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Sample records for tilapia fish oreochromis

  1. Bacteria Associated with Fresh Tilapia Fish (Oreochromis niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Keywords: Bacteria, Tilapia fish and Sokoto central market. INTRODUCTION ... The bacteria are transmitted by fish that have made contact ... with which a product spoils is also related to the .... Base on the percentage frequency of occurance ,.

  2. Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) predation on fishes in the Muddy River system, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Salgado, J.A.; Nielsen, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), native to North Africa and the Middle East (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999), has been introduced around the world as a human food source, for vegetation control, and as a game fish (Costa-Pierce and Riedel 2000). Blue tilapia has been particularly successful in establishing and spreading in North American waters where it has been reported to change fish community structure and cause native fish decline (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999). Because of these detrimental effects, it is now generally considered an unwelcome introduction into North American waters (Dill and Cordone 1997, Fuller et al. 1999).

  3. Fishborne trematodes in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and wild-caught fish from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiriya, Benjamaporn; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Inpankaew, Tawin

    2013-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections affect the health of more than 18 million people around the world, particularly in Asian countries. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a white meat fish that has an increasing national and international market. The objective of this study was to...... for vigilance and good management practices by the aquaculture sector. Crown...

  4. Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  5. Prebiotic (Mannanoligosaccharide- MOS in fish nutrition: effects on nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Endrigo Cechim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World fish production are growing about 10% a year and Brazil presents potential to be the first one in fish production until 2030. However, intensification of aquaculture production systems expose fish to numerous stressors such as poor water quality, crowding, handling and transport which may negatively affect their growth and and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. This study was set out to determine de effects of increasing levels of mannanoligosccharides (MOS on growth of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR. Fish were fed during 60 days with a commercial diet (32%CP supplemented with 0.0 (control; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% dietary MOS (n=4. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. After 60 days feeding trial, fish were fasted for 24 hours and sedated for biometrical parameters to evaluate growth parameters. It was observed no influence (p>0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia growth parameters (weight gain, feed conversion rate, specific growth rate as well as for hepatosomatic index. Fish fed 0.4% dietary MOS showed increased (p<0.05 feed consumption (76.74 ± 3.98 when compared to fish fed control (unsupplemented diet (69.31 ± 1.11. MOS are indigestible glucomannoproteins, which provide mannose substrate upon which pathogenic gut bacteria selectively attach and prevents formation of mixed colonies leading to better gut health by increasing regularity, height and integrity of the gut villi and consequent better utilization and absorption of nutrients. Several authors found positive effects of MOS supplementation on fish growth and at same time, others

  6. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess...... the potential for FZT transmission in an area with high density of tilapia farms, wild-caught fish from local rivers and canals were bought at local markets. The wild-caught fish species included Hemiculter leucisculus (145), Rhodeus sinensis Gunther (10), Rasborinus lineatus (96), Squaliobarbus curriculus (6......), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...

  7. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones.

  8. MERCURY (Hg CONTENT OF MEAT TILAPIA FISH (Oreochromis niloticus WERE CULTIVATED IN PALANGKA RAYA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciptadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia fish as Palangkarayan food are mostly cultivated in the river which exposed by mercury. To get information whether the fish have been contaminated by mercury, the mercury determination of tilapia fish meat cultivated in Kahayan river was carried out. The fish were analyzed based on age and the cultivation environment that are fishes cages in Kahayan river and isolated pond from streams of Kahayan river are also studied. The concentration of mercury in the flesh of tilapia with 5-7 months, kept in cages used to identify the content of mercury in fish tilapia cages in Kahayan river. The concentration of mercury in the flesh of tilapia reared in ponds aims to compare the mercury content in the tilapia in ponds the same age were used as comparison. The level of mercury in the samples was measured using a Mercury Analyzer. Data concentration of mercury in the flesh of tilapia were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA: single factor with a significance level (α of 5%. The results showed that tilapia fish meat from the cages in the Kahayan river with age of 5-7 months contain mercury as much as 0.0145 ± 0.0005 ppm to 0.017 ± 0.001 ppm, which were lower than the maximum limit of mercury contamination in fish and processed products regulated by ISO 7387 in 2009 of 0.5 ppm. The the analysis of variance showed that the mercury content in tilapia fish meat was different by age and place of cultivation. The content of mercury in the tilapia fish meat increase with the increase of their age. The mercury content in tilapia fish cultivated in the isolated pond lower than that of in the tilapia fish meat cultivated in cages of 0.0115 ± 0.0005 ppm

  9. Isolation of fish skin and bone gelatin from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Response surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpi, N.; Fahrizal; Novita, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, gelatin from fish collagen, as one of halal sources, was extracted from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin and bone, by using Response Surface Methodology to optimize gelatin extraction conditions. Concentrations of alkaline NaOH and acid HCl, in the pretreatment process, and temperatures in extraction process were chosen as independent variables, while dependent variables were yield, gel strength, and emulsion activity index (EAI). The result of investigation showed that lower NaOH pretreatment concentrations provided proper pH extraction conditions which combine with higher extraction temperatures resulted in high gelatin yield. However, gelatin emulsion activity index increased proportionally to the decreased in NaOH concentrations and extraction temperatures. No significant effect of the three independent variables on the gelatin gel strength. RSM optimization process resulted in optimum gelatin extraction process conditions using alkaline NaOH concentration of 0.77 N, acid HCl of 0.59 N, and extraction temperature of 66.80 °C. The optimal solution formula had optimization targets of 94.38%.

  10. Histologic structure of red nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis nilloticus Var.) gill which is exposed to lead acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, N. R.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    Fish is a water biota commonly used as the bioindicator of water pollution level. One of the animals which are recommended by EPA as the test species is red Nile Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus var). The purpose of this research is to get the value of LC50-96 hours in the toxicity test toward the fishes which are exposed to lead acetate with some details identification of the gills damage by gill histologic structure examination together with the determination of the lead concentration which caused the destruction. Sixty fish were used in the preliminary test to detect the threshold concentration (LC0-48 h); whereas 120 fish were used in the toxicity test to get the mortality level of fish up to 50% in 96 h. Finally, for treatment test, there were 80 fish which were exposed to lead acetate in the concentration of 0 ppm, 259.51 ppm, 291.94 ppm and 324.38 ppm. All the treatment tests were given for four weeks. The data were collected at the end of the 4th week, and then, the description of the fish gill histology structure was done. The histology observation of the fishes gill detected some damages in the form of edema (0% -25%), lamellar fusion (1% -75%), hyperplasia (0% -50%), epithelial lifting (0% -50%), and necrosis (0% -50%). The results indicate that administration of lead acetate accelerates moderate damage to the red Nile tilapia fish gill structure. The greatest level of damage is lamellar fusion, while the other decline damages are edema, hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, and necrosis. Furthermore, it can be concluded that LC50-96 hours value in the lead acetate toxicity test of red Nile tilapia fish is 324,38 ppm with some histologic structure damage in the gill the fishes.

  11. Adaptation, growth and survival of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Bafgh brackish water

    OpenAIRE

    Sarsangi, A.H.; Mohammadi, M.; Mashaii, N.; Rajabipou, F.; Bitaraf, A.; Askari, H.M.; Moazedi, J.; Nezamabadi, H.; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the possibility of adaptation, growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with 0.3g initial weight and red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) with 0.7g initial weight in underground brackish water. Fry of Nile tilapia and red tilapia imported from Indonesia and after passing larviculture (25g) were examined separately in fiber glass tank by two replicate. Fish were fed at a restricted feeding program according to standard table during the light ...

  12. Experimental infection of Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Dachavichitlead, Worawan; Surachetpong, Win

    2017-08-01

    Since 2015, a novel orthomyxo-like virus, tilapia lake virus (TiLV) has been associated with outbreaks of disease and massive mortality of cultured Nile and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis spp., respectively) in Thailand. In this study, TiLV was isolated from field samples and propagated in the permissive E-11 cell line, with cytopathic effect (CPE) development within 3-5days post-inoculation. Electron micrographs of infected E-11 cells and fish tissues confirmed the rounded, enveloped virions of 60 to 80nm with characteristics very similar to those of Orthomyxoviridae. In vivo challenge studies showed that high mortality in Nile (86%) and red tilapia (66%) occurred within 4-12days post-infection. The virus was re-isolated from challenged fish tissues in the permissive cell line, and PCR analysis confirmed TiLV as a causative pathogen. The distinct histopathology of challenged fish included massive degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver and brain as well as the presence of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions in hepatocytes and splenic cells. Our results fulfilled Koch's postulates and confirmed that TiLV is an etiologic agent of mass mortality of tilapia in Thailand. The emergence of this virus in many countries has helped increase awareness that it is a potential threat to tilapia aquacultured in Thailand, Asia, and worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mixtures of diflubenzuron and p-chloroaniline changes the activities of enzymes biomarkers on tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) in the presence and absence of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzger, Darlene D; Jonsson, Claudio M; Aoyama, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    The insecticide Diflubenzuron (DFB), used by many fish farming, when metabolized or degraded produces the extremely toxic compound p-chloroaniline (PCA). Once in the aquatic environment, these compounds can form mixtures and their bioavailability depends on factors such as the presence of soil. The toxic effects of the isolated compounds and their mixtures in the proportions: 75%, 50%, and 25% of PCA were analyzed in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the presence and absence of soil after 96h. The enzymes catalase (CAT), acid (AcP) and alkaline (AlP) phosphatases and alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases of the liver of the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used as biomarkers. DFB and the mixture containing 75% of this compound did not present high toxicity to fish; however, 25mg/L of PCA alone and 15mg/L of the mixture with 75% of this compound promoted 50% mortality of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In the presence of soil, these toxicity values decreased to 37 and 25mg/L, respectively. Independent of the presence of soil, a synergistic effect was observed when the proportion of PCA was 75% and to the mixture, with 25% PCA was observed the antagonistic effect. Different concentrations of the compounds and their mixtures induced CAT activity independently of the presence of soil. Additionally, increases in phosphatases and transaminases activities were observed. In some cases, the enzymes also had their activities decreased and the dose-dependence effects were not observed. This research showed that the presence of soil influenced the toxicity of the compounds but not altered interaction type among them. Diflubenzuron, p-chloroaniline, and mixtures thereof caused disorders in enzymes important for the health of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of fish bacteria isolated from Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Clarias gariepinus (African catfish in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Wamala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The intention of this study was to identify the bacterial pathogens infecting Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Clarias gariepinus (African catfish, and to establish the antibiotic susceptibility of fish bacteria in Uganda. A total of 288 fish samples from 40 fish farms (ponds, cages, and tanks and 8 wild water sites were aseptically collected and bacteria isolated from the head kidney, liver, brain and spleen. The isolates were identified by their morphological characteristics, conventional biochemical tests and Analytical Profile Index test kits. Antibiotic susceptibility of selected bacteria was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The following well-known fish pathogens were identified at a farm prevalence of; Aeromonas hydrophila (43.8%, Aeromonas sobria (20.8%, Edwardsiella tarda (8.3%, Flavobacterium spp. (4.2% and Streptococcus spp. (6.3%. Other bacteria with varying significance as fish pathogens were also identified including Plesiomonas shigelloides (25.0%, Chryseobacterium indoligenes (12.5%, Pseudomonas fluorescens (10.4%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.2%, Pseudomonas stutzeri (2.1%, Vibrio cholerae (10.4%, Proteus spp. (6.3%, Citrobacter spp. (4.2%, Klebsiella spp. (4.2% Serratia marcescens (4.2%, Burkholderia cepacia (2.1%, Comamonas testosteroni (8.3% and Ralstonia picketti (2.1%. Aeromonas spp., Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus spp. were commonly isolated from diseased fish. Aeromonas spp. (n = 82 and Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 73 were evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates tested were susceptible to at-least ten (10 of the fourteen antibiotics evaluated. High levels of resistance were however expressed by all isolates to penicillin, oxacillin and ampicillin. This observed resistance is most probably intrinsic to those bacteria, suggesting minimal levels of acquired antibiotic resistance in fish bacteria from the study area. To our knowledge, this is the first study to

  15. Effects of replacing fish meal with rubber seed meal on growth, nutrient utilization, and cholesterol metabolism of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Wang, Kun; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Haifeng

    2017-08-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fish meal with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, nutrient utilization, and cholesterol metabolism of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 g kg -1 RSM replacing graded levels of fish meal, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 25 fish (initial average weight 65.3 g) per aquarium in a rearing system maintained at 29 ± 1 °C for 8 weeks. Dietary 150 g kg -1 RSM inclusion did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Additionally, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by dietary RSM inclusion regardless of inclusion level. However, the inclusion of 450 and 600 g kg -1 RSM decreased the mid-intestinal trypsin, lipase, and amylase activities; the hepatic acyl-CoA/cholesterol acyl transferase; low-density lipoprotein receptor; and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activities. Similarly, dietary 600 g kg -1 RSM inclusion inhibited the plasma catalase and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. These results indicated that 150 g kg -1 RSM can be included in tilapia diets, whereas higher inclusion of RSM inhibited the growth rate, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidant capacity, and cholesterol metabolism.

  16. Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T.J.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis

  17. Trophic transfer of cadmium from duckweed (Lemna Minor L.) to Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Yan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Huang, Jin; Wang, Dengjun; Jin, Yan

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of the toxic heavy metal Cd from duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to the freshwater fish tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was investigated. Concentrations of Cd in different chemical forms in duckweed and in different tissues (gut, edible muscle, and remnants) of tilapia, i.e.,

  18. The radiosensitivity of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Michael Joseph T.; Velasco, Pia Victoria V.

    2000-04-01

    The nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a very popular fish commercially in the Philippines, was studied to determine its radiosensitivity and to see its potential as a biological indicator in aquatic ecosystems. Nile tilapia was seen to be radiosensitive. The fish were exposed to gamma-irradiation and chromosomal aberrations were induced. The various types of aberrations seen were chromatid gaps, chromosome gaps, chromatid fragments, dicentric rings, fusions, despiralizations and translocations. Among the aberrations observed, dicentric rings, fusions and chromosome gaps were strongly correlated with dosage, with only the dicentric rings increasing steadily with increasing dosage. In the course of the study, the lethal dosage 50 for nile tilapia with 18 days was determined and it was observed at 2.0 krad. The modal chromosome number was also established at 2n=44 with a karyotype exhibiting 22 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes with 2 pairs of marker chromosomes present. (Author)

  19. The radiosensitivity of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Michael Joseph T; Velasco, Pia Victoria V

    2000-04-01

    The nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a very popular fish commercially in the Philippines, was studied to determine its radiosensitivity and to see its potential as a biological indicator in aquatic ecosystems. Nile tilapia was seen to be radiosensitive. The fish were exposed to gamma-irradiation and chromosomal aberrations were induced. The various types of aberrations seen were chromatid gaps, chromosome gaps, chromatid fragments, dicentric rings, fusions, despiralizations and translocations. Among the aberrations observed, dicentric rings, fusions and chromosome gaps were strongly correlated with dosage, with only the dicentric rings increasing steadily with increasing dosage. In the course of the study, the lethal dosage{sub 50} for nile tilapia with 18 days was determined and it was observed at 2.0 krad. The modal chromosome number was also established at 2n=44 with a karyotype exhibiting 22 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes with 2 pairs of marker chromosomes present. (Author)

  20. Effect of dietary fish meal replacement by red algae, Gracilaria arcuata, on growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, El-Sayed M; Al-Quffail, Abdullah S; Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Al-Hafedh, Yousef S

    2018-02-01

    A 12-week long feeding experiment was initiated to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of red algae, Gracilaria arcuata , on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). The fish were fed with an algae-free control diet (C) and three experimental diets which replaced conventional fish meal with varying levels of dried G. arcuata (20%, 40% and 60%, represented as G20, G40 and G60, respectively). The growth parameters of final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), percentage of weight gain (WG%), daily growth rate (DGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly reduced (P algae incorporation compared to the control diet. Moreover, the negative impact of Gracilaria meal on the growth performance of Nile tilapia increased as the proportion of algae in the diet increased, with fish on diet G20 exhibiting a significantly higher growth performance than the fish on either of the G40 and G60 diets. On the other hand, the feed utilization parameters feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not show significant differences between the fish in the control group and those on diet G20, although poorer FCR and PER outcomes were achieved in the case of fish on diet G60. The content of moisture, protein and ash in muscle and carcass increased as the proportion of Gracilaria meal in the diets increased, but the reverse was true for lipid level. These results indicate that incorporation of less than 20% red algae, Gracilaria arcuata , could be feasible in the diet of Nile tilapia and further studies are recommended to optimize the level of algae to improve growth performance.

  1. Growth comparison of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the productive performance characteristics of the base generation (F0) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus under the effect of interspecific hybridization and genetically modified breeding by introducing a fragmented purified DNA ...

  2. Organic matter sedimentation and resuspension in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish ponds during a growing cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Montealegre, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Zamora, J.E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The rates of sedimentation and resuspension of organic carbon and total nitrogen were measured in earthen fishponds, based on nutrient input, water quality parameters and fish size and biomass. Material collected in sediment traps and soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon, total nitrogen,

  3. Genotype by production environment interaction in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaw, H.L.; Ponzonia, R.W.; Hamzah, A.; Abu-Bakara, K.R.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Three discrete generations of GIFT fish (Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus; a total of 10,065 fish with pedigree and phenotypic information) were tested in pond and cage culture environments to determine genotype by production environment interaction between both environments in Malaysia.

  4. beta-adrenoceptors mediate inhibition of lipolysis in adipocytes of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, GJ; Obels, PP; Van Den Thillart, GEEJM; Zaagsma, J

    The regulation of triglyceride mobilization by catecholamines was investigated in the teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia) in vivo and in vitro. In vitro experiments were carried out with adipocytes that were isolated for the first time from fish adipose tissue. For the in vivo

  5. Analysis of potential risks from the bacterial communities associated with air-contact surfaces from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande Burgos, Maria Jose; Romero, Jose Luis; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Cobo Molinos, Antonio; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Tilapia farming is a promising growing sector in aquaculture. Yet, there are limited studies on microbiological risks associated to tilapia farms. The aim of the present study was to analyse the bacterial communities from solid surfaces in contact with air in a tilapia farm in order to evaluate the presence of bacteria potentially toxinogenic or pathogenic to humans or animals. Samples from a local tilapia farm (tank wall, aerator, water outlets, sink and floor) were analyzed by high throughput sequencing technology. Sequences were assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Proteobacteria was the main phylum represented in most samples (except for one). Cyanobacteria were a relevant phylum in the inner wall from the fattening tank and the wet floor by the pre-fattening tank. Bacteroidetes were the second phylum in relative abundance for samples from the larval rearing tank and the pre-fattening tank and one sample from the fattening tank. Fusobacteria showed highest relative abundances in samples from the larval rearing tank and pre-fattening tank. Other phyla (Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Planktomycetes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Chlorobi, Gemmatiomonadetes or Fibrobacters) had lower relative abundances. A large fraction of the reads (ranging from 43.67% to 72.25%) were assigned to uncultured bacteria. Genus Acinetobacter (mainly A. calcoaceticus/baumanni) was the predominant OTU in the aerator of the fattening tank and also in the nearby sink on the floor. The genera Cetobacterium and Bacteroides showed highest relative abundances in the samples from the larval rearing tank and the pre-fattening tank. Genera including fish pathogens (Fusobacterium, Aeromonas) were only detected at low relative abundances. Potential human pathogens other than Acinetobacter were either not detected or had very low relative abundances (Acinetobacter and potential cyanotoxin-producing cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of The Phytase Enzyme Addition in The Artificial Feed on Digestibility of Feed, Feed Conversion Ratio and Growth of Gift Tilapia Saline Fish (Oreochromis niloticus) Nursery Stadia I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Diana; Samidjan, Istiyanto; Elfitasari, Tita

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding the phytase enzyme in the artificial feed on digestibility of feed, feed conversion ratio and growth of gift tilapia saline fish (Oreochromis niloticus) nursery stadia I. The fish samples in this study used gift tilapia saline fish (O. niloticus) with an average weight of 0,62 ± 0,008 g/fish and the stocking density of 1 fish1 L. Experimental method used in this study was completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 3 repetitions. The treatments were by adding phytase enzyme in artificial feed with the different level of doses those were A (0 FTU kg1 feed), B (500 FTU kg1 feed), C (1000 FTU kg1 feed) and D (1500 FTU kg1 feed). The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme was significantly (P0.05) affected on Survival Rate (SR) of gift tilapia saline fish. The optimum doses of phytase enzyme on RGR, FCR, PER, ADCP and ADCF of gift tilapia saline fish ranged from 1060 to 1100 FTU kg-1 feed.

  7. Apparent digestibility coefficient of duckweed (Lemna minor), fresh and dry for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Shafai, S.A.A.M.; El-Gohary, F.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Gijzen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Dry matter (DMD), protein (PD), ash (AD), fat (FD), gross energy (ED) and phosphorus (PhD) digestibility coefficients were determined for five different iso-N fish diets fed to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The control diet contained fishmeal (35%), corn (29%), wheat (20%), wheat bran (10%),

  8. Water cortisol and testosterone in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, Vasco C.; Martins, Catarina I.M.; Eding, Ep H.; Canário, Adelino V.M.; Verreth, Johan A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of steroids released by fish in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) may potentially influence their physiology and behavior. The present study examined the release rate of cortisol and testosterone by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and their accumulation in six identical

  9. Heritability of cold tolerance in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The inability of tilapia to tolerate low temperatures is of major economic concern as it reduces their growing season and leads to over winter mortality. In this study, cold tolerance of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated and heritability estimates obtained. A total of 80

  10. Mossambicus tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... bla_{CTX-M} gene, which is a common ESBL gene in clinics. The studydemonstrates that tilapia found in the polluted waters can serve as reservoirs and an alternative route for human exposure toclinically important ARG-carrying bacteria. The consumption and handling of these fish may pose a potential health risk.

  11. Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A L S; Gonçalves-de-Freitas, E; Volpato, G L; Oliveira, C

    2009-04-01

    Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean +/- SEM; V: 24.79 +/- 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 +/- 3.09, Ch: 0.1 +/- 0.07, Iso: 4.68 +/- 1.26 events/30 min; P communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia.

  12. Thermal preference predicts animal personality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Marco; Rey, Sonia; Silva, Tome; Featherstone, Zoe; Crumlish, Margaret; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Environmental temperature gradients provide habitat structure in which fish orientate and individual thermal choice may reflect an essential integrated response to the environment. The use of subtle thermal gradients likely impacts upon specific physiological and behavioural processes reflected as a suite of traits described by animal personality. In this study, we examine the relationship between thermal choice, animal personality and the impact of infection upon this interaction. We predicted that thermal choice in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reflects distinct personality traits and that under a challenge individuals exhibit differential thermal distribution. Nile tilapia were screened following two different protocols: 1) a suite of individual behavioural tests to screen for personality and 2) thermal choice in a custom-built tank with a thermal gradient (TCH tank) ranging from 21 to 33 °C. A first set of fish were screened for behaviour and then thermal preference, and a second set were tested in the opposite fashion: thermal then behaviour. The final thermal distribution of the fish after 48 h was assessed reflecting final thermal preferendum. Additionally, fish were then challenged using a bacterial Streptococcus iniae model infection to assess the behavioural fever response of proactive and reactive fish. Results showed that individuals with preference for higher temperatures were also classified as proactive with behavioural tests and reactive contemporaries chose significantly lower water temperatures. All groups exhibited behavioural fever recovering personality-specific thermal preferences after 5 days. Our results show that thermal preference can be used as a proxy to assess personality traits in Nile tilapia and it is a central factor to understand the adaptive meaning of animal personality within a population. Importantly, response to infection by expressing behavioural fever overrides personality-related thermal choice. © 2016 The Authors

  13. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  14. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  15. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  16. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties

  17. Optimal feeding rate for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Dilip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define optimal feeding rates for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding rate on growth performance of larger and juvenile tilapia by means of estimating growth rates, apparent nutrient digestibilities, feed utilization, body compositions, and nutrient and energy retentions. One nutritionally balanced diet (crude protein 342, crude fat 67, ash 47, starch 251 (all values in g (kg dry matter)-1)) was ...

