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Sample records for tillage production system

  1. Comparison of energy of tillage systems in wheat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaeefar, A.; Varnamkhasti, M. Ghasemi; Karimi, M. [Agricultural Machinery Engineering Department, Faculty of Biosystems Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran); Emamzadeh, H. [Agricultural Machinery Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus, Tehran (Iran); Rahimizadeh, R. [Iranian Drylands Research Institute (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    Reducing tillage practices results in lower energy consumption as well as soil erosion protection, structural damage control, and a reduction in time and energy required for seedbed preparation. This research was conducted at the Dryland Agricultural Research Institute in Maragheh region of Iran to determine the amount of input energy for different tillage systems. The study was planned as a completely randomized block design with five tillage systems in four replications. The tillage treatments were: moldboard plow+roller+drill (T1); chisel+roller+drill (T2); cyclo-tiller+roller+drill (T3); sweep+roller+drill (T4); and no-till (T5). Wheat yield parameters and energy indices (net energy gain, energy productivity) were recorded. There were significant differences (1% probability level) among the treatments in terms of energy indices and for wheat yield and biomass values. It was found that T3 had the highest yield and biomass and T1 had the lowest. There were also significant differences (1% probability level) among tillage systems for the energy indices. T1 had the lowest energy productivity and energy ratios and T3 had the highest. The least energy consumed for wheat produced was 8.8 MJ kg{sup -1} for T5 and the most was 11.8 MJ kg{sup -1} for T1. Energy consumed for tillage using T1 was 32.5% of the total energy and using T5 was found to be 19% of total energy. It was concluded that T3 was the most efficient overall in the region studied. (author)

  2. Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation tillage systems have been adopted by farmers in many countries to solve the problem of land degradation and declining water productivity. However, direct application of such tillage systems was not possible among resource poor smallholder farmers in semi arid areas of Ethiopia. Problems

  3. RESEARCH REGARDING THE INFLUENCE WEED CONTROL TREATMENTS ON PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE INDICATORS SOYBEAN CULTIVATED IN MINIMUM TILLAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Chetan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbicides abused, without a thorough knowledge can be dangerous for the environment through the introduction of toxic waste in agricultural ecosystems. It is necessary to reduce the doses used in relation to the use of conservative technology, finding solutions optimized for effective weed control. Research conducted at ARDS Turda in the years 2013 and 2014 have followed the effect of 12 variants of herbicides used to control weeds in soybean crop, sown in two tillage systems (classical system and minimal tillage system, on the soybean production and quality indicators. Tillage system significantly influenced both qualitative indices and soybean crop production (being 2635 kg/ha to the classical and 2131 kg/ha minimum tillage system. The significant influence of tillage soybeans in fat content (20.34% in minimum tillage system; 19.94% to the classical and on protein (39.89% minimum tillage system; 40.56% in the classic.

  4. Comparison of effects of machine performance parameters and energy indices of soybean production in conservation and conventional tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    A Sharifi; H. R Sadeghnezhad; A Faraji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays, agricultural systems are seeking economic, ecological and bioenvironmental goals for production of agricultural crops with protection and sustainability of the environment. Therefore, there is need to extend sustainable agricultural systems such as conservation agriculture. One of the principles of conservation agriculture is conservation tillage. Conservation tillage is a kind of tillage that retains crop residues on the soil surface or mixes it with soil using rela...

  5. Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems

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    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days, started at flowering (34 days after sowing. Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables were: Pods length (CV, number of grains per pod (NGV, number of pods per plant (NPP, the hundred grains weight (PCG and grain yield (kg ha-1. The no-tillage system is more productive than the conventional under both irrigation and water stress treatments. The water stress length affected grain yield and all yield components studied in a negative way, except for the hundred grains weight. Among the systems studied, the no-tillage provides higher values for the yield components, except the hundred grains weight.

  6. Catch crop biomass production, nitrogen uptake and root development under different tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2012-01-01

    ). Above-ground biomass production and N uptake were measured in the catch crops and the main crop. Catch crop root growth was studied using both minirhizotron and core methods. Soil penetration resistance was recorded to 60 cm depth. Fodder radish and RG produced up to 1800 kg/ha dry matter and DW 900 kg...... tinctoria L.), perennial ryegrass (RG) (Lolium perenne L.) and fodder radish (FR) (Raphanus sativus L.) under three tillage systems. For that, we used a tillage experiment established in 2002 on a Danish sandy loam. The tillage treatments were direct drilling (D), harrowing to 8–10 cm (H) and ploughing (P...... significant in 2008. The minirhizotron root measurements showed that the crucifers FR and DW achieved better subsoil rooting than RG. In contrast, the soil core data showed no significant difference between FR and RG in subsoil root growth. Our study highlights the need for further studies on subsoil root...

  7. Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book describes the unique problems faced by smallholder farmers in semi arid regions of Ethiopia. It is the result of years of on-farm research that involved farmers and incorporated their indigenous knowledge to develop appropriate tillage systems and implements. It describes tillage

  8. Influence of Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Respiration and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, P. I.; Rusu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant, fertilizer etc. The data presented in this paper were obtained on argic-stagnic Faeoziom (SRTS, 2003). These areas were was our research, presents a medium multiannual temperature of 8.20C, medium of multiannual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: A. Conventional system (CS): V1-reversible plough (22-25 cm)+rotary grape (8-10 cm); B. Minimum tillage system (MT): V2 - paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); V3 - chisel (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm);V4 - rotary grape (10-12 cm); C. No-Tillage systems (NT): V5 - direct sowing. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. The experimental variants were studied in the 3 years crop rotation: maize - soy-bean - autumn wheat. To soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest) using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration, the daily average is lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Productions obtained at MT and NT don't have significant differences at wheat and are higher at soybean. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNCSIS

  9. Comparison of effects of machine performance parameters and energy indices of soybean production in conservation and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, agricultural systems are seeking economic, ecological and bioenvironmental goals for production of agricultural crops with protection and sustainability of the environment. Therefore, there is need to extend sustainable agricultural systems such as conservation agriculture. One of the principles of conservation agriculture is conservation tillage. Conservation tillage is a kind of tillage that retains crop residues on the soil surface or mixes it with soil using related machines. It could also affect on machine performance parameters. Energy consumption for producing one kilogram crop could be studied for conservation tillage. Several researchers have conducted studies on this issue for production of different crops including wheat, sunflower and forage crops. This study conducted to assess machine performance parameters and energy indices of conservation tillage systems for soybean cultivation in Golestan province. Materials and Methods This study was conducted to investigate the effects of conservation tillage systems on machine performance and energy indices in soybean production at the Gorgan research station of Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center in 2012. The precipitation was 450 mm. Soil texture was silty clay loam. Treatments were four tillage methods, including no-till using row crop direct planter, no-till using grain direct drill, conventional tillage usin a disk harrow with working depth of 10-15 cm and minimum tillage using chisel packer with a working depth of 20 cm. Machine performance parameters and energy indices studied in a farm covered by wheat residues in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four treatments and four replications. Machine performance parameters consisted of field efficiency, field capacity, total field capacity and planting uniformity index were measured. Energy indices such as energy ratio, energy productivity, energy intensity and net energy gain were

  10. Effects of 24 Years of Conservation Tillage Systems on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Productivity

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    Kenneth R. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24-year study was conducted in southern Illinois (USA on land similar to that being removed from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage systems on: (1 amount and rates of soil organic carbon (SOC storage and retention, (2 the long-term corn and soybean yields, and (3 maintenance and restoration of soil productivity of previously eroded soils. The no-till (NT plots did store and retain 7.8 Mg C ha−1 more and chisel plow (CP −1.6 Mg C ha−1 less SOC in the soil than moldboard plow (MP during the 24 years. However, no SOC sequestration occurred in the sloping and eroding NT, CP, and MP plots since the SOC level of the plot area was greater at the start of the experiment than at the end. The NT plots actually lost a total of −1.2 Mg C ha−1, the CP lost −9.9 Mg C ha−1, and the MP lost −8.2 Mg C ha−1 during the 24-year study. The long-term productivity of NT compared favorably with that of MP and CP systems.

  11. Strip-tillage: A conservation alternative to full-width tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowski, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Historically no-till management has been a challenge for maize production in the Midwestern USA because crop residue slows the warming of the soil in the spring and can physically impair planting by plugging the planter. After trying no-till, producers often return to more aggressive tillage operations to address residue concerns; however these systems can cause soil erosion and can increase the cost of production. An alternative system known as strip-tillage has been suggested as a compromise between no-till and full-width tillage. This practice utilizes implements that loosen the soil and allow warming in the row area, yet maintain nearly as much residue as no-till. Strip-tillage is generally understood to be a single pass with a separate implement in the fall, although spring strip-tillage is possible if soil moisture and conditions permit. Strip-tillage can be accomplished in a shorter time, with lower energy and equipment inputs compared to full-width tillage. The first of two studies that examined the merits of strip-tillage was conducted the University of Wisconsin Lancaster Agricultural Research Station (42.84, -90.80). Natural runoff collectors were installed in a field having a silt loam soil with an 8% slope in fall chisel and fall strip-tillage system. The measured soil loss in a year that experienced substantial rainfall prior to canopy closure was 10.6 Mg ha-1 in chisel vs. 0.64 Mg ha-1 in strip-tillage. Soil loss was much less for both systems in the second year when early season rainfall was minimal. A second, ten year study was conducted at the University of Wisconsin Arlington Agricultural Research Station (43.30, -89.36) that compared fall strip-tillage with fall chisel/spring field cultivator and no-till systems in both a continuous maize and soybean-maize rotation. This work showed equal maize grain yield in maize after soybean when comparing chisel and strip-tillage. No-till yield was about 5 % lower. Yield in continuous maize was highest in

  12. Improving maize productivity through tillage and nitrogen management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous cultivation of fields with same implement (cultivator) creates a hard pan in the subsoil which adversely affects crop productivity. In addition to tillage, nitrogen management is a key factor for better crop growth and yield. Impact of different tillage systems and nitrogen management on yield attributes and grain yield ...

  13. Evaluation of Net Primary Productivity and Carbon Allocation to Different Parts of Corn in Different Tillage and Nutrient Management Systems

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    esmat mohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of net primary productivity and carbon allocation to different organs of corn under nutrient management and tillage systems Introduction Agriculture operations produce 10 to 20 percent of greenhouse gases. As a result of conventional operations of agriculture, greenhouse gases have been increased (Osborne et al., 2010. Therefor it is necessary to notice to carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gases emissions. In photosynthesis process, plants absorb CO2 and large amounts of organic carbon accumulate in their organs. Biochar is produced of pyrolysis of organic compounds. Biochar is an appropriate compound for improved of soil properties and carbon sequestration (Whitman and Lehmann, 2009; Smith et al., 2010. Conservation tillage has become an important technology in sustainable agriculture due to its benefits. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient management and tillage systems on net primary production and carbon allocation to different organs of corn in Shahrood. Material and methods This study was conducted at the Shahrood University of Technology research farm. Experiment was done as split plot in randomized complete block design with three replications. Tillage systems with two levels (conventional tillage and minimum tillage were as the main factor and nutrient management in seven levels including (control, chemical fertilizer, manure, biochar, chemical fertilizer + manure, chemical fertilizer + biochar, manure + biochar were considered as sub plot. At the time of maturity of corn, was sampled from its aboveground and belowground biomasses. Carbon content of shoot, seed and root was considered almost 45 percent of yield of each of these biomasses and carbon in root exudates almost 65 percent of carbon in the root. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SAS program. Comparison of means was conducted with LSD test at the 5% level. Results and discussion Effect of nutrient management was

  14. Responses of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities to tillage and fertilization systems in soybean (Glycine max L. production

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    Gholamreza Heidari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran. The field soil is categorized into coarse Loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, and mesic Typic Xerorthents. The experiments were arranged in split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of long-term (since 2002 tillage systems including conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no-tillage (NT. Eight fertilization methods were employed in the sub-plots, including (F1: farmyard manure (FYM; (F2: compost; (F3: chemical fertilizers; (F4: FYM + compost; (F5: FYM + chemical fertilizers; (F6: compost + chemical fertilizers; (F7: FYM + compost + chemical fertilizers and (F8: Control (without fertilizer. The highest microbial biomass carbon (385.1 μg was observed in NT-F4 treatment. The NT treatment comparatively recorded higher values of acid phosphatase (189.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1, alkaline phosphatase (2879.6 μg PNP g-1 h-1 and dehydrogenase activity (68.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1. The soil treated with a mixture of compost and FYM inputs had the maximum urease activity of all tillage treatments. Organically manured treatment (F4 showed more activity in dehydrogenase (85.7 μg PNP g-1 h-1, acid phosphatase (199.1 µg PNP g-1 h-1 and alkaline phosphatase (3183.6 µg PNP g-1 h-1 compared to those treated with chemical fertilizers. In NT-F4 treatment, using on-farm inputs is most

  15. Effect of Tillage Practices on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity in Wheat-Mungbean-Rice Cropping System under Subtropical Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Monirul; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0–15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept). PMID:25197702

  16. How do we cultivate in England? Tillage practices in crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, T J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2016-03-01

    Reducing tillage intensity offers the possibility of moving towards sustainable intensification objectives. Reduced tillage (RT) practices, where the plough is not used, can provide a number of environmental and financial benefits, particularly for soil erosion control. Based on 2010 harvest year data from the nationally stratified Farm Business Survey and drawing on a sub-sample of 249 English arable farmers, we estimate that approximately 32% of arable land was established under RT, with 46% of farms using some form of RT. Farms more likely to use some form of RT were larger, located in the East Midlands and South East of England and classified as 'Cereals' farms. Application of RT techniques was not determined by the age or education level of the farmer. Individual crops impacted the choice of land preparation, with wheat and oilseed rape being more frequently planted after RT than field beans and root crops, which were almost always planted after ploughing. This result suggests there can be limitations to the applicability of RT. Average tillage depth was only slightly shallower for RT practices than ploughing, suggesting that the predominant RT practices are quite demanding in their energy use. Policy makers seeking to increase sustainable RT uptake will need to address farm-level capital investment constraints and target policies on farms growing crops, such as wheat and oilseed rape, that are better suited to RT practices.

  17. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation tillage as an approach to reduce surface runoff and soil degradation and reduced tillage systems may offer a compromise solution. The objective of the study is to test different conservation tillage techniques and evaluate the impacts of the system on conserving water, labor requirement for pre and post ...

  18. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON NODULATION AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

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    D. Jug

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary soil tillage for different crops in Croatia is generally based on mouldboard ploughing which is the most expensive for crops production. Negative effects due to frequent passes by equipment and machines (deterioration of soil structure, soil compaction, lower biogenity and soil tilth, together with negative economical and energetical costs, can be lowered and avoided by introduction of reduced soil tillage or direct drilling (No-tillage. Accordingly, the main goal of this research was to determine effects of conventional and reduced soil tillage systems on yield components and nodulation ability of nitrogen fixing bacteria in soybean crop. The research was established at chernozem soil type of northern Baranja as monofactorial completely randomized block design in four repetitions. The soil tillage variants were as follows: CT Conventional Tillage (primary soil tillage by moldboard ploughing at 25-30 cm depth, DH Multiple Diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, and NT No-tillage system. Results show significantly lower plant density, mass of 1000 grains and grain yield at variants with reduced soil tillage in both investigation years. However, reduced tillage systems had positive trend on nitrogen-fixing bacteria nodulation, since the highest values of number and mass of nodules per plant were recorded. This research was run during the years 2002 and 2003, the last one extremely droughty, thus it requires continuation.

  19. Influence of conservation tillage and zero tillage on arable weeds in organic faba bean production

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    Jung, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 on a Gleyic Cambisol near Goettingen, Lower Saxony, Germany. A crop sequence of summer barley, winter cover crops (intercropped oat and sunflower and summer faba bean was examined under organic farming conditions. Emphasis was given to the studying of arable weeds in faba beans. However, enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation of summer faba beans by accumulation of soil-nitrogen by winter cover crops was a second objective in these experiments. The faba bean field plots had been cultivated with three different tillage systems: 1. zero tillage, sowing with cross-slottechnique, 2. conservation tillage (wing share cultivator, rotary harrow sowing with cross-slot-technique and 3. conventional tillage with mouldboard plough followed by rotary harrow, sowing with precision monoseeder. In plots with zero tillage preceding cover crops were left as mulch on the soil surface. Cover crops accumulated adequate nitrogen amounts and following faba beans reacted with significant increase (up to 10% in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Maximum of arable weed biomass was observed in zero tillage-plots at the end of May or early in June. The abundance of the predominant weed wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis increased with tillage intensity, whereas the abundance of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense increased in 2010 with decreasing tillage intensity. Average grain yield of faba beans was low with only 3.0 and 2.4 t ha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  20. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

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    S. M Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006. Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006. In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by combining different tillage and planting operations. Results of research conducted in Fars province shows that conservation tillage saves fuel consumption for 77% compared to the conventional system (Afzalinia et al., 2009. Conservation tillage also reduces energy consumption from 23.6 to 42.8% in comparison to the conventional tillage (Rusu, 2005. Since energy indices would be affected by reduced input energies in conservation tillage, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of different tillage and planting methods on energy inputs and energy indices in irrigated wheat production in Eghlid region. Materials and Methods: This research was performed to evaluate and compare the energy indices in irrigated wheat production under different tillage and planting methods. The study was conducted in the form of a randomized complete block experimental design with five treatments and three replications in Eghlid region. The treatments were included, conventional tillage and seed broadcasting (A, conventional tillage and planting with Machine Barzegar grain drill (B, reduced tillage and seeding with Roto-seeder (C, direct seeding with Jairan Sanaat grain drill (D, and direct seeding with Sfoggia direct drill (E. Experimental plots with 10 by 50 m dimensions were used in this study. Loss crop residues were taken out of the experimental plots and standing crop residues were retained in the plots. In the conventional tillage method, primary tillage was performed

  1. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Shannon (H') and Gini (1-G) diversity index of microbial communities were determined in soil samples (0-10 cm depth) taken in autumn 2009. All the enzymatic activities and the biomass estimated by viable cell counting were significantly higher under no-till than under conventional tillage. However, only fluorescents pseudomonas population was increased under no-till, meanwhile oligotrophic bacteria and actinomycetes populations were higher with conventional tillage than with no-till. Overall, there was a higher use all the group of carbon sources used in the BiologR test with conventional tillage than with no-till, by except amines and phenols which showed non-significant differences. This reveals different physiological profiles in the microbial communities under both tillage systems. The Gini diversity was significantly lower with no-till than with conventional tillage. It can be concluded that no-till increases microbial biomass in soil and subsequently enzymatic activities likely ascribed to an increased organic matter content. Under low availability of hydrocarbon sources in soil due to conventional tillage, which promotes a decrease in the organic matter content of the soil, populations of oligotrophods and the diversity of microbial communities are increased. Under these conditions, there must not be dominant carbon sources promoting the selection of microorganisms with a given physiological profile. The reduced hydrocarbon availability and the higher diversity contribute to explain the increased use of carbon sources used in Biolog with conventional tillage than with no-till.

  2. Reduced tillage and green manures for sustainable cropping systems - Overview of the TILMAN-ORG project

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Reduced tillage and green manures are environmentally friendly practices that increase levels of soil organic matter and biological activity, improve soil stability, and reduce fuel consumption and may mitigate the climate impact of crop production. The avoidance of deep ploughing is successfully practiced as no-tillage agriculture in conventional farming systems. However, these no-tillage systems rely on herbicides for weed control and mineral fertilisers for plant nutrients. As these inputs...

  3. Effect of tillage system and straw management on organic matter dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hazarika , Samarendra; Parkinson , Robert; Bol , Roland; Dixon , Liz; Russell , Peter; Donovan , Sarah; Allen , Debbie

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The choice of cultivation system in arable agriculture exerts a strong influence not only on soil health and crop productivity but also on the wider environment. Conservation tillage using non-inversion methods conserves soil carbon, reduces erosion risk and enhances soil quality. In addition, conservation tillage has been shown to sequester more carbon within the soil than inversion tillage, reducing carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere. Stable, well structured top...

  4. Crescimento e produtividade da cana planta cultivada em diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita = Sugarcane growth and productivity under different tillage and crop systems

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    Orlando Carlos Huertas Tavares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de colheita sobre o crescimento e produtividade da cana planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Linhares, Estado do Espírito Santo. Trata-se de um dos ensaios mais antigos no país que investiga os efeitos da Cana crua e queimada. Instalados num Argissolo Amarelo textura arenosa/média, os tratamentos consistiram de parcelas (preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo e subparcelas (Cana crua e Cana queimada. Foi avaliado o crescimento da cultura, o aporte de matéria orgânica e a quantificação do rendimento da cana-de-açúcar. O diâmetro foi maior para o cultivo mínimo, e o perfilhamento foi maior para o preparo convencional. A altura e o perfilhamento foram superiores no corte sem queima. Para produtividade de colmos, os tratamentos nãoapresentaram diferenças significativas. As folhas foram maiores em cultivo mínimo e pontas em Cana crua. O cultivo mínimo propicia, inicialmente, aumento do diâmetro e maior produtividade de folhas na colheita. O perfilhamento é favorecido pelo preparo convencional. A Cana crua não apresentou influência negativa da palhada na rebrota. Após 16 anos de cultivo da cana-de-açúcar com e sem queima do palhiço, observou-se maior produtividade de ponteiros, incrementando o rendimento dos colmos em Cana crua. This study had as its objective to evaluate the effects of different tillage and crop systems on the growth and productivity of sugarcane plants. The experiment was conducted in Linhares, ES. It is one of the oldest assays in the country investigating the effects ofunburned and burned sugarcane. Installed in a Yellow Latosol with sandy/medium texture, the treatments consisted of plots (conventional and minimum tillage and subplots (raw and burned sugarcane. Plant growth, contribution of organic matter and quantification ofsugarcane yield were evaluated. The diameter was larger for minimum tillage, and

  5. Qualidade e rendimento de sementes de soja produzidas sob cultivo orgânico em plantio direto e preparo reduzido do solo = Quality and production of soybean seeds in no tillage and reduced tillage soil systems

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    Márcia de Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a qualidade das sementes de soja em cultivo orgânico sob dois sistemas de manejo do solo, plantio direto e preparo reduzido do solo (escarificação + gradagem na região Oeste do Paraná. Foram utilizados 6 tratamentos para o controle de pragas mais uma testemunha (1.Baculovirus anticarsia; 2.Baculovirus anticarsia + Extrato de Cinamomo; 3.Extrato de Cinamomo; 4.Bacillus thurigiensis; 5.Óleo de Neen; 6.Composto A; 7.Testemunha. Os parâmetros avaliados foram teor de água, peso de100 sementes, porcentagem de germinação, vigor determinado pelo envelhecimento acelerado e teste de tetrazólio e também rendimento de sementes. Os dados obtidos foram analisados pelo teste de Scott – Knott a 5% de significância e permitiram concluir que o alto grau dedeterioração das sementes, provocado pela baixa eficiência dos tratamentos, contribuiu para o decréscimo da qualidade. O sistema de manejo do solo não influenciou no rendimento de sementes e o tratamento com Composto A apresentou maior rendimento.This trial aimed at determining soybean seeds quality in an organic production under two soil management systems: no tillage and reduced tillage (scarification + grading in western region of the State of Paraná. Six treatments were designed to control some weeds plus one check treatment (1.Baculovirus anticarsia; 2.Baculovirus anticarsia +cinnamon extract; 3.Cinnamon extract; 4.Baculovirus thurigiensis; 5.Neen oil; 6.Composite A; 7.Check treatment. Parameters as water content, weight of one hundred seeds, seedling percentage, seeds vigor determined by fast aging, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride andseedling yield were evaluated. The data were analyzed by the Scott Knott test – 5% of significance – which allowed to conclude that the high level of seedling deterioration, derived from the low efficiency of treatments, contributed to the decreased seed quality. However, the soil tillage system did not influence

  6. Effects of Conservation Tillage and Nutrient Management Practices on Soil Fertility and Productivity of Rice (Oryza sativa L.–Rice System in North Eastern Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulab Singh Yadav

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over centuries and even today, traditional farming practices are well performed without any ecological degradation. However, management practice such as conservative tillage combined with nutrient and residue could increase the crop production as well as soil fertility. A three-year replicated study was conducted to assess the effects of agronomic modification of traditional farming practices on productivity and sustainability of rice (wet season–rice (dry season system (RRS. The replacement of farmers practice (T2 with conservation effective tillage (no-till (NT and integrated nutrient management (INM practice along with 30% residue retention (T5 enhanced the straw, root and biomass yield of both wet season rice (WR, dry season rice (DR and system as a whole over T2. Treatment T5 recorded significantly lower soil bulk density (ρb and higher pH than the T2 after three years of the experiment. Further, treatment T5 increased total soil organic carbon (2.8%, total soil organic carbon stock (2.8%, carbon sequestration rate (336.5 kg ha−1 year−1, cumulative carbon stock (142.9% and carbon retention efficiency (141.0% over T2 of 0–20 cm depth after three year. The soil microbial biomass carbon concentration was significantly the highest under T5. Similarly, the dehydrogenase activity was the maximum under T5. Adoption of conservation tillage and nutrient management practice involving NT and INM along with residue retention can enhance the system productivity, and C and N sequestration in paddy soils is thereby contributing to the sustainability of the RRS.

  7. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Non-inversion tillage with tine or disc based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use may hinder further expansion of reduced...... tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programmes based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional non-inversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption...... is mostly higher as compared to plough-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in non-inversion tillage systems and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems...

  8. Simulation of Tillage Systems Impact on Soil Biophysical Properties Using the SALUS Model

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    Luigi Sartori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable land management has been defined as the management system that allows for production, while minimizing risk, maintaining quality of soil and water. Tillage systems can significantly decrease soil carbon storage and influence the soil environment of a crop. Crop growth models can be useful tools in evaluating the impact of different tillage systems on soil biophysical properties and on the growth and final yield of the crops. The objectives of this paper were i to illustrate the SALUS model and its tillage component; ii to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems on water infiltration and time to ponding, iii to simulate the effect of tillage systems on some soil biophysical properties. The SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability model is designed to simulate continuous crop, soil, water and nutrient conditions under different tillage and crop residues management strategies for multiple years. Predictions of changes in surface residue, bulk density, runoff, drainage and evaporation were consistent with expected behaviours of these parameters as described in the literature. The experiment to estimate the time to ponding curve under different tillage system confirmed the theory and showed the beneficial effects of the residue on soil surface with respect to water infiltration. It also showed that the no-tillage system is a more appropriate system to adopt in areas characterized by high intensity rainfall.

  9. Long term effects of different tillage systems influencing yield and energy efficiency in maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Momirović, Nebojša; Dolijanović, Željko; Oljača, Mićo V.; Videnović, Živorad

    2011-01-01

    Adoption and improvement of different tillage systems toward agricultural sustainability has a great social, economical and environmental impact. The base of sustainability is a system productivity as ratio of output to input in a given system, measured in the same units, commonly as energy requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the aspect of energy requirements in the different soil tillage systems regarding total energy consumption under conventional tillage. The appropri...

  10. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    , penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K...... benefit of using a combination of cover crops and direct drilling to produce a better soil friability. The usefulness of the VESS method for soil structural evaluation was supported by the high positive correlation of MWD with VESS scores.......Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H...

  11. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    OpenAIRE

    S. M Hosseini; S Afzalinia; K Mollaei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006). Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006). In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by com...

  12. [Conservation tillage systems in North America and their significance for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Xiaoping; Fang, Huajun; Liang, Aizhen; Qi, Xiaoning; Wang, Yang

    2004-02-01

    Soil degradation through erosion and desertification reduces soil productivity, and is a serious problem in agricultural production of China. To avert our arable land from further degradation, soil management must be shifted from degrading tillage to conservation practices. Over viewing the technology used in the 20th century for controlling soil degradation from erosion, conservation tillage developed in the United States and adopted in South America and Africa is one of the most successful measures to overcome soil degradation problems. This paper reviewed the historical development and the current situation of conservation tillage systems used in North and South America, with special reference to their effects on soil erosion control and soil quality. The increasing adoption of conservation tillage systems in North and South America and Africa followed an enhanced awareness of the increasing risk of soil erosion and the high cost of fuel associated with conventional tillage. Many crucial points for successfully adopting conservation tillage systems were emphasized, such as equipment/tool development and chemical weed control. Adopting conservation tillage could provide China with low-priced means of reducing soil degradation and improving soil and water quality.

  13. Contributions of long-term tillage systems on crop production and soil properties in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yining; Zhang, Renzhi; Luo, Zhuzhu; Li, Lingling; Cai, Liqun; Li, Guang; Xie, Junhong

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the long-term effect of tillage systems on soil properties and crop yields in a semi-arid environment. Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were alternately grown in six tillage systems at Dingxi (35° 28' N, 104° 44' E), north-west China starting in 2001. After the first 6 years of experiments, conventional tillage with stubble incorporating (TS) and no-till with stubble cover (NTS) increased soil organic matter by 9.9% and 13.0%, respectively, compared to the conventional tillage with stubble removed (T); both TS and NTS also increased soil microbial counts, available K and P, and total N. No-till with stubble removed (NT), NTS and NTP (no-till with plastic mulching) had 20.7%, 62.6% and 43.7% greater alkaline phosphatase activity compared to the T treatment. Soil catalase, urease and invertase activities were all greater in the no-till treatments than in the T treatment. Averaged across 6 years, both wheat and pea achieved highest grain yields under NTS treatment. No-till with stubble retention is the most promising system for improving soil physical, biological and chemical properties, and increasing crop yields, and thus, this system can be adopted in areas with conditions similar to the semi-arid north-west China. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of Tillage and Fertilizer Practices on Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) production is mainly constrained by soil water and nutrient deficits in northern Ethiopia. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of tillage and fertilizer practices on productivity of two sorghum varieties in Abergelle area, northern Ethiopia. The experimental design was ...

  15. Soil structure and greenhouse gas production differences between row and interrow positions under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Pires da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No-tillage in Brazil is an efficient agricultural system that improves crop productivity whilst controlling erosion caused to the soil by degradation. However, there is some concern regarding soil compaction. Our objective was to determine whether the function of soil structure in sustaining crop growth was dependent on row and interrow positions in long-term no-tillage. We took soil samples from a field in a commercial farm under long-term no-tillage since 1979 on a clayey Oxisol in Southern Brazil. We assessed soil physical quality using the revised Peerlkamp technique and measured bulk density, air-filled porosity and air permeability of intact soil cores. Samples were incubated to assess in vitro N2O and CO2 production. The soil physical and structural properties showed consistent differences between interrow and row positions, where the properties measured were more favorable. The revised Peerlkamp technique proved as efficient as quantitative parameters in discriminating treatment differences. Overall, soil physical conditions in the interrow were less favourable than in the row. Pore continuity did not vary as regards position. This may explain why row position did not influence in vitro N2O and CO2 production. Soil physical quality under no-tillage system is enhanced, at least in the short term, by superficial disturbances in the row as a result of the action of the coulters of the no-tillage seeder.

  16. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize. Production in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Bisrat Getnet1, Laike Kebede1 and Hae Koo Kim2. 1 Department of Agricultural Mechanization Research, Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Melkassa. Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 436, Adama, ...

  17. Soil Tillage Conservation and its Effect on Soil Properties Bioremediation and Sustained Production of Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Muresan, Liliana; Andriuca, Valentina; Cojocaru, Olesea

    2017-04-01

    Soil Tillage Conservation (STC) is considered major components of agricultural technology for soil conservation strategies and part of Sustainable Agriculture (SA). Human action upon soil by tillage determines important morphological, physical-chemical and biological changes, with different intensities and evaluative directions. Nowadays, internationally is unanimous accepted the fact that global climatic changes are the results of human intervention in the bio-geo-chemical water and material cycle, and the sequestration of carbon in soil is considered an important intervention to limit these changes. STC involves reducing the number of tillage's (minimum tillage) to direct sowing (no-tillage) and plant debris remains at the soil surface in the ratio of at least 30%. Plant debris left on the soil surface or superficial incorporated contributes to increased biological activity and is an important source of carbon sequestration. STC restore soil structure and improve overall soil drainage, allowing more rapid infiltration of water into soil. The result is a soil bioremediation, more productive, better protected against wind and water erosion and requires less fuel for preparing the germinative bed. Carbon sequestration in soil is net advantageous, improving the productivity and sustainability. We present the influence of conventional plough tillage system on soil, water and organic matter conservation in comparison with an alternative minimum tillage (paraplow, chisel plow and rotary harrow) and no-tillage system. The application of STC increased the organic matter content 0.8 to 22.1% and water stabile aggregate content from 1.3 to 13.6%, in the 0-30 cm depth, as compared to the conventional system. For the organic matter content and the wet aggregate stability, the statistical analysis of the data showed, increasing positive significance of STC. While the soil fertility and the wet aggregate stability were initially low, the effect of conservation practices on the

  18. Tillage as a tool to manage crop residue: impact on sugar beet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Chélin, Marie; Degrune, Florine; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and plant cover represent a pool of organic matter that can be used either to restore organic matter in soils, and therefore maintain soil fertility, or that can be valorized outside of the field (e.g. energy production). However, it is crucial that the exportation of residues is not done to the detriment of the system sustainability. Three long term experiments have been settled in the loamy region in Belgium. All of them are designed to study the effect of residues management by several tillage systems (conventional plowing versus reduced tillage) on the whole soil-water-plant system. SOLRESIDUS is a field experiment where we study the impact of crop residue management while in SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS, we study the impact of cover crop management. SOLRESIDUS was started in 2008. In this field, four contrasted crop residues managements are tested in order to contrast as much as possible the responses from the soil-water plant system. Two practices characterize the four modalities: soil tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth or reduce tillage at 10 cm max) and residue management (exportation or restitution). SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS were started in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In those fields cover crop management is also diverse: destruction of the cover crop by winter ploughing, spring ploughing, strip tillage (with a chemical destruction if needed) or shallow tillage (with a decompaction before cover crop sowing). Although although the overall project aims at studying the impact of management on the whole soil-water-plant system, here we will only present the results concerning crop production (sugar beet) in SOLCOUVERT experiments. The presented data will include germination rate, crop development (biomass quantification and BBCH stages) weeds population, disease occurrence, pest occurrences, nitrogen uptake by plants, quality and quantity of harvested products.

  19. Precise tillage systems for enhanced non-chemical weed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurstjens, D.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and residue manipulation can assist weed management by killing weeds mechanically, interfering in weed lifecycles, facilitating operations and enhancing crop establishment and growth. Current tillage systems often compromise these functions, resulting in heavy reliance on herbicides,

  20. ECONOMICS RESULTS OF WHEAT PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE WAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kanisek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat consumption in the world increases and its importers are some European countries too. The present price of wheat grain will make selling at the market difficult for manufactures from the Republic of Croatia. Conditions and results of four year organizational - economical investigations of conventional and four ways of reduced soil tillage at wheat production are displayed in this paper. Total of 9.35 hours/ha of machinery work and 114.3 l/ha of fuel are consumed at conventional soil tillage. Total costs are 1660 DM/ha. Price of grain is 276.71 DM/t and profit amounts to 187.83 DM/ha. If the soil tillage is done by a disk harrow costs of the machinery work reduce to 471.36 DM/ha and profitability amounts to 16.5%. When soil tillage is done by multitiller with classical sowing, a yield of 5.65 t/ha st price of 273.37 DM/t and investment profitability 12.7% are obtained. Direct sowing by a Rotosem, without previous tillage, requires 11.66 hours/ha of human work and 7.18 hours/ha of machinery work. to meet the total costs 4.9 t/ha of grains need. In order to get equipment, 98 t of grains from land of 17.5 ha should be given annually during the period of 8 years. Plughing and sowing by Rotosem give 5.9 t/ha grains at price of 279.36 DM/t. Total energy cost at conventional production is 30085 and at reduced one it is 27972 MJ/ha.

  1. Long-Term No-Tillage Direct Seeding Mode for Water-Saving and Drought-Resistance Rice Production in Rice-Rapeseed Rotation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-bin DU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of long-term no-tillage direct seeding mode on rice yield and the soil physiochemical property in a rice-rapeseed rotation system, a comparative experiment with a water-saving and drought-resistance rice (WDR variety and a double low rapeseed variety as materials was conducted under no-tillage direct seeding (NTDS mode and conventional tillage direct seeding (CTDS mode for four years, using the CTDS mode as the control. Compared with the CTDS mode, the actual rice yield of WDR decreased by 8.10% at the first year, whereas the plant height, spikelet number per panicle, spikelet fertility, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, actual yield, and harvest index increased with no-tillage years, which led to the actual yield increase by 6.49% at the fourth year. Correlation analysis showed that the panicle length was significantly related to the actual yield of WDR. Compared with the CTDS mode in terms of the soil properties, the pH value of the NTDS mode decreased every year, whereas the contents of soil organic matter and total N of the NTDS mode increased. In the 0–5 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the soil bulk decreased, whereas the contents of soil organic matter, total N, and available N increased. In the 5–20 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the available N and K decreased, whereas the soil bulk, contents of soil organic matter, and total N increased. In summary, the NTDS mode increased the rice yield, and could improve the paddy soil fertility of the top layer.

  2. Minimum tillage for cassava production in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindarat Chuenrung

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This research paper study on the comparison between no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT incorporated with 3 levels of nitrogen fertilizer application rate (0, 50 and 100 kg N/ha on the fresh root yield of cassava (var. Rayong 72. The field trial has been established since 2000 on the Satuk soil series (fine loamy, silicious, Oxic Paleustults Khon Kaen, Thailand. Under no-tillage practices, the physical soil properties were improved compared to the conventional tillage system and the original soil properties at the start of the trial. The soil structure parameters such as total porosity, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat increased in NT plot, whilst soil bulk density (ρb decreased compared to CT plot. Results indicated that the higher yield of fresh root of cassava was observed in the NT plot (P0.05. For the nitrogen application, the yield increased as nitrogen supply increased but the increment was not significant statistically (P>0.05.

  3. Haplic Chernozem Properties as Affected by Different Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Hábová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2007–2011 we assessed content and quality of humic substances with relationship to soil structure. Object of study was Haplic Chernozem (Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou, Czech Republic under three different tillage systems: – conventional ploughing to a depth of 0.22 m (CP; – reduced tillage with shallow harrowing to a depth of 0.15 m (RTSH; – reduced tillage with subsoiling to a depth of 0.35–0.40 m (RTS. Isolation of humic acids was made according to IHSS standard method using spectrometer Shimadzu 8700. Aggregates stability was determined by wet sieving method. Results showed that macrostructure stability was directly connected with time of sampling and content and quality of humic substances. After five years of experiment statistically significant differences in humic substances content were found. The highest structure stability, quantity and quality of humic substances were achieved under reduced tillage with shallow harrowing.

  4. MEAN INFILTRATION SPEED IN A VERTISOL UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS

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    Juan José Martínez Villanueva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction is regarded as the most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture. Few studies are concerned with the assessment of soil compaction using infiltration speed, specifically in the Vertisol soil characteristic of the main maize producing area of the Toluca-Atlacomulco Valley in central Mexico. The aim of this research was to examine the effect on infiltration speed and penetration resistance of a Vertisol soil when compacted by wheeled agricultural traffic in three different types of tillage systems: zero, minimal and conventional. Penetration resistance was measured on the wheel track with a portable digital penetrometer, and the mean infiltration speed was determined according to the double cylinder infiltrometer method. The pressure exerted by the number of wheeled traffic passes increased Vertisol soil compaction at 30 cm depth. Even though the benefits of zero tillage were similar to those showed by minimum tillage during the experimental period, minimum tillage reported the highest infiltration speed.

  5. A multiple soil ecosystem services approach to evaluate the sustainability of reduced tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérès, Guénola; Menasseri, Safya; Hallaire, Vincent; Cluzeau, Daniel; Heddadj, Djilali; Cotinet, Patrice; Manceau, Olivier; Pulleman, Mirjam

    2017-04-01

    In the current context of soil degradation, reduced tillage systems (including reduced soil disturbance, use of cover crops and crop rotation, and improved organic matter management) are expected to be good alternatives to conventional system which have led to a decrease of soil multi-functionality. Many studies worldwide have analysed the impact of tillage systems on different soil functions, but overran integrated view of the impact of these systems is still lacking. The SUSTAIN project (European SNOWMAN programme), performed in France and the Netherlands, proposes an interdisciplinary collaboration. The goals of SUSTAIN are to assess the multi-functionality of soil and to study how reduced-tillage systems impact on multiple ecosystem services such as soil biodiversity regulation (earthworms, nematodes, microorganisms), soil structure maintenance (aggregate stability, compaction, soil erosion), water regulation (run-off, transfer of pesticides) and food production. Moreover, a socio-economic study on farmer networks has been carried out to identify the drivers of adoption of reduced-tillage systems. Data have been collected in long-term experimental fields (5 - 13 years), representing conventional and organic farming strategies, and were complemented with data from farmer networks. The impact of different reduced tillage systems (direct seeding, minimum tillage, non-inverse tillage, superficial ploughing) were analysed and compared to conventional ploughing. Measurements (biological, chemical, physical, agronomical, water and element transfer) have been done at several dates which allow an overview of the evolution of the soil properties according to climate variation and crop rotation. A sociological approach was performed on several farms covering different production types, different courses (engagement in reduced tillage systems) and different geographical locations. Focusing on French trials, this multiple ecosystem services approach clearly showed that

  6. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašil Zdeněk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT method, minimum tillage (MT and a system with no tillage (NT. The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.

  7. Tillage, fertilization systems and chemical attributes of a Paleudult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Penedo Dorneles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tillage and fertilization methods may affect soil fertility. With the aim of assessing changes in soil chemical properties over a period of ten years, soil samples of a Paleudult were collected over nine seasons at three layer depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 cm and were chemically analyzed. Grain yield and nutrient export in two summer crops, soybean (Glycine max and corn (Zea mays, in a field experiment set in Eldorado do Sul, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were determined. Three soil tillage systems were evaluated, conventional (CT, reduced (RT and no-tillage (NT, combined with mineral (lime and fertilizers and organic (poultry litter fertilization. The no-tillage system stood out as compared to the others, especially in the surface layer, in terms of values of organic matter, soil pH, available phosphorus, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. Phosphorus content was higher under organic than mineral fertilization due to the criteria used for the establishment of fertilizer doses. Under organic fertilization, soil pH values were similar to those obtained in limed soil samples because of the cumulative effect of the organic fertilizer. Soybean yield was lower under NT in comparison to the RT and CT systems. Consequently, soybean grain exported a lower content of nutrients than maize grain. Maize yield was not affected by either tillage or fertilization systems.

  8. A New Strategy for Utilizing Rice Forage Production Using a No-Tillage System to Enhance the Self-Sufficient Feed Ratio of Small Scale Dairy Farming in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windi Al Zahra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice forage systems can increase the land use efficiency in paddy fields, improve the self-sufficient feed ratio, and provide environmental benefits for agro-ecosystems. This system often decreased economic benefits compared with those through imported commercial forage feed, particularly in Japan. We observed the productivities of winter forage after rice harvest between conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT in a field experiment. An on-farm evaluation was performed to determine the self-sufficient ratio of feed and forage production costs based on farm evaluation of the dairy farmer and the rice grower, who adopted a rice forage system. The field experiment detected no significant difference in forage production and quality between CT and NT after rice harvest. However, the production cost was dramatically decreased by 28.1% in NT compared with CT. The self-sufficient ratio was 5.4% higher when dairy farmers adopted the rice forage system compared with those using the current management system. Therefore, this study demonstrated the positive benefits for dairy farmers and rice growers in Japan when adopting a rice forage system with NT, which could improve the self-sufficient feed ratio and reduce production costs.

  9. Assessing Energy Flow in Rainfed and Irrigated Wheat Fields of Shahrekourd Township under two Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein kazemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Energy analysis of agricultural ecosystem is essential for sustainable production. The relation between agriculture and energy is very close. Agriculture is an energy consumer and the energy supplier. Agriculture’s use of energy is recognized in three external inputs: labor, machines, and fertilizers (Connor et al., 2011. Significant gains in energy efficiency were arisen in agriculture following the phenomenal increase in energy prices in the 1970s. Greater use of diesel motors, larger tractors, using conservation tillage methods and optimized fertilizer use efficiency were the main causes (Ozkan et al., 2004. Safa & Samarasinghe (2013 were reported that fuel consumption in tillage and harvesting was more than other operations in wheat fields of Canterbury, New Zealand. Effective application of agricultural techniques and efficient use of support inputs can minimize environmental problems and in consequence promote sustainable agricultural intensification. In this study, the energy flow investigated in irrigated and rain-fed wheat cropping systems under two tillage and no-tillage methods in the Shahrekourd city, during 2013. Materials and methods The study was carried out in the Sharekourd city (Chaharmahal Bakhteyari province. This region is located within 32º 20' and 32º 21' Lat. N, 50º 48' and 50º 50' Lon. E. Data were collected from 40 farmers with questionnaire method. In this study, a randomized complete design with four scenarios (rain-fed and irrigated farming with tillage and no-tillage systems was used, that 10 farms were considered as a replication in each scenario. All data detail information on the questionnaire were averaged and arranged. First, all inputs and outputs of wheat production were determined, quantified and entered into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and then transformed into energy units and expressed in MJ.ha-1. Based on the total energy equivalents of the inputs and output and the energy use

  10. Comparison of tillage systems for paddy rice in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.L.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta of Vietnam, wetland rice is the main crop. The traditional rice cropping system with one crop per year changed to a system with two or three crops per year, and mechanised tillage replaced traditional tillage by water buffaloes. Currently, three tillage systems can be

  11. Economic assessment of tillage systems and weed control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to appraise the economics of different land preparation systems and weed management options in maize cultivation in three ecological zones (Ikenne, Ibadan and Ilorin) of southwestern Nigeria. Four tillage systems as main treatments and six weed control methods as sub-treatments were ...

  12. Contribution of tillage systems on the organic matter of Gley soil and the productivity of corn and soybean soil and the productivity of cornContribuição do sistema de cultivo sobre a matéria orgânica de um Gleissolo e a produtividade do milho e soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácio Oliveira da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the behavior of the organic matter in the profile of Gley soil and the productivity of corn and soybean in a temperate climate (Experimental Station of the University of Purdue - West Lafayette - Indiana - United States - Long: 86º 55' W and Lat: 40º 26' N. The effects of six treatments were studied, derived from three different tillage systems: conventional tillage, minimum tillage, and no tillage, with two successions of crops (soybean-corn and continuous corn, in an experiment conducted in the period of 1980 to 1995, with an experimental design of randomized blocks constituting six treatments arranged in subdivided parcels (split-plot, with three replications. In the experimental plots the treatments of succession of crops and the sub-plot were established with the systems of soil management. The sub-plot was constituted by three tillage systems: conventional tillage, minimum tillage, and no tillage. The soil samples originating from five depths and 11 positions and the data of productivity were analyzed, taken in a transversal line from the plot. With the results it can be concluded that: a the percentage of organic matter increases in the superficial layer as the movement of the soil diminished, in the following sequence: no tillage system > minimum tillage system > conventional system; b system of conventional tillage provided greater values of corn yield when associated to continuous crop and in succession with soybean; when compared with conservation tillage; and c in the conditions of a temperate climate and hydromorphic soil, the content of organic matter showed a relation inversely proportional to productivity, with a smaller performance for the succession of soybean and corn.O comportamento dos teores de matéria orgânica em um Gleissolo e da produtividade do milho e soja foi avaliado em condição de clima temperado (Estação Experimental da Universidade de Purdue – West Lafayette – Indiana - Estados Unidos

  13. Comparison of soil surface arthropod populations in conventional tillage, no-tillage and old field systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, A Y; Crossley, Jr, D A

    1980-08-01

    Soil surface arthropod populations in conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) sorghum and adjacent old field (OF) were compared using pitfall trap captures. Total numbers of individuals and species, overall diversity (anti H), richness (D), evenness (J'), dominance (C) and similarity quotients (QS) between systems were calculated for each of seven 24 hour sampling periods throughout the season. Although each system was distinct (any two of the systems had less than 30 percent of their species in common), NT was most similar to OF and least similar to CT during a period of stress (drought) and after heading of the sorghum. Percentages of individuals and species represented by spiders were similar in NT and OF; percentages were substantially less in CT. Yields (biomass of sorghum) in CT and NT were not significantly different despite the generally predicted higher pest populations in NT. Results suggest that insecticide stress may lower the stability of NT systems, thus allowing an increase in pest species.

  14. The effect of tillage systems and mulching on soil microclimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effect of tillage systems and mulching on soil microclimatic conditions, growth and yield of yellow yam. To generate the needed data, the physiological approach was employed. An experimental farm that measured 35 x 47 m was established at Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria, for two planting seasons ...

  15. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend to accumul...

  16. Soil Tillage Systems and Wheat Yield under Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieranna Servadio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of three different main preparatory tillage operations: ploughing at 0.4 m (P40 and 0.20 m (P20 depth and harrowing at 0.20 m depth (MT were investigated. The tillage operations were carried out at two different times, as the soil water content increased over time from rainfall: (low, 58% (LH and high, 80% (HH of field capacity. Results obtained from the soil monitoring carried out before and after tillage showed high values of soil strength in terms of Penetration resistance and shear strength particularly in deeper soil layers at lower water content. During tillage, fossil-fuel energy requirements for P40 LH and P20 LH were 25% and 35% higher, respectively, with respect to the HH treatments and tractor slip was very high (P40 LH = 32.4% with respect to the P40 HH treatment (16%. Soil water content significantly influenced tractor performance during soil ploughing at 0.40 m depth but no effect was observed for the MT treatment. The highly significant linear relations between grain yield and soil penetration resistance highlight how soil strength may be good indicator of soil productivity. We conclude that ploughing soil to a 0.20 m depth or harrowing soil to a 0.20 m depth is suitable for this type of soil under climate change scenarios.

  17. Efeito de diferentes coberturas vegetais e sistemas de preparo do solo na produção da cultura da soja = Effect of different vegetal coverings and soil tillage systems on soybean crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Adilmar Prestes Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o desempenho da soja sob a influência de cobertura vegetal e de manejo do solo em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Utilizaram-se aveia, nabo, ervilhaca, ervilha, milheto e tremoço. Avaliaram-se altura e densidade de plantas, altura de inserção de vagens, número de vagens, produtividade, massa de mil grãos, teor de água, densidade e resistência do solo à penetração. O sistema semeadura direta teve maior altura de inserção de vagens, quantidade de vagens, altura de plantas, teor de água e densidade do solo. Maiores valores de resistência do solo à penetração foram verificados no preparo convencional, porém obteve-se maior produtividade. As coberturas e os sistemas de preparo influenciaram na produtividade das plantas de soja. As coberturas vegetaispromoveram melhorias no solo com redução da compactação em algumas camadas do solo. O consórcio aveia/ervilhaca mostrou-se uma técnica de manejo inadequada para as condições às quais o solo foi submetido. O consórcio aveia/milheto mostrou ser uma opção viável de cobertura de solo antecessora à soja. A semeadura direta mostrou ser técnica demanejo adequado para o tipo de solo estudado.This study evaluated the performance of the soybean under the influence of vegetal covering and soil management in Red Latosol dystrofic. Oats, turnip, hairy vetch, pea, millet and lupine were used. The study evaluated height and density of plants, height of insertion in string beans, number of string beans, productivity, athousand grain mass, water contend, bulk density and soil resistance to penetration. The no-tillage system had greater height of insertion of string beans, amount of string beans, height of plants, water contend and soil bulk density. Greater values of soil resistance topenetration were verified in the tillage, though higher productivity was observed. The coverings and the soil tillage systems influenced the productivity of soybean plants. The

  18. Soil organic carbon sequestration and tillage systems in Mediterranean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Di Bene, Claudia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Farina, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon sequestration is of special interest in Mediterranean areas, where rainfed cropping systems are prevalent, inputs of organic matter to soils are low and mostly rely on crop residues, while losses are high due to climatic and anthropic factors such as intensive and non-conservative farming practices. The adoption of reduced or no tillage systems, characterized by a lower soil disturbance in comparison with conventional tillage, has proved to be positively effective on soil organic carbon (SOC) conservation and other physical and chemical processes, parameters or functions, e.g. erosion, compaction, ion retention and exchange, buffering capacity, water retention and aggregate stability. Moreover, soil biological and biochemical processes are usually improved by the reduction of tillage intensity. The work deals with some results available in the scientific literature, and related to field experiment on arable crops performed in Italy, Greece, Morocco and Spain. Data were organized in a dataset containing the main environmental parameters (altitude, temperature, rainfall), soil tillage system information (conventional, minimum and no-tillage), soil parameters (bulk density, pH, particle size distribution and texture), crop type, rotation, management and length of the experiment in years, initial SOCi and final SOCf stocks. Sampling sites are located between 33° 00' and 43° 32' latitude N, 2-860 m a.s.l., with mean annual temperature and rainfall in the range 10.9-19.6° C and 355-900 mm. SOC data, expressed in t C ha-1, have been evaluated both in terms of Carbon Sequestration Rate, given by [(SOCf-SOCi)/length in years], and as percentage change in comparison with the initial value [(SOCf-SOCi)/SOCi*100]. Data variability due to the different environmental, soil and crop management conditions that influence SOC sequestration and losses will be examined.

  19. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  20. Sustainable semiarid dryland production in relation to tillage effects on Hydrology: 1983-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch tillage, SM, as a result of improved soil conditions or water conservation, but knowledge of long-term tillage effects on the comprehensive field hydrology and sustained crop production is needed. ...

  1. Tillage System Affects Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Quality in Central Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussadek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilizing or improving soil organic carbon content is essential for sustainable crop production under changing climate conditions. Therefore, soil organic carbon research is gaining momentum in the Mediterranean basin. Our objective is to quantify effects of no tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT on soil organic carbon stock (SOCs in three soil types (Vertisol, Cambisol, and Luvisol within Central Morocco. Chemical analyses were used to determine how tillage affected various humic substances. Our results showed that, after 5 years, surface horizon (0–30 cm SOC stocks varied between tillage systems and with soil type. The SOCs was significantly higher in NT compared to CT (10% more in Vertisol and 8% more in Cambisol, but no significant difference was observed in the Luvisol. Average SOCs within the 0–30 cm depth was 29.35 and 27.36 Mg ha−1 under NT and CT, respectively. The highest SOCs (31.89 Mg ha−1 was found in Vertisols under NT. A comparison of humic substances showed that humic acids and humin were significantly higher under NT compared to CT, but fulvic acid concentrations were significantly lower. These studies confirm that NT does have beneficial effects on SOCs and quality in these soils.

