alberta population. This project uses datasets from intensely monitored study watersheds and hydrological model platforms to extend our understanding of how disturbances and climate change may impact various aspects of the streamflow regime that are of importance to downstream users. The objectives are 1) to use the model output of watershed response to disturbances to inform assessments of forested watersheds in the region, and 2) to investigate the use of a new flexible modelling platform as a tool for detailed watershed assessments and hypothesis testing. Here we applied the RAVEN hydrological modelling framework to quantify changes in key hydrological processes driving peak and low flows in a headwater catchment along the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The model was applied to simulate the period from 2006 to 2011 using data from the Star Creek watershed in southwestern Alberta. The representation of relevant hydrological processes was verified using snow survey, meteorological, and vegetation data collected through the Southern Rockies Watershed Project. Timber harvest scenarios were developed to estimate the effects of cut levels ranging from 20 to 100% over a range of elevations, slopes, and aspects. We quantified changes in the timing and magnitude of low flow and high flow events during the 2006 to 2011 period. Future work will assess changes in the probability of low and high flow events using a long-term meteorological record. This modelling framework enables relevant processes at the watershed scale to be accounted in a physically robust and computational efficient manner. Hydrologic

  12. Sertifikat Lestari PT. Diamond Raya Timber: Aset atau Beban?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maryudi

    2007-01-01

    Several environmental non-government organizations and green parties pursue various strategies to promote sustainable management of forest resource. Due to the increasing environment awareness of some segments of timber users, they have established a certification body and developed a set of criteria and indicators, against which the performance of participating forest companies will be assessed. Early experiences in Indonesia showed that certification received warm welcome from several forest companies, as there is no question that they saw the attraction of being certified. However, it appears that their enthusiasm was dampened by the experience of a certified company. Certification might have been seen as more of a liability than an asset as the economic benefits from market access became less clear, while the costs became more apparent. The use of rigid standards might result in “negative” responses from forest companies. More proactive approaches might encourage the companies to join certification.

  13. The airborne sound insulations of timber-framed partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, G. D.

    The sound insulation performances of several lightweight, timber framed partitions were measured. The purpose was to assess the merits of various sheet materials and the effects of changes in the construction details on the sound insulation performances of the partitions. The aim was to produce a design for a new type of partition which was cheaper than the conventional 'Camden', which is currently widely used in the BBC. As a result, a new design was tested and is recommended for use as a replacement for the Camden. It uses less material, is much cheaper to build, and should be more tolerant of poor building practices. Several recommendations are made on construction techniques, which apply whether the partition being built is a traditional Camden or the new design. Also, the use of fiberboard as a damping material for plasterboard is shown to improve the isolation of partitions greatly, much more than the consideration of its mass alone would lead one to expect.

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite

  15. Regional geology of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Crick, I.H.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline comprises about 14km of chronostratigraphic mainly pelitic and psammitic Lower Proterozoic sediments with interlayered tuff units, resting on granitic late Archaean complexes exposed as three small domes. Sedimentation took place in one basin, and most stratigraphic units are represented throughout the basin. The sediments were regionally deformed and metamorphosed at 1800Ma. Tightly folded greenschist facies strata in the centre grade into isoclinally deformed amphibolite facies metamorphics in the west and northeast. Pre and post-orogenic continental tholeiites, and post-orogenic granite diapirs intrude the Lower Proterozoic metasediments, and the granites are surrounded by hornfels zones up to 10km wide in the greenschist facies terrane. Cover rocks of Carpentarian (Middle Proterozoic) and younger ages rest on all these rocks unconformably and conceal the original basin margins. The Lower Proterozoic metasediments are mainly pelites (about 75 percent) which are commonly carbonaceous, lesser psammites and carbonates (about 10 percent each), and minor rudites (about 5 percent). Volcanic rocks make up about 10 percent of the total sequence. The environment of deposition ranges from shallow-marine to supratidal and fluviatile for most of the sequence, and to flysch in the topmost part. Poor exposure and deep weathering over much of the area hampers correlation of rock units; the correlation preferred by the authors is presented, and possible alternatives are discussed. Regional geological observations pertinent to uranium ore genesis are described. (author)

  16. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

  17. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J.; Burris, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report

  18. Stages of growth theory and money flows from commercial banks in timber-dependent communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H. Schallau

    1980-01-01

    The flow of funds from commercial banks in western Oregon may indicate how a timber shortfall will affect community stability. Results suggest the inappropriateness of a single public forest management policy.

  19. 50 CFR 36.15 - Subsistence uses of timber and plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate subsistence uses, such as firewood or house logs, may be permitted in Alaska National Wildlife... timber for firewood, shall be allowed without a permit. (c)(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of...

  20. Field application of Z-spike rejuvenation to salvage timber railroad bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The technique of rejuvenating wood and timber members by shear spiking (vertically inserting fiberglass reinforced polymer rods into deteriorated members) evolved over several years of laboratory research at Colorado State University (CSU). Specimens...