  18. Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rui [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using {sup 203}Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

  19. Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui; Wong Minghung; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using 203 Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

  20. Potential contribution of fish feed and phytoplankton to the content of volatile terpenes in cultured Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podduturi, Raju; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Mahmud, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol are the most recognized off-flavors in freshwater fish, but terpenes may also contribute off-flavor in fish. We identified six monoterpenes, 11 sesquiterpenes, and three terpene-related compounds in pangasius and tilapia from aquaculture farms in Bangladesh. The con...

  1. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the Victoria tilapia (Oreochromis variabilis) and Redbelly Tilapia (Tilapia zilli): genome characterization and phylogeny analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaro, Zachary Omambia; Xue, Liangyi; Volatiana, Josies Ancella

    2016-07-01

    The Cichlid fishes have played an important role in evolutionary biology, population studies and aquaculture industry with East African species representing a model suited for studying adaptive radiation and speciation for cichlid genome projects in which closely related genomes are fast emerging presenting questions on phenotype-genotype relations. The complete mitochondrial genomes presented here are for two closely related but eco-morphologically distinct Lake Victoria basin cichlids, Oreochromis variabilis, an endangered native species and Tilapia zilli, an invasive species, both of which are important economic fishes in local areas. The complete mitochondrial genomes determined for O. variabilis and T. zilli are 16 626 and 16,619 bp, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and a non-coding control region, which are typical of vertebrate mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analyses of the two species revealed that though both lie within family Cichlidae, they are remotely related.

  2. Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. Castro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition: 1 visual contact (V; 2 chemical contact (Ch; 3 chemical and visual contact (Ch+V; 4 no sensory contact (Iso - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning and gonadosomatic index (GSI of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test, induced spawning in females (3 spawning in V and also 3 in Ch+V condition, and increased GSI in males (mean ± SEM; V: 1.39 ± 0.08, Ch+V: 1.21 ± 0.08, Ch: 1.04 ± 0.07, Iso: 0.82 ± 0.07%; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test. Chemical communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia.

  3. Experimental early pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in red tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iregui, C A; Comas, J; Vásquez, G M; Verján, N

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a severe systemic disease in fish, and the routes of entry are still ill-defined. To address this issue, two groups of 33 red tilapia Oreochromis spp. each of 10 g were orally infected with S. agalactiae (n = 30), and by immersion (n = 30), six individuals were control-uninfected fish. Three tilapias were killed at each time point from 30 min to 96 h post-inoculation (pi); controls were killed at 96 h. Samples from most tissues were examined by haematoxylin-eosin (H&E), indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI) and periodic acid-Schiff; only intestine from fish infected by gavage was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The results of both experiments suggest that the main entry site of S. agalactiae in tilapia is the gastrointestinal epithelium; mucus seems to play an important defensive role, and environmental conditions may be an important predisposing factor for the infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identification of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isoelectric focusing methodology using LKB 2117 Multiphor 11 electrofocusing apparatus was used for electofocusing and identification of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilli. The electrographs of the two species suggest clear protein differences producing species specific patterns. There were variations in the protein ...

  5. Treatments of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using nitric oxide for quality improvement: Establishing a potential method for large-scale processing of farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Chao; Yan, Yuzhen; Su, Ping; Zhao, Mou-Ming; Xia, Ning; Chen, De-Wei

    2018-07-01

    To find a succedaneum of present methods for slaughtering tilapia, we have demonstrated the influence of nitric oxide (NO) (saturated NO solution) through euthanasia before slaughter on the animal welfare and muscle color of tilapia. The results suggested that NO euthanasia significantly improved the animal welfare and muscle color. Besides, the investigation of NO postmortem treatment on the muscle color and color stability of tilapia fillets suggested that NO postmortem treatment not only improved the muscle color and color stability but also prolonged the shelf-life of tilapia fillets during the refrigerated storage. To further investigate the effect of NO euthanasia on the quality of tilapia fillets and to estimate the safety of NO treatments (NO euthanasia and NO postmortem treatment) for the application of NO treatments in industrial manufacturing of tilapia and possibly of other fish species. NO euthanasia was adopted in this study following a simulated fish processing line. HbNO and MbNO values were measured to clarify the mechanism and process of NO euthanasia. The blood parameters, muscle pH, rigor index, drip loss and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values were measured to evaluate the quality of the fillets obtained from NO euthanized tilapia. Besides, the nitrate (NO 3 - ) levels in the muscles after the refrigerated storage were detected to estimate the food safety of both NO euthanasia and NO postmortem treatment. Fillets obtained from the tilapia euthanized by NO showed a later reduction of muscle pH, a later onset of rigor mortis postmortem and less drip loss during the refrigerated storage than control. NO euthanasia caused less TVB-N than control and prolonged the shelf life of tilapia fillets. Moreover, the NO 3 - levels in the muscles of both NO euthanasia and NO postmortem treatment after the refrigerated storage were below the maximum permitted limit. Both the NO euthanasia and NO postmortem treatment are suitable for improving the

  6. Dietary supplementation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) improves growth, stress tolerance, and disease resistance in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abass, David Attim; Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Campion, Benjamin Betey

    2018-01-01

    resistance in juvenile (body mass ~ 21 g) Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were randomly distributed in groups of 20 into 12 1-m³ hapas and fed isoenergetic (~ 17 kJ g⁻¹ gross energy) and isonitrogenous (~ 300 g kg⁻¹ crude protein) diets at 3% of their bulk weight daily. Specific growth rates were...... as an additive in Nile tilapia diets has beneficial impacts on growth, stress tolerance, and disease resistance...

  7. The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Lara-Flores

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II, isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: one containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6 cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control. Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

  8. OBTENCIÓN DE UN ALIMENTO EXTRUIDO PARA TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis spp UTILIZANDO ENSILAJE BIOLÓGICO DE PESCADO A OBTENÇÃO DE UMA RAÇÃO EXTRUSADA PARA A TILÁPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis spp UTILIZANDO SILAGEM DE PESCADO BIOLÓGICA OBTAINING AN EXTRUDED NOURISHMENT FOR RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis ssp USING FISH BIOLOGICAL SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIDER OSWALDO PANTOJA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la represa 'La Salvajina', municipio de Suárez (Cauca, la transformación de Tilapia roja (Oreochromis spp deja como subproductos mayoritarios cabezas, huesos, piel, escamas y vísceras, los cuales a través del proceso de ensilaje pueden brindar una alternativa proteica en la formulación de alimentos para peces. La presente investigación obtuvo pelets extruidos para tilapia roja en fase de engorde, sustituyendo parcialmente harina de pescado por ensilaje biológico. Las variables de respuesta del pelet (propiedades físicas, permitieron a través de un diseño factorial 23, evaluar los parámetros del proceso de extrusión (temperatura °C, velocidad de tornillo rpm y humedad %. Los resultados indicaron significancia por parte de factores e interacciones, siendo la humedad el factor de mayor incidencia. El punto medio (PM del diseño, formulado con 15% de ensilaje y procesado con niveles medios (125°C, 170 rpm, 28%, presentó un porcentaje superior al 90% de flotabilidad, además de resultados aceptables en el índice de expansión, densidad específica, índice de absorción de agua, estabilidad en agua y durabilidad; logrando condiciones favorables para la obtención de un alimento con propiedades físicas similares a las de un alimento comercial.Na barragem, 'A Salvajina', no municipio de Suárez (Cauca, a transformação da Tilápia Vermelha (Oreochromis spp, deixa como principais produtos: cabeças, ossos, pele, escamas e as vísceras, que através do processo de ensilagem podem constituir uma alternativa de proteína na formulação de rações para peixes. Esta pesquisa obteve aglomerados extrusados para tilápia vermelha na engorda, substituindo parcialmente a farinha de peixe por silagem biológica. As variáveis de resposta de pelet (propriedades físicas, permitiram através de um planejamento fatorial 23, avaliar os parâmetros de processo de extrusão (temperatura °C, velocidade do parafuso rpm e umidade %. Os resultados

  9. Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Pantoja MF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae. The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

  10. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  11. Dietary nutrient composition affects digestible energy utilisation for growth: a study on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and a literature comparison across fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Subramanian, S.; Geurden, I.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the type of non-protein energy (NPE) on energy utilisation in Nile tilapia was studied, focusing on digestible energy utilisation for growth (kgDE). Furthermore, literature data on kgDE across fish species were analysed in order to evaluate the effect of dietary macronutrient

  12. Blockage of progestin physiology disrupts ovarian differentiation in XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Linyan; Luo, Feng; Fang, Xuelian; Charkraborty, Tapas; Wu, Limin; Wei, Jing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that maturation inducing hormone, 17α, 20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), probably through nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), might be involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis in fish. To further elucidate DHP actions in teleostean ovarian differentiation, we analyzed the expression of pgr in the ovary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and performed RU486 (a synthetic Pgr antagonist) treatment in XX fish from 5 days after hatching (dah) to 120dah. Tilapia Pgr was abundantly expressed in the follicular cells surrounding oocytes at 30 and 90dah. Continuous RU486 treatment led to the blockage of oogenesis and masculinization of somatic cells in XX fish. Termination of RU486 treatment and maintenance in normal condition resulted in testicular differentiation, and estrogen compensation in RU486-treated XX fish successfully restored oogenesis. In RU486-treated XX fish, transcript levels of female dominant genes were significantly reduced, while male-biased genes were evidently augmented. Meanwhile, both germ cell mitotic and meiotic markers were substantially reduced. Consistently, estrogen production levels were significantly declined in RU486-treated XX fish. Taken together, our data further proved that DHP, possibly through Pgr, might be essential in the ovarian differentiation and estrogen production in fish. - Highlights: • DHP plays a critical role in early stage oogenesis of XX tilapia. • Blockage of DHP actions by RU486 treatment led to masculinization and/or sex reversal in XX tilapia. • Both DHP and estrogen are indispensable for ovarian differentiation.

  13. Blockage of progestin physiology disrupts ovarian differentiation in XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Linyan; Luo, Feng; Fang, Xuelian [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 (China); Charkraborty, Tapas [South Ehime Fisheries Research Center, Ehime University, Ainan, 798-4206 (Japan); Wu, Limin; Wei, Jing [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 (China); Wang, Deshou, E-mail: wdeshou@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Reproduction and Development (Ministry of Education), Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715 (China)

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies indicated that maturation inducing hormone, 17α, 20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), probably through nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), might be involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis in fish. To further elucidate DHP actions in teleostean ovarian differentiation, we analyzed the expression of pgr in the ovary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and performed RU486 (a synthetic Pgr antagonist) treatment in XX fish from 5 days after hatching (dah) to 120dah. Tilapia Pgr was abundantly expressed in the follicular cells surrounding oocytes at 30 and 90dah. Continuous RU486 treatment led to the blockage of oogenesis and masculinization of somatic cells in XX fish. Termination of RU486 treatment and maintenance in normal condition resulted in testicular differentiation, and estrogen compensation in RU486-treated XX fish successfully restored oogenesis. In RU486-treated XX fish, transcript levels of female dominant genes were significantly reduced, while male-biased genes were evidently augmented. Meanwhile, both germ cell mitotic and meiotic markers were substantially reduced. Consistently, estrogen production levels were significantly declined in RU486-treated XX fish. Taken together, our data further proved that DHP, possibly through Pgr, might be essential in the ovarian differentiation and estrogen production in fish. - Highlights: • DHP plays a critical role in early stage oogenesis of XX tilapia. • Blockage of DHP actions by RU486 treatment led to masculinization and/or sex reversal in XX tilapia. • Both DHP and estrogen are indispensable for ovarian differentiation.

  14. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets

    OpenAIRE

    A. Al-Thobaiti; K. Al-Ghanim; Z. Ahmed; E. M. Suliman; S. Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight w...

  15. Acute toxicity of ammonia to blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicity of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus (3.28 ± 0.36 g in body weight, 61.84 ± 2.08 mm in body length) exposed to environmental un-ionized ammonia at different salinities (1, 8, 12, 16 and 20 ppt) was assessed via a series of static exposure trials. Median lethal concentrations of 24 h of exposure were ...

  16. Caracterización de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp. con marcadores moleculares RAPD Characterization of the red tilapia Oreochromis sp. through molecular markers RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Torres Jaramillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica RAPD (amplificación al azar de ADN polimórfico para el estudio de la diversidad genética de Oreochromis sp. (tilapia roja en cinco piscícolas del Valle del Cauca (Colombia y en la determinación del nivel de introgresión de las especies parentales Oreochromis mosambicus, O. niloticus y O. aureus. Se evaluaron 25 cebadores, ocho fueron polimórficos y se obtuvieron 109 bandas. Los valores de heterocigosidad esperada (0.196 a 0.256 y la estructura genética (Gst = 0.22 para Oreochromis sp. indicaron un elevado grado de polimorfismo y alta estructuración genética. Estos resultados fueron consistente con el Fst = 0.268 (P Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to study genetic diversity on red Tilapia (Oreochromis sp. species collected from five fish farms located in the Valle del Cauca, Colombia and to determine the level of introgression from three parental species O. mosambicus, O. niloticus and O. aureus into local Oreochromis populations. from the 25 RAPD primers evaluated, eight were polymorphic and 109 banding patterns were observed, any of them were specific. The expected levels of heterozygosis (0.1964 to 0.2561 and genetic structure (Gst = 0.22 funded for Oreochrosmis sp. indicate high grade of polymorphism and genetic structuring. This results were observed following the analysis of molecular variance [AMOVA] (Fst = 0.268 (P <0.0001 and Multiple correspondence analysis (Gst = 0.040. The values of genetic similarity, the analysis of group, the analysis of multiple correspondence and the level of introgression, indicated that the differences in the introgression levels(P=0.0001 were significant. The low level of observed genetic differentiation among populations, could be the result of fish with the same genetic origin, whereas the high variation within populations can be displayed by handling practices and the pressure of selection to favor commercial phenotypes. The level of introgression

  17. A new and fast technique to generate offspring after germ cells transplantation in adult fish: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyra M S N Lacerda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Germ cell transplantation results in fertile recipients and is the only available approach to functionally investigate the spermatogonial stem cell biology in mammals and probably in other vertebrates. In the current study, we describe a novel non-surgical methodology for efficient spermatogonial transplantation into the testes of adult tilapia (O. niloticus, in which endogenous spermatogenesis had been depleted with the cytostatic drug busulfan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using two different tilapia strains, the production of fertile spermatozoa with donor characteristics was demonstrated in adult recipient, which also sired progeny with the donor genotype. Also, after cryopreservation tilapia spermatogonial cells were able to differentiate to spermatozoa in the testes of recipient fishes. These findings indicate that injecting germ cells directly into adult testis facilitates and enable fast generation of donor spermatogenesis and offspring compared to previously described methods. CONCLUSION: Therefore, a new suitable methodology for biotechnological investigations in aquaculture was established, with a high potential to improve the production of commercially valuable fish, generate transgenic animals and preserve endangered fish species.

  18. Beta-haemolytic streptococci in farmed Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, from Sullana-Piura, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Ortega A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This investigation aimed to study the presence of Streptococcus spp. in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from fish farm located in Sullana-Piura, Peru. Materials and methods. 150 fish with clinical signs of streptococcal disease were sampled, and the bacterium isolation was performed on blood agar, correlated to histopathological lesions description and molecular confirmation by real-time PCR. Results. The necropsy revealed exophthalmia, hyphema, congestion and/or haemorrhagic meninges, ascites, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and diffuse haemorrhagic zones throughout the body. 102 isolated positives (54 tilapias to Streptococcus spp. were identified in the microbiological analysis (prevalence of 26%, the brain was the organ with the highest percentage of this bacteria (34.31%, and 19 isolates were beta-haemolytic (18.63% with prevalence of 10.12%. Fish beta-haemolytic streptococci presented epicarditis, perisplenitis and chronic meningitis, panophthalmitis, coagulative necrosis of skeletal muscle and granulomas formation. In the confirmatory test by real-time PCR, any positive tilapia to S. iniae was obtained. The results were analysed using a stochastic simulation of beta distribution using @Risk program uncertainty, reporting an average prevalence of 0.66% in sick tilapias. Conclusions. The analysed fishes were positive to bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, which confirms its presence in the fish farm. However, 19 isolates were beta-haemolytic, and the presence of S. iniae was not positive to the limit prevalence of 2.7% in real-time PCR.

  19. Screening and identification of a microsatellite marker associated with sex in Wami tilapia, Oreochromis urolepis hornorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaping; Liu, Zhigang; Lu, Maixin; Gao, Fengying; Ke, Xiaoli; Ma, Dongmei; Huang, Zhanghan; Cao, Jianmeng; Wang, Miao

    2016-06-01

    In this study, primer pairs of 15 microsatellite markers associated with sex determination of tilapia were selected and amplified in Wami tilapia, Oreochromis urolepis hornorum. While one marker, UNH168, on linkage group 3 (LG3) was associated (P tilapia chromosome pair (chromosome 1, equivalent to LG3). This sex-linked microsatellite marker could potentially be used for marker-assisted selection in tilapia breeding programmes to produce monosex male tilapia.

  20. Effects of herbs and spice on health status of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus challenged with Streptococcus iniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejdet Gültepe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different herbal extracts on the growth and immune defense of fish were researched in the last decade. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary effects of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum as a feed additive on haematology, innate immune response, and disease resistance of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. In total 228 healthy fish tilapia were divided into four groups (57 fish in one group and fed diets supplemented with thyme, rosemary and fenugreek at levels of 1%, respectively; fish in the control group were fed diet without any spices. Fish were fed ad libitum three times a day for 45 days. All fish of the experimental groups significantly (P P P > 0.05 changed during the whole experiment. After 45 days of feeding, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μl of Streptococcus iniae (8 × 108 colony forming unit. The cumulative mortality was 22%, 27% and 31% in fish receiving diets supplemented with 1% thyme, rosemary and fenugreek, respectively, compared to 61% mortality in the control group. The results indicate that all three supplements used improved the haematological status, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of tilapia against S. iniae; this is the first similar study.

  1. Capsule impairs efficient adherence of Streptococcus agalactiae to intestinal epithelium in tilapias Oreochromis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, P; Martins, E R; Vasquez, G M; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J; Martínez, N; Iregui, C

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most important diseases in the tilapia aquaculture industry. The role of the capsule of Streptococcus agalactiae in adherence to fish surfaces has not been evaluated and the mechanism of capsular regulation during adhesion has not been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the capsule of S. agalactiae during adhesion to intestinal epithelium of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) in an ex vivo infection model. We show that the capsule impairs the adhesion of bacteria to host intestinal epithelium. Wild type (WT) strain SaTiBe08-18 (S. agalactiae recovered from tilapia) had reduced adhesion (P S. agalactiae to tilapia intestine and that the acidic milieu could regulate adherence of encapsulated strains. We found GlcNAc on the surface of adherent Δcps but not over the capsule in WT. This difference could be explained by the GlcNAc composition of Lancefield group B antigen and the peptidoglycan in GBS (Group B Streptococcus) and also may be related with better exposure of glycosylated adhesins in unencapsulated fish GBS. Understanding capsular regulation during adhesion of S. agalactiae may provide new leads to find a successful anti-adherence therapy to prevent streptococcosis in tilapia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of biological effects of pollutants in a hyper eutrophic tropical water body, Lake Beira, Sri Lanka using multiple biomarker responses of resident fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Pathiratne, K A S; De Seram, P K C

    2010-08-01

    Biomarkers measured at the molecular and cellular level in fish have been proposed as sensitive "early warning" tools for biological effect measurements in environmental quality assessments. Lake Beira is a hypertrophic urban water body with a complex mixture of pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Microcystins. In this study, a suite of biomarker responses viz. biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), brain and muscle cholinesterases (ChE), serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), and liver histology of Oreochromis niloticus, the dominant fish inhabiting this tropical Lake were evaluated to assess the pollution exposure and biological effects. Some fish sampled in the dry periods demonstrated prominent structural abnormalities in the liver and concomitant increase in serum SDH and reduction in hepatic GST activities in comparison to the control fish and the fish sampled in the rainy periods. The resident fish with apparently normal liver demonstrated induction of hepatic EROD and GST activities and increase in biliary FACs irrespective of the sampling period indicating bioavailability of PAHs. Muscle ChE activities of the resident fish were depressed significantly indicating exposure to anticholinesterase substances. The results revealed that fish populations residing in this Lake is under threat due to the pollution stress. Hepatic abnormalities in the fish may be mainly associated with the pollution stress due to recurrent exposure to PAHs and toxigenic Microcystis blooms in the Lake.

  3. Trophic transfer of Cd from duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Huang, Jin; Wang, Dengjun; Jin, Yan

    2018-05-01

    The transfer of the toxic heavy metal Cd from duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to the freshwater fish tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was investigated. Concentrations of Cd in different chemical forms in duckweed and in different tissues (gut, edible muscle, and remnants or residual) of tilapia (i.e., ethanol-extractable fraction [F E ], HCl-extractable fraction [F HCl ], and residual fraction [F R ]) were quantified, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of Cd in the tilapia body were calculated. Simple linear regression analysis was used to unravel the correlation and accumulation mechanisms of Cd along the short food chain. Our results showed that with increasing exposure concentrations of Cd (0-50 μM for duckweed and 0-10 μM for tilapia), the total, F E (F e,d )-, F HCl (F h,d )-, and F R (F r,d )-Cd concentrations in duckweed and different tissues of tilapia increased progressively. The Cd sources (aqueous or dietary) influenced the BAF for Cd accumulation in the whole body of tilapia. Furthermore, regression analyses yielded significant positive correlations (R 2 > 0.96) between the Cd concentration in duckweed and in both the 3 parts and the whole body of tilapia. This finding suggests that Cd transfer from duckweed to tilapia can be quantitatively evaluated when tilapia is exposed only to duckweed. In addition, the linear regression between Cd accumulation in whole tilapia and F e,d -, F h,d -, and F r,d -Cd showed that particularly the correlation with F e,d -Cd is statistically significant (p < 0.001). The accumulated Cd concentrations and chemical forms in tilapia tissues also positively correlated with Cd sources (solution or duckweed). Compared with waterborne exposure only, duckweed especially increased the accumulation of Cd in the gut of tilapia. Taken together, our findings support a strong dependence of Cd accumulation and transfer from duckweed to tilapia on its chemical forms, especially on F e,d -Cd. This knowledge may expedite more

  4. Rapid identification of pathogenic streptococci isolated from moribund red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Mohamed; Elgendy, Mamdouh Y; Shaalan, Mohamed; Moustafa, Mohamed; Fujino, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Accurate and rapid identification of bacterial pathogens of fish is essential for the effective treatment and speedy control of infections. Massive mortalities in market-sized red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were noticed in mariculture concrete ponds in northern Egypt. Histopathological examination revealed marked congestion in the central vein of the liver with the presence of bacterial aggregates inside the lumen and in the vicinity of the central vein. A total of 12 isolates of streptococci were obtained from the moribund fish. This study documented the ability of the MicroSeq 500 16S bacterial sequencing method to accurately identify Streptococcus agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae mixed infections from moribund red tilapia that were difficult to be recognised by the commercial biochemical systems. The continuously decreasing cost of the sequencing technique should encourage its application in routine diagnostic procedures.

  5. Natural mating in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) : implications for reproductive success, inbreeding and cannibalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessehaye, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Niletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.) is one of the most important species among the commercially farmed tilapias. Both small-scale and commercial production of tilapia is rapidly expanding in many countries of the world because

  6. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobaiti, A; Al-Ghanim, K; Ahmed, Z; Suliman, E M; Mahboob, S

    2017-10-23

    The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight with feeding treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The growth performance of the fish in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were found to be significantly (P replacement of fishmeal in diet B. The worst growth performance was observed in fish fed with commercial diet, designated as diet D. It was concluded that the fish meal can be replaced up to 20 percent with other plant protein sources without any negative impact on fish health. The replacement of fish meal with local plant sources (corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal and bagasse kenna mix) will not only be beneficial to achieve better growth performance in O. niloticus, it will be a value addition as well.