  2. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON NODULATION AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jug; Mihaela Blažinkov; S. Redžepović; Irena Jug; B. Stipešević

    2005-01-01

    The primary soil tillage for different crops in Croatia is generally based on mouldboard ploughing which is the most expensive for crops production. Negative effects due to frequent passes by equipment and machines (deterioration of soil structure, soil compaction, lower biogenity and soil tilth), together with negative economical and energetical costs, can be lowered and avoided by introduction of reduced soil tillage or direct drilling (No-tillage). Accordingly, the main goal of this resear...

  3. Experimental analysis of CO{sub 2} emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragienė, Sidona [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Šarauskis, Egidijus, E-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@asu.lt [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Romaneckas, Kęstutis, E-mail: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt [Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Science, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Sasnauskienė, Jurgita, E-mail: jurgita.sasnauskiene@asu.lt [Institute of Environment and Ecology, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Masilionytė, Laura, E-mail: laura.masilionyte@gmail.com [Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys distr. (Lithuania); Kriaučiūnienė, Zita, E-mail: zita.kriauciuniene@asu.lt [Experimental Station, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Rapsu str. 7, LT-53363 Noreikiskes, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania)

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO{sub 2} emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO{sub 2} emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO{sub 2

  4. Assessment of tillage systems in organic farming: influence of soil structure on microbial biomass. First results

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Jean François; Peigné, Joséphine; Chaussod, Rémi; Roger-Estrade, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage modifies environmental conditions of soil microorganisms and their ability to release nitrogen. We compare the influence of reduced tillage (RT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP) on the soil microbial functioning in organic farming. In order to connect soil structure generated by these tillage systems on the soil microbial biomass we adopt a particular sampling scheme based on the morphological characterisation of the soil structure by the description of the soil profile. This method...

  5. Effects of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyu; Yan, Yang; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-06-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties. There were five treatments: maize continuous cropping, maize and peanuts rotation, peanuts continuous cropping, peanuts continuous cropping with low level of amendment and peanuts continuous cropping with high level of amendment. The results showed that maize continuous cropping increased total root length by 118.95%, projected area by 204.86%, projected area by 150.70%, total root volume by 20.66%, and average root diameter by184.53%. The amendments also improved root properties and the high level of amendment had much more better effect.

  6. Effect of no-tillage and tillage on the ecology of mite, Acarina (Oribatida) in two different farming systems of paddy field in Cachar district of Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leimapokpam Amarjit; Ray, D C

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out in Cachar district of Assam over a period of one year (January 2011 - December 2011) to understand the seasonal ecology of Acarina (Oribatida) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated fields. Population of Oribatida was found to be maximum during August 2011, both in no-tillage (6.32 ± 0.66 No./m2 x 100(2)) and tillage (5.30 ± 0.71 No./M2 x 100(2)) sites in Dorgakona area whereas the peak was recorded during August 2011, both in no-tillage (5.38 ± 0.75 No./m(2) x 100(2)) and tillage (4.69 ± 0.77 No./m2 x 100(2)) in Durby area of study sites. Least population was encountered during January 2011, in both no-tillage (0.98 ± 0.28 ± No./m2 x 100(2)) and tillage (0.98 ± 0.30 No/m2 x 100(2)) sites in Dorgakona area whereas the same was found during November 2011 in no-tillage (0.57 ± 0.31 No.m/2 x 100(2)) and in February 2011 in tillage (0.45 ± 0.21 No./m2 x 100(2)) sites of Durby area. Linear regression analysis with all the environmental variables showed positive and significant influence on the population dynamics whereas relative humidity (R2 = 0.26 p > 0.05) in Dorgakona no-tillage and tillage (R2 = 0.19 P > 0.05) sites and relative humidity in tillage site (R2 = 0.27 P > 0.05) in Durby area showed no influence. Multiple regression analysis showed that the combined effect of climatic variables having a significant influence (p < 0.05) on the oribatid mite population in no-tillage and tillage systems in both the study sites. Rainfall, relative humidity and temperature facilitated the soil moisture, microbial activity and litter decomposition, which in turn may favour the reproduction and growth rate of the species. Among microclimatic conditions all the parameters showed positive and significant influence (P < 0.05) on the population in no-tillage and tillage system on both the sites except pH which showed negative correlation with the population. One way ANOVA revealed significant difference (F = 6.53, P < 0.01) of the

  7. Economic feasibility of no-tillage and manure for soil carbon sequestration in corn production in northeastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendell, Dustin L; Williams, Jeffery R; Rice, Charles W; Nelson, Richard G; Boyles, Scott B

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the economic potential of no-tillage versus conventional tillage to sequester soil carbon by using two rates of commercial N fertilizer or beef cattle manure for continuous corn (Zea mays L.) production. Yields, input rates, field operations, and prices from an experiment were used to simulate a distribution of net returns for eight production systems. Carbon release values from direct, embodied, and feedstock energies were estimated for each system, and were used with soil carbon sequestration rates from soil tests to determine the amount of net carbon sequestered by each system. The values of carbon credits that provide an incentive for managers to adopt production systems that sequester carbon at greater rates were derived. No-till systems had greater annual soil carbon gains, net carbon gains, and net returns than conventional tillage systems. Systems that used beef cattle manure had greater soil carbon gains and net carbon gains, but lower net returns, than systems that used commercial N fertilizer. Carbon credits would be needed to encourage the use of manure-fertilized cropping systems.

  8. Tillage and Fertilizer Effects on Maize Production in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major food crop in Ghana but grain yield is often constrained by low soil fertility and water deficits during grain fill. Response of maize to tillage and fertilizer treatments was evaluated in a field experiment from 2000 through 2002 on a sandy loam soil (Typic-plinthic Paleustalf) in Wa in the northern ...

  9. Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices for Monocultural Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) Production in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ndaeyo, NU.; Aiyelari, EA.

    1997-01-01

    A two-season (rainy and dry) study was conducted in 1993 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the most productive tillage practice for monocultural cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) production. Completely randomised block design with four replications was used and tillage treatments were : No till-Slash and Burn (NSB), No till-Herbicide applied (NH), Conventional-ploughed and harrowed (CT), and Minimum-ploughed only (MT). Results revealed that tillage ...

  10. Evaluating spectral indices for determining conservation and conventional tillage systems in a vetch-wheat rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Eskandari

    2016-06-01

    CAI had a linear relationship with crop residue cover, which the comparative intensity of cellulose and lignin absorption features near 2100 nm can be measure by it. Coefficients of determination (r2 for crop residue cover as a function of CAI and LCA were 0.89 and 0.79 respectively. Absorption specifications near 2.1 and 2.3 µm in the reflectance spectra of crop residues in minimum and no- tillage systems were related to cellulose and lignin. These specifications were not evident in the spectra of conventional tillage system. In this study the best index to use was CAI, which showed complete separation tillage systems, followed by LCA and NDTI. Four tillage intensity classes, corresponding to intensive (60% cover tillage, were recognized in this study.

  11. Comparison of Polygonum aviculare L. seedling survival under different tillage systems in Mediterranean dryland agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, Antoni M. C.; Teresa Mas, M.

    2004-03-01

    Weed community shifts in agroecosystems are influenced by multiple factors. Among them, tillage and crop rotation are very important. Polygonum aviculare survival at early plant stages and biomass and density at harvest time were compared under three tillage systems (conventional, CT; minimum, MT; and no tillage, NT). Field studies were conducted from 1997-1998 to 2000-2001, during a crop rotation (pea-wheat-wheat-barley). The layout of the tillage systems was not randomized, which led to confusion between the tillage effect and the site effect, although all three tillage systems were implemented as of 1993-1994 and the same agricultural practices had been employed in the entire field between 1981-1982 and 1992-1993. Seedling mortality was analysed in two monitored cohorts (2000 and 2001) using a generalized linear model of binomial probability distribution with a complementary log-log link function. Analyses of variance considering tillage system (or site) and block were performed on: (1) aboveground biomass at the harvest time of the four crops; (2) density and mean plant biomass at the end of the first two crops; (3) seedling density registered twice during the 1998-1999 campaign. The expected changes to estimated mortality showed that seedlings under NT had greater probabilities of failure than those growing under the other two tillage systems. These differences were found considering the tillage system apart from the crop and the accumulated precipitation effects, which also strongly affects seedling survival. Density, 1999-2000 biomass and 2000-2001 biomass were different under different tillage systems ( P density occurring under NT and the lowest values of biomass under MT. Mean seedling densities were similar between CT and MT, but both were higher than densities under NT.

  12. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  13. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Carbonetto

    Full Text Available Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional

  14. Energy efficiency and soil conservation in conventional, minimum tillage and no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Rusu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the capacity of a soil tillage system in soil conservation, in productivity and in energy efficiency. The minimum tillage and no-tillage systems represent good alternatives to the conventional (plough system of soil tillage, due to their conservation effects on soil and to the good production of crops (Maize, 96%-98% of conventional tillage for minimum tillage, and 99.8% of conventional tillage for no till; Soybeans, 103%-112% of conventional tillage for minimum tillage and 117% of conventional tillage for no till; Wheat, 93%-97% of conventional tillage for minimum tillage and 117% of conventional tillage for no till. The choice of the right soil tillage system for crops in rotation help reduce energy consumption, thus for maize: 97%-98% energy consumption of conventional tillage when using minimum tillage and 91% when using no-tillage; for soybeans: 98% energy consumption of conventional tillage when using minimum tillage and 93 when using no-tillage; for wheat: 97%-98% energy consumption of conventional tillage when using minimum tillage and 92% when using no-tillage. Energy efficiency is in relation to reductions in energy use, but also might include the efficiency and impact of the tillage system on the cultivated plant. For all crops in rotation, energy efficiency (energy produced from 1 MJ consumed was the best in no-tillage — 10.44 MJ ha−1 for maize, 6.49 MJ ha−1 for soybean, and 5.66 MJ ha−1 for wheat. An analysis of energy-efficiency in agricultural systems includes the energy consumed-energy produced-energy yield comparisons, but must be supplemented by soil energy efficiency, based on the conservative effect of the agricultural system. Only then will the agricultural system be sustainable, durable in agronomic, economic and ecological terms. The implementation of minimum and no-tillage soil systems has increased the organic matter content from 2% to 7.6% and water stable

  15. Design and evaluation of a no-tillage seeder for small scale vegetable production using a two-wheeled tractor in Coahuila, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.; Cadena Zapata, M.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    Currently used conventional tillage systems for small-scale vegetable production in the region of Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico require a considerable amount of hand labor, energy and materials for all activities. Seedbed preparation can require up to 60% of the total production cost in some systems in

  16. Effect of tillage systems and permanent groundcover intercropped with orange trees on soil enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage systems and groundcover crops intercropped with orange trees on soil enzyme activities. The experiment was performed in an Ultisol soil in northwestern Paraná State. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated [conventional tillage (CT across the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m strip width] in combination with various groundcover vegetation management systems. Soil samples were collected after five years of experimental management at a depth of 0-15 cm under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space in the following treatments: (1 CT-Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT-Arachis pintoi; (3 CT-Bahiagrass; (4 CT-Brachiaria humidicola; and (5 ST-B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and groundcover crops influenced the soil enzyme activities both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola provided higher amylase, arylsulfatase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase than other groundcover species. Strip tillage increased enzyme activities compared to the conventional tillage system.

  17. N-utilization in non-inversion tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2011-01-01

    clay kg−1. The tillage treatments were stubble cultivating to 8–10 cm or 3–4 cm, direct drilling, or ploughing to 20 cm. Five different fertilizer N treatments were included: 1:50% (0.50N), 2:75% (0.75N), 3:100% (1.00N), 4:125% (1.25N) of recommended N rates, respectively, and 5: application of 15...... by soil compaction in plots with non-inversion tillage. Applying some of the N allocation in autumn cannot be recommended for stimulation of growth of winter cereals or winter oilseed rape with either non-inversion tillage or ploughing...

  18. Comparison of agricultural soils' structure depending on tillage system using X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Eléonore; Degré, Aurore; Ly, Sarann; Léonard, Angélique

    2010-05-01

    This study aims at characterizing agricultural soils' structure depending on the tillage system: conventional tillage or conservational tillage. Tillage reduction is an increasing practice, but the micro-structural effects on soils and on their hydrodynamic parameters are still not well described. Recent research shows non-converging results. Our point is to highlight fundamental differences in structure through characterization of soils porosity's parameters using X-ray microtomography measurements coupled to image analysis. This attempt is in line with a more integrated experiment of which the aim is to quantify the effects of tillage intensity on lateral flow production, and finally on global water balance. Parameters' measurements consist in a combined approach, based on two different space-time scales of exploration: fundamental scale, with soil sampling campaign for microtomography analysis, and field scale, with continuous flow measurements (plots' dimensions: 18*28 m). For their part, parameters for water balance determination (precipitation, evapotranspiration…) are monitored on the field. All of these measurements have the main objective of hydrological modeling enhancement by taking into account a better lateral flow description. Discussion in this paper will focus on the first results obtained by X-ray microtomography measurements. Our experiment takes place in Gentinnes (Walloon Brabant, Belgium), on a field organized in a split-plot scheme. Since 2004, plots have been cultivated in conventional tillage or in reduced tillage. The latter consists in sowing after stubble ploughing of about 10cm. The crop rotation is sugar beet followed by winter wheat. The soil is mainly composed of silt loam. Soils samples, with a 3 cm diameter and a 5 cm height, were removed from the upper layer (Ap horizon) for both management practices. Samples are scanned by X-ray microtomography using a Skyscan-1172 high-resolution desk-top micro-CT system (Skyscan, Kontich

  19. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    highly degrade the environment, applied without practices of soil and water conservation. Such production systems are associated with a variety of environmental problems, such as soil erosion, the extensive pumping of groundwater, the partial obstruction of surface drainage to form artificial lakes, the contamination of groundwater, among others. The environmental impacts generated by all these problems assume a greater importance due to the complete absence of monitoring the continuous lowering of the water table and the changes in water quality. We consider that the main management strategies for developing sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in this area should be based on monitoring water use efficiency, increasing water availability in the root zone and also preventing runoff, leaching and evaporation of water from the soil. Therefore, techniques were applied as green manures with legumes without incorporation of the biomass, non-mechanized and curve-level soil preparation, planting in level, soil cover with crop residues, fertirrigation with solid fertilization of low value, the conduct of tomato especially supported by plastic string attached to a trellis, drip irrigation, and monitoring soil water potential (SWP) with Watermak sensors. At the end of the tomato cycle, water use efficiency and the productivity were compared at 8 micro-plots installed in the 3 studied production systems: conventional tillage (CT-H), minimum tillage (MT-H), both with "wetting irrigation with garden hose", and no-tillage with drip irrigation (NT-D). For each production system, soil physical properties were characterized and soil water potential (SWP) and soil temperature were continuously monitored at different depths (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm), as well as the total water volume used in each irrigation. In parallel, we also compared the development of the root system and the final productivity for each one of the three production systems. The results obtained in this

  20. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  1. Water use and onion crop production in no-tillage and conventional cropping systems Uso de água e produção de cebola em sistemas de plantio direto e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Aparecido Marouelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of crop residue covers (0.0; 4.5; 9.0; 13.5 t ha-1 millet dry matter on water use and production of onion cultivated in no-tillage planting system (NT as compared to conventional tillage system (CT. The study was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brazil, under the typical Savanna biome. Irrigations were performed using a sprinkle irrigation system when soil-water tension reached between 25 and 30 kPa. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications. Total net water depth applied to NT treatment was 19% smaller than the CT treatment, however, water savings increased to 30% for the first 30 days following seedlings transplant. Crop biomass, bulb size and yield, and rate of rotten bulbs were not significantly affected by treatments. The water productivity index increased linearly with increasing crop residue in NT conditions. Water productivity index of NT treatments with crop residue was on average 30% higher than that in the CT system (8.13 kg m-3.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito do nível de palhada no solo (0,0; 4,5; 9,0; 13,5 t ha-1 de matéria seca de milheto em sistema de plantio direto (PD sobre o uso de água e produção de cebola, tendo como controle o sistema de plantio convencional (PC. O ensaio foi conduzido na Embrapa Hortaliças, em região típica do bioma Cerrado. As irrigações foram realizadas por aspersão a todo o momento que a tensão de água no solo atingiu entre 25 e 30 kPa. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso com três repetições. A lâmina de água aplicada em PD foi de até 19% menor que no tratamento PC durante o ciclo da cultura, sendo que durante os primeiros 30 dias do ciclo após o transplante das mudas a economia chegou a 30%. O desenvolvimento de plantas, o tamanho e o rendimento de bulbos, e a taxa de bulbos podres não foram afetados significativamente pelos tratamentos. O índice de

  2. Agronomic performance of common bean in straw mulch systems and topdressing nitrogen rates in no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pagan Loeiro da Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn no-tillage systems, straw coverage on soil surface is the key to success, and the choice of crops for rotation is crucial to achieve the sustainability and quality that conservation agriculture requires. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of the common bean cultivar IAC Formoso sown in succession to three straw mulch systems (corn alone, corn/Urochloa ruziziensisintercrop and U. ruziziensisalone and topdress nitrogen rates (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1N, at the four-leaf stage, three years after the implementation of no-tillage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block split plot design, with three replications. Common bean highest yields were achieved in succession to U. ruziziensisalone and intercropped with corn. The corn/U. ruziziensisintercrop provided both straw and seed production, allowing for quality no-tillage. Topdressed nitrogen influenced the common bean yield when in succession to corn alone, U. ruziziensisalone and corn/U. ruziziensisintercrop in no-tillage.

  3. ANALYSING THE SOIL STRUCTURE UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS USING X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY AND PF CURVES

    OpenAIRE

    Beekkerk van Ruth, Jöran; Degre, Aurore; Aubinet, Marc; Roisin, Christian; Léonard, Angélique; Beckers, Eléonore

    2011-01-01

    Assessing soil structure is primordial when comparing tillage systems. Whilst most conventional techniques characterize global parameters, X-ray microtomography allows a characterization of the poral space at a µm-scale. These results, combined with data from pF curves, can form a solid basis in order to quantify soil physical fertility. Soil samples were taken from the organic topsoil on two Belgian experimental sites implementing both conventional tillage (CT, ploughing) and simplified ...

  4. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.

  5. Produção de biomassa por cultivos de cobertura do solo e produtividade do algodoeiro em plantio direto Cover crops biomass production and cotton yield in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cunha de Barcellos Ferreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção, a persistência da matéria seca e a eficiência da dessecação em espécies vegetais utilizadas para cultivos de cobertura do solo, e quantificar seus efeitos sobre a produtividade do algodoeiro em plantio direto. O trabalho foi realizado em Santa Helena de Goiás, GO, com 16 tratamentos: Panicum maximum, cultivares Mombaça, Tanzânia e Massai; Urochloa brizantha, cultivares Piatã, Xaraés, Marandu e MG4; U. decumbens; Paspalum atratum cv. Pojuca; Sorghum bicolor cultivares Santa Eliza e BRS 700; Pennisetum glaucum cv. ADR 500; Raphanus sativus; Eleusine coracana, Crotalaria spectabilis, além da testemunha em pousio. As espécies foram semeadas no início de março (2007. As espécies com menores produtividades e persistência da matéria seca foram C. spectabilis, E. coracana e R. sativus. As produtividades de algodão em caroço e fibra foram maiores no cultivo sobre palhas residuais das cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de P. maximum, em comparação às observadas com uso de P. atratum cv. Pojuca, R. sativus e pousio. Em geral, S. bicolor, P. glaucum e as cultivares Tanzânia e Mombaça de P. maximum, e MG4, Piatã e Xaraés de U. brizantha apresentam produção e persistência da matéria seca adequadas para o cultivo do algodoeiro no sistema de plantio direto, no cerrado brasileiro.The objectives of this work were to evaluate biomass production and persistence and the desiccation efficiency in plant species used as cover crops, and to quantify its effects on cotton yield in a no-tillage system. The study was carried out in Santa Helena de Goiás, GO, Brazil, using 16 plant species: Panicum maximum, cultivars Mombaça, Tanzânia and Massai; Urochloa brizantha, cultivars Piatã, Xaraés, Marandu and MG4; U. decumbens; Paspalum atratum cv. Pojuca; Sorghum bicolor cultivars Santa Eliza and BRS 700; Pennisetum glaucum cv. ADR 500; Raphanus sativus; Eleusine coracana, Crotalaria spectabilis

  6. Tillage and crop residue effects on rainfed wheat and maize production in Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang Xiaobin,; Wu Huijin,; Dai Kuai,; Zhang Dingchen,; Feng Donghui,; Zhao Quansheng,; Wu Xueping,; Jin Ke,; Cai Diangxiong,; Oenema, O.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Dryland farming in the dry semi-humid regions of northern China is dominated by mono-cropping systems with mainly maize (Zea mays L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum), constrained by low and variable rainfall, and by improper management practices. Addressing these problems, field studies on tillage and

  7. Growth and yield of rain fed wheat as affected by different tillage system integrated with glyphosate herbicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Malik, M.A.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In rainfed areas, tillage is primarily done for moisture conservation and weed control. However, excessive tilling not only harms the soil health but also increases the cost of production. To find out the sustainable and economical tillage combination, response of wheat was studied under different tillage systems integrated with glyphosate herbicide through field experiments conducted at University Research Farm of Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2012-2014 for two consecutive seasons. Principal component analysis proved that the plant height, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index of wheat were highest in treatment where one moldboard plowing was done followed by eight cultivations without using glyphosate in fallow period, which might be due to vigorous growth of wheat in this tillage system having enhanced root proliferation and moisture conservation, thus allowing plants to extract more nutrients and water from the deeper soil layers; whereas, the number of tillers per square meter, number of spikelets per spike, 1000 grain weight and number of grains per spike of wheat were maximum where one moldboard plowing was done followed by two applications of glyphosate herbicide in fallow period, which might be due to vigorous growth of wheat in this tillage system during 1st year of experiment when unexpected high rainfall was occurred during crop growth stage. Cluster analysis also categorized these two treatments into same category on the base of all agronomic parameters studied. The highest yield (3.5132 t ha-1) and (3.1242 t ha-1) was obtained from where one moldboard plowing was done following eight cultivations without using glyphosate followed by the treatment where one moldboard plowing was done following four cultivations without using glyphosate, respectively and were statistically at par with each other. Therefore one moldboard plowing following four cultivations is recommended for taking higher and

  8. Economic analysis of nitrogen fertilization in winter bean plant under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Traete Sabundjian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion and diversity of the no-tillage system, it is necessary to evaluate the economic benefits generated throughout the production cycle, especially those related to remnants of previous crops and nitrogen fertilizer management of succeeding crops. This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of four cover nitrogen doses on winter bean grain yield grown under no-tillage system after different crops. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications, in a 8x4 factorial scheme, with 32 treatments consisting of a combination of crop remnants (mayze; mayze - Azospirillum brasilense; Urochloa ruziziensis; Urochloa ruziziensis - Azospirillum brasilense; mayze + U. ruziziensis; mayze -A. brasilense + U. ruziziensis; mayze + U. ruziziensis - A. brasilense; mayze -A. brasilense + U. ruziziensis - A. brasilense and cover nitrogen doses (0 kg ha-1, 30 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1 and 90 kg ha-1. It was possible to conclude that the highest grain yield of winter bean plants irrigated by aspersion was obtained with the use of 90 kg ha-1 of cover nitrogen in succession to Urochloa ruziziensis without the inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense. In order to improve profits, it is recommended to apply 90 kg ha-1 of cover nitrogen to bean crops succeeding the other crops, except for inoculated Urochloa ruziziensis.

  9. Re-plant problems in long-term no-tillage cropping systems : causal analysis and mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal

    2016-01-01

    No-tillage is considered as a promising alternative for tillage-based conventional farming, by saving energy-input and time, reducing groundwater pollution and counteracting soil erosion and losses of the soil-organic matter. However, in the recent past, no-tillage farmers in Southwest Germany repeatedly reported problems particularly in winter wheat production, characterized by stunted plant growth in early spring, chlorosis, impaired fine root development and increased disease susceptibilit...

  10. Plantas de cobertura e adubação nitrogenada na produção de milho em sistema de plantio direto Cover crops and nitrogen fertilization in corn production under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel W. de Albuquerque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de plantas de cobertura do solo pode otimizar o aporte de material orgânico e nutrientes e proteger o solo dos processos erosivos enquanto o N é um dos nutrientes mais exigidos pelas culturas agrícolas, podendo tornar-se um fator limitante de seu rendimento. Neste contexto, realizou-se um experimento para avaliar a influência de três diferentes leguminosas usadas como plantas de cobertura sobre os componentes morfológicos e de produção do milho cultivado em sucessão sob sistema de plantio direto, na ausência e na presença de adubação nitrogenada mineral (80 kg ha-1 de N na forma de sulfato de amônio. O estudo foi desenvolvido em Latossolo Amarelo nos tabuleiros costeiros do estado de Alagoas. Os componentes de produção do milho apresentaram melhores resultados em sucessão à crotalária spectabilis. Constatou-se efeito da interação entre adubação verde e adubação nitrogenada resultando em maior produtividade de grãos para a cultura do milho.The cultivation of cover crops can optimize the input of organic material and nutrients and protect the soil from erosion, while the N is one of the most required nutrient by agricultural crops and may become a limiting fator in its productivity. In this context, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of three different legumes used as cover crops on morphological components and production of corn grown in succession under no-tillage system, in the absence and presence of mineral N fertilization (80 kg N ha-1, in the form of ammonium sulfate. This study was conducted in an Oxissol of the Coastal Tablelands in the State of Alagoas. The components of maize production showed better results in succession to Crotalaria spectabilis. Significant interaction was found between green manure and N fertilization, resulting in higher grain productivity.

  11. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak; Harlene Hatterman-Valenti

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND), USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa) to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage) as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA...

  12. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Z. Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.. The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1 were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1 also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1.

  13. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Z; Firouzi, Saeed; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghnejhad, Hamid R

    2016-03-01

    Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.). The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1) were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1) also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1).

  14. The development and adoption of conservation tillage systems on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Awada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major agricultural innovations on the Canadian Prairies over the last 40 years has been the introduction of conservation tillage (CT. Conservation tillage-a system that includes minimum and zero tillage (ZT -was introduced as an alternative to traditional (conventional tillage (TT to control soil degradation and to promote agricultural sustainability. The development and adoption of CT systems involved pioneer farmers, engineers, scientists, and farmer associations. By the end of the 1970s, CT started to take shape on the Prairies, but for a number of economic, technical, political and social reasons, the adoption of CT did not occur on any major scale before the 1990s. Today, more than 75% of the Prairie's cropland is under some form of CT with more than 50% under ZT. In this paper, the factors behind the development and adoption of conservation tillage technology on the Prairies in the period between 1930 and 2011 are reviewed. Then, some of the benefits of the adoption of CT on the Prairies are highlighted. The data show that CT and ZT became profitable for the majority of farmers during and after the 1990s, and that the increased use of CT contributed to the dramatic decrease in the area under summerfallow and to the increase in the area sown to canola and pulse crops. These changes contributed to the reduction of all forms of land degradation and to decreases in agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  15. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    in the spring of 2012 before cultivation. Soil water retention and air permeability were measured for matric potentials ranging from −1 to −30 kPa. Gas diffusivity was measured at −10 kPa. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was also used to characterize soil pore characteristics. At the 4- to 8- and 18- to 27-cm...... depths, pore characteristics did not differ significantly among tillage treatments. At the 12- to 16-cm depth, negative effects of reduced tillage (D and H) were recorded for total porosity and air-filled porosity at −10 kPa (that is, >30-μm pores). Generally, the use of a cover crop increased air......-filled porosity at −10 kPa, air permeability, and pore organization and reduced the value of blocked air porosity at all depths for all tillage treatments. Our results show that the cover crop created continuous macropores and in this way improved the conditions for water and gas transport and root growth...

  16. Soybean root growth and crop yield in reponse to liming at the beginning of a no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Campanhola Bortoluzzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the soil near crop roots may reveal limitations to growth and yield even in a no-tillage system. The purpose of the present study was to relate the chemical and physical properties of soil under a no-tillage system to soybean root growth and plant yield after five years of use of different types of limestone and forms of application. A clayey Oxisol received application of dolomitic and calcitic limestones and their 1:1 combination in two forms: surface application, maintained on the soil surface; and incorporated, applied on the surface and incorporated mechanically. Soil physical properties (resistance to mechanical penetration, soil bulk density and soil aggregation, soil chemical properties (pH, exchangeable cations, H+Al, and cation exchange capacity and plant parameters (root growth system, soybean grain yield, and oat dry matter production were evaluated five years after setting up the experiment. Incorporation of lime neutralized exchangeable Al up to a depth of 20 cm without affecting the soil physical properties. The soybean root system reached depths of 40 cm or more with incorporated limestone, increasing grain yield an average of 31 % in relation to surface application, which limited the effect of lime up to a depth of 5 cm and root growth up to 20 cm. It was concluded that incorporation of limestone at the beginning of a no-tillage system ensures a favorable environment for root growth and soybean yield, while this intervention does not show long-term effects on soil physical properties under no-tillage. This suggests that there is resilience in the physical properties evaluated.

  17. Determination of crop residues and the physical and mechanical properties of soil in different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring and management of soil quality is crucial for sustaining soil function in ecosystem. Tillage is one of the management operations that drastically affect soil physical quality. Conservation tillage methods are one of the efficient solutions in agriculture to reduce the soil erosion, air pollution, energy consumption, and the costs, if there is a proper management on the crop residues. One of the serious problems in agriculture is soil erosion which is rapidly increased in the recent decades as the intensity of tillage increases. This phenomenon occurs more in sloping lands or in the fields which are lacking from crop residues and organic materials. The conservation tillage has an important role in minimizing soil erosion and developing the quality of soil. Hence, it has attracted the attention of more researchers and farmers in the recent years. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of different tillage methods has been investigated on the crop residues, mechanical resistance of soil, and the stability of aggregates. This research was performed on the agricultural fields of Urmia University, located in Nazloo zone in 2012. Wheat and barley were planted in these fields, consecutively. The soil texture of these fields was loamy clay and the factorial experiments were done in a completely randomized block design. In this study, effect of three tillage systems including tillage with moldboard (conventional tillage, tillage with disk plow (reduced tillage, chisel plow (minimum tillage and control treatment on some soil physical properties was investigated. Depth is second factor that was investigated in three levels including 0-60, 60-140, and 140-200 mm. Moreover, the effect of different percentages of crop residues on the rolling resistance of non-driving wheels was studied in a soil bin. The contents of crop residues have been measured by using the linear transects and image processing methods. In the linear

  18. Continuum of Risk Analysis Methods to Assess Tillage System Sustainability at the Experimental Plot Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh S. Kanwar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a broad continuum of risk analysis methods including mean-variance and coefficient of variation (CV statistical criteria, second-degree stochastic dominance (SSD, stochastic dominance with respect to a function (SDRF, and stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF for comparing income-risk efficiency sustainability of conventional and reduced tillage systems. Fourteen years (1990–2003 of economic budget data derived from 35 treatments on 36 experimental plots under corn (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max L. at the Iowa State University Northeast Research Station near Nashua, IA, USA were used. In addition to the other analyses, a visually-based Stoplight or “probability of target value” procedure was employed for displaying gross margin and net return probability distribution information. Mean-variance and CV analysis of the economic measures alone provided somewhat contradictive and inconclusive sustainability rankings, i.e., corn/soybean gross margin and net return showed that different tillage system alternatives were the highest ranked depending on the criterion and type of crop. Stochastic dominance analysis results were similar for SSD and SDRF in that both the conventional and reduced tillage system alternatives were highly ranked depending on the type of crop and tillage system. For the SERF analysis, results were dependent on the type of crop and level of risk aversion. The conventional tillage system was preferred for both corn and soybean for the Stoplight analysis. The results of this study are unique in that they highlight the potential of both traditional stochastic dominance and SERF methods for distinguishing economically sustainable choices between different tillage systems across a range of risk aversion. This study also indicates that the SERF risk analysis method appears to be a useful and easily understood tool to assist farm managers, experimental researchers, and potentially policy

  19. Infiltration capacity and macroporosity of a silty-loamy soil under different tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, N. A.; Buczko, U.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2003-04-01

    For soils under both agricultural and forest use, management and tillage practice have significant influence on different hydraulic properties. Under agricultural land use, the properties of the macropore system are, amongst others, a function of the applied management and tillage system (i.e. conventional vs. conservation tillage). Macropores are crucial to rapid infiltration of surface water and aeration of the soil. Low macroporosity will give rise to higher surface flow rates especially on sloping areas, thus enhancing the risk for higher erosion. Investigations were carried out near the town of Adenstedt (52^o00', 9^o56'), app. 50 km S of Hannover in Lower Saxony. The predominant soil in the study area is an eroded orthic Luvisol from glacial deposits with a predominant silty-loamy texture. The experimental site with two crop rotations has been run with two different tillage systems (e.g. conventional and conservative tillage) since 1990. In this study, the minimum radius of a macropore is set to r = 0.5 cm. Dye tracer experiments were performed with methylene blue that was sprayed on a confined irrigation plot. Staining patterns were recorded two hours later at defined depth increments and results of stained and unstained areas were manually digitized and processed with an appropriate GIS-software. Tension infiltrometer experiments were performed simultaneously with the dye tracer experiments using a tension infiltrometer (hood infiltrometer) at different hydraulic supply potentials and soils depths. Dye tracer experiments with methylene blue indicate a penetration depth of 120 cm on the reduced tilled plot as compared to the conventionally tilled plot (60 cm). Both tillage systems exhibit the highest density of macropores in the topsoil, ranging between 100 and 1.000 macropores per square meter. The conventionally tilled plot exhibits a higher number of macropores in the upper 20 cm than the reduced tilled plot while at greater soil depth, this holds true

  20. Sediment and PM10 flux from no-tillage cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States where the emission of fine particulates from winter wheat – summer fallow (WW/SF) dryland cropping systems during high winds degrade air quality. Although no-tillage cropping systems are not yet economically viable, these ...

  1. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  2. Effects of tillage and cropping systems on yield and nitrogen fixation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Published information is scanty on the response of crops in mixed cropping systems to the various tillage systems practised by farmers in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. A field experiment assessed the yield and nitrogen (N) fixation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.) on ...

  3. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced-Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolain, N.M.; Charles, R.; Wirth, J.; Schwarz, J.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Bonin, L.; Jensen, P.K.; Kudsk, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of

  4. Morphology and stability of aggregates of an Oxisol according to tillage system and gypsum application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Régis de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization and aggregate stability is an important factor in evaluating management systems. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the stability and morphology of the aggregates of a dystrophic Oxisol managed with no-tillage and conventional tillage with and without the residual action of gypsum. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in split-split plot, where the treatments were two soil management systems (plots with 0 and 2000 kg ha-1 of gypsum (subplots and five depths (0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15, 0.15-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m as the subsubplots, with four replications. The aggregate morphology was determined through images and later evaluated by the Quantporo software. Stability was determined by the wet method. The results showed that the no-tillage system, with or without gypsum residual effect, provided the aggregates with the largest geometric diameters. The combination of no-tillage system and the gypsum residual effect provided rougher aggregates.

  5. Continuum of risk analysis methods to assess tillage system sustainability at the experimental plot level

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of stochastic dominance and stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) methodology for ranking conventional and conservation tillage systems using 14 years (1990-2003) of economic budget data collected from 36 plots at the Iowa...

  6. Effects of phosphorus and four tillage mulch systems on the physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of phosphorus and four tillage mulch systems on the physico-chemical properties of an ultisol in Eastern Nigeria. ... Micro-porosity, macro-porosity, total porosity, mean weight diameter of water stable aggregates and saturated hydraulic conductivity, however, did not show significance. The infiltration rates of the TM, ...

  7. Effects of tillage systems on physical properties of a cohesive yellow argisol in the northern state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir José Zuffo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tillage systems are a key element of the technology of crop production, both with a view to crop yield and from the perspective of soil conservation and sustainability of the production system. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of five tillage systems on the physical properties of a cohesive Yellow Argisol. The experiment was installed in the field on January 21, 2011 and lasted 260 days, in an area previously used as pasture with Brachiaria grass without liming or fertilization, but irrigated by a low pressure spray system. The treatments, in five replications and in a randomized block design, consisted of: 1 disk plow (twice + disk harrow + ridge-furrow tillage (raising a ridge along the planting row, 135 days after transplanting (DP + RID; 2 disk plow (twice + disk harrow (DP no RID; 3 subsoiler (SB; 4 disk plow (twice + disk harrow + scarification with three shanks along the plant row (DP + SPR; and 5 disk plow (twice + disk harrow + scarification with three shanks in the total area (DP + STA. In all tillage systems, furrows were mechanically opened for the papaya plants. After the treatments, the mechanical resistance to penetration was determined, followed by soil moisture, mean weight diameter (MWD, geometric mean diameter (GMD, bulk density (BD, macroporosity (Ma, microporosity (Mi, and number of fruits per plant. There were differences in penetration resistance (PR between treatments. The subsoiler was more effective to decrease RP to a distance of 0.35 m from the plants, perpendicular to the plant row. The scarifier resulted in a lower PR than DP or SB, even at the depth of 0.40 m, and it was more effective at greater distances perpendicular to the plant. All tillage systems induced a PR between 2.0 and 3.0 MPa at the depth with the highest concentration of papaya tree roots (0-0.25 m, improving the physical conditions to this depth. There was no statistical difference among the treatments for BD, Ma, Mi, MWD, and GMD

  8. Differential responses of nitrate reducer community size, structure, and activity to tillage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chèneby, D; Brauman, A; Rabary, B; Philippot, L

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine how the size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community were affected by adoption of a conservative tillage system as an alternative to conventional tillage. The experimental field, established in Madagascar in 1991, consists of plots subjected to conventional tillage or direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DM), both amended with three different fertilization regimes. Comparisons of size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community in samples collected from the top layer in 2005 and 2006 revealed that all characteristics of this functional community were affected by the tillage system, with increased nitrate reduction activity and numbers of nitrate reducers under DM. Nitrate reduction activity was also stimulated by combined organic and mineral fertilization but not by organic fertilization alone. In contrast, both negative and positive effects of combined organic and mineral fertilization on the size of the nitrate reducer community were observed. The size of the nitrate reducer community was a significant predictor of the nitrate reduction rates except in one treatment, which highlighted the inherent complexities in understanding the relationships the between size, diversity, and structure of functional microbial communities along environmental gradients.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF MINIMUM TILLAGE SYSTEMS UPON THE SOIL PROPERTIES, YIELD AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SOME ARABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor RUSU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control, yield and energy efficiency in the case of maize (Zea mays L., soyabean (Glycine hispida L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in a three years crop rotation. For all cultures within the crop rotation, the weed encroachment is maximum for the disc harrow and rotary harrow soil tillage, followed by the chisel and paraplow. The weed encroachment is minimum for the conventional ploughing tillage technology. The results of investigations showed that the yield is a conclusion soil tillage systems influence on soil properties, plant density assurance and on weed control.

  10. TILLAGE AND DYNAMICS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN IN ECOLOGICAL AND INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J SMATANA

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available During the period of 1991-1993 in the field experiment, the effect of different soil management (tillage 0,24 m and tillage 0,12-0,15 m in ecological and integration management system on changes of inorganic nitrogen (Nan = N-NH4 + + N-NO3 - content in the soil layer from 0 up to 0,6 m of the soil depth (0,00-0,30 m and 0,30- 0,60 m were studied. Trials were held in a warm climatic zone of the South – Western Slovakia on the brown soil. Different soil management systems (tillage 0,24 m and tillage 0,12-0,15 m considerably did not affected ammonification and nitrification processes in the soil. The sustainability of minimalization via shallow ploughing is not excluded, on the contrary this minimalization may have high a positive influence on economic saving the energy, labour costs, etc. The quantitative and qualitative changes of studied form of N were significantly effected by weather and soil depth. Soil content of N-NH4 + and N-NO3 - was in negative correlation with soil depth.

  11. Impact of erosion and tillage on the productivity and quality of selected semiarid soils of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizade, B.; Asadi, H.; Shabanpour, M.; Ghadiri, H.

    2013-09-01

    This greenhouse research was carried out to study the effects of water and tillage erosion on agricultural productivity and soil quality in soil samples from a semiarid region of Iran. A factorial experiment of complete randomized block design was used to compare the effects of soil erosion (eroded and non-eroded soils), slope position, water stress and fertilizer (N-P-K) on yield and yield components of wheat as soil productivity index. The results showed that erosion ie water and tillage erosion has a significant effect (p<0.01) in decreasing soil productivity due to its negative impact on soil organic matter, nutrients (N and K) and hydraulic conductivity. Complete N-P-K fertilization and water stress had significant effects on increasing and decreasing of wheat yield, respectively. The effect of water stress in particular was so high that it could eclipse the erosion impact on yield reduction. Wheat dry matter and grain mass on foot and mid slopes were significantly higher than that on upslope positions where total N and available K were the lowest and equivalent calcium carbonate the highest. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and total nitrogen were found to be the most important soil properties as far as their correlations to wheat yield are concerned.

  12. Tillage systems and cover crops on soil physical properties after soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil management alters soil physical attributes and may affect crop yield. In order to evaluate soil physical attributes in layers from 0 to 0.40 m and soybean grain yield, in the 2012/2013 agricultural year, an essay was installed in the experimental area of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS/CPCS. Soil tillage systems were: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no tillage (DS, the cover crops used were millet, sunn hemp and fallow. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plots. For the layer of 0.20-0.30 m, millet provided the best results for soil bulk density, macro and microporosity. The resistance to penetration (RP was influenced in the layer of 0-0.10 m, and millet provided lower RP. The DS provided the lowest RP values for the layer of 0.10-0.20 m. The treatments did not influence yield or thousand-seed weight.

  13. Contribution of macroporosity to water flux of a soil under different tillage systems

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    Carlos Germán Soracco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the importance of the macroporosity for the water transport properties of soils, its quantitative assessment is a challenging task. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity (K at different soil water tensions and the quantification of water-conducting macropores (θM of a soil under different tillage systems could help understand the effects on the soil porous system and related hydraulic properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Conventional Tillage (CT, Chisel Plow (CP and No Tillage (NT on θM and on K; and to quantify the contribution of macroporosity to total water flux in a loam soil. A tension disc infiltrometer was used at two soil water pressure heads (-5 cm, and 0 to infer θM and K, during fallow. Macroporosity was determined based on the flow contribution between 0 and -5 cm water potentials (K0, K5, respectively, according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. The K0 values were statistically higher for CT than for NT and CP. The K5 values did not differ statistically among treatments. The mean K values varied between 0.20 and 3.70 cm/h. For CT, θM was significantly greater than for CP and NT, following the same trend as K0. No differences in θM were detected between CP and NT. With CT, the formation of water-conducting macropores with persistence until post-harvest was possible, while under CP preparation, the water-conducting macropores were not persistent. These results support the idea that tillage affects the soil water movement mainly by the resulting water-conducting macropores. Future studies on tillage effects on water movement should focus on macroporosity.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of weeds in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Bottega

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil is one of the largest grain producers in the world, due to its extensive arable land and favorable climate for the cultivation of any species. The production could be higher, but problems such as competition between crops and weeds reduces crop yields. This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of weeds, especially milkweed (Sonchus oleraceus, horse weed (Conyza spp. and ‘maria-mole’ (Senecio brasiliensis in an area under no-tillage system for two harvests. The work was carried out during the 2013/14 and 2014/15 crop years in an area of 22.5 ha, where soybean is grown in the summer and oat in the winter. The weeds were mapped using a sampling grid of 85 points. The number of plants present in 0.25 m2 was recorded at each sampling point. The data collected in the field composed the information bank and were used for geostatistical analysis and production of maps. Using geostatistical analysis, it was possible to map the horseweed infestation in the studied area for the 2013/14 season. The species ‘maria-mole’ and milkweed did not show spatial dependence. During the 2014/2015 season, because of the management carried out in the off season, none of the studied species showed spatial dependence.

  15. Yield and water use efficiencies of maize and cowpea as affected by tillage and cropping systems in semi-arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriti, M.J; Kironchi, G; Gachene, K.K.C; Esilaba, O.A.; Mwangi, M.D; Heng, K.L

    2012-01-01

    Soil water conservation through tillage is widely accepted as one of the ways of improving crop yields in rainfed agriculture. Field experiments were conducted between 2007 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage on the yields and crop water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in eastern Kenya. Experimental treatments were a combination of three tillage practices and four cropping systems. Tillage practices were tied-ridges, subsoiling-ripping and ox-ploughing. The cropping systems were single crop maize, single crop cowpea, intercropped maize.cowpea and single crop maize with manure. The treatments were arranged in split plots with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results showed that tied-ridge tillage had the greatest plant available water content while subsoiling-ripping tillage had the least in all seasons. Averaged across seasons and cropping season, tillage did not have a significant effects on maize grain yield but it did have a significant effect on crop grain and dry matter water use efficiency (WUE). Nevertheless, maize grain yields and WUE values were generally greater under tied-ridge tillage than under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillages. The yields and WUE of cowpea under subsoiling-ripping tillage were less than those of ox-plough tillage. When averaged across the seasons and tillage systems, the cropping system with the manure treatment increased (P.0.05) maize grain yield, grain WUE and dry matter WUE by 36%, 30%, 26% respectively, compared to treatments without manure. Maize and cowpea when intercropped under ox-plough and ripping tillage systems did not have any yield advantage over the single crop

  16. The influence of tillage systems, fertilization and plant protection levels on weed infestation in winter rye cultivated on light soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional and ploughless tillage systems upon infestation in two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on light soil. Before harvest winter rye there was determined weed infestation of square-frame method. There were estimated weed species composition and air dry matter of weeds in two randomly selected place. Number of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds and dry matter of weeds was higher on the objects with ploughless tillage system compared with conventional tillage. Intensive fertilization and plant protection decreased number of dicotyledonous weeds in canopy of winter rye. Conventional tillage system decreased Apera spica-venti occurrence in a canopy of winter rye and increased number of Plantago major plants. Intensive level of fertilization and plant protection decreased weed infestation first of all through Matricaria maritima.

  17. Distributed soil loss estimation system including ephemeral gully development and tillage erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. N. Vieira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new modelling system is being developed to provide spatially-distributed runoff and soil erosion predictions for conservation planning that integrates the 2D grid-based variant of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, version 2 model (RUSLER, the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Estimator (EphGEE, and the Tillage Erosion and Landscape Evolution Model (TELEM. Digital representations of the area of interest (field, farm or entire watershed are created using high-resolution topography and data retrieved from established databases of soil properties, climate, and agricultural operations. The system utilizes a library of processing tools (LibRaster to deduce surface drainage from topography, determine the location of potential ephemeral gullies, and subdivide the study area into catchments for calculations of runoff and sheet-and-rill erosion using RUSLER. EphGEE computes gully evolution based on local soil erodibility and flow and sediment transport conditions. Annual tillage-induced morphological changes are computed separately by TELEM.

  18. Application limestone forms and doses for alfalfa in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cristina Bertusso Toffolli

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. requires good soil fertility. Brazil is characterized by acidic soils which reduce the potential of the crop. Generally, liming is incorporated into the soil, but in tillage systems it is inadvisable. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the lime application method and dose on pH, Al+3, V % and Ca+Mg in the soil and on dry matter yield of alfalfa cultivated under a consolidated no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Paraná Agronomic Institute, located in Pato Branco city, in Paraná state. The plots consisted of the types of lime application (plowing+harrowing, subsoil and surface, the sub-plots was the lime dose (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Mg ha-1 and the sub-sub-plots were the sampled soil depth (0-5; 5-10; 10-20 and 20-30 cm. The results show the application of lime, even superficially, caused increases in pH, concentration of Ca and Mg and base saturation of the soil, while also reducing the concentration of Al, especially in the surface layers of the soil. The practice of plowing and harrowing or of subsoiling, with the aim of lime incorporation in a consolidated no-tillage system is unnecessary. If it is required, the application of lime to the soil should be done superficially for alfalfa cultivated in this system.

  19. Medium-term impact of tillage and residue management on soil aggregate stability, soil carbon and crop productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, B.K.; Vanlauwe, B.; Ayuke, F.; Gassner, A.; Hoogmoed, M.; Hurisso, T.T.; Koala, S.; Lelei, D.; Ndabamenye, T.; Six, J.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation agriculture is widely promoted for soil conservation and crop productivity increase, although rigorous empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is still limited. This study aimed to quantify the medium-term impact of tillage (conventional and reduced) and crop residue management

  20. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  1. Comparison of conventional and no-tillage corn and soybean production on runoff and erosion in the southeastern US Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of expected climatic changes, it is important to understand how effective conservation tillage systems are at protecting against soil erosion. Of particular importance is to determine how these systems perform during high intensity rains that generate significant runoff. This study was condu...

  2. Effects of No-tillage Combined with Reused Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Yield and Irrigation Water Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU Yong-zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reused plastic film mulching and no-tillage on maize yield and irriga-tion water productivity(IWP in the marginal oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China. The aim is to provide an alternative tillage and cultivation pattern for reducing plastic film pollution, saving cost and increasing income, and improving resource use efficiency. The field experiment was carried out in three soils with different textures and fertility levels. Three treatments for each soil were set up:(1 conventional tillage,winter irrigation, and new plastic mulching cultivation(NM;(2 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching cultivation (RM;(3 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching combined with straw mulching (RMS. The results showed that the average daily soil temperature in the two reused plastic mulching treatment(RM and RMS during maize sowing and elongation stage was lower 0.6~1.0℃(5 cm depth and 0.5~0.8℃(15 cm depth than that in the NM. This result suggested that no tillage and reused plastic mulching cultivation still had the effect of increasing soil temperature. Maize grain yield in the RM was reduced by 4.4%~10.6% compared with the conventional cultivation(NM, while the net income increased due to saving in plastic film and tillage ex-penses. There was no significant difference in maize grain yield between the RMS and NM treatment, but the net income in the RMS was in-creased by 12.5%~17.1% than that in the NM. Compared with the NM, the two reused plastic film mulching treatments (RM and RMS decreased the volume of winter irrigation, but maize IWP increased. Soil texture and fertility level affected significantly maize nitrogen uptake and IWP. In the arid oases with the shortage of water resources, cultivation practices of conservation tillage with recycle of plastic film is an ideal option for saving cost and increasing income

  3. Soil and crop residue CO2-C emission under tillage systems in sugarcane-producing areas of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate management of agricultural crop residues could result in increases on soil organic carbon (SOC and help to mitigate gas effect. To distinguish the contributions of SOC and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. residues to the short-term CO2-C loss, we studied the influence of several tillage systems: heavy offset disk harrow (HO, chisel plow (CP, rotary tiller (RT, and sugarcane mill tiller (SM in 2008, and CP, RT, SM, moldboard (MP, and subsoiler (SUB in 2009, with and without sugarcane residues relative to no-till (NT in the sugarcane producing region of Brazil. Soil CO2-C emissions were measured daily for two weeks after tillage using portable soil respiration systems. Daily CO2-C emissions declined after tillage regardless of tillage system. In 2008, total CO2-C from SOC and/or residue decomposition was greater for RT and lowest for CP. In 2009, emission was greatest for MP and CP with residues, and smallest for NT. SOC and residue contributed 47 % and 41 %, respectively, to total CO2-C emissions. Regarding the estimated emissions from sugarcane residue and SOC decomposition within the measurement period, CO2-C factor was similar to sugarcane residue and soil organic carbon decomposition, depending on the tillage system applied. Our approach may define new emission factors that are associated to tillage operations on bare or sugarcane-residue-covered soils to estimate the total carbon loss.

  4. Species composition and density of weeds in a wheat crop depending on the soil tillage system in crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yankov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo on slightly leached chernozem soil type. For the purposes of this investigation, variants from a stationary field experiment initiated in 1987 and based on various soil tillage tools and operations were analyzed. The species composition and density of weeds were followed in a wheat crop grown after grain maize using the following soil tillage systems: plowing at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; cutting at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – cutting at 8 – 10 cm (for wheat; disking at 10 – 12 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; no-tillage (for maize – no-tillage (for wheat.Weed infestation was read at the fourth rotation since the initiation of the trial. The observations were made in spring before treatment of the crop with herbicides. The soil tillage system had a significant effect on the species composition and density of weeds in the field with wheat grown after previous crop maize. The long-term alternation of plowing with disking in parallel with the usage of chemicals for weed control lead to lower weed infestation of the weed crop. The lower weed density after this soil tillage system was not related to changes in the species composition and the relative percent of the individual species in the total weed infestation. The long-term application in crop rotation of systems without turning of the soil layer and of minimal and no-tillage increased the amount of weeds. The reason is the greater variability of weed species which typically occur after shallow soil tillage.

  5. TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, L. EMERGENCE, YIELD, QUALITY, AND FUEL CONSUMPTION IN DOUBLE CROPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH SESSIZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between crop growing and soil tillage treatment are play important role in agricultural production. Soils under conventional tillage (CT generally have lower bulk density and associated higher total porosity within the plough layer than under no tillage (NT. No-till farming can reduce soil erosion, conserve soil moisture and minimize labor and fuel consumption. The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of conventional, reduced and notillage methods on soil physical properties, sunfl ower yield and yield components, protein and oil content and fuel consumption in Southeastern of Turkey. Six tillage methods for the second crop sunfl ower were tested and compared each other within after lentil harvesting at 2003 and 2004 years in a clay loam soil. According to results, the fi rst year, the bulk density had decreased from 1.29 to 1.09 g cm-3, the second year the δb had decreased from 1.41 to 1.23 g cm-3. Differences between years and tillage methods in terms of yield were found signifi cant (p<0.05. However, no differences were found between the NT and CT. There were also no signifi cance differences in content of protein, oil and ash among six tillage methods. The highest fuel consumption was measured in conventional method (CT whereas the lowest value was found in direct seeding method as 33.48 L ha-1 and 6.6 L ha-1, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of Different Tillage Practices for Monocultural Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp Production in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaeyo, NU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-season (rainy and dry study was conducted in 1993 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the most productive tillage practice for monocultural cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp production. Completely randomised block design with four replications was used and tillage treatments were : No till-Slash and Burn (NSB, No till-Herbicide applied (NH, Conventional-ploughed and harrowed (CT, and Minimum-ploughed only (MT. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on percentage emergence, leaf and branch number in both seasons. In the first season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by tillage treatments at 2 and 4 weeks after sowing (WAS with NH showing superiority over the other treatments. In the second season, plant height was significantly (P <0.05 higher in NSB and MT treatments at 6 and 8 WAS, respectively. Pod and grain yield (t ha-1 were not affected by tillage treatments in the first season but in the second season, NSB (1.84 t ha-1 and MT (1.53 t ha-1 showed significant superiority over other treatments. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while CT produced the highest economie returns. Some soil properties were also influenced with NSB treatment having a higher soil bulk density at sowing and 6 WAS than the other treatments, while NH recorded a higher soil moisture content at 6 WAS than the other treatments. The study also suggests that with optimum precipitation, CT appears a better land preparation option for cowpea production.

  7. Soil surface roughness decay in contrasting climates, tillage types and management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Bertol, Ildegardis; Tondello Barbosa, Fabricio; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Soil surface roughness describes the variations in the elevation of the soil surface. Such variations define the soil surface microrelief, which is characterized by a high spatial variability. Soil surface roughness is a property affecting many processes such as depression storage, infiltration, sediment generation, storage and transport and runoff routing. Therefore the soil surface microrelief is a key element in hydrology and soil erosion processes at different spatial scales as for example at the plot, field or catchment scale. In agricultural land soil surface roughness is mainly created by tillage operations, which promote to different extent the formation of microdepressions and microelevations and increase infiltration and temporal retention of water. The decay of soil surface roughness has been demonstrated to be mainly driven by rain height and rain intensity, and to depend also on runoff, aggregate stability, soil reface porosity and soil surface density. Soil roughness formation and decay may be also influenced by antecedent soil moisture (either before tillage or rain), quantity and type of plant residues over the soil surface and soil composition. Characterization of the rate and intensity of soil surface roughness decay provides valuable information about the degradation of the upper most soil surface layer before soil erosion has been initiated or at the very beginning of soil runoff and erosion processes. We analyzed the rate of decay of soil surface roughness from several experiments conducted in two regions under temperate and subtropical climate and with contrasting land use systems. The data sets studied were obtained both under natural and simulated rainfall for various soil tillage and management types. Soil surface roughness decay was characterized bay several parameters, including classic and single parameters such as the random roughness or the tortuosity and parameters based on advanced geostatistical methods or on the fractal theory. Our

  8. Economic and energetic analysis of corn crop (Zea mays) in no tillage production system in familiar farms at Pratania, SP, Brazil; Analise energetica e economica da producao de milho (Zea Mays) em sistema de plantio direto em propriedades familiares no municipio de Pratania, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pracucho, Tanise Theresa Gomes Martins [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Agronomia]. E-mail: tthera@fca.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Programa. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial]. E-mail: maura@fca.unesp.br; osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this paper was analyze the relationship between economic and energetic indicators of corn crop in no tillage production system in familiar farmers at Pratania town in Sao Paulo state. It was collected data from two meanly farmers of this municipal district to compose the production systems of the corn crop. It was also collected data of the monthly average prices of corn, inputs and inflation rates, in the period of 2001 to 2005. The energetic results were presented by the structure of the energetic expenses by type, source and shape in Mega joules (MJ) unit and energetic and cultural efficiency indicators. The economic results were presented in the probability distribution of economic index, given by rate of monetary output and inputs, estimated by the gross income and operational costs, respectively. Both systems showed a dependence of industrial and fossil sources of energy, mainly chemical fertilizers and Diesel oil. For both systems, the economic efficiency indicator was lower than the cultural energetic efficiency indicators, considering the prices of harvest season (March and April). It was verified that economic and energetic efficiency indicators are not coincident and that efficient energetic systems may not be efficient from the economic view. (author)

  9. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

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    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  10. Qualidade de solo submetido a sistemas de cultivo com preparo convencional e plantio direto Soil quality under tillage and no-tillage cropping systems

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    Eusângela Antônia Costa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de um Latossolo Vermelho submetido a sistemas de cultivo com preparo convencional e plantio direto. Foram estudadas duas áreas experimentais, localizadas na Embrapa Cerrados, em Planaltina, DF, com oito e dez anos de cultivo. Foram coletadas amostras de solo, em diversas profundidades, nas parcelas experimentais e em área de cerrado nativo. Os seguintes atributos foram avaliados: densidade do solo, porosidade total, capacidade de água disponível, grau de floculação, resistência do solo à penetração, teor de matéria orgânica, capacidade de troca catiônica, fósforo remanescente, carbono da biomassa microbiana e respiração basal. Os dados obtidos foram comparados a valores referenciais quanto à qualidade do solo, mediante modelagem gráfica. Observou-se que a qualidade do solo, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo, é similar quanto aos atributos físicos; os teores de matéria orgânica e fósforo remanescente também são semelhantes, mas a capacidade de troca catiônica é mais alta no solo sob plantio direto. Em relação aos atributos biológicos, o solo sob plantio direto apresenta atividade biológica mais elevada. A qualidade do solo em ambos os sistemas é similar, em relação aos atributos avaliados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of an Oxisol under tillage and no-tillage systems. Two experimental areas were studied, both located in Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, with eight and ten years of cropping. Soil samples were collected from different depth layers in the experimental plots and native cerrado vegetation area. The following soil atributes were evaluated: bulk density, soil porosity, available water capacity, degree of flocculation, soil resistance to penetration, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, equilibrium phosphorus, microbial biomass carbon and basal respiration. The data obtained were compared with referential

  11. Soil carbon fractions under maize-wheat system: effect of tillage and nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Pal, Sharmistha; Singh, A K

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in sustaining agroecosystems and maintaining environmental quality as it acts as a major source and sink of atmospheric carbon. The present study aims to assess the impact of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon pools in a maize-wheat cropping system of Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Soil samples from a split plot design with two tillage systems (bed planting and conventional tillage) and six nutrient treatments (T1 = control, T2 = 120 kg urea-N ha(-1), T3 = T2 (25 % N substituted by FYM), T4 = T2 (25 % N substituted by sewage sludge), T5 = T2 + crop residue, T6 = 100 % organic source (50 % FYM + 25 % biofertilizer + 25 % crop residue) were used for determining the organic carbon pools. Results show that there was a significant improvement in Walkley and Black carbon in soil under integrated and organic nutrient management treatments. KMnO4-oxidizable carbon content of soil varied from 0.63 to 1.50 g kg(-1) in soils and was found to be a better indicator for monitoring the impact of agricultural management practices on quality of soil organic carbon than microbial biomass carbon. Tillage and its interaction were found to significantly influence only those soil organic carbon fractions closely associated with aggregate stability viz, labile polysaccharides and glomalin. The highest amount of C4-derived carbon was found to be in plots receiving recommended doses of N as urea (29 %) followed by control plots (25 %). The carbon management index ranged between 82 to 195 and was better in integrated nutrient sources than ones receiving recommended doses of nutrients through mineral fertilizers alone.

  12. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Non-Chemical Weed Management in Reduced Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolan, N.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-01-01

    consumption appears to be slightly higher as compared to plough based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and stickywilly often constitute the principal weed problems when the soil is not inverted because crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign......Non-inversion tillage with tine or disc based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape (canola) and maize (corn) in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use may hinder further...

  13. The Role of Government Policies in the Adoption of Conservation Tillage in China: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ya

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many areas of China have been facing increasing problems of soil erosion and land degradation. Conservation tillage, with both economic and ecological benefits, provides a good avenue for Chinese farmers to conserve land as well as secure food production. However, the adoption rate of conservation tillage systems is very low in China. In this paper, the author constructs a theoretical model to explain a farmer’s adoption decision of conservation tillage. The goal is to investigate potential reasons behind the low adoption rate and explores alternative policy tools that can help improve a farmer’s incentive to adopt conservation tillage in China.

  14. Image processing system for evaluation of tillage quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riegler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Studie wurde der Einsatz von passiver Bilddatenerfassung für die Generierung von 3-D-Modellen der Ackeroberfläche mittels Stereovision untersucht. Hierfür wurde ein Stereo- Vision-System (SVS verwendet, welches an einer elektrisch angetriebenen Lineareinheit montiert ist. Um zu überprüfen, ob sich die Methode zur Charakterisierung der Arbeitsqualität eignet, wurde die Messunsicherheit in z-Achse theoretisch als auch praktisch in Vorversuchen ermittelt. Zusätzlich wurden die Variationen der Messgrößen im praktischen Gebrauch evaluiert. Die Arbeitsqualität von Bodenbearbeitungsystemen kann durch den Vergleich der Steigung der Ackeroberfläche vor und nach der Bodenbearbeitung quer zur Fahrtrichtung, mit statistischen Kennwerten des 3-D-Modells, durch die Rauheit der Oberfläche, die Volumenänderung und die Arbeitstiefe charakterisiert werden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Stereovision eine geeignete Methode ist, um 3-D-Modelle von Ackeroberflächen zu generieren und darauf aufbauend Daten in Outdoor-Umgebungen zu analysieren.

  15. Inversion tillage, high residue covers, and different herbicide regimes for palmer amaranth control in liberty link systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth is adversely affecting cotton production in the Southeast US. A field experiment was established in fall 2008 at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Field Crops Unit near Shorter, AL, to investigate the role of inversion tillage, high residue cover crops, and differ...

  16. [Effects of Short-time Conservation Tillage Managements on Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Soybean-Winter Wheat Rotation System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Chen, Xi; Hu, Zheng-hua; Chen, Shu-tao; Zhang, Han; Ling, Hui; Shen, Shuang-he

    2016-04-15

    Field experiments including one soybean growing season and one winter-wheat growing season were adopted. The experimental field was divided into four equal-area sub-blocks which differed from each other only in tillage managements, which were conventional tillage (T) , no-tillage with no straw cover ( NT) , conventional tillage with straw cover (TS) , and no-tillage with straw cover (NTS). CO₂ and N₂O emission fluxes from soil-crop system were measured by static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that: compared with T, in the soybean growing season, NTS significantly increased the cumulative amount of CO₂ (CAC) from soil-soybean system by 27.9% (P = 0.045) during the flowering-podding stage, while NT significantly declined CAC by 28.9% (P = 0.043) during the grain filling-maturity stage. Compared with T, NT significantly declined the cumulative amount of N₂O (CAN) by 28.3% (P = 0.042) during the grain filling-maturity stage. In the winter-wheat growing season, compared with T, TS and NT significantly declined CAC by 24.3% (P = 0.032) and 36.0% (P = 0.041) during the elongation-booting stage, and also declined CAC by 26.8% (P = 0.027) and 33.1% (P = 0.038) during the maturity stage. During the turning-green stage, compared with T treatment, NT, NTS, and TS treatments had no significant effect on CAN, while NTS significant declined CAN by 42.0% (P = 0.035) compared with NT. Our findings suggested that conservation tillage managements had a more significant impact on CO₂ emission than 20 emission from soil-crop system.

  17. The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril

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    Husni Thamrin Sebayang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and yield of soybeans can decrease due to competition from weeds. Various efforts have been made to control the growth of weeds such as land preparation and weeding periods. An experiment to study the effect of soil tillage systems and weeding time on the growth of weeds and soybean crop yield (Glycine max (L. Merril has been done in Wringinsongo Village, Tumpang Sub-District, Malang Regency from February to May 2017. The split-plot design with three replicates was used with the soil tillage system as the main plot consisting of three levels, T0: no tillage, T1: minimum tillage, and T2: conventional tillage, and weeding time as the sub plot consisting of 4 levels, P0: no weeding, P1: weeding 1 time, P2: weeding two times and P3: weeding three times. The results showed that the dominant weed species before treatment were Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, and Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane. After treatment, the dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry, and Eclipta alba (False daisy. There was no significant difference of the dry weight of weeds in conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting, and minimum tillage and no tillage. For the yield of soybeans, conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting were not significant with that of minimum tillage. The yield of soybeans was lower than that of with no tillage and no weeding.

  18. Tillage and planting date effects on weed dormancy, emergence, and early growth in organic corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed management is a major constraint to adoption of reduced-tillage practices for organic grain production. Tillage, cover crop management, and crop planting date are all factors that influence the periodicity and growth potential of important weed species in these systems. Therefore, we assessed...

  19. Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, Julia; Baranski, Marcin; Stewart, Gavin; Nobel-de Lange, Majimcha; Bàrberi, Paolo; Fließbach, Andreas; Peigné, Josephine; Berner, Alfred; Brock, Christopher; Casagrande, Marion; Crowley, Oliver; David, Christophe; Vliegher, De Alex; Döring, Thomas F.; Dupont, Aurélien; Entz, Martin; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Halde, Caroline; Hammerl, Verena; Huiting, Hilfred; Leithold, Günter; Messmer, Monika; Schloter, Michael; Sukkel, Wijnand; Heijden, van der Marcel G.A.; Willekens, Koen; Wittwer, Raphaël; Mäder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Reduced tillage is increasingly promoted to improve sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems. Nonetheless, adoption of reduced tillage by organic farmers has been slow due to concerns about nutrient supply, soil structure, and weeds that may limit yields. Here, we compiled the

  20. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  1. Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Zhang, H.; dikgwatlhe, S.B.; Xue, J.; Qiu, K.; Tang, H.; Chen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientific community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different tillage systems and

  2. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  3. GRANULOMETRIC AND HUMIC FRACTIONS CARBON STOCKS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER UNDER NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM IN UBERABA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cover plant use preceding grain crops in Cerrado soil can increase the carbon stocks of chemical and physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon stocks of SOM granulometric and humic fractions in a Cerrado area under no-tillage system with different cover plant, and compare the results with those from conventional tillage and fallow areas, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. The implemented cover crops were: millet, tropical grass and sunn hemp. Furthermore, an area was used in fallow and another as a control area (conventional tillage. After cover crop removal, the areas were subdivided for the corn and soybean plantation. Soil samples were collected in the 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m depths, with posterior quantification of total organic carbon (TOC levels and chemical and granulometric fractionation of SOM. Humic acid carbon (C-HAF, fulvic acids (C-FAF and humin (C-HUM were quantified through these fractionations. The granulometric fractions consisted in particulate organic matter (POM and mineral organic matter (MOM. Using the carbon levels for each fraction, the respective stocks for each depth were calculated, including the 0.0-0.20 m layer. In the 0.0-0.20 m layer, TOC had the highest stocks for the millet area. The highest POM stocks were found for the corn plantation over sunn hemp and the fallow and soybean area over millet and tropical grass (0.0-0.20 m. In relation to the MOM stocks, the highest values were observed in the areas with millet, sunn hemp and tropical (palisade grass, all superior to those found in the conventional tillage and fallow areas, independent of evaluated culture (0.10-0.20 m. The highest C-HUM stocks were observed in the area with tropical grass (0.025-0.05 m and areas with tropical grass and sunn hemp (0.10-0.20 m, when compared to conventional tillage, independent of evaluated culture (corn and soybean. The highest C-FAH stocks in the depth of 0

  4. Effect of tillage practices on least limiting water range in Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Meharban S.; Chawla, Karitika

    2017-04-01

    Tillage practices affect mechanical and hydrological characteristics of soil and subsequently the least limiting water range. This quality indicator under the wheat-maize system of northwest India has not been studied yet. The treatments included four tillage modes, namely conventional tillage, no-tillage without residue, no-tillage with residue, and deep tillage as well as three irrigation regimes based on the irrigation water and pan evaporation ratio i.e. 1.2, 0.9, and 0.6. The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with three replications. At the end of cropping system, the mean least limiting water range (m3 m-3) was found to be highest in deep tillage (0.26) and lowest in notillage without residue (0.15). The field capacity was a limiting factor for the upper range of the least limiting water range beyond soil bulk density 1.41 Mg m-3 and after that 10% air filled porosity played a major role. However, for the lower range, the permanent wilting point was a critical factor beyond soil bulk density 1.50 Mg m-3 and thereafter, the penetration resistance at 2 MPa becomes a limiting factor. Thus, deep tillage under compaction and no-tillage with residue under water stress is appropriate practice for achieving maximum crop and water productivity.

  5. Biomass Production and Soil Carbon Level Changes in Various Tillage, Residue Management, and Cropping Systems in Moderately High Organic Matter Soils in Eastern South Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, H. J.; Bly, A.

    2003-12-01

    A four-year replicated field study was conducted in eastern South Dakota to assess the impact of maize (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop residue accumulation and soil carbon when various tillage, crop residue management, and crop rotation scenarios were applied. Before planting, half the plots were chisel plowed and harrowed (tilled vs. no-till treatments). Corn-soybean, soybean-wheat, or corn-wheat-soybean rotations were established (rotation treatments). After grain harvest, crop residues were removed on half of the plots (residue-removed vs. residue-retained treatments). The range of initial soil carbon levels (loss by ignition method) for the 0-15cm depth was 1.7-3.0%. Post-harvest crop residue accumulation was greatest for the residue-retained treatment compared to the residue-removed treatment and for the no-till treatment compared to the tilled treatment. In addition, surface biomass accumulation was greatest when maize was part of a crop rotation. Maize can produce greater levels of biomass compared to either spring wheat or soybean. The least surface biomass accumulation was measured in the soybean-wheat rotation.

  6. Abundance, production and stabilization of microbial biomass under conventional and reduced tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van K.J.; Bloem, J.; Baath, E.; Boeckx, P.; Rousk, J.; Bodé, S.; Forristal, P.D.; Jones, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Soil tillage practices affect the soil microbial community in various ways, with possible consequences for nitrogen (N) losses, plant growth and soil organic carbon (C) sequestration. As microbes affect soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics largely through their activity, their impact may not be

  7. Nutrient cycling and soil biology in row crop systems under intensive tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in management of the soil biological component to improve soil health requires a better understanding on how management practices (e.g., tillage) and environmental conditions influence soil organisms. Intensive tillage often results in reduced organic matter content in the surface so...

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions after application of different tillage systems for loam in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwen, Li; Lifeng, Hu; Fub, Chen; Xuemin, Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Tillage operations influence soil physical properties and crop growth, and thus both directly and indirectly the cropland CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In this study, the results of CO2 flux measurements on cropland, under different tillage practices in northern China, are presented. CO2 flux on croplands with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea may L.) rotation was monitored on plots with conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT). Soil CO2 flux was generally greater in CT than in NT, and the RT CO2 flux was only slightly smaller than the CT. Daily soil CO2 emissions for CT, RT, and NT averaged 11.30g m-2, 9.63 g m-2 and 7.99 g m-2, respectively, during the growing period. Analysis of variance shows that these differences are significant for the three tillage treatments. Peak CO2 emissions were recorded on the CT and RT croplands after tillage operations. At the same time, no obviously increased emission of CO2 occurred on the NT plot. These differences demonstrate that tillage results in a rapid physical release of CO2.

  9. Conversão e balanço energético de sistemas de produção de grãos com pastagens sob plantio direto Energy conversion and balance of grain production systems with pastures under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENRIQUE PEREIRA DOS SANTOS

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados dados obtidos de experimentos conduzidos, no período de 1990 a 1995, na Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS, objetivando estudar a conversão e o balanço energético de quatro sistemas de produção de grãos com pastagens anuais de inverno. Os quatro sistemas foram constituídos por: sistema I (trigo/soja, aveia-preta/soja e aveia-preta/soja; sistema II (trigo/soja e aveia-preta + ervilhaca/milho; sistema III (trigo/soja, aveia-preta + ervilhaca/soja e aveia-preta + ervilhaca/milho; e sistema IV (trigo/soja, aveia-branca/soja e aveia-branca/soja. As culturas, tanto de inverno como de verão, foram estabelecidas sob sistema plantio direto. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, e parcelas totalizando 500 m². Os sistemas II e III apresentaram conversão energética (5,78 e 5,44 e balanço energético (23.728 e 21.741 kg/Mcal superiores aos sistemas I (3,79 e 11.553 kg/Mcal e IV (4,33 e 12.879 kg/Mcal, respectivamente. Ficou evidenciado que a integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema plantio direto foi viável, pois a conversão e o balanço energético foram positivos, tendo sido significativamente maiores nos sistemas que incluíram a cultura de milho.Data obtained from experiments conducted, from 1990 to 1995, at the Universidade de Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were evaluated with the objective to study the energy conversion and balance of four grain production systems with annual winter pastures. Four grain production systems were evaluated: system I (wheat/soybean, black oats/soybean, and black oats/soybean; system II (wheat/soybean and black oats + common vetch/corn; system III (wheat/soybean, black oats + common vetch/soybean, and black oats + common vetch/corn; and system IV (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean, and white oats/soybean. Both winter and summer crops were grown under no-tillage. The trial was set up blocks at random, with three replications and plots with 500

  10. Root systems and soil microbial biomass under no-tillage system

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    Venzke Filho Solismar de Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some root parameters such as distribution, length, diameter and dry matter are inherent to plant species. Roots can influence microbial population during vegetative cycle through the rhizodeposits and, after senescence, integrating the soil organic matter pool. Since they represent labile substrates, especially regarding nitrogen, they can determine the rate of nutrient availability to the next crop cultivated under no-tillage (NT. The root systems of two crop species: maize (Zea mays L. cultivar Cargill 909 and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivar Embrapa 59, were compared in the field, and their influence on spatial distribution of the microbial C and N in a clayey-textured Typic Hapludox cultivated for 22 years under NT, at Tibagi, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, was determined. Digital image processing and nail-plate techniques were used to evaluate 40 plots of a 80 ´ 50 ´ 3 cm soil profile. It was observed that 36% and 30% of the maize and soybeans roots, respectively, are concentrated in the 0 to 10 cm soil layer. The percent distribution of root dry matter was similar for both crops. The maize roots presented a total of 1,324 kg C ha-1 and 58 kg N ha-1, with higher root dry matter density and more roots in decomposition in the upper soil layer, decreasing with depth. The soybean roots (392 kg C ha-1 and 21 kg N ha-1 showed higher number of thinner roots and higher density per length unity compared to the maize. The maize roots enhanced microbial-C down to deeper soil layers than did the soybean roots. The microbial N presented a better correlation with the concentration of thin active roots and with roots in decomposition or in indefinite shape, possibly because of higher concentration of C and N easily assimilated by soil microorganisms.

  11. Soil microbial biomass under different management and tillage systems of permanent intercropped cover species in an orange orchard

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    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate soil erosion and enhance soil fertility in orange plantations, the permanent protection of the inter-rows by cover species has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the microbial biomass, due to different soil tillage systems and intercropped cover species between rows of orange trees. The soil of the experimental area previously used as pasture (Brachiaria humidicola was an Ultisol (Typic Paleudult originating from Caiuá sandstone in the northwestern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST (strip width 2 m, in combination with different ground cover management systems. The citrus cultivar 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime rootstock was used. Soil samples were collected after five years of treatment from a depth of 0-15 cm, under the tree canopy and in the inter-row, in the following treatments: (1 CT and an annual cover crop with the leguminous species Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and a perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and an evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and a cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of Brachiaria humidicola. Soil tillage and the different cover species influenced the microbial biomass, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row. The cultivation of brachiaria increased C and N in the microbial biomass, while bahiagrass increased P in the microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P by the presence of ground cover species and according to the soil P content. The grass species increased C, N and P in the soil microbial biomass from the inter-row more than leguminous species.

  12. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage)

  13. Soil tillage practices and crops rotations effects on yields and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology and Results: Three soil tillage practices in main plot (T1 = no tillage with direct sowing, T2 = minimum tillage by soil scarifying with IR12 tool and T3 = conventional tillage with animals drawn plough) were compared and combined to four crops rotation systems, in a split-plot experimental design. Soil chemical ...

  14. Carbon stock and its compartments in a subtropical oxisol under long-term tillage and crop rotation systems

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    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2- intensive crop rotation on total, particulate and mineral-associated organic carbon (C stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification, the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 ºC. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha-1 yr-1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha-1 yr-1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the improvement in soil quality under long-term no-tillage. The particulate C fraction was a sensitive indicator of soil management quality, while mineral-associated organic C was the main pool of atmospheric C fixed in this clayey Oxisol. The C retention in this stable SOM fraction accounts for 81 and 89 % of total C sequestration in the treatments NT R1 and NT R2, respectively, in relation to the same cropping systems under CT. The highest C management index was observed in NT R2, confirming the capacity of this soil management practice to improve the soil C

  15. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  16. Análise do consumo de energia na produção de silagem de milho em plantio direto - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1980 Energy consumption analysis of corn silage production in non-tillage crop system- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1980

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    Aloísio Torres de Campos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O agroecossistema, como um meio de converter a energia solar em produtos, necessita de várias fontes de energia, dentre as quais destacam-se a dos fertilizantes, a dos defensivos agrícolas e outras. No presente trabalho, realizou-se um estudo do consumo energético envolvido na produção de milho para silagem em sistema de plantio direto, na região de São Miguel do Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná. No consumo de energia direta, os combustíveis e lubrificantes foram os maiores consumidores, representando 45,90% do total, os defensivos agrícolas foram responsáveis pelo consumo de 24,12%, enquanto que os fertilizantes, por 10,53%. Ao computar os componentes de origem fóssil, os combustíveis, os lubrificantes, os defensivos e os fertilizantes, a participação do consumo total de energia foi de 84,07%.The agricultural ecosystem as a way of converting solar energy in products needs several energy sources, among those sources stood out fertilizers, agricultural defensives and others. These inputs are derived from fossils. In the present paper, the energy consumption involved in corn silage production in a non-tillage crop system, in São Miguel do Iguaçu, State of Paraná, Brazil, was studied. In the direct energy input, fuels and lubricants were the largest consumers, representing 45.90% of the total, agricultural defensives were responsible for the consumption of 24.12% of the total, while fertilizers for 10.53% of the total consumption. By computing the fossil origin components, fuels, lubricants, defensive and fertilizers, the participation of the total consumption of energy was of 84.07%.

  17. Spatial variability of residual nitrate-nitrogen under two tillage systems in central Iowa: A composite three-dimensional resistant and exploratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, B. P.; Kanwar, R. S.

    1994-02-01

    Soil nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) data arranged on a three-dimensional grid were analyzed to compare tillage effect on the spatial distribution of residual NO3-N in the soil profile of agricultural plots drained by subsurface tiles. A three-dimensional median-based resistant (to outlier(s)) approach was developed to polish the spatially located data on soil NO3-N affected by directional trends (nonstationarity in the mean) in three major directions (row, column, and depth) and along the horizontal diagonal directions of the grid. Effect of preferential or nonpreferential path of transport of NO3-N in the vertical direction defined as sample hole effect was also removed to make the data trend-free across holes. Composite three-dimensional semivariogram models (along horizontal and vertical directions) were used to describe the spatial structure of residual soil nitrate distribution. Two plots in the same field, one under each tillage system (conventional tillage and no tillage), were studied. In each plot, soil samples were collected at five depths (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm) from 35 sites (holes) arranged on a 7×5 regular grid of 7.6×7.6 m. In the conventional tillage plot, residual NO3-N concentrations decreased gradually to a depth of 90 cm and increased beyond this depth. The coefficient of variation, however, became gradually smaller, showing more uniform distribution for greater depths. In the no-tillage plot, trends were similar to those in the conventional tillage system, but were spatially more stable across the profile. Structural analyses indicated that under conventional tillage, the semivariogram of residual soil nitrate distribution was linear in the horizontal and vertical directions. In contrast, the semivariograms for no-tillage showed nugget-type behavior, indicating a lack of spatial structure in the residual soil nitrate.

  18. NUTRIMENTAL POTENTIAL OF RED DOLICHOS, BROWN DOLICHOS AND COWPEA FOR GREEN MANURE PRODUCED UNDER THREE TILLAGE SYSTEMS

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    Felix Alfredo Beltran-Morales

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutrimental content of N, NO3-N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, and B, was evaluated in three bean cultivars of two species with potential to be used as green manure. Cultivars were the red lab-lab bean (RL (Lablab purpureus, brown lab-lab bean (BL (L. purpureus and cowpea (CW (Vigna unguiculata. Three tillage systems were assayed: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and optimal tillage (OT. Results showed that the nutrimental content of N, NO3, P, K did not evidence statistical differences (P≤0.05 among bean cultivars and tillage systems. However, the greater content of N was in BL-CT with 4.85%. The content of P varied from 0.38 to 0.41% and the concentration of K from 2.40 to 2.84%. Ca showed the highest concentration in RL-OT with 2.88%, while the lowest percentage was evidenced by CW-CT, with 2.12% (P≤0.05. The highest percentage of Mg appeared in CW-OT with 0.89% and the lowest concentration was registered for BL-CT, showing 0.52% (P≤0.05. The highest Fe concentration was observed in RL-OT with 0.15% and the lowest in BL-CT and RL-CT, with 0.10%. The Mn content was significantly greater in CW without concerning the tillage system with 0.39% and the smallest concentration was obtained in RL-MT with 0.17%. The greatest percentage content of nutriment B was observed in BL-OT, RL-CT, CW-MT and CW-OT, from 0.024 to 0.030%. In contrast, the lowest content of B was found in RL-MT with 0.015%. The content of Zn did not showed statistical differences respect to the cropping system; the lowest concentration of Zn was observed in CW-OT with 0.0026% and the highest percentage in BL-OT with 0.0040. Cu was significantly highest in BL-CT, BL-MT, BL-OT, RL-CT, RL-MT, RL-OT and CW-OT, being BL-MT and BL-OT the combinations with the highest concentration (0.0061%, while the lowest concentration was observed in CW-MT and CW-CT, with 0.0048% and 0.0044%, respectively.

  19. Developing a sustainable agro-system for central Nepal using reduced tillage and straw mulching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Kishor; Sharma, Subodh; Bajracharya, Roshan M; Rajbhandari, Neeranjan P

    2008-08-01

    In Nepal, soil erosion under maize (Zea mays) agro-ecosystems is most critical during the pre-monsoon season. Very few field experiments have been conducted on reduced tillage and rice straw (Oryza sativa) mulching, although these conservation approaches have been recommended. Thus, a five replicate field experiment was established in 2001 at Kathmandu University (1500 m above sea level) on land with 18% slope to evaluate the efficiency of reduced tillage and mulching on soil and nutrient losses and maize yield. The results showed non-significant differences among conservation approaches on runoff and maize yield. Mulching and reduced tillage significantly lowered annual and pre-monsoon soil and nutrient losses compared to conventional tillage. Soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen losses associated with eroded sediment were significantly higher in conventional tillage. However, due to limited availability and high opportunity cost of rice straw, reduced tillage would be a better option for soil and nutrient conservation without sacrificing economic yield in upland maize agro-ecosystems.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF CORN AFTER GREEN MANURE IN NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM

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    Leonardo Humberto Silva e Castro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main causes of low utilization of cover crops on farms is the lack of awareness of its importance, the limited availability of seeds and the lack of dissemination of research results related to the subject. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and agronomic performance of corn in succession to different cover crops by tillage technique. The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Field of the Centro Universitário do Plantalto de Araxá in Araxá, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with plots of 2.5 x 5 m, with five treatments and three replications. The treatments were: T1 control, T2 crotalaria, T3 consortium of lupine and millet, T4 estilosantes Campo Grande, and T5 cocktail of legumes (Crotalaria + estilosantes + lupine. At 69 days after sowing (DAS it was evaluated plant height, height of ear height, stem diameter and number of green leaves. At 130 DAS evaluated the length, ear diameter in the middle third of the spike and productivity. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s tests at 5% significance. The cocktail of legumes and sunn hemp were green manures that provided the greatest yields, grain weight, ear length, number of green leaves and stem diameter of maize plants.

  1. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

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    Lazar Bireescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized agrofond, using moderate mineral doses (N80P80 as average of 2009–2010 period, under minimum tillage (2x disk, paraplow, chisel compared to conventional (plugging at 20 cm and 30 cm. In the case of soil works with chisel and paraplow without return of furrow, the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis highlights an increase of soil physiological potential, in the both variants (unfertilized and fertilized, unlike the method of alternating the depth of plugging that proved to be ineffective.

  2. THE ECO-PEDOLOGICAL AND PEDO- FUNCTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF CHERNOZEM SUITABILITY TO UNCONVENTIONAL TILLAGE SYSTEMS FROM THE DNIESTER-PRUT INTERFLUVE

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    Gheorghe Jigau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements, even unconventional tillage systems have come to the attention of both research and production activities starting from the early nineteen eighties. Although research in the pilot lands have revealed promising results, until recently they remained unsolicited. The main factor that has supported such a situation was the total dependence to conventional farming systems, based on plowing, and this is supported by the low prices practiced by energy agents and also by the low prices of mineral fertilizers. In addition, in relation to economic interests, conventional systems materialized into increased land productivity and income. At the same time, in relation to ecologic balance, they have produced profound changes, evidenced by increased vulnerability to the actions of various soil degradation processes, diseases and pests and the emergence of new limiting factors.

  3. Controle de plantas daninhas com herbicidas cloroacetamidas em sistemas convencional e de semeadura direta Weed control with chloroacetamide herbicides in conventional and no-tillage systems

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    M.V.W. Ferri

    2003-04-01

    , s-metolachlor at 1.440 g ha-1, and s-metolachlor + protector at 1.440 and 1.800 g ha-1, respectively, besides a check plot without herbicide, applied under conventional and no-tillage systems. Assessments included weed population, weed dry matter and weed control at 30 and 50 days after herbicide application. The chloroacetamides herbicides were more effective in controlling weeds under conventional tillage, compared to no tillage, in both evaluation times. The herbicides acetochlor, alachlor at 3,600 g ha-1 and metolachlor + protector at 2,400 g ha-1 were more efficient in controlling these plants when compared to the other herbicides and formulations. Dry biomass production and weed populations were lower under conventional tillage.

  4. The effect of tillage system and herbicide application on weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. cultivars

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    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 3-year field experiment conducted on medium heavy mixed rendzina soil, the present study evaluated the effect of chemical plant protection on the species composition, number and air-dry weight of weeds infesting crops of winter spelt wheat cultivars (‘Frankenkorn’, ‘Badengold’, ‘Schwaben- speltz’, and ‘Oberkulmer Rotkorn’ sown under ploughing and ploughless tillage systems. Ploughing tillage involved skim- ming done after harvest of the previous crop and pre-sowing ploughing, while in the ploughless tillage system ploughing was replaced with cultivating. Chemical weed control included the application of the herbicides Mustang 306 SE and Attribut 70 WG. Plots where the herbicides were not used were the control treatment. On average, from 21 to 30 weed species colonised the winter spelt wheat crops compared. Galium aparine and Apera spica-venti occurred in greatest numbers and their percentage in the total number of weeds was estimated at 26–35% and 17–25%, respectively. The cultivar ‘Frankenkorn’ was the least weed-infested. Both the number of weeds in the crop of this cultivar and their above-ground dry weight were lower compared to the other cultivars. The use of reduced tillage significantly increased the air-dry weight of weeds compared to ploughing tillage. Nevertheless, it should be indicated under ploughless tillage conditions the application of chemical crop protection reduced weed biomass by 59% compared to the control treatments without crop protection.

  5. Atributos físicos do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob plantio direto Soil physical attributes in integrated cattle raising-crop production system under no-tillage

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    Mastrângello Enívar Lanzanova

    2007-10-01

    üência de pastejo (P28 ou à ausência de pastejo (SP, observaram-se as maiores taxas de infiltração de água no solo.Soil compaction is one of the most important reasons for decrease in crop yield. The impact of animal trampling on integrated beef cattle raising-crop production systems were studied to evaluate the changes in soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to penetration and soil water infiltration. The field experiment was carried out in Jari, in the mid- plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Three management systems of winter pastures (black oat; Avena strigosa Schreber + ryegrass; Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied under different grazing frequencies: (1 No grazing (NG, (2 grazing every 28 days (G28 and (3 grazing every fourteen days (G14. The summer crops soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. or corn (Zea mays L., as antecedent crop in rotation to the winter pastures, were also studied to measure the increasing or decreasing effects on compaction by animal trampling. The greatest effects of animal trampling were concentrated in the top soil layer (0 to 0.05 m, but under the highest grazing frequency (G14 macroporosity was reduced down to the 0.10-0.15 m layer. The soil resistance to penetration had peaks of 2.61 and 2.49 MPa in the G28 and G14 treatments, respectively, in the 0.05-0.08 layer. In the ungrazed areas the values remained lower, around 1.66 MPa. Soil water infiltration was significantly affected by animal trampling and by the previous summer crop. In the case of corn area, the soil was less sensitive to cattle trampling, unlike in the areas following soybean, where the highest grazing frequency (G14 reduced the water infiltration rates. Soybean induced higher values of macroporosity in the evaluated soil layers; when related with lower beef cattle density or ungrazed pastures, the rates of water infiltration and accumulated infiltration were higher.

  6. The effect of conservation tillage forward speed and depth on farm fuel consumption

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    A Jalali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Much research has focused on either reducing or eliminating tillage operations to develop sustainable crop production methods. The greatest costs in farm operations are associated with tillage due to greater specific energy requirement in tillage and the high fuel costs. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with eitherprimary or secondary tillage or planting operations. The amount of fuel saved depends on the combined operations. Generally, light tillage, spraying, and fertilizing operations consume between 0.25 and 0.50 gallons of diesel fuel per acre. Fuel savings of 0.12 to 0.33 gallons per acre can usually be expected from combining operations. Eliminating one primary tillage operation and combining one light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operation with another tillage or planting operation can usually save at least a gallon of diesel fuel per acre. Combining operations has the added benefit of reducing wheel traffic and compaction. To improve the tillage energy efficiency, implementing effective and agronomic strategies should be improved. Different tillage systems should be tested to determine the most energy efficient ones. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Tillage is a time consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save considerable amounts of fuel, time and

  7. Water stability of soil aggregates in different systems of Chernozem tillage

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    Jaroslava Bartlová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of various agrotechnical measures on macrostructural changes in the ploughing layer and subsoil were studied within the period of 2008–2010. Soil macrostructure was evaluated on the base of water stability of soil aggregates. Altogether three variants of soil tillage were established, viz. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1, deep soil loosening to the depth of 0.35–0.40 m (Variant 2, and shallow tillage to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 3. Experiments were established on a field with Modal Chernozem in the locality Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou (maize-growing region, altitude of 210 m, average annual sum of precipitation 461 mm. In the first experimental year, winter rape was the cultivated crop and it was followed by winter wheat, maize and spring wheat in subsequent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different methods of tillage on water stability of soil aggregates and on yields of individual crops. An overall analysis of results revealed a positive effect of cultivation without ploughing on water stability of soil aggregates. In the variant with ploughing was found out a statistically significant decrease of this stability. At the same time it was also found out that both minimum tillage and deep soil loosening showed a positive effect on yields of crops under study (above all of maize and winter wheat.

  8. Effect of no-tillage crop rotation systems on nutrient status of a rhodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the effects of no-tillage and eight crop rotations (established in 1985) on chemical properties of a Rhodic Ferralsol (Typic Haplorthox, Soil Taxonomy) and on nutrient uptake by maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) leaves were assessed in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, using a randomized ...

  9. Optimize the cost of cultivation with using low-tillage in the wheat fields of Tehran province

    OpenAIRE

    KAMALI, Hossein; PARHIZGAR, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In appropriate patterns of tillage in wheat, three methods commonly cultivated as a maximum for tillage, planting a multifunctional device as minimum tillage and direct seeding cultivation system as no tillage operations together are comparable. Analysis of variance and mean cost of land preparation and time spent on the three methods of tillage operations shows that maximum conventional tillage and planting allocated to the most and direct seeding without tillage operations allocat...

  10. Análise econômica de sistemas de produção de grãos com pastagens anuais de inverno, em sistema plantio direto Economic analysis of grain production systems with annual winter pastures, under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO SERENA FONTANELI

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante seis anos (1990 a 1995, foram avaliados, no CEPAGRO-Centro de Extensão e Pesquisa Agronômica, da Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF, em Passo Fundo, RS, quatro sistemas de produção de grãos com pastagens anuais de inverno. Os sistemas foram constituídos por: sistema I (trigo/soja, aveia-preta pastejada/soja e aveia-preta pastejada/soja; sistema II (trigo/soja e aveia-preta + ervilhaca pastejadas/milho; sistema III (trigo/soja, aveia-preta + ervilhaca pastejadas/soja e aveia-preta + ervilhaca pastejadas/milho; e sistema IV (trigo/soja, aveia-branca/soja e aveia-branca/soja. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, e parcelas totalizando 500 m². Na média dos seis anos, o sistema II mostrou maior receita líquida (R$ 432,71/ha do que o sistema IV (R$ 322,93/ha. Por sua vez, o sistema II não diferiu significativamente dos sistemas I (R$ 377,93/ha e III (R$ 400,27/ha. A integração lavoura pecuária sob sistema de cultivo plantio direto foi viável tanto para as culturas de inverno e de verão como para a engorda de bovinos no período invernal.During six years (1990 to 1995, at the CEPAGRO-Centro de Extensão e Pesquisa Agronômica, of the Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade de Passo Fundo, in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, the effects of grain production systems and annual winter pastures were assessed. The economic analysis on that period is presented in this paper. Four production systems were evaluated: system I (wheat/soybean, grazed black oats/soybean, and grazed black oats/soybean; system II (wheat/soybean and grazed black oats + grazed common vetch/pasture/corn; system III (wheat/soybean, grazed black oats + grazed common vetch/soybean, and grazed black oats + grazed common vetch/corn; and system IV (wheat/soybean, white oats/soybean, and white oats/soybean. An experimental design in blocks at random, with three replications and plots with 500 m², was used. In the

  11. Supressão de plantas daninhas e produção de milho-verde orgânico em sistema de plantio direto Weed suppression and organic green corn production in no tillage system

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    L.R. Queiroz

    2010-06-01

    succession under an organic system. The trial was conducted with leguminous plants during the 2007/2008 season, at the Embrapa Corn and Sorghum Field Center in Sete Lagoas-MG. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with split-plots and four replications, with five species of leguminous plants being evaluated: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformes, pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan, mucuna-black (Mucuna aterrinum, mucuna dwarf (Mucuna deeringiana and Crotalaria juncea, plus a control, spontaneous vegetation of the area. On February/2008, the leguminous plants were cut close to soil and corn was planted over this mulch on March/06/2009. Weed samplings were collected at 15 and 30 days after corn emergence, which was randomly thrown on each plot framework, measuring 50 x 50 cm.. The weed plants within the framework were identified, weighed and counted. The results obtained showed that Mucuna aterrinum and Crotalaria juncea cover provided further weed biomass reduction during the two seasons evaluated. Higher commercial green corn ear yield was obtained when soil cover using Mucuna aterrinum and Crotalaria juncea straw was adopted.

  12. Variabilidad espacial de los atributos físico-hídricos del suelo y de la productividad del cultivo de fréjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L irrigado bajo un sistema de siembra directa Spatial variability of soil physical and hydrological characteristics in re­lation to the productivity of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L irrigated under no-tillage system

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    R. M. Mestas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variabilidad espacial del sue-lo con una producción de fréjol irrigado ba­jo un sistema de siembra directa, el objetivo fue evaluar la dependencia espacial de los atributos físico-hídricos del suelo relacio­nándolos con la variabilidad espacial de la producción del fréjol. Fue sembrada una parcela y demarcados 60 puntos muéstrales en una malla de 3 x 3 m. Fueron colectadas muestras sin disturbar para determinación de la densidad del suelo, en el campo se de­terminaron la resistencia del suelo a la pe­netración y la conductividad hidráulica satu­rada. La dependencia espacial fue evaluada por el método geoestatístico del krigeado puntual. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que las regresiones obtenidas entre mapas fueron significativas, siendo que la densidad del suelo y la resistencia del suelo a la pene­tración se correlacionaron negativamente con la producción y la conductividad hidráulica saturada se correlacionó positi­vamente.The spatial variability of a soil used for bean production under an irrigated no-tillage system was studied. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial dependence of soil physical and hydrological characteristics in relation to the spatial variability of the irri­gated bean yield. For that reason, 60 sam­pling points were planted and demarcated in a 3 x 3 m grid. Disturbed samples were col­lected for determining soil density. In the field, soil resistance to penetration and satu­rated hydraulic conductivity were deter­mined. The spatial dependence was ana­lyzed by geostatistics using punctual kriging. According to the results, it is possi­ble to observe that the obtained regressions among maps were significant; soil density and resistance to penetration were nega­tively related to the yield, while the saturated hydraulic conductivity was related positively.

  13. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Reule, Curtis A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soil. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha(-1) during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cropping systems included conventional-till (CT) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), no-till (NT) continuous corn, NT corn-dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (NT-CDb), and NT corn-barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (NT-CB). In 2005, half the N was subsurface band applied as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) at planting to all corn plots, with the rest of the N applied surface broadcast as a polymer-coated urea (PCU) in mid-June. The entire N rate was applied as UAN at barley and dry bean planting in the NT-CB and NT-CDb plots in 2005. All plots were in corn in 2006, with PCU being applied at half the N rate at corn emergence and a second N application as dry urea in mid-June followed by irrigation, both banded on the soil surface in the corn row. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during the growing season using static, vented chambers (1-3 times wk(-1)) and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Linear increases in N(2)O emissions were observed with increasing N-fertilizer rate, but emission amounts varied with growing season. Growing season N(2)O emissions were greater from the NT-CDb system during the corn phase of the rotation than from the other cropping systems. Crop rotation and N rate had more effect than tillage system on N(2)O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions from N application ranged from 0.30 to 0.75% of N applied. Spikes in N(2)O emissions after N fertilizer application were greater with UAN and urea than with PCU fertilizer. The PCU showed potential for reducing N(2)O emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

  14. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  15. Weed interference in sweet pepper in no-tillage and conventional planting systems = Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do pimentão nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional

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    Jorge Luiz Xavier Lins Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is evaluate the periods of weeds interference on yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., cultivated in no-tillage and conventional systems. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in randomized blocks of a distributed split plots with four replications design. The no-tillage and conventional systems were evaluated in plots and subplots, during the seven periods of control and coexistence among sweet peppers and weeds: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 and 0–112 days after transplanting (DAT. Before weeding and harvest time, they were evaluated species, density and dry mass of weeds. In the sweet peppers crops, diameter, length, number, average fruit weight and yield were evaluated. It was observed less weeds in no-tillage than conventional system. Without competitors, these weet peppers productivity was 69.57% less in conventional than no-tillage system. The critical period of weeds interference was from 19 to 95 DAT in no-tillage system and from 11 to 100 DAT in convention tillage = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferências das plantas daninhas no pimentão (Capsicum annum L., cultivado nos sistemas de plantio direto (SPD e convencional (SPC. Para isso, foi realizado um experimento em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, distribuídas no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. O SPD e o SPC foram avaliados nas parcelas, e nas subparcelas, os sete períodos de controle e convivência entre as plantas daninhas e o pimentão: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 e 0–112 dias após transplantio (DAT. Antes de cada capina e na ocasião da colheita, foram avaliadas as espécies, a densidade e a matéria seca das plantas daninhas. Na cultura do pimentão foram avaliados diâmetro, comprimento, número, peso médio dos frutos e produtividade. Verificou-se menor incidência de plantas daninhas no SPD em relação ao SPC. Quando mantida livre da competição com as

  16. Climate, duration, and N placement determine N2 O emissions in reduced tillage systems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Chris; Venterea, Rodney; Six, Johan; Adviento-Borbe, Maria Arlene; Linquist, Bruce; van Groenigen, Kees Jan

    2013-01-01

    No-tillage and reduced tillage (NT/RT) management practices are being promoted in agroecosystems to reduce erosion, sequester additional soil C and reduce production costs. The impact of NT/RT on N2 O emissions, however, has been variable with both increases and decreases in emissions reported. Herein, we quantitatively synthesize studies on the short- and long-term impact of NT/RT on N2 O emissions in humid and dry climatic zones with emissions expressed on both an area- and crop yield-scaled basis. A meta-analysis was conducted on 239 direct comparisons between conventional tillage (CT) and NT/RT. In contrast to earlier studies, averaged across all comparisons, NT/RT did not alter N2 O emissions compared with CT. However, NT/RT significantly reduced N2 O emissions in experiments >10 years, especially in dry climates. No significant correlation was found between soil texture and the effect of NT/RT on N2 O emissions. When fertilizer-N was placed at ≥5 cm depth, NT/RT significantly reduced area-scaled N2 O emissions, in particular under humid climatic conditions. Compared to CT under dry climatic conditions, yield-scaled N2 O increased significantly (57%) when NT/RT was implemented <10 years, but decreased significantly (27%) after ≥10 years of NT/RT. There was a significant decrease in yield-scaled N2 O emissions in humid climates when fertilizer-N was placed at ≥5 cm depth. Therefore, in humid climates, deep placement of fertilizer-N is recommended when implementing NT/RT. In addition, NT/RT practices need to be sustained for a prolonged time, particularly in dry climates, to become an effective mitigation strategy for reducing N2 O emissions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Emissions of CH4 and CO2 from double rice cropping systems under varying tillage and seeding methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengfang; Zhang, Zhisheng; Guo, Lijin; Cai, Mingli; Cao, Cougui

    2013-12-01

    A two-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different tillage (no-tillage [NT] and conventional tillage [CT]) and seeding methods (transplanting seedlings [TPS] and throwing of seedlings [ST]) on methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from double rice cropping systems in central China. The CH4 and CO2 fluxes for early rice ranged from -2.52 mg m-2 h-1 to 125.0 mg m-2 h-1 and from 99.3 mg m-2 h-1 to 1463.6 mg m-2 h-1, respectively, whereas the fluxes for late rice varied from -7.22 mg m-2 h-1 to 242.3 mg m-2 h-1 and from 180.6 mg m-2 h-1 to 2219.0 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. Compared with NT, CT significantly increased (P rice and 1.64-1.79 times for late rice. Moreover, compared with the CT treatment, the NT treatment significantly reduced seasonal total CO2 emissions by 19%-33% for early rice (P rice (P seeding methods significantly affected CH4 and CO2 emissions. Compared with TPS, ST significantly decreased seasonal total CH4 and CO2 emissions by 15%-40% (P rice, and by 38%-47% (P rice, respectively. These results may be attributed to reduced root growth and aboveground biomass. Therefore, simplified cultivation technologies are effective for reducing carbon emissions from double rice cropping systems in central China, and the combination of NT with ST can more effectively decrease carbon emissions.

  18. Organic weed conrol and cover crop residue integration impacts on weed control, quality, and yield and economics in conservation tillage tomato - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased use of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information be developed on the role of cover crops in weed control, tomato quality and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, brassica and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to ...

  19. Carbon fractions and soil fertility affected by tillage and sugarcane residue management an Xanthic Udult

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    Iara Maria Lopes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gradual change in management practices in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. production from burning straw to a green harvesting system, as well as the use of minimum soil tillage during field renovation, may affect soil fertility and soil organic matter (SOM contents. The objectives of this work were to investigate the influence of sugar cane production systems on: (1 soil fertility parameters; (2 on physical carbon fractions; (3 and on humic substance fractions, in a long-term experiment, comparing two soil tillage and two residue management systems an Xanthic Udult, in the coastal tableland region of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of plots (conventional tillage (CT or minimum tillage (MT and subplots (residue burned or unburned at harvesting, with five replicates The highest values of Ca2+ + Mg2+ and total organic carbon (TOC were observed in the MT system in all soil layers, while high values of K+ were observed in the 0.1-0.2 m layer. The CT associated with the burned residue management negatively influenced the TOC values, especially in the 0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m layers. The carbon in the humin fraction and organic matter associated with minerals were significantly different among the tillage systems; the MT showed higher values than the CT. However, there were no significant differences between the sugarcane residue management treatments. Overall, fractioning the SOM allowed for a better understanding of tillage and residue management systems effects on the soil properties.

  20. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average is lower at no-tillage (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by minimum tillage (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the conventional tillage (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of long-term soil fertility. By determining the humus content after 3 years, it can be observed an increasing tendency when applying the minimum tillage (the increase was up to 0.41%) and no-tillage systems tillage (the increase was up to 0.64%). Carbon sequestration in soil is net advantageous, improving the productivity and sustainability. The more the organic content in soil is higher the better soil aggregation is. The soil without organic content is compact. This reduces its capacity to infiltrate water, nutrients solubility and productivity, and that way it reduces the soil capacity for carbon sequestration. Acknowledgments This paper was performed under the frame of the Partnership in priority domains - PNII, developed with the support of MEN-UEFISCDI, project no. PN-II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-0015: Expert System for Risk Monitoring in Agriculture and Adaptation of Conservative Agricultural Technologies to Climate Change.