  7. Bioassessment of the Effluents Discharged from Two Export Oriented Industrial Zones Located in Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka Using Erythrocytic Responses of the Fish, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, C K; Pathiratne, A

    2017-10-01

    Complex effluents originating from diverse industrial processes in industrial zones could pose cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards to biota in the receiving ecosystems which cannot be revealed by conventional monitoring methods. This study assessed potential cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of treated effluents of two industrial zones which are discharged into Kelani river, Sri Lanka combining erythrocytic abnormality tests and comet assay of the tropical model fish, Nile tilapia. Exposure of fish to the effluents induced erythrocytic DNA damage and deformed erythrocytes with serrated membranes, vacuolations, nuclear buds and micronuclei showing cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards in all cases. Occasional exceedance of industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits was noted for color and lead which may have contributed to the observed cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of effluents. The results demonstrate that fish erythrocytic responses could be used as effective bioanalytical tools for cytotoxic/genotoxic hazard assessments of complex effluents of industrial zones for optimization of the waste treatment process in order to reduce biological impacts.

  8. First identification of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis causing mortality in Mexican tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Cesar; Mancera, Gerardo; Enríquez, Ricardo; Vargas, Augusto; Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Navarrete, María José; Romero, Alex

    2016-08-09

    Francisellosis, an emerging disease in tilapia Oreochromis spp., is caused by the facultative, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, which is present in various countries where tilapia farming is commercially important. We confirmed the presence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures in association with an outbreak during the second semester of 2012. Broodstock fish presented a mortality rate of approximately 40%, and disease was characterized by histologically classified granulomas, or whitish nodules, in different organs, mainly the spleen and kidney. Through DNA obtained from infected tissue and pure cultures in a cysteine heart medium supplemented with hemoglobin, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was initially confirmed through the amplification and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes demonstrated close similarity with previously reported F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis sequences obtained from infected tilapia from various countries. The identification of this subspecies as the causative agent of the outbreak was confirmed using the iglC gene as a target sequence, which showed 99.5% identity to 2 F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains (Ethime-1 and Toba04). These findings represent the first documented occurrence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures, which highlights the importance of establishing preventative measures to minimize the spread of this disease within the Mexican aquaculture industry.

  9. Changes of Microbiological Quality in Aquaculture tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) After Irradiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (1, 3 and 5 kGy) on the microbial flora of aquacultured Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) in cages inserted in Manzala Lake, Egypt, was investigated. These fish were fed on poultry by-product meal (PBM) in practical diets as replacement for fish meal protein in which herring fish meal (HFM) were replaced by PBM at ratio of 25 %, 50 %, 75% and 100% in the diet. Based on the results, it could be noticed that there was non-significant effect after partial (25, 50 and 75%) and complete replacement of fish meal protein by poultry by-product meal on the total bacterial count TBC, mould and yeast and Staphylococcus aureus counts (log cfu/g) of tilapia fish. Significant increases in the counts of Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterobacter aerogenes were recorded, specially at the high levels of replacement (75 and 100%). Concerning the effect of gamma irradiation on fish samples, it could be observed that gamma irradiation with the doses 1,3 and 5 kGy significantly reduced TBC, mould and yeast, S. aureus. E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacteriaceae counts of all treatments which reached undetectable values by using gamma irradiation doses of 3 and 5 kGy. From the present results, it could be concluded that using poultry by-product meal (PBM) in diets for Nile tilapia as replacement for fish meal protein supplied by herring fish meal (HFM) in the diet (to reduce feeding economic cost) significantly increase the log count of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. However using gamma irradiation significantly reduced these counts which were undetectable using 3 and 5 kGy. It could be concluded that using gamma irradiation with dose 3 kGy can improve the hygienic quality of aquacultured Nile tilapia.

  10. Water Quality Improvement of Media Culture for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Cleaner Production Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeruddin; Supriharyono; Febrianto, S.

    2018-02-01

    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is known as a high adaptability and brackish water tolerance fish. This fish is also has a meat with high protein content, that ranges about 65 -75%. Generally the tilapia is cultured using a conventional system with high density. It is caused degradation of water quality of media culture, and finally increase mortality rate of fish cultured. The application of tilapia cultivation with cleaner production method by giving enzyme into the feed to upgrade the efficiency of feed utilization, presumed that could improve the water quality of cultivation media. It is due to the lower of feed and feces residues. Therefore the concentration of toxic compounds, such as ammonia, nitrite and sulfide, will be lower. The experiments were conducted for 35 days with a completely factorial randomized design. The first factor was the dosage of enzyme in the feed, consisting of 4 dosages, and the second factor was the duration of the test fish maintenance (5 weeks). Water quality variables examined included ammonia, nitrite and sulfide. The results showed that enzyme dosage had no significantly impact on ammonia, nitrite and sulfide concentrations in the test media culture. However, the feeding with enzyme in low dosage, resulted less concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide than it was without enzyme). The duration of fish cultured has significantly effect on the concentration of ammonia, nitrite and sulfide in the test media. While it is no significantly correlation between dosage and duration of maintenance.

  11. Effects of Microcystis on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal-Liver Axis in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhang; Meng, Shunlong; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangyang

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used to assess the endocrine disruption potential of Microcytis aeruginosa. Male Nile tilapia were exposed to lyophilized M. aeruginosa or purified microcystin-LR (8.3 μg/L) for 28 days. The levels of serum hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) and transcripts of selected genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were analyzed. The results showed that serum hormones were significantly up-regulated, and transcripts of 13 genes (GHRH, PACAP, GH, GHR1, GHR2, IGF1, IGF2, CYP19a, CYP19b, 3β-HSD1, 20β-HSD, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD8) were significantly altered after Microcytis exposure. These results indicate that fish reproduction can be altered in a Microcystis bloom-contaminated aquatic environment.

  12. Technical evaluation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) monoculture and tilapia-prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in earthen ponds with or without substrates for periphyton development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Farzana, A.; Fatema, M.K.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of periphyton grown on bamboo substrate, on growth and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain) in monoculture and polyculture with the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were studied and economically evaluated. The

  13. Masculinization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by immersion in androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, W.L.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Lucero, M.; Contreras-Sanchez, W.M.; Schreck, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of all-male populations increases the efficiency and feasibility of tilapia aquaculture. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a short-term immersion procedure for masculinizing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two synthetic androgens were evaluated: 17α-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT). Exposure (3 h) on 10 and again on 13 days post-fertilization to MDHT at 500 μg/1 successfully masculinized fry in all experiments, resulting in 100, 94 and 83 ± 2% males in Experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Immersions in MDHT or MT at 100 μg/1 resulted in significantly skewed sex ratios in Experiments 1 and 3 (MT resulted in 73 and 83 ± 3% males; and MDHT resulted in 72 and 91 ± 1% males) but not in Experiment 2. Immersion in MT at 500 μg/1 only caused masculinization in Experiment 3. Although further research and refinement is needed, immersion of Nile tilapia in MDHT may provide a practical alternative to the use of steroid-treated feed. Furthermore, when compared with current techniques for steroid-induced sex inversion of tilapia, short-term immersion reduces the period of time that workers are exposed to anabolic steroids.

  14. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  15. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties

  16. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  17. Fermentation of Azolla sp. leaves and the utilization as a feed ingredient of tilapia Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to study the effect of incubation period on the nutritional content of Azolla sp. meal fermented by Trichoderma harzianum, and its optimum supplementation level in the feed of tilapia Oreochromis sp. In incubation period treatments, fermentation of Azolla meal was performed in two, six, eight, and ten days (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10 using Trichoderma harzianum as the fermentor. The fish used in this study was tilapia Oreochromis sp. with an average weight of 10.59±1.29 g. The design of the feeding treatments was repeletting commercial feed with Azolla leaves by with different supplementation levels, i.e. 0% (A/control, 30% (B, 60% (C, and 90% (D. Faecal collection for digestibility measurement was conducted for 15 days and fish growth rate was observed for 40 days. Azolla meal fermented for two days (AF2 showed the best results among the other treatments with a crude fiber decrease of 37.19% and protein increase of 38.65%. The results of this study indicate that fermentation can increase the nutritional quality of Azolla meal and its most optimal supplementation level in the diet of tilapia is 30%.Keywords: crude fiber, Azolla sp., tilapiaABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama waktu fermentasi daun mata lele Azolla sp. menggunakan kapang Trichoderma harzianum serta dosis optimal dalam pakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. Proses fermentasi tepung daun mata lele dilakukan selama dua, enam, delapan, dan sepuluh hari (AF2, AF6, AF8, AF10. Ikan uji pada penelitian ini menggunakan ikan nila Oreochromis sp. dengan bobot rata-rata 10,59±1,29 g yang ditebar sebanyak 6 ekor/akuarium berukuran 50×45×30 cm3. Sebagai pakan perlakuan yakni repeletting daun mata lele dengan pakan komersil pada tingkat suplementasi 0% (A/kontrol, 30% (B, 60% (C, dan 90% (D. Pemeliharaan ikan uji dan pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan feses ikan untuk uji ketercernaan selama 15 hari dan mengamati pertumbuhan

  18. Growth comparison of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Blue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... worm water food fish and exceeding the harvest of. Atlantic salmon ... transgenic fish, in theory, is not different from the natural processes, but it is a ..... delivered from fast growing genetically-modified Tilapia zillii: A productive ...

  19. Oxidative stress responses in gills of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Kiki Syaputri; Novianty, Zahra; Saputri, Miftahul Rohmah; Irawan, Bambang; Soegianto, Agoes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the impact of different salinities on the levels of CAT, GSH and MDA of the gills of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was treated by exposure to salinities concentration 0 ‰, 5 ‰ and 10 ‰. Research models were weakened and sacrificed, then took the left and right sides of the gills. The result of gills homogenity was centrifuged for supernatan, then supernatan was proceed with testing levels of CAT, GSH and MDA by ELISA assay methods. The levels of CAT in gills were significantly higher at 10 ‰ than at 5 ‰ and 0 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills were significantly higher at 0 ‰ than 5 ‰. The levels of GSH in gills at 5 ‰ and 10 ‰ salinities were not significantly different. The levels of MDA in gills at salinity 10 ‰ and 5 ‰ were higher than in control gills at 0 ‰ salinities. This occurs because the salinity of 10 ‰ salinity was optimal for live of fish tilapia. In conclusion, salinity impact the increasing of CAT, GSH, and MDA levels in gills of Nile tilapia.

  20. Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.R. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours and periods (daytime, nighttime and both was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter. Significant difference to final weight (P<0.05 among treatments was observed. The increase in feeding frequency improves the productive performance of Nile tilapias in cages and permitted better management of the food. The better feed conversion rate for high feeding frequency (24 times day-1 can result in saving up to 360kg of food for each ton of fish produced, increasing the economic sustenance for tilapia culture and suggesting less environmental pollution.

  1. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.I.M.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.

    2013-01-01

    -term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n. =. 108, 490.6. ±. 4.0. g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments...

  2. Use of distiller’s dried grains with solubles, which had been used as substrate for black soldier fly larvae, in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (MFM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black...

  3. Effects of acclimation salinity on the expression of selenoproteins in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Lucia A.; Gilman, Christy L.; Moorman, Benjamin P.; Berry, Marla J.; Grau, E. Gordon; Seale, Andre P.

    2014-01-01

    Selenoproteins are ubiquitously expressed, act on a variety of physiological redox-related processes, and are mostly regulated by selenium levels in animals. To date, the expression of most selenoproteins has not been verified in euryhaline fish models. The Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, a euryhaline cichlid fish, has a high tolerance for changes in salinity and survives in fresh water (FW) and seawater (SW) environments which differ greatly in selenium availability. In the present study, we searched EST databases for cichlid selenoprotein mRNAs and screened for their differential expression in FW and SW-acclimated tilapia. The expression of mRNAs encoding iodothyronine deiodinases 1, 2 and 3 (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3), Fep15, glutathione peroxidase 2, selenoproteins J, K, L, M, P, S, and W, was measured in the brain, eye, gill, kidney, liver, pituitary, muscle, and intraperitoneal white adipose tissue. Gene expression of selenophosphate synthetase 1, Secp43, and selenocysteine lyase, factors involved in selenoprotein synthesis or in selenium metabolism, were also measured. The highest variation in selenoprotein and synthesis factor mRNA expression between FW- and SW-acclimated fish was found in gill and kidney. While the branchial expression of Dio3 was increased upon transferring tilapia from SW to FW, the inverse effect was observed when fish were transferred from FW to SW. Protein content of Dio3 was higher in fish acclimated to FW than in those acclimated to SW. Together, these results outline tissue distribution of selenoproteins in FW and SW-acclimated tilapia, and indicate that at least Dio3 expression is regulated by environmental salinity. PMID:24854764

  4. Derivation and Osmotolerance Characterization of Three Immortalized Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Alison M.; Qin, Qin; Rice, Robert H.; Li, Johnathan; Kültz, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Fish cell cultures are becoming more widely used models for investigating molecular mechanisms of physiological response to environmental challenge. In this study, we derived two immortalized Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) cell lines from brain (OmB) and lip epithelium (OmL), and compared them to a previously immortalized bulbus arteriosus (TmB) cell line. The OmB and OmL cell lines were generated without or with Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor/3T3 feeder layer supplementation. Although both approaches were successful, ROCK inhibitor/feeder layer supplementation was found to offer the advantages of selecting for epithelial-like cell type and decreasing time to immortalization. After immortalization (≥ passage 5), we characterized the proteomes of the newly derived cell lines (OmB and OmL) using LCMS and identified several unique cell markers for each line. Subsequently, osmotolerance for each of the three cell lines following acute exposure to elevated sodium chloride was evaluated. The acute maximum osmotolerance of these tilapia cell lines (>700 mOsm/kg) was markedly higher than that of any other known vertebrate cell line, but was significantly higher in the epithelial-like OmL cell line. To validate the physiological relevance of these tilapia cell lines, we quantified the effects of acute hyperosmotic challenge (450 mOsm/kg and 700 mOsm/kg) on the transcriptional regulation of two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the compatible organic osmolyte, myo-inositol. Both enzymes were found to be robustly upregulated in all three tilapia cell lines. Therefore, the newly established tilapia cells lines represent valuable tools for studying molecular mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response of euryhaline fish. PMID:24797371

  5. Prevalence of neurotoxic Clostridium botulinum type C in the gastrointestinal tracts of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in the Salton Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, P; Rocke, T E; Gross, K; Yuill, T M

    2004-07-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) have been implicated as the source of type C toxin in avian botulism outbreaks in pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Pelecanus occidentalis californicus) at the Salton Sea in southern California (USA). We collected sick, dead, and healthy fish from various sites throughout the Sea during the summers of 1999 through 2001 and tested them for the presence of Clostridium botulinum type C cells by polymerase chain reaction targeting the C(1) neurotoxin gene. Four of 96 (4%), 57 of 664 (9%), and five of 355 (1%) tilapia tested were positive for C. botulinum type C toxin gene in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. The total number of positive fish was significantly greater in 2000 than in 2001 (P<0.0001). No difference in numbers of positives was detected between sick and dead fish compared with live fish. In 2000, no significant relationships were revealed among the variables studied, such as location and date of collection.

  6. Effects of Dietary Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisia Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. P. Cyrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3 and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day decreased with increasing dietary yeast level (P < 0.0001. Voluntary feed intake (VFI, %BW/day did not vary significantly with increasing yeast level. Fish fed 40% yeast showed significant reduction in protein efficiency rate, protein retention and nitrogen gain. Increasing levels of dietary yeast did not significantly affect protein or lipid digestibility. Dietary dried yeast was seemingly palatable to tilapia juveniles and was suitable up to 15% inclusion to promote growth and efficient diet utilization, without affecting body composition.

  7. Hematology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus subjected to anesthesia and anticoagulation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristine Weinert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical hematology facilitates the diagnosis of disease and can act as a prognostic indicator of pathological conditions in fish. The aim of the present study was to evaluate hematological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus subjected to different anesthetics and anticoagulants. Thirty apparently healthy fishes (average weight of 473 ± 35. 50 g and mean total length of 29. 33 ± 0. 37 cm, were selected from the local commercial fish farm in the Lages municipality (Santa Catarina, Brazil. The animals were randomly divided into three groups of 10. In two groups, anesthesia was induced with eugenol (70 mg·L- 1 (EG and Benzocaine hydrochloride (100 mg·L-1 (BG, respectively. Anesthesia was not administered to fish of the third group (CG/control group. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture of the caudal vessels and placed into microtubes containing sodium heparin or Na2EDTA for further analysis. The results were analyzed by Sigma Stat for Windows, the paired t-test for significant differences between anticoagulants of the same group, and analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test for comparison of means between groups (p ? 0. 05. Most of the observed changes in the erythrogram were significantly higher for the anticoagulant heparin and benzocaine group in comparison to the control group. However, the values obtained for the leukogram were significantly higher for all groups subjected to the Na2EDTA anticoagulant, suggesting that heparin may cause cell clumping. The results suggest that the anesthetics under investigation effectively minimizes the effects of stress caused by handling and invasive procedures, and that the anticoagulant heparin causes less hemolysis in comparison to Na2EDTA for Nile tilapia. Thus, the hematological variations attributed to different anesthetic protocols and/or different anticoagulants should be considered for the species Oreochromis niloticus.

  8. Detection of Clostridium botulinum type C cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, P.; Williamson, J.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    We established a method of directly detecting Clostridium botulinum type C cells, while minimizing spore detection, in the intestinal contents of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). This technique involved extraction of predominantly cellular DNA from tilapia intestinal tracts and used a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect presence of type C1 toxin gene. We consistently detected C. botulinum type C cells in tilapia gastrointestinal contents at a level of 7.5×104 cells per 0.25 g material or 1.9×103 cells. This technique is useful for determining prevalence of the potentially active organisms within a given population of fish and may be adapted to other types of C. botulinum and vertebrate populations as well.

  9. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  10. Effects of dietary genistein on GH/IGF-I axis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-09-01

    There is considerable concern that isoflavones, such as genistein in fish feed composed of soybean protein, aff ects somatic growth in fish. Our previous works demonstrated that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant eff ect on growth performance in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed growth. This study was conducted to further examine the eff ects of dietary genistein on the endocrine disruption on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis in Nile tilapia ( O. niloticus). Juvenile fish were fed by hand twice daily to satiation with one of four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, each containing either 0, 30, 300 or 3 000 μg/g genistein. Following an 8-week feeding period, plasma GH and IGF-I levels were investigated by radioimmunoassay and gene expression levels of gh, ghrelin, gnrhs, ghr, npy, npyrs, pacap, ghrs, i gf-I, igf-Ir, and igfbp3 were examined by real-time PCR. The results show that no significant change in plasma GH and IGF-I levels in fish fed with diets containing 30 μg/g and 300 μg/g genistein. mRNA expression of genes along the GH/IGF-I axis remained unaff ected, except for igf-Ir, which was stimulated by the 300 μg/g genistein diet. While in fish fed the 3 000 μg/g genistein diet, the plasma GH and IGF-I levels decreased, and mRNA expression of gh, ghr2, npyr1, igf-I, and igf-Ir were also significantly depressed. In contrast, npy and igfbp3 mRNA expression were enhanced. This study provides convincing evidence for growth impediment by genistein by disturbing the GH/IGF-I axis in Nile tilapia O. niloticus.

  11. Brain Transcriptome Profiling Analysis of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Under Long-Term Hypersaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The fish brain plays an important role in controlling growth, development, reproduction, and adaptation to environmental change. However, few studies stem from the perspective of whole transcriptome change in a fish brain and its response to long-term hypersaline stress. This study compares the differential transcriptomic responses of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus maintained for 8 weeks in brackish water (16 practical salinity units, psu and in freshwater. Fish brains from each treatment were collected for RNA-seq analysis to identify potential genes and pathways responding to hypersaline stress. A total of 27,089 genes were annotated, and 391 genes were expressed differently in the salinity treatment. Ten pathways containing 40 differentially expressed genes were identified in the tilapia brain. Antigen processing and presentation and phagosome were the two principally affected pathways in the immune system. Thirty-one of 40 genes were involved in various expressions associated with environmental information processing pathways such as neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, the Jak-STAT signaling pathway, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, which are the upstream pathways for modulation of immunity and osmoregulation. The most-changed genes (>5-fold were all down-regulated, including four growth hormone/prolactin gene families, i.e., prolactin precursor (−10.62, prolactin-1 (−11, somatotropin (−10.15, somatolactin-like (−6.18, and two other genes [thyrotropin subunit beta (−7.73 and gonadotropin subunit beta-2 (−5.06] that stimulated prolactin release in tilapia. The downregulation pattern of these genes corroborates the decrease in tilapia immunity with increasing salinity and reveals an adaptive mechanism of tilapia to long-term hypersaline stress. Ovarian steroidogenesis, isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, and phenylalanine metabolism are the

  12. High rates of intestinal bicarbonate secretion in seawater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I; Gregório, S F; Gaetano, P; Trischitta, F; Fuentes, J

    2017-05-01

    Osmoregulation in fish is a complex process that requires the orchestrated cooperation of many tissues. In fish facing hyperosmotic environments, the intestinal absorption of some monovalent ions and the secretion of bicarbonate are key processes to favor water absorption. In the present study, we showed that bicarbonate levels in the intestinal fluid are several fold higher in seawater than in freshwater acclimated tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). In addition, we analyzed gene expression of the main molecular mechanisms involved in HCO 3 - movements i.e. slc26a6, slc26a3, slc4a4 and v-type H-ATPase sub C in the intestine of tilapia acclimated to both seawater and freshwater. Our results show an anterior/posterior functional regionalization of the intestine in tilapia in terms of expression patterns, which is affected by environmental salinity mostly in the anterior and mid intestine. Analysis of bicarbonate secretion using pH-Stat in tissues mounted in Ussing chambers reveals high rates of bicarbonate secretion in tilapia acclimated to seawater from anterior intestine to rectum ranging between ~900 and ~1700nmolHCO 3 - cm -2 h -1 . However, a relationship between the expression of slc26a6, slc26a3, slc4a4 and the rate of bicarbonate secretion seems to be compromised in the rectum. In this region, the low expression of the bicarbonate transporters could not explain the high bicarbonate secretion rates here described. However, we postulate that the elevated v-type H-ATPase mRNA expression in the rectum could be involved in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-androgenic activities of diuron and its metabolites in male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thiago Scremin Boscolo; Boscolo, Camila Nomura Pereira; Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto da; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo; Schlenk, Daniel; Almeida, Eduardo Alves de

    2015-07-01

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) is a widely used herbicide which has been frequently detected in surface waters throughout the world. In vivo bioassay guided fractionation studies indicated that diuron may have estrogenic activity augmented by biotransformation. This study evaluated the effects of diuron and three of its metabolites on plasma hormone concentrations and spermatogenesis of the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Sexually mature male fish were exposed for 25 days to diuron, as well to its metabolites 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU) and 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU), at concentrations of 200ng/L. Testosterone levels were decreased by diuron, but had limited effects on gonadal histology. Diuron metabolites, however, caused significant decreases in testosterone and in 11-ketotestosterone, gonadosomatic index, diameter of seminiferous tubules and in the mean percentages of germ cells (spermatids and spermatozoa). We conclude that these metabolites have antiandrogenic activity to male Nile tilapia, potentially causing reproductive impairment in male fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reproductive performance of female Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with different digestible energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamira Maria Orlando

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the reproductive performance of female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed diets containing different levels of digestible energy (DE. The fish were housed in 15 fiberglass tanks (500 L in a recirculating system at an average temperature of 27.5 °C. The treatments consisted of five diets with increasing levels of DE (3,200; 3,400; 3,600; 3,800; and 4,000 kcal/kg. The levels of DE did not significantly influence the final weight or the hepatosomatic, gonadosomatic, and visceral fat indices. The absolute fecundity was influenced by the treatments, for which the highest values were observed from the 3,600 kcal/kg DE level and upward. The proximate composition of the fish also had a significant effect on the variables crude protein, ether extract, and ash; the fish fed diets with higher levels of DE exhibited the lowest body protein content, while the accumulation of ether extract exhibited the opposite response. A level of 3,600 kcal/kg of digestible energy should be used in diets with 380 g/kg crude protein and a starch/lipid ratio of 1.33 for female Nile tilapia.

  15. Observations on the helminth parasites of wild and cultured tilapia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 449 specimen of Tilapia comprising Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis), Tilapia zilli and Tilapia galilea (Sarotherodon) collected from the Federal and State Fish ponds, Okigwe and from the Imo River were examined for helminth infections. Out of these, only 5 (1.1%) fish were infected. These came from the wild. Tilapia ...

  16. Dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, G; Uma, R P; Iyapparaj, P; Citarasu, T; Peter, S M Punitha; Babu, M Michael; Palavesam, A

    2009-05-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon, H(1), beal Aegle marmelos, H(2), winter cherry Withania somnifera, H(3) and ginger Zingiber officinale, H(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrioparahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae. Oreochromis mossambicus were fed 5% of their body mass per day for 45 days, and those fed the experimental diets showed a greater increase in mass (111-139%) over the 45 days compared to those that received the control diet (98%). The specific growth rate of O. mossambicus fed the four diets was also significantly greater (1.66-1.93%) than control (1.52%) diet-fed fish. The blood plasma chemistry analysis revealed that protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels of experimental fish were significantly higher than that of control fish. Packed cell volume of the blood samples of experimental diet-fed fish was also significantly higher (34.16-37.95%) than control fish (33.0%). Leucocrit value, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were enhanced in fish fed the plant extract-supplemented diets. The acetone extract of the plants inhibited growth of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae with extracts from W. somnifera showing maximum growth inhibition. A challenge test with V. vulnificus showed 100% mortality in O. mossambicus fed the control diet by day 15, whereas the fish fed the experimental diets registered only 63-80% mortality at the end of challenge experiment (30 days). The cumulative mortality index for the control group was 12,000, which was equated to 1.0% mortality, and accordingly, the lowest mortality of 0.35% was registered in H(4)-diet-fed group.

  17. Effects of replacing fishmeal with wastes derived from local fisheries on the growth of juvenile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanagun Chitmanat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially and totally replacing fishmeal with by-product derived from local fisheries on growth performances of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Tilapia fingerlings (average initialweight 0.38±0.05 g were fed with 5 different diet formulas composing of fish meal protein replacement levels of 0%, 25%,50%, 75, and 100%. Tilapia were raised in 80 x 80 x 80 cm3 hapa in an earthen pond for 8 weeks. Each treatment contained3 replications. No feeding trial was applied as negative control. The result showed that fish by-product powder could substitute for fishmeal on a crude protein basis at a level of not more than 25%. As a result, feed cost can only be cut down approximately 3 US cents/kg. Specific growth rate, weight gain, survival rate and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different between the fish fed with the 75% and 100% fishmeal containing diets (P>0.05. The outcome would beapplied to reduce the solid wastes from fish processing and partially replace the imported fishmeal. This can also be used as guideline for farmers in small communities to produce their own tilapia feed.

  18. COMPENSATORY GROWTH IN MOZAMBIQUE TILAPIA (Oreochromis mossambicus, FED A SUB-OPTIMAL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, held in 30%o seawater and at 29-30 °C, were divided into four groups (n = 50/group in replicate, and given one of four feed cycles: 1 control, with continuous feedind, 2 5:5, 3 10:10 and 4 15:15, wherein fish were subjected to starvation and subsequent refeeding cycles of 5, 10 and 15 days respectively. All animals were fed a commercial diet containing 18.4% protein, 6.7% lipid, 58.6% carbohydrate and 7.2% ash, over a 60 day trial period. Growth compensation was observed in the feed cycled groups as increased (P < 0.03 weight specific growth rates during refeeding. However, feed cycled groups were unable to achieve the weghts of control fish. Starvation reduced (P<0.01 haematocrit values when compared to control levels and, in the 15:15 cycled groups, elevated the testicular index (P < 0.02. The results are considered with respect to the commercial application of compensatory growth during production of tilapia.

  19. Hematological and biochemical characters of monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 cultivated using methyltestosterone

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    Alaa El-Din H. Sayed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of steroid-treated feeds as 17 α-methyltestosterone for the production of all-male populations is widespread in tilapia aquaculture. The aim of the present study was to investigate the misuse effects of methyltestosterone on monosex farmed Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus by evaluation of hematological and biochemical values. The fishes were obtained from four localities (Assiut as a control, Beheira, Alexandria and Kafr el-Sheikh: three farms from each governorate as farmed monosex produced using methyltestosterone. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin rate, hematocrit percentage, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, white blood cell count, blood platelets, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophils and basophils were determined. The results showed that there were changes in the erythrocytic series and in the defense white blood cells. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, uric acid and creatinine were determined for biochemical study. These alterations are considered an indication for performance and health of fish in the monosex culture medium indicating the side effects of overdose induction of MT.

  20. Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed with different levels of alcohol yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medri, V; Pereira, G V; Leonhardt, J H

    2000-02-01

    Two hundred and forty 45-day-old fingerlings of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sexually reverted with an initial average weight of 1.25 +/- 0.14 g, distributed in a totally casualized delineation, during 330 days. The effect of the substitution of 10%, 20% and 30% of the ration by distillery yeast (Saccharomiyces cerevisae) in balanced experimental rations on the development in the breeding of tilapias did not show a harmful effect up to the maximum tested level of 30%, showing that the choice of the yeast in the ration for these fishes depends on the availability and occasional cost. The yeast provides fish with good resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions, which could be verified since there were no statistical differences among the treatments with different levels of yeast and the witness. The long growth rate in terms of length and weight can be attributed to the little available space for each specimen, not obeying the limit of populational density, as well as reduction of food ingestion, which coincide with the winter season, above of the absence of natural feeding.

  1. Evidence of vertical transmission and tissue tropism of Streptococcosis from naturally infected red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.

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    Padmaja Jayaprasad Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcosis is a highly problematic disease in the aquaculture of freshwater fishes, especially for tilapia. The possibility of vertical transmission of streptococcosis and the pattern of tissue tropism of this pathogen in various organs was examined in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. Healthy broodstock without any clinical signs of Streptococcus spp. were selected from a farm earlier reported to have the disease and a total of 10 pairs were forced spawned to provide samples of gametes and progeny for pathogen testing. A colorimetric LAMP assay was used to confirm whether the bacterial pathogens Streptococcus. agalactiae and Streptococcus. iniae was present in samples of milt, unfertilized eggs, fertilized eggs, and offspring at various stages of development, as well as internal organs of broodstock (reproductive organs, gill, liver, spleen, kidney and brain as well as samples of water from culture systems. The majority of samples of milt (9/10 and unfertilized eggs (7/10 collected from the broodstock were infected with S. iniae at the time of spawning and was transmitted to all of their offspring. Nevertheless, when the same samples of gametes were analyzed for S. agalactiae, they were all found to be negative but the pathogen was found to be present in some 10-day-old larval offspring (4/10. However, when the pathogenic presence was analyzed from the reproductive organs of the parents, both S. agalactiae (11/20 and S. iniae (18/20 bacterium were common. Although, all broodstock were asymptomatic, almost all broodstock harboured the bacteria in many organs. Confirmation of vertical transmission of streptococcosis in tilapia means that intergenerational break cannot be used as a reliable and simple means of reducing or eliminating the prevalence of these difficult pathogens in aquaculture stock. Keywords: Tilapia, Vertical transmission, Specific pathogen free, Streptococcus, Tissue tropism

  2. Characteristic study of chitosan addition in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) bone based gelatin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaka, W.; Yudhistira, B.; Putro, M. I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of popular fish species in Indonesia. The high number in tilapia’s production and export of tilapia resulting in the increase of bone fish waste. an attempt to decrease the amount of the aforementioned waste, the fish bones were turned into gelatine. The gelatine produced from this waste can be put to good use by turning it into edible film due to its high water resistance and low tensile strength value. However, in order to make a proper film, both the water resistance and the tensile strength value needs another appropriate additional biopolymer. In this case, the appropriate biopolymer needed both to form the film and to repair its characteristics is chitosan. The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of the chitosan addition on the tilapia bone based gelatine film. The research used several mixtures of gelatine (G) and chitosan (C) with the following ratio: G100:C0 (GC1), G75:C25 (GC2), G50:C50 (GC3), G25:C75 (GC4), G0:C100 (GC5). ANOVA results (Psolubility, tensile strength, elongation at break, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), color a, and color b but no significant effects on the vapor permeability and color L. The best result is shown on GC2 with thickness 0.119 mm; solubility 74.95%; tensile strength 2.635 Mpa; elongation at break 68.26%; water vapor permeability 5.897 g/h m2 and FTIR. The parameters in GC2 shows good compatibility between the two biopolymers.

  3. The identification of plankton, water quality, blood cell, and histology in culture pond of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus which infected by viral nervous necrosis (VNN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuhar, U.; Rahayu, D. T.; Musa, M.; Arfiati, D.

    2018-04-01

    Currently, Viral Nervous Necrotic (VNN) is not only attacking the marine fish but also the freshwater fish like tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The aims of study to identify the type of plankton, water quality status, blood cell status, also histology of VNN infected tilapia obtained in culture ponds. The methods included plankton identification and water quality analysis from the infected fish pond in the Krakal, Blitar. The quality of blood cells and the histology of tilapia infected by VNN observed using a microscope with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The result show plankton in a fish pond of infected tilapia includes 3 divisions: Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, and Bacillariophyta and 2 phyla: Arthropoda, and Rotifera. The values of erythrocyte, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were smaller than normal tilapia, however, the leukocyte and macronucleus values of VNN-infected fish were higher than normal fish. The fish histology shows the vacuolation in the brain and eyes tissue. The water quality of the culture pond have the temperature, pH, turbidity, DO, CO2, NO3, PO4, TOM in the range of 30-32°C 7.0-9.0; 25cm; 6.082–7.44mg/L 3.98–9.08mg/L 1.039–1.139 mg/L; 0.051-0.054mg/L; and 11.377-13.905mg/L, respectively. VNN causing high leukocyte and macronuclei and the damaging in brain and eyes tissue in infected tilapia.

  4. EVALUACIÓN DE ENSILAJE BIOLÓGICO DE RESIDUOS DE PESCADO EN ALIMENTACIÓN DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis spp AVALIAÇÃO DA SILAGEM BIOLÓGICA DE RESÍDUOS DE PEIXE NA DIETA DE TILÁPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis spp EVALUATION OF FISH WASTE BIOLOGICAL SILAGE IN RED TILAPIA FEEDING (Oreochromis spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRÍSPULO PEREA R

    2011-06-01

    ólicas, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Os parâmetros de digestibilidade não foram significativamente diferentes (p>0,05, indicando que a silagem biológica de resíduos de peixe ao ser incluído nas dietas para a tilápia, não afetou o consumo dos componentes dos alimentos. Os parâmetros zootécnicos foram significativamente diferentes (pThe piscicultural production at "La Salvajina" dam has increased in recent years, accentuating the accumulation of waste resulting from this process. The present research seeks to generate an alternative for waste management, applying the biological silage technique for its inclusion in the red tilapia feeding at the fattening stage. Three inclusion stages were evaluated, 10% (T1, 20% (T2, 30% (T3, plus a witness diet 0% (TO which does not present silage inclusion. For this, it was determined apparent digestibility (total, dry matter, raw protein, ether extract and ashes through the addition of chromic oxide as an inert marker and the zootechnical parameters (weight gain, size increment and food conversion. The evaluations were carried out in metabolic cages under a completely randomized design in three replicas. The digestibility parameters did not present meaningful differences (p>0,05, indicating that the biological silage of fish waste when included in rations for tilapia do not affect the ingestion of the feeding components. The zootechnical parameters presented meaningful differences (p<0,05, observing that at a higer silage inclusion a better size, weight and food conversion behavior is presented.

  5. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for using oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) as partial replacements of fishmeal in feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutrient digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion rates were examined....... A fishmeal-based diet served as control against three test diets in which 30 % of each of the oilseed by-products was included. Diets were randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish (similar to 1 kg bulk weight) for the digestibility trials which spanned a total of 9 days. The partial inclusion...

  6. Ectoparasites of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Zago

    Full Text Available For this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from the Água Vermelha Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. From March 2010 to March 2011, sixty-three specimens of O. niloticusin three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final were collected. All fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%. Five species of protozoans (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis,Piscinoodinium pillulare, and Epistylissp. and five species of monogenoids (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae,Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis, and Gyrodactylus sp. were observed. The abundance of Trichodina spp. and the prevalence of Epistylis sp. were higher in the dry season, and the prevalence of C. halli was higher in the rainy season. For the majority of ectoparasites found in this study, fish in the intermediate and final phases had higher parasitism rates than those in the initial phase. The data presented may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of the fish species studied in cage-farming systems.

  7. Ectoparasites of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; Garcia, Fabiana; Schalch, Sérgio Henrique Canello; Gozi, Kátia Suemi; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Água Vermelha Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. From March 2010 to March 2011, sixty-three specimens of O. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. All fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). Five species of protozoans (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, and Epistylis sp.) and five species of monogenoids (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis, and Gyrodactylus sp.) were observed. The abundance of Trichodina spp. and the prevalence of Epistylis sp. were higher in the dry season, and the prevalence of C. halli was higher in the rainy season. For the majority of ectoparasites found in this study, fish in the intermediate and final phases had higher parasitism rates than those in the initial phase. The data presented may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of the fish species studied in cage-farming systems.

  8. Successful xenogeneic germ cell transplantation from Jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) into adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Costa, G M J; Lacerda, S M S N; Brandão-Dias, P F P; Kalapothakis, E; Silva Júnior, A F; Alvarenga, E R; França, L R

    2016-05-01

    Fish germ cell transplantation presents several important potential applications for aquaculture, including the preservation of germplasm from endangered fish species with high genetic and commercial values. Using this technique in studies developed in our laboratory with adult male Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus), all the necessary procedures were successfully established, allowing the production of functional sperm and healthy progeny approximately 2months after allogeneic transplantation. In the present study, we evaluated the viability of the adult Nile tilapia testis to generate sperm after xenogeneic transplant of germ cells from sexually mature Jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) that belong to a different taxonomic order. Therefore, in order to investigate at different time-periods post-transplantation, the presence and development of donor PKH26 labeled catfish germ cells were followed in the tilapia seminiferous tubules. From 7 to 20days post-transplantation, only PKH26 labeled spermatogonia were observed, whereas spermatocytes at different stages of development were found at 70days. Germ cell transplantation success and progression of spermatogenesis were indicated by the presence of labeled PKH26 spermatids and sperm on days 90 and 120 post-transplantation, respectively. Confirming the presence of the catfish genetic material in the tilapia testis, all recipient tilapias evaluated (n=8) showed the genetic markers evaluated. Therefore, we demonstrated for the first time that the adult Nile tilapia testis offers the functional conditions for development of spermatogenesis with sperm production from a fish species belonging to a different order, which provides an important new venue for aquaculture advancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estrogenic activities of diuron metabolites in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thiago Scremin Boscolo; Boscolo, Camila Nomura Pereira; Felício, Andreia Arantes; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo; Schlenk, Daniel; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2016-03-01

    Some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter the estrogenic activities of the organism by directly interacting with estrogen receptors (ER) or indirectly through the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent studies in male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) indicated that diuron may have anti-androgenic activity augmented by biotransformation. In this study, the effects of diuron and three of its metabolites were evaluated in female tilapia. Sexually mature female fish were exposed for 25 days to diuron, as well as to its metabolites 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU) and 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU), at concentrations of 100 ng/L. Diuron metabolites caused increases in E2 plasma levels, gonadosomatic indices and in the percentage of final vitellogenic oocytes. Moreover, diuron and its metabolites caused a decrease in germinative cells. Significant differences in plasma concentrations of the estrogen precursor and gonadal regulator17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) were not observed. These results show that diuron metabolites had estrogenic effects potentially mediated through enhanced estradiol biosynthesis and accelerated the ovarian development of O. niloticus females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

  11. Control of Ectoparasitic Monogenean Infestation on GIFT Tilapia (Oreochromis sp. using Salt Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Hadiroseyani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasitic monogenean infestation is one of fish diseases which may cause mass mortality, therefore controlling the parasites is one of the important factors to ensure the success of aquaculture activities. Salt addition is one of disease curative and controlling techniques which is cheap, easy and environmental friendly as well as effective to control ectoparasites in freshwater environment. The objectives of this study were to examine monogenean parasites species in GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia tilapia, their tolerance to salt concentration and the most effective salt concentration to control the parasites. Identification, intensity and prevalence of parasitic monogenean were carried out on the external parts (body surface, fins and gills of 31 fishes. Subsequently, two different experiments were carried out  to determine parasites and fish resistance on various salt concentration at a range of 0 - 24 g/l with an interval of 2 g/l. To confirm the results of previous experiment, parasites infected fish was immersed in salt water at various concentration based on previous experiments. Two genera of monogenean were identified in GIFT tilapia, i.e. Gyrodactylus sp. on body surface and fins, and Cichlidogyrus sp. on gills with the same prevalence (100%. The intensity of those parasites was different, namely 27.84 ind/fish for Gyrodactylus sp. and 6.06 ind/fish for Cichlidogyrus sp. The intensity of both parasites was found to be lower as salt concentration increase. Salt concentration of 24 g/l was the most effective concentration to reduce parasites infestation and could totally treat the infested fish within 6 days. Keyword : tilapia, Oreochromis, monogenea, parasite and salt     ABSTRAK Serangan monogenea ektoparasitik merupakan salah satu masalah penyakit ikan yang dapat menyebabkan kematian masal, sehingga pengendaliannya merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan dalam usaha budidaya. Garam merupakan agen penyembuh atau

  12. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): II. Fecundity and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Harvest weight is the main trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) breeding programmes. The effects of selection for harvest weight on female reproductive traits are unknown. In this paper we estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits and their correlation with harvest weight using

  13. Five different piscidins from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: analysis of their expressions and biological functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chieh Peng

    Full Text Available Piscidins are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs that play important roles in helping fish resist pathogenic infections. Through comparisons of tilapia EST clones, the coding sequences of five piscidin-like AMPs (named TP1∼5 of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were determined. The complete piscidin coding sequences of TP1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 were respectively composed of 207, 234, 231, 270, and 195 bases, and each contained a translated region of 68, 77, 76, 89, and 64 amino acids. The tissue-specific, Vibrio vulnificus stimulation-specific, and Streptococcus agalactiae stimulation-specific expressions of TP2, -3, and -4 mRNA were determined by a comparative RT-PCR. Results of the tissue distribution analysis revealed high expression levels of TP2 mRNA in the skin, head kidneys, liver, and spleen. To study bacterial stimulation, S. agalactiae (SA47 was injected, and the TP4 transcript was upregulated by >13-fold (compared to the wild-type (WT control, without injection and was 60-fold upregulated (compared to the WT control, without injection 24 h after the S. agalactiae (SA47 injection in the spleen and gills. Synthesized TP3 and TP4 peptides showed antimicrobial activities against several bacteria in this study, while the synthesized TP1, -2, and -5 peptides did not. The synthesized TP2, -3, and -4 peptides showed hemolytic activities and synthesized TP3 and TP4 peptides inhibited tilapia ovary cell proliferation with a dose-dependent effect. In summary, the amphiphilic α-helical cationic peptides of TP3 and TP4 may represent novel and potential antimicrobial agents for further peptide drug development.

  14. Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in adult tilapia oreochromis niloticus in Southern part of Laguna de Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, Kristine L.; Padua, Haizelle O.; De Jesus, Editha E.; Enal, Maria Luisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, one of the most important fish species in Philippine aquaculture, is grown abundantly in Laguna de Bay. A preliminary study was conducted to determine the levels of accumulated mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the muscle tissue of this fresh water fish collected from February (wet season) to March (dry season) 2008 in the southern part of Laguna de Bay. Heavy metal analyses using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) showed a higher concentration of Hg and Cd during the wet season than in the dry season. However, analysis of variance revealed significant seasonal variation on only in Cd (P=0.0253). Lead, on the other hand, was not detected in the fish samples. The mean concentration set by FAO but the mean level of Cd (0.161 ppm) was almost equal to the limit given for fish. This could represent a significant health risk to the consuming public. (author)

  15. Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotipuntu, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

  16. The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on antioxidant gene expression in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Valencia, Ruth; Gómez-Ortiz, Nikte; Oskam, Gerko; de Coss, Romeo; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; del Río-García, Marcela; Albores-Medina, Arnulfo; Zapata-Perez, Omar

    2014-04-01

    The reactivity of nanoparticles (NPs) in biological systems is well recognized, but there are huge gaps in our understanding of NP toxicity in fish, despite a number of recent ecotoxicity studies. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2-NPs) on antioxidant gene expression in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. First, different sizes, shapes, and phases of TiO2-NPs were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Fish were injected intraperitoneally with different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 mg/L), sizes (7, 14, and 21 nm), and phases (anatase and rutile) of TiO2-NPs, and sacrificed 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after injection, when their livers were removed. Total RNA was extracted, and expression of the catalase ( CAT), glutathione- S-transferase ( GST), and superoxide dismutase ( SOD) genes was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that injection of 1.0 mg/L TiO2-NPs induced an initial mild increase in CAT, GST, and SOD gene expression in tilapia, after which transcript levels decreased. Fish injected with 7 and 14 nm TiO2-NPs showed an increase in antioxidant transcript levels 6 h after treatment. Finally, the rutile form generated stronger induction of the GST gene than anatase TiO2-NPs during the first 6 h after injection, which suggests that exposure to rutile causes higher levels of reactive oxygen species to be produced.

  17. Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabrouk, H.; Hilmi, E.; Abdullah, M.

    2008-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P 0 .05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in an average daily gain (g fish-1 day-1) between fish fed diet 3, 4, 5 and 6 and in specific growth rate (% day-1) when inclusion level of P. juliflora was increased from 20 to 40 g kg-1 in diets 2 and 3 and from 80 to 100g kg-1 in diets 5 and 6, respectively. Feed intake was increased significantly (P<0.05) with in increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed between the experimental fish groups in FCR in spite of the occurrence of a slight decreasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein productive value (PPV g 100g-1) and energy utilization (EUg 100g-1) were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets up to 60g kg-1 and then decreased significantly (P<0.05). Fish whole body composition of dry matter and protein were significantly (P<0.05) affected by using P. juliflora in fish diets. Fish fed diet 4 achieved the highest values of dry matter and crude protein. The results suggested that diet supplemented with 60g kg-1 P. juliflora improved

  18. Enterococcus, Myroides, and Exiguobacterium: Bacterial Genus with Probiotic Potential for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Marcela Villamil Díaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 120 bacteria were isolated from tilapia intestine and screened according to the antibacterial activity against pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus agalactiae, the ability to adhere to intestinal mucus and growth kinetics. The selected bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing of and were identified as Exigobacterium sp. I9, Enterococcus faecalis I15 and Myroides odoratimimus I19. Furthermore, the in vivo effect on fish growth was assessed by the addition of selected bacteria to juvenile Oreochromis niloticus feed (106 CFU / g, for 15 days. Survival was also determined after a challenge by intraperitoneal injection of E. tarda (100 μL of 105 UFC / mL. The three selected bacteria increased the specific growth rate, reduced mortality of fish during the experimental challenge with E. tarda and did not cause mortality during the addition in the feed. The positive effects observed in vivo are possibly associated with in vitro activity; however, for biosafety reasons, it is recommended that further studies of Exigobacterium sp. I9 and E. faecalis I15 may be carried out since this genus have been reported of as causative agents of fish mortality, whereas in the case of M. odoratimimus I19, verification of positive effects at a higher production scales is desirable.