  1. Effects of Tillage on Yield and Economic Returns of Maize and Cowpea in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriti, M.J; Kironchi, G; Gachene, K.K.C; Esilaba, O.A.; Mwangi, M.D; Nyamwaro, S.O; Heng, K.L

    2014-01-01

    Crop yields and financial returns are important criteria for adoption of conservation tillage by farmers. A study was conducted between 2007-2010 to compare the financial returns of subsoiling-ripping and tied-ridge tillage with the conventional ox-plough tillage in the production of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under semi-arid subsistence farming conditions in lower eastern Kenya. Four cropping systems namely maize sole crop, cowpea sole crop, maize/cowpea intercrop and maize sole crop with manure were evaluated in a split-plot treatments arrangement with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots. The grain yields of maize and cowpea, prevailing market prices for cowpea and maize grains, labour, inputs applied and other relevant socio-economic data were collected every season, to enable estimation of economic returns and acceptability of the technologies. The results showed that average grain yield for maize sole crop, cowpea sole crop, maize/cowpea intercrop and maize sole crop with manure cropping systems under tied-ridge were 5, 9, 97 and 27% greater than the yields under oxplough tillage, respectively. Crop yields produced under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillage were generally similar. However, land preparation and weeding labour expenses (KES 4240 / ha) for ox-plough tillage were 34% greater than those for subsoiling-ripping tillage but 40% lower than those for tied-ridge tillage. When averaged across seasons and tillage systems, the highest gross margins (KES 8567 / ha) were obtained in sole cowpea cropping system, followed by sole maize with manure (KES 4070 / ha), intercrop (KES 864 / ha) and least (loss of KES 1330 / ha) in sole maize without manure cropping system. (author)

  2. Forms of soil tillage and weed control in agronomic factors and production of cassavaFormas de preparo de solo e controle de plantas daninhas nos fatores agronômicos e de produção da mandioca

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    Auro Akio Otsubo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate ways of soil tillage and weed control on the production of cassava. Prior to planting the experiment, an area was left fallow, with a predominance of Brachiaria brizantha, and another area cultivated oat in the conventional tillage system. At the end of the cycle of oats the area was used for the experiment with cassava (cv IAC15. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three treatments and six repetitions. The treatments corresponding to the types of tillage systems and crop driving were: T1-conventional tillage in the fallow and weed control (CT, T2 – No-till on the oat stubble without control of invasive plants (NTwwc and T3 – No-till oat straw on the control of invasive plants (NTwc. For the treatment corresponding to conventional tillage (CT of the experimental plots were prepared with a plow and a harrow leveling. The tillage was performed using mechanized planter. The harvest was performed 14 months after planting. The highest values for plant height and fresh weight of shoots were observed in treatments corresponding to the no-tillage system (NTwc and NTwwc. The greatest number of roots ha-1 was observed in NTwwc treatment differing only from the CT. No significant differences were observed for the fresh mass production of roots among the treatments. The highest value from starch content of roots obtained was in the NTwc treatment.O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar formas de preparo de solo e o controle de plantas daninhas sobre a produção da mandioca. Anteriormente ao plantio do experimento, deixou-se uma área em pousio, com predominância de Brachiaria brizantha, e em outra área, cultivou-se aveia preta em sistema convencional de preparo de solo. Ao final do ciclo da aveia a área foi utilizada para instalação do experimento com a cultura da mandioca (cv IAC15. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e seis repeti

  3. Evaporação da água na superfície do solo em sistemas de plantio direto e preparo convencional Soil surface water evaporation under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

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    Genei Antonio Dalmago

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos quantificar a evaporação da água na superfície do solo, em plantio direto e em preparo convencional, e avaliar o uso de microlisímetros de pesagem para medir esse processo. As medições foram feitas em campo, nos verões de 2001/2002, 2002/2003 e 2004/2005, em experimentos irrigados e não irrigados. Utilizaram-se delineamentos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repetições, cujos tratamentos consistiram de sistemas de manejo do solo – plantio direto e preparo convencional –, e a presença ou ausência de cultivo de milho. Mediu-se a evaporação diária durante períodos de secagem do solo, entre precipitações ou irrigações consecutivas. Em experimentos sem irrigação, a evaporação acumulada foi maior sob plantio direto, na maioria dos períodos de medição, independentemente da presença da lavoura de milho. Nos experimentos com irrigação, a evaporação não apresentou diferenças regulares entre sistemas de manejo de solo. Normalmente, no início dos períodos de medição, com dois a cinco dias de secagem do solo, a evaporação foi maior em solo sob preparo convencional, tendo-se tornado maior em plantio direto, no restante do período de secagem. O emprego de microlisímetros de pesagem é eficiente para medir a evaporação na superfície do solo.This work aimed to quantify the evaporation of water on the soil surface under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems, and to evaluate the microlysimeters use to measure this process. Measurements were performed in the field, during the summers of 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2004/2005, in experiments with and without irrigation. Completely randomized designs were used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of no-tillage and conventional soil tillage systems, in the presence or absence of corn cultivation. Evaporation was measured daily, during drying periods between precipitations and consecutive irrigations. Without

  4. Temperature and water pressure head effects on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite of isoxaflutole in a loamy soil under two tillage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alletto, Lionel; Benoit, Pierre; Bergheaud, Valerie; Coquet, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature and water pressure head on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite (DKN) of isoxaflutole during 84 d in samples collected in a loamy soil under conventional (CT) and conservation (MT) tillage systems. Soil temperature was the major factor controlling DKN degradation in the two tillage systems. The shortest half-lives (T 1/2 ) were measured in the seedbed samples under MT at 25 deg. C and -33 cm water pressure head. We found that mouldboard ploughing under CT was responsible for the spatial variability of herbicide degradation properties, whereas under MT herbicide degradation was associated to the vertical distribution of organic matter. - Tillage practices influence the spatial variability of diketonitrile degradation in soil and its sensitivity to pedoclimatic conditions

  5. Evaluation Of Onion Production On Sandy Soils By Use Of Reduced Tillage And Controlled Traffic Farming With Wide Span Tractors

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    Pedersen Hans Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of vegetables is often characterised by intensive field traffic and use of heavy machines. By implementing controlled traffic farming (CTF, compaction of the growth zone can be avoided. An experiment was established in an onion field on a coarse sandy loam. Treatments were applied in the field that for five years had been managed by seasonal CTF (SCTF, where harvest is performed by random traffic due to lack of suitable harvest machines. The main treatment was compaction with a fully loaded potato harvester. The split treatment in the crossed split plot design was mechanical loosening. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, water retention characteristics and yield were measured. Mechanical loosening caused improvements in the physical soil measurements and more roots were found in the upper soil layers. The highest yield was however found in the CTF simulation plots (19% higher than in the SCTF simulated plots. Using wide span tractors as a harvest platform will enable CTF in vegetable production. Avoidance of compaction will enable reduced tillage intensity and productivity can be improved both through higher yield of the area that is cropped and by a larger percentage of fields can be cropped area as less area will be needed for tracks.

  6. Disponibilidade de água do solo ao milho cultivado sob sistemas de semeadura direta e preparo convencional Water availability to maize plants cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

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    Mirta Teresinha Petry

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o armazenamento, a disponibilidade e a extração de água no solo por plantas de milho irrigadas e submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal, cultivadas sob sistema de semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Foram realizados dois experimentos durante os anos agrícolas de 1999/00 e 2000/01, em área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, fatorial, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados dois manejos da água de irrigação (fator A: irrigado e déficit hídrico terminal (plantas de milho foram submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal a partir dos 27 dias após a emergência; e dois sistemas de cultivo (fator B: semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Nas parcelas irrigadas, irrigações foram feitas para elevar o conteúdo de água no solo ao limite superior de disponibilidade de água às plantas, sempre que a evapotranspiração máxima acumulada da cultura do milho atingia 25 mm. O conteúdo de água no solo foi medido em três leituras semanais, para determinação da extração de água pelas plantas e disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho. Os resultados indicaram que a disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho foi similar nos sistemas semeadura direta e preparo convencional, em ambos os anos agrícolas avaliados. Plantas de milho cultivadas em preparo convencional extraíram maior quantidade de água, em ambos os anos, em relação à semeadura direta.The aim objective of this study was to quantify the soil water storage, plant-available water and extraction of soil water by corn plants under irrigation and terminal drought. Plants were cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Two experiments were conducted in the 1999/00 and 2000/01 growing season on an experimental field of the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa

  7. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G-). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G- compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems.

  8. Effects of Conservation Tillage on Topsoil Microbial Metabolic Characteristics and Organic Carbon within Aggregates under a Rice (Oryza sativa L.) –Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cropping System in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Qi; Cao, Cou-Gui; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Investigating microbial metabolic characteristics and soil organic carbon (SOC) within aggregates and their relationships under conservation tillage may be useful in revealing the mechanism of SOC sequestration in conservation tillage systems. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between SOC and microbial metabolic characteristics within aggregate fractions under conservation tillage. We hypothesized that close relationships can exist between SOC and microbial metabolic characteristics within aggregates under conservation tillage. In this study, a field experiment was conducted from June 2011 to June 2013 following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT)] as main plots and straw returning methods [preceding crop residue returning (S, 2100−2500 kg C ha−1) and removal (NS, 0 kg C ha-1)] as subplots with three replications. The objective of this study was to reveal the effects of tillage practices and residue-returning methods on topsoil microbial metabolic characteristics and organic carbon (SOC) fractions within aggregates and their relationships under a rice–wheat cropping system in central China. Microbial metabolic characteristics investigated using the Biolog system was examined within two aggregate fractions (>0.25 and 0.25 aggregate, and 0.25 mm aggregate (11.3%), and 0.25 mm aggregate, and 0.25 mm aggregate, and tillage (NT and S) increased microbial metabolic activities and Shannon index in >0.25 and directly improved SOC by promoting DOC in >0.25 mm aggregate in the upper (0−5 cm) soil layer under conservation tillage systems, as well as directly and indirectly by promoting DOC and MBC in tillage increased SOC in aggregates in the topsoil by improving microbial metabolic activities. PMID:26731654

  9. Changes in the fertility of a leached chernozem under different primary tillage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. A.; Gromovik, A. I.; Borontov, O. K.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the fertility of a leached chernozem under different tillage technologies (moldboard, non-inversive, and combined tillage) were studied in a multifactor stationary field experiment established in 1985 in Voronezh oblast on a low-humus medium-deep light clayey leached chernozem. The nine-field rotation of cereals and sugar beet was practiced. It was found that the major parameters of soil fertility—the content and qualitative composition of humus and the physicochemical and physical properties of the chernozem—remained relatively stable independently from the applied primary tillage technologies. However, taking into account economic characteristics (crop yields, production costs, energy expenses, etc.), the combined tillage system proved to be most efficient. It can be recommended for cereals-sugar beet rotation systems in the central chernozemic region, as it ensures the highest efficiency of crop growing and preserves the fertility of leached chernozems.

  10. Effects of a killed-cover crop mulching system on sweetpotato production, soil pests, and insect predators in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D Michael; Harrison, Howard F

    2008-12-01

    Sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), are typically grown on bare soil where weeds and erosion can be serious problems. Conservation tillage systems using cover crop residues as mulch can help reduce these problems, but little is known about how conservation tillage affects yield and quality of sweetpotato or how these systems impact populations of beneficial and pest insects. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, in 2002-2004 to evaluate production of sweetpotatoes in conventional tillage versus a conservation tillage system by using an oat (Avena sativa L. (Poaceae)-crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) (Fabaceae) killed-cover crop (KCC) mulch. The four main treatments were 1) conventional tillage, hand-weeded; 2) KCC, hand-weeded; 3) conventional tillage, weedy; and 4) KCC, weedy. Each main plot was divided into three subplots, whose treatments were sweetpotato genotypes: 'Ruddy', which is resistant to soil insect pests; and 'SC1149-19' and 'Beauregard', which are susceptible to soil insect pests. For both the KCC and conventional tillage systems, sweetpotato yields were higher in plots that received hand weeding than in weedy plots. Orthogonal contrasts revealed a significant effect of tillage treatment (conventional tillage versus KCC) on yield in two of the 3 yr. Ruddy remained resistant to injury by soil insect pests in both cropping systems; and it consistently had significantly higher percentages of clean roots and less damage by wireworm-Diabrotica-Systena complex, sweetpotato flea beetles, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than the two susceptible genotypes. In general, injury to sweetpotato roots by soil insect pests was not significantly higher in the KCC plots than in the conventionally tilled plots. Also, more fire ants, rove beetles, and carabid beetle were captured by pitfall traps in the KCC plots than in the conventional tillage plots during at least 1 yr of the study

  11. Urease activity and its relation to soil organic matter, microbial biomass nitrogen and urea-nitrogen assimilation by maize in a Brazilian oxisol under no-tillage and tillage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Vasconcellos, C.A.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Guedes, G.A.A.; Fernandes, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relationship between urease activity (UA) and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass N (Nbiom) content, and urea-N fertilizer assimilation by maize in a Dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplustox) cultivated for 9 years under no-tillage (NT), tillage with a disc plough (DP), and tillage

  12. Evidence of limited carbon sequestration in soils under no-tillage systems in the Cerrado of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeels, Marc; Marchão, Robelio Leandro; Neto, Marcos Siqueira; Ferreira, Eliann Garcia; Madari, Beata Emöke; Scopel, Eric; Brito, Osmar Rodrigues

    2016-02-01

    The Brazilian government aims at augmenting the area cropped under no-tillage (NT) from 32 to 40 million ha by 2020 as a means to mitigate CO2 emissions. We estimated soil carbon (C) sequestration under continuous NT systems in two municipalities in the Goiás state that are representative of the Cerrado. A chronosequence of NT fields of different age since conversion from conventional tillage (CT) was sampled in 2003 and 2011. Soil C levels of native Cerrado and pasture were measured for comparison. After about 11 to 14 years, soil C stocks under NT were highest and at the levels of those under natural Cerrado. Average annual rates of soil C sequestration estimated using the chronosequence approach were respectively 1.61 and 1.48 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 for the 2003 and 2011 sampling, and were higher than those observed using repeated sampling after eight years. The diachronic sampling revealed that the younger NT fields tended to show higher increases in soil C stocks than the older fields. Converting an extra 8 million ha of cropland from CT to NT represents an estimated soil C storage of about 8 Tg C yr-1 during 10 to 15 years.

  13. Emissions of CH4 and N2O under different tillage systems from double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding greenhouse gases (GHG emissions is becoming increasingly important with the climate change. Most previous studies have focused on the assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC sequestration potential and GHG emissions from agriculture. However, specific experiments assessing tillage impacts on GHG emission from double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China are relatively scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of tillage systems on methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emission in a double rice (Oryza sativa L. cropping system. The experiment was established in 2005 in Hunan Province, China. Three tillage treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design: conventional tillage (CT, rotary tillage (RT and no-till (NT. Fluxes of CH4 from different tillage treatments followed a similar trend during the two years, with a single peak emission for the early rice season and a double peak emission for the late rice season. Compared with other treatments, NT significantly reduced CH4 emission among the rice growing seasons (P<0.05. However, much higher variations in N2O emission were observed across the rice growing seasons due to the vulnerability of N2O to external influences. The amount of CH4 emission in paddy fields was much higher relative to N2O emission. Conversion of CT to NT significantly reduced the cumulative CH4 emission for both rice seasons compared with other treatments (P<0.05. The mean value of global warming potentials (GWPs of CH4 and N2O emissions over 100 years was in the order of NT

  14. Emissions of CH4 and N2O under different tillage systems from double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Xue, Jian-Fu; Chen, Zhong-Du; Tang, Hai-Ming; Chen, Fu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is becoming increasingly important with the climate change. Most previous studies have focused on the assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential and GHG emissions from agriculture. However, specific experiments assessing tillage impacts on GHG emission from double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China are relatively scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of tillage systems on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in a double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system. The experiment was established in 2005 in Hunan Province, China. Three tillage treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design: conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no-till (NT). Fluxes of CH4 from different tillage treatments followed a similar trend during the two years, with a single peak emission for the early rice season and a double peak emission for the late rice season. Compared with other treatments, NT significantly reduced CH4 emission among the rice growing seasons (P<0.05). However, much higher variations in N2O emission were observed across the rice growing seasons due to the vulnerability of N2O to external influences. The amount of CH4 emission in paddy fields was much higher relative to N2O emission. Conversion of CT to NT significantly reduced the cumulative CH4 emission for both rice seasons compared with other treatments (P<0.05). The mean value of global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and N2O emissions over 100 years was in the order of NT

  15. Soil erosion measurements under organic and conventional land use treatments and different tillage systems using micro-scale runoff plots and a portable rainfall simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Song, Zhengshan; Wittwer, Raphaël; van der Heijden, Marcel; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major environmental problem of our time and negatively affects soil organic matter (SOM), aggregate stability or nutrient availability for instance. It is well known that agricultural practices have a severe influence on soil erosion by water. Several long-term field trials show that the use of low input strategies (e.g. organic farming) instead of conventional high-input farming systems leads to considerable changes of soil characteristics. Organic farming relies on crop rotation, absence of agrochemicals, green manure and weed control without herbicides. As a consequence, SOM content in the top soil layer is usually higher than on arable land under conventional use. Furthermore, the soil surface is better protected against particle detachment and overland flow due to a continuous vegetation cover and a well-developed root system increases soil stability. Likewise, tillage itself can cause soil erosion on arable land. In this respect, conservation and reduced tillage systems like No-Till or Ridge-Till provide a protecting cover from the previous year's residue and reduce soil disturbance. Many studies have been carried out on the effect of farming practices on soil erosion, but with contrasting results. To our knowledge, most of those studies rely on soil erosion models to calculate soil erosion rates and replicated experimental field measurement designs are rarely used. In this study, we performed direct field assessment on a farming system trial in Rümlang, Switzerland (FAST: Farming System and Tillage experiment Agroscope) to investigate the effect of organic farming practises and tillage systems on soil erosion. A portable single nozzle rainfall simulator and a light weight tent have been used with micro-scale runoff plots (0.4 m x 0.4 m). Four treatments (Conventional/Tillage, Conventional/No-Tillage, Organic/Tillage, Organic/Reduced-tillage) have been sampled with 8 replications each for a total of 32 runoff plots. All plots have been

  16. Avaliações qualitativas e quantitativas de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja submetida aos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Quantitative and qualitative weed evaluation of soybean crop in no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Sá Pereira

    2000-08-01

    pré-emergência proporcionaram melhor controle de A. viridis do que de B. plantaginea; o controle com herbicidas pós-emergentes foi insatisfatório para ambas espécies. No plantio direto, o controle de E. heterophylla foi insatisfatório em todos os sistemas de controle testados. O plantio direto apresentou sempre menor número total de plantas daninhas, sobretudo de gramineas. A germinação de plantas daninhas limitou-se ao período de até 15 dias após a emergência da cultura, nos dois sistemas de cultivo.With the objective to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems and different methods of control on mulch of black oat (Avena strigosa on evolution and control of weeds in soybean crop (cultivar 'IAC 14', a field experiment was carried out in Fazenda Experimental Lageado - UNESP Botucatu - SP, in 1993/94. The different cultivation systems were no tillage and conventional tillage, and the last cultivation system was made with disk harrow and three tandem disk harrow. The weed control methods were: control (weedy check, pre-emergence herbicides (0,28 kg/ha of metribuzim + 1,29 kg/ha of oryzalin, post-emergence herbicides (0,25 kg/ha of Fluacifop-p-butil +0,25 kg/ha of fomesafen and pre and post-emergence treatments (with the four herbicides in the same rates. Glyphosate was applied for weed and black oat elimination before the crop establishment. The experimental design used was a randomized block arranged in split-plots scheme with four replications. The different cultivation systems were applied on plots and the different weed control on sub-plots. In the early stages of crop development, the rain was scarce, limiting crop growth and performance of the preemergence herbicides. The number the weeds/m2 was evaluated at 14, 28 and 35 days after soybean emergency, showing differences between cultivation systems and among different control systems. Brachiaria plantaginea and Amaranthus viridis were predominant on conventional tillage, and less important

  17. A global analysis of alternative tillage and crop establishment practices for economically and environmentally efficient rice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debashis; Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rana, Dharamvir Singh; Jat, Mangi Lal; Gathala, Mahesh Kumar; Yadav, Sudhir; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Ramesha, Mugadoli S; Raman, Anitha

    2017-08-24

    Alternative tillage and rice establishment options should aim at less water and labor to produce similar or improved yields compared with traditional puddled-transplanted rice cultivation. The relative performance of these practices in terms of yield, water input, and economics varies across rice-growing regions. A global meta and mixed model analysis was performed, using a dataset involving 323 on-station and 9 on-farm studies (a total of 3878 paired data), to evaluate the yield, water input, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost and net return with five major tillage/crop establishment options. Shifting from transplanting to direct-seeding was advantageous but the change from conventional to zero or reduced tillage reduced yields. Direct-seeded rice under wet tillage was the best alternative with yield advantages of 1.3-4.7% (p Direct-seeding under zero tillage was another potential alternative with high savings in water input and cost of cultivation, with no yield penalty. The alternative practices reduced methane emissions but increased nitrous oxide emissions. Soil texture plays a key role in relative yield advantages, and therefore refinement of the practice to suit a specific agro-ecosystem is needed.

  18. Effects of tillage practice on soil structure, N2O emissions and economics in cereal production under current socio-economic conditions in central Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žurovec, Ognjen; Sitaula, Bishal Kumar; Čustović, Hamid; Žurovec, Jasminka; Dörsch, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT). The field experiment was conducted in the Sarajevo region on a clayey loam under typical climatic conditions for humid, continental BH. N2O emissions were monitored in a Maize-Barley rotation over two cropping seasons. Soil structure was studied at the end of the second season. In the much wetter 2014, N2O emission were in the order of CT > RT > NT, while in the drier 2015, the order was RT > CT > NT. The emission factors were within or slightly above the uncertainty range of the IPCC Tier 1 factor, if taking account for the N input from the cover crop (alfalfa) preceding the first experimental year. Saturated soils in spring, formation of soil crusts and occasional droughts adversely affected yields, particularly in the second year (barley). In 2014, yield-scaled N2O emissions ranged from 83.2 to 161.7 g N Mg-1 grain (corn) but were much greater in the second year due to crop failure (barley). RT had the smallest yield-scaled N2O emission in both years. NT resulted in economically inacceptable returns, due to the increased costs of weed control and low yields in both years. The reduced number of operations in RT reduced production costs and generated positive net returns. Therefore, RT could potentially provide agronomic and environmental benefits in crop production in BH.

  19. Effects of Conservation Tillage on Topsoil Microbial Metabolic Characteristics and Organic Carbon within Aggregates under a Rice (Oryza sativa L.-Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cropping System in Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jin Guo

    Full Text Available Investigating microbial metabolic characteristics and soil organic carbon (SOC within aggregates and their relationships under conservation tillage may be useful in revealing the mechanism of SOC sequestration in conservation tillage systems. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between SOC and microbial metabolic characteristics within aggregate fractions under conservation tillage. We hypothesized that close relationships can exist between SOC and microbial metabolic characteristics within aggregates under conservation tillage. In this study, a field experiment was conducted from June 2011 to June 2013 following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT and no tillage (NT] as main plots and straw returning methods [preceding crop residue returning (S, 2100-2500 kg C ha-1 and removal (NS, 0 kg C ha(-1] as subplots with three replications. The objective of this study was to reveal the effects of tillage practices and residue-returning methods on topsoil microbial metabolic characteristics and organic carbon (SOC fractions within aggregates and their relationships under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China. Microbial metabolic characteristics investigated using the Biolog system was examined within two aggregate fractions (>0.25 and 0.25 aggregate, and 0.25 mm aggregate (11.3%, and 0.25 mm aggregate, and 0.25 mm aggregate, and 0.25 and 0.25 mm aggregate in the upper (0-5 cm soil layer under conservation tillage systems, as well as directly and indirectly by promoting DOC and MBC in <0.25 mm aggregate. Our results suggested that conservation tillage increased SOC in aggregates in the topsoil by improving microbial metabolic activities.

  20. Responses by earthworms to reduced tillage in herbicide tolerant maize and Bt maize cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Griffiths, B.; Demsar, D.

    2007-01-01

    studies of Bt corn and a glufosinate ammonium tolerant corn and included a reduced tillage treatment (RT) and a conventional tillage treatment (CT) as examples of a likely concomitant change in the agricultural practise. At a French study site at Varois, (Bourgogne), a field grown with the Bt...

  1. Crop response to deep tillage - a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian; Don, Axel; Hennings, Inga; Schmittmann, Oliver; Seidel, Sabine J.

    2017-04-01

    Subsoil, i.e. the soil layer below the topsoil, stores tremendous stocks of nutrients and can keep water even under drought conditions. Deep tillage may be a method to enhance the plant-availability of subsoil resources. However, in field trials, deep tillage effects on crop yields were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of crop yield response to subsoiling, deep ploughing and deep mixing of soil profiles. Our search resulted in 1530 yield comparisons following deep and conventional control tillage on 67 experimental cropping sites. The vast majority of the data derived from temperate latitudes, from trials conducted in the USA (679 observations) and Germany (630 observations). On average, crop yield response to deep tillage was slightly positive (6% increase). However, individual deep tillage effects were highly scattered including about 40% yield depressions after deep tillage. Deep tillage on soils with root restrictive layers increased crop yields about 20%, while soils containing >70% silt increased the risk of yield depressions following deep tillage. Generally, deep tillage effects increased with drought intensity indicating deep tillage as climate adaptation measure at certain sites. Our results suggest that deep tillage can facilitate the plant-availability of subsoil nutrients, which increases crop yields if (i) nutrients in the topsoil are growth limiting, and (ii) deep tillage does not come at the cost of impairing topsoil fertility. On sites with root restrictive soil layers, deep tillage can be an effective measure to mitigate drought stress and improve the resilience of crops. However, deep tillage should only be performed on soils with a stable structure, i.e. <70% silt content. We will discuss the contribution of deep tillage options to enhance the sustainability of agricultural production by facilitating the uptake of nutrients and water from the subsoil.

  2. Characterization of Leaf Photosynthetic Properties for No-Tillage Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song CHEN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the influence of no-tillage cultivation on leaf photosynthesis of rice plants under field conditions. Experiments with the treatments, no-tillage and conventional tillage were carried out at three locations (Jiaxing, Hangzhou, and Xiaoshan, Zhejiang Province, China for two years (2005 and 2006. Grain yield was constant in Jiaxing, but slightly higher in Hangzhou and Xiaoshan under no-tillage cultivation than that under conventional cultivation. In comparison with the conventional cultivation, no-tillage cultivation showed less biomass accumulation before heading and higher capacity of matter production during grain filling. A significantly higher leaf net photosynthetic rate was observed for the plants under no-tillage than for those under conventional tillage. The fluorescence parameter (Fv/Fm in leaf did not show any difference between the two cultivations. The effect of cultivation management on transpiration rate (Tr and SPAD value of rice leaf was dependent on the location and year.

  3. Morfologia e propriedades físicas de solo segundo sistemas de manejo em culturas anuais Morphology and physical properties of soil according to tillage systems in annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fuentes-Llanillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualidade física do solo é sua capacidade de sustentar o pleno desenvolvimento das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar diferentes sistemas de semeadura direta para a produção de grãos em áreas de agricultura familiar sob Latossolo Vermelho no norte do Paraná, Brasil, através do estudo da morfologia e de algumas propriedades físicas do solo. O estudo foi baseado na descrição da estrutura de solo de perfis culturais em áreas cultivadas com lavouras anuais sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo (semeadura direta com e sem rotação de culturas, semeadura direta com escarificação eventual e o cultivo mínimo. Concomitantemente à descrição dos perfis foi determinada a resistência do solo a penetração, a densidade do solo, a umidade do solo e o grau de floculação da argila. Cada manejo estudado foi caracterizado por um tipo de estrutura de solo a qualse correlacionou com os valores de resistência, densidade e grau de floculação e em todos os manejos estudados abaixo dos 0,30 m, os perfis analisados apresentavam condições estruturais satisfatórias ao desenvolvimento radicular.Soil physical quality is the ability to sustain the full development of plants. The aim of this research was to study different tillage systems for grain production in family farming enterprises on an Oxisol in northern Parana, Brazil, through the study of morphology and physical properties of soil. The study was based on description of soil structure of soil profiles in cultivated areas with annual crops under different soil management systems (no-tillage with and without crop rotation, no-tillage with eventual chisel ploughing and minimum tillage. Simultaneously with the profiles' description some physical properties were determined such as resistance to penetration, bulk density, soil moisture and the degree of clay flocculation. Each studied soil tillage system was characterized by a type of soil structure and correlated with values of

  4. Energy Demand And Corn Yield With Fertilizer Application Before Sowing In Two Soil Tillage Systems; Demanda energetica e produtividade da cultura do milho com adubacao de pre-semeadura em dois sistemas de manejo do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Erick Vinicius [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia], E-mail: erickbertolini@yahoo.com.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: gamero@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the corn yield with fertilizer application before sowing and provide of the energy demand results involved in the fertilizer application before sowing and sowing in two soil tillage systems. The experiment was carried out at Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas (FCA), Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu-SP campus, from November 2006 to April 2007, in a Dystric Nitosol. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with split-plots and four repetitions. The main plots consisted in two soil tillage systems (no-tillage and reduced tillage with chisel plow) and the split-plots of fertilizer application methods (surface fertilizer application before corn sowing and fertilizer application conventional). Obtained results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% of probability for comparing averages. Statistical analysis showed that fertilizer application before corn sowing the soil tillage systems did not influence the traction force, bar power demanded, effective field capacity, demanded time, energy specific consumption and hourly fuel consumption; the reduced tillage showed higher area fuel consumption. For corn sowing it was observed that no-tillage system showed lower traction force, bar power demanded, energy specific consumption, hourly and area consumption of fuel. Fertilizer application before corn sowing did not affect corn yield in relation to the fertilizer application conventional. (author)

  5. Sistemas de cultivo no cerrado e dinâmica de populações de plantas daninhas Tillage systems in the cerrado and dinamics of weed populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.R. Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de plantio direto, utilizando diferentes programas de rotação de culturas, de preparo convencional e de cultivo mínimo sobre a dinâmica de populações de plantas daninhas nas condições edafoclimáticas do cerrado. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos, sendo dois de plantio direto que constaram de programas de rotação constituídos por culturas de verão e de outono/inverno e dois em monocultivo, nos sistemas de preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo respectivamente. Avaliou-se a dinâmica das populações de plantas daninhas. A maior eficiência de controle cultural da comunidade infestante foi obtida com o sistema de plantio direto, por meio dos seguintes programas de rotação: (sorgo/soja - crotalária/milho - milheto/soja - milho safrinha/soja; (milho safrinha/soja - girassol/milho - sorgo/soja - girassol/milho e (guandu/soja - milheto/soja - milho safrinha/milho - girassol/soja.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of no-tillage systems using crop rotation variations, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage on the dynamics of weed populations in the cerrado region in Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, four replications and five treatments, (two no tillage treatments consisting of summer and fall/winter crop rotations and two single crop treatments under conventional tillage and minimum tillage. Weed population dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the no-tillage system was the most efficient for weed control with the following programs: soybean/sorghum - Crotalaria/corn - millet/soybean, winter corn/soybean; (winter corn/soybean - sunflower/corn - sorghum/soybean - sunflower/corn and (Pigeon/pea/soybean - millet/soybean - winter corn/corn - sunflower/soybean .

  6. Impacts of the conventional tillage tools and reduced tillage on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The long-term impacts of conventional tillage through compaction, soil erosion and loss of soil fertility have led to evaluation of this system. To mitigate these problems, simplified cultivation techniques (SCT) are increasingly practiced. The objective of this review is to clarify the effects of conventional tillage and ...

  7. The effects of forward speed and depth of conservation tillage on soil bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahmoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation of tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption, and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with either primary or secondary tillage or planting operations. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Moreover, it helps easier development of root through reducing soil penetration resistance. Tillage is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save substantial amounts of fuel, time and energy consumption. Conservation tillage loosens the soil without turning, but by remaining the plant left overs, stems and roots. Bulk density reflects the soil’s ability to function for structural support, water and solute movement, and soil aeration. Bulk densities above thresholds indicate impaired function. Bulk density is also used to convert between weight and volume of soil. It is used to express soil physical, chemical and biological measurements on a volumetric basis for soil quality assessment and comparisons between management systems. This increases the validity of comparisons by removing the error associated with differences in soil density at the time of sampling. The aim of conservation tillage is to fix the soil structure. This investigation was carried out considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country

  8. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems

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    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM. The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification, mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a conventional tillage (CT and (b no tillage (NT in combination with three cropping systems: (a R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat, (b R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat, and (c R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat. The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements, by trapping the CO2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The crop residue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between

  9. Densidade, porosidade e resistência à penetração em Latossolo cultivado sob diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo Soil bulk density, porosity and resistance to root penetration in an Oxisol managed by different soil tillage systems

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    Cássio Antonio Tormena

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de preparo e manejo do solo determinam as condições físicas para o crescimento das plantas e produtividade das culturas. O objetivo deste estudo é o de avaliar algumas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, cultivado com mandioca, após dois anos de implantação em diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: Plantio Direto (mobilização do solo somente ao longo das linhas de plantio; Preparo Mínimo (escarificação a 0,30 m, seguido de gradagem niveladora e Preparo Convencional (aração, com arado de aiveca a uma profundidade de 0,25 m, seguido de gradagem niveladora. Avaliaram-se, nas camadas de 0-0,10 m e 0,10-0,20 m, as seguintes propriedades físicas do solo: densidade, volume de macroporos, microporos, a porosidade e a resistência do solo à penetração das raízes, a cada 0,05 m, até à profundidade de 0,40 m, em três diferentes épocas. Constataram-se maiores valores de densidade do solo e menores valores de macroporosidade na camada de 0-0,10 m no plantio direto e preparo mínimo do solo. Resultados similares foram obtidos na avaliação da resistência do solo à penetração, independente da época de avaliação e da umidade do solo. Os sistemas de preparo mínimo e preparo convencional do solo proporcionam condições físicas menos restritivas ao crescimento das plantas, quando comparado com o plantio direto. Avaliações de médio-longo prazo são necessárias face às mudanças dinâmicas na qualidade física do solo, impostas pelos sistemas de preparo e manejo do solo e da cultura.Soil tillage and management affect soil physical conditions for plant growth and crop productivity. The objective of this research was to evaluate some soil physical properties of an Typic Haplorthox located in the Northwest region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, after two years of different tillage systems, with same crop. The tillage systems used were: No-tillage (cultivated

  10. Fractions of soil organic matter under pasture, tillage system and crop-livestock integration

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    Paulo Roberto Gazolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the total organic carbon and the chemical (humic acid – FAH, fulvic acid – FAF, humin – Hum and textural (organic carbon associated particles – COp, organic carbon associated with minerals – COam and carbon management index – IMC of soil organic matter (SOM in samples of an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT with crop-livestock integration (ILP, compared to one NT area without ILP and areas of natural Cerrado (CE and pasture (PA in southwestern Goiás. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm in a completely randomized design. Among the cultivated areas the ILP presented in the upper soil layers the highest COT, COp, COam, Hum C-FAH/C-FAF and respect, having been checked in COT, COp, and COam Hum similar to those quantified in CE area in the deeper layers of the soil. In some depths evaluated, areas of NT and ILP had higher IMC compared to PA area. Areas of NT and PA showed no statistical difference in the COT, COam and C-FAH/C-FAF relationship, however, the NT area proved to be forwarding to greater stability of SOM, as it showed similarities in levels C of Hum, FAH, COp and IMC in relation to areas of CE and ILP in some depths evaluated.

  11. Vertical Mulching e manejo da água em semeadura direta Vertical Mulching and water management in no tillage system

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    Sandra Maria Garcia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A intensa mobilização do solo no sistema cultivo convencional causou degradação da estrutura, compactação e adensamento do solo abaixo da camada arável, reduzindo a macroporosidade e a taxa de infiltração de água no solo, com conseqüente aumento de escoamento superficial, de erosão e de assoreamento de rios e de reservatórios. A semeadura direta, que protege a superfície do solo, praticamente controlou a perda por erosão hídrica, os terraços foram eliminados, pelos agricultores, e a conseqüência foi maior escoamento superficial do que no sistema cultivo convencional. Com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento hidrológico do vertical mulching em semeadura direta, em relação ao escoamento superficial, realizou-se esta pesquisa nos anos agrícolas 2002/2003 e 2003/2004, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na região fisiográfica do planalto médio do Rio Grande do Sul, isto é, um experimento em escala de campo, com parcelas sem vertical mulching, com vertical mulching a cada 10 m e com vertical mulching a cada 5 m, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Sulcos em nível, perpendiculares ao declive, com dimensões de 0,08 m de largura por x 0,38 m de profundidade, foram abertos e preenchidos com palha compactada o suficiente para prevenir desmoronamento das paredes do sulco. No ciclo da cultura da soja e do trigo foram simuladas chuvas com duas intensidades, 70 e 106 mm h-1. Foram determinados o escoamento superficial, a taxa de infiltração básica de água no solo e a concentração de nutrientes e de CO no escoamento superficial. Os resultados indicam que o vertical mulching na semeadura direta reduz, significativamente, o volume do escoamento superficial aumenta a taxa de infiltração básica de água no solo e reduz também as perdas totais de nutrientes e de CO devido ao menor volume de água no escoamento superficial.Intensive soil mobilization in the conventional tillage system has caused

  12. How do soil physical conditions for crop growth vary over time under established contrasting tillage regimes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Paul; Stobart, Ron; Valentine, Tracy; George, Timothy; Morris, Nathan; Newton, Adrian; McKenzie, Blair

    2014-05-01

    When plant breeders develop modern cereal varieties for the sustainable intensification of agriculture, insufficient thought is given to the impact of tillage on soil physical conditions for crop production. In earlier work, we demonstrated that barley varieties that perform best in ploughed soil (the approach traditionally used for breeding trials) were not the same as those performing best under shallow non-inversion or zero-tillage. We also found that the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with improved phosphorus uptake, and hence useful for marker assisted breeding, were not robust between different tillage regimes. The impact of the soil environment had greater impact than the genetics in GxE interactions. It is obvious that soil tillage should be considered when breeding the next generation of crops. Tillage may also have important impacts on carbon storage, but we found that despite greater soil carbon at shallow depths under non-inversion tillage, the carbon stored throughout the soil profile was not affected by tillage. Studies on soil tillage impacts to crop productivity and soil quality are often performed in one season, on single sites that have had insufficient time to develop. Our current research explores multiple sites, on different soils, with temporal measurements of soil physical conditions under contrasting tillage regimes. We use the oldest established contemporary tillage experiments in the United Kingdom, with all sites sharing ploughed and shallow (7cm) non-inversion tillage treatments. In eastern Scotland (Mid Pilmore), the site also has zero tillage and deep ploughing (40 cm) treatments, and was established 11 years ago. In east England there are two sites, both also having a deep non-inversion tillage treatment, and they were established 6 (New Farm Systems) and 8 (STAR) years ago. We measure a range of crop and soil properties at sowing, one month after sowing and post-harvest, including rapid lab based assays that allow high

  13. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

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    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  14. Fabrication and evaluation of a reservoir tillage machine to reduce runoff from farms with sprinkler irrigation systems

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    M. A Rostami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, in a lot of farm land due to reasons such as high density, heavy textured soils, steep terrain and a large body of water at each irrigation, rapid and complete absorption of water in the soil does not happen and runoff will be accrued. Improvement of infiltration reduces runoff and thus increases available water capacity. The main methods used to increase the infiltration area: The use of soil amendments, soil management by tillage and conservation farming. These methods may be used separately or together. Reservoir tillage is the process by which small holes or depressions are punched in the soil to prevent runoff of water from irrigation or rainfall. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new reservoir tillage machine for runoff control in the fields. Materials and Methods Fabricated machine has four main units include three-point hitch, toolbar, frame and tillage unit. Tillage unit was a spider wheel with 6 arms that has 6 Wedge-shaped blades, mounted on them. Each tillage unit mounted on a frame and the frame is attached to the toolbar with a yoke. The toolbar was attached to the tractor by three-point hitch. The movement of tractor caused blades impact soil and spider wheel was rotating. Spider wheel rotation speed was depended on the forward speed of the tractor. Blades were created mini-reservoirs on the soil surface for "In situ" irrigation water or rainwater harvesting. Theoretically distance between basins, created by reservoir tillage machine, fabricated in this study was 57 and 68 cm for Arm's length of 30 and 40 cm respectively. For the construction of machine, first the plan was drawn with SolidWorks software and then the parts of the machine were built based on technical drawings. First tillage unit was constructed and its shaft was based in two bearings. Six of the arms were positioned at 60 degrees from each other around tillage units and connected by welding. For evaluation of machine

  15. Yield and tillering response of super hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu to tillage and establishment methods

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    M.A. Badshah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tillering is an important agronomic trait for rice grain production. To evaluate yield and tillering response, Liangyoupeijiu (super hybrid rice was grown in Hunan, China during 2011–2012 under different methods of tillage (conventional and no-tillage system and crop establishment methods (transplanting at a spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm with one seedling per hill and direct seeding at a seeding rate of 22.5 kg ha− 1. Our results revealed that, at maximum tillering (Max. and at maturity (MA stages, direct seeding (DS resulted in 22% more tillers than transplanting (TP irrespective of tillage system. Tiller mortality reached a peak between panicle initiation (PI and booting (BT stages, and was 16% higher under conventional tillage (CT than under no-tillage (NT. Transplanting required 29% more time for the completion of tillering and less for DS. Tillering rate was 43% higher in DS than TP under either CT or NT. There was a positive correlation between panicle number per m2 and maximum tiller number per m2, but not panicle-bearing tiller rate. The panicle bearing tiller rate was higher under DS than TP and higher under NT than CT. Tiller dry weight gradually increased up to heading (HD stage, and was 14% higher under TP than DS. Leaf area (cm2 tiller− 1 gradually increased from Max. to HD stage and then decreased by 34% in conventional tillage transplanting (CTTP and 45% in no-tillage transplanting (NTTP from 12DAH–24DAH (days after heading, but was similar (35% under DS under either CT or NT. Grain yield was higher under CTTP owing to the larger sink size (heavier panicle, more spikelets in per cm length of panicle than under DS.

  16. Leaching of the S-metolachlor herbicide associated with paraquat or glyphosate in a no-tillage system

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    Anderson Luis Nunes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of desiccant and residual herbicides is a common management practice under no-tillage systems. However, the effect of desiccant herbicides and mulch on the leaching of residual herbicide is unknown. This study aimed at assessing the leaching of the S-metolachlor herbicide applied to ryegrass sequentially or in association with paraquat or glyphosate. A randomized blocks design was used, with four repetitions and treatments distributed over split-plots. The desiccant herbicides paraquat (600 g ha-1 or glyphosate (720 g ha-1 were used in the main plot, while S-metolachlor (2,800 g ha-1 was applied sequentially or in association with the desiccant herbicides in the subplots. There was also a control containing only desiccant herbicide, with no application of residual herbicide. The type of desiccant did not affect the leaching of the residual herbicide. In addition, the chosen method to apply the residual herbicide, sequentially or in association with the desiccant, did not impact the S-metolachlor behavior in the soil. The bioavailable concentration in the soil, 25 days after the application, was 90 g a.i. ha-1, at a depth of 18 cm.

  17. Influence of liming on residual soil respiration and chemical properties in a tropical no-tillage system

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    Adolfo Valente Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the climate changes occurring across the planet, especially global warming, the different forms of agricultural soil use have attracted researchers´ attention. Changes in soil management may influence soil respiration and, consequently, C sequestration. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term influence of liming on soil respiration and correlate it with soil chemical properties after two years of liming in a no-tillage system. A randomized complete block design was used with six replications. The experimental treatments consisted of four lime rates and a control treatment without lime. Two years after liming, soil CO2 emission was measured and the soil sampled (layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. The P, Ca2+ e Mg2+ soil contents and pH and base saturation were determined. CO2 emission from soil limed at the recommended rate was 24.1 % higher, and at twice the recommended rate, 47.4 % higher than from unlimed soil. Liming improved the chemical properties, and the linear increase in soil respiration rate correlated positively with the P, Ca2+ and Mg2+ soil contents, pH and base saturation, and negatively with H + Al and Al3+ contents. The correlation coefficient between soil respiration rate and chemical properties was highest in the 10-20 cm layer.

  18. Eficácia do herbicida acetochlor na semeadura direta e convencional com ou sem palha e os efeitos sobre o rendimento do milho Acetochlor herbicide efficacy on tillage and no-tillage systems on straw mulch presence or absence and effect on corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Vicente Weiss Ferri

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Agronomia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, ano agrícola de 2000/2001, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas com o herbicida acetochlor em Argissolo Vermelho, conduzido sob semeadura direta e preparo convencional, na presença ou ausência de palha. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de acetochlor nas doses de 0, 1680, 3360 e 5040g ha-1, aplicado em solo sob semeadura direta e preparo convencional, na presença (4,5t ha-1 ou ausência de palha de aveia. Foram avaliados o controle das plantas daninhas, além da altura de plantas e rendimento de grãos de milho. O acetochlor foi mais eficiente para o controle das plantas daninhas no preparo convencional, comparado à semeadura direta. A palha reduziu a eficácia de controle pelo acetochlor. A altura das plantas de milho foi maior na semeadura direta. O rendimento de grãos de milho foi maior no preparo convencional e na presença da palha devido ao melhor controle das plantas daninhas.An experiment was carried out at Federal University at Rio Grande do Sul, with the objective of avaluating herbicide acetochlor efficacy on conventional tillage and no-till soils. The soil is classified as at Paleudult. The following treatments were tested: acetochlor at 0, 1680, 3360 and 5040g ha-1, applied on tillage and no-tillage systems on oat straw mulch presence (4,5t ha-1 and absence. Assessements included crop injury, weed control at 15, 30 and 45 days after herbicide application, and corn crop yeld. The weed control with acetochlor herbicide was more efficient on tillage than on no-tillage system. Straw mulch reduced acetochlor herbicide weed control. Corn plant height was higher on no-tillage than on tillage systems, indicating lower herbicide activity on the first. Corn yield was higher on tillage system and straw mulch presence, due to

  19. Efeito de três sistemas de preparo do solo sobre a rentabilidade econômica da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz = Effects of three tillage systems on economic profitability of cassava crop (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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    Manoel Genildo Pequeno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a rentabilidade econômica da cultura damandioca em três sistemas de preparo de solo durante os anos agrícolas de 1999/2000 a2002/2003, em Araruna, Estado do Paraná. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o deblocos completos casualizados, com oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos deplantio direto; preparo mínimo (escarificação e preparo convencional (aração + gradagemniveladora. A força de tração e o consumo de combustível requeridos nas operações depreparo do solo e de plantio da mandioca foram maiores no sistema de preparoconvencional. Os maiores custos com combustível, preparo do solo e plantio da mandioca, ecusto operacional relativo às culturas de inverno e à cultura da mandioca, bem como a maiorrenda bruta foram observados no sistema de preparo convencional, seguidos pelo preparomínimo e plantio direto. A maior renda líquida e a melhor relação benefício/custo foramobservadas no sistema de preparo convencional que proporcionou maior produtividade deraízes tuberosas em relação aos sistemas de preparo mínimo e de plantio direto.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the economicprofitability of cassava crop submitted to the three soil tillage systems during the years1999/2000 to 2002/2003, in Araruna, state of Parana. The treatments consisted of three soiltillage systems: no-tillage, minimum tillage using chiseling, and conventional tillage withmoldboard plow and disking, arranged in a randomized complete blocks with eightreplications. The traction strength and fuel consumption in the soil tillage and in the cassavasowed operation were more required in the conventional tillage system. The conventionaland the minimum tillage systems showed the highest costs for fuel, soil tillage and cassavasowed. They also presented the highest gross income. The greatest net income and the bestbenefit/cost relation were observed in the conventional tillage system, which

  20. Efeitos de sistemas de preparo nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico Effects of tillage systems on the soil physical properties of a dystrophic Red Latosol

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    Karina Maria Vieira Cavalieri

    2006-02-01

    residue management are essential for the sustainability of cassava production in sandy and sandy loam soils of Northwestern Paraná State, Southern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems used for planting cassava: no-tillage (NT, minimum tillage using chiseling (MT and conventional tillage with moldboard plow and disking (CT on some physical properties of a dystrophic Red Latosol. The following soil physical properties were evaluated in the 0-0.15 m and 0.15-0.30 m soil layers: soil bulk density (BD, soil water retention curve, soil resistance to penetration curve and least limiting water range (LLWR. Higher values of BD and soil resistance to penetration were verified in the NT and MT treatments. The soil water retention curve was only influenced by BD, which incorporated the effects of the soil tillage systems independent of sampled layers. The soil resistance curve to penetration was influenced by tillage systems and layers, indicating that the soil resistance to root penetration was higher in NT > MT > CT, and was accentuated at the 0.15-0.30 m depth. The increase in the BD led to a reduction in the LLWR due to the effects of soil resistance to penetration and air-filled porosity, which in turn determined the range of soil available water. Results indicated that LLWR value followed the sequence: PC = PM > PSR in the 0-0.15 m soil layer, and was not influenced by tillage systems in the 0.15-0.30 soil layer The critical bulk density value (BDc, the BD value at which LLWR = 0, was lower in NT and MT tillage systems compared with CT, therefore resulting in a smaller frequency of higher BD values than BDc in the soil under CT.

  1. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment

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    Mutiu Abolanle Busari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation agriculture (CA, practising agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide. Conservation tillage, the most important aspect of CA, is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro-ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields. Not less than 25% of the greenhouse gas effluxes to the atmosphere are attributed to agriculture. Processes of climate change mitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques. Therefore, conservation tillage involving ZT and minimum tillage which has potential to break the surface compact zone in soil with reduced soil disturbance offers to lead to a better soil environment and crop yield with minimal impact on the environment. Keywords: Atmosphere, Greenhouse gases, Conservation tillage, Sustainable crop yield

  2. Soil tillage and water infiltration in semi-arid Morocco: the role fo surface and sub-surface soil conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimanche, P.H.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Production of cereals in a dryland farming system forms an important part of agricultural production in Morocco. Yield levels on the Saïs Plateau between Meknès and Fez in the semi-arid zone, however, remain low possibly because of sub-optimum water use due to inefficient tillage systems. A study

  3. The effects of mulching, tillage, and herbicides on weed control and watermelon yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently few producers in the Southeast US have adopted conservation tillage practices in specialty crop production. The lack of conservation adoption is likely due to the added challenges in producing vegetables in cover crop residues, especially high biomass cover crop systems. The objective of t...

  4. Effect of stubble management, tillage and cropping sequence on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 mai 2001 ... The adoption of conservation tillage practices for wheat production in Ethiopia should not be hindered for fear of spreading these specific trash-borne diseases, although, full stubble retention could increase the severity of eyespot. Key Words: Conservation tillage, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides ...

  5. Épocas de manejo químico de Brachiaria decumbens antecedendo o plantio direto de soja Brachiaria decumbens management times in soybean under no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Nunes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O manejo químico da cobertura vegetal e a manutenção da palhada sobre o solo são preocupações comuns para os produtores que adotam o sistema plantio direto na região dos cerrados. Com o objetivo de estudar a influência da época de manejo químico de B. decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento e a produtividade da cultura da soja em sistema plantio direto, foram realizados dois ensaios a campo, respectivamente, com os cultivares BRS 154 e MG/BR 46-Conquista, no ano de 2003. Em cada ensaio, testaram-se quatro épocas de manejo de B. decumbens antecedendo a semeadura da soja (28, 14, 7 e 0 dias, utilizando-se o herbicida glifosato. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se três repetições no primeiro e quatro no segundo. Determinou-se a matéria seca da cobertura vegetal e avaliou-se a reinfestação de B. decumbens. Na cultura da soja, foram determinados: altura de inserção da primeira vagem, número de vagens por planta, umidade dos grãos, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a época mais adequada para o manejo químico de B. decumbens com glifosato situa-se entre 7 e 14 dias antes da semeadura da cultura da soja e que a escolha da época de manejo químico da cobertura vegetal afeta de forma decisiva o desenvolvimento e a produtividade da cultura.Cover crop management and straw maintenance over the soil are common concerns for producers adopting the no tillage system in the cerrado region in Brazil. In order to study the influence of B. decumbens time management on soybean development and productivity under no tillage system, two assays were carried out using the cultivars BRS 154 and MG/BR 46-Conquista. For each cultivar, four B. decumbens management times prior to sowing of soybean (28, 14, 7 and 0 days were tested using glyphosate for weed control, in three replicates for cultivar BRS 154 and four replications for MG/BR 46-Conquista, in a

  6. Erosion and sediment deposition evaluation on slopes under different tillage systems in the Cerrado region using the 137Cs fallout technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Robson Clayton Jacques

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural areas causes several problems on natural resources. With the increasing occupation of the Cerrado region by agriculture, a series of environmental problems like deforestation, soil erosion and soil compaction are appearing and causing radical transformations in the natural landscape due to removing almost all native vegetation. The conventional tillage system (CTS) is considered an inadequate form of soil management for its frequently irremediable consequences of soil compaction and soil erosion, and the no till system (NTS) makes the maintenance of the soil conditions possible, letting them close to the natural environment, thus reducing rates of soil erosion. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of riparian forests in the retention of sediments originated for three different tillage systems, through the fallout 137 CS redistribution technique, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and some physical and chemical parameters that indicate the structural conditions of the soils of Goiatuba and Jandaia-GO. In the three areas, soil profiles were collected in three layers of 20 cm (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) at distinct points located along linear transects in the direction of the maximum slope until the riparian forest. In the riparian forest of each area, trenches were opened and soil was sampled to evaluate the activity of 137 Cs and the physical and chemical parameters of soil. Detection of the activity of 137 Cs was made with a gamma ray detector model (GEM-20180P, EG and ORTEC) connected to a multichannel analyzer. The comparison of averages was made using the Tukey test at 5% level of significance. The. results indicated that, the three soil tillage systems presented high rates of soil erosion and deposition of sediments and the riparian forest of the areas under CTS, NTS and pasture, located downstream received great amounts of sediments, and that only the riparian forest of CTS was capable to trap

  7. INFLUENCE OF REDUCED SOIL TILLAGE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AT WINTER WHEAT AND SOYBEAN GRAIN YIELDS AT BARANYA HIPOGLEY SOIL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Stošić

    2012-12-01

    study showed, with the optimum of nitrogen fertilization, a very successful application of reduced soil tillage systems in the winter wheat and soybean production.

  8. Propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Bruno afetadas pelos sistemas plantio direto e preparo convencional Physical properties of a south Brazilian Oxisol as affected by no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Costa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade física de solos agrícolas pode ser afetada pelo sistema de manejo, sendo a magnitude das alterações dependente do tempo de uso do solo e das condições edafoclimáticas. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito de longo prazo (21 anos dos sistemas de preparo convencional (PC e plantio direto (PD sobre propriedades físicas da camada de 0-0,2 m de um Latossolo Bruno alumínico câmbico (629 g kg-1 de argila, em Guarapuava (PR. Em relação à área sob mata nativa, contígua ao experimento e tomada como referência, o cultivo do solo em PC resultou não só no aumento da densidade global (Ds, na resistência do solo à penetração (RP e na temperatura do solo, mas também na diminuição do diâmetro médio geométrico dos agregados (DMG. A adoção do sistema PD promoveu uma melhoria nas propriedades físicas do solo em comparação ao PC, evidenciada pela diminuição de 9 % (de 1,08 para 0,99 Mg m-3 na Ds em subsuperfície (0,1-0,2 m, de 13 % (de 27,9 para 24,7 ºC nas temperatura máximas (15 h, na camada de 0-0,05 m; e pelo aumento de 126 % (de 1,6 para 3,7 mm no DMG dos agregados na superfície do solo (0-0,05 m, e de 26 % (de 0,38 m³ m-3 para 0,48 m³ m-3 no conteúdo de água volumétrica de 0-0,1 m. Por outro lado, o PC e o PD não se diferenciaram quanto aos seus efeitos na porosidade do solo (total, macro e micro, na condutividade hidráulica saturada, na resistência do solo à penetração e no grau de floculação de argila. O rendimento das culturas de soja (18 safras e milho (4 safras foi, respectivamente, 42 e 22 % superior em PD do que em PC, o que, possivelmente, reflete a melhoria na qualidade física do solo.Soil management affects the soil physical quality, but the magnitude of the changes is dependent of use time and regional edaphoclimatic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (21 yr effect of conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT systems on some physical properties in the

  9. The effects of no-tillage practice on soil physical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of soil agitation, the soil aggregate rate under conventional tillage cropland was generally lower than that under the no-tillage practiced cropland. The studies of no-tillage on soil temperature and on crop yield also have conflicting results because of the absence of systemically long term monitoring, and there was ...