  19. Resistência a antimicrobianos de bactérias oriundas de ambiente de criação e filés de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Antibacterial resistance in bacteria from fish pond and Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeana Márcia Santos Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de bactérias a antimicrobianos foi determinada em uma piscicultura de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em tanques de terra, sem utilização de antibióticos para profilaxia ou controle de doenças. Foi selecionado um tanque, capturados peixes e coletadas amostras de conteúdo intestinal e superfície dos peixes, água de abastecimento e do tanque, ração, filés de tilápias frescos e congelados. Colônias representativas foram selecionadas e analisadas pelos testes de Gram, catalase, oxidase e oxidaçãofermentação. Foram selecionadas 89 amostras e submetidas a antibiograma, utilizando vários antimicrobianos. A maioria das bactérias pertenceu às famílias Enterobacteriaceae e Vibrionaceae. Tanto no ambiente de criação como nos filés de tilápias observou-se que os isolados bacterianos apresentaramse resistentes principalmente a ampicilina e eritromicina. O índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR foi calculado, sendo que do total de 89 isolados analisados 74 (83%, apresentaram MAR ³ 0,2, ou seja apresentaram-se resistentes a dois ou mais antimicrobianos. As freqüências de índice MAR foram altas e maiores na ração.This study was conducted in a freshwater tilapia farm that has not used any antibiotic. It was selected one pond, caught 15 fishes and collected samples of intestinal content and mucus surface, water influent and pond water, ration, fresh tilapia fillets and frozen fillets.. Phenotypical characteristics, Gram stain, oxidase production, oxidative-fermentative utilization of glucose (O-F were determined of representative colony. Were selected 89 strains and submitted for antimicrobial sensitivy test using several antibiotics. The major identified bacterial families were belonged Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The most isolates showed resistance to ampicilin and eritromicin. From the 89 isolates evaluated 74 (83% showed a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR ³ 0.2, that mean

  20. Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Tilapia Piscidin 3 (TP3) and TP4 and Their Effects on Immune Functions in Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chieh-Yu; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Su, Bor-Chyuan; Hui, Cho-Fat; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2017-01-01

    To address the growing concern over antibiotic-resistant microbial infections in aquatic animals, we tested several promising alternative agents that have emerged as new drug candidates. Specifically, the tilapia piscidins are a group of peptides that possess antimicrobial, wound-healing, and antitumor functions. In this study, we focused on tilapia piscidin 3 (TP3) and TP4, which are peptides derived from Oreochromis niloticus, and investigated their inhibition of acute bacterial infections by infecting hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) with Vibrio vulnificus and evaluating the protective effects of pre-treating, co-treating, and post-treating fish with TP3 and TP4. In vivo experiments showed that co-treatment with V. vulnificus and TP3 (20 μg/fish) or TP4 (20 μg/fish) achieved 95.3% and 88.9% survival rates, respectively, after seven days. When we co-injected TP3 or TP4 and V. vulnificus into tilapia and then re-challenged the fish with V. vulnificus after 28 days, the tilapia exhibited survival rates of 35.6% and 42.2%, respectively. Pre-treatment with TP3 (30 μg/fish) or TP4 (20 μg/fish) for 30 minutes prior to V. vulnificus infection resulted in high survival rates of 28.9% and 37.8%, respectively, while post-treatment with TP3 (20 μg/fish or 30 μg/fish) or TP4 (20 μg/fish) 30 minutes after V. vulnificus infection yielded high survival rates of 33.3% and 48.9%. In summary, pre-treating, co-treating, and post-treating fish with TP3 or TP4 all effectively decreased the number of V. vulnificus bacteria and promoted significantly lower mortality rates in tilapia. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TP3 and TP4 that were effective for treating fish infected with V. vulnificus were 7.8 and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively, whereas the MICs of kanamycin and ampicillin were 31.2 and 3.91 μg/ml. The antimicrobial activity of these peptides was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), both of which showed

  1. Sexual dimorphic expression of DMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal in the teleost fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kajiura-Kobayashi, Hiroko; Guan, Guijun; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    We examined the expression profiles of tDMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal sex differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal. tDMRT1 was detected in the gonial germ-cell-surrounding cells in XY fry specifically before the appearance of any signs of morphological sex differentiation, that is, sex differences in germ cell number and histogenesis, such as differentiation into intratesticular efferent duct or ovarian cavity. The signals became localized in the Sertoli and epithelial cells comprising the efferent duct during gonadal differentiation. After the induction of XY sex reversal with estrogen, tDMRT1 decreased and then disappeared completely. In contrast, tDMRT1 was expressed in the germ-cell-surrounding cells in XX sex reversal with androgen. On the other hand, Sox9a did not show sexual dimorphism before the appearance of sex differences in histogenesis and was not expressed in the efferent duct in the testis. These results suggest that tDMRT1 is a superior testicular differentiation marker in tilapia.

  2. Additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae capsular type Ib: is genetic resistance correlated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus (S.) iniae and S. agalactiae are both economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens affecting the globally farmed tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). Historically control of these bacteria in tilapia culture has included biosecurity, therapeutants and vaccination strategies. Genet...

  3. COMPARISON AND INTERACTION GENOTIPE-ENVIRONMENT OF THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THREE GENETIC LINES OF TILAPIA Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Pérez-Fuentes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia is the second most widely cultivated species in the international scope, due to their fast growing and breeding capacity in captivity. Its biggest problem is the unpredictability of the productive performance of varieties in different environments and management types. For this reason, the productive performance of three lines: Oreochromis niloticus (N, red Oreochromis mossambicus (M and Rocky Mountain (R, cultured in five sites in two environments (Presses: Miguel de la Madrid and Miguel Aleman in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico was compared. Cages with dimensions between 18 and 48 m3 with stocking density of 7 to 28 fish m-3 were used. Feeding varied depending on the producers (1 to 3 portions a day/cage (300 to 1200 g of feed. Total length (TL, weight (P, survival (SUP and fillet yield (RF were evaluated in each genetic line. Results from physicochemical parameters of water, environments of culture and production efficiency of the strains indicated no significant differences, except for weight gain (g between sites of culture. However, it was considered that the differences were mainly due to handling during the culture, rather than the genetic line. Genetic lines showed similar performance (Tilapia R: LT 16.5 ± 3.1 cm, P 99.0± 46.6 g, 28 % RF, SUP 91.6 %. Tilapia N: LT 16.7 ± 3.7 cm, P 98.2 ± 40.9, RF 23 % SUP 86 %. Tilapia M: LT 15.4 ± 4.6 cm, P 100.1 ± 112.5 g, 30 % RF, SUP 91.6 %. Under the conditions evaluated, type of management could influence the efficiency of the culture more than the genetic line.

  4. Tgm1-like transglutaminases in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I Rodriguez Cruz

    Full Text Available Among the adaptations of aquatic species during evolution of terrestrial tetrapods was the development of an epidermis preventing desiccation. In present day mammals, keratinocytes of the epidermis, using a membrane-bound transglutaminase (Tgm1, accomplish this function by synthesizing a scaffold of cross-linked protein to which a lipid envelope is attached. This study characterizes the abilities of two homologous transglutaminase isozymes in the teleost fish tilapia to form cross-linked protein structures and their expression in certain tissues. Results indicate they are capable of membrane localization and of generating cellular structures resistant to detergent solubilization. They are both expressed in epithelial cells of the lip, buccal cavity and tips of gill filaments. Adaptation of transglutaminase use in evolution of terrestrial keratinocytes evidently involved refinements in tissue expression, access to suitable substrate proteins and activation of cross-linking during terminal differentiation.

  5. Effect of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) on some blood constituents of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, H. M.; Agab, H.

    2006-01-01

    Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) is an urban drinking water purification substance that was introduced recently in Sudan and used to substitute polymer poly diallyl dimethyl aluminium chloride (DADMAC) and aluminium sulphate in water purification treatments. This study was conducted to determine its effects on fish health, which is is considered a biological indicator and an essential component of fresh water ecosystem. In this experiment, PAC was used in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ml/1) in experimental tanks to achieve the desirable doses for the study. The tanks were populated by Nile Tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average weight ranging between 70 and 100 grams. Exposure of this fish to PAC resulted in an immediate signification reduction (P<0.01) in haemoglobin concentration, erythrocytes count, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of experimental fingerlings blood. The degree of reduction in these parameters was directly proportional to the concentration of PAC used. (Author)

  6. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Soares, Manoel S; Magalhães, Amanda O; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Alvares, Thiago S; Conte, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p pasta with tilapia flour decreased (p pasta containing 12%, 17%, and 23% of tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p pasta with 6% of tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C.

  7. Resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae Ib is heritable but not correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) are an important source of protein with an economic value approaching US $8 billion yearly. Streptococcal disease, caused by Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae (both Gram positive bacteria), is an emerging or re-emerging disease negatively affecting tilapia aquaculture w...

  8. Resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae and S. agalatiae Ib is heritable but not correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) are an important source of protein with an ecomonic value approaching US $8 billion yearly. Streptococcal disease, caused by Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae (both Gram positive bacteria), is an emerging or re-emerging disease negatively affecting tilapia aquaculture w...

  9. Complete genome sequence of Edwardsiella ictaluri isolate RUSVM-1 recovered from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative, bacillus that has recently been implicated in disease outbreaks in tilapia and zebrafish. We report here the complete and annotated genome of an isolate from a Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which contains a chromosome of 3,630,639 bp and two plasmids...

  10. Depletion study, withdrawal period calculation and bioaccumulation of sulfamethazine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) treated with medicated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kátia S D; Vallim, José H; Assalin, Márcia R; Queiroz, Sonia C N; Paraíba, Lourival C; Jonsson, Claudio M; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-04-01

    The residue depletion of sulfamethazine (SMZ) was evaluated in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after 11 days of administration of medicated feed containing SMZ, at the dose of 422 mg/kg body weight (bw). The determination of SMZ in feed and tilapia fillet was carried out using the QuEChERS approach for sample preparation, and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) for quantitation, respectively. Both methods were validated based on international and Brazilian guidelines and shown to be suitable for the intended purposes. The withdrawal period to reach the maximum residue level (MRL) of 100 μg/kg, according to the European Union (EU) legislative framework to all substances belonging to the sulfonamide (SA) group (EU, 2010), was 10 days (260 °C-day). After treatment, the maximum level of SMZ accumulation in the tilapia muscle was 1.6 mg/kg. SMZ was shown to be quickly excreted by tilapia. Thus, considering the acceptable daily intake of SMZ established by the Codex Commission (0-0.05 mg/kg bw), and a factor of 5 times the upper amount of fish consumption in Brazil (38 kg/year), this study showed that there is a low risk of adverse effects to consumers. This study offers subsidies not only for the establishment of public policies with regard to the use of veterinary drugs currently not allowed in a country by their legal legislative framework for fish farming, but also to fish producers for the proper handling to ensure safe fish fillets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phosphorous digestibility and activity of intestinal phytase in hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vorgna, M.W.; Hafez, Y.; Hughes, S.G.; Handwerker, T.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the degree to which phytate-bound phosphorus from plant protein sources could be used by hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus). Utilizing an inert marker technique with chromic oxide, hybrid tilapia in our study were effective at utilizing both inorganic and phytate phosphorus as evidenced by average apparent digestibility values of 93.2% and 90.0% for total and phytate phosphorus, respectively. Analysis of the intestinal brush border membrane of the tilapia revealed enzyme activity that was capable of hydrolyzing phytic acid. The presence of phytic acid hydrolyzing enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border provides a probable mechanism by which these hybrid tilapia are able to utilize phytate phosphorus effectively. ?? 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic Effect of Dietary Taurine Supplementation on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) Evaluated by NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guiping; Huang, Ying; Dong, Jiyang; Wang, Xuexi; Cheng, Kian-Kai; Feng, Jianghua; Xu, Jingjing; Ye, Jidan

    2018-01-10

    Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1 H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth. After extraction using aqueous and organic solvents, 19 taurine-induced metabolic changes were evaluated in our study. The metabolic changes were characterized by differences in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and nucleotide contents. The results indicate that taurine supplementation could significantly regulate the physiological state of fish and promote growth and development. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of dietary taurine supplementation in fish feeding. 1 H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with multivariate pattern recognition technologies, is an efficient and useful tool to map the fish metabolome and identify metabolic responses to different dietary nutrients in aquaculture.

  13. [Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae) as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae) in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguedas Cortés, Donald; Dolz, Gaby; Romero Zúñiga, Juan J; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; León Alán, Dennis

    2010-12-01

    Centrocestusformosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria) parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined.

  14. A three-dimensional stereotaxic MRI brain atlas of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, José M; Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F; Van der Linden, Annemie; Verhoye, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    The African cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) has been used as a model system in a wide range of behavioural and neurobiological studies. The increasing number of genetic tools available for this species, together with the emerging interest in its use for neurobiological studies, increased the need for an accurate hodological mapping of the tilapia brain to supplement the available histological data. The goal of our study was to elaborate a three-dimensional, high-resolution digital atlas using magnetic resonance imaging, supported by Nissl staining. Resulting images were viewed and analysed in all orientations (transverse, sagittal, and horizontal) and manually labelled to reveal structures in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectum, and cerebellum. This high resolution tilapia brain atlas is expected to become a very useful tool for neuroscientists using this fish model and will certainly expand their use in future studies regarding the central nervous system.

  15. Dietary phosphatidylcholine impacts on growth performance and lipid metabolism in adult Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Juan; Wen, Hua; Lu, Xing; Liu, Wei; Wu, Fan; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Yu, Li-Juan

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementing the diet of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with phosphatidylcholine (PC) on growth performance, body composition, fatty acid composition and gene expression. Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia fish with an initial body weight of 83·1 (sd 2·9) g were divided into six groups. Each group was hand-fed a semi-purified diet containing 1·7 (control diet), 4·0, 6·5, 11·5, 21·3 or 41·0 g PC/kg diet for 68 d. Supplemental PC improved the feed efficiency rate, which was highest in the 11·5 g PC/kg diet. Weight gain and specific growth rate were unaffected. Dietary PC increased PC content in the liver and decreased crude fat content in the liver, viscera and body. SFA and MUFA increased and PUFA decreased in muscle with increasing dietary PC. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A 2 and secreted phospholipase A 2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the brain and heart in PC-supplemented fish. PC reduced fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in the liver and visceral tissue but increased expression in muscle. Hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase expression increased in the liver with increasing dietary PC. Growth hormone mRNA expression was reduced in the brain and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression in liver reduced with PC above 6·5 g/kg. Our results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with PC improves feed efficiency and reduces liver fat in adult Nile tilapia, without increasing weight gain, representing a novel dietary approach to reduce feed requirements and improve the health of Nile tilapia.

  16. Molecular characterization of sdf1 and cxcr4 in the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat-Fernandez, Jorge; Hammond, Michael J; Liang, Di; Wang, Tianfang; Ventura, Tomer; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-01-01

    Animal sexual reproduction relies on primordial germ cells (PGCs), the predecessors of the germ cell lineage, giving rise to either spermatogonia or oogonia after the completion of gonadal differentiation. There is limited information on the mechanism of PGC migration leading to the formation of the primordial gonad in Perciform fish. Oreochromis mossambicus, a tilapiine species, was investigated that is a commercially important aquaculture species in many parts of the world while in other areas it has become an invasive pest. Key components involved in PGC migration were identified, including the stromal-cell derived factor 1 (Om-sdf1a, Om-sdf1b) and the CXC receptor 4 (Om-cxcr4): both share conservation with existing model species. The spatial gene expression profiles were determined through transcript and protein analysis and displayed distinct localisation within the region of the developing gonad in larvae and within the adult gonads of certain cell populations. A recombinant Om-sdf1a was produced in Escherichia coli that activates Om-cxcr4 using a BRET-based yeast in vitro assay system, suggesting that it is structurally similar to the native Om-sdf1a and is appropriate for further structural studies. This study has improved understanding of the molecular basis of tilapia reproduction through investigation of gonad development, which may be important in the progression towards reproductive suppression methods to control tilapia populations in the wild. In addition, this research will facilitate developments in germ cell transplantation, an innovative technique that harnesses germ cell migration and allows the uptake of foreign germ cells, which differentiate to produce sperm or ova. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Innate immune defenses exhibit circadian rhythmicity and differential temporal sensitivity to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazado, Carlo Cabacang; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the daily dynamics of humoral immune defenses and the temporal influence in the sensitivity of these responses to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The first experiment subjected the fish to two photoperiod conditions, 12L:12D (LD) and 0L...... experiment, fish were injected with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either at ZT3 (day) or at ZT15 (night) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of humoral immunity to a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. The results demonstrated that responses to LPS were gated by the time of day. LPS...... significantly modulated serum ALP and ANTI activities but only when the endotoxin was administered at ZT3. Serum LYZ and PER were stimulated at both injection times but with differing response profiles. Modulated LYZ activity was persistent when injected at ZT3 but transient when LPS was applied at ZT15...

  18. Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APT Medeiros

    Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

  19. Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B. Poletto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those of other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

  20. Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to test the effects of blue, green or white light on the stress response of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Each color was tested on two groups of isolated adult Nile tilapia (8 replicates each: one being subjected to confinement stress, and the other not (control. A different environmental color was imposed on each compartment by covering the light source with cellophane of the respective color (green or blue; no cellophane was used for white light. The intensity of green, white and blue lights was 250, 590 and 250 lux, respectively. Basal plasma cortisol levels were determined for each fish prior to the experimental procedures. The fish were confined by being displaced toward one side of the aquarium using an opaque partition for 1 h both in the morning and the afternoon of the two consecutive days of the test. At the end of this 48-h period, plasma cortisol levels were measured again. Basal cortisol levels (ng/ml were similar for each group (ANOVA, F(2;42 = 0.77, P = 0.47. Thus, plasma cortisol levels were analyzed in terms of variation from their respective basal level. After confinement, plasma cortisol levels were not increased in fish submitted to a blue light environment. Thus, blue light prevents the confinement-induced cortisol response, an effect not necessarily related to light intensity.

  1. Selection for growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in low-input environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.

    2006-01-01

    Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus,is one of the most important species farmed in the world and is the mainstay of many

  2. Mossambicus tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from water bodies impacted by urban waste carries extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and integron-bearing gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Gaikwad, Swapnil S; Vaishampayan, Ankita A; Rasane, Mandar H; Shouche, Yogesh S; Gade, Wasudev N

    2016-09-01

    Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters 1852) (Tilapia) is one of the most consumed fish globally. Tilapia thrives well in environments polluted by urban waste, which invariably contain antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Thus, Tilapia surviving in such polluted environments may serve as a potential source for dissemination of ARGs. To investigate this, we isolated bacterial strains from gut of Tilapia found in polluted rivers and lakes near Pune, India, and studied the prevalence of resistance genes by molecular methods. A total of 91 bacterial strains were obtained, which include fish pathogens and human pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter spp. and Shigella spp. Overall the prevalence of class 1 integrons, class 2 integrons, extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs) blaCTX-M, blaSHV and aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was 38 percent, 24 percent, 38 percent, 31 percent and 31 percent respectively. Forty-two percent of the Enterobacteriaceae strains carried blaCTX-M gene, which is a common ESBL gene in clinics. The study demonstrates that tilapia found in the polluted waters can serve as reservoirs and an alternative route for human exposure to clinically important ARG-carrying bacteria. The consumption and handling of these fish may pose a potential health risk.

  3. Dietary supplementation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum preventing streptococcal disease during first-feeding of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdan Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary cumin (Cuminum cyminum powder (CP as a feed additive on growth performance and disease resistance during first-feeding of Mozamique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isocaloric (18.9 kj g-1 diets were formulated to contain 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0% CP. In a 45-day feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L were stocked with 40 fry (0.012 ± 0.001 g each. After feeding experiment, fish were infected with Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that a dietary CP level of 1.14% provided the best survival rate challenge infection with S. iniae, growth performance and feed utilization. In conclusion, CP can be used as growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in tilapia fry, and it can be also used as an antimicrobial agent during first-feeding of O. mossambicus. Therefore, CP can be suggested as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture.

  4. Two Myxobolus spp. infecting the kidney of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the River Nile at Beni-Suef governorate, Egypt, and the associated renal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Abdel-Haleem, Heba M; Sakran, Thabet; Zayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khalid E; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-03-01

    Two Myxobolus spp. are described from the kidney of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from the River Nile, Egypt. The prevalence of infection was 61 % (47/77), with the infected fish in each case parasitized by the two Myxobolus species simultaneously. The infection was exhibited as free spores in Bowman capsules and renal glomeruli, which makes their original structures difficult to discern. In some cases, the infection appeared as a fibrous plasmodia-like structure containing degenerated developmental stages and spores in the interstitium. The paper identifies each species based on the morphological characteristics of its spores and identifies the histological impacts of Myxobolus infection in this species of fish.

  5. Laboratory-controlled Challenges of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Streptococcus agalactiae: Comparisons between Immersion, Oral, Intracoelomic and Intramuscular Routes of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, E; Zayas, M; Tobar, J; Illanes, O; Yount, S; Francis, S; Dennis, M M

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the aetiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of streptococcosis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and to identify the experimental route of infection that most closely mimics natural disease, fingerlings were challenged with S. agalactiae utilizing different delivery methods. Fingerlings were challenged via intracoelomic injection (ICinj), intramuscular injection (IMinj), orally or by immersion with serial dilutions of S. agalactiae. The dose lethal to 50% of test fish 15 days post challenge was 120 colony forming units (CFU)/fish after ICinj, and 10 5  CFU/fish after IMinj. Acute mortalities were present in both groups, but were higher in the fish challenged by ICinj. Very low mortalities were observed in the fish challenged via oral or immersion routes. Post-mortem evaluation of survivors revealed classical lesions associated with fish streptococcosis, including granulomatous or lymphohistiocytic epicarditis, splenitis, meningitis, myocarditis, choroiditis and exophthalmia. The information obtained improves our understanding of the pathogenesis of streptococcosis in fish, and provides useful information regarding controlled experimental infections in tilapia challenged with S. agalactiae. Results from this study suggest that IMinj challenge methods are not only suitable to induce streptococcosis in tilapia, but they may be the preferred method to study the pathogenesis of the naturally-occurring disease in this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2017-10-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  7. Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuapoehuk, W.; Piadang, S.; Tinnungwattana, W.

    1998-01-01

    Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60 Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

  8. Levels and patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) from four different lakes in Tanzania: geographical differences and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, A; Müller, M B; Lyche, J L; Mdegela, R H; Nonga, H E; Mabiki, F P; Mbise, T J; Skaare, J U; Sandvik, M; Skjerve, E; Lie, E

    2014-08-01

    In Tanzania fish is one of the most important protein sources for the rapidly increasing population. Wild fish is threatened by overfishing and pollution from agriculture, industries, mining, household effluents and vector control. To monitor possible implications for public health, the geographical differences of the occurrence and levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) from four different Tanzanian lakes were investigated in 2011. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyls (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were determined in pooled samples of tilapia muscle from Lake (L) Victoria, L. Tanganyika, L. Nyasa (also called L. Malawi) and L. Babati in Tanzania in 2011. Levels of Σ-DDTs (274 ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and sum of 7 indicator PCBs (Σ-7PCBs) (17 ng/g lw) were significantly higher in tilapia from L. Tanganyika compared to the other lakes. The highest levels of Σ-endosulfan (94 ng/g lw) were detected in tilapia from L. Victoria. Toxaphenes were detected in low levels in fish from L. Tanganyika and L. Babati. Results revealed a geographic difference in the use of DDT and endosulfan between L. Victoria and L. Tanganyika. Low ratios of DDE/DDT in tilapia from L. Tanganyika indicated an on-going use of DDT in the area. Median levels of ΣBDEs, including BDE-209, were highest in L. Victoria (19.4 ng/g lw) and BDE-209 was present in 68% of the samples from this lake. The presence of BDE-209 indicates increasing influence of imported products from heavy industrialized countries. The measured POP levels in the studied tilapia were all below MRLs of EU or were lower than recommended levels, and thus the fish is considered as safe for human consumption. They may, however, pose a risk to the fish species and threaten biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of fillet traits based on body measurements in three Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2004-01-01

    In Nile tilapia, breeding programs focus mainly on growth, and information on genetic improvement of fillet yield is scarce. In this study, slaughter data were collected on 1215 tilapia and used to analyze the relationship between body measurements and fillet weight and fillet yield. Fish were

  10. Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water

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    António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of control O. niloticus (freshwater group was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h

  11. Cathepsin activities and thermal properties of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus meat during ambient storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulakhun Nonthaput

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the postmortem changes at ambient aquatic temperature can be useful for estimating the time of death in environmental forensic studies when little information is available. Muscle degradation was investigated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in terms of the specific activities of cathepsins (B, H and L and the scavenging activities and thermal transition properties of myosin and actin, to assess postmortem changes with time (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after death. The study results are relevant to ambient temperatures in Thailand, (about 30 °C. The specific activities of the three cathepsin enzymes increased significantly with postmortem time (p < 0.05 and had a highly significant positive relationship (r = 0.987−0.997, p < 0.01, n = 32. Cathepsin H had the lowest specific activity and exhibited a different type of time profile. Its lowest specific activity was observed at 8 h, which indicated a significant role at this point in time after death. The radical scavenging activities substantially decreased with the time since death, especially within the first 1 h, while no changes occurred from 2 to 8 h, or from 12 to 24 h. The thermal properties of myosin and actin were observed up to a 24 h delay. The degradation of each protein fluctuated with the delay time; actin was more sensitive to postmortem delay than myosin. Overall, the findings from the current study might be used as primary data to estimate the time of death of an aquatic animal. A potential application is for environmental forensics in relation to fish kill events associated with pollution crimes or the mass death of exported fish under transportation insurance, as well as in animal cruelty investigations.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with green tea waste on growth, digestive enzyme and lipid metabolism of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qingmei; Han, Chunyan; Zhong, Yanmei; Wen, Rushu; Zhong, Ming

    2017-04-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with green tea waste (GTW) on growth, digestive enzyme and lipid metabolism of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus. The fish (initial mean body weight, 12.63 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets that included 0 (control), 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 or 6.4 % of GTW in triplicate aquaria, twice daily. Growth performance, plasma metabolites content and liver and intestine digestive enzyme activities were determined. Fish accepted well all experimental diets during the trial, and no mortality was observed. The weight gain increased (P tilapia to improve growth performance, digestion efficacy and fat metabolism.

  13. Tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids and health status in wild Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) from Loskop Dam, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacqueline T.Bangma; Olivia Rynders; Joseph R.Sara; Willem J.Smit; John A.Bowden; Jessica L.Reiner; Hannes Botha; Theresa M.Cantu; Marco A.Gouws; Matthew P.Guillette; Jererny P.Koelmel; Wilmien J.Luus-Powell; Jan Myburgh

    2017-01-01

    This study examined concentrations of 15 perfiuoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in tissues from male Mozambique dlapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected at Loskop Dam,Mpumalanga,South Africa in 2014 and 2016.Nine of the 15 PFAAs were detected frequently and were included in statistical analysis and included two of the most commonly known PFAAs,perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (median,41.6 ng/g) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (median,0.0825 ng/g).Of the tissues measured,plasma (2016 and 2014 median,22.2 ng/g) contained the highest PFAA burden followed by (in descending order):liver (median,11.6 ng/g),kidney (median,9.04 ng/g),spleen (median,5.92 ng/g),adipose (median,2.54 ng/g),and muscle (median,1.11 ng/g).Loskop Dam tilapia have been affected by an inflammatory disease of the adipose tissue known as pansteatitis,so this study also aimed to investigate relationships between PFAA tissue concentrations and incidence of pansteatitis or fish health status.Results revealed that healthy tilapia exhibited an overall higher (p-value < 0.05) PFAA burden than pansteatitis-affected tilapia across all tissues.Further analysis showed that organs previously noted in the literature to contain the highest PFAA concentrations,such as kidney,liver,and plasma,were the organs driving the difference in PFAA burden between the two tilapia groups.Care must be taken in the interpretations we draw from not only the results of our study,but also other PFAA measurements made on populations (human and wildhfe ahke) under differing health status.

  14. Tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids and health status in wild Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) from Loskop Dam, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, Jacqueline T; Reiner, Jessica L; Botha, Hannes; Cantu, Theresa M; Gouws, Marco A; Guillette, Matthew P; Koelmel, Jeremy P; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Myburgh, Jan; Rynders, Olivia; Sara, Joseph R; Smit, Willem J; Bowden, John A

    2017-11-01

    This study examined concentrations of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in tissues from male Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected at Loskop Dam, Mpumalanga, South Africa in 2014 and 2016. Nine of the 15 PFAAs were detected frequently and were included in statistical analysis and included two of the most commonly known PFAAs, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (median, 41.6ng/g) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (median, 0.0825ng/g). Of the tissues measured, plasma (2016 and 2014 median, 22.2ng/g) contained the highest PFAA burden followed by (in descending order): liver (median, 11.6ng/g), kidney (median, 9.04ng/g), spleen (median, 5.92ng/g), adipose (median, 2.54ng/g), and muscle (median, 1.11ng/g). Loskop Dam tilapia have been affected by an inflammatory disease of the adipose tissue known as pansteatitis, so this study also aimed to investigate relationships between PFAA tissue concentrations and incidence of pansteatitis or fish health status. Results revealed that healthy tilapia exhibited an overall higher (p-valuetilapia across all tissues. Further analysis showed that organs previously noted in the literature to contain the highest PFAA concentrations, such as kidney, liver, and plasma, were the organs driving the difference in PFAA burden between the two tilapia groups. Care must be taken in the interpretations we draw from not only the results of our study, but also other PFAA measurements made on populations (human and wildlife alike) under differing health status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effect of the establishment of dominance relationships on cortisol and other metabolic parameters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the establishment of dominance relationships and social stress on plasma cortisol and metabolite levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. During the 30-day experiment, the fish weighing 236 ± 29 g were kept in individual aquaria, except for two pairings lasting 6 h each. Blood samples were taken from the animals before and after pairing. Display, approach, attack, rebuff, chase flight, and coloration were carried out on days 16 and 30. Activities and behaviors characteristic of the establishment of dominance relationships were described. It was possible to classify all experimental fish (N = 30 as dominant or subordinate. No differences were detected between dominant (N = 15 and subordinate (N = 15 fish during isolation or after pairing in cortisol (isolated: 5.76 ± 0.98 vs 5.42 ± 0.63; paired: 10.94 ± 1.62 vs 11.21 ± 2.45 µg/dl, glucose (isolated: 60.02 ± 4.9 vs 67.85 ± 16.16; paired: 110.44 ± 15.72 vs 136.26 ± 22.46 mg/dl, triglyceride (isolated: 167.87 ± 5.06 vs 185.68 ± 7.24; paired: 210.85 ± 13.40 vs 221.82 ± 12.70 mg/dl or total protein levels (isolated: 7.01 ± 0.42 vs 6.69 ± 0.59; paired: 9.21 ± 0.62 vs 9.51 ± 0.66 g/dl. However, when isolated (N = 30 and paired (N = 30 tilapia were compared, there were significant differences in cortisol and metabolite levels. The similar response presented by dominant and subordinate tilapia indicates that establishment of dominance relationships was a stressor for both groups.

  16. Formation of ring marks in stocked tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae

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    Ana L Ibañez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Metztitlán was dried up completely in the spring of 1998 and refilled in August of that year. In the period September-November, two cohorts of 1.6 million juveniles of a tilapia hybrid were stocked (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus, and monitored every month for one year. Since the date of birth of these juveniles was known, the analyses focused on whether the ring marks of the scales, sagittae and opercula or the circuli of the scales could be used to age them. The ring marks of the scales and opercula showed great variability, and the sagittae had a significant relationship with length, but it is unclear if at least the first ring mark could be formed at the hatchery and reflect changes in diet and/or tank movements in the fish farm. The circuli had a continuous regular behavior, with a formation rate of 10.38±0.93 and 11.38±0.95 circuli/month for the first and second cohorts, respectively. This proportion was maintained during the study period, and could be of help to calculate an approximate age of juveniles, especially in stocked fish that show multiple ring marks because of manipulation in fish farms and stocking events. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4: 1005-1013. Epub 2007 December, 28.El lago de Metztitlán se secó completamente en la primavera de 1998, inundándose nuevamente en agosto del mismo año para ser repoblado entre septiembre y noviembre con 1.6 millones de jóvenes de un híbrido de tilapia (Oreochromis aureus/O. niloticus en dos periodos. Ambas cohortes fueron monitoreadas mensualmente durante un año. Debido a que la fecha de nacimiento era conocida, el objetivo del estudio fue evaluar si las marcas anulares de las escamas, las sagittae y los opérculos, o los circuli de las escamas pueden usarse para estimar la edad. Los anillos de las escamas y opérculos mostraron gran variabilidad, mientras que las de las sagittae se relacionaron significativamente con la longitud, sin embargo no quedó claro si al menos el primer

  17. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.; Kishimba, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers (α and β) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels

  18. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

    2006-03-15

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

  19. Meningoencephalitis in farmed monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. caused by Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adikesavalu Harresh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture of tilapia is a new research venture in India. With intensification in farming practices, tilapia are increasingly susceptible to bacterial infections. This article describes the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from cultured monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L., that experienced moderate to severe mortalities in West Bengal, India between September and August 2014 and histopathological alterations in various organs. Gram-positive diplococci, identified as Streptococcus agalactiae with Streptococcus identification kits and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis, were isolated from the brain, operculum, and kidney. Other bacteria from the kidney were identified as Aeromonas sobria, A. caviae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter cloacae. Staphylococcus epidermis was isolated from opercular hemorrhages. Histological sections of the infected tilapia brain revealed meningoencephalitis and granulomatous lesions. Sections from other organs indicated congestion, hemorrhagic and hyperplastic cells, necrosis, vacuolation, hemosiderin deposition, hypertrophic nuclei, melanomacrophage aggregation, and ruptured veins. This report is the first description of S. agalactiae as a primary pathogen causing meningoencephalitis in cultured tilapia in India.

  20. Depletion of florfenicol amine in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) maintained in a recirculating aquaculture system following Aquaflor®-medicated feed therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Whitsel, Melissa K.; Charles, Shawn; Schleis, Susan M.; Crouch, Louis S.; Endris, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Aquaflor® [50% w w−1 florfenicol (FFC)], is approved for use in freshwater-reared warmwater finfish which include tilapia Oreochromis spp. in the United States to control mortality from Streptococcus iniae. The depletion of florfenicol amine (FFA), the marker residue of FFC, was evaluated after feeding FFC-medicated feed to deliver a nominal 20 mg FFC kg−1 BW d−1 dose (1.33× the label use of 15 mg FFC kg−1 BW d−1) to Nile tilapia O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus × O. aureus held in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) at production-scale holding densities. Florfenicol amine concentrations were determined in fillets taken from 10 fish before dosing and from 20 fish at nine time points after dosing (from 1 to 240 h post-dosing). Water samples were assayed for FFC before, during and after the dosing period. Parameters monitored included daily feed consumption and biofilter function (levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate). Mean fillet FFA concentration decreased from 13.77 μg g−1 at 1-h post dosing to 0.39 μg g−1 at 240-h post dosing. Water FFC concentration decreased from a maximum of 1400 ng mL−1 at 1 day post-dosing to 847 ng mL−1 at 240 h post-dosing. There were no adverse effects noted on fish, feed consumption or biofilter function associated with FFC-medicated feed administration to tilapia.

  1. Quality Index Method developed for gutted and ungutted red tilapia (Oreochromis ssp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gutiérrez G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop a Quality Index Method (QIM for gutted and ungutted red tilapia from aquaculture ponds. Materials and methods. 40 specimens of gutted red tilapia and 40 ungutted ones were located in foam polyethylene boxes within layers of ice and storage at 4°C. Three fish were randomly sampled on days 0, 3, 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17 for gutted tilapia, and on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 11, 14 and 16 for ungutted tilapia. A sensorial panel of 8 experts was formed to evaluate the product. With three samples each day with average points of the sensorial attributes proposed in the method, the quality index for gutted and ungutted red tilapia was obtained based on the storage time on ice. Results. The Quality Index Method obtained for gutted and ungutted red tilapia showed maximum values of 21 and 29, respectively. It was adjusted in an increasing lineal model with high correlation between the Quality Index and the storage time on ice. Conclusions. The developed model is useful to determine deterioration levels and to define storage and consumption time. For gutted red tilapia the panel rejected the fish after 8 - 11 days of storage whereas the ungutted red tilapia was rejected after 6 - 9 days.

  2. Determination of presence and quantification of cadmium, lead and copper in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets obtained from three cold storage plants in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nobuhiro Tajiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pisciculture is an economic activity that is steadily growing in the state of Parana, Brazil, and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the widely cultivated species in this state. Tilapia is not only a very nutritious food, but also an important indicator of environmental contamination. This study aimed to verify contamination by cadmium, copper and lead in tilapia fillets, and to compare the found values to international legislations. Were collected 135 samples of tilapia fillets, between July 2006 and May 2007, in three fish stores located in regions west and north of Paraná State. Samples of tilapia fillet were analyzed in relation to the presence of cadmiun, lead and copper, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead has not been detected in the analyses. Cadmium has been detected in three samples, on concentrations of 0.012 µg.g-1, 0.011 µg.g-1 and 0.014 µg.g-1. Copper has been detected in all fillets, and the average concentration of each cold storage plant was of 0.122 µg.g-1, 0.106 µg.g-1 and 0.153 µg.g-1. The concentrations found in this study are within the limits allowed by both the European and the Australian legislations.

  3. Dynamical coupling of PBPK/PD and AUC-based toxicity models for arsenic in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus from blackfoot disease area in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-M.; Liang, H.-M.; Chen, B.-C.; Singh Sher; Tsai, J.-W.; Chou, Y.-H.; Lin, W.-T.

    2005-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models were developed for arsenic (As) in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus from blackfoot disease area in Taiwan. The PBPK/PD model structure consisted of muscle, gill, gut wall, alimentary canal, and liver, which were interconnected by blood circulation. We integrate the target organ concentrations and dynamic response describing uptake, metabolism, and disposition of As and the associated area-under-curve (AUC)-based toxicological dynamics following an acute exposure. The model validations were compared against the field observations from real tilapia farms and previously published uptake/depuration experimental data, indicating that predicted and measured As concentrations in major organs of tilapia were in good agreement. The model was utilized to reasonably simulate and construct a dose-dependent dynamic response between mortality effect and equilibrium target organ concentrations. Model simulations suggest that tilapia gills may serve as a surrogate sensitive biomarker of short-term exposure to As. This integrated As PBPK/PD/AUC model quantitatively estimates target organ concentration and dynamic response in tilapia and is a strong framework for future waterborne metal model development and for refining a biologically-based risk assessment for exposure of aquatic species to waterborne metals under a variety of scenarios. - Integrated toxicity models can identify dynamic responses of fish to arsenic

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptome-Based Expression Profiling of the Sox Gene Family in the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling; Yang, Chao; Tao, Wenjing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-02-23

    The Sox transcription factor family is characterized with the presence of a Sry-related high-mobility group (HMG) box and plays important roles in various biological processes in animals, including sex determination and differentiation, and the development of multiple organs. In this study, 27 Sox genes were identified in the genome of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and were classified into seven groups. The members of each group of the tilapia Sox genes exhibited a relatively conserved exon-intron structure. Comparative analysis showed that the Sox gene family has undergone an expansion in tilapia and other teleost fishes following their whole genome duplication, and group K only exists in teleosts. Transcriptome-based analysis demonstrated that most of the tilapia Sox genes presented stage-specific and/or sex-dimorphic expressions during gonadal development, and six of the group B Sox genes were specifically expressed in the adult brain. Our results provide a better understanding of gene structure and spatio-temporal expression of the Sox gene family in tilapia, and will be useful for further deciphering the roles of the Sox genes during sex determination and gonadal development in teleosts.

  5. Dynamical coupling of PBPK/PD and AUC-based toxicity models for arsenic in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus from blackfoot disease area in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, C.-M. [Ecotoxicological Modeling Center, Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China)]. E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.tw; Liang, H.-M. [Ecotoxicological Modeling Center, Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China); Chen, B.-C. [Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, Mingdao University, Changhua, Taiwan 52345 (China); Singh Sher [Center of Genomics Medicine, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China); Tsai, J.-W. [Ecotoxicological Modeling Center, Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China); Chou, Y.-H. [Ecotoxicological Modeling Center, Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China); Lin, W.-T. [Environment Change Research Center, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 11517 (China)

    2005-05-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models were developed for arsenic (As) in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus from blackfoot disease area in Taiwan. The PBPK/PD model structure consisted of muscle, gill, gut wall, alimentary canal, and liver, which were interconnected by blood circulation. We integrate the target organ concentrations and dynamic response describing uptake, metabolism, and disposition of As and the associated area-under-curve (AUC)-based toxicological dynamics following an acute exposure. The model validations were compared against the field observations from real tilapia farms and previously published uptake/depuration experimental data, indicating that predicted and measured As concentrations in major organs of tilapia were in good agreement. The model was utilized to reasonably simulate and construct a dose-dependent dynamic response between mortality effect and equilibrium target organ concentrations. Model simulations suggest that tilapia gills may serve as a surrogate sensitive biomarker of short-term exposure to As. This integrated As PBPK/PD/AUC model quantitatively estimates target organ concentration and dynamic response in tilapia and is a strong framework for future waterborne metal model development and for refining a biologically-based risk assessment for exposure of aquatic species to waterborne metals under a variety of scenarios. - Integrated toxicity models can identify dynamic responses of fish to arsenic.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptome-Based Expression Profiling of the Sox Gene Family in the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sox transcription factor family is characterized with the presence of a Sry-related high-mobility group (HMG box and plays important roles in various biological processes in animals, including sex determination and differentiation, and the development of multiple organs. In this study, 27 Sox genes were identified in the genome of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and were classified into seven groups. The members of each group of the tilapia Sox genes exhibited a relatively conserved exon-intron structure. Comparative analysis showed that the Sox gene family has undergone an expansion in tilapia and other teleost fishes following their whole genome duplication, and group K only exists in teleosts. Transcriptome-based analysis demonstrated that most of the tilapia Sox genes presented stage-specific and/or sex-dimorphic expressions during gonadal development, and six of the group B Sox genes were specifically expressed in the adult brain. Our results provide a better understanding of gene structure and spatio-temporal expression of the Sox gene family in tilapia, and will be useful for further deciphering the roles of the Sox genes during sex determination and gonadal development in teleosts.

  7. Breeding for improved production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to generate knowledge that supports the design of breeding programs for Nile tilapia targeting genetic improvement of body weight and fillet yield to serve the European market. To this end, both the genetic variation and the performance levels of different strains of

  8. Optimisation of selective breeding program for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to optimise the selective breeding program for Nile tilapia in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Two breeding schemes, the “classic” BLUP scheme following the GIFT method (with pair mating) and a rotational mating scheme with own performance selection and

  9. Physicochemical analysis of frankfurter type sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste (Oreochromis sp and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Igor Hleap Zapata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Colombia, the production of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp has shown important development in recent years. It is a hydro-biological resource that generates fish fillet waste that can be used in the manufacture of fish products. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of quinoa flour on the physicochemical properties, texture and oxidative stability during storage and sale of Frankfurter sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste when adding two concentrations of quinoa flour, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg, and a control treatment with no quinoa flour. The sausages were vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration (2 °C ± 2 °C. The proximate chemical composition, pH, CIElab coordinates, lipid oxidation, water holding capacity, water binding ability and cooking yield were determined, along with an instrumental texture analysis for each of the sausages prepared. The addition of quinoa flour at a concentration of 10 g/kg presented the best water holding capacity, water binding ability, lighter coloration and cooking yield, as compared to the control sausage. By contrast, the sausages with 20 g/kg were harder and required greater effort to cut than the control (p < 0.05. The addition of quinoa flour increased fat oxidation after 6 days of monitoring. The addition of 10 g/kg of quinoa flour was the best concentration for the production of sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste, which represents a new alternative for hydro-biological-origin foodstuffs.

  10. Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus);Efeitos da irradiacao e refrigeracao na qualidade e no valor nutritivo da tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

  11. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ≥10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ≥30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ≥30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

  12. Growth arrest specific gene 2 in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): molecular characterization and functional analysis under low-temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ChangGeng; Wu, Fan; Lu, Xing; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Wei; Yu, Lijuan; Tian, Juan; Wen, Hua

    2017-07-17

    Growth arrest specific 2 (gas2) gene is a component of the microfilament system that plays a major role in the cell cycle, regulation of microfilaments, and cell morphology during apoptotic processes. However, little information is available on fish gas2. In this study, the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) gas2 gene was cloned and characterized for the first time. The open reading frame was 1020 bp, encoding 340 amino acids; the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) was 140 bp and the 3'-UTR was 70 bp, with a poly (A) tail. The highest promoter activity occurred in the regulatory region (-3000 to -2400 bp). The Gas2-GFP fusion protein was distributed within the cytoplasm. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses revealed that gas2 gene expression levels in the liver, muscle, and brain were clearly affected by low temperature stress. The results of gas2 RNAi showed decreased expression of the gas2 and P53 genes. These results suggest that the tilapia gas2 gene may be involved in low temperature stress-induced apoptosis.

  13. Analysis of monomeric and oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants in fish muscle tissues using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: Application to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from an e-waste processing area in northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Matsukami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography (LC, a novel analytical method was developed to quantify eight monomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (m-PFRs and three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs in fish muscle samples. The optimization and validation experiments indicate that the developed method can determine accurately the concentrations of analytes in fish muscle samples. The recoveries of analytes in fish muscle samples were in the range of 74–105%. The coefficients of variation of the concentrations of analytes in fish muscle samples were 0.6–8.9%. The concentrations of analytes in procedural blanks were below the limit of quantification (LOQ values. Furthermore, the developed method was applied to the analysis of m-PFRs and o-PFRs in the muscle samples of tilapias collected from an electronic waste (e-waste processing area in northern Vietnam. The concentrations of m-PFRs such as tris(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP, tris(2-chloroisopropyl phosphate (TCIPP, and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP were dominant among the investigated m-PFRs. The respective concentrations of TCEP, TCIPP, and TPHP were up to 160, 300, and 230 ng g−1 lipid weight, respectively, whereas those of o-PFRs were up to 10 ng g−1 lipid weight. The results of this study indicate lower accumulation potential of o-PFRs compared with m-PFRs for the first time.

  14. Effects of dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on growth performance, immunological parameters, digestive enzymes, and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy; Abdelhamid, Fatma; Mahgoub, Hebata Allah; Ibrahim, Tarek

    2014-05-01

    This work investigated the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The dietary supplementation with APS (1500 mg/kg of diet) caused a significant increase in growth parameters (initial and final weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI), when compared to non-supplemented control basal diet. In addition, APS upregulated the phagocytic activity, the respiratory burst activity, plasma lysozyme, the bactericidal activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and amylase activity. However, it had no effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) or Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. While APS had no effect of intestinal histology, a slight increase in the villi length was recorded. Collectively, our results indicate that dietary APS supplementation could improve the growth performance and the immune parameters of cultured tilapia fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioeconomic of profit maximization of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) culture using polynomial growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanto, D.; Kurohman, F.; Nugroho, RA

    2018-03-01

    The research purpose was to develop a model bioeconomic of profit maximization that can be applied to red tilapia culture. The development of fish growth model used polynomial growth function. Profit maximization process used the first derivative of profit equation to time of culture equal to zero. This research has also developed the equations to estimate the culture time to reach the target size of the fish harvest. The research proved that this research model could be applied in the red tilapia culture. In the case of this study, red tilapia culture can achieve the maximum profit at 584 days and the profit of Rp. 28,605,731 per culture cycle. If used size target of 250 g, the culture of red tilapia need 82 days of culture time.

  16. Changes in the quality of fishburger produced from Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) during frozen storage (-18 degrees C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokur, B.; Polat, A.; Beklevik, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the chemical and sensory qualities of fishburger produced from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated during frozen storage (-18 degreesC) over 8 months. The ratios of crude protein, lipid, moisture, crude ash, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in tilapiaburger were found...

  17. Growth, mortality and reproduction of the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Aguamilpa Reservoir, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Peña Messina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia production has increased in Aguamilpa Reservoir, in Nayarit, Mexico, in the last few years and represents a good economic activity for rural communities and the country. We determined growth parameters, mortality and reproductive aspects for 2 413 specimens of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus in this reservoir. Samples were taken monthly from July 2000 through June 2001, of which 1 371 were males and 1 042 were females. Standard length (SL and total weight (TW were measured in each organism. The SL/TW relationships through power models for sexes were determined. The growth parameters L ∞, k, and t0 of the von Bertalanffy equation were estimated using frequency distribution of length through ELEFAN-I computer program. Finally the reproductive cycle and size of first maturity were established using morph chromatic maturity scale. The results suggested that the males and females had negative allometric growth (b<3. Significant differences were found between SL/TW model for the sexes, suggesting separate models for males and females. Results indicate that there are no differences in growth rates between sexes; the proposed parameters were L∞=43.33cm standard length, k=0.36/year and t0=-0.43years. Natural and fishing mortality coefficients were 0.83/year and 1.10/year, respectively. The estimated exploitation rate (0.57/year suggested that during the study period the fishery showed signs of overfishing. Blue tilapia reproduces year-round; the highest activity occurs from January through May and size of first maturity was 23cm SL. We conclude that it is necessary to establish a minimum catch size in this reservoir based on the reproductive behavior of this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1577-1586. Epub 2010 December 01.