  10. Plantas de cobertura, manejo da palhada e produtividade da mamoneira no sistema plantio direto Cover crops, straw mulch management and castor bean yield in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Ferrari Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de cobertura que apresentem elevada produção de fitomassa e reciclagem de nutrientes são essenciais para maximizar a produtividade das culturas em sucessão, no sistema plantio direto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a produção de massa de matéria seca e o acúmulo de nutrientes pelo guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan e o milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, em cultivo solteiro e consorciado, e o efeito do manejo mecânico da palhada na produtividade da mamoneira de safrinha, na fase de implantação do sistema plantio direto. O experimento foi instalado em um Nitossolo Vermelho, em Botucatu, SP. O delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por três coberturas vegetais (guandu-anão, milheto e o cultivo consorciado das duas espécies e as subparcelas pela ausência ou presença do manejo mecânico da palhada com triturador horizontal, 20 dias após o manejo químico. O milheto solteiro produziu maior quantidade de massa de matéria seca (14.040 kg ha-1, apresentou maiores concentrações de K e Mg e acumulou maiores quantidades de macronutrientes na parte aérea. A mamoneira apresentou maior produtividade de grãos em sucessão ao consórcio guandu-anão + milheto. A produtividade de grãos da mamoneira foi maior na ausência do manejo mecânico da palhada.Cover crops that have high phytomass production and nutrient cycling are essential to maximize the crop yields in succession under no-tillage system. This study aimed to evaluate dry matter production and nutrients accumulation by pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, in sole crop and intercropped, and the effect of straw mulch mechanical management on out-of-season castor bean performance, in no-tillage system establishment. The experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Nitisol, in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. A randomized blocks design, in a split-plot scheme, with four replications

  11. Fuzzy multi attributive comparison of tillage crop and manure management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining the best alternative between cropping system options is often complicated by disparities in research results due to differences between years as a result of seasonal variability. The economic cost of the systems further complicates the determination of best alternative for sustainable c...

  12. Influência de diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico Influence of different tillage systems in physical properties of a distrophic Red Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio A. Tormena

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, os sistemas de preparo do solo têm, como objetivo, oferecer condições físicas adequadas para a otimização do crescimento, desenvolvimento e produtividade das culturas. O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de preparo do solo em algumas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, no Estado do Paraná, cultivado com mandioca. Para isto, utilizaram-se, neste trabalho, os seguintes tratamentos: Plantio Direto - PD (sem revolvimento do solo ou revolvimento apenas ao longo das linhas de plantio; Preparo Mínimo - PM (escarificação a 0,30 m seguido de gradagem niveladora e Preparo Convencional - PC (aração com arado de aiveca a 0,25-0,30 m de profundidade, seguido de gradagem niveladora. As avaliações feitas nas camadas de 0-0,15 e 0,15-0,30 m constaram das seguintes propriedades físicas do solo: densidade do solo (Ds, volume de macroporos drenados na tensão de 0,006 MPa (Mac, volume de microporos (Mic e porosidade total (Pt. Avaliou-se, também, a resistência do solo à penetração das raízes (RP a cada 0,05 m, até a profundidade de 0,40 m, em duas diferentes épocas, em que os resultados indicaram maiores valores de Ds e menores de Mac no PD e no PM em comparação com o PC. No PM e PD constatou-se que o volume de poros com ar na tensão de 0,006 MPa foi menor que 10% e a RP foi maior no PD em comparação com os demais tratamentos, atingindo valores superiores a 2,0 MPa, até a profundidade de 0,25 m. Os resultados sugerem que, nas condições em que o estudo foi conduzido, a qualidade física do solo mostrou-se restritiva no PD devido aos excessivos valores de RP e aos reduzidos valores de porosidade de aeração.The tillage systems have the objective to offer an adequate physical conditions in soil for growth, development and productivity of crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage systems on some physical properties of a distrophic Red

  13. [Effects of tillage and mulching on orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Hui; Liao, Yun-Cheng; Gao, Mao-Sheng; Yin, Rui-Jing

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage system (no-tillage, rotary tillage, and plow tillage) and mulching (straw mulch, sod mulch, and film mulch) on the orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau. Under different tillage system, the soil moisture content in 0-1 m layer differed significantly in May, with the sequence of no-tillage (14.28%) > rotary tillage (14.13%) > plow tillage (13.57%), but had less difference in September. Straw mulch induced significantly higher soil moisture content than sod mulch, film mulch, and no-mulch. Among the treatments tillage plus mulching, no-tillage plus straw mulch resulted in the greatest soil water storage. The average soil temperature at daytime was in order of film mulch > no-mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch, and the change range of soil temperature was no-mulch > film mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch. Soil water storage under different mulching treatments was not always negatively correlated with soil temperature, but depended on the water conservation effect and heat-preserved capacity of mulching material. Above all, the main conservation tillage system for the orchards in Loess Plateau would be no tillage plus straw mulch.

  14. Physical properties of a humic cambisol under tillage and cropping systems after twelve years Atributos físicos e carbono orgânico de um cambissolo húmico dob sistemas de preparo e cultivo após doze anos

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    Andréia Patrícia Andrade

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the basis underlying the food production chain and it is fundamental to improve and conserve its productive capacity. Imbalanced exploitation can degrade agricultural areas physical, chemical and biologically. The objective of this study was to evaluate some soil physical properties and their relation with organic carbon contents of a Humic Dystrudept under conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT, for 12 years in rotation (r and succession (s cropping systems. The experiment was carried out in Lages, SC (latitude 27 º 49 ' S and longitude 50 º 20 ' W, 937 m asl, using crop sequences of bean-fallow-maize-fallow-soybean in conventional tillage rotation; maize-fallow in conventional tillage succession; bean-oat-maize-turnip-soybean-vetch in no-tillage rotation; and maize-vetch in no-tillage succession. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm. The following properties were analyzed: soil density, porosity, aggregate stability, degree of flocculation, water retention, infiltration, mechanical strength, and total organic carbon. Soil aggregation in the surface layer (0-5 cm was better in the no-tillage than the conventional system, related to higher microporosity, organic carbon contents and water retention capacity, indicating that a periodical tillage of this soil is unnecessary. Infiltration was highest in no-tillage with crop succession.O solo é a base da cadeia produtiva de alimentos, por isso tornam-se necessárias a conservação e manutenção de sua capacidade produtiva. Muitas áreas exploradas de forma incorreta podem apresentar degradação física, química e biológica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar alguns atributos físicos e suas relações com os teores de carbono orgânico de um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico nos sistemas de preparo convencional (PC e semeadura direta (SD, após 12 anos com rotação (r

  15. Forms of carbon in an oxisol under no-tillage and crop-livestock integration systems in the cerrado, Goias State, Brazil

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    Régis Pinheiro Martins Bezerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The no-tillage system (NTS and more recently, the crop-livestock integration (CLI are very used for grain production in the Cerrado biome. This, the soil organic matter (SOM is one of the main components responsible for maintaining the quality of tropical soils. This study aimed to quantify the levels of total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (total N, water soluble carbon (WSC and carbon of humic fractions in areas with different land use systems in the Cerrado of Goias. The farming systems were used: CLI (brachiaria + corn/beans/cotton/soybean and NTS (sunflower/millet/soybean/corn andas a reference, area native Cerrado vegetation (Cerradão. We collected soil samples at 0-10, 10- 20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm. The contents of TOC, total N, WSC, humin fraction carbon (C-HUM, humic acid fraction (C-HAF and fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF. The area of Cerradão had the highest TOC, total N, C-HUM and C-FAH in the surface layer (0-10 cm. The levels of WSC and humic fractions of SOM showed significant differences between the systems of land use and sampling depths. The highest levels of C-HAF were found in the area of CLI, at 0-10 and 20-30 cm. The CLI systems and NTS did not differ for the TOC and total N except for N in layer 20-30 cm. The system CLI favors the formation of C-HUM compared to the NTS. The CLI system leads to lower levels of WSC and higher C-FAF compared with the NTS, which has higher levels of WSC and C-FAH. The use of WSC and carbon of humic fractions was more efficient to identify differences from the land use systems evaluated (NTS, CLI and Cerradão when compared to the TOC for the climatic conditions of this study.

  16. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  17. Influence of crop rotation and tillage intensity on soil physical properties and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krümmelbein, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage intensity can vary concerning tillage depth, frequency, power input into the soil and degree of soil turn-over. Conventional tillage systems where a plough is regularly used to turn over the soil can be differentiated from reduced tillage systems without ploughing but with loosening the upper soil and no tillage systems. Between conventional tillage and no tillage is a wide range of more or less reduced tillage systems. In our case the different tillage intensities are not induced by different agricultural machinery or techniques, but result from varying crop rotations with more or less perennial crops and therefore lower or higher tillage frequency. Our experimental area constitutes of quite unstructured substrates, partly heavily compacted. The development of a functioning soil structure and accumulation of nutrients and organic matter are of high importance. Three different crop rotations induce varying tillage intensities and frequencies. The first crop rotation (Alfalfa monoculture) has only experienced seed bed preparation once and subsequently is wheeled once a year to cut and chaff the biomass. The second crop rotation contains perennial and annual crops and has therefore been tilled more often, while the third crop rotation consists only of annual crops with annual seedbed preparation. Our results show that reduced tillage intensity/frequency combined with the intense root growth of Alfalfa creates the most favourable soil physical state of the substrate compared to increased tillage and lower root growth intensity of the other crop rotations. Soil tillage disturbs soil structure development, especially when the substrate is mechanically unstable as in our case. For such problematic locations it is recommendable to reduce tillage intensity and/or frequency to allow the development of soil structure enhanced by root growth and thereby the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients within the rooting zone.

  18. Effects of tillage during the nonwaterlogged period on nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions in typical Chinese rice-wheat rotation ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zhou, Zaixing; Zheng, Xunhua; Xie, Baohua; Liu, Chunyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Zhu, Jianguo

    2010-03-01

    Tillage practices result in major changes to soil environmental conditions and to the distribution of crop residues and nutrients in the soil profile, which may consequently affect the biogenic production and emission of N trace gases. To investigate the effects of tillage during the nonwaterlogged period on nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in rice-wheat rotation systems, we performed field experiments at three sites (Suzhou, Wuxi, and Jiangdu) in the Yangtze River Delta using static chamber techniques. The results showed that the effect of tillage on the emissions of both gases differed among the three field sites due to differences in agricultural management and soil texture. At the site with a light soil texture (Jiangdu: sandy loam), no tillage resulted in reduced NO emissions (0.5 kg N ha-1) as compared to conventionally tilled fields (0.9 kg N ha-1; p tillage plots showed significantly higher emissions (p tillage resulted in lower NO and higher N2O emissions from either N fertilized or unfertilized fields even though these results were not statistically significant. In the silty clay loam soils (Suzhou), which showed the highest soil organic carbon contents and the highest rates of N trace gas emissions in all three of the investigated sites, reduced tillage resulted in much higher NO emissions, whereas N2O emissions were not obviously influenced by tillage practices (reduced tillage versus tillage: NO, 9.5 versus 5.4 kg N ha-1; N2O, 10.6 versus 9.0 kg N ha-1). Similar effects of tillage were observed for the direct emission factors of the applied N during the wheat season. The observed emission factors for the different sites ranged from 0.3% to 2.4% for N2O (mean: 1.0%) and from 0.1% to 4.0% (mean: 0.9%) for NO, respectively. The observed site-to-site differences in emission factors are most likely the results of variations in soil properties (such as texture and pH) and agricultural practices (such as tillage and crop residue management

  19. Profundidade e espaçamento da mandioca no plantio direto na palha Depth and spacing of the cassava in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gabriel Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento em LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Eutroférrico de textura argilosa, localizado no município de Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, onde se utilizou delineamento em blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial 2 x 3, 4 repetições e com dois espaçamentos: fileiras simples (1,00 x 0,60m e fileiras duplas (1,50 x 0,50 x 0,60m, e três profundidades de plantio (0,05, 0,10 e 0,15m. Nos dois tipos de espaçamentos, a população de plantas foi de 16.666 plantas ha-1. O plantio direto na palha de aveia foi feito com a abertura de covas. Estudou-se o diâmetro médio dos caules, índice de tombamento, esforço para o arranquio manual, teor de amido nas raízes, produtividade de raízes e de amido, determinados aos 17 meses após o plantio. A disposição das linhas em fileiras duplas e simples não afetou as variáveis estudadas. O plantio das manivas em profundidade de 0,15m reduziu significativamente o índice de tombamento. Por outro lado, o plantio nessa profundidade dificultou a colheita, devido à maior resistência ao arranquio manual, além de reduzir significativamente a produtividade de raízes e amido. O plantio com 0,10m de profundidade proporcionou a melhor produtividade de raízes e amido.The experiment was conducted in eutrophic Oxisol soil in Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil. It consisted of planting cassava in a factorial design. Factors included two row design: simple (1.00 x 0.60m, double rank (1.50 x 0.50 x 0.60m; and three planting depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.15m. Planting was accomplished in no-tillage system over oat straw. Measured variables 17 months after planting included: stalk mean diameter; damping-off index; resistence to manual harvesting; root starch concentration; and productivity of root and starch. The results indicated that damping-off index was lower at 0.15m planting depth. However, cassava planted at the 0.15m depth demanded the higest labor for harvesting and the lowest root and starch productivities

  20. Effects of land clearing techniques and tillage systems on runoff and soil erosion in a tropical rain forest in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehigiator, O A; Anyata, B U

    2011-11-01

    This work reports runoff and soil loss from each of 14 sub-watersheds in a secondary rain forest in south-western Nigeria. The impact of methods of land clearing and post-clearing management on runoff and soil erosion under the secondary forest is evaluated. These data were acquired eighteen years after the deforestation of primary vegetation during the ' West bank' project of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA). These data are presented separately for each season; however, statistical analyses for replicates were not conducted due to differences in their past management. Soil erosion was affected by land clearing and tillage methods. The maximum soil erosion was observed on sub-watersheds that were mechanically cleared with tree-pusher/root-rake attachments and tilled conventionally. A high rate of erosion was observed even when graded-channel terraces were constructed to minimize soil erosion. In general there was much less soil erosion on manually cleared than on mechanically cleared sub-watersheds (2.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 13.8 t ha(-1) yr(-1)) and from the application of no-tillage methods than from conventionally plowed areas (6.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 12.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1)). The data indicate that tillage methods and appropriate management of soils and crops play an important role in soil and water conservation and in decreasing the rate of decline of soil quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On-farm tillage trials for rice-wheat cropping system in Indo-Gangetic plains of Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Prasad, L.K.; Prasad, S.S.; Bhupendra Singh; Singh, S.R.; Gaunt, J.L.

    2002-05-01

    Demonstration plots of deep summer ploughing (DSP) with rice followed by wheat and other winter crops and fields of zero tilled wheat have been established and monitored at head, middle and tail sections of RP distributory Channel - 5 of Patna Canal during kharif (wet) and rabi (winter) seasons of 2001 and 2002, respectively at four different villages. The DSP plots were large (6 acres, 2.42 ha) in each village enabling farmers and researchers to see and assess a new practice at a farming scale. Zero tillage of wheat has involved a total of 181 farmers and total area of 50.4 ha. The plots were not only monitored but also information from farmers on how they view the ploughing/tillage practices was gathered. This information indicates that farmers are assessing the practices from a range of view points relative to their usual practices including land preparation and sowing costs, quality of crop establishment, weed growth and species composition, pest and disease incidence. Main findings are that DSP does not significantly only alter the yield of rice, wheat, lentil and gram and but also reduces the weed burden. Participatory budgeting indicated cost savings for land preparation and crop management costs. Over 60 percent of farmers in a total sample of 86 farmers had a positive reaction to practice during wet season. Similarly farmers recognized cost savings and potential yield gains (due to early and good crop establishment) in zero tilled wheat. After the harvest of winter crops like wheat, lentil and gram in May 2002, farmers dropped their reservation about DSP and there was a change in their attitude from reluctance to partial agreement and now they are ready for tillage operations on self-payment. For both practices, there are some limitations in respect of availability of implements and suitable tractor couplings. Findings indicate that if tractor owners perceive a demand, they would take steps to offer these new practices as land preparation services. (author)

  2. Eficiência no uso da água e interferência de plantas daninhas no meloeiro cultivado nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Water use efficiency and weed interference in melon crop under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.S. Teófilo

    2012-09-01

    filme de polietileno nos dois sistemas de plantio ou com cobertura morta no plantio direto aumentou a eficiência no uso da água em relação ao solo sem cobertura. No tratamento sem capinas no sistema de plantio convencional, além da perda total na produtividade comercial, a interferência das plantas daninhas aumentou o consumo de água em 9,6%.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the conventional and no-tillage systems and weed management strategies on water use efficiency in melon crop (Cucumis melo. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a randomized block design in split-plots in Mossoró-RN. The plots were constituted of two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage and the sub-plots of three weed management systems (plastic mulch, weeding, and no weeding. Density and dry weight of the weeds at 30 days after transplanting, commercial and total yield and daily consumption of water were evaluated. Irrigation management was performed by the characteristic soil water curve for each cropping system at 15 and 30 cm of depth and water control by daily reading a set of tensiometers installed to keep the soil above 75% of field capacity. Water use efficiency (USA, given in kg of fruit per m3, was determined based on the crop's yield and water consumption. It was found that the no-tillage system reduced weed density and dry matter in 86.7 and 61%, respectively, compared to conventional tillage, and weed interference reduced commercial yield by 100% under conventional tillage and 36.5% under no-tillage. Soil with plastic mulch under no-tillage and conventional systems, and straw mulching under no-tillage reduced water consumption by 23% (388.8 m3 ha-1, 21% (363.0 m3 ha-1 and 13% (215.0 m3 ha-1, respectively, compared to the weeding treatment under conventional tillage. Soil with plastic mulch under the two tillage systems, or straw mulching under no-tillage increased the efficiency of water use from the ground without cover. In the no

  3. Qualidade da colheita mecanizada de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris em dois sistemas de preparo do solo Quality of the mechanical harvesting of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris under two tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouverson Pereira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as etapas de produção do feijoeiro a colheita é uma das mais importantes, porque pode interferir de maneira decisiva na qualidade e no custo de produção. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade da operação da colheita mecanizada de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, cultivado sob preparo convencional e plantio direto. As variáveis analisadas foram: o nível de ruído emitido, calculado através de um medidor de pressão sonora; o desempenho operacional, sendo monitorado o consumo de combustível, a patinagem dos rodados e a velocidade de deslocamento do conjunto coletados em uma central digital (datalogger; e a operação de colheita quanto à matéria seca e densidade de palhada, e as perdas na colheita. A velocidade e os consumos horário e operacional apresentaram distribuição normal dos dados, enquanto que o nível de ruído apresentou distribuição assimétrica. As perdas na colheita mecanizada de feijão e a densidade de palhada apresentaram baixa variabilidade e distribuição normal. Assim, apenas o consumo horário e a produção de matéria seca de palhada apresentaram comportamento instável em relação ao controle estatístico de processo, enquanto os demais indicadores mostraram condições de manter a qualidade da operação de colheita tanto no preparo convencional de solo quanto no plantio direto.Among the production stages of the bean plant, harvesting is one of the most important, because it can decisively affect both quality and production costs. Thus, the objective was to assess quality in the mechanized harvesting of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, grown under conventional tillage and no-tillage systems. The variables analysed were: the noise level emitted, calculated using a sound-pressure meter; the operational performance, by monitoring fuel consumption, wheel-slippage, and displacement velocity of the machine, all collected digitally (datalogger; and the harvesting operation with regard to the dry matter and

  4. Citrus orchard planted with no tillage and conventional systemsHuerto de cítricos plantado con sistema de cero labranza y sistema convencional

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    Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available No tillage system has brought many advantages to soil protection, without reducing the yield of annual crops. This system has been adapted for Citrus orchards, with the plantation of trees in furrows opened in areas previously occupied by pastures. This work had as objective to evaluate tree development, root system, yield, and soil characteristics in an orchard planted in two systems. The study was made in Parana State, Brazil, in a medium texture oxisol with ‘Valência’ orange (Citrus sinensis L. trees with Rangpur lime rootstock (Citrus limonia Osbeck. The treatments were no tillage (furrowing and plantation and conventional plantation (hole area plowing and disk harrowing before furrowing and plantation. The yield was 86 - 129 kg of fruits per plant, without significant difference between treatments. The plantation systems either do not affect the development of the plants, the amount of roots and the fruit quality. In the conventional plantation system the soil has greater resistance to penetration in inter rows than in the zero tillage system plantation.El sistema de cero labranza ha traído muchas ventajas en la protección del suelo, sin perjudicar el rendimiento de los cultivos anuales. Este sistema ha sido adaptado para los huertos citrícolas, realizándose la plantación en surcos abiertos en terrenos anteriormente ocupados por pastizales. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el desarrollo de las plantas y del sistema radicular, producción, características del suelo en un huerto plantado en dos sistemas de labranza. El estudio fue realizado en el Noroeste de Paraná, en un oxisol con textura media, en plantas de naranja ‘Valência’ con patrón de lima Rangpur. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: cero labranza (apertura de surcos y plantación y plantación convencional (arado de discos y grada, seguido de apertura de surcos y plantación. La producción fue de 86 a 129 kg de frutos por planta, sin diferencia significativa

  5. YIELD OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. ON DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE VARIANTS

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    Danijel Jug

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced tillage, as well as the most reduced tillage – No-till – every year are becoming more important in our region. Unfortunately, the areas under reduced tillage are still very small. In order to establish optimal system of reduced soil tillage, the experimental trials were set on Chernozem soil type in northern Baranja during three vege¬tation seasons (1998/1999-2000/2001 and five soil tillage systems: CT Conventional Tillage (primary soil tillage by moldboard ploughing at 30-35 cm depth, DH Multiple Diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, CH Chiseling and diskharrowing (chiseling at 30-35 cm and diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, PD One diskharro-wing pass (diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, and NT No-tillage system. The highest yields were recor¬ded at CT with three-year average of 9.29 t/ha, followed by CH with 8.37 t/ha, DH with 8.07 t/ha, PD with 6.99 t/ha, whereas the lowest yields were recorded at NT treatment, with three-year average of 5.94 t/ha. The highest profit was achieved at CT treatment (665,34 HRK/ha, followed by CH (189,24 HRK/ha, DH (77,20 HRK/ha, PD (-334,95 HRK/ha and NT (-459,81 HRK/ha.

  6. Atributos físicos do solo sob diferentes preparos e coberturas influenciados pela distribuição de poros Soil physical attributes under different tillage systems and cover crops, as influenced by pore distribution

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    Eurâimi de Q. Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho se propõe avaliar a influência da distribuição de poros sobre alguns atributos físicos do solo sob semeadura direta (SD e preparo convencional (PC, cultivado com diferentes culturas de cobertura, no sistema de produção orgânica de feijão e milho. O trabalho foi conduzido em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Em novembro de 2003 foram instalados quatro experimentos, dois em SD e dois em PC, um em cada manejo com feijão e o outro com milho. Foram comparados em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, crotalária, guandu, mucuna-preta, sorgo e pousio. Amostragens de solo das parcelas e de uma mata próxima foram realizadas nas profundidades de 0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m, em novembro de 2007, para determinação do teor de matéria orgânica (M.O. e de atributos físicos do solo. O uso do solo sob vegetação de cerrado para a produção agrícola, independentemente do sistema de cultivo, resultou em redução na porosidade total (Pt, macroporosidade (Mp e capacidade de aeração do solo (CAS. Os atributos físicos do solo foram afetados favoravelmente pela M.O. As variações em Pt, Mp, CAS e capacidade de água disponível do solo podem ser explicadas pela variação na distribuição do tamanho de poros do solo, principalmente daqueles com ∅ > 0,075 mm.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of pore distribution on some physical attributes of soil under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems, cultivated with different cover crops, in organic production of common bean and corn. The work was carried out in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, on an Oxisol. In November 2003 four experiments were installed, two of them under NT and the other two under CT. In each soil tillage system, an experiment was conducted with corn and another with common bean. Sunn hemp, pigeon pea, velvet bean, sorghum, and fallow were compared in a randomized block design, with four replications. Samples were

  7. Influence of Conservation Tillage on some Soil Physical Properties and Crop Yield in Vetch-Wheat Rotation in Dryland Cold Region

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    I Eskandari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Winter wheat is an important, well-adapted grain crop under dryland condition of the northwest of Iran. Soil water is the most limiting resource for crop growth in dryland areas. Therefore, farmers need to use crop residues and minimum tillage to control the soil erosion and effectively store and to use the limited precipitation received for crop production. Crop rotation and tillage system could affect crop yield due to their effects on water conservation and soil chemical and physical properties. Galantini et al., (2000 studied the effect of crop rotation on wheat productivity in the Pampean semi-arid region of Argentina and found that a wheat–vetch (Vicia sativa L. rotation resulted in higher yield and protein content, and greater yield components than the other rotations.Payne et al. (2000 stated that where precipitation amount is marginal (400 mm, dry field pea offers a potential alternative to summer fallowing. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal tillage system for increasing crop productivity in a vetch–wheat rotation in dryland farming of the northwest of Iran. Materials and Methods The field experiment was carried out from 2010 to 2014 at the Dryland Agricultural Research Station (latitude37° 12´N; longitude 46◦20´E; 1730 m a.s.l., 25 km east of Maragheh, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. The long-term (10 years average precipitation, temperature and relative humidity of the station are 336.5 mm, 9.4 ◦C and 47.5%, respectively. The soil (Fine Mixed, Mesic, Vertic Calcixerepts, USDA system; Calcisols, FAO system at the study site had a clay loam texture in the 0–15 cm surface layer and a clay texture in the 15–80 cm depth. This study was conducted in vetch (Vicia pannonica- wheat (Triticum aestivum L. rotation. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The tillage treatments consisted of (1 conventional tillage: moldboard plowing followed by one

  8. Productivity and energy efficiency of three tillage systems for maize (Zea mayz L. production

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    Jaime Ruiz-Vega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La cantidad de insumos utilizados para la producción de maíz (Zea mays L.fueron cuantifi cados, así como el rendimiento de grano, forraje y malezas en seis parcelascomerciales ubicadas en los distritos de Zaachila y Etla, pertenecientes a los Valles Centralesde Oaxaca, México. Los sistemas de labranza evaluados fueron: labranza con tracciónanimal (LTA, labranza mixta (LMx y labranza mecanizada (LM, los más empleados parala producción de maíz en esta región. La mayor productividad en cuanto a rendimientos debiomasa la obtuvo el sistema LM, seguido por LMx. De acuerdo con el balance energético,la mayor efi ciencia energética (EE se alcanzó en el sistema LTA con un valor de 34.4 y lamenor con el sistema LM. La menor efi ciencia de éste último se asoció con un mayor usode operaciones con maquinaria, así como de insumos derivados del petróleo. No existierondiferencias signifi cativas en EE entre LTA y LMx, cuando se consideró a las malezas, en esteúltimo sistema se produjo un incremento en la EE del 14%, contra un 8% observado en LTA.Por lo tanto también se recomienda utilizar LMx, ya que en la región predominan parcelasmenores de 1 ha y con éste se obtuvieron niveles de rendimientos por jornada mayoresdurante la labranza primaria y se utiliza la tracción animal como fuente renovable de energíapara laboreo secundario y transporte.

  9. Análisis de los escurrimientos de una microcuenca de Pampa Ondulada bajo diferentes sistemas de labranza Runoff analysis of a watershed belonging to the rolling Pampa under different tillage systems

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    Mario G. Castiglioni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La tasa de escurrimiento del agua juega un rol crítico en la determinación de la pérdida de suelo en las tierras agrícolas. En la última década la siembra directa se ha difundido en la Pampa Ondulada en forma considerable, siendo escasos los estudios a nivel microcuenca en los cuales se analice sus efectos sobre los escurrimientos respecto a otros sistemas de labranza. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar distintos parámetros correspondientes a la respuesta hidrológica superficial de una microcuenca de la Pampa Ondulada, ante cambios en los sistemas de labranza empleados. La microcuenca bajo estudio posee una superficie de 300 ha y está ubicada en la vertiente norte de la cuenca media del Arroyo del Tala, San Pedro, provincia de Bs. As. Los suelos presentes corresponden a la serie Ramallo (Argiudol vértico y sus fases por erosión. Se confeccionaron los hidrogramas y hietogramas correspondientes a las distintas tormentas ocurridas durante el período 1995-2002, analizándose los escurrimientos en forma global y los tramos ascendentes y descendentes de los caudales de agua obtenidos en forma separada. El sistema de labranza siembra directa originó valores de curva número mayores respecto al sistema convencional. La duración de los escurrimientos fue mayor bajo siembra directa debido a un alargamiento de la fase descendente de los hidrogramas. Los caudales de escurrimiento generados por unidad de lluvia caída fueron siempre menores bajo el sistema de siembra directa respecto al sistema de labranza convencional. Los milímetros escurridos durante la fase descendente de los hidrogramas no fue diferente entre sistemas de labranza ya que el menor caudal registrado bajo la siembra directa fue compensado por una mayor duración de este período en dicho sistema de labranza.The runoff rate constitutes a key factor in the determination of soil losses in arable lands. In the last decade, no tillage system became widespread in the

  10. Application of Projection Pursuit Model in Soilevaluation of Conservation Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junjing; Li, Hongwen

    This paper established a conservation tillage evaluation model based on projection pursuit to evaluate the soil composite achievement of conservation tillage. After optimizing the project direction, the multi-dimension data of the seven evaluation indices are synthesized to one dimension, and the author could evaluate each item with the projection data easily, which avoided the jamming of weight matrix. The results of the evaluation mode in Linfen, Shouyang and Linghai are accordant with the production, which indicated that the model was available and provided a new method or thought to evaluate the composite achievement of conservation tillage.

  11. Mineralogy and phosphorus adsorption in soils of south and central-west Brazil under conventional and no-tillage systems

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    Jessé Rodrigo Fink

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The low phosphorus availability in tropical and subtropical soils, normally related to adsorption of phosphate to the minerals surfaces, can be attenuated when organic matter (OM accumulates in the soils. Herein, we report the results of long-term experiments (18–32 years aimed at quantifying the maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity (MPAC and its determinant mineralogical variables in Brazilian soils and at assessing the effect of no-tillage (NT in mitigating the phosphorus adsorption of soils. The MPAC of soils ranged from 297 to 4,561 mg kg-1 in the 0.00–0.10 m layer and from 285 to 4,961 mg kg-1 in the 0.10–0.20 m layer. The MPAC was correlated with the concentrations of iron oxides, goethite and ferrihydrite, gibbsite/(gibbsite+kaolinite ratio and the specific surface area. The OM increased in the 0.00–0.10 m layer of NT soils, which was not reflected on the decrease of MPAC for the no-tillage soils.

  12. Conservation tillage, irrigation and variety selection impacts on cotton quality premiums, discounts and profitability: evidence from the gin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluctuating market prices, increasing production costs, and shifting mill demand, has made cotton markets more uncertain, making cotton quality a more important aspect of the profitability of cotton. The purpose of this research project is to examine the effect conservation tillage systems and varie...

  13. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  14. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  15. Soil CO 2 fluxes from direct seeding rice fields under two tillage practices in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-fang; Kou, Zhi-kui; Yang, Jin-hua; Cai, Ming-li; Wang, Jin-ping; Cao, Cou-gui

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural practices affect the production and emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from paddy soils. It is crucial to understand the effects of tillage and N fertilization on soil CO 2 flux and its influencing factors for a better comprehension of carbon dynamics in subtropical paddy ecosystems. A 2-yr field study was conducted to assess the effects of tillage (conventional tillage [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) and N fertilization (0 and 210 kg N ha -1) on soil CO 2 fluxes during the 2008 and 2009 rice growing seasons in central China. Treatments were established following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices as the main plot and N fertilizer level as the split-plot treatment. The soil CO 2 fluxes were measured 24 times in 2008 and 17 times in 2009. N fertilization did not affect soil CO 2 emissions while tillage affected soil CO 2 emissions, where NT had similar soil CO 2 emissions to CT in 2008, but in 2009, NT significantly increased soil CO 2 emissions. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were 2079-2245 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 2084-2141 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2008, and were 1257-1401 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 1003-1034 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2009, respectively. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were significantly related to aboveground biomass and soil organic C. Before drainage of paddy fields, soil CO 2 fluxes were significantly related to soil temperature with correlation coefficients ( R) of 0.67-0.87 in 2008 and 0.69-0.85 in 2009; moreover, the Q 10 values ranged from 1.28 to 1.55 and from 2.10 to 5.21 in 2009, respectively. Our results suggested that NT rice production system appeared to be ineffective in decreasing carbon emission, which suggested that CO 2 emissions from integrated rice-based system should be taken into account to assess effects of tillage.

  16. Survival of pathogens on soybean debris under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems Sobrevivência de patógenos em restos de cultura de soja mantidos em sistema de semeadura direta e convencional

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    Álvaro Manuel Rodrigues Almeida

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the subtropical area of Southern Brazil to determine the survival of pathogens in soybean residues under conventional and no-tillage cultivation systems from March to September of 1998 and 1999. The pathogens most frequently isolated were Colletotrichum truncatum, Phomopsis spp., Cercospora kikuchii, Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina, and Rhizoctonia solani. Other fungi isolated were Myrothecium roridum, Penicillium sp., Chaetomium sp., Epicoccum sp., Corynespora cassiicola and Trichoderma sp. The percent of survival of each pathogen varied according to the month and the year. Survival of C. truncatum, Phomopsis spp. and C. kikuchii were significantly reduced (pAvaliou-se a sobrevivência de patógenos em restos de soja, em sistema de semeadura direta e convencional, entre março e setembro de 1998 e 1999, em Londrina, PR. Os patógenos mais freqüentemente isolados foram Colletotrichum truncatum, Phomopsis spp., Cercospora kikuchii, Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina e Rhizoctonia solani. Outros fungos isolados foram Myrothecium roridum, Penicillium sp., Chaetomium sp., Epicoccum sp., Corynespora cassiicola e Trichoderma sp. A porcentagem de sobrevivência variou com o mês e o ano. A sobrevivência de C. truncatum, Phomopsis spp. e C. kikuchii foi significativamente reduzida (P<0,05 entre a primeira e última avaliação nos resíduos mantidos sobre ou sob o solo. M. phaseolina e Fusarium spp. não foram afetados, ou foram favorecidos pelo enterro dos resíduos. A freqüência de isolamento de Fusarium spp. aumentou em resíduos enterrados no solo. A perda de biomassa mostrou redução de 44,4% no sistema convencional e 34,9% no sistema de semeadura direta, em 1998, quando a distribuição de chuvas foi mais regular. Em 1999, a redução foi de 48,2% e 39,0% para os sistemas convencional e de semeadura direta, respectivamente.

  17. Atributos físicos de um Hapludox em função de sistemas de produção integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP, sob plantio direto = Soil physical characteristics of an Oxisol as affected by production systems lay farming, under no-tillage

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    Silvio Tulio Spera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alguns atributos físicos do solo foram avaliados, após oito anos da instalação do experimento (1995 a 2003, num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em Coxilha, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em seis sistemas de produção de grãos com pastagens anuais de inverno e deverão: sistema I (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca-milho; sistema II (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca + azevém-milho; sistema III (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca-pastagem de milheto; sistema IV (trigo-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca + azevém-pastagem de milheto; sistema V (trigo-soja / aveia branca-soja / pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca-pastagem de milheto; e sistema VI (trigo-soja / aveia branca-soja /pastagem de aveia preta + ervilhaca + azevém-pastagem de milheto. A densidade de solo e resistência à penetração foram maior na camada 10-15 cm do que na camada 0-5 cm. Nos sistemas I, V e VI, houve diminuição da porosidade total e aumento da densidade e da resistência à penetração de solo, na camada 10-15 cm, em relação à camada 0-5 cm, devido maior intensidade das atividades agropastoris. Após oito anos, os sistemas de manejo com integração lavoura pecuárianão provocaram degradação, em níveis limitantes, nas propriedades físicas do solo manejado sob sistema plantio direto. Soil physical characteristics were evaluated, after eight years (1995 to 2003, on a typic Hapludox located in Coxilha, Rio Grande do SulState, Brazil. Six crop production systems were evaluated: system I (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch pasture-corn; system II (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch + annual ryegrass pasture-corn; system III (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch pasture-pearl millet pasture; system IV (wheat-soybean / black oat + common vetch + annual ryegrass pasture-pearl millet pasture; system V (wheat-soybean, white oat-soybean / black oat + common vetch pasture-pearl millet pasture

  18. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  19. Root production method system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Lovelace

    2002-01-01

    The RPM system (Root Production Method) is a multistep production system of container tree production that places primary emphasis on the root system because the root system ultimately determines the tree's survival and performance in its outplanted environment. This particular container production system has been developed to facilitate volume production, in a...

  20. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of conservation vs. conventional tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Katharina H. E.; Ghafoor, Abdul; Haddaway, Neal R.; Bolinder, Martin A.; Kätterer, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Soil tillage has been associated with many negative impacts on soil quality, especially a reduction in soil organic carbon (SOC). The benefits of no tillage (NT) on topsoil SOC concentrations have been demonstrated in several reviews, but the effect of reduced tillage (RT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) that usually involves soil inversion through moldboard ploughing is still unclear. Moreover, the effect of tillage on total SOC stocks including deeper layers is still a matter of considerable debate, because the assessment depends on many factors such as depth and method of measurement, cropping systems, soil type, climatic conditions, and length of the experiments used for the analysis. From a recently published systematic map database consisting of 735 long-term field experiments (≥ 10 years) within the boreal and temperate climate zones (Haddaway et al. 2015; Environmental Evidence 4:23), we selected all tillage studies (about 80) reporting SOC concentrations along with dry soil bulk density and conducted a systematic review. SOC stocks were calculated considering both fixed soil depths and by using the concept of equivalent soil mass. A meta-analysis was used to determine the influence of environmental, management, and soil-related factors regarding their prediction potential on SOC stock changes between the tillage categories NT, RT, and CT. C concentrations and stocks to a certain depth were generally highest under NT, intermediate under RT, and lowest under CT. However, this effect was mainly limited to the first 15 cm and disappeared or was even reversed in deeper layers, especially when adjusting soil depth according to the equivalent soil mineral mass. Our study highlights the impact of tillage-induced changes in soil bulk density between treatments and shows that neglecting the principles of equivalent soil mass leads to overestimation of SOC stocks for by conservation tillage practices.

  1. Aspectos econômicos do uso de fontes orgânicas de nutrientes associadas a sistemas de preparo do solo Economical aspects of organic nutrient sources associated with soil tillage systems

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    Carla Maria Pandolfo

    2008-09-01

    ário, P e K, após nove anos de aplicação das fontes de nutrientes, tem importante participação no desempenho econômico das mesmas.Economical analysis is important to make decision on the use of organic nutrient sources. The objective of this study was to elaborate an economical analysis of different nutrient sources to help farmers and technicians to make decision about the use of these sources at different soil management. The study was carried out at the Epagri Experimental Station of Campos Novos, using a long-term experiment. The treatments were a combination of five tillage systems (no-till; chisel plow; conventional tillage; conventional tillage with crop residues burned and conventional tillage with crop residues removed from the field, with four nutrient sources (TES=control, no fertilizer; AM=mineral fertilizer according with technical recommendation for each crop; EA=5mg ha-1 of moisture poultry litter; ELB=60m³ ha-1 of liquid cattle manure; and ELS=40m³ ha-1 of slurry pig manure. The economical attributes used were variable costs of production, total income, and the cost of the necessity of lime and fertilizers application to improve soil chemical condition after nine years of applying treatments. A model was used to quantify and analyse the effect of nutrient sources in economical aspects, for each nutrient source within each soil tillage. The outputs were triangular pictures and their areas with 90% confidence limits. It was concluded that economical aspect effects of the organic nutrient sources were dependent on tillage systems, and the better performance was in no-till system. EA and ELS showed better economical results. ELS and ELB, even showing different picture areas, were the sources that showed lesser variability in economical attribute evaluated, and did not have one highlight attribute among them. The use of cost of the necessity of lime and fertilizers application to improve soil chemical condition after nine years of applying treatments

  2. Soja em sucessão a adubos verdes no sistema de plantio direto e convencional em solo de Cerrado Soybean grown after green manures under no-tillage and conventional management systems in savannah soil

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    Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A adubação verde é uma prática em que se procura preservar a qualidade do ambiente sem prescindir de produtividades elevadas das culturas e do retorno econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da cultura da soja em sucessão a adubos verdes nos sistemas de plantio direto e de preparo convencional do solo (uma gradagem pesada + duas gradagens leves. O experimento foi realizado num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, originalmente sob vegetação de Cerrado em Selvíria, MS. Utilizaram-se quatro adubos verdes: mucuna-preta, guandu, crotalária e milheto, e área de pousio (vegetação espontânea. O cultivo de diferentes adubos verdes na primavera não influencia a produtividade da soja em sucessão, tanto em plantio direto quanto no sistema de preparo convencional do solo. Em ano com precipitação normal, o preparo convencional do solo proporciona maior produtividade da soja do que o sistema de plantio direto.The green manures aim to preserve the environment quality without discarding the largest yield of economic crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of soybean grown after green manures under no-tillage and conventional tillage (one disk harrow + two leveling harrow systems. The experiment was carried out in a Distrophic Red Latossol (typic Hapludox, covered by savannah vegetation, in Selvíria, MS, Brazil. The green manures utilized were: black velvet bean, pigeon pea, sunn hemp, millet and fallow area (spontaneous vegetation. The green manures previously grown in spring do not affect the soybean yield, in both no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. In year without dry periods, the conventional tillage provided greater grain yield.

  3. Conservation Tillage Impacts on Soil Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, K.

    2012-04-01

    As recent as the 1970's in University lecture halls cotton production was vilified for being "hard on the soil". This stigma is still perpetuated today in the popular press, deserving a close scrutiny of its origin and its reality as soil quality is an essential but unappreciated component of cotton's unique tolerance to heat and drought. The objective of expanding food, feed and fiber production to meet the global demand, during forecast climate disruption requires that scientists improve both the above and below ground components of agriculture. The latter has been termed the "final frontier" for its inaccessibility and complexity. The shift to conservation tillage in the U.S.A. over the previous three decades has been dramatic in multiple crops. Cotton and its major rotation crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) can be grown for multiple years without tillage using herbicides instead to control weeds. Although pesticide resistant insects and weeds (especially to Bt proteins and glyphosate) are a threat to Integrated Pest Management and conservation tillage that need vigilance and proactive management, the role of modern production tools in meeting agricultural objectives to feed and clothe the world is huge. The impact of these tools on soil quality will be reviewed. In addition ongoing research efforts to create production practices to further improve soil quality and meet the growing challenges of heat and drought will be reviewed.

  4. Aplicação tardia de nitrogênio no feijoeiro em sistema de plantio direto Late nitrogen application on common bean in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2005-01-01

    V4 and on the beginning of R7 development stages, in no-tillage system. A randomized complete block design, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with four replications was used. The treatments were a combination of two N levels (0 and 90 kg ha-1 in the V4 stage and four N levels (0, 30, 60, and 120 kg ha-1 in the beginning of the R7 stage. When nitrogen fertilization was not used in V4 stage, the application in the beginning of R7 stage increased the common bean grain yield in no-tillage system. Nitrogen application in the V4 stage (90 kg ha-1 provided the maximum grain yield. When nitrogen was applied in the V7 stage, its was necessary greater levels for obtaining the same yield. When nitrogen fertilization was used in the V4 stage, the application in the beginning of the R7 stage did not increase common bean grain yield. Nitrogen side dressing in the V4 stage was more efficient than in V7, resulting in higher grain yield per nutrient unit. The application of nitrogen in the V4 stage and in the beginning of R7 development stage, increased grain protein content.

  5. Experimental tests on winter cereal: Sod seeding compared to minimum tillage and traditional plowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional plowing and minimum tillage, the sod seeding technique has been tested in order to evaluate the differences in energy consumption, labor and machinery requirement and CO2 emission reduction. The experiments were conducted on winter cereal seeding in a Po valley farm in October 2011. The tests were carried out as follows: wheat variety seeding, over corn and alfalfa crops, in large plots with three repetitions for each thesis. They included: sod seeding anticipated by round up weeding in the case of the plots over alfalfa; traditional plowing at 35 cm followed by rotary tillage and combined seeding (seeder plus rotary tiller; minimum tillage based on ripping at the same depth (35 cm and combined seeder ( seeder plus rotary tiller. The following farm operations - fertilizer, and other agrochemical distributionshave been the same in all the considered theses. The results, statistically significant (P<0.001 in terms of yields, highlighted slight differences: the best data in the case of the traditional plowing both in the case of wheat crop over corn and alfalfa (84.43 and 6.75 t/ha; slightly lower yields for the sod seeding (6.23 and 79.9 t/ha for corn and alfalfa respectively; lower in the case of minimum tillage (5.87; 79.77 t/ha in the two situations. Huge differences in energy and oil consumption have been recorded: in the case of succession to corn 61.47; 35.31; 4.27 kg oil/ha respectively for, traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding; in the case of alfalfa 61.2; 50.96; 5.14 kg oil/ha respectively for traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding. The innovative technique, highlighted huge energy saving with an oil consumption equal to 92% and 89% (P<0.001 of what happens in traditional plowing and minimum tillage. Large differences concern labor and machine productivity. These parameters together with oil consumption and machine size [power (kW and weight (t] lead to even greater differences in

  6. Impacts of the conventional tillage tools and reduced tillage on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-09-30

    Sep 30, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The long-term impacts of conventional tillage through compaction, soil erosion and loss of soil fertility have led to evaluation of this system. To mitigate these problems, simplified cultivation techniques (SCT) are increasingly practiced. The objective of this review is to clarify the effects ...

  7. The effect of conservation tillage on crop yield in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen LI,Jin HE,Huanwen GAO,Ying CHEN,Zhiqiang ZHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agricultural practices have resulted in decreased soil fertility, shortage of water resources and deterioration of agricultural ecological environment, which are seriously affecting grain production. Conservation tillage (CT research has been developed and applied in China since the 1960s and 1970s, and a series of development policies have been issued by the Chinese government. Recent research and application have shown that CT has positive effects on crop yields in China. According to the data from the Conservation Tillage Research Center (CTRC, Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (MOA, the mean crop yield increase can be at least 4% in double cropping systems in the North China Plain and 6% in single cropping systems in the dryland areas of North-east and North-west China. Crop yield increase was particularly significant in dryland areas and drought years. The mechanism for the yield increase in CT system can be attributed to enhanced soil water content and improved soil properties. Development strategies have been implemented to accelerate the adoption of CT in China.

  8. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate (15N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Flavia Carvalho da Silva; Libardi, Paulo Leonel

    2012-01-01

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on 15 N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 in the form of labeled 15 N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha -1 N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha -1 N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 N. (author)

  9. [Effects of different tillage measures on upland soil respiration in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Ren-zhi; Cai, Li-qun; Chen, Qiang-qiang

    2009-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Lijiabu Town of Dingxi City, Gansu Province to study the soil respiration and its relations with the canopy temperature and soil moisture content in a rotation system with spring wheat and pea under effects of different tillage measures. Six treatments were installed, i.e., tillage with no straw- or plastic mulch (conventional tillage, T), tillage with straw mulch (TS), tillage with plastic mulch (TP), no-tillage (NT), no-tillage with straw mulch (NTS), and no-tillage with plastic mulch (NTP). During the growth periods of spring wheat and pea, soil respiration had different change patterns, with the peaks appeared at the early jointing, grain-filling, and maturing stages of spring wheat, and at the 5-leaf, silking, flowering and poding, in spring wheat field between treatments NTS and T, and the soil respiration rate was significantlyand maturing stages of pea. There was an obvious difference in the diurnal change of soil respiration lower in NTS than in T; while the soil respiration in pea field had less diurnal chan ge. Soil respiration rate had a significant linear relationship with the canopy temperature of both spring wheat andpea, the correlation coefficient being the highest at booting stage of spring wheat and at flowering and poding stage of pea, followed by at grain-filling stage of spring wheat and at branching stage of pea. There was also a significant parabola relationship between soil respiration rate and soil moisture content, the correlation coefficient being higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage, with the highest under NTS. The moisture content in 10-30 cm soil layer of spring wheat field and that in 5-10 cm soil layer of pea field had the greatest effects on soil respiration. Comparing with conventional tillage, all the five conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage with straw mulch.

  10. Disponibilidade de cátions no solo alterada pelo sistema de manejo Soil cation availability as affected by the tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Pavinato

    2009-08-01

    considerados altos, e é mantida em toda a camada arável do perfil.The management system normally affects soil nutrient availability, as a consequence of tillage practices, crop rotation and crop residues remaining in the cultivated area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the alterations in cation availability in two Oxisols in the Brazilian Cerrado under conventional and no-tillage systems for more than 10 years. The experiments were conducted in Costa Rica, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and in Luziânia, Goiás. Both soils were Oxisols, but one being a Red Latosol (LV and the other a Red-Yellow Latosol (LVA, respectively, under two management systems, no-tillage (SSD and conventional (CV. Soils were collected in PVC tubes from the surface to a depth of 40 cm, and taken to a greenhouse of the Departamento de Produção Vegetal, FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP. In these tubes, soybean was grown for 60 days, with and without phosphate application, totaling eight treatments (2 x 2 x 2, with 4 replications. The evaluations were based on the soil solutions collected during soybean growth to evaluate K, Ca and Mg concentrations and on soil analysis after crop harvest (sampled from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25 and 25-40 cm, to determine pH, OM, K, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Al3+. The tillage system led to changes in K availability in the arable depth layer, where lower availability was observed in no-tillage than in conventional systems. In soils with clayey surface layers, such as the LV soil, the potential to maintain higher available K levels in these layers is greater. In the studied soils the Ca and Mg availability is higher in the upper layers (0-5 cm under no-till as a consequence of the availability of these nutrients from residue decomposition. In the conventional system the availability is lower in the surface layer, although still high, and remains stable in the entire arable soil depth.

  11. Cultivo orgânico de coentro em plantio direto utilizando cobertura viva e morta adubado com composto Organic faming of coriander in no-tillage system fertilized with compost using dead and living mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico do coentro em sistema de plantio direto orgânico sob diferentes tipos de cobertura viva e palhada e doses crescentes de composto orgânico. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos aleatorizados em esquema de parcela subdividida com quatro repetições. As parcelas corresponderam aos sistemas de plantio direto com cobertura viva de Arachis pintoi, cobertura viva de plantas espontâneas e cobertura com palhada de resteva natural que foram comparados ao preparo convencional do solo com canteiro e sem cobertura. As subparcelas representavam as doses residuais de composto orgânico 10; 20 e 30 t ha-1 (base seca. O sistema de plantio direto com palhada de resteva natural e o preparo convencional proporcionaram os melhores resultados em todas as variáveis avaliadas na planta, comparado com os sistemas de plantio direto com cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro e plantas espontâneas. O coentro respondeu linearmente a adubação orgânica, com produtividade de 4.554 t ha-1 a 6.542 t ha-1 quando adubado de 10 a 30 t ha-1, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic behavior of the cilantro in organic no-tillage system under alive and dead mulching and fertilized with doses of compost. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a split-plot arrangement with four replications. The plot corresponded to the planting system (no-tillage with live mulching of Arachis pintoi, with live mulching of native weed, with mulching of straw and conventional tillage. In each plot the split-plot were represented by the doses of organic compost 10; 20 e 30 t ha-1 of dry compost. The no-tillage system with straw and conventional tillage showed the best results in all variables in the plant compared with no-tillage systems with live mulching of peanut crop and native weed. Cilantro answered linearly to fertilization, with yields of 4,554 t ha-1 to 6,542 t ha-1 when fertilized

  12. Field trial assessment of biological, chemical, and physical responses of soil to tillage intensity, fertilization, and grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  13. Economic and energy assessment of minimalized soil tillage methods in maize cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Szulc; Andrzej Dubas

    2014-01-01

    Grain yield of maize cultivated in the years 1997-2009 in monoculture and with annual tillage simplifications was assessed in energy and economy terms. Effects of no-tillage system and direct sowing (D) with cultivation with autumn deep (A) and shallow (B) ploughing and cultivation with spring pre-sowing ploughing (C) were compared. It was demonstrated that the 13-year maize grain yield in no-tillage system and direct sowing was lower by 10.4% than the yield obtained in conventional tillage s...

  14. Overall assessment of soil quality on humid sandy loams: Effects of location, rotation and tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Hansen, Elly Møller; Rickson, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage and diversified crop rotations have been suggested as appropriate alternative soil management systems to sustain soil quality. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of implementing three crop rotations (R2–R4) on soil structural changes and the “productivity...... function” of soil. R2 is a winter-dominated crop rotation (winter wheat was the main crop) with straw residues incorporated. R3 is a mix of winter and spring crops with straw residues removed. R4 is the same mix of crops as in R3, but with straw residues incorporated. Three tillage systems were used...... the correlation between the soil quality indices and relative crop yield. Relevant soil properties for calculating the soil quality indices were measured or obtained from previous publications. Crop rotation affected the soil structure and RY. The winter-dominated crop rotation (R2) resulted in the poorest soil...

  15. Depth distribution of glyphosate and AMPA under diferent tillage system and soils in long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis; De Geronimo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) is a post-emergence, non-selective, foliar herbicide. Around 200 million liters of this herbicide are applied every year in Argentina, where the main agricultural practice is no-till (NT), accounting for 78 % of the cultivated land. In this work, we studied the depth distribution of glyphosate in long-term experiments (more than 15 years) at different locations under NT and conventional tillage (CT). Samples from 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm depth with four replication and two treatments NT CT at three locations: Balcarce (BA) a loam soil, Bordenave (BO) a sandy loam soil y Marcos Juarez a silty loam soil (MJ). The glyphosate concentration in the first 2 cm of soil was, on the average, 70% greater than in the next 2-5 cm. The mass of glyphosate in CT was higher at 2 to 10 cm depth. The depth concentration of AMPA follows the same trend than glyphosate, although its average concentration at 0-2 cm depth is 28 times higher than the glyphosate concentration at 2-5 cm (glyphosate = 147 ppb and AMPA = 4100 ppb). Beside the AMPA concentration at 0-2 cm depth is greater in NT than in CT, the mass of AMPA is higher in CT only for the Balcarce location. To our knowledge, this study is the first dealing with the depth distribution of glyphosate concentration in soils under different soil managements. In the present study, it was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity with maximum concentration in the first two cm of soil and the AMPA concentration at this depth is greater in NT than in CT.