  18. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-12-13

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia ( Niloticus oreochromis ) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy.

  19. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy. PMID:27983591

  20. A qualitative ecological risk assessment of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in a sub-tropical African river system (Limpopo River, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zengeya, TA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the development of a qualitative risk assessment method and its application as a screening tool for determining the risk of establishment and spread of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), within...

  1. Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein

  2. Use of Cassia alata aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumkhachorn Parichat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of six plants, Andrographis paniculata, Cassia alata, Centella asiatica, Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Psidium guajava, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, an important fish pathogenic bacterium, which is responsible for economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Among the tested plant extracts, the C. alata aqueous extract had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with P. anguilliseptica was induced by intraperitoneal, the median lethal dose (LD50 was determined to be 1.59 x 105 CFU/ml. For the in vivo trial, four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of C. alata aqueous extract were used as bath treatment to remedy the infection. The effect of the extract on the infection was dose-dependent and an extract with the concentration of 100 ppm eliminated mortality of the infected fish without producing any adverse effects on the animals. This study suggests that C. alata aqueous extract has the potential to control fish disease caused by P. anguilliseptica.

  3. Rações orgânicas suplementadas com farinha de resíduos de peixe para juvenis da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Organic diet supplemented with fish residuum flour for Nile tilapia juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduo da indústria de filetagem de peixes em rações orgânicas para tilápias do Nilo (O. niloticus na fase de crescimento, sobre o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e sobrevivência, características de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça, tronco limpo, filé, gordura visceral, e índice hepatossomático e composição química (umidade, proteína bruta, matéria mineral e extrato etéreo dos peixes. Utilizaram-se 440 tilápias com média inicial de 84,11 ± 11,56 g de peso e 16,7 ± 0,80 cm de comprimento distribuídas em 20 tanques de 8 m³, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram elaboradas cinco rações com níveis de 0; 4; 8; 12 e 16% de inclusão de farinha de resíduos com 28% de proteína digestível e 3.100 kcal kg-1 de energia digestível. Houve aumento linear nas médias de ganho de peso e redução linear na conversão alimentar com a inclusão da farinha. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P > 0,05 nos parametros de rendimento corporal, na umidade e proteína bruta dos filés, porém, a matéria mineral e o extrato etéreo apresentaram diferenças (P This work was carried out to evaluate the inclusion of fish by-product from the filleting industry in organic food for Nile tilapia (O. niloticus in the phase of growth, on livestock performance (weight gain, food conversion and survival, characteristics of carcass (carcass yield, clear trunk, fillet, visceral fat and hepatosomatic index and chemical composition (humidity, gross protein, mineral matter and ethereal extract of fish. A total of 440 tilapias with 84.11 ± 11.56 g average initial weight and 16.7 ± 0.80 cm in length, assigned into 20 8m³-aquaria, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Four diets were prepared with levels of 0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% of fish by

  4. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laith, A A; Ambak, Mohd Azmi; Hassan, Marina; Sheriff, Shahreza Md; Nadirah, Musa; Draman, Ahmad Shuhaimi; Wahab, Wahidah; Ibrahim, Wan Nurhafizah Wan; Aznan, Alia Syafiqah; Jabar, Amina; Najiah, Musa

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection. The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity), reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity) and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule, hyperemic and hemorrhagic choroid tissue, and retina

  5. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Abdul Razzak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection. Results: The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity, reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule

  6. Chemical communication in tilapia: a comparison of Oreochromis mossambicus with O. niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Peter C; Mota, Vasco C; Keller-Costa, Tina; da Silva, José Paulo; Canário, Adelino V M

    2014-10-01

    In allopatric speciation species differentiation generally results from different selective pressures in different environments, and identifying the traits responsible helps to understand the isolation mechanism(s) involved. Male Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) use urine to signal dominance; furthermore, 5β-pregnane-3α,17,20β-triol-3α-glucuronide (and its α-epimer, 5β-pregnane-3α,17,20α-triol-3α-glucuronide), in their urine is a potent pheromone, the concentration of which is correlated with social status. The Nile tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus) is a close relative; species divergence probably resulted from geographical separation around 6 million years ago. This raises the question of whether the two species use similar urinary chemical cues during reproduction. The olfactory potency of urine, and crude extracts, from either species was assessed by the electro-olfactogram and the presence of the steroid glucuronides in urine from the Nile tilapia by liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Both species showed similar olfactory sensitivity to urine and respective extracts from either species, and similar sensitivity to the steroid glucuronides. 5β-Pregnan-3α,17α,20β-triol-3α-glucuronide was present at high concentrations (approaching 0.5mM) in urine from Nile tilapia, with 5β-pregnan-3α,17α,20α-triol-3α-glucuronide present at lower concentrations, similar to the Mozambique tilapia. Both species also had similar olfactory sensitivity to estradiol-3-glucuronide, a putative urinary cue from females. Together, these results support the idea that reproductive chemical cues have not been subjected to differing selective pressure. Whether these chemical cues have the same physiological and behavioural roles in O. niloticus as O. mossambicus remains to be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gullian-Klanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1, 500 (T2 and 600 (T3 fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3. RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily. The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%. The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1 and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1 was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1. The specific growth rate (SGR of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%. The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W. Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g for transfer to grow-out facilities.

  8. Safety of florfenicol administered in feed to tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Schleis, Susan M.; Tuomari, Darrell; Endris, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    The safety of Aquaflor® (50% w/w florfenicol [FFC]) incorporated in feed then administered to tilapia for 20 days (2x the recommended duration) at 0, 15, 45, or 75 mg/kg body weight/day (0, 1, 3, or 5x the recommended dose of 15 mg FFC/kg BW/d) was investigated. Mortality, behavioral change, feed consumption, body size, and gross and microscopic lesions were determined. Estimated delivered doses were >96.9% of target. Three unscheduled mortalities occurred but were considered incidental since FFC-related findings were not identified. Feed consumption was only affected during the last 10 dosing days when the 45 and 75 mg/kg groups consumed only 62.5% and 55.3% of the feed offered, respectively. There were significant, dose-dependent reductions in body size in the FFC-dose groups relative to the controls. Treatment-related histopathological findings included increased severity of lamellar epithelial hyperplasia, increased incidence of lamellar adhesions, decreased incidence of lamellar telangiectasis in the gills, increased glycogen-type and lipid-type hepatocellular vacuolation in the liver, decreased lymphocytes, increased blast cells, and increased individual cell necrosis in the anterior kidney, and tubular epithelial degeneration and mineralization in the posterior kidney. These changes are likely to be of minimal clinical relevance, given the lack of mortality or morbidity observed. This study has shown that FFC, when administered in feed to tilapia at the recommended dose (15 mg FFC/kg BW/day) for 10 days would be well tolerated.

  9. Evaluation of Biofloc Technology Application on Water Quality and Production Performance of Red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. Cultured at Different Stocking Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDANARNI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of biofloc technology (BFT application on water quality and production performance of red tilapia Oreochromis sp. at different stocking densities. Three different fish densities were applied, i.e. 25, 50, and 100 fish/m3, and for each density there were Control (without external carbon input and BFT treatments. Mixed sex red tilapia with an initial average body weight 77.89 + 3.71 g was cultured in 3 m3 concrete tanks for 14 weeks. Molasses was added on BFT treatments as the organic carbon source at a C/N ratio of 15. Control treatments of each density tested showed more fluctuated water quality parameters throughout the experimental period. The highest TAN and nitrite-nitrogen were observed in control treatment at a stocking density of 100 fish/m3 (3.97 mg TAN/L and 9.29 mg NO2-N/L, respectively. The highest total yield was observed in control treatment at the highest density treatment (43.50 kg, whereas the highest survival was obtained by BFT treatment at a density of 25 fish/m3 (97.78 + 0.77%. Total feed used in BFT was lower than that of control treatments in particular at 50 fish/m3 density (P < 0.05 suggesting that biofloc could be continuously harvested by the fish as other source of food.

  10. Marine Collagen Peptides from the Skin of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Characterization and Wound Healing Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhang; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Chunxia; Li, Sidong; Hong, Pengzhi

    2017-03-30

    Burns can cause tremendous economic problems associated with irreparable harm to patients and their families. To characterize marine collagen peptides (MCPs) from the skin of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), molecular weight distribution and amino acid composition of MCPs were determined, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the chemical structure. Meanwhile, to evaluate the wound healing activity, in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out. The results showed that MCPs prepared from the skin of Nile tilapia by composite enzymatic hydrolysis were composed of polypeptides with different molecular weights and the contents of polypeptides with molecular weights of less than 5 kDa accounted for 99.14%. From the amino acid composition, the majority of residues, accounting for over 58% of the total residues in MCPs, were hydrophilic. FTIR indicated that the main molecular conformations inside MCPs were random coil. In vitro scratch assay showed that there were significant effects on the scratch closure by the treatment of MCPs with the concentration of 50.0 μg/mL. In the experiments of deep partial-thickness scald wound in rabbits, MCPs could enhance the process of wound healing. Therefore, MCPs from the skin of Nile tilapia ( O. niloticus ) have promising applications in wound care.

  11. Caracterización de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp. con marcadores moleculares RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Torres Jaramillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica RAPD (amplificación al azar de ADN polimórfico para el estudio de la diversidad genética de Oreochromis sp. (tilapia roja en cinco piscícolas del Valle del Cauca (Colombia y en la determinación del nivel de introgresión de las especies parentales Oreochromis mosambicus, O. niloticus y O. aureus. Se evaluaron 25 cebadores, ocho fueron polimórficos y se obtuvieron 109 bandas. Los valores de heterocigosidad esperada (0.196 a 0.256 y la estructura genética (Gst = 0.22 para Oreochromis sp. indicaron un elevado grado de polimorfismo y alta estructuración genética. Estos resultados fueron consistente con el Fst = 0.268 (P < 0.0001 dado por el Amova y el Gst = 0.040 del análisis de correspondencia múltiple. Los valores de similitud genética, el análisis de grupo, el análisis de correspondencia múltiple y el nivel de introgresion, indicaron diferencias significativas (P<0.0001 en los niveles de introgresión. El bajo nivel de diferenciación genética entre poblaciones podría ser el resultado de peces con el mismo origen genético y la alta variación dentro de poblaciones se puede presentar por prácticas de manejo. La introgresión entre piscícolas es significativa para O. aureus, mientras que las especies O. niloticus y O. mosambicus se encuentran introgresadas de forma similar en las poblaciones de Oreochromis sp.

  12. Transcriptome Profiling and Molecular Pathway Analysis of Genes in Association with Salinity Adaptation in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Xu

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is a freshwater fish but can tolerate a wide range of salinities. The mechanism of salinity adaptation at the molecular level was studied using RNA-Seq to explore the molecular pathways in fish exposed to 0, 8, or 16 (practical salinity unit, psu. Based on the change of gene expressions, the differential genes unions from freshwater to saline water were classified into three categories. In the constant change category (1, steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, fat digestion and absorption, complement and coagulation cascades were significantly affected by salinity indicating the pivotal roles of sterol-related pathways in response to salinity stress. In the change-then-stable category (2, ribosomes, oxidative phosphorylation, signaling pathways for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, and fat digestion and absorption changed significantly with increasing salinity, showing sensitivity to salinity variation in the environment and a responding threshold to salinity change. In the stable-then-change category (3, protein export, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, tight junction, thyroid hormone synthesis, antigen processing and presentation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-keratan sulfate were the significantly changed pathways, suggesting that these pathways were less sensitive to salinity variation. This study reveals fundamental mechanism of the molecular response to salinity adaptation in O. niloticus, and provides a general guidance to understand saline acclimation in O. niloticus.

  13. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of juvenile GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), fed diets supplemented with different concentrations of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Hu, Gengdong; Zhao, Zhixiang; Meng, Shunlong; Fan, Limin; Song, Chao; Qiu, Liping; Chen, Jiazhang

    2018-01-01

    The GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia) tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is cultured widely for the production of freshwater fish in China. Streptococcosis, which is related to pathogenic infections, occurs frequently in juvenile and adult female GIFT individuals. Resveratrol (RES) has been used in feed to control these infections in freshwater tilapia. To address the effects of RES on tilapia, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-Seq, HiSeq. 2500) to explore the global transcriptomic response and specific involvement of hepatic mRNA of juvenile O. niloticus fed with diets containing different concentrations of (0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1g/kg) RES. A total of > 24,513,018 clean reads were generated and then assembled into 23,244 unigenes. The unigenes were annotated by comparing them against non-redundant protein sequence (Nr), non-redundant nucleotide (Nt), Swiss-Prot, Pfam, Gene Ontology database (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, and 12,578 unigenes were annotated to the GO database. A total of 1444 (0.025g/kg RES), 1526 (0.05g/kg RES), and 3135 (0.1g/kg RES) genes were detected as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs), when compared with the controls. A total of 6 (0.025 vs 0.05g/kg RES), 19 (0.025 vs 0.1g/kg RES), and 124 (0.05 vs 0.1g/kg RES) genes were detected as significant DEGs. Six genes, including dnah7x1, sox4, fam46a, hsp90a, ddit4, and nmrk2, were associated with an immune response. These findings provide information on the innate immunity of GIFT and might contribute to the development of strategies for the effective management of diseases and long-term sustainability of O. niloticus culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of probiotic and sand filtration treatments on water quality and growth of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in earthen ponds of southern Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Sultan; Ali, Mohammad Lokman; Alam, Md Ariful

    2016-01-01

    Effects of water treatment by two probiotic products (PondPlus® and AquaPhoto®) and sand filtration were studied on growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) stocked at tilapia:pangas ratio of 5:3 in traditional earthen ponds in Bangladesh....... The fish were stocked at a density of 20,000 fish ha−1 and reared for 7 months. Compared to untreated ponds, treatments of probiotic products or sand filtration in earthen ponds resulted in a higher O2 content, higher water transparency, less ammonium, and fewer cyanobacteria. Weight gain for individual...... tilapia was lowest in the AquaPhoto-treated ponds (177 g), while similar gains (188–194 g) occurred in the other ponds. For pangas, the lowest weight gain (627 g) was obtained in the sand filter-treated ponds, as compared to 690–797 g in the other ponds. Thus, a general positive effect from the treatments...

  15. Production of red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) in floating cages in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: mortality and health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerlage, Annette S; Dung, Tu Thanh; Hoa, Tran Thi; Davidson, Jeffrey; Stryhn, Henrik; Hammell, K Larry

    2017-04-20

    The Mekong Delta in Vietnam is one of the most productive aquaculture regions in the world, in which the red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) industry is a small-scale industry that mainly supplies local markets in the delta region. Little is known about the frequency of mortality events and health management in this sector. We describe red tilapia floating cage production systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, for the purposes of quantifying mortality and associated production factors, and describing practices that may influence pathogen introduction and spread to and from farms. In July 2014, approximately 50 red tilapia farmers from 4 provinces (201 farmers in total) were randomly selected and interviewed. Median overall perceived mortality (PM) within a production cycle was 35%. Overall PM was found to be affected by province (p tilapia aquaculture management in the Mekong Delta, and describes management factors that could become important in the event of disease outbreaks.

  16. Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) brain cells respond to hyperosmotic challenge by inducing myo-inositol biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Alison M.; Yang, Jun; Sacchi, Romina; Fangue, Nann A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to determine the regulation of the de novo myo-inositol biosynthetic (MIB) pathway in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) brain following acute (25 ppt) and chronic (30, 60 and 90 ppt) salinity acclimations. The MIB pathway plays an important role in accumulating the compatible osmolyte, myo-inositol, in cells in response to hyperosmotic challenge and consists of two enzymes, myo-inositol phosphate synthase and inositol monophosphatase. In tilapia brain, MIB enzyme transcriptional regulation was found to robustly increase in a time (acute acclimation) or dose (chronic acclimation) dependent manner. Blood plasma osmolality and Na+ and Cl− concentrations were also measured and significantly increased in response to both acute and chronic salinity challenges. Interestingly, highly significant positive correlations were found between MIB enzyme mRNA and blood plasma osmolality in both acute and chronic salinity acclimations. Additionally, a mass spectrometry assay was established and used to quantify total myo-inositol concentration in tilapia brain, which closely mirrored the hyperosmotic MIB pathway induction. Thus, myo-inositol is a major compatible osmolyte that is accumulated in brain cells when exposed to acute and chronic hyperosmotic challenge. These data show that the MIB pathway is highly induced in response to environmental salinity challenge in tilapia brain and that this induction is likely prompted by increases in blood plasma osmolality. Because the MIB pathway uses glucose-6-phosphate as a substrate and large amounts of myo-inositol are being synthesized, our data also illustrate that the MIB pathway likely contributes to the high energetic demand posed by salinity challenge. PMID:24072790

  17. Genetic parameters for fillet traits and body measurements in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fillet weight is an economically important trait in Nile tilapia production for the European market which asks for fish with average body weights of at least 700 g. Genetic parameters to design or optimize breeding programs for these body weights are lacking. In an earlier study we showed that high

  18. The influence of ration size on energetics and nitrogen retention in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Duodu, Collins Prah; Adjei-Boateng, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    with ration size, feed conversion and protein retention were most efficient at ration sizes of 3%. Although the magnitude of the SDA response following feeding also increased with ration size, this was not proportionate to meal size. Therefore the metabolic cost of meal processing (SDA coefficient) was found......Proper nutrient management is essential for the environmental sustainability of aquaculture. While increasing daily rations generally may lead to improved growth rates, this does not necessarily mean that nutrients are utilized more efficiently. To investigate how ration size affects partitioning...... of dietary nutrient intake, the effects of meal size on growth and metabolism were examined in triplicate groups of adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) receiving daily rations corresponding to 1, 2, 3, or 4% of their biomass. While biomass gain and specific growth rates were positively correlated...

  19. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A. [Food Engineering Department, ZEA/FZEA/USP, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, 13635 900 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

  20. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction

  1. The biology of Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis mossambicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-04-07

    Apr 7, 1998 ... ies management is critical to ensure the sustainability of the ... are used for subsistence agriculture by the rural community ... monthly from selected sampling sites in the lake between. October 1995 and September 1996 (Figure 1 l. Fish were col- lected from the dam using 30 m seine nets with mesh sizes of.

  2. Microtubule-dependent changes in morphology and localization of chloride transport proteins in gill mitochondria-rich cells of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Kai; Wu, Yu-Ching; Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2016-08-01

    The tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) is a euryhaline fish exhibiting adaptive changes in cell size, phenotype, and ionoregulatory functions upon salinity challenge. Na(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) and Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) are localized in the apical and basolateral membranes of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells of the gills. These cells are responsible for chloride absorption (NCC) and secretion (NKCC), respectively, thus, the switch of gill NCC and NKCC expression is a crucial regulatory mechanism for salinity adaptation in tilapia. However, little is known about the interaction of cytoskeleton and these adaptive changes. In this study, we examined the time-course of changes in the localization of NKCC/NCC in the gills of tilapia transferred from fresh water (FW) to brackish water (20‰) and from seawater (SW; 35‰) to FW. The results showed that basolateral NKCC disappeared and NCC was expressed in the apical membrane of MR cells. To further clarify the process of these adaptive changes, colchicine, a specific inhibitor of microtubule-dependent cellular regulating processes was used. SW-acclimated tilapia were transferred to SW, FW, and FW with colchicine (colchicine-FW) for 96 h. Compared with the FW-treatment group, in the MR cells of colchicine-FW-treatment group, (1) the average size was significantly larger, (2) only wavy-convex-subtype apical surfaces were found, and (3) the basolateral (cytoplasmic) NKCC signals were still exhibited. Taken together, our results suggest that changes in size, phenotype, as well as the expression of NCC and NKCC cotransporters of MR cells in the tilapia are microtubule-dependent. J. Morphol. 277:1113-1122, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Distinct expression of three estrogen receptors in response to bisphenol A and nonylphenol in male Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiren; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Xiaoping; Ma, Xilan; Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Yun; Zhu, Pei; Lu, Danqi; Zhao, Huihong; Luo, Wenna; Yi, Shibai; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2010-06-01

    Environmental estrogens, such as bisphenol A (BisA) and nonylphenol (NP), have been shown to affect the estrogen receptor (ER) expression and induce male reproductive abnormalities. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of action of xenoestrogenic chemicals on the expression of estrogen receptors in the testes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), three full-length cDNAs respectively encoding ntERalpha, ntERbeta1 and ntERbeta2 were cloned from testes. The amino acid sequences of ntERalpha, ntERbeta1 and ntERbeta2 showed a high degree of similarity to the relevant fish species. Tissue-specific expression study showed that three receptors were highly expressed in pituitary, liver, testis, kidney and intestine tissues. The ntERalpha, ntERbeta1 and ntERbeta2 mRNA expressions were significantly higher at the sexual early recrudescing stage than at other recrudesced stages. After being exposed to xenoestrogens from weeks 2 to 4, the ntERalpha mRNA levels were increased significantly in testes after NP treatment at all sampling times or after 4 weeks of exposure to BPA. The ntERbeta1 mRNA levels remained unchanged, while a significant decrease of the ntERbeta2 mRNA level was observed in testes after exposure to NP and BPA. The present study demonstrates that the regulation of all three ntER subtypes in testes may act via different molecular mechanisms of exposure to NP and BPA.

  4. Comparative toxicity of copper oxide bulk and nano particles in Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus: Biochemical and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A. Abdel-Khalek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus are commonly used in the assessment of aquatic environment quality and also considered as useful bio-indicators during environmental pollution monitoring. The LC50/96 h of copper oxide (bulk & nano particles [CuO (BPs & NPs] were 2205 & 150 mg/l, respectively. Two tested concentrations of CuO (BPs & NPs were selected: the first concentration was equivalent to (1/10 (220.5 & 15 mg/l, and the second was equivalent to (1/20 (110.25 & 7.5 mg/l LC50/96 h·CuO (BPs & NPs, respectively. While serum glucose, liver function tests (AST, ALT and ALP and kidney function tests (creatinine and uric acid showed a significant increase, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin and total lipids showed a significant decrease. Both liver and gill tissues of the studied fish showed a reduction in GSH content and an elevation in MDA and GPx activities. The present study also showed an elevation in liver CAT & SOD activities when exposed to both concentrations of CuO BPs and in the case of gills when exposed to both concentrations of CuO (BPs & NPs, although activity of these enzymes showed an inhibition in the liver when exposed to both concentrations of CuO NPs. The present study investigated whether CuO NPs are more toxic than CuO BPs.