  16. Semeadura do híbrido Lyra de mamona (Ricinus communis L. sob plantio direto Seeding of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. hybrid Lyra in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Patrícia Ramos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A semeadura mecanizada da mamona (Ricinus communis L. pode reduzir o tempo de operação e os custos associados à mão-de-obra, porém a escassez de informações nesta área tem prejudicado a adoção correta desta tecnologia. Assim, objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar a regularidade da distribuição longitudinal de sementes do híbrido Lyra de mamona, em área de plantio direto e sua relação com rendimento de grãos; bem como a viabilidade da aplicação de cartas de controle para a avaliação do processo de semeadura, nesta cultura. O ensaio foi conduzido em área comercial de produção de grãos de mamona sob plantio direto, sendo avaliadas: distribuição longitudinal, porcentagens de espaçamentos normais, falhos e duplos na linha, número de planta por metro linear, altura de plantas, altura e comprimento do racemo primário e rendimento de grãos. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, a análise de correlações e as cartas de controle para a avaliação dos parâmetros propostos. Há necessidade de refinamento nas regulagens de semeadoras-adubadoras de precisão para a semeadura do híbrido Lyra de mamona, em áreas de plantio direto; a distribuição longitudinal de sementes de mamona influencia vários parâmetros fitotécnicos, incluindo o rendimento de grãos; a aplicação da carta de controle é uma ferramenta eficiente para a avaliação do processo de semeadura da mamona.The mechanized sowing of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. can reduce the operation time and the costs associated to labor, however the privation of information in this area have damaged the correct adoption of this technology. Thus, the research had as an aim to verify the regularity of longitudinal distribution of hybrid Lyra castor bean seeds, in a no-tillage system area, and its relationship with yield; and the viability of control charts for evaluation of sowing in this crop. The essay was carded out in a commercial area of grain production in no-tillage

  17. Sugarcane field renovation: influence of tillage and no-tillage in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Ana Paula; Degaspari, Iracema A. M.; Ramos, Nilza Patricia; Vilela, Viviane A. A.; do Carmo, Janaina B.; Cabral, Osvaldo M. R.; Rossi, Paulo; de Andrade, Cristiano A.

    2015-04-01

    The management of agricultural soils can play an important role in the greenhouse gases (GHG) balance, depending on the adopted practices. In the agricultural system, current GHG emissions generated by anthropogenic activities include land use, land use change and management practices, which have contributed to disrupt the C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. The GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions from agricultural soils depend on the biophysical processes, and the incorporation/decomposition of organic residues. Agricultural soils preparation requires a combination of several implements, which can produce great soil disturbance as is the case of conventional tillage or minimum soil mobilization in the reduced tillage or no-tillage. Tillage breaks soil aggregates leading to enhanced organic matter decomposition and reduced C and N concentrations and no-tillage increases the stability of soil macroaggregates, reducing the emissions of CO2. In this study, we evaluated the CO2 emissions from different management practices widely used in the renewal of sugarcane fields previously planted with soybean, in an Acric Oxisol plantation in the southeast region of Brazil. The conventional tillage (CT) operation consisted of an offset disk harrowing using a tool with 36 disks x 26" and a subsoiling with an implement reaching nearly 50 cm depth. The reduced tillage (RT) was carried out with subsoiling operation in the row planting and in the no-tillage (NT), the soybean trash from the last harvest was left on the soil. The soil preparation and the establishment of four experimental plots (30 m x 30 m each) occurred within two days. During the studied period, two CO2 and N2O emission peaks were observed after the soil preparation, the first one on day 4 and the second on day 35 after a 55 mm rain. The cumulative emissions were measured during 40 days after soil preparation. We observed higher emissions in the conventional tillage (CT), and lower values in the reduced tillage

  18. Tillage practices in the conterminous United States, 1989-2004-Datasets Aggregated by Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the methods used to aggregate county-level tillage practices to the 8-digit hydrologic unit (HU) watershed. The original county-level data were collected by the Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC). The CTIC collects tillage data by conducting surveys about tillage systems for all counties in the United States. Tillage systems include three types of conservation tillage (no-till, ridge-till, and mulch-till), reduced tillage, and intensive tillage. Total planted acreage for each tillage practice for each crop grown is reported to the CTIC. The dataset includes total planted acreage by tillage type for selected crops (corn, cotton, grain sorghum, soybeans, fallow, forage, newly established permanent pasture, spring and fall seeded small grains, and 'other' crops) for 1989-2004. Two tabular datasets, based on the 1992 enhanced and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD), are provided as part of this report and include the land-cover area-weighted interpolation and aggregation of acreage for each tillage practice in each 8-digit HU watershed in the conterminous United States for each crop. Watershed aggregations were done by overlying the 8-digit HU polygons with a raster of county boundaries and a raster of either the enhanced 1992 or the 2001 NLCD for cultivated land to derive a county/land-cover area weighting factor. The weighting factor then was applied to the county-level tillage data for the counties within each 8-digit HU and summed to yield the total acreage of each tillage type within each 8-digit HU watershed.

  19. Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo sobre a diversidade de animais da fauna edáfica, por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Na análise canônica discriminante, os preparos conservacionistas com sucessão de culturas foram separados em relação aos tratamentos com rotação de culturas. Os grupos Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda e Collembola, e o índice de Shannon (H foram os atributos que mais contribuíram para separar os tratamentos. A análise de correspondência mostrou forte associação dos grupos Acarina e Hymenoptera com o tratamento semeadura direta com sucessão de culturas, e do grupo Collembola com o preparo convencional.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage and crop management systems on soil fauna groups, by means of multivariate analysis. In the canonical discriminant analysis the conservation soil management systems with crop succession were discriminated in relation to other treatments with crop rotation. The groups Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, and Collembola, and the Shannon index (H showed the highest contribution for the discrimination between treatments. The correspondence analysis showed a strong association between Acarina and Hymenoptera groups with the treatment no-tillage with crop succession, and between Collembola group with the conventional tillage system.

  20. Agregação de Latossolo Vermelho sob diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo, após um único cultivo com girassol Soil aggregation of Red Latosols under different tillage systems after sunflower cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. G. Ungaro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, no presente trabalho, o efeito de um único cultivo de girassol na agregação de Latossolo Vermelho submetidos a diferentes sistemas de preparo, em número de quatro: grade aradora + grade niveladora (GA, grade niveladora (GN, semeadura direta na palha (SP e plantio direto (PD, no outono-inverno; exceto no PD, foi passado o escarificador + grade niveladora na primavera-verão semeando-se, em seguida, a soja e, no outono-inverno o girassol. As avaliações dos agregados de solo foram feitas antes do plantio e após a colheita do girassol, em propriedades particulares em Cândido Mota e Pedrinhas Paulista, SP, cujo cultivo do girassol melhorou a agregação, independentemente do sistema de preparo utilizado.The objective of the present research was to evaluate the effect of single sunflower crop on soil aggregation under different tillage systems. Four tillage systems were used: heavy disk harrow + leveling harrow (GA, leveling harrow (GN, sowing on straw (SP without tillage (PD, in the autumn-winter, and chisel plow + leveling harrow in the spring-summer cultivation, except for PD treatment. The research was conducted under field conditions in Candido Mota and Pedrinhas Paulista, Sao Paulo State. Soybean was sowed in the spring-summer season and sunflower in the autumn-winter. The soil aggregates were evaluated before sowing and after sunflower harvest. The use of sunflower crop induced a better soil aggregation in both places, for all tillage systems.

  1. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees Mineralização do carbono e nitrogênio sob diferentes preparos de solo e coberturas permanentes intercalares em pomar de laranjeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a mineralização do Carbono e Nitrogênio devido ao cultivo intercalar de diferentes coberturas permanentes em pomar de laranjeira. O experimento foi

  2. Evolution of physical properties of soils according to tillage systems on annual crops/ Evolução de propriedades físicas do solo em função dos sistemas de manejo em culturas anuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério R. M. Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil management must keep the soil physical properties next to the original conditions in natural systems to assure the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review synthesizes the effects of conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-tillage systems of annual crops, on soil physical properties as bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to root penetration, infiltration speed, hydraulic conductivity,compressibility, organic matter level, soil aggregate size and stability. No-tillage presents advantages on organic matter level, size and stability of aggregates, compressibility and hydraulic conductivity but has limitations on bulk density and resistance to root penetration. Minimum tillage with chisel plow is specially efficient in relation to infiltration speed and hydraulic conductivity, and intermediate between conventional and no-tillage in other aspects. Conventional tillage with total pulverization of soil surface,mainly on tropical conditions, presents the less favorable scores on soil physical properties, close to minimum tillage and no-till only in few circumstances, and frequently the most different from the natural conditions. The conservation systems by their side, despite of similarities in some aspects with natural conditions, are not able to reproduce the conditions of natural forests, savannas or natural pastures, but are in the sustainability direction.Para assegurar a sustentabilidade do sistema produtivo, o manejo do solo deve manter as propriedades físicas do solo o mais próximo das condições originais em que este se encontrava na natureza. Esta revisão sintetiza os efeitos de três sistemas de manejo de solo (convencional, mínimo e direto em culturas anuais sobre as propriedades físicas do solo como densidade, porosidade, resistência à penetração, velocidade de infiltração, condutividade hidráulica, compressibilidade, nível de matéria orgânica, tamanho e estabilidade de agregados. O plantio direto

  3. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  4. Entomofauna associated to soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] in direct seeding and conventional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arahis Cruz Limonte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research work was to investigate the effect of the direct seeding and conventional tillage of soybean on the incidence of plagues and natural enemies. The study was carried out on the farm “Día y Noche” of the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “28 de Octubre” (UBPC, for its Spanish acronym, and in the Laboratories of the Agricultural Research Center of Central University of Las Villas. Field experiments were conducted on an Inceptisol, since November 2013 to May 2014. The soybean cultivar Incasoy – 27 was used. The insects in relation to the development stages of the plant were identified and quantified. In both systems 10 species of phytophagous insects and one of entomophagous insects were quantified; Hedylepta indicata L. stands out with more presence in the direct seeding, while Diabrotica balteata LeConte and the species belong to the family Pentatomidae caused most damage to the plants in conventional tillage.

  5. Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: II. Primary, Secondary and Conservation Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil inversion, cover crops and spring tillage methods for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR and within-row (WR management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. Main plots were two soil inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT and non-inversion tillage (NIT. Subplots were three cover treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye or none (i.e., winter fallow; and the sub subplots were four secondary spring tillage methods: disking followed by (fb cultivator (DCU, disking fb chisel plow (DCH, disking fb disking (DD and no tillage (NT. Averaged over years and soil inversion, the crimson clover produced maximum cover biomass (4390 kg ha−1 fb cereal rye (3698 kg ha−1 and winter fallow (777 kg ha−1. Two weeks after planting (WAP and before the postemergence (POST application, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were two- and four-times less, respectively, in IT than NIT. Further, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were reduced two-fold following crimson clover and cereal rye than following winter fallow at 2 WAP. Without IT, early season Palmer amaranth densities were 40% less following DCU, DCH and DD, when compared with IT. Following IT, no spring tillage method improved Palmer amaranth control. The timely application of glufosinate + S-metolachlor POST tank mixture greatly improved Palmer amaranth control in both IT and NIT systems. The highest cotton yields were obtained with DD following cereal rye (2251 kg ha−1, DD following crimson clover (2213 kg ha−1 and DD following winter fallow (2153 kg ha−1. On average, IT cotton yields (2133 kg ha−1 were 21% higher than NIT (1766 kg ha−1. Therefore, from an integrated weed management standpoint, an occasional fall IT could greatly reduce Palmer amaranth emergence on farms highly infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. In addition, a cereal rye or crimson clover cover crop can effectively reduce early season Palmer

  6. Determinants of tillage frequency among smallholder farmers in two semi-arid areas in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Alemu, D.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional tillage systems practiced by farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia are characterized by repeated and cross plowing with an indigenous plow called Maresha. Repeated and cross plowing have led to land degradation. Conservation tillage systems that advocate minimum soil disturbance can

  7. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  8. Potato plant growth and macronutrient uptake as affected by soil tillage and irrigation systems Crescimento da batateira e absorção de macronutrientes influenciados pelos sistemas de preparo de solo e de irrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Silveira Nunes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate potato plant growth and macronutrient uptake, as affected by soil tillage methods, in sprinkle and drip irrigated experiments. Eight treatments were set: T1, no tillage, except for furrowing before planting; T2, one subsoiling (SS; T3, twice rotary hoeing (RH; T4, one disc plowing (DP + twice disc harrow leveling (DL; T5, 1DP + 2DL + 1RH; T6, 1DP + 2DL + 2RH; T7, 1SS + T6; T8, one moldboard plowing (MP + 2DL. Treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. In both irrigation systems, plants presented higher emergence velocity index (EVI, when the soil was not tillaged, and the EVI was inversely related to the maximum tuber dry mass production. In both experiments, a functional direct relationship was found between the leaf area index and maximum tuber dry mass yield. The growth of plant organs (tuber, leaf, stem and root and the macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents in potato plant responded positively to a deeper soil revolving caused by plowing, especially with moldboard plow.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento da batateira e seu acúmulo de macronutrientes, influenciados por métodos de preparo de solo, em experimentos irrigados por aspersão e gotejamento. Em cada experimento, foram estudados oito tratamentos: T1, nenhum preparo do solo, exceto abertura do sulco de plantio; T2, uma subsolagem (SS; T3, duas passadas de enxada rotativa (RH; T4, uma aração com disco (DP + duas gradagens niveladoras (DL; T5, 1DP + 2DL + 1RH; T6, 1DP + 2DL + 2RH; T7, 1SS + T6; T8, uma aração com aiveca (MP + 2DL. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Em ambos os experimentos, nos tratamentos em que o solo não foi arado, as plantas apresentaram alto índice de velocidade de emergência (EVI. A EVI foi inversamente relacionada com a produção de matéria seca de tubérculos. Também, em ambos os experimentos, foi encontrada

  9. Tamanho da subamostra e representatividade da fertilidade do solo no sistema plantio direto Subsample size and soil fertility representativity in the no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo André Schlindwein

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os corretivos e fertilizantes, quando aplicados de forma localizada, mantêm-se ao longo das linhas de cultivo no sistema plantio direto. Isto se reflete no aumento da variabilidade horizontal dos atributos químicos do solo, causando dificuldades para a coleta de amostras representativas do seu estado de fertilidade. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em dois estudos, em solos cultivados no sistema plantio direto. O primeiro foi com objetivo de relacionar o tamanho da amostra e a variabilidade de fósforo e potássio disponíveis. Para isto, amostrou-se o solo de um experimento e de uma lavoura, em diferentes tamanhos de subamostras e camadas, em Latossolo Vermelho com adubação a lanço. O segundo estudo foi conduzido para testar a eficiência de equipamentos de amostragem com diferentes tamanhos, através da variabilidade dos atributos de fertilidade do solo e o seu efeito no número de subamostras para compor uma amostra composta, dentro de determinados limites de precisão. Para isto, amostraram-se duas lavouras em Latossolo Vermelho, na profundidade de 0-10cm, com trado de rosca e pá de corte; esta no tamanho de 5/10cm (espessura/largura na lavoura de adubação a lanço e 5cm pela largura da entrelinha na lavoura de adubação em linha. As amostras retiradas com trado de rosca apresentaram menores teores de matéria orgânica e potássio disponível na lavoura de adubação em linha e de fósforo disponível em ambos os modos de adubação. Nesta situação, também ocorreu maior variabilidade e, consequentemente, necessidade de coletar um maior número de subamostras para representar o estado de fertilidade no sistema plantio direto. Amostras com 5/10cm (espessura/largura, foram eficientes para representar o estado de fertilidade do solo com adubação a lanço no sistema plantio direto.Fertilizers and lime, when applieds on surface to soil or along crop rows in the no tillage system, increase its residual effect. This results in an

  10. Efeito de sistemas de preparo do solo e métodos de irrigação sobre a cultura do caupi em várzeas em Roraima Effect of tillage systems and irrigation methods on cowpea crop on wetland soil in Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D. de Medeiros

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos no Campo Experimental Bom Intento em Boa Vista, RR, de dezembro a março de 1995/96 e 1996/97, com o objetivo de se avaliar os diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo e de irrigação sobre a densidade do solo, e a cultura do feijão caupi cultivado em áreas de várzea. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. O feijão cv. Sempre Verde foi testado sob os sistemas de irrigação por sulcos e aspersão convencional, em dois sistemas de preparo do solo: grade aradora + grade niveladora, grade aradora + arado de aiveca + grade niveladora. Não houve diferenças significativas nos componentes de produção nem na produtividade do feijão caupi irrigado, obtendo-se o rendimento médio de grãos de 1.853 kg ha-1, porém a densidade do solo aumentou significativamente (p Two experiments were carried out during December, 1995 to March, 1996 and from December, 1996 to March, 1997 at the Experimental Station of Bom Intento, Boa Vista, RR. The objective was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation systems and tillage on soil bulk density and cowpea crop on wetland soils. The experimental design consisted of a split plot in a randomized block design, with four replications. The cowpea cv. Sempre Verde was tested under furrow and sprinkler irrigation in two soil tillage systems, as follows: disc harrow + leveling disc harrow and plough grid + leveller grid + moldboard plough. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to production components and the crop yield. The mean grain yield was 1,853 kg ha-1. The soil bulk density after tillage with plough grid + leveller grid was significantly (p < 0.05 increased in comparison with the other tillage practices.

  11. Effect of tillage and crop residue on soil temperature following planting for a Black soil in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; McLaughlin, Neil; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Minggang; Liang, Aizhen

    2018-03-14

    Crop residue return is imperative to maintain soil health and productivity but some farmers resist adopting conservation tillage systems with residue return fearing reduced soil temperature following planting and crop yield. Soil temperatures were measured at 10 cm depth for one month following planting from 2004 to 2007 in a field experiment in Northeast China. Tillage treatments included mouldboard plough (MP), no till (NT), and ridge till (RT) with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crops. Tillage had significant effects on soil temperature in 10 of 15 weekly periods. Weekly average NT soil temperature was 0-1.5 °C lower than MP, but the difference was significant (P temperature. Higher residue coverage caused lower soil temperature; the effect was greater for maize than soybean residue. Residue type had significant effect on soil temperature in 9 of 15 weekly periods with 0-1.9 °C lower soil temperature under maize than soybean residue. Both tillage and residue had small but inconsistent effect on soil temperature following planting in Northeast China representative of a cool to temperate zone.

  12. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  13. Do Rates and Splitting of Phosphogypsum Applications Influence the Soil and Annual Crops in a No-Tillage System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vicensi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Applications of phosphogypsum (PG provide nutrients to the soil and reduce Al3+ activity, favoring soil fertility and root growth, but allow Mg2+ mobilization through the soil profile, resulting in variations in the PG rate required to achieve the optimum crop yield. This study evaluated the effect of application rates and splitting of PG on soil fertility of a Typic Hapludox, as well as the influence on annual crops under no-tillage. Using a (4 × 3 + 1 factorial structure, the treatments consisted of four PG rates (3, 6, 9, and 12 Mg ha-1 and three split applications (P1 = 100 % in 2009; P2 = 50+50 % in 2009 and 2010; P3 = 33+33+33 % in 2009, 2010 and 2011, plus a control without PG. The soil was sampled six months after the last PG application, in stratified layers to a depth of 0.8 m. Corn, wheat and soybean were sown between November 2011 and December 2012, and leaf samples were collected for analysis when at least 50 % of the plants showed reproductive structures. The application of PG increased Ca2+ concentrations in all sampled soil layers and the soil pH between 0.2 and 0.8 m, and reduced the concentrations of Al3+ in all layers and of Mg2+ to a depth of 0.6 m, without any effect of splitting the applications. The soil Ca/Mg ratio increased linearly to a depth of 0.6 m with the rates and were found to be higher in the 0.0-0.1 m layer of the P2 and P3 treatments than without splitting (P1. Sulfur concentrations increased linearly by application rates to a depth of 0.8 m, decreasing in the order P3>P2>P1 to a depth of 0.4 m and were higher in the treatments P3 and P2 than P1 between 0.4-0.6 m, whereas no differences were observed in the 0.6-0.8 m layer. No effect was recorded for K, P and potential acidity (H+Al. The leaf Ca and S concentration increased, while Mg decreased for all crops treated with PG, and there was no effect of splitting the application. The yield response of corn to PG rates was quadratic, with the maximum

  14. The effect of soil extracts from a monoculture of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown under different tillage systems on the germination of its seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in the period 2006-2008. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aqueous soil extracts from the soil of a spring wheat monoculture on seed germination energy and capacity, the length of the first leaf and of the longest radicle as well as the number of radicles. Moreover, the content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was compared in the last year of the study. The soil used to prepare the solutions came from a field experiment established on medium heavy mixed rendzina soil. Spring wheat, cv. Zebra, was grown using plough tillage and two conservation tillage methods in the presence of undersown crops (red clover, Westerwolds ryegrass and stubble crops (lacy phacelia, white mustard. Germination energy of the seeds watered with the soil extracts from the ploughed plots was significantly higher than this trait in the seeds watered with the extracts from the conservation tillage treatments with spring disking of the catch crops. Germination energy and capacity of spring wheat in the control treatment watered with distilled water were significantly higher compared to the other treatments under evaluation. Spring wheat watered with the aqueous extract prepared from the soil obtained from the plough tillage treatment produced a significantly longer first leaf compared to the treatments in which both conservation tillage methods had been used. The shortest leaf and the lowest number of radicles were produced by the seedlings watered with the soil extract from the treatment with the white clover stubble crop. Radicle length was not significantly differentiated by the soil extracts under consideration. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the rendzina soil determined during the spring period was higher than that determined in the autumn. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was lower in the conservation tillage treatments with autumn incorporation of the catch crops than in the plots in which

  15. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  16. Impact of tillage on N2O and CO2 efflux in an agricultural crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lognoul, Margaux; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Heinesch, Bernard; Bodson, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    In an experiment conducted in the Belgian loess belt between June and October 2015, the effect of two tillage treatments (CT - conventional tillage and RT - reduced tillage) on CO2 and N2O fluxes exchanged by a maize crop were compared. The experimental site included two parcels subjected to crop residues incorporation and to their respective tillage treatment (CT and RT) since 2008. Fluxes were measured using two fully automated sets of dynamic closed chambers, allowing a 4.5h temporal resolution. Soil water content and temperature were also monitored as well as pH, total N (TN) and total organic C (TOC) content. Results suggest that tillage practices significantly impacted emissions of both gases, with average soil respiration twice as large for RT than CT (91 μg C.m-2.s-1 versus 44.5 μg C.m-2.s-1) and N2O fluxes 8 times greater for RT than CT (5.55 ng N2O_N.m-2.s-1 versus 0.68 ng N2O_N.m-2.s-1). These observations could be explained by an effect of tillage treatment on stratification of crop residues within the soil profile, as shown in our experiment. Indeed significantly higher TN and TOC content were measured in the surface layer (0-10cm) under RT and that might have enhanced microbial activity responsible for CO2 and N2O production. A single N2O emission burst was observed in both treatments, most likely triggered by a sudden and important increase of soil moisture with a time delay of 4.5h for RT and 27h for CT. Here again, peak mean emissions were 9 times larger for RT than for CT (13.3 ng N2O_N.m-2.s-1 versus 1.43 ng N2O_N.m-2.s-1 for CT). The absence of peak emissions later during the experiment, despite the occurrence of similar soil moisture increases suggests that such increase is not the sole condition to generate N2O bursts. In the present case, it is possible that the absence of further peaks was due to a non-availability of soil N caused by increased competition for N because of maize growth. The system of automated chambers proved it

  17. Effects of Conventional and Conservation Tillage on Soil Hydraulic Properties of a Silty-loamy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Niels Arne; Bens, O.; Buczko, U.

    2004-01-01

    Infiltration into soils is strongly correlated with macroporosity. Under agricultural land use, the properties of the macropore network are governed by the applied management and tillage system. On an experimental site with a silt loam soil partly under conventional and conservation tillage, the ...

  18. influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    investigated after 9-15 years of management. During the growing ... Key words: Tillage, Tillage systems, Soil Physical properties, Moisture storage, Physical quality ... channel. GPS etrex, courtesy GARMIN Corporation 1999-. 2002) was used in determining coordinates of the sites. Treatments and Experimental Design.

  19. Recuperação da qualidade estrutural, pelo sistema plantio direto, de um Argissolo Vermelho Soil structural quality restoration by no-tillage system of a Hapludalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Flores

    2008-11-01

    densidade e porosidade do solo a recuperação não foi observada.Soils with high sand content in the A horizon are prone to degradation processes, depending on management system used. This study had as objective to evaluate the degradation of a Hapludalf formed from granite, located in the Passo do Pilão watershed in Pelotas county, cultivated under conventional system, and its recovery by no-tillage system, compared to two native systems, namely grass field and forest. The experiment was setup in an agricultural area, in April of 1995, with the cultivation of Avena strigosa plus Vicia vilosa, both for conventional system and no-tillage. An area under native grasses and another with native forest were sampled for comparison. Soils samples were colleted from the layers of 0-0.05m, 0.10-0.15m and 0.20-0.25m, to determine the soil texture, porosity, densities, water retention, aggregate stability and distribution, and organic carbon content. The cultivation systems increase the soil bulk density and reduce total porosity, microporosity, water retention and availability, compared with native systems such as grass field and forest. The conventional system reduces organic carbon content and aggregate stability, whereas no-tillage, after five years, increases, somewhat, the organic carbon content in the surface layer, but increases aggregate stability to values near of those for native systems. The aggregate stability had direct relationship with organic carbon content up to an upper limit of 25g kg-1. The bulk density, macroporosity, S parameter, organic carbon content and aggregate stability are good indicators of the changes observed in the soil management systems. For the Hapludalf formed from granite, there was recovery of the properties related to soil structure stability, but in those related to soil bulk density and porosity no recovery was observed.

  20. Midwest Climate and Agriculture - Monitoring Tillage Practices with NASA Remote Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, N. I.; Archer, S.; Rooks, K.; Sparks, K.; Trigg, C.; Lourie, J.; Wilkins, K.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about climate change have driven efforts to reduce or offset greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural activity has drawn considerable attention because it accounts for nearly twelve percent of total anthropogenic emissions. Depending on the type of tillage method utilized, farm land can be either a source or a sink of carbon. Conventional tillage disturbs the soil and can release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Conservational tillage practices have been advocated for their ability to sequester carbon, reduce soil erosion, maintain soil moisture, and increase long-term productivity. If carbon credit trading systems are implemented, a cost-effective, efficient tillage monitoring system is needed to enforce offset standards. Remote sensing technology can expedite the process and has shown promising results in distinguishing crop residue from soil. Agricultural indices such as the CAI, SINDRI, and LCA illuminate the unique reflectance spectra of crop residue and are thus able to classify fields based on percent crop cover. The CAI requires hyperspectral data, as it relies on narrow bands within the shortwave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although limited in availability, hyperspectral data has been shown to produce the most accurate results for detecting crop residue on the soil. A new approach to using the CAI was the focus of this study. Previously acquired field data was located in a region covered by a Hyperion swath and is thus the primary study area. In previous studies, ground-based data were needed for each satellite swath to correctly calibrate the linear relationship between the index values and the fraction of residue cover. We hypothesized that there should be a standard method which is able to convert index values into residue classifications without ground data analysis. To do this, end index values for a particular data set were assumed to be associated with end values of residue cover percentages. This method may prove

  1. Monoculture Maize (Zea mays L. Cropped Under Conventional Tillage, No-tillage and N Fertilization: (II Fumonisin Incidence on Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gavazzi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Planting maize under no-tillage is an increasing farming practice for sustainable agriculture and sound environmental management. Although several studies on yield of no-till maize have been done, there is few information about the effect of tillage on fumonisin contamination. The present study was done to determine the effect of notillage and conventional tillage with two rates of nitrogen on fumonisin content in kernels of continuous maize. Average grain contamination with fumonisins B1 and B2 over the years 2004-06 was not significantly different, with mean values of 1682, 1984 and 2504 μg kg-1, respectively. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant toxin found in the samples. No-tillage significantly affected the incidence of fumonisins during the first year of the trial, in which fumonisin content was significantly higher with no-till (2008 μg kg-1 compared with conventional tillage (1355 μg kg-1. However, no-tillage did not significantly affect the incidence of fumonisins in the second and third years of the study. Fumonisin content at the rate of 300 kg N ha-1 was not statistically different compared to that obtained without N fertilization. The interaction between the soil management system and the rate of applied nitrogen was only evident in the second year. Our results indicate that fumonisin contamination was affected by no-tillage only in the first year. Nitrogen fertilization had no significant effect on fumonisin content in any year. The weather conditions during susceptible stages of maize development have probably overridden the effect of nitrogen fertilization.

  2. Soil tillage, water erosion, and calcium, magnesium and organic carbon losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertol Ildegardis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil tillage influences water erosion, and consequently, losses of calcium, magnesium and organic carbon in surface runoff. Nutrients and organic carbon are transported by surface runoff in particulate form, adsorbed to soil colloids or soluble in water, depending on the soil tillage system. This study was carried out on an Inceptisol, representative of the Santa Catarina highlands, southern Brazil, between November 1999 and October 2001, under natural rainfall. The soil tillage treatments (no replications were: no-tillage (NT, minimum soil tillage with chiseling + disking (MT, and conventional soil tillage with plowing + two diskings (CT. The crop cycles sequence was soybean (Glycine max, oats (Avena sativa, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and vetch (Vicia sativa. Conventional soil tillage treatment with plowing + two disking in the absence of crops (BS was also studied. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined in both water and sediments of the surface runoff, while organic carbon was measured only in sediments. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were greater in sediments than in surface runoff, while total losses of these elements were greater in surface runoff than in sediments. The greatest calcium and magnesium concentrations in surface runoff were obtained under CT, while in sediments the greatest concentration occurred under MT. Organic carbon concentration in sediments did not differ under the different soil tillage systems, and the greatest total loss was under CT system.

  3. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  4. Uncertainties in assessing tillage erosion - How appropriate are our measuring techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiener, P.; Wilken, F.; Aldana-Jague, E.; Deumlich, D.; Gómez, J. A.; Guzmán, G.; Hardy, R. A.; Quinton, J. N.; Sommer, M.; Van Oost, K.; Wexler, R.

    2018-03-01

    Tillage erosion on arable land is a very important process leading to a net downslope movement of soil and soil constitutes. Tillage erosion rates are commonly in the same order of magnitude as water erosion rates and can be even higher, especially under highly mechanized agricultural soil management. Despite its prevalence and magnitude, tillage erosion is still understudied compared to water erosion. The goal of this study was to bring together experts using different techniques to determine tillage erosion and use the different results to discuss and quantify uncertainties associated with tillage erosion measurements. The study was performed in northeastern Germany on a 10 m by 50 m plot with a mean slope of 8%. Tillage erosion was determined after two sequences of seven tillage operations. Two different micro-tracers (magnetic iron oxide mixed with soil and fluorescent sand) and one macro-tracer (passive radio-frequency identification transponders (RFIDs), size: 4 × 22 mm) were used to directly determine soil fluxes. Moreover, tillage induced changes in topography were measured for the entire plot with two different terrestrial laser scanners and an unmanned aerial system for structure from motion topography analysis. Based on these elevation differences, corresponding soil fluxes were calculated. The mean translocation distance of all techniques was 0.57 m per tillage pass, with a relatively wide range of mean soil translocation distances ranging from 0.39 to 0.72 m per pass. A benchmark technique could not be identified as all used techniques have individual error sources, which could not be quantified. However, the translocation distances of the macro-tracers used were consistently smaller than the translocation distances of the micro-tracers (mean difference = - 26 ± 12%), which questions the widely used assumption of non-selective soil transport via tillage operations. This study points out that tillage erosion measurements, carried out under almost

  5. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  6. Effects of ridge tillage on photosynthesis and root characters of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yuan-zhi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important crop and breeding has not been able to improve yield. Root characteristics of hybrid rice 'Zhuliangyou 02' under conventional tillage and ridge tillage were studied in a Calcisols in Huaihua, China, from 2011 to 2013 to find better tillage methods to resolve massive water consumption, improve yield, and enhance productivity of agricultural labor for rice cultivation. Results showed ridge tillage increased photosynthetic parameters such as photosynthetic rate (P N, stomatal conductance (g s, and water use efficiency (WUE. It also significantly enhanced rice root number, root activity, and antioxidant enzyme activities; it also increased effective panicle number and actual yield by 22.12% and 15.18%, respectively, and enhanced aerenchymae during the early growth stage. Overall, ridge tillage could promote hybrid rice yields by enhancing root absorption, gas exchange, and reducing water consumption. It could be widely used in rice cultivation.

  7. Sistemas de preparo do solo e rotação de culturas na produtividade de milho, soja e trigo Tillage systems and crop rotation on yield of corn, soybean and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. da Silveira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se determinar quanto os sistemas de preparo do solo e as rotações de culturas afetam a produtividade de grãos do milho, da soja e do trigo. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em área irrigada por pivô central, na EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, por seis anos, setembro de 1992 a setembro de 1998, durante os quais foram feitos 12 cultivos e comparados três sistemas de preparo do solo: a aração com arado de aiveca, realizada em novembro-dezembro e em maio-junho; b aração com grade aradora, em ambos os períodos, e c plantio direto e quatro rotações de cultura: 1 milho-feijão; 2 soja-trigo; 3 soja-trigo-soja-feijão-arroz-feijão e 4 milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão. As culturas de arroz, soja e milho, foram semeadas em novembro-dezembro e as de feijão e trigo, em maio-junho. Para efeito do estudo, consideraram-se somente as culturas do milho, da soja e do trigo. O sistema de preparo do solo não afetou a produtividade de soja mas, sim, a de milho e de trigo, tendo o preparo com arado propiciado maiores produtividades em comparação com o plantio direto. As diferenças entre o plantio direto e os demais sistemas de preparo do solo, com relação à produtividade acumulada relativa de milho, diminuíram com o tempo de cultivo. Não houve efeito da rotação de culturas sobre a produtividade das culturas estudadas.The objective of this study was to determine how much soil tillage and crop rotation affected grain yield of corn, soybean and wheat. The study was carried out at EMBRAPA (Rice and Beans, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, in a Red Latosol (Oxisol, under center pivot irrigation system, for six consecutive years. During the experimentation, 12 crops were cultivated. The tillage treatments were a moldboard plough, b harrow disc and c no-tillage. The crop rotations were 1 corn-bean, 2 soybean-wheat, 3 soybean

  8. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Tavares, Silvio; Muraoka, Takashi; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Salgado, Gabriela; Otsuk, Ivani

    2016-04-01

    The use of alternative fertilizers may reduce costs and promote sustainability to the family-based agro ecological production system. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of the green manure to the quality of the soil and the transference of the nitrogen to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method (FAPESP 11/05648-3). The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, using a randomized-blocks design with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of green manure crops intercropped or not with cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one with and another without corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part from the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in a forced air oven and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a Wiley mill and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for δN-15 analysis. It measured the percentage of the transference of N from the green manure to the tomato; the tomato plants grown in monocropping were considered a control. It was found that 27 % of the N present in the fruit and 23% of the N present in the leaves came from the green manure. These results show that dur¬ing the development of the fruit of the tomato there is a greater translocation and consequently, a higher use of the N from the green manure in the fruits than in the leaves. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in non-intercropped treatments caused some soil

  9. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  10. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  11. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  12. Granulometria e doses de calcário em diferentes sistemas de manejo = Granulometric fractions and lime rates in conventional and no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Pupo Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de calcário em plantio direto é um dos problemas na adoção desse método de manejo do solo. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as alterações nas propriedades químicas do solo cultivado nos sistemas de plantio convencional (SCC e plantio direto (SPD,em função da granulometria e de doses de calcário dolomítico aplicado em superfície. Os experimentos foram realizados por três anos agrícolas em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, em área de pastagem de Urochloa decumbens, com cultivo de milho em sucessão com aveia preta e triticale. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi os blocos casualizados em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Foram realizadas análises químicas (pH, Ca, Mg, H+Al e saturação porbases do solo coletado nas camadas de 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm e 20-40 cm aos 12, 24 e 36 meses após a implantação dos experimentos. Os resultados evidenciaram alterações nas propriedades químicas do solo, com aumento significativo do pH, Ca e Mg trocáveis, saturaçãopor bases e redução da acidez potencial até 10 cm de profundidade no SPD, com diferenças significativas em relação ao SCC. Nas profundidades de 10-20 cm e 20-40 cm, houve inversão, e os efeitos na neutralização da acidez do solo foram mais pronunciados no SCCque no SPD. A utilização de calcário com PRNT de 95% proporcionou melhor neutralização da acidez do solo até 10 cm de profundidade. A aplicação em superfície do corretivo da acidez antes da implantação do SPD não foi suficiente para elevar a saturação por bases em nível almejado para a cultura do milho.The use of limestone in no-tillage system usually causes great problems in soil management. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in the chemical properties of the soil under no-tillage (NTS and conventional tillage system (CTS due to granulometric fraction [Effective Calcium Carbonate (ECC = 95% and 56%] and three rates (95% ECC = 1.2, 2

  13. The Effects of Different Tillage Methods on Available Soil Potassium Measured by Various Extractors in a Soil with High Specific Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of any tillage method on soil properties, depends on location (soil, water and air and the number of (years their implementation. Soil compaction reduces yield through increased soil mechanical resistance against root growth and lower water and nutrient use efficiency (Gamda et al. 18 & Ishagh et al 23. Soil surface and sub surface compaction both reduce yield due to limited root growth and plant potassium uptake (Doulan et al. 14. Sabt et al. (50 reported that in the study area, which the lands are mostly illite clay (high specific surface area with sufficient nitrogen, soil potassium is the most important limiting factor for the growth of wheat.Considering the point that loess soils in Golestan Province have a high specific surface area,they can provide potassium for plants to produce crop, but for a higher production, potassium fertilizers should be used. Previous studies indicated that production of wheat is limited due to potassium deficiency (4, 49, 54 and 57. In these soils with a high specific surface area, the speed of movement of potassium from the soil solution is low, and doing solimits wheat yield.In loess soils containing high illite and high specific surface area (eg, soilsin the series of Rahmat Abad of Gorgan, ammonium acetate measured potassium on exchange and solution surfaces, which is highly correlated with grain yield (54 . There is a high correlation between grain yield with overload of potassium and Na TPB extraction (57. The aim of this study was to absorb potassium (limiting factor for plant growth with different tillage systemsat different depths. International recommendations towards reducing the depth and intensity of tillage (from minimum tillage to no-tillage in order to reduce erosion and oxidation of organic substances plays an important role in determining the amount of greenhouse gases. If potassium absorption does not reduceafter reducing tillage intensity,low or no-tillage methods

  14. The effect of tillage intensity on soil structure and winter wheat root/shoot growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage intensity on crop growth dynamics and soil structure. A tillage experiment was established in autumn 2002 on two Danish sandy loams (Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in a cereal-based crop rotation. The tillage systems included in this study were direct drilling (D...... with decreasing tillage intensity for the first year winter wheat at Foulum. In general ploughing resulted in the highest grain yields. This study highlights the important interaction between soil structure and crop growth dynamics....... was followed during the growing seasons using spectral reflectance and mini-rhizotron measurements, respectively. A range of soil physical properties were measured. We found decreased early season shoot and root growth with decreasing tillage intensity. Differences diminished later in the growing season...

  15. Effect of different fertilizer resources on yield and yield components of grain maize (Zea mays L. affected by tillage managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    , the root growth limited during the first year of no tillage. Organic Food Systems (green manure and animal manure provide the mineral food for plants. However, the low rate of mineralization in the early stages of root development can limit the nutrient availability. Nevertheless, these limits are removed over time. Integration of green manure, animal manure, and chemical fertilizer with conventional tillage not only strengthens the initial growth but it also accelerates the mineralization. In general, it can be concluded that application of green, animal, and chemical manures and conventional tillage for corn production can both reduce chemical fertilizer and environmental pollution and play a positive role in increasing the yield of maize. Keywords: Barley, Ear length, 1000- Grain weight, Harvest index, No tillage References Nuralvandy, T., Ardekani, M.R., Kashani, H., Vazan, S., and Sadeghi Shoa, M. 2011. Effect of chemical and organic fertilizers on morphological characteristics and yield of sweet corn. Agronomy Journal 7(3: 1-12. (In Persian with English Summary Tajbakhsh, M., Hassanzadeh Ghurttape, H., and Darvishzadeh, B. 2005. Green manures in sustainable agriculture. Printing 1, Publishing Jihad Uromia University 215 pp. (In Persian

  16. Diferencias de las condiciones mecánicas de un suelo arcilloso sometido a diferentes sistemas de labranza Differences in mechanical conditions of a clayey soil under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Draghi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue cuantificar la reacción mecánica del suelo al tránsito, a través de la resistencia a la penetración y la densidad aparente para visualizar posibles diferencias debido al sistema de labranza utilizado. El ensayo se instaló sobre un suelo Argiudol típico, sobre dos lotes, provenientes cada uno de seis años de cultivo trigo-soja bajo dos formas de labranza: siembra directa (SD y labranza convencional (LC. Se establecieron 4 tratamientos de tránsito, correspondientes a 6, 8, 10 y 12 pasadas de un tractor de diseño convencional (2WD Massey Fergusson 1175 de 52,25 kW (71 CV en el motor. Para determinar los efectos del tránsito sobre la compactación inducida, se determinaron la densidad global (DA y la resistencia a la penetración (RP. Luego de 6 años de rotación trigo-soja bajo estas dos formas de cultivo (siembra directa y labranza convencional la condición mecánica de los suelos resultó ser significativamente diferente, al menos en las capas más superficiales, resultando el suelo trabajado con SD mayores valores de RP que la condición de LC. La siembra directa registró valores de DA limitantes para el normal desarrollo radicular a menores intensidades de tráfico y desde menores profundidades. A medida que aumentó la intensidad de tráfico disminuyó la profundidad donde se alcanzaron valores de resistencia a la penetración potencialmente determinantes de la detención en el crecimiento radicular.With the aim to evaluate the soil mechanic reaction-traffic relationship to different tillage systems, penetration resistance and soil bulk density measurements were made. Four traffic conditions (6, 8, 10 and 12 passes of a 2WD, 52.25 kW tractor were evaluated in a typic Argiudol soil with six years of wheat-soybean rotation under no-tillage and conventional tillage. Bulk density and penetration resistance were used to evaluate the traffic effects on soil compaction. After the six-year rotation

  17. Innovativeness in production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    a positive influence of the ability of the manufacturing system to provide specific capabilities that enables the entire production system to positively influence the competitiveness. A comparative case study of three SMEs shows that competitive advantages are obtained through innovative technologies......Alignment of market demand and manufacturing capabilities are directly linked to the potential competitive advantage. Pressure for manufacturing companies to customize increase the need for productions systems to handle innovations, especially in SMEs. The paper claims that innovativeness has...

  18. Soil Carbon Changes in Transitional Grain Crop Production Systems in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Corn-C (Zea Mays L.), soybean-S (Glycine max L.) and spring wheat-W (Triticum aestivum L.) crops were seeded as a component of either a C-S, S-W, or C-S-W crop rotation on silt-loam textured soils ranging from 3.0-5.0% organic matter. Conservation tillage(chisel plow-field cultivator) was applied to half of the plots. The other plots were direct seeded as a no-till (zero-tillage) treatment. Grain yield and surface crop residues were weighed from each treatment plot. Crop residue (stover and straw) was removed from half of the plots. After four years, soil samples were removed at various increments of depth and soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was measured. The ranking of crop residue weights occurred by the order corn>>soybean>wheat. Surface residue accumulation was also greatest with residue treatments that were returned to the plots, those rotations in which maize was a component, and those without tillage. Mean soil organic carbon levels in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.41% to 3.19% (- 0.22%) with conventional tillage (chisel plow/field cultivator) as compared to a decrease from 3.19% to 3.05% (-0.14%) in plots without tillage over a four year period. Organic carbon in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.21% to 3.01% (- 0.20%) after residue removed as compared to a decrease from 3.39% to 3.23% (-0.17%) in plots without tillage applied after four years. The soil C:N ratio (0-7.5cm) decreased from 10.63 to 10.37 (-0.26 (unitless)) in the tilled plots over a four-year period. Soil C:N ratio at the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 10.72 to 10.04 (-0.68) in the no-till plots over a four year period. Differences in the soil C:N ratio comparing residue removed and residue returned were similar (-0.51 vs. -0.43 respectively). These soils are highly buffered for organic carbon changes. Many cropping cycles are required to determine how soil carbon storage is significantly impacted by production systems.

  19. Modifica��ões nos atributos físicos de solos submetidos a dois sistemas de preparo em rebrota de Eucalyptus saligna Monitoring soil physical characteristics in Eucalyptus saligna coppice under different soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Cavichiolo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito do revolvimento do solo das entrelinhas na produtividade de rebrota de Eucalyptus saligna, por meio das modificações em alguns atributos físicos do solo, e estabelecer qual profundidade de revolvimento apresenta maior ganho em produtividade em solos de texturas distintas, no Estado de São Paulo. Os sistemas de preparo foram: grade até 20 cm de profundidade e subsolador até 30 cm. Foram obtidas amostras indeformadas do solo nas seguintes profundidades: 0 a 10, 10 a 20 e 20 a 30 cm, em nove repetições por tratamento; nos mesmos pontos foram coletadas amostras de solo para análise da fertilidade. Os seguintes atributos físicos do solo foram determinados: densidade do solo, porosidade total e de aeração, macro e microporosidade e da planta: altura e DAP (Diâmetro à Altura do Peito. No solo de textura média não houve efeito do preparo do solo no crescimento das plantas, sendo estabelecido correlação negativa entre a porosidade de aeração, na profundidade de 10 - 20 cm, e o incremento em DAP (r²= 0,74. Essa mesma correlação foi positiva no solo de textura argilosa (r² = 0,78. No solo de textura argilosa, os dois sistemas de preparo de solo apresentaram maiores incrementos em altura e DAP do que a testemunha, diferindo estatisticamente no nível de 1%, pelo teste de Tukey.The objective of this work was to evaluate soil physical characteristic changes in soil of different textures after mechanized harvesting under different tillage systems, in an area of Eucalyptus saligna coppice. The soils were a coarse Yellow Latosol and a Clayey Red Latosol occurring in an area of commercial plantation, in São Paulo State. Soil tillage systems were harrowing to 20-cm depth and subsoiling to a 30-cm depth. The following soil physical characteristics determined were bulk density, total and aeration porosity; and in the plant total height and DBH. There was no tillage effect on plants growing

  20. Improvement of native grassland by legumes introduction and tillage techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu Bahar

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A factorial design using three species of legumes (Siratro, Centro and Stylo and three different of tillage techniques (no-tillage, minimum tillage and total tillage was applied in this experiment. The results showed that there was no interaction between species and tillage techniques. There was significant reductions on bulk density from 1.23±0.03 g/cm3 (no-tillage to 1.07±0.02 g/cm3 (minimum tillage and 1.05±0.03 g/cm3 (total tillage. Also reductions on penetration resistance from 17.47±3.84 kg/cm2 (no-tillage to 3.31±0.43 kg/cm2 (minimum tillage and 3.19±0.45 kg/cm2 (total tillage. Otherwise significant increasing on aeration porosity from 12.80±0.80% vol. (no-tillage to 21.70±0.95% vol. (minimum tillage and 20.70±0.35% vol. (total tillage. Total tillage gives increased dry matter yield. Also both total tillage and minimum tillage give yields with a higher percentage of legumes compared with no-tillage. It was concluded that total tillage and minimum tillage could be used for improving native grassland.

  1. Effects zero tillage on cassava ( Manihot esculentsa crantz ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted on a sandy clay loamy soil (Alfisol) at Owo, Southwest Nigeria to evaluate the effects of four tillage methods on soil physical and chemical properties and cassava performance. Tillage treatments were: zero tillage, Conventional tillage, manual mounding and manual ridging. Zero tillage had ...

  2. Desenvolvimento da cultura do feijoeiro submetida a dois sistemas de manejo de irrigação e de cultivo = Growth of dry bean crop submitted to two water management and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pavani

    2009-07-01

    dry bean winter crop growing under center pivot in succession to the corn crop in a Oxisol soil. The leaf area index (IAF, dry matter plant production and variation of the soil matrix potential were evaluated. It was concluded that both irrigation managements and tillage systems did not result in differences in IAF, nor in dry matter accumulation along the crop cycle; the tensiometry method brought on a larger variation in the soil matrix potentialthan the Class ‘A’ simplified climatological method.

  3. Avaliação de semeadora-adubadora de precisão trabalhando em três sistemas de preparo do solo Evaluation of the performance of a precision seeder working in three tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Furlani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se uma semeadora-adubadora de precisão com quatro linhas, na cultura do milho (Zea mays L., trabalhando em Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro eutrófico, A moderado, textura argilosa. As parcelas experimentais foram dispostas em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, totalizando 36 observações. Os fatores foram dados pelos sistemas de preparo do solo (convencional, plantio direto e reduzido e pelas marchas do trator (3ª reduzida alta, 4ª reduzida baixa e 4ª reduzida alta. Foram analisadas as variáveis velocidade de deslocamento, queda de velocidade, força de tração e potência na barra, consumo de combustível, rotação do motor e patinagem média dos rodados do trator. Os resultados mostraram que a operação de semeadura em solo sob preparo reduzido apresentou maior consumo de combustível, menor velocidade de deslocamento, menor capacidade de campo efetiva e maior patinagem.The performance of a precision seeder with four lines in the culture of maize (Zea mays L. working in Latossolo Vermelho Escuro Eutrófico, moderate A, argillaceous texture was evaluated. The experimental parcels were disposed in casualized blocks with four repetitions, according to a factorial scheme 3 x 3, totalizing 36 observations. The factors had been given by the systems of tillage (conventional, no tillage and reduced and by the gears of the tractor (3rd reduced high, 4th reduced low and 4th reduced high. The variables analyzed were: displacement speed, speed reduction, traction force and drawbar pull, fuel consumption, motor rotation and medium slipping wheels of the tractor. The results showed that the sowing operation in soil under reduced tillage presented larger fuel consumption, smaller displacement speed, smaller effective field capacity and larger slipping.

  4. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  5. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0-20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20-30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20-50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20-50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants' ability to access nutrients and water. An optimal

  6. Low disturbance seeding suppresses weeds in no-tillage soyabean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theisen, Giovani; Bastiaans, L.

    2015-01-01

    Germination is a key process in the dynamics of weed populations. In no-tillage systems, crop seeding is often found to induce seed germination in the seeding strip. In this research, experiments to investigate options for reducing weed seedling establishment were conducted in no-till soyabean

  7. Effect of tillage, rhizobium inoculation in maize-soybean based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Nigeria, to investigate the effect of tillage, rhizobium inoculation in maize-soybeanbased cropping systems and nitrogen fertilizer application on chemical fertility status of a savanna Alfisol. The study ...

  8. Structural changes and degradation of Red Latosols under different management systems for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils are the foundation of terrestrial ecosystems and their role in food production is fundamental, although physical degradation has been observed in recent years, caused by different cultural practices that modify structures and consequently the functioning of soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible structural changes and degradation in an Oxisol under different managements for 20 years: no-tillage cultivation with and without crop rotation, perennial crop and conventional tillage, plus a forested area (reference. Initially, the crop profile was described and subsequently, 10 samples per management system and forest soil were collected to quantify soil organic matter, flocculation degree, bulk density, and macroporosity. The results indicated structural changes down to a soil depth of 50 cm, with predominance of structural units ∆μ (intermediate compaction level under perennial crop and no-tillage crop rotation, and of structural units ∆ (compacted under conventional tillage and no-tillage. The soil was increasingly degraded in the increasing order: forest => no-tillage crop rotation => perennial crop => no-tillage without crop rotation => conventional tillage. In all managements, the values of organic matter and macroporosity were always below and bulk density always above those of the reference area (forest and, under no-tillage crop rotation and perennial crop, the flocculation degree was proportionally equal to that of the reference area.

  9. The Effect on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Kazım

    2016-04-01

    The Effects on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications Kazım Gür1, Kazim Çarman2 and Wim M.Cornelis3 1Bahri Daǧdaş International Agricultural Research Instıtute, 42020 Konya, Turkey 2Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, University of Selçuk, 42031 Konya, Turkey 3Department of Soil Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 653 Coupure Links, 9000 Gent, Belgium Traditional soil cultivation systems, with excessive and inappropriate soil tillage, will generally lead to soil degradation and loss of soil by wind erosion. Continuous reduced tillage and no-till maintaining soil cover with plant residues called Conservation Agriculture that is considered as effective in reducing erosion. There exist a wide variety of practices using different tools that comply with reduced tillage principles. However, few studies have compared the effect of several of such tools in reducing wind erosion and related soil and surface properties. We therefore measured sediment transport rates over bare soil surfaces (but with under stubbles of wheat, Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to three tillage practices using two pulling type machines and one type of power takeoff movable machines and generated with a portable field wind tunnel. At 10 ms-1, sediment transport rates varied from 107 to 573 gm-1h-1, and from 176 to 768 gm-1h-1 at 13 ms-1. The lowest transport rates were observed for N(no-tillage) and the highest for Rr(L-type rototiller). After tillage, surface roughness, mean weighted diameter, wind erodible fraction, mechanical stability and soil water content were measured as well and varied from 5.0 to 15.9%, 6.9 to 13.8 mm, 14.3 to 29.7%, 79.5 to 93.4% and 8.6 to 15.1%, respectively, with again N is being the most successful practice. In terms of conservation soil tillage technique, it can be said that the applications compared with each other; direct sowing machine is more appropriate and cause to the less erosion.

  10. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  11. Long-term conventional and no-tillage effects on field hydrology and yields of a dryland crop rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch, SM, tillage as a result of improved soil conditions and water conservation, but information on long-term tillage effects on field hydrology and sustained crop production are needed. Our objective ...

  12. Cover Crop Species and Management Influence Predatory Arthropods and Predation in an Organically Managed, Reduced-Tillage Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ariel N; Mullen, Christina A; Barbercheck, Mary E

    2018-01-29

    Agricultural practices affect arthropod communities and, therefore, have the potential to influence the activities of arthropods. We evaluated the effect of cover crop species and termination timing on the activity of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in transition to organic production in Pennsylvania, United States. We compared two cover crop treatments: 1) hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) planted together with triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) after wheat harvest, and 2) cereal rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus) planted after corn harvest. We terminated the cover crops in the spring with a roller-crimper on three dates (early, middle, and late) based on cover crop phenology and standard practices for cash crop planting in our area. We characterized the ground-dwelling arthropod community using pitfall traps and assessed relative predation using sentinel assays with live greater waxworm larvae (Galleria mellonella Fabricius). The activity density of predatory arthropods was significantly higher in the hairy vetch and triticale treatments than in cereal rye treatments. Hairy vetch and triticale favored the predator groups Araneae, Opiliones, Staphylinidae, and Carabidae. Specific taxa were associated with cover crop condition (e.g., live or dead) and termination dates. Certain variables were positively or negatively associated with the relative predation on sentinel prey, depending on cover crop treatment and stage, including the presence of predatory arthropods and various habitat measurements. Our results suggest that management of a cover crop by roller-crimper at specific times in the growing season affects predator activity density and community composition. Terminating cover crops with a roller-crimper can conserve generalist predators.

  13. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florine Degrune

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct consequences for the associated ecosystem services. Although there is increasing evidence that different tillage regimes alter the soil microbiome, we have a limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of these effects. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers to explore changes in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes (conventional and reduced tillage either with or without crop residue retention. Soil samples were collected over the growing season of two crops (Vicia faba and Triticum aestivum below the seedbed (15–20 cm. Tillage, crop and growing stage were significant determinants of microbial community structure, but the impact of tillage showed only moderate temporal dependency. Whereas the tillage effect on soil bacteria showed some temporal dependency and became less strong at later growing stages, the tillage effect on soil fungi was more consistent over time. Crop residue retention had only a minor influence on the community. Six years after the conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, soil moisture contents and nutrient levels were significantly lower under reduced than under conventional tillage. These changes in edaphic properties were related to specific shifts in microbial community structure. Notably, bacterial groups featuring copiotrophic lifestyles or potentially carrying the ability to degrade more recalcitrant compounds were favored under conventional

  14. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrune, Florine; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Colinet, Gilles; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hartmann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct consequences for the associated ecosystem services. Although there is increasing evidence that different tillage regimes alter the soil microbiome, we have a limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of these effects. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers to explore changes in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes (conventional and reduced tillage) either with or without crop residue retention. Soil samples were collected over the growing season of two crops ( Vicia faba and Triticum aestivum ) below the seedbed (15-20 cm). Tillage, crop and growing stage were significant determinants of microbial community structure, but the impact of tillage showed only moderate temporal dependency. Whereas the tillage effect on soil bacteria showed some temporal dependency and became less strong at later growing stages, the tillage effect on soil fungi was more consistent over time. Crop residue retention had only a minor influence on the community. Six years after the conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, soil moisture contents and nutrient levels were significantly lower under reduced than under conventional tillage. These changes in edaphic properties were related to specific shifts in microbial community structure. Notably, bacterial groups featuring copiotrophic lifestyles or potentially carrying the ability to degrade more recalcitrant compounds were favored under conventional tillage, whereas

  15. Tillage erosion and its effect on soil properties and crop yield in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckrath, G; Djurhuus, J; Quine, T A; Van Oost, K; Govers, G; Zhang, Y

    2005-01-01

    Tillage erosion had been identified as a major process of soil redistribution on sloping arable land. The objectives of our study were to investigate the extent of tillage erosion and its effect on soil quality and productivity under Danish conditions. Soil samples were collected to a 0.45-m depth on a regular grid from a 1.9-ha site and analyzed for 137Cs inventories, as a measure of soil redistribution, soil texture, soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, and phosphorus (P) contents. Grain yield was determined at the same sampling points. Substantial soil redistribution had occurred during the past decades, mainly due to tillage. Average tillage erosion rates of 2.7 kg m(-2) yr(-1) occurred on the shoulderslopes, while deposition amounted to 1.2 kg m(-2) yr(-1) on foot- and toeslopes. The pattern of soil redistribution could not be explained by water erosion. Soil organic carbon and P contents in soil profiles increased from the shoulder- toward the toeslopes. Tillage translocation rates were strongly correlated with SOC contents, A-horizon depth, and P contents. Thus, tillage erosion had led to truncated soils on shoulderslopes and deep, colluvial soils on the foot- and toeslopes, substantially affecting within-field variability of soil properties. We concluded that tillage erosion has important implications for SOC dynamics on hummocky land and increases the risk for nutrient losses by overland flow and leaching. Despite the occurrence of deep soils across the study area, evidence suggested that crop productivity was affected by tillage-induced soil redistribution. However, tillage erosion effects on crop yield were confounded by topography-yield relationships.

  16. Defining product service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2002-01-01

    artefact and instead provides what the customer really wants the actual functionality from the product. This enables a series of potential improvements to the product´s performance throughout its lifecycle. The ideal of product service system (PSS) development is that all three stakeholder groups customer......, for example, a factor 20 improvement in our environmental performance. One attempt, however, has recently emerged, which combines the product as an artefact with the service that the product provides to the user. Through the combination of these two facets, the company retains ownership of the physical......, company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...

  17. Belle II production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  18. Performance of fall and winter crops in a no tillage system in west Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Paiola Albrecht

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The long-term exploitation of natural resources by agricultural activities has resulted in the need for alternative measures to restore degraded soil. The cultivation of cover crops can generate great benefits for agricultural systems, enabling the exploitation of natural resources, including water, light and nutrients, as well as the recovery of degraded soils. This work aimed to assess the coverage rate, fresh mass and dry mass of cover crops from fall and winter as well as the floristic composition of the weeds. The work was conducted in field conditions in soil classified as eutroferric Red Oxisol in the region of the city of Palotina, Paraná State, Brazil, using a random block experimental design with four replications. The treatments consisted of seven cover cultures: wild radish, linseed, triticale, rye, rapeseed, crambe, oats and fallow. The species with the highest coverage rates and fresh mass and dry mass values were wild radish, rapeseed and crambe. In the floristic and phytosociological data, the species with the highest incidence were Amaranthus retroflexus, Commelina benghalensis L., Brachiaria plantaginea and Gnaphalium spicatum.

  19. Appraisal of economic impact of zero tillage, laser land levelling and bed-furrow interventions in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A.; Shakir, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    irrigation is inevitable for profitable farming in arid and semi-arid regions. Water shortage is augmenting all over the world including Pakistan, due to which agriculture sector is facing critical challenges. For sustainable and feasible agriculture production, the cost of crop inputs needs to be reduced and at the same time the efficiency of resources must be enhanced. Resource conservation interventions (RCIs) play a vital role to achieve these goals. The RCIs include laser land levelling (LLL), zero tillage (ZT) and bed-furrow (BF). A survey was conducted in year 2011-12 in ten districts of Punjab for data collection regarding the agriculture inputs and outputs of RCIs and traditional irrigation system. The study area lies in rice-wheat cropping zone in Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis of data concluded that these interventions have enhanced the crop yield; saved significant irrigation water and increased the income of the farmers. Irrigation water saved by laser land levelling, zero tillage and bed-furrow was 31, 49 and 40 percent per hectare respectively in the selected irrigated areas. Water productivity was higher for zero tillage farms (2.02 kg/m/sup 3/) followed by bed-furrow (1.59 kg/m/sub 3/) and laser land levelling farms (1.58 kg/m/sub 3/). Fertilizer use efficiency by zero tillage, bed-furrow and laser land levelling was 19.1, 18.19 and 17.7 percent per hectare respectively as compared to traditional farming (13.98 percent). Therefore, the resource conservation interventions provide excellent tool for making development towards improving and sustaining agriculture production, ensure food security and poverty empowerment in Pakistan and elsewhere under similar socio-environmental conditions. (author)

  20. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.

    2009-04-01

    The energetic function of the soil expressed through the potential energy accumulated through humus, the biogeochemical function (the circuit of the nutrient elements) are significantly influenced by its hydrophysical function and especially by the state of the bedding- consolidation, soil capacity of retaining an optimal quantity of water, and then its gradual disponibility for plant consumption. The understanding of soil functions and management including nutrient production, stocking, filtering and transforming minerals, water , organic matter , gas circuit and furnishing breeding material, all make the basis of human activity, Earth's past, present and especially future. The minimum tillage soil systems - paraplow, chisel or rotary grape - are polyvalent alternatives for basic preparation, germination bed preparation and sowing, for fields and crops with moderate loose requirements being optimized technologies for: soil natural fertility activation and rationalization, reduction of erosion, increasing the accumulation capacity for water and realization of sowing in the optimal period. By continuously applying for 10 years the minimum tillage system in a crop rotation: corn - soy-bean - wheat - potato / rape, an improvement in physical, hydro-physical and biological properties of soil was observed, together with the rebuilt of structure and increase of water permeability of soil. The minimum tillage systems ensure an adequate aerial-hydrical regime for the biological activity intensity and for the nutrients solubility equilibrium. The vegetal material remaining at the soil surface or superficially incorporated has its contribution to intensifying the biological activity, being an important resource of organic matter. The minimum tillage systems rebuild the soil structure, improving the global drainage of soil which allows a rapid infiltration of water in soil. The result is a more productive soil, better protected against wind and water erosion and needing less

  1. Adubação nitrogenada no feijoeiro em sistema de semeadura direta e preparo convencional do solo = Nitrogen fertilization in common bean crops under no-tillage and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guilhien Gomes Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de N em cobertura é indispensável para a obtenção de altasprodutividades do feijoeiro e estudos de respostas ao fertilizante em condições de semeadura direta e preparo convencional do solo ainda consistem numa necessidade fundamental. Assim, a pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de N e a produtividade do feijoeiro em sistema de semeadura direta e de preparo convencional dosolo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (2x8+1 com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da combinação das doses de 40 e 80 kg ha-1 de N aplicadas em oito épocas do estádio V4 do desenvolvimento vegetativo (V4-3, V4-4, V4-5, V4-6, V4-7, V4-8, V4-9 e V4-10, além da testemunha sem N em cobertura. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período de outono-inverno de 2002 e 2003 nos sistemas de semeadura direta sobre palhada de milheto e preparo convencional comarado de aiveca. Conclui-se que a adubação nitrogenada no estádio fenológico V4 do feijoeiro propicia produtividade de sementes equivalentes entre a semeadura direta e o preparo convencional do solo. As diferenças de produtividade entre a semeadura direta e opreparo convencional do solo são inconsistentes em uma mesma área de cultivo.Nitrogen fertilizer is necessary for high yields in common beancrops and N responses under conditions of no-tillage and conventional systems are still basic needs. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of N application and common bean yield in no-tillage and conventional systems. The experimental designwas a randomized block in a factorial scheme (2x8+1 with four replications. The treatments were constituted by the combination of two N doses (40 and 80 kg ha-1 applied at side dressing at eight distinct stadia during vegetative development of the common bean(V4-3, V4-4, V4-5, V4-6, V4-7, V4-8, V4-9 and V4-10, in addition to a control plot without N in side dressing

  2. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  3. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  4. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  5. Effect of tillage and water management on GHG emissions from Mediterranean rice growing ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Becerra, Daniel; Albarrán, Ángel; Peña, David; Sanchez-Llerena, Javier; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; López-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Paddy rice fields are an important source of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane. In the present work, we assessed the impact on GHG emissions of two main parameters of rice production: aerobic rice production was compared with traditional flooded rice production and conventional tillage (CT) was compared with short-term and long-term no-tillage (NT) management. A field experiment was performed over three years and the GHG emissions were measured during each year. Five treatments (3 replicates) were considered: NTS7: no-tillage over seven years and sprinkler irrigation; NTS: no-tillage and sprinkler irrigation; CTS: conventional tillage and sprinkler irrigation; NTF: no-tillage and flooding; CTF: conventional tillage and flooding. The use of sprinkler irrigation rather than flooding led to decreases in nitrous oxide and methane emissions of ∼40% and more than 99%, respectively, over the 3-year experiment. The use of sprinkler irrigation compared with flooded irrigation reduced the global warming potential (GWP) about 40% and 36% in no-tillage and conventional tillage treatments, respectively. Treatment NTF decreased CH4 emissions, relative to CTF, by ∼60% over three years but the effect of NT on N2O emissions was not clear: a decrease or no effect was mostly observed in the NT treatments, relative to CT. A decrease of ∼40% in the total GHG emissions was observed in the NT treatments, relative to CT. No or small differences between NTS and NTS7 in terms of gaseous emissions were found. The short-term no-tillage and sprinkler irrigated treatment (NTS) gave lower yields than CTF in 2011 and 2012, but reached similar yields in the third year (NTS 8229 kg ha-1;CTF 8926 kg ha-1), with average savings of 75% of the total amount of water applied in CTF. The NTS7 data showed that high yields (reaching 9805 kg ha-1 in 2012) and water savings are sustainable in the long term. Considering the yield-scaled GWP of the emissions, NT gave a decrease of up to 42

  6. Cultivo de brócolos de inflorescência única no verão em plantio direto Single head broccoli cultivars production in summer under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Augusto de C e Melo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento de blocos casualizados, em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por plantas de cobertuta [milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, milho (Zea mays, consórcio de milho com mucuna-preta preta (Estilozobium aterrimum, sorgo-sudão (Sorghum bicolor X S. sudanense] além do plantio convencional (PC (solo preparado com aração e gradagem após pousio. As cultivares Avenger, Demoledor, Grandisimo, Green Storm Bonanza, Legacy e o material HECB-01-06, constituiram as sub-parcelas. Não houve diferença significativa entre o plantio direto (PD e o PC quanto à produção de brócolos. Houve diferença significativa entre cultivares para as variáveis avaliadas. Com relação às cultivares, Avenger obteve maior produtividade (13,2 t ha-1, peso médio de inflorescências (458 g, diâmetro (15,3 cm e melhor qualidade das inflorescências (índice de aspecto visual de 4,0. Portanto, considerando-se as vantagens do PD com a manutenção de níveis de produtividade equivalentes às obtidas no PC, deve-se recomendar sua adoção.The objective of this work was to evaluate single head broccoli cultivars production in summer under no-tillage (NT. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a split-plot design and three replicates. The plots were constituted by the cover crops: pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, corn (Zea mays, a mix of corn and black velvet-bean (Estilozobium aterrimum, sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor X S. sudanense, besides the conventional tillage (CT - soil after fallow prepared with plow and disk harrow. Cultivars Avenger, Demoledor, Grandisimo, Green Storm Bonanza, Legacy and the material HECB-01-06, represented the sub-plots. No differences were found among NT and CT concerning broccoli yield. There were significant differences between cultivars for the evaluated variables. The cultivar Avenger presented the highest yield (13.2 t ha-1, average

  7. Predacion de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. en un cultivo de soja: influencia del sistema de siembra Predation of Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. seeds in soybean crops: influence of the tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nisensohn

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar las pérdidas del banco superficial de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. (yuyo colorado debidas a la predación por insectos en un cultivo de soja y en el barbecho posterior, en dos sistemas de laboreo. Los experimentos se realizaron durante las campañas 94/95 y 95/96. Para calcular la tasa de predación se emplearon bandejas cubiertas con tejido para evitar el ingreso de roedores y con tela de tul en los tratamientos testigos; en cada una se sembraron 100 semillas de la maleza y cada 15 días se registró el número de semillas remanentes. Para determinar los insectos presentes y su abundancia se emplearon trampas "pitfall". Entre los insectos capturados se encontró el carábido Notiobia cupripennis, su mayor abundancia se registró en marzo (4,5 y 5,8 insectos/trampa en convencional y 2,7 y 3,3 insectos/trampa en siembra directa, coincidiendo con las tasas de predación más altas (5,6% y 8% en convencional y 2,7% y 3,8% en siembra directa; tanto en abundancia como en predación se observaron diferencias significativas entre ambos sistemas. A partir de este mes, las diferencias no fueron significativas, el número de insectos y la tasa de predación disminuyeron. En ambos años existió una correlación positiva entre estas variables.The objective was to evaluate the losses of the superficial bank of Amaranthus quitensis seeds, due to insect predation, in a soybean crop and in the subsequent fallow, in two tillage systems. Experiments were conducted during 1994/95 and 1995/96. To estimate predation rates, trays covered with wire meshes to prevent rodent predation, and with fine sheer net (tulle in the control treatment were used; 100 weed seeds were sown in each tray, and the number of remaining seeds was registered every 15 days. Pitfall traps were used to identify insects species occurring in the field and to estimate their abundance. The carabid Notiobia cupripennis was captured in pitfall traps, the higher

  8. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  9. Effects of soil tillage on the energy budget of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, R.; Cascio, B. lo

    1997-01-01

    The different terms of the energy budget were measured by the Bowen ratio method on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown on a conventional tillage and a direct drilling system. The differences found in the energy budgets varied according to the degree of fractional ground cover and of soil water availability. Soil heat flux was greater for the direct drilling treatment, although soil heating was slower as compared to the conventional tillage. Comparisons for well watered and dry conditions revealed that the conventional tillage system used as latent heat a fraction of net radiation greater than the direct drilling treatment only in well watered conditions. In dry conditions the differences in latent heat fluxes and canopy resistances between the two tillage systems were smaller [it

  10. Crop rotation with no-till methods in cotton production of Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khaitov, Botir; Allanov, Kholik

    2014-01-01

    Many soils of Uzbekistan have low water and nutrient holding capacity because of their sandy texture, low organic matter concentrations and degradation caused by long years of cotton monoculture. Conservation tillage production systems have the potential to increase the productivity of these soils by increasing soil humus and nitrogen content. As practiced conservation tillage helped to lessen N leaching losses, holding more of these elements within the topsoil as well as increase crop produc...

  11. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  12. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  13. MAIZE YIELD AND ITS STABILITY AS AFFECTED BY TILLAGE AND CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT IN THE EASTERN ROMANIAN DANUBE PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru COCIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed crop management systems need to be optimized to provide more resilient options in order to cope with projected climatic scenarios which are forecasting a decrease in mean precipitation and more frequent extreme drought periods in the Eastern Romanian Danube Plain. This research, carried out in the period of 2011-2014, had as main purpose the determination of influence of tillage practices and residue management on rainfall use efficiency, maize yield and its stability, in order to evaluate the advantages of conservation agriculture (CA in the time of stabilization of direct seeding effects, in comparison with traditional chisel tillage. The maize grain yields are presented for each crop management practices, as follows: (1 chisel tillage, retained crop residues being chopped and incorporated (ciz; (2 zero tillage, retained crop residue chopped and kept on the field in short flat condition (rvt; (3 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in short root-anchored condition (1/2rva, and (4 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in tall root-anchored condition (1/1rva. In 2012, a year with prolonged drought during vegetative growth, yield differences between zero tillage with short root-anchored residue retention (1/2rva and chisel tillage with residue incorporation (ciz were positive, up to 840 kg ha-1. In average over 2011-2014, conservation agriculture (CA practices had a yield advantage over traditional chisel tillage practice. Zero tillage with residue retention used rainfall more efficiently so suggesting that it is a more resilient agronomic system than traditional (conventional practices involving chisel tillage with residue incorporation.

  14. Mulch tillage for conserving soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulching is the practice of maintaining organic or inorganic materials on or applying them to the soil surface. It is an ancient practice, but through the years clean tillage that incorporated crop residues and also controlled weeds became the norm. Frequent and deep tillage often was promoted to co...

  15. Introducing a Strategy for Selection of Plowing Systems Using Hybrid SWOT-AHP Method (Khodabandeh, Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Afsahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For improvement or change in a plowing system, it is crucial that all important parameters to be taken in account. Recommendation of a tillage system should receive supports from research data as well as from skilled farmers in order to find a resolution to problems of that system. In this study, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT of different tillage systems for wheat cultivation in the Khodabandeh region (Zanjan province, Iran were identified and ranked using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Based on the viewpoints of skilled farmers, the main threats in tillage systems, which include small farm lands in the region, lack of qualitative research on new tillage systems and lack of government support, affected the system selection (32 percent, relative strengths(26 percent, opportunities (22 percent, and weakness(20 percent. Because of these threats, farmers keep using conventional tillage method (with the value of 47 percent in spite of their awareness about the benefits of conservation tillage and no-tillage methods. In this situation, the recommended measures are; making new policies for the land integration, performing qualitative research specially on new machinery, clarifying the government's policies on exporting and importing agricultural products and on the amount of guaranteed prices of products before starting the growing season. By these activities the threats can be replaced by opportunities and strengths.

  16. Demanda energética na subsolagem realizada antes e depois de diferentes sistemas de preparo periódico do solo Energy demand in the subsoiling performed before and after different systems of periodic soil tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Salvador

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A subsolagem é uma das operações mecanizadas de elevado custo e demanda energética por área, tradicionalmente utilizada pelos agricultores antes do preparo do solo na descompactação de camadas adensadas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a demanda energética na operação de subsolagem realizada antes e depois de diferentes sistemas de preparo periódico num solo classificado como Nitossolo Vermelho Distroférrico. Os sistemas de preparo periódico foram: aração com discos; aração com discos mais uma gradagem de nivelamento; grade aradora; grade aradora mais gradagem de nivelamento e escarificação. O trator utilizado como fonte de potência no experimento foi um Valmet 128 (4x2tda. A demanda energética por área foi menor na subsolagem realizada depois do preparo periódico do solo, proporcionando uma economia de 21,9%. A realização da subsolagem depois do preparo periódico do solo resultou numa diminuição da exigência de força de tração em 21,1% e da potência disponível na barra de tração em 15%.Subsoiling is one of the mechanized operations of high cost and energy demand per area, traditionally utilized by farmers before soil tillage in the decompactation of hardened layers. This research was intended to evaluate the energy demand in the subsoiling operation performed before and after different systems of periodic tillage in a soil classified as Distroferric Red Nitossol. The periodic tillage systems were: plowing with disks; plowing with disks plus one leveling; plowing harrow; plowing harrow plus leveling and chiseling. The tractor utilized as a power source in the experiment was a Valmet 128 (4x2tda. The demand for energy area was lower in subsoiling held after the regular preparation of the soil, providing a saving of 21.9%. The completion of subsoiling after the preparation of the soil resulted in a decrease in demand for power to pull in 21% and 15% of the power available in the bar of traction.

  17. Ammonium sulphate on maize crops under no tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the management of N and S (as ammonium sulphate fertilization under no-tillage system on the components of maize productivity and on N and S accumulation in the crop, as well as to evaluate the minimum value of the Nitrogen Sufficiency Index (NSI 0.95 as an indicator for side dressing requirements. The experiment had a completely randomized block design with six treatments and four replications carried out in Red Latosol dystrophic soil (Hapludox, in Campo Mourão, Paraná State, where the following treatments in summer growth maize were applied: T1- 120 kg ha-1 N in seeding; T2- 120 kg ha-1 N in side dressing; T3- 40 kg ha-1 N in seeding and 80 kg ha-1 N in side dressing; T4- 30 kg ha-1 N in seeding and 90 kg ha-1 N in side dressing, monitored by a chlorophyll meter using the Nitrogen Sufficiency Index (NSI; T5- 120 kg ha-1 N anticipated in wheat seeding; T6- without nitrogen fertilization. NSI was determined by the relationship between the leaf chlorophyll index (ICF average of T4 plants and that one in the plot fertilized with 120 kg ha-1 N at the maize seed sowing (T1. During two years, ammonium sulphate was applied to the maize crop after wheat under no tillage system. In the first year, with adequate rainfall, the maize yield was similar to the one in which the complete ammonium sulphate dose application was done in maize seeding and side dressing. The anticipated fertilization to wheat seed sowing resulted in maize yield without difference from the parceled form. In the second year, with irregular rainfall, all treatments with N were similar and they increased maize yield compared to that without N fertilization. NSI of 0.95 was not efficient to evaluate maize N requirements in side dressing, and resulted in lower maize yield. N was accumulated mainly in the grains unlike S that accumulated in the plant shoots; both were highly correlated to maize productivity.

  18. Influence of Tillage and Mulch on Soil Physical Properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomized complete block design in a split plot arrangement was used with four tillage methods [conventional tillage, (CT); deep tillage, (DT); zero tillage with zone disc tiller, (ZDT); and happy seeder, (HS)] in main plots and five mulch materials [no mulch, (M0); rice straw, (MRice); wheat straw, (MWheat); plastic sheet, ...

  19. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2013-01-01

    to the soil quality estimates. We found significant effect of both rotation and tillage on visual soil structure at both times of assessment. Poor soil structure was found for NT except when combined with a diverse crop rotation (R6). The soil core pore characteristics data also displayed a significant effect...... of tillage but only a weak insignificant effect of rotation. The drop shatter results were in accordance with the visual assessment data. Crop yield correlated significantly with the visual soil structure scores. We conclude that a diverse crop rotation was needed for an optimal performance of NT......Tillage and rotation are fundamental factors influencing soil quality and thus the sustainability of cropping systems. Many studies have focused on the effects of either tillage or rotation, but few have quantified the long term integrated effects of both. We studied the issue using a 30-year old...

  20. INFLUÊNCIA DO PREPARO DE SOLO E DA ROTAÇÃO DE CULTURAS NA SEVERIDADE DE PODRIDÕES RADICULARES NO FEIJOEIRO COMUM EFFECTS OF SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEM AND CROP ROTATION ON DRY BEAN ROOT ROT SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques da Silveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As podridões radiculares do feijoeiro são causadas pelos fungos Rhizoctonia solani Kühn e Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans. Neste trabalho testou-se a combinação dos fatores preparo de solo e rotação de culturas, além de se avaliarem seus efeitos sobre as podridões radiculares do feijoeiro. Os tipos de preparo de solo consistiram em: arado+grade (P1, arado (P2, grade (P3 e plantio direto (P4. As rotações de culturas foram: arroz-feijão (R1, milho-feijão (R2, arroz/calopogônio (Calopogonium muconoides-feijão (R3 e milho-feijão-milho-feijão-arroz-feijão (R4. A severidade de F. solani f. sp. phaseoli, avaliada aos 25 dias após o plantio, apresentou interação significativa, sendo a maior severidade encontrada na combinação da rotação R3 com o preparo de solo P1, e a menor severidade, na combinação da rotação R2 com o preparo de solo P3. Diferenças estatísticas ocorreram na severidade da doença provocada por R. solani. O preparo de solo P3 apresentou maior severidade que P4, e, entre as rotações, R3 apresentou a maior severidade da doença.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Rhizoctonia solani; Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli; práticas culturais; fungos.

    Dry bean root rot is caused by the fungi Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli Snyd. & Hans.The effects of the interaction between soil tillage systems andcrop rotation on the severity of root rot was tested. The soiltillage systems consisted of plough+harrow (P1, plough (P2,harrow (P3 and no tillage (P4 and the crop rotation treatmentswere rice-bean (R1, corn-bean (R2, rice/Calopogonium muconoides-bean (R3 and corn

  1. Effect of various tillage practices on soil properties and maize growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate tillage practices are vital for good tilth that is pre-requisite for aggregate formation, soil aeration, better root development and plant growth. A field experiment of maize was carried out at the experimental site of Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam during two consecutive growing seasons 2009 and 2010. A randomized complete block design with three treatment conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT) was used in the study. Significant differences between tillage treatments were observed in the soil properties, growth and root development of plants. The NT treatment retained higher soil water contents (15.8 and 16.0%) measured at 0-20 cm depth during 2009 and 2010, respectively. Likewise, the soil bulk density (1.4 and 1.4 cm-3) was higher at this depth consequently; it resulted in greater soil strength (81 N m-2 and 79 N m-2) during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The negative and significant correlations were recorded between root dry weight and soil strengths. On the other hand, positive and significant relationship of root dry weight with mean total dry matter production and LAI was observed. Moreover, the root development related observations were significantly enhanced under CT as compared to RT and NT treatments. The results indicate that conventional tillage improve maize growth and root development by improving soil properties. (author)

  2. Resistência mecânica do solo à penetração influenciada pelo tráfego de uma colhedora em dois sistemas de manejo do solo Soil strength as affected by combine wheel traffic and two soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Rodrigues da Silva

    2000-10-01

    plantio direto possui um estado de compactação mais elevado, causado pelo acúmulo de pressões mecânicas a que o solo é submetido anualmente. Entretanto, a produtividade da cultura da soja não diferiu entre os sistemas de manejo do solo, permanecendo em torno de 3,15Mg ha-1.The increase of soil mechanical resistance may limit plant growth and productivity. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of wheel traffic caused by a grain harvester (combine on penetration resistance for two soil tillage systems. The treatments were: no tillage, no wheel traffic and wheel traffic by a soybean harvester; tillage, no wheel traffic and at wheel traffic by a soybean harvester. Soil penetration resistance with a cone penetrograph with electronic readings for each 0.15cm depth, and soil moisture were determined down to a depth of the 40cm, at two soil conditions (dry and wet, on a clayey Haplortox (LE. The combine front-axle load was 5.0Mg and the wheel contact area was 0.283m², yielding a ground pressure of 0.0884MPa. For high soil moisture the soil resistance difference between treatments was low (smaller than 2,0MPa, not limiting to root growth. However, for the second evaluation, about 30 days after the first, when the soil was drier, soil compaction in the layer from 5 to 17cm caused by wheel traffic was observed. Soil water content influenced the values of soil resistance. Critical values, considered as penetration resistance greater than 2MPa, were mainly observed for the no tillage system, specially for the 7.5 to 17.0cm layer. The no tillage system had a greater state of compaction than the tilled soil, because of yearly load accumulations. Soybean yield was not different between the tillage systems, with an average of 3.15Mg ha-1 yield.

  3. Carbon dioxide emissions as affected by alternative long-term irrigation and tillage management practices in the lower Mississippi River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S F; Brye, K R

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of cultivated soils is an ever-increasing priority for producers in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV). As groundwater sources become depleted and environmental regulations become more strict, producers will look to alternative management practices that will ensure the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of their production systems. This study was conducted to assess the long-term (>7 years) effects of irrigation (i.e., irrigated and dryland production) and tillage (conventional and no-tillage) on estimated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil respiration during two soybean (Glycine max L.) growing seasons from a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.-) soybean, double-cropped production system in the LMRV region of eastern Arkansas. Soil surface CO2 fluxes were measured approximately every two weeks during two soybean growing seasons. Estimated season-long CO2 emissions were unaffected by irrigation in 2011 (P > 0.05); however, during the unusually dry 2012 growing season, season-long CO2 emissions were 87.6% greater (P = 0.044) under irrigated (21.9 Mg CO2 ha(-1)) than under dryland management (11.7 Mg CO2 ha(-1)). Contrary to what was expected, there was no interactive effect of irrigation and tillage on estimated season-long CO2 emissions. Understanding how long-term agricultural management practices affect soil respiration can help improve policies for soil and environmental sustainability.

  4. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  5. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, Adilson Luis; Silva, Thiago Rech da; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio; Pinto, Luiz Fernando Spinelli; Lima, Ana Claudia Rodrigues de; Timm, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  6. Perdas de solo e nutrientes num latossolo vermelho-amarelo ácrico típico, com diferentes sistemas de preparo e sob chuva natural Soil and nutrient losses under different tillage systems in a clayey oxisol under natural rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Siqueira Leite

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo erosivo é a principal causa de degradação dos solos, trazendo, como consequência, prejuízos ao setor agrícola e ao meio ambiente, com reflexos econômicos e também sociais. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as perdas de solo e nutrientes em diferentes sistemas de preparo num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo ácrico típico. Foram instaladas cinco parcelas experimentais contendo os seguintes tratamentos: preparo convencional e cultivo morro abaixo (CMA; preparo convencional e plantio em nível (CEN; preparo com uma grade aradora e uma niveladora e plantio em nível (CNiv; preparo com duas gradagens niveladoras, plantio em nível (NA e cultivo mínimo em nível (CMN. As perdas de solo foram determinadas pelo método direto durante o ciclo da cultura de algodão, de dezembro de 2005 a junho de 2006. A cada coleta foram retiradas amostras de solo para quantificar as perdas dos nutrientes N, P, K e carbono orgânico (C-org nos sedimentos. A diminuição no revolvimento do solo proporcionou menores perdas de sedimento, nutrientes e C-org, destacando o CMN como o mais eficiente. As perdas de N, P, K e C-org nos sedimentos apresentaram tendências semelhantes às das perdas de solo, e N, P e K variaram conforme as adubações utilizadas. O C-org foi encontrado em maior quantidade no sedimento. A taxa de infiltração básica (TIB expressou diferença entre os tratamentos na seguinte ordem em valores crescentes: CMA CNiv NA Erosion is the main cause of soil degradation, and it leads to adverse effects to agriculture and environment, with social and economic implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil and nutrient losses in different soil tillage systems in a typic Acric Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol. On five plots with the following soil tillage treatments were evaluated: conventional tillage and down-slope tillage (CMA; conventional tillage and contour seeding (CEN; tillage with one passage of heavy disk

  7. Tillage effects on N2O emissions as influenced by a winter cover crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Mutegi, James; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2011-01-01

    emissions may be more important than the effect on soil C. This study monitored emissions of N2O between September 2008 and May 2009 in three tillage treatments, i.e., conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and direct drilling (DD), all with (+CC) or without (−CC) fodder radish as a winter cover...... application by direct injection N2O emissions were stimulated in all tillage treatments, reaching 250–400 μg N m−2 h−1 except in the CT + CC treatment, where emissions peaked at 900 μg N m−2 h−1. Accumulated emissions ranged from 1.6 to 3.9 kg N2O ha−1. A strong positive interaction between cover crop......Conservation tillage practices are widely used to protect against soil erosion and soil C losses, whereas winter cover crops are used mainly to protect against N losses during autumn and winter. For the greenhouse gas balance of a cropping system the effect of reduced tillage and cover crops on N2O...

  8. Conservation Tillage on the Loess Plateau, China: Food security, Yes; Carbon sequestration, No?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Hu, Yaxian; Xiao, Liangang; Greenwood, Phil; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to affect food security globally and increase the variability in food supply. At the same time, agricultural practices offer a great potential for mitigating and adapting to climate change. In China, food security has increased in the last decades with the number of undernourished people declining from 21% in 1990 to 12% today. However, the limited relative amount of arable land and scarce water supplies will remain a challenge. The Loess Plateau of China, located in the mid-upper reaches of the Yellow River and has an area of some 630000 km2 with a high agricultural potential. However, due to heavy summer rainstorms, steep slopes, low vegetation cover, and highly erodible soils, the Loess Plateau has become one of the most severely eroded areas in the world. Up to 70% of arable land is affected by an annual soil loss of 20-25 ton ha-1, far exceeding the threshold for sustainable use (10 ton ha-1). Rainfed farming systems are dominant on the Loess Plateau, and the farmers in this area have been exposed to a steadily increasing temperature as well as an erratic, but slightly decreasing rainfall since 1970. Therefore, adaptation of the regional agriculture is required to adapt to climate change and may be even engaged in mitigation. This study analyzed the potential contribution of conservation tillage to adaptation and mitigation of climate change on the Loess Plateau. In total, 15 papers published in English were reviewed, comparing two tillage practices, conventional tillage (CT) and conservation tillage typically represented by no-tillage (NT). Soil organic carbon (SOC) stock across soil depths as well yields and the inter-annual variations with regards to and their annual rainfall precipitation were compared for NT and CT. Our results show that: 1) The benefit of NT compared to CT in terms of increasing total SOC stocks diminishes with soil depth, questioning the use of average SOC stocks observed in topsoil to estimate the potential

  9. Productivity of annual and perennial cool-season grasses established by no-till overseeding or by conventional tillage and sowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southern Great Plains (SGP), perennial pasture grasses offer a source of cool-season forage that does not incur costs and risks associated with production of annual cool-season forages. However, persistence and lifetime productivity of perennial cool-season grasses may be compromised by the h...

  10. [Effect of tillage patterns on the structure of weed communities in oat fields in the cold and arid region of North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Li; Wu, Dong-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Jun

    2014-06-01

    In order to clarify the effects of tillage patterns on farmland weed community structure and crop production characteristics, based on 10 years location experiment with no-tillage, subsoiling and conventional tillage in the cold and arid region of North China, and supplementary experiment of plowing after 10 years no-tillage and subsoiling, oat was planted in 2 soils under different tillage patterns, and field weed total density, dominant weed types, weed diversity index, field weed biomass and oats yield were measured. The results showed that the regional weed community was dominated by foxtail weed (Setaira viridis); the weed density under long-term no-tillage was 2.20-5.14 times of tillage at different growing stages of oat, but there were no significant differences between conditional tillage and plowing after long-term no-tillage and subsoiling. Field weed Shannon diversity indices were 0.429 and 0.531, respectively, for sandy chestnut soil and loamy meadow soil under no-tillage conditions, and field weed biomass values were 1.35 and 2.26 times of plowing treatment, while the oat biomass values were only 2807.4 kg x hm(-2) and 4053.9 kg x hm(-2), decreased by 22.3% and 46.2%, respectively. The results showed that the weed community characteristics were affected by both tillage patterns and soil types. Long-term no-tillage farmland in the cold and arid region of North China could promote the natural evolution of plant communities by keeping more perennial weeds, and the plowing pattern lowered the annual weed density, eliminated perennial weeds with shallow roots, and stimulated perennial weeds with deep roots.

  11. Análise de fauna e flutuação populacional de Carabidae e Staphylinidae (Coleoptera em sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Faunal analysis and population fluctuation of Carabidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Carlos Fernandes Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a fauna de carabídeos e estafilinídeos por meio de vários índices e obter a flutuação populacional das espécies dominantes em fragmento florestal e cultura de soja/milho sob sistemas de plantio direto e convencional. As amostragens dos coleópteros foram realizadas no período de novembro/2004 a abril/2007 em Guaíra, São Paulo, sendo quinzenal durante o período de safra e mensal nas entressafras. Para a obtenção das amostras utilizou-se armadilhas de solo distribuídas em dois transectos de 200 m de comprimento, sendo 100 m na cultura e 100 m no fragmento. A fauna foi caracterizada pelos índices de diversidade e equitabilidade e pela abundância. No sistema de plantio direto capturou-se maior número de espécies de carabídeos e estafilinídeos e os índices de equitabilidade e diversidade indicaram que a comunidade desses besouros mostrou-se melhor estruturada quando comparado com a observada no sistema de plantio convencional. Entre as espécies de carabídeos destacou-se Abaris basistriatus por ter se caracterizado como dominante na cultura e fragmento florestal das duas áreas experimentais. As espécies Scarites sp. 4 e A. basistriatus geralmente apresentaram picos populacionais quando a cultura de soja contava menos de 30 dias da implantação, as demais espécies apresentaram picos populacionais que ocorreram em períodos variados das safras. A precipitação pluvial foi o fator meteorológico que obteve a maioria dos coeficiente positivos em seguida o fator temperatura mínima.The objective of this study was to analyze carabid and staphylinid fauna through several faunistic indexes and to obtain the population fluctuation of the dominant species in forest fragment and soybean-corn crop in no-tillage and conventional cropping system. The samplings of the coleopteran were carried out from November/2004 to April/2007, in Guaíra, São Paulo, being biweekly during the crop period and monthly

  12. Predicting soil workability and fragmentation in tillage: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Lamandé, Mathieu; Edwards, Gareth T. C.

    2017-01-01

    . A reliable evaluation of soil workability implies a distinctive definition of the critical water content (wet and dry limits) for tillage. In this review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the methods for determining soil workability, and the effects of soil properties and tillage systems on soil...... workability and fragmentation. The strengths and limitations of the different methods for evaluating the water content for soil workability, such as the plastic limit, soil water retention curve (SWRC), standard Proctor compaction test, field assessment, moisture-pressure-volume diagram, air permeability...... and drop-shatter tests are discussed. Our review reveals that there is limited information on the dry limit and the range of water content for soil workability for different textured soils. We identify the need for further research to evaluate soil workability on undisturbed soils using a combination...

  13. Crop sequences in no-tillage system: effects on soil fertility and soybean, maize and rice yield Sequências de culturas em semeadura direta: efeitos sobre a fertilidade do solo e a produtividade de soja, milho e arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Valente Marcelo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing crop residues in no-tillage system can alter soil chemical properties, which may consequently influence the productivity of succession crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil chemical properties and soybean, maize and rice yield, grown in the summer, after winter crops in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil (21 ° 15 ' 22 '' S; 48 ° 18 ' 58 '' W on a Red Latosol (Oxisol, in a completely randomized block design, in strip plots with three replications. The treatments consisted of four summer crop sequences (maize monocrop, soybean monocrop, soybean/maize rotation and rice/bean/cotton rotation combined with seven winter crops (maize, sunflower, oilseed radish, pearl millet, pigeon pea, grain sorghum and sunn hemp. The experiment began in September 2002. After the winter crops in the 2005/2006 growing season and before the sowing of summer crops in the 2006/2007 season, soil samples were collected in the layers 0-2.5; 2.5-5.0; 5-10; 10-20; and 20-30 cm. Organic matter, pH, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and H + Al were determined in each soil sample. In the summer soybean/maize rotation and in maize the organic matter contents and P levels were lower, in the layers 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm, respectively. Summer rice/bean/cotton rotation increased soil K levels at 0-10 cm depth when sunn hemp and oilseed radish had previously been grown in the winter, and in the 0-2.5 cm layer for millet. Sunn hemp, millet, oilseed radish and sorghum grown in the winter increased organic matter contents in the soil down to 30 cm. Higher P levels were found at the depths 0-2.5 cm and 0-5 cm, respectively, when sunn hemp and oilseed radish were grown in the winter. Highest grain yields for soybean in monoculture were obtained in succession to winter oilseed radish and sunn hemp and in rotation with maize, after oilseed radish, sunn hemp and millet. Maize yields were highest in succession to winter oilseed radish

  14. Decomposição de culturas de cobertura no sistema plantio direto, manejadas mecânica e quimicamente Acting of covering cultures in no tillage system, handling mechanics and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo N. dos Reis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O sistema plantio direto preconiza o uso de culturas de cobertura para produção de massa seca sobre o solo. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a produção e a taxa de decomposição de duas coberturas vegetais - crotalária juncea (Crotalária juncea L. e mucuna-cinza (Stilozobium niveum L - em três sistemas de manejo (rolo-faca, triturador de palhas e herbicida, e a capacidade de campo efetiva dos manejos. O experimento foi realizado na área do Laboratório de Máquinas e Mecanização Agrícola (LAMMA, do Departamento de Engenharia Rural, UNESP, Jaboticabal - SP, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x2, originando seis tratamentos, com quatro repetições. Foram analisadas as produções de massa seca das culturas de cobertura antes e após o manejo, a velocidade de deslocamento e a capacidade de campo efetiva para cada conjunto (trator-equipamento. As análises dos valores obtidos permitiram verificar que o fator manejo não interfere na decomposição da massa seca das coberturas vegetais e que as duas culturas de cobertura apresentaram massas semelhantes aos 30; 70 e 125 dias após a semeadura, diferindo aos 97 dias, época na qual a crotalária apresentou maior quantidade de massa seca. Aos 30; 51 e 71 dias após o manejo, as massas secas das culturas foram semelhantes. O manejo com herbicida apresentou maior capacidade de campo efetiva.The no tillage using covering cultures about the production dry mass surface in the soil. The present work had for objective to study the production and acting of two vegetable coverings crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea L. and mucuna-cinza (Stilozobium niveum, in three systems of handlings (roll-knife, crusher of straws and herbicide, and and the effective field capacity. The experiment was accomplished in area of Laboratório de Máquinas e Mecanização Agrícola (LAMMA, of the Departamento de Engenharia Rural, UNESP; Jaboticabal - SP, with experimental design

  15. Wheat Cultivar Performance and Stability between No-Till and Conventional Tillage Systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arron H. Carter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Washington, over fifty percent of the wheat produced under rainfed conditions receives less than 300 mm of annual precipitation. Hence, a winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system has been established to obtain adequate moisture for winter wheat production. Current tilled fallow systems receive significant soil erosion through both wind and water. As a result, no-till chemical fallow systems are being adopted to mitigate erosion concerns. The objective of this study was to evaluate current Pacific Northwest cultivars under no-till chemical fallow and tilled fallow systems to identify cultivars adapted to a late-planted no-till system. Twenty-one cultivars were planted in a split-plot design with fallow type as the main plot and genotype as the sub-plot. Four replications were planted at two locations over three years. Data was collected on heading date, grain yield and grain volume weight. Analysis of variance was conducted on data from each year and location. Results were significant for all traits. Cultivars in the late-planted no-till system yielded an average of 39% less than the tilled fallow system. It is evident that cultivars vary in their adaptability and yield stability across production systems. Chukar and Eltan displayed the highest levels of yield stability, and growers who wish to plant winter wheat in a late-planted no-till system may benefit from choosing these cultivars.

  16. Effect of tillage and planting date on seasonal abundance and diversity of predacious ground beetles in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R B; Parajulee, M N

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the

  17. Infiltração de atrazina em latossolo submetido aos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Infiltration of atrazine in an Oxisol under no-tillage and conventional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Veríssimo Correia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a lixiviação e o potencial de contaminação de lençóis de água com atrazina, em solos sob manejo de plantio direto (PD e convencional (PC. Foram realizados experimentos em campo e em colunas com Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro distroférrico, submetido ao manejo PD e PC, em Dourados, MS, Brasil. Os valores de condutividade hidráulica e potencial mátrico, determinados com o permeâmetro de Guelph no PD, demonstram fluxo contínuo de água no solo. A maior condutividade na superfície, associada ao potencial mátrico negativo, demonstrou descontinuidade hidrológica, na comparação das camadas subjacentes, verificada no PC em relação ao PD. No entanto, o PD apresentou deslocamento vertical de atrazina menor que o PC. Os resultados mostraram que as perdas de atrazina por lixiviação ocorreram mais intensamente com as primeiras chuvas, logo após a aplicação do produto. O PD apresentou maior concentração de atrazina em comparação ao PC, tendo reduzido as perdas por lixiviação. Os dados indicam que a tecnologia de plantio direto pode reduzir o impacto ambiental provocado pelos pesticidas.The aim of this work was to compare leaching and potential groundwater contamination in soil under no-tillage and conventional tillage. This experiment was carried out in field conditions and soil columns, using an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems in Dourados, MS, Brazil. The determination of the hydraulic conductivity and matrix flux potential, with the use of a Guelph permeameter in the NT, showed a continue flow of water into the soil. Greater conductivity found in the surface soil, associated with the negative matrix flux potential, showed the discontinued hydraulic conductivity, when comparing subsurface layers, in the CT in relation to NT. However, NT resulted in less vertical displacement of atrazine than CT. The largest atrazine losses by leaching occurred more intensely

  18. Phytosociology of weeds under different soil management systems in field reform of raw sugarcane. = Fitossociologia de plantas daninhas sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo em áreas de reforma de cana crua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Bernardes Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the phytosociological survey of weeds in areas of reform of raw cane, kept fallow after the use of three soil management systems in two regions of São Paulo. The study was conducted during 2007/08 crop year, in commercial production in the municipalities of Novais and Guaira. The last harvest of sugarcane was done in the first fortnight of July 2007. We used randomized block design, the treatments consisted of three soil tillage systems: conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no tillage. After treatments of tillage plots were maintained in a fallow period of 150 days. We carried out sampling in each plot by doing the identification, counting and collecting all the shoots of the weeds present. The data were interpreted statistically by ANOVA and Tukey’s test, then calculated the phytosociological index. No-tillage gave lower dry matter and fewer weeds than the other soil management systems in two growing regions. The Guaira region had a higher weed infestation that the region of Novais, where the species that stood out, presenting high IVR in all types of management was the Cyperus rotundus L. The importance of this species decreased with the use of more conservation managements. The similarity between tillage and conventional tillage was lower in both regions.

  19. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality...... to be seven days. Using the monitoring system for the PRECI‐IN case, similar corrective action would have been achieved almost immediately.......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...

  20. Manure and tillage use in remediation of eroded land and impacts on soil chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikha, Maysoon M; Benjamin, Joseph G; Vigil, Merle F; Poss, David J

    2017-01-01

    Soil loss through wind and water erosion is an ongoing problem in semiarid regions. A thin layer of top soil loss over a hectare of cropland could be corresponding to tons of productive soil loss per hectare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of beef feedlot manure, tillage and legume grass mixtures on changes in soil quality and nutrient components. The study was initiated in 2006 on an eroded site near Akron, Colorado, on a Norka-Colby very-fine sandy loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic, Argiustolls). Tillage treatments were no-tillage, shallow tillage (sweeps operations with V-blade) and deep tillage (DT; moldboard plow operations). In one set of plots, DT was implemented biannually (DT-2); and in another set the DT was done once at the initiation of the experiment in 2006. Amendments consisted of beef manure and urea (46-0-0), N fertilizer. Both amendments were added at low and high rates. A control treatment, with no fertilizer or manure added, was included with no-tillage and shallow tillage only. Six years of manure addition and tillage significantly altered soil chemical properties compared with fertilizer and grass legume mixtures. Across all the tillage treatments, at the 0-30 cm depth, soil pH from 2006 to 2012, was reduced 1.8 fold with high-manure compared with high-fertilizer treatment. Soil EC, Na, and SAR increased by 2.7 fold while soil P increase by 3.5 fold with high-manure treatment compared with low-manure from 2006 to 2012 across all the tillage treatments at the surface 0-30 cm. Soil organic carbon associated with high-manure was 71% higher than low-manure and 230% higher than high-fertilizer treatments in the 0-60 cm depth. Similar patterns were observed with soil total N. Overall, manure amendments greatly improved the soil nutrient status on this eroded site. However, the legume grass mixtures showed little effect on improving soils chemical properties. The micronutrients supplied by manure improved the soil

  1. Atributos químicos de solo sob produção orgânica influenciados pelo preparo e por plantas de cobertura Chemical attributes of soil under organic production as affected by cover crops and soil tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurâimi de Q Cunha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar a influência das plantas de cobertura crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, sorgo vassoura (Sorgum technicum e pousio, nos atributos químicos de solo cultivado com feijão e milho orgânicos, sob semeadura direta (SD e preparo convencional (PC. O trabalho foi conduzido em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Em novembro de 2003 foram instalados quatro experimentos, dois em SD e dois em PC. Em cada preparo do solo um experimento foi conduzido com feijão e outro com milho. Amostragens de solo foram realizadas em setembro de 2003 e em novembro de 2007, nas camadas de 0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m. O pH e os teores de P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, H+ + Al³+ e M.O. foram analisadas e calculadas a capacidade de troca catiônica e a saturação por bases. Após quatro anos as plantas de cobertura não diferiram entre si quanto aos seus efeitos nos atributos químicos do solo; no entanto, elevaram o teor de M.O. em relação à condição inicial, seja sob SD ou sob PC. Em geral, a reciclagem dos nutrientes pelas plantas de cobertura não foi suficiente para a manutenção dos teores de P, K+, Fe3+ e Mn2+ no solo.This study aimed to determine the influence of the cover crops sunhemp (Crotalariajuncea, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima, sorghum (Sorgum technicum, and fallow on chemical attributes of soil cultivated with organic common bean and corn, under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems. The work was conducted in Santo Antônio de Goiás-GO, in Oxisol, in a randomized block design, with four replications. In November 2003 four experiments were installed, two of them under NT and the other two in CT. In each soil management system, an experiment was carried out with common bean crop and another with corn. Samples

  2. Effects of tillage on the activity density and biological diversity of carabid beetles in spring and winter crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Timothy D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Labonte, James R; Guy, Stephen O; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2007-04-01

    The effects of tillage regimen (conventional [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) on the activity density and diversity of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was studied by pitfall trapping within a rain-fed cropping system in northwestern Idaho, 2000-2002. The cropping rotation consisted of a spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2000 and 2001; and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in 2002), spring dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) 2000-2002, and wheat (T. aestivum), spring in 2000 and 2001, and winter in 2002. A total of 14,480 beetles comprised of 30 species was captured, with five numerically dominant species [Poecilus scitulus L., Poecilus lucublandus Say, Microlestes linearis L., Pterostichus melanarius Ill., and Calosoma cancellatum (Eschscholtz)], accounting for 98% of all captures. All species including the dominants responded idiosyncratically to tillage regimen. Adjusting for trapping biases did not significantly change seasonal activity density of Poecilus spp. or Pt. melanarius to tillage. More beetles were captured in CT than in NT crops because of the dominance of P. scitulus in CT, whereas species richness and biological diversity were generally higher in NT crops. Observed patterns suggest that direct effects of tillage affected some species, whereas indirect effects related to habitat characteristics affected others. CT may provide habitat preferable to xerophilic spring breeders. A relationship was found between beetle species size and tillage regimen in pea and to a lesser extent across all spring crops, with large species (>14 mm) conserved more commonly in NT, small species (tillage systems.

  3. Changeability of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenraad, M. S.; Wortmann, J. C.; Olhager, J; Persson, F

    2007-01-01

    Modem production management systems consist of transaction processing systems and decision enhancement systems. A clear example of two such components are an ERP systems and APS systems. These systems are often standard software systems, and therefore suitable for many different situations. This

  4. Rationally Managed Pastures Stock More Carbon than No-Tillage Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizumi L. S. Seó

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant share of Greenhouse Gases (GHG produced from agriculture comes from cattle farming. The reduction in GHG emissions from ruminants fed with grains has led some researchers to recommend such a diet as a means of mitigating emissions in the sector. A more accurate balance of emissions, however, must include the carbon (C stocked by feed crops. Within the grain production system, no-tillage (NT cultivation systems have a greater capacity to increase and store soil organic carbon (SOC. Within grazing management systems, the rotation used in Voisin's Rational Grazing (VRG allows the accumulation of SOC through root growth. The objective of this study was to assess the C stock of pasture under VRG and compare soil C stock between VRG pasture and fields under no-tillage management, in two seasons over a period of 1 year. The study included five dairy farms in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In each property, we collected soil to quantify SOC from VRG pasture and NT fields, in summer and winter. In the pasture, to determine the total stock, we also collected samples from the aerial parts of plants and the roots. Further, we estimated how efficient would be producing milk from those pastures or from those crops. The VRG pasture showed a greater capacity to stock C in the soil than the no-tillage fields (VRG = 115.0 Mg C ha−1; NT = 92.5 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00009, with the greatest difference at a depth of 0–10 cm (VRG = 41 Mg C ha−1; NT = 32 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00008. In VRG, 95% of C was in the soil, 1% in the aerial part of plants, and 4% in the roots. On pasture was produced 0.15 kg of milk.kg−1 of C stored, and on NT system 0.13 kg of milk.kg−1 of C stored. In this study, we conclude that independent of season, the soil in well managed pastures had a greater stock of C, produced more milk and produced more milk.kg−1 of stored C than fields under NT management. Therefore, when comparing GHG emissions of ruminants with different

  5. Produção de laranja 'Pêra' em sistemas de preparo de solo e manejo nas entrelinhas Fruit yields of 'Pêra' orange under different soil tillage and interrow management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Martins Auler

    2008-02-01

    ção acumulada de frutos nas safras de 1996 a 2005. O preparo de solo em faixas, com manutenção de gramínea remanescente nas entrelinhas, mostrou-se apropriado para implantação dos pomares. As plantas de cobertura permanente utilizadas nas entrelinhas do pomar não comprometeram a produção de laranja, sendo importantes para melhoria da fertilidade do solo. As gramíneas foram mais indicadas que as leguminosas como cobertura vegetal nas entrelinhas do pomar.The conventional soil tillage used in the implantation of citrus orchards is based on the removal of the plant residues and soil tilling in the entire area, and the management of orchards on the elimination of any plant residues from the interrows. This has led to erosion and reduced soil fertility, with negative effects on the trees and the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil management systems that decrease soil erosion and improve the fertility status of a Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone, cultivated with citrus in the northwestern state of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area, and strip-tillage (ST with 2 m width, with different interrow management systems. The citrus cultivar was Pêra orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia rootstock. The citrus orchard was established in August 1993, and the tree rows were spaced 7 m apart with 4 m between trees. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with three replications and six treatments: (1 CT and pineapple intercropping in the first year followed by weed control with post emergence herbicide; (2 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous crop Calopogonium mucronoides; (3 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (4 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (5 CT and cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation and (6 ST and maintenance of the

  6. Biomassa microbiana do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em plantio direto, submetido a intensidades de pastejo Soil microbial biomass in a no-tillage integrated crop-livestock system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicarlos Damacena de Souza

    2010-02-01

    , and 40 cm, and a no-grazing control treatment on microbial activity and on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and stocks in microbial biomass in the 0-10 cm layer of an Oxisol (Latosol, in southern Brazil, during a grazing cycle. Biomass nutrient contents and stocks and microbial activity were affected by grazing intensities and by the season of the grazing cycle. Microbial carbon and phosphorus contents increased in the beginning of the grazing cycle in May until the period of high phytomass production in September, after which these contents decreased, following the pasture senescence. On the other hand, microbial nitrogen decreased from May to November, possibly as a result of plant uptake of soil N. Integrated crop-livestock systems under no-tillage maintain soil biological quality, and are, under adequate grazing intensity, similar to no-tillage systems without grazing influence. However, at high grazing intensities (10 cm under water stress, this soil quality is negatively affected.

  7. Bulk density of an alfisol under cultivation systems in a long-term experiment evaluated with gamma ray computed tomography;Densidade de um planossolo sob sistemas de cultivo por meio da tomografia computadorizada de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberg, Adilson Luis; Silva, Thiago Rech da, E-mail: adillbamberg@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel], E-mail: thiago_cccp@hotmail.com; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio; Pinto, Luiz Fernando Spinelli; Lima, Ana Claudia Rodrigues de, E-mail: pauletto@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Solos], E-mail: lfspin@ufpel.edu.b, E-mail: anacrlima@hotmail.co, E-mail: Gome, E-mail: Algenor da Silv, E-mail: algenor@cpact.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA, Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria Clima Temperado. Estacao Experimental Terras Baixas; Timm, Luis Carlos, E-mail: lctimm@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2009-09-15

    The sustainability of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in lowland soils is based on the use of crop rotation and succession, which are essential for the control of red and black rice. The effects on the soil properties deserve studies, particularly on soil compaction. The objective of this study was to identify compacted layers in an albaqualf under different cultivation and tillage systems, by evaluating the soil bulk density (Ds) with Gamma Ray Computed Tomography (TC). The analysis was carried out in a long-term experiment, from 1985 to 2004, at an experimental station of EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Capao do Leao, RS, Brazil, in a random block design with seven treatments, with four replications (T1 - one year rice with conventional tillage followed by two years fallow; T2 - continuous rice under conventional tillage; T4 - rice and soybean (Glycine Max L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T5 - rice, soybean and corn (Zea maize L.) rotation under conventional tillage; T6 - rice under no-tillage in the summer in succession to rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) in the winter; T7 - rice under no-tillage and soybean under conventional tillage rotation; T8 - control: uncultivated soil). The Gamma Ray Computed Tomography method did not identify compacted soil layers under no tillage rice in succession to rye-grass; two fallow years in the irrigated rice production system did not prevent the formation of a compacted layer at the soil surface; and in the rice, soybean and corn rotation under conventional tillage two compacted layers were identified (0.0 to 1.5 cm and 11 to 14 cm), indicating that they may restrict the agricultural production in this cultivation system on Albaqualf soils. (author)

  8. Typology of Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Edwards, Kasper; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Many organisations are moving from mass production to mass customization. Product configuration systems (PCS) are increasingly seen as an interesting option for firms who wish to pursue a strategy with a high degree of product variance while retaining a low cost of specifying the product. To become...

  9. Effect of resource conserving techniques on crop productivity in rice-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.A.; Munir, M.; Haqqani, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Rice-wheat cropping system is the most important one in Pakistan. The system provides food and livelihood for more than 15 million people in the country. The productivity of the system is much lower than the potential yields of both rice and wheat crops. With the traditional methods, rice-wheat system is not a profitable one to many farmers. Hence, Cost of cultivation must be reduced and at the same time, efficiency of resources like irrigation water, fuel, and fertilizers must be improved to make the crop production system more viable and eco- friendly. Resource conserving technology (RCT) must figure highly in this equation, since they play a major role in achieving the above goals. The RCT include laser land leveling, zero-tillage, bed furrow irrigation method and crop residue management. These technologies were evaluated in irrigated areas of Punjab where rice follows wheat. The results showed that paddy yield was not affected by the new methods. Direct seeding of rice crop saved irrigation water by 13% over the conventionally planted crop. Weeds were the major problem indirect seeded crop, which could be eliminated through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wheat crop on beds produced the highest yield but cost of production was minimum in the zero-till wheat crop. Planting of wheat on raised beds in making headway in low- lying and poorly drained areas. Thus, resource conserving tillage technology provides a tool for making progress towards improving and sustaining wheat production system, helping with food security and poverty alleviation in Pakistan in the next few decades. (author)

  10. Green-manure turnip for soybean based no-tillage farming systems in eastern Paraguay Adubação verde com nabo para soja em sistema de plantio direto no leste paraguaio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kubota

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A no-tillage soybean-wheat cropping system has been practiced for many years on the "Terra Rossa" soils of eastern Paraguay. Soil compactness and soil erosion have recently been identified as potential problems. This study examines the effect of replacing unprofitable wheat by green-manure turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. on soil properties and soybean production. Gaseous phase, porosity, bulk density, water saturation, cone index, pH, exchangeable-cations, available-phosphorus (P and aggregate size distribution of the soil were measured. Contrary to initial expectations, turnip did not reduce soil compactness. Instead, turnip stabilized the aggregate structure of the surface soil. Positive effects of turnip on subsequent soybean growth and yield were detected in a rather dry year but not in an exceptionally wet year. In a second part of this study, nutrient return from turnip and wheat residues were compared. Turnip produced 10.7 t ha-1 of shoot dry matter, and absorbed 294, 27, 302, 175, and 33 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Wheat absorbed 98, 11, 67, 11, and 7 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively. About 75% of the N absorbed by wheat was removed from the field at harvest whereas most nutrients in the turnip residue were returned to the soil before planting of soybeans with positive effects on soil fertility. Additional benefits of green-manure turnip would include a reduced chance for erosion through improvements in aggregate structure and through a more complete soil cover.Um sistema de plantio direto de rotação soja-trigo foi praticado por muitos anos em uma "Terra Roxa" no leste do Paraguai. A compactação do solo e a erosão foram reconhecidas recentemente como problemas potenciais. Este estudo examina o efeito da substituição do trigo antieconômico pela adubação verde com nabo (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. sobre as propriedades do solo e a produção de soja. A fase gasosa

  11. PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND SOIL HYDRO PHYSICAL PROPERTIES UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE PRACTICES AND COVER CROPS IN A TYPIC HAPLUSULT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Mohammed Lawal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tillage practices influence soil physical, chemical and biological qualities which in-turn alters plant growth and crop yield. In the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS ecological zone of Nigeria, agricultural production is mainly constrained by low soil nutrient and water holding capacity, it is therefore, imperative to develop appropriate management practices that will give optimal soil hydro-physical properties for proper plant growth, effective soil and water management and environmental conservation. This study investigated the effect of three tillage practices (no till, reduced till and conventional till and four cover crops (Centrosema pascuorum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Cucurbita maxima and Glyine max and a bare/control (no cover crop on some soil physical properties of a Typic Haplusult during the rainy seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013 in Samaru, NGS ecological zone of Nigeria. The field trials were laid out in a split plot arrangement with tillage practices in the main plots and cover crops in the subplots, all treatments were replicated three times. Auger and core soil samples were collected at the end of each cropping season each year in three replicates from each treatment plot at four depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm. Particle size distribution, bulk density, total pore volume and water retention at various soil matric potentials were determined using standard methods. Data obtained were compared with optimum values and fitted into a RETC computer code for quantifying soil hydraulic behavior and physical quality. Results showed that different tillage practices had varied effect on soil physical properties. No-till had the highest water holding capacity at most suction points evaluated, it had 4.3 % and 12.9 % more soil moisture than the reduced till  and conventionally tilled systems across all matric potentials while Centrosema pascuorum (3.1% and Cucurbita maxima (5.5% were best among evaluated cover crops in retaining soil moisture

  12. Tillage Reduces Survival of Grape Berry Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), via Burial Rather Than Mechanical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Jason M; Isaacs, Rufus; Grieshop, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is a key pest of vineyards in eastern North America that overwinters as pupae in leaf litter on the vineyard floor. This presents an opportunity for tillage to disturb and bury the pupae, providing a potential nonchemical approach to control of this pest. Using a Lilleston-style rotary cultivator, we determined the distribution of pupae within the soil profile after single tillage passes, measured the type and severity of damage inflicted on pupae, and investigated how these effects on pupae influenced their survival. Survivorship of pupae recovered from the vineyard immediately after tillage and held until emergence was not significantly different from those recovered from an untilled control area, indicating little effect of mechanical damage on this pest. However, a single pass of the tillage implement buried three-quarters of pupae under at least 1 cm of soil. A laboratory experiment to recreate these conditions resulted in significant increase in mortality when pupae were buried in more than 1 cm of sand. We conclude that 1) interference with adult emergence of diapausing pupae via burial is the primary mechanism by which tillage controls grape berry moth, and 2) efforts to optimize the impact of tillage on grape berry moth populations should focus on maximizing the number of pupae buried. We discuss the potential integration of tillage into different vineyard management systems to enhance pest management. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Bacterial and fungal communities respond differently to varying tillage depth in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Anderson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In arable cropping systems, reduced or conservation tillage practices are linked with improved soil quality, C retention and higher microbial biomass, but most long-term studies rarely focus on depths greater than 15 cm nor allow comparison of microbial community responses to agricultural practices. We investigated microbial community structure in a long-term field trial (12-years, Lincoln, New Zealand established in a silt-loam soil over four depth ranges down to 30 cm. Our objectives were to investigate the degree of homogenisation of soil biological and chemical properties with depth, and to determine the main drivers of microbial community response to tillage. We hypothesised that soil microbiological responses would depend on tillage depth, observed by a homogenisation of microbial community composition within the tilled zone. Tillage treatments were mouldboard plough and disc harrow, impacting soil to ∼20 and ∼10 cm depth, respectively. These treatments were compared to a no-tillage treatment and two control treatments, both permanent pasture and permanent fallow. Bacterial and fungal communities collected from the site were not impacted by the spatial location of sampling across the study area but were affected by physicochemical changes associated with tillage induced soil homogenisation and plant presence. Tillage treatment effects on both species richness and composition were more evident for bacterial communities than fungal communities, and were greater at depths <15 cm. Homogenisation of soil and changing land management appears to redistribute both microbiota and nutrients deeper in the soil profile while consequences for soil biogeochemical functioning remain poorly understood.

  14. Response of water use efficiency and carbon emission to no-tillage and winter wheat genotypes in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujie; Gao, Chao; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

    2018-04-20

    No-tillage management practices reduce net CO 2 losses from farmland and keep soil from degrading, but also decrease winter wheat grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in the North China Plain (NCP). Suitable management practices, namely, the choice of genotypes, could enhance crop yield and WUE; however, how the WUE and CO 2 exchange responds to no-tillage practices and winter wheat genotypes remains unclear. In the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 winter wheat growing seasons in the NCP, a field experiment was carried out, and tested two tillage methods (no-tillage with mulching and conventional tillage) and two winter wheat genotypes ('Tainong 18' and 'Jimai 22'). The goal of the study was to identify the relationship between winter wheat grain yield, water consumption, and carbon emissions in no-tillage practices. The results showed that, compared to conventional tillage, no-tillage significantly reduced the net CO 2 -C cumulative emissions and water consumption; however, the grain yield was significantly reduced by 6.8% and 12.0% in the first and second growing seasons, respectively. Compared with Jimai 22, Tainong 18 had a compensatory effect on the yield reduction caused by no-tillage. As a result, the yield carbon utilization efficiency (R) and WUE were the highest in no-tillage with Tainong 18 (NT18), and the carbon emission per unit water consumption was the lowest in NT18. The results support the idea that a combination of no-tillage with genotype can improve the regulation of soil carbon emissions and water consumption of winter wheat, thus, providing theoretical support for sustainable crop production and soil development in the NCP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of tillage practices on soil biologically active organic matter content over a growing season under semiarid Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martín-Lammerding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In semiarid areas, traditional, intensive tillage has led to the depletion of soil organic matter, which has resulted in reduced soil fertility. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems, practised over 12 years, on soil organic carbon (SOC, nitrogen (SN and biologically active organic matter (particulate organic matter [POM]; potentially mineralisable nitrogen [PMN]; microbial biomass [MB]. A Mediterranean Alfisol, located in central Spain, was managed using combinations of conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT or no-tillage (NT, plus a cropping background of either continuous wheat (WW or a fallow/wheat/pea/barley rotation (FW. Soil was sampled at two depths on four occasions during 2006-2007. The results showed the sampling date and the cropping background to significantly affect the SOC (p<0.0057 and p<0.0001 respectively. Tillage practice, however, had no effect on SOC or SN. The C-and N-POM contents were significantly influenced by the date, tillage and rotation. These variables were significantly higher under NT than CT and under WW than FW. The PMN was influenced by date, tillage and rotation, while C-MB was significantly affected by tillage (p< 0.0063, but not by rotation. The NT plots accumulated 66% C-POM, 60% N-POM, 39% PMN and 84% C-MB more than the CT plots. After more than 12 years, the benefits of conservation practices were found in the considered soil properties, mainly under no tillage. In order to obtain a consistent data set to predict soil biological status, it is necessary further study over time.

  16. Controle de plantas daninhas em feijão num sistema de rotação culturas em plantio direto Weed control in beans in a no-tillage crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito N. Rodrigues

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar culturas de inverno para formação de cobertura morta que reduza a população de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris. Ocupou-se o terreno durante o ano todo, com a sucessão, em plantio direto, de pousio ou cultura de inverno/feijão/cultura para silagem, estudando-se três modalidades de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão. A maior renda líquida acumulada após duas safras foi obtida com feijão semeado sobre palha de aveia-preta e controle de plantas daninhas com um gramicida pré-emergente, completando-se com capinas, quando necessário.This study was undertaken to select winter crops for mulching to reduce the weed infestation and to lower weed control costs in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris production. The soil was kept convered all the year under no-tillage with a sequence of a winter crop or fallow/beans/silage crop. Three weed control methods for beans were studied. After two complete crop sequences, the highest total net income was obtained with the beans directly drilled on the black oats (Avena strigosa mulching, spraying a pre-emergence grasskiller plus hoeing when needed.

  17. Products in fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....

  18. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  19. Persistência de palhada e liberação de nutrientes do nabo forrageiro no plantio direto Persistence and nutrients release of forage turnip straw utilized as mulching in no-tillage crop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A palhada das plantas de cobertura, mantida sobre o solo no plantio direto, representa uma reserva de nutrientes para cultivos subseqüentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a decomposição e a liberação de macronutrientes de resíduos de nabo forrageiro. O experimento foi realizado no campo, durante o ano de 1998, no Município de Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. O nabo forrageiro foi dessecado e manejado com rolo-faca 30 dias após a emergência. Avaliaram-se a persistência de palhada e a liberação de nutrientes dos resíduos aos 0, 13, 35 e 53 dias após o manejo. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O nabo forrageiro produziu, até o estádio de pré-florescimento, elevada quantidade de massa seca da parte aérea em cultivo de inverno (2.938 kg ha-1, acumulando 57,2, 15,3, 85,7, 37,4, 12,5 e 14,0 kg ha-1, respectivamente, de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. O manejo do nabo forrageiro no estádio de pré-florescimento apresenta rápida degradação da palhada, acarretando liberação de quantidades significativas de macronutrientes. Os nutrientes disponibilizados em maior quantidade e velocidade para a cultura subseqüente, são o K e o N. A maior velocidade de liberação de macronutrientes pelo nabo forrageiro ocorre no período compreendido entre 10 e 20 dias após o manejo da fitomassa.Straw of covering plants kept on soil surface in no-tillage system is an important source of nutrients for subsequent tillage. The objective of this work was to evaluate decomposition and macronutrients release from forage turnip residues. The experiment was set under field conditions during 1998 in Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR, Brazil. Forage turnip plants were desiccated and lodged 30 days after emergence. Straw persistence and nutrient release were evaluated at 0, 13, 35 and 53 days after management. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. Until pre-flowering stage, the forage

  20. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a combined multi-phase supplier selection model. The process repeatedly revisits the criteria and sourcing decision as the development process continues. This enables a structured adoption of product and production system innovation from strategic suppliers, where...... strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...... the literature on working with strategic suppliers. Specifically, we explicitly articulate the previously unreported issue of whether a supplier chosen for its innovation capabilities at the start of the new product development process will also be the most appropriate supplier during the production system...

  1. Soil microbial community composition changes according to the tillage practice and plant development stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrune, Florine; Dufrêne, Marc; Colinet, Gilles; Taminiau, Bernard; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2015-04-01

    Soil microorganisms are abundant and diverse and can have both beneficial and adverse effects on crop growth. Some, such as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae, are well known to favor crop productivity and plant health. They are notably involved in key processes such as improving plant nutrient acquisition, and they also play major roles in stimulating plant growth and protecting plants against pathogens by producing bioactive substances. Conversely, both agricultural practices and the plant development stage are known to influence the physical and chemical properties of the soil and hence the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. Here we investigated the impact of both tillage practice (conventional versus reduced tillage) and plant development stage (germination versus flowering) on the microbial community composition of an agricultural soil supporting a faba bean crop. Samples were taken at a depth of 15-20 cm from a silty soil in Belgium. For bacteria, we observed significant shifts in community composition according to both factors. Some changes were strongly related to the plant development stage and others to the tillage practice. Some taxa, including Gemmatimonas, Xanthomonadaceae, and Sinobacteraceae, showed a higher relative abundance at the flowering stage than at the germination stage, but no effect of tillage practice. Other taxa, including Flovobacterium, Chitinophaga, and Luteolibacter, showed a higher relative abundance under conventional tillage than under reduced tillage, but no change according to the stage of plant development. For fungi, significant shifts in community composition were observed according to the plant development stage. No effect of tillage practice was observed. The relative abundances of certain taxa, including Chaetomium and Clavicipitaceae, were higher during germination than during flowering, whereas other taxa, including Minimedusa and Teberdinia, showed a higher relative abundance during

  2. Effect of Tillage and Mulch Combination on Soil Physical Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tillage method and mulching on selected soil physical properties and performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) was studied in rainforest zone of South West Nigeria. Treatments were 4 x 2 factorial combination of tillage methods (zero tillage, manual clearing, heap, ridge), 12t/ha dry plant residue mulch, and ...

  3. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. James

    2006-01-01

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding. PMID:17130454

  4. Plantio direto, adubação verde e suplementação com esterco de aves na produção orgânica de berinjela No-tillage, green manure and supplementation with poltry manure on organic eggplant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria de Castro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Sob manejo orgânico, foram avaliados, em Seropédica, RJ, os sistemas de plantio direto da berinjela (Solanum melongena nas palhadas de Crotalaria juncea (crotalária, Pennisetum glaucum (milheto, cv. BRS 1501 e vegetação espontânea (pousio, em comparação com o plantio convencional (aração e gradagem ou enxada rotativa. Simultaneamente, foram avaliados três tipos de cultivo: berinjela em monocultura, em consórcio com crotalária e em consórcio com caupi (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Mauá. Não houve diferença entre os sistemas de plantio direto e convencional quanto à produção comercial da berinjela. A palhada da crotalária foi mais eficiente que a do milheto e do pousio para cobertura morta do solo e conseqüentemente o controle de plantas espontâneas foi maior. O cultivo simultâneo com as leguminosas não acarretou redução da produtividade da berinjela. Em um segundo estudo, foram comparados plantio direto (palhadas de crotalária e da vegetação espontânea e plantio convencional, combinados com doses crescentes de cama de aviário (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 de N aplicada em cobertura. Em termos de aporte de biomassa, a crotalária foi novamente superior à vegetação espontânea. A berinjela respondeu à adubação orgânica, com produtividade máxima de 50,6 t ha-1 , correspondendo à maior dose empregada, contra 36,9 t ha-1 referentes ao controle.No-tillage systems were evaluated within an eggplant (Solanum melongena organic management in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum glaucum cv. BRS 1501 were used as pre-plantings besides fallowing, in comparison to conventional system (plowing. Simultaneously, three cropping managements were tested: eggplant single-cropping, intercropping with C. juncea, and intercropping with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Mauá. No differences were found among planting systems concerning eggplant yield. Crotalaria juncea was more effective than Pennisetum glaucum

  5. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Daozhi; Hao, Weiping; Mei, Xurong; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Caylor, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L.) fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK) and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR) on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI) and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3%) top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass), there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source) in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions.

  6. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daozhi Gong

    Full Text Available Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L. fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3% top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass, there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions.

  7. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  8. Materia seca nodular y nitrógeno acumulado en el cultivo de soja en función de la disponibilidad de agua y azufre, y del sistema de labranza Nodular dry matter and accumulated nitrogen in soybean as a function of water and sulfur availability and tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cicore

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La material seca nodular (MSN y el nitrógeno acumulado (N-acum. en el cultivo de soja fueron evaluados en función del sistema de labranza [siembra directa (SD y labranza convencional (LC] y la disponibilidad de azufre (S. Para ello, se realizaron en Balcarce durante la campaña 2002-03 dos experimentos, uno conducido bajo riego (Ri y otro en secano (Se. La MSN determinada en R5 no fue afectada por la aplicación de S (P>0.10, sin embargo fue mayor bajo SD en Se (PNodular dry matter (NDM and accumulated nitrogen (AN in a soybean crop were evaluated as a function of tillage system [no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage(CT] and sulfur (S availability in two experiments carried out under irrigation (Ri and rainfed conditions (Se. The experiment was carried out at Balcarce in the 2002-2003 growing season. The NDM, determined at R5 stage, was not affected by S fertilization (P>0.10 but was higher under NT in Se (P< 0.05. Under Ri NDM was higher under NT but this difference was not significant. The AN was not affected by S fertilization, and under rainfed conditions, it was significantly lower (P<0.05 under CT. The AN was positively related with NDM but the r² value was low (36%, suggesting that NDM was not the only factor regulating biological N2-fixation.

  9. 35-40 The Effect of Tillage Frequency and Weed Control on Yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the experiment was to determine the optimum tillage frequency, time and weeding frequency for tef production in the Yielmana ... post-harvest management cost, low risk crop and the straw provides better animal feed than ..... Kalyani publishers, New Delhi- 110 002, India. Rezene, F. and Zerihun, T. 2001.

  10. Tillage and farmyard manure efects on crusting and compacting soils at Katumani, Semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biamah, E.K.; Sterk, G.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2008-01-01

    In semi-arid Kenya, the most dominatn soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction

  11. Effects of tillage on runoff from a bare clayey soil on a semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of tillage on runoff from a bare clayey soil on a semi-arid ecotope in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. ... IRWH is a special type of no-till (NT) crop production practice that promotes runoff from a crusted runoff strip into basins where the water infiltrates beyond evaporation but is available for crop use. Runoff was ...

  12. Soil methane oxidation in a long-term no-tillage system in Southern BrazilOxidação de metano em solo a longo prazo sob plantio direto no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimélio Bayer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation management systems are usually suggested as alternative to restore the soil methane (CH4 oxidation capacity of degraded soils; however, little information is available on tropical and subtropical soils. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term (19 years effect of no-tillage (NT versus conventional tillage (CT management systems on CH4 fluxes in a formerly degraded Acrisol in Southern Brazil. Annual CH4 fluxes of two cropping systems [O/M-black oat (Avena strigosa/maize and V/M-vetch (Vigna sativa/maize] were measured in NT and CT soils. Static chambers were used for air sampling, while chromatography was used for CH4 analysis. Analysis of the historical dataset at this experimental site indicated improvements in soil quality under the NT system, especially in legume-based cropping system (V/M that exhibited the highest annual biomass input. CH4 fluxes ranged from −42 ± 2 to 38 ± 16 μg C m-2 h-1, and annual CH4 emissions ranged from −825 ± 117 (CT V/M to 453 ± 185 g C ha-1 (NT O/M. Thus, the annual CH4 oxidation capacity of the soil was not related to the soil quality produced by the soil management systems. On the basis of our results and published literature, we postulate that conservation management systems improve the methane oxidation and soil quality in distinct soil layers, which result in a slow effect of these management systems on the methane oxidation capacity. Sistemas conservacionistas de manejo de solo são considerados usualmente uma alternativa para restaurar a capacidade de solos agrícolas degradados em oxidar metano (CH4, mas escassa informação é disponível para solos tropicais e subtropicais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito de longo prazo (19 anos do plantio direto (PD nos fluxos de CH4 em um Argissolo Vermelho (Classificação Brasileira degradado da região Sul do Brasil, em comparação ao preparo convencional (PC. Fluxos anuais de CH4 do solo foram avaliados nos sistemas PD e

  13. Effect of erosion on productivity in subtropical red soil hilly region: a multi-scale spatio-temporal study by simulated rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Zeng, Guangming; Nie, Xiaodong; Ma, Wenming; Yu, Wei; Guo, Wang; Zhang, Jiachao

    2013-01-01

    The effects of water erosion (including long-term historical erosion and single erosion event) on soil properties and productivity in different farming systems were investigated. A typical sloping cropland with homogeneous soil properties was designed in 2009 and then protected from other external disturbances except natural water erosion. In 2012, this cropland was divided in three equally sized blocks. Three treatments were performed on these blocks with different simulated rainfall intensities and farming methods: (1) high rainfall intensity (1.5-1.7 mm min(-1)), no-tillage operation; (2) low rainfall intensity (0.5-0.7 mm min(-1)), no-tillage operation; and (3) low rainfall intensity, tillage operation. All of the blocks were divided in five equally sized subplots along the slope to characterize the three-year effects of historical erosion quantitatively. Redundancy analysis showed that the effects of long-term historical erosion significantly caused most of the variations in soil productivity in no-tillage and low rainfall erosion intensity systems. The intensities of the simulated rainfall did not exhibit significant effects on soil productivity in no-tillage systems. By contrast, different farming operations induced a statistical difference in soil productivity at the same single erosion intensity. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was the major limiting variable that influenced soil productivity. Most explanations of long-term historical erosion for the variation in soil productivity arose from its sharing with SOC. SOC, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were found as the regressors of soil productivity because of tillage operation. In general, this study provided strong evidence that single erosion event could also impose significant constraints on soil productivity by integrating with tillage operation, although single erosion is not the dominant effect relative to the long-term historical erosion. Our study demonstrated that an effective management of organic

  14. Effect of Erosion on Productivity in Subtropical Red Soil Hilly Region: A Multi-Scale Spatio-Temporal Study by Simulated Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Zeng, Guangming; Nie, Xiaodong; Ma, Wenming; Yu, Wei; Guo, Wang; Zhang, Jiachao

    2013-01-01

    The effects of water erosion (including long-term historical erosion and single erosion event) on soil properties and productivity in different farming systems were investigated. A typical sloping cropland with homogeneous soil properties was designed in 2009 and then protected from other external disturbances except natural water erosion. In 2012, this cropland was divided in three equally sized blocks. Three treatments were performed on these blocks with different simulated rainfall intensities and farming methods: (1) high rainfall intensity (1.5 - 1.7 mm min−1), no-tillage operation; (2) low rainfall intensity (0.5 - 0.7 mm min−1), no-tillage operation; and (3) low rainfall intensity, tillage operation. All of the blocks were divided in five equally sized subplots along the slope to characterize the three-year effects of historical erosion quantitatively. Redundancy analysis showed that the effects of long-term historical erosion significantly caused most of the variations in soil productivity in no-tillage and low rainfall erosion intensity systems. The intensities of the simulated rainfall did not exhibit significant effects on soil productivity in no-tillage systems. By contrast, different farming operations induced a statistical difference in soil productivity at the same single erosion intensity. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was the major limiting variable that influenced soil productivity. Most explanations of long-term historical erosion for the variation in soil productivity arose from its sharing with SOC. SOC, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were found as the regressors of soil productivity because of tillage operation. In general, this study provided strong evidence that single erosion event could also impose significant constraints on soil productivity by integrating with tillage operation, although single erosion is not the dominant effect relative to the long-term historical erosion. Our study demonstrated that an effective management of

  15. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  16. Conservation tillage versus conventional tillage on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Understanding soil dynamics is essential for making appropriate land management decisions, as soils can affect the carbon content from the atmosphere, emitting large quantities of CO2 or storing carbon. This property is essential for climate change mitigation strategies as agriculture and forestry soil management can affect the carbon cycle. The dehesa is a Mediterranean silvopastoral system formed by grasslands with scattered oaks (Quercus ilex or Q. suber). The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. In addition, the dehesa is a practice dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork, as well as hunting. The dehesa is characterized by the preservation of forest oaks. In this work, we compared two management practices such as organic farming (OF) and conventional tillage (CT) on soil organic carbon stocks (SOC-S) in Cambisols (CM) and Leptosols (LP), and we analyzed the quality of these soils based on stratification ratio (SR) in a Mediterranean dehesa. MATERIAL AND METHODS An analysis of 85 soil profiles was performed in 2009 in Los Pedroches Valley (Cordoba, southern Spain). Two soil management practices were selected: OF (isolated trees of variable densities —15-25— trees ha-1, mostly holm and cork oaks, and patches of shrubs — cistaceae, fabaceae and lamiaceae— with a herbaceous pasture layer mostly composed of therophytic species and livestock are introduced to provide organic fertilizer to the soil, without ploughing and animal manure from the farms may be incorporated) for 20 years and CT (similar to OF, with ploughing —annual passes with a disc harrow and/or cultivator— is aimed at growing grain for livestock or at clearing the encroaching shrubs) in CM and LP. The dehesas studied were silvopastoral systems without cropping. Soil properties

  17. Determinants of tillage frequency among smallholder farmers in two semi-arid areas in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temesgen, Melesse; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Alemu, Dawit

    Traditional tillage systems practiced by farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia are characterized by repeated and cross plowing with an indigenous plow called Maresha. Repeated and cross plowing have led to land degradation. Conservation tillage systems that advocate minimum soil disturbance can alleviate land degradation problems. However, before introducing reduced tillage systems, it was found necessary to study why farmers undertake repeated plowing. The study was undertaken in two semi-arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity located in the central rift valley of Ethiopia and on two major crops; Tef ( Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.)) and maize ( Zea mays XX). Fifty farmers from each area were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that farmers in the study area plow repeatedly in order to completely disturb unplowed strips of land left between adjacent furrows. Unplowed strips are the results of the V-shaped furrows created by the Maresha plow. Farmers generally do not plow before the soil is wetted by rainfall. Wetting and drying cycles due to dry spells occurring between rainfall events force farmers to plow frequently to avoid moisture losses through surface runoff, evaporation and weed transpiration. Tef fields are plowed 4-5 times while maize fields are plowed 3-4 times. Tillage frequency increased with the education level and experience of farmers; with their perception about the purpose of tillage such as moisture conservation, weed control and soil warming; and with resource availability such as area of land and family labor. Tillage frequency was higher for Tef than for maize and in heavy soils than in light soils.

  18. Evapotranspiration in winter wheat under different grazing and tillage practices in the southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) is highly variable both spatially and temporally with recurring periods of severe drought. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow system with conventional tillage is the principal dryland cropping system in this region for both grazing an...

  19. Malt barley yield and quality affected by irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the comparison of management practices on malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and quality in irrigated and non-irrigated cropping systems. We evaluated the effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on malt barley yield and quality in a sandy loam s...

  20. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  1. The system Around the Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

          The design discipline has traditionally focused on products physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ?operative paradigm? to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors? role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a systemic...

  2. Impact of different cropping conditions and tillage practices on the soil fungal abundance of a Phaeozem luvico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, R.P.; Aulicino, M.B.; Mónaco, C.I.; Kripelz, N.; Cordo, C.A.

    2015-07-01

    Fungal diversity seems to be a good indicator of ecosystem disturbance and functioning. The purpose of this work was to quantify the fungal population as a sensitive indicator of the changes caused by stubble placement in two tillage systems: reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) with and without cropping. To this end, we determined the effect of soil disturbances such as N fertilization, tillage practice, and cropped area on the soil fungal communities of a Phaeozem luvico of the El Salado river basin (Argentina). Soil samples (at 0-10 cm depth) were collected from a field cultivated with wheat at post-harvest, before sowing and at tillering. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was studied on Nash Snyder and Oxgall agar media after different treatments and assessed as colony forming units (CFU/gof soil). The diversity of the fungal population was studied by Shannon´s index (H). The tillage system showed a marked effect only at post-harvest and the number of propagules was highest under RT for both culture media. The largest values of H were found only at post-harvest when Oxgall agar was used. A significant decrease in the values of H was observed when CT and high fertilization was applied in the wheat cropped area. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was different in soils under the different tillage practices. (Author)

  3. Effects of the penetration of Artemisia vulgaris L. into maize crops as a result of the use of reduced tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Gołębiowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a significant increase in weed infestation of agricultural crops with Artemisia vulgaris has been observed in the south-western region of Poland. The ease of migration of this expansive species results from the fact that it does not face competition from segetal weeds and therefore poses a great threat to the ecological balance. During the period 2008–2011, a floristic study was carried out using the Braun-Blanquet method in an abandoned field adjacent to a maize monoculture grown under two tillage systems: plough and ploughless tillage. These observations allowed an evaluation of the actual risk of spread of Artemisia vulgaris depending on tillage system. The vicinity of the abandoned field had a significant effect on the penetration of Artemisia vulgaris into maize crops. Higher numbers of individuals of this species were found under ploughless tillage compared to plough tillage, regardless of the distance from the field edge, and its increased competitive effects on Viola arvensis L. and Veronica persica L. could be observed. The lowest grain yield was obtained under ploughless tillage where the strong competitive effects of Artemisia vulgaris were observed even in the plot most distant from the abandoned field adjacent to the maize crop.

  4. Impact of different cropping conditions and tillage practices on the soil fungal abundance of a Phaeozem luvico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Gómez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity seems to be a good indicator of ecosystem disturbance and functioning. The purpose of this work was to quantify the fungal population as a sensitive indicator of the changes caused by stubble placement in two tillage systems: reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT with and without cropping. To this end, we determined the effect of soil disturbances such as N fertilization, tillage practice, and cropped area on the soil fungal communities of a Phaeozem luvico of the El Salado river basin (Argentina. Soil samples (at 0-10 cm depth were collected from a field cultivated with wheat at post-harvest, before sowing and at tillering. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was studied on Nash Snyder and Oxgall agar media after different treatments and assessed as colony forming units (CFU/g of soil. The diversity of the fungal population was studied by Shannon´s index (H. The tillage system showed a marked effect only at post-harvest and the number of propagules was highest under RT for both culture media. The largest values of H were found only at post-harvest when Oxgall agar was used. A significant decrease in the values of H was observed when CT and high fertilization was applied in the wheat cropped area. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was different in soils under the different tillage practices.

  5. Effects of crop rotation and soil tillage on weeds in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Franz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An organic long-term field experiment with two factors has been carried out since 1998 at the experimental station Gladbacherhof, University of Giessen. Effects of 3 different farm types (with lifestock raising, stockless farming with rotational set-aside, stockless farming only cash crops combined with 4 tillage treatments (mouldboard plough, two-layer-plough, reduced tillage depth and tillage without plough on plants, soil and environment have been investigated. This article presents results on the coverage rate of arable wild plants (weed coverage, the range of weed species, the abundance of C. arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle and the weed phytomass during harvest time of the main crops dependent on farm type and soil tillage. It can be concluded that, compared to conventional economic weed thresholds, the weed coverage was generally relatively low and only limited ranges of species were found. Wild arable plants probably did not have any impact on yields of the cultivated plants due to intensive mechanical regulatory measures. In stockless organic farming without alfalfa-grass in the crop rotation Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle might become a problem whereas this perennial root-weed does not seem to raise a long term problem in a soil tillage system without ploughing. In all treatments the abundance of weeds like Galium aparine L. (catchweed bedstraw and Stellaria media L. (chickweed was high. However, none of the farm types or soil tillage systems succeeded in providing evidence of promoting rare species or encouraging biodiversity. In order to achieve this special support measures should be implemented.

  6. Linear correlation between components production and yield of rice upland in no-tillage Correlação linear entre componentes da produção e produtividade do arroz de terras altas em sistema plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rice is one of the main sources of the humanity’s feeding. During the agricultural year 2009/2010, in Selvíria County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, in the Brazilian Savannah, an experiment was installed with rice upland in a Dystropherric Red Latosol (Typic Acrustox under no-tillage, irrigated by central pivot, with the purpose of selecting the best components production to explain the variability the irrigated rice yield upland. The geostatistical grid was installed, to collect the data, with 120 sampling points, in an area of 3.0 ha and and homogeneous slope of 0.055 m m-1. The medium rice yield was of the 5980 kg ha-1. For the simple lineal regressions, the number of spikelets grenades for panicle presented the best direct potential correlation with the yield rice, given for: PGO = 115,5.NEG0,770. However, for the multiple lineal regressions, the equation equação PGO = 2754,30-411,55.NEG-461,07.NEC+436,59. NET it was the one that better she came to esteem the yield rice. However, spatial, it was not possible to establish correlation between the yield rice and the components production, once none of those it presented spatial dependence in their data.O arroz é uma das principais fontes de alimentação da humanidade. Durante o ano agrícola 2009/2010, no município de Selvíria (MS, no Cerrado Brasileiro, foi instalado um experimento com arroz de terras altas em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob sistema plantio direto, irrigado por pivô central, com o objetivo de selecionar os melhores componentes da produção para explicar a variabilidade da produtividade do arroz de terras altas irrigado. Foi instalada a malha geoestatística, para a coleta de dados, com 120 pontos amostrais, numa área de 3,0 ha e declive homogêneo de 0,055 m m-1. A produtividade média de grãos de arroz foi de 5980 kg ha-1. Para as regressões lineares simples, o número de espiguetas granadas por panícula apresentou a melhor correlação potencial

  7. Modeling Edge Effects of Tillage Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage erosion has been recognized as an important factor in redistribution of soil over time and in the development of morphological changes within agricultural fields. Field borders, fences, and vegetated strips that interrupt soil fluxes lead to the creation topographic discontinuities or lynche...

  8. Sucessão entre cultivos orgânicos de milho e couve consorciados com leguminosas em plantio direto Organic crop succession of maize and collard greens intercropped with legumes in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EE Silva

    2011-03-01

    oleracea L. var. acephala and corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with green manure legumes under no-tillage organic system. The study was conducted in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, during two years. We utilized dwarf velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana and showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis as green manure intercropped with collard greens and in succession sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea and velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens intercropped with corn. As a control, there was a single crop system of corn and collard greens. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks, a factorial 3 (crop system x 2 (doses of poultry bed manure, with four replications, in plots of 20 m². For the collard greens we applied 0 and 5.4 t ha-1 of poultry bed manure (2.7 t ha-1 in two applications in 2003; 0 (zero and 2.7 t ha-1 in 2004. In the monocrop system, the yield of collard greens was of 37.7 and 18.4 t ha-1, intercropped with dwarf velvet bean the yield reached 40.3 and 38.8 t ha-1 and, using showy crotalaria the yield was of 42.9 and 24.8 t ha-1, in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The corn was benefited from the residual effect of fertilizer with poultry bed manure increasing the production of ears from 25,625 to 27,916 ha-1. Crop succession of collard greens and corn, intercropped with annual legumes under organic fertilization as poultry bed manure, showed yield increase for collard greens and corn.

  9. Ajuste osmótico em milho cultivado em diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo e disponibilidade hídrica Osmotic adjustment in maize cultivated in different soil tillage systems and water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusa Adriane Menegassi Bianchi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do milho é sensível ao déficit hídrico, e esta é uma causa freqüente de redução na produção de grãos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de ajuste osmótico em milho, cultivado em dois sistemas de manejo do solo, com diferentes disponibilidades hídricas. Os tratamentos consistiram do cultivo do milho em semeadura direta (SD e convencional (SC, com irrigação de forma a manter a umidade do solo próxima à capacidade de campo, e sem irrigação. O ajuste osmótico foi obtido pela diferença do potencial osmótico hidratado entre as plantas irrigadas e sem irrigação. Os maiores valores de potencial mínimo de água na folha ocorreram em plantas cultivadas sob SD, em razão do maior potencial matricial da água no solo nesse sistema. O potencial de pressão e o osmótico hidratado diminuíram em conseqüência do déficit hídrico, o que determinou a ocorrência de ajuste osmótico em ambos os sistemas, que foi mais intenso em manejo convencional. Portanto, o potencial mínimo de água na folha demonstra ser um indicador adequado da condição hídrica das plantas de milho. A cultura apresenta tolerância ao déficit hídrico por meio do mecanismo de ajuste osmótico.Maize is a very sensible crop to water deficit, which is a frequent cause of reduction in its grain yield. The objective of this work was to verify the occurrence of osmotic adjustment in maize cultivated in different soil management systems and water availability. The maize was cropped in no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, with irrigation and no-irrigation. For measurements of minimum leaf water potential, a pressure chamber was utilized. Osmotic adjustment was calculated as the difference between osmotic potentials at full turgor, in irrigated and non-irrigated plants. Highest values of minimum leaf water potential were found in plants cropped in NT, as a response to the highest soil potential on this cropping system. Pressure

  10. The SPOOKI post production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, M.; Klasa, M.; Fortier, S.; Fortin, F.; Hardy, G.; Pelletier, L.; Edouard, S.; Archambault, B.; Yazidi, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) delivers a large number of numerical weather prediction products to the various weather offices and clients throughout Canada and abroad. The current post production system was built according to the needs and ideology of the 1980's and it is becoming obsolete with time. Its cumbersome architecture is difficult to maintain and requires a lot of human and computing resources. The "Weather Elements" section of CMC is aware of the problems associated with its maintenance in the long term and has therefore decided to review in depth the whole approach to the operational post production. The analysis of present and future needs have led to the development of an innovative concept in the operational production field inspired by the "Plug and Play" process. SPOOKI (Système de Production Orienté-Objet contennant une Kyrielle d'Informations - Object oriented production system containing a myriad of information) was created in its present form in 2007. It is based on a modular approach where each plug-in component is specialized, reusable and autonomous. These object oriented programming characteristics greatly simplify the maintenance of the system. Particular attention was also given to create a user-friendly system for novice users. An experimental version of SPOOKI is currently running in development mode and an operational one is planned to be implemented in the coming year. The poster presentation will describe SPOOKI, the future CMC operational post production system. Several examples of usage will be shown.

  11. The system around the product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    The design discipline has traditionally focused on products’ physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ‘operative paradigm’ to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors’ role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a systemic...

  12. Effects of Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and some Soil Properties in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaeyo, NU.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of soil fertility status and optimum crop yield has been a great task in Nigeria. Against this background, studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 growing seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of cassava and soil properties and dynamics under some tillage practices. Randomized block design with four replications was used and the tillage treatments were Heaping [HP], No-Till + Herbicide [NTH], Ridging [RG] and No-Till-Slash and Burn [NSB]. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on sprouting percentage in 1994 but in 1995, HP treatment was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than others. Tillage had no marked effect on cassava height in both years while number of leaves only differed significantly (P < 0.05 8 months after planting with HP treatment being higher than others. Stem girth showed no marked differences among treatments in both years. Similarly, in both years, cassava fresh root yield and yield components were not significantly affected by tillage practices. NSB showed significantly higher soil bulk density at planting in both years than other treatments. Generally, soil chemical properties were not markedly affected by the tillage practices. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while RG produced the highest returns. The study suggests that successful growing of cassava under reduced tillage practices is practicable in an Alfisol in this agro-ecological zone.

  13. Spatial 2D distribution of the proportion of soil phosphorus uptake by maize and soybean caused by tillage and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixiao; Mollier, Alain; Ziadi, Noura; Messiga, Aimé Jean; Parent, Leon-Étienne; Morel, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Plant-available soil phosphorus (P) accumulates primarily in the topsoil due to P fertilization and P released from crop residues. In contrast with conventional tillage (moldboard plough, MP), conservation tillage [e.g. no-till, (NT)] often leads to higher P concentrations in the topsoil mainly due to the absence of mixing between soil, fertilizer, and crop residues. Our objective was to estimate the proportion of P uptake from a given soil mass across the soil profile under maize and soybean as the product of root surface density proportions and local plant-available soil P. This study was conducted on a long-term field experiment initiated in 1992 in southern Quebec, Canada, and established on a clay-loam soil under MP and NT systems. The experiment was factorially treated with three P doses (0, 17.5 and 35 kg P ha-1 applied as triple superphosphate on maize at 5 cm depth and at 5 cm on one side of the crop row). Soil was sampled at flowering stage at five depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm) and three horizontal distances perpendicular to the crop row (5, 15 and 25 cm) in 2014 and 2015 to map a grid soil P availability to plants, e.g. phosphate ion concentrations in solution and the time-dependent amount of phosphate ions that can equilibrate- solution by diffusion, root distribution, and consequently crop P uptake, which was calculated as the fraction of plant-available soil P intercepted by surface roots. In general, NT tended to have higher soil P status in the upper soil layer and lower soil P status in the deeper soil layer compared to MP ; confirming previous results obtained from the same experimental site. This variation along the soil profile was significantly affected by sampling distance to crop row with higher concentration observed at 5-cm distance mainly because of the placement of P fertilizers. The 2D distribution of P uptake depended on tillage practice and P fertilization. There was higher proportions of P uptake from the 0-10 and 0

  14. Produção orgânica de rabanete em plantio direto sobre cobertura morta e viva Organic cropping of radish in no-tillage under died and live mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lúcia F Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de plantas espontâneas e cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, associado à aplicação de composto orgânico na produção orgânica do rabanete em plantio direto. O experimento foi instalado na Universidade Federal do Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, de 15/06 a 14/07/2007. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas 4x3, em quatro repetições. As parcelas corresponderam ao sistema de plantio direto com cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro, cobertura viva de planta espontânea, cobertura morta de planta espontânea e sistema de plantio em canteiro com solo descoberto. As subparcelas foram compostas pelas doses de composto orgânico de 5, 10 e 15 t ha-1 (base seca. O plantio direto na palha de plantas espontâneas teve desempenho semelhante ao preparo convencional do solo, ambos superiores ao plantio sobre as coberturas vivas. A produtividade do rabanete cv. Cometo, não foi afetada pelas doses crescentes de composto orgânico, podendo aplicar-se apenas 5 t ha-1, enquanto em preparo convencional do solo, o aumento da produtividade ultrapassa o plantio direto na palha apenas na dose maior de composto (15 t ha-1.The use of volunteer plants and live coverage of peanut (Arachis pintoi was evaluated, associating the application of organic compost in organic production of radish in no-till. The experiment was carried out at Federal University of Acre, in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. A randomized complete block design with a split plot arrangement (4x3 and four replications was used. The plots consisted of the no-tillage systems with live coverage of peanut, with live coverage of spontaneous plants (weeds, with mulching of spontaneous plants, and conventional soil tillage with no-mulching soil. The subplots were composed of the doses of organic compost of 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 in dry basis. The no-tillage with straw weed mulch had similar performance

  15. Defining the effect of sweep tillage tool cutting edge geometry on tillage forces using 3D discrete element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ucgul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy required for tillage processes accounts for a significant proportion of total energy used in crop production. In many tillage processes decreasing the draft and upward vertical forces is often desired for reduced fuel use and improved penetration, respectively. Recent studies have proved that the discrete element modelling (DEM can effectively be used to model the soil–tool interaction. In his study, Fielke (1994 [1] examined the effect of the various tool cutting edge geometries, namely; cutting edge height, length of underside rub, angle of underside clearance, on draft and vertical forces. In this paper the experimental parameters of Fielke (1994 [1] were simulated using 3D discrete element modelling techniques. In the simulations a hysteretic spring contact model integrated with a linear cohesion model that considers the plastic deformation behaviour of the soil hence provides better vertical force prediction was employed. DEM parameters were determined by comparing the experimental and simulation results of angle of repose and penetration tests. The results of the study showed that the simulation results of the soil-various tool cutting edge geometries agreed well with the experimental results of Fielke (1994 [1]. The modelling was then used to simulate a further range of cutting edge geometries to better define the effect of sweep tool cutting edge geometry parameters on tillage forces. The extra simulations were able to show that by using a sharper cutting edge with zero vertical cutting edge height the draft and upward vertical force were further reduced indicating there is benefit from having a really sharp cutting edge. The extra simulations also confirmed that the interpolated trends for angle of underside clearance as suggested by Fielke (1994 [1] where correct with a linear reduction in draft and upward vertical force for angle of underside clearance between the ranges of −25 and −5°, and between −5 and 0°. The

  16. Soil aggregation in a crop-livestock integration system under no-tillage Agregação do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicarlos Damacena de Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grazing intensities can influence soil aggregation, which can be temporarily and permanently affected. The objective of this study was to evaluate the aggregate stability in water at the end of a soybean cycle and during pasture development in a crop-livestock integration system under no-tillage and grazing intensities. The experiment was initiated in 2001, in a dystrophic Red Latosol, after soybean harvest. Treatments consisted of pasture (black oat + Italian ryegrass at heights of 10, 20 and 40 cm, grazed by young cattle, and a control (no grazing, followed by soybean cultivation, in a randomized block design. Soil samples were collected at the end of the soybean cycle (May/2007, during animal grazing (September/2007 and at the end of the grazing cycle (November/2007. The grazing period influences aggregate distribution, since in the September sampling (0-5 cm layer, there was a higher proportion of aggregates > 4.76 mm at all grazing intensities. Soil aggregation is higher in no-tillage crop-livestock integration systems in grazed than in ungrazed areas.As intensidades de pastejo podem influenciar o estado de agregação do solo, que pode sofrer alterações temporárias ou permanentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a estabilidade dos agregados em água ao final do ciclo da soja e durante o desenvolvimento da pastagem em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em plantio direto submetido a intensidades de pastejo. O experimento foi iniciado em 2001, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, após a colheita da soja. Os tratamentos constaram de alturas de manejo da pastagem (aveia-preta + azevém: 10, 20 e 40 cm, com bovinos jovens, e sem pastejo, seguido do cultivo de soja, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso. Amostras de solo foram retiradas nas camadas de 0 a 5, 5 a 10 e 10 a 20 cm. As amostras foram coletadas ao final do ciclo da soja (maio/2007, em pleno pastejo pelos animais (setembro/2007 e ao final do pastejo (novembro/2007. O tempo

  17. Gypsum application in the soybeans no-tillage system with and without potassium fertilization. = Gessagem na cultura da soja no sistema de plantio direto com e sem adubação potássica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rosatto Moda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gypsum can be used as a sulfur source, thereby improving nutrition and promoting gains in yield of soybeans in no-tillage system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sulfur applied as gypsum in the soybean culture under the no-tillage system with and without potassium fertilization. The experiment was conducted in the city of Guaíra-SP in an OXISOL. The experimental design used was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 2 x 5 with four replications. The treatments were obtained by combining two levels of K (0 and 60 kg ha-1 K2O, applied as potassium chloride, and five doses of sulfur (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 S applied in the form of gypsum. Foliar potassium, calcium and sulfur, in addition to grain yield and oil content in the grains were evaluated. It was observed that the application of sulfur in the soil improved the nutritional status of soybean in potassium, calcium and sulfur, without affecting grain yield, independent of potassium fertilization. The presenceof sulfur in the soil increased the oil content in soybean grain with or without potassium fertilization. = O gesso agrícola pode ser utilizado como fonte de enxofre, desta forma, melhorando a nutrição e promovendo ganhos na produtividade da cultura da soja em sistema de plantio direto. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitosdo enxofre (S aplicados na forma de gesso agrícola na cultura da soja em sistema de plantio direto com e sem adubação potássica. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Guairá-SP em solo da classe LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Eutrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram obtidos pela combinação de dois níveis de K (0 e 60 kg ha-1 de K2O, fonte cloreto de potássio; e cinco doses de enxofre (0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 kg ha-1 de S, fonte gesso agrícola. Foram avaliados os teores foliares de potássio, cálcio e enxofre, al

  18. Efeito de cargas aplicadas e profundidades de semeadura no desenvolvimento da cultura do feijão em sistema plantio direto Effect of loads applied and depths of sowing in the development of bean culture in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir José Modolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os fatores primordiais para a germinação estão a umidade, a temperatura e a aeração do solo. É importante citar que esses fatores são diretamente influenciados pelo estado de compactação do solo ao redor da semente. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar os efeitos da combinação entre profundidades de semeadura e cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora da semeadora-adubadora sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura do feijão, em sistema plantio direto. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, composto por doze tratamentos (três profundidades de semeadura e quatro níveis de cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que a profundidade de semeadura influenciou, significativamente, o índice de velocidade de emergência, os estandes inicial e final de plantas e o rendimento da cultura. As diferentes cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora não influenciaram significativamente as variáveis avaliadas.Among the primordial factors for the germination are humidity, temperature, and aeration of the soil. It is important to mention that these factors are directly influenced by the soil compaction state around the seed. The present paper had the aim of studying the effects of the combination between depths of sowing and loads applied by press wheel of the seeder upon the development of bean culture, in a no-tillage system. Factor schedule was applied to the delineation in random blocks composed by twelve treatments (three depths of sowing and four levels of loads applied by the press wheel and four replications. The results showed that depth of sowing significantly influenced the index of emergency speed, the initial and final stands of plants and yield of culture. The different loads applied for the press wheel did not significantly influence the evaluated variables.

  19. Water use efficiency of dryland cowpea, sorghum and sunflower under reduced tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought-adapted, early maturing crops combined with reduced tillage systems have the potential to stabilize and increase dryland crop yields in the Southern High Plains. The objective of this study was to evaluate dryland grain yield response and soil water use for cowpea [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Wal...

  20. Reducing tillage intensity affects the cumulative emergence dynamics of annual grass weeds in winter cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, A; Melander, B; Jensen, P K

    2017-01-01

    Annual grass weeds such as Apera spica-venti and Vulpia myuros are promoted in non-inversion tillage systems and winter cereal-based crop rotations. Unsatisfactory weed control in these conditions is often associated with a poor understanding of the emergence pattern of these weed species. The ai...