  5. A microsatellite-based linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis spp.) and mapping of sex-determining loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes and is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater food fish. Mozambique tilapia and its hybrids, including red tilapia are main representatives of salt tolerant tilapias. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping QTL for important traits, positional cloning of genes and understanding of genome evolution. Results We constructed a consensus linkage map of Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia using 95 individuals from two F1 families and 401 microsatellites including 282 EST-derived markers. In addition, we conducted comparative mapping and searched for sex-determining loci on the whole genome. These 401 microsatellites were assigned to 22 linkage groups. The map spanned 1067.6 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 3.3 cM. Comparative mapping between tilapia and stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish revealed clear homologous relationships between chromosomes from different species. We found evidence for the fusion of two sets of two independent chromosomes forming two new chromosome pairs, leading to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex determination locus in Mozambique tilapia was mapped on LG1, and verified in five families containing 549 individuals. The major XY sex determination locus in red tilapia was located on LG22, and verified in two families containing 275 individuals. Conclusions A first-generation linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia was constructed using 401 microsatellites. Two separate fusions of two sets of two independent chromosomes may lead to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex-determining loci from Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia were mapped on LG1 and LG22, respectively. This map provides a useful resource for QTL mapping for important traits and comparative genome studies. The DNA markers linked to the sex-determining loci could be used in

  6. A microsatellite-based linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis spp. and mapping of sex-determining loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tilapia is the common name for a group of cichlid fishes and is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater food fish. Mozambique tilapia and its hybrids, including red tilapia are main representatives of salt tolerant tilapias. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping QTL for important traits, positional cloning of genes and understanding of genome evolution. Results We constructed a consensus linkage map of Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia using 95 individuals from two F1 families and 401 microsatellites including 282 EST-derived markers. In addition, we conducted comparative mapping and searched for sex-determining loci on the whole genome. These 401 microsatellites were assigned to 22 linkage groups. The map spanned 1067.6 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 3.3 cM. Comparative mapping between tilapia and stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish revealed clear homologous relationships between chromosomes from different species. We found evidence for the fusion of two sets of two independent chromosomes forming two new chromosome pairs, leading to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex determination locus in Mozambique tilapia was mapped on LG1, and verified in five families containing 549 individuals. The major XY sex determination locus in red tilapia was located on LG22, and verified in two families containing 275 individuals. Conclusions A first-generation linkage map of salt tolerant tilapia was constructed using 401 microsatellites. Two separate fusions of two sets of two independent chromosomes may lead to a reduction of 24 chromosome pairs in their ancestor to 22 pairs in tilapias. The XY sex-determining loci from Mozambique tilapia and red tilapia were mapped on LG1 and LG22, respectively. This map provides a useful resource for QTL mapping for important traits and comparative genome studies. The DNA markers linked to the sex

  7. Effects of shrimp head meal in the diets on growth, feed efficiency and pigmentation of sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus

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    Pimolrat, P.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp head meal (SHM was used to replace fish meal as a protein source in practical diets for sexreversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein or 0, 6.92, 13.84, 20.76 and 27.68% by weight of diet respectively. Catfish feed that contained protein content 37.22±0.10% was included as a reference diet. The experimental diets were fed to the fish with mean initial weight of 3.13±0.05 g for 8 weeks in 70 l aquaria. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed 50% of fishmeal protein replacement or diet 3 was not significant by different from those of fish on control diet (p>0.05. The data of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and productive protein value of fish fed diet 3 were equal to those fed control diet (p>0.05. The lowest growth rate and feed efficiency showed on fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement. The production cost of fish fed diet 3 was equal to those fed the control diet and the reference diet (p>0.05. Total carotenoid content in fish skin was significantly highest (p<0.05 in fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement diet. The result indicates that the use of SHM at the level of 50% replacement or 13.84% by weight of diet is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diet.

  8. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

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    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  9. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.; Alam, Aftab

    2013-01-01

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2013-10-02

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on osmoregulatory response and apoptosis in GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Qiu, L; Fan, L; Song, C; Meng, S; Chen, J

    2016-09-02

    In the present study, GIFT tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 7, 14, and 21 days. Over the duration of the exposure, genotoxicity and the activity of Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) and Ca + /Mg + -ATPase (CMA) were measured in the gill, kidney, and intestine, to evaluate changes in osmoregulatory response in O. niloticus. Our results showed significant decreases in organic NKA (except in gill tissues after 0.5 mg/L PCB-exposure) and CMA activity. The results of the genotoxicity assay showed significant increases in atp1a1a, nkcc2 (only in gill tissue), and fxyd7 (except after 21 days of 5 mg/L PCB exposure). We found significant increases in caspase proteins in the liver in the 5-mg/L PCB exposure group, and the transcripts showed dose-dependent increases between treatment groups over the exposure duration. This study presents evidence that chronic exposure to PCB could result in organic osmoregulatory response and hepatic apoptosis in GIFT tilapia.

  12. Riesgos de la introducción de tilapias (Oreochromis sp. (Perciformes: Cichlidae en ecosistemas acuáticos de Chile Risks of the introduction of tilapia (Oreochromis sp. (Perciformes: Cichlidae in aquatic ecosystems of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un llamado de alerta ante la posible introducción de la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp. a Chile, con fines de cultivo. Se analizan los llamados cultivos monosexuales (solo machos, señalados como la solución para impedir la reproducción no deseada, que evitaría riesgos para la biodiversidad y se demuestra la falsedad de este argumento. Énfasis especial se da a los cultivos de tilapia en áreas marinas. Los peligros para la biodiversidad, son resaltadosA call of attention is made over the possible introduction of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. for aquaculture in Chile. The so-called monosex (all male culture, considered by some as the solution for unwanted reproduction and for avoiding risks for biodiversity, are analyzed, and the falsehood of this argument is demonstrated. Special emphasis is given to the tilapia culture in marine areas. Threats to biodiversity are stressed

  13. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

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    Donald Arguedas Cortés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and

  14. Sperm quality analysis in XX, XY and YY males of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennotte, V; François, E; Rougeot, C; Ponthier, J; Deleuze, S; Mélard, C

    2012-07-01

    In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), individuals with atypical sexual genotype are commonly used in farming (use of YY males to produce all-male offspring), but they also constitute major tools to study sex determinism mechanisms. In other species, sexual genotype and sex reversal procedures affect different aspects of biology, such as growth, behavior and reproductive success. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of sexual genotype on sperm quality in Nile tilapia. Milt characteristics were compared in XX (sex-reversed), XY and YY males in terms of gonadosomatic index, sperm count, sperm motility and duration of sperm motility. Sperm motility was measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) quantifying several parameters: total motility, progressive motility, curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, average path velocity and linearity. None of the sperm traits measured significantly differed between the three genotypes. Mean values of gonadosomatic index, sperm concentration and sperm motility duration of XX, XY and YY males, respectively ranged from 0.92 to 1.33%, from 1.69 to 2.22 ×10(9) cells mL(-1) and from 18'04″ to 27'32″. Mean values of total motility and curvilinear velocity 1 min after sperm activation, respectively ranged from 53 to 58% and from 71 to 76 μm s(-1) for the three genotypes. After 3 min of activity, all the sperm motility and velocity parameters dropped by half and continued to slowly decrease thereafter. Seven min after activation, only 9 to 13% of spermatozoa were still progressive. Our results prove that neither sexual genotype nor hormonal sex reversal treatments affect sperm quality in male Nile tilapias with atypical sexual genotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Masculinization of red tilapia Oreochromis SPP. With steroid trenbolone acetate (TBA provided in the food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolinar Santamaría Miranda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The tilapia culture in our country has presented in recent years a significant rise and diversification, this due to the food shortage in our country and in the rest of the world, there are some alternatives to increase the profitability of their crop and is also an activity important in the state of Sinaloa, mainly in the communities adjacent to the dams and reservoirs of water. Inthe present study we present the results obtained in the process of sex reversal of red tilapia fingerlings Oreochromis sp., held at the premises of CIIDIR-IPN, Guasave, Sinaloa. The experiment used a total population of 4000 organisms, which were distributed in three hormonal treatment ponds by integrating them into the food (ATB and three controls (C, were concrete ponds with a capacity of 500 L. water was applied to the food hormone to be administered orally. The percent change of sex was determined by the technique "Squash". In the treatment hormonado food supply. The physicochemical parameters were not significantly different because they are within the limits allowed in growing tilapia. Survival in the treatment of hormonedelivery was the result was 89.6 ± 2.5% and 78.0 ± 3.2% control. In her final weight (g application in the treatment of hormone was 0.52 ± 0.02 g and the control was 0.50 ± 0.04 g. The percentage reversal of the sexual hormone treatment (TBAwas 89.7 ± 3.0% in the control (C was 57.0 ± 2.3%. This allowed to know which is more effective use of the hormone in the food.

  16. Effects of palm kernel cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Sukasem, N.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC on growth performance, blood components and liver histopathology of sex- reversed red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied using seven isocaloric diets (3400 kCal/ kg containing different levels of protein and PKC. Diet 1, 2 and 3 contained 20% protein with the supplementation of 15, 30 and 45% PKC, respectively. Diets 4, 5 and 6 contained 24% protein in combinationwith the same PKC supplemention levels mentioned above, and diet 7 was commercial feed containing 20% protein as a control diet. Experimental diets were fed to experimental fish of 48.65 g initial average body weight cultured in floating cages (3 cages/diet for 10 weeks. Fish fed diets containing higher protein (24%; diets 4, 5 and 6 had significantly better growth performance (p<0.05 than those fed lower protein (20%; diets 1, 2 and 3. Considering the effect of PKC, fish fed diet 5 (Prot. 24%, PKC 30% gave the greatest growth performance (p<0.05 and all the PKC-fed groups had significantly higher growth than fish fed control diet. There was evidence that supplementation of PKC in fish feed ranging from 15 to 45% had no effect to the survival rate, blood components, or hepatocytic cells of tilapia. However, liver tissue showed higher numbers of lipid droplets in fish fed diet contained 45% PKC (diets 3 and 6. For the production cost, all test diets with PKC supplementation had significantly higher price (p<0.05 than commercial feed. However, when considering the feeding cost per unit of fish production, fish reared with PKC supplemented diets had significantly lower cost (p<0.05 than fish fed commercial feed.

  17. Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Lia Ferraz de Arruda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido f

  18. Deposition of tocopherol and tocotrienol in the tissues of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., fed vitamin E-free diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Shern; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P vitamin E isomers present in plant oils. The type and concentration of endogenous vitamin E and the fatty acid composition of plant oils can affect the oxidative stability of tilapia tissues.

  19. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Tola

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg−1 on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish. Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg−1. Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p < 0.05. Although growth depression was associated with feeding diets naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05. Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance.

  20. Effects of Wheat Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance and Selected Health Indices of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Siriporn; Bureau, Dominique P.; Hooft, Jamie M.; Beamish, Frederick W. H.; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Encarnação, Pedro; Petkam, Rakpong

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg−1) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting in graded levels of DON and zearalenone (ZEN) (Diet 1 0.07/0.01, Diet 2 0.31/0.09, Diet 3 0.50/0.21, Diet 4 0.92/0.37 and Diet 5 1.15/0.98 mg·kg−1). Groups of 50 fish were randomly allocated into each of 20 aquaria and fed to near-satiety for eight weeks. Growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of fish fed the experimental diets decreased linearly with increasing levels of Fusarium mycotoxins (p mycotoxins, especially DON, no biochemical and histopathological parameters measured in blood and liver appeared affected by Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations of diets (p > 0.05). Though there was no clear evidence of overt DON toxicity to red tilapia, it is recommended that feed ingredients should be screened for Fusarium mycotoxin contamination to ensure optimal growth performance. PMID:26035489

  1. Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus spp. group B in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in hapas nets and earth nurseries in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil

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    Salvador Rogério

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Streptococcus spp. in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in net-pens and earth nurseries. Eight intensive tilapia-rearing farms were investigated in north Paraná, Brazil from April 1st 2001 to April 30th 2002. The fish were reared in a system of hapas nets on four farms and in earth nurseries on other four farms. A total of 370 samples were analyzed of material collected from 120 fish (brain, liver, kidney, skin scrapes, ascites liquid and eye that were sown on BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% yeast extract and sheep blood. Streptococcus spp. was isolated in 36 of the samples (18 brain, eight liver, eight kidney and two ascites liquid from 25 fish. Streptococci were isolated in both systems, almost in the same proportion. First the streptococci were characterized by the catalase and esculin test, growth in methylene blue and sodium chloride at 6.5%. They were classified in groups by the Slidex Strepto-Kit (BioMerieux, France. The phenotypic characteristics were determined by the Api 20 Strep microtest system (BioMerieux, France. The 36 Streptococcus spp. samples did not present hemolysis and were classified as Lancefield group B. Further 16 samples were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae and 20 were not identified by the Api 20 Strep, but presented the same biochemical profile described for the reference strain of Streptococcus difficile (ND-2-22.

  2. Environmental and cortisol-mediated control of Ca(2+) uptake in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Kuan, Wei-Chun; Liao, Bo-Kai; Deng, Ang-Ni; Tseng, Deng-Yu; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-04-01

    Ca(2+) is a vital element for many physiological processes in vertebrates, including teleosts, which live in aquatic environments and acquire Ca(2+) from their surroundings. Ionocytes within the adult gills or larval skin are critical sites for transcellular Ca(2+) uptake in teleosts. The ionocytes of zebrafish were found to contain transcellular Ca(2+) transporters, epithelial Ca(2+) channel (ECaC), plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (PMCA2), and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1b (NCX1b), providing information about the molecular mechanism of transcellular Ca(2+) transports mediated by ionocytes in fish. However, more evidence is required to establish whether or not a similar mechanism of transcellular Ca(2+) transport also exists in others teleosts. In the present study, ecac, pmca2, and ncx1 were found to be expressed in the branchial ionocytes of tilapia, thereby providing further support for the mechanism of transcellular Ca(2+) transport through ionocytes previously proposed for zebrafish. In addition, we also reveal that low Ca(2+) water treatment of tilapia stimulates Ca(2+) uptake and expression of ecac and cyp11b (the latter encodes a cortisol-synthesis enzyme). Treatment of tilapia with exogenous cortisol (20 mg/l) enhanced both Ca(2+) influx and ecac expression. Therefore, increased cyp11b expression is suggested to enhance Ca(2+) uptake capacity in tilapia exposed to low Ca(2+) water. Furthermore, the application of cortisol receptor antagonists revealed that cortisol may regulate Ca(2+) uptake through glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid receptor (GR and/or MR) in tilapia. Taken together, the data suggest that cortisol may activate GR and/or MR to execute its hypercalcemic action by stimulating ecac expression in tilapia.

  3. Effects of Replacement of Fishmeal with other Alternative Plant Sources in the Feed on Proximate Composition of Muscle, Liver and Ovary in Tilapia (Oreochromis nioloticus

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    Khalid Al-Ghanim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The major objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of alternate plant protein sources as a replacement for fish meal in feed on the proximate composition of muscle, liver and tissue in Oreochromis niloticus. O. niloticus of average size (average Weight 45.00±1.25 g, total length 13.28±1.42 cm were stocked in 100 L glass aquarium. Fish were fed with three experimental feeds (A, B and C and reference commercial feed (D for 16 weeks. Feed A, B and C was prepared from four different plant sources and fish meal (40 % crude protein. Fish were fed at the rate 3 % of body weight daily. It has been observed that tilapia fed with feed B in which 20 % fish meal was replaced compared to feed C with other plant sources of protein, had shown significantly higher total protein in their muscle compared to diet other experimental and commercial feeds. In O. niloticus minimum lipid content was recorded in fish fed with diet B compared to A, C and commercial feed. It has been concluded that 20-40% level of fish meal can be replaced in the diet of fish without having any impact on growth and chemical composition of muscle.

  4. Caracterización de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp. con marcadores moleculares RAPD

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    Muñoz Jaime Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó la técnica RAPD (amplificación al azar de ADN polimórfico para el estudio de la diversidad genética de Oreochromis sp. (tilapia roja en cinco piscícolas del Valle del Cauca (Colombia y en la determinación del nivel de introgresión de las especies parentales Oreochromis mosambicus, O. niloticus y O. aureus. Se evaluaron 25 cebadores, ocho fueron polimórficos y se obtuvieron 109 bandas. Los valores de heterocigosidad esperada (0.196 a 0.256 y la estructura genética (Gst = 0.22 para Oreochromis sp. indicaron un elevado grado de polimorfismo y alta estructuración genética. Estos resultados fueron consistente con el Fst = 0.268 (P < 0.0001 dado por el Amova y el Gst = 0.040 del análisis de correspondencia múltiple. Los valores de similitud genética, el análisis de grupo, el análisis de correspondencia múltiple y el nivel de introgresion, indicaron diferencias significativas (P<0.0001 en los niveles de introgresión. El bajo nivel de diferenciación genética entre poblaciones podría ser el resultado de peces con el mismo origen genético y la alta variación dentro de poblaciones se puede presentar por prácticas de manejo. La introgresión entre piscícolas es significativa para O. aureus, mientras que las especies O. niloticus y O. mosambicus se encuentran introgresadas de forma similar en las poblaciones de Oreochromis sp.

  5. Maternal mismatches in farmed tilapia strains (Oreochromis spp.) in the Philippines as revealed by mitochondrial COI gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, June Feliciano F; Ventolero, Minerva Fatimae H; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of genetically enhanced tilapia has significantly boosted the performance of Philippine aquaculture industry. While enhanced strains contribute to the increase in tilapia production, genetic characterization of present tilapia stocks is critical to maintain their quality and to ensure the genetic gains are sustained. To understand and determine the genetic relationship of the genetically enhanced strains produced in the Philippines, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene using DNA barcoding approach was analyzed. Specimens representing 10 genetically enhanced strains (GIFT, FaST, GET-EXCEL, GST, SST, COLD, YY-male, GMT, Molobicus, and BEST), three red tilapia (Taiwan red, Florida red, and FAC-red), and two pure lines (initially identified as O. aureus and O. spilurus) were collected, sequenced, and identified using DNA barcoding. Results revealed that farmed tilapias consisted of four different Oreochromis species. As expected, COI could not distinguish individuals at the strain level but surprisingly, mismatch between the species of maternal origin and present-day offspring was observed. This particular result may pose a question on the genetic purity and integrity of the strains being distributed to farmers and suggests a re-evaluation of the effectiveness of major tilapia breeding centers in maintaining their stocks.

  6. Growth hormone transgenic tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) compensate for increased metabolic rate to preserve exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Martínez, R.; Morales, A.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic tilapia hybrids (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. hornorum) carrying a single copy of a homologous cDNA growth hormone exhibit higher growth rates than their wild-type conspecifics (Martinez et al. 1999). Swimming respirometry was employed to determine whether the increased growth rate...... higher in transgenics, such that aerobic scope was similar in both groups, and there was no difference in maximum sustainable U (5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 bl s-1 in transgenics vs. wild-types, respectively). Following 2 h recovery from exercise, tilapia were exposed to progressive hypoxia (stepwise......Pa, respectively). The results indicate that stimulation of growth consequent to ectopic expression of growth hormone in transgenic tilapia (Martinez et al. 1999) is linked to increased rates of maintenance metabolism. The swimming and hypoxia experiments indicate, however, that the transgenics were able...

  7. Effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins on growth performance, some serum biochemical parameters and body composition of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Wei Zhai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the effects of diet supplementation with grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs on fish growth performance, some serum parameters and body composition. Three hundred tilapia fingerlings with the initial average body weight of 9.50±1.25 g were randomly divided into five treatment groups with four replicates in each group and 15 fish in each replicate. The dietary GSPs levels of five treatment groups were 0 (control group, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The trial period was 49 days. Growth performance parameters were significantly improved by GSPs supplementation (P<0.05, while survival rates were similar among all groups (P>0.05. Serum parameter results showed that activities of aminotransferase aspartate in 200 and 400 mg/kg GSPs groups and alanine aminotransferase in 400 mg/kg GSPs group were lowered significantly (P<0.05. Levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol (except 200 mg/kg GSPs group were significantly lowered, while lysozyme activity and albumin level were significantly higher in fish of GSPs supplemented groups, independently from the level of supplementation. The highest crude protein level and lowest crude lipid level were found in fish of all GSPs supplemented groups, while levels of moisture and ash in fish of all groups were similar (P>0.05. The results indicated that dietary 200 mg/kg GSPs could exert beneficial effects on growth and body composition of tilapia fingerlings, and ameliorate serum biochemistry parameters related to health status.

  8. Hematology and productive performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A Sebastião

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Columnaris disease is one of the main causes of mortality in tilapia rearing and is responsible for large economic losses worldwide. Hematology is a tool that makes it possible to study organisms' physiological responses to pathogens. It may assist in making diagnoses and prognoses on diseases in fish populations. The hematological variables of nile tilapia were studied in specimens with a clinical diagnosis of columnaris disease and in specimens that were disease-free. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin rate, hematocrit percentage, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, organic defense blood cell percentages (leukocytes and thrombocytes and hepatosomatic and splenosomatic index were determined. The results showed that there were changes in the erythrocytic series and in organic defense blood cells, in the fish infected with the bacterium, with reductions in erythrocytic variables and significant increases in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes and neutrophils.

  9. Assessment and control of an invasive aquaculture species: An update on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in coastal Mississippi after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Slack, W. Todd; Peterson, Mark S.; Gregoire, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    We provide information about the effects of Hurricane Katrina on populations of an invasive fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in southern Mississippi. By resampling areas surveyed before the storm, we attempted to determine whether the species expanded its range by moving with storm-related floods. Additionally, we used rotenone to eradicate individuals of this species at a hurricane-damaged aquaculture facility on the Mississippi coast. Although our survey was limited geographically, we did not find the species to occur beyond the aquaculture facility, other than in an adjacent bayou. Our rotenone treatment of the facility appeared effective with only a single O. niloticus being collected six weeks after the treatment. To reduce the spread of O. niloticus in the southeastern U.S., it is important to continue to control feral populations, work to eliminate vectors for dispersal, and continue monitoring their distribution.

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS PARA CLIMATIZACIÓN DE ESTANQUES CON ENERGÍA SOLAR PARA CULTIVO DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp, LOCALIZADOS EN LA ZONA FRÍA DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES FOR AIR CONDITIONING OF PONDS WITH SOLAR ENERGY FOR CULTIVATION OF RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp, LOCATED IN THE COLD AREA OF THE CAUCA VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Borja Gallardo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación fue desarrollada para que la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp, especie de pez mÁs producida en Colombia, pueda ser explotada en lugares donde las condiciones óptimas para su normal desarrollo no son las adecuadas, como son las regiones altas con temperaturas por debajo de los 24 °C, aplicando metodologías relacionadas con el aprovechamiento de la energía solar. Las técnicas evaluadas fueron: climatización por medio de colectores solares, climatización por medio de manta térmica, climatización por medio de mangueras térmicas y climatización por medio de resistencias eléctricas. Se analizaron factores como funcionalidad, mantenimiento, limitaciones organizativas, espaciales, y costos.The research was developed so that the red tilapia (Oreochromis sp, fish species that more taken place in Colombia can be exploited in regions where the good conditions for its normal development are not the appropriate ones as in the high regions with temperatures below the 24 °C, applying methodologies related with the use of the solar energy. The evaluated methodologies were: air conditioning by means of solar collectors, air conditioning by means of thermal blanket, air conditioning by means of thermal hoses and air conditioning by means of electric resistances. Factors like functionality, maintenance, organizational and space limitations, and costs were analized.

  11. Níveis de vitamina C e ferro para tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Levels of vitamin C and iron for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Barros

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de vitamina C e ferro no desempenho produtivo e parâmetros fisiológicos da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus foram avaliados por um período de 73 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial com três níveis de vitamina C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg e três níveis de ferro (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg, mais um tratamento adicional (0 mg/kg de suplementação de vitamina C e ferro, com quatro repetições cada tratamento, totalizando 10 grupos experimentais. Utilizaram-se 240 alevinos revertidos com peso médio inicial de 7,46 ± 0,49 g, distribuídos aleatoriamente em 40 aquários de 250 L, numa lotação de 6 peixes/aquário. Confeccionou-se dieta purificada com 32,0% de proteína bruta e 3300 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A ausência de vitamina C e ferro nas dietas propiciou o aparecimento de anemia microcítica e hipocrômica aos alevinos. A presença dessa vitamina em dosagens elevadas estimulou a liberação de eritrócitos imaturos na corrente sangüínea. Determinou-se, também, que níveis desses acima das exigências nutricionais descritas para a espécie não determinaram efeito detrimental no desempenho produtivo, na produção de proteínas plasmáticas ou nos aspectos morfológicos do fígado.The effects of different levels of vitamin C and iron on growth performance and physiological parameters on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated for 73 days. A factorial experiment with three levels of vitamin C (125; 375 e 1115 mg/kg and three levels of iron (30, 90 e 270 mg/kg, plus an additional treatment (with 0 mg/kg of vitamin C and iron, was considered on a completely randomized design, with four replicates for each experimental group. It was randomly stocked 240 reverted fingerlings, an average weight of 7.46 ± 0.49 g, into 40, 250L, aquaria at a density of 6 fish/aquarium. A albumin-gelatin-diet was formulated to contain 32.0% of crude

  12. Effect of sub-acute exposure to nickel nanoparticles on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Abdul Rahuman, Abdul; Ramkumar, Rajendiran; Perumal, Pachiappan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Vishnu Kirthi, Arivarasan; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the oxidative stress, antioxidant response and histopathological changes of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) exposure (14 days) in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Ni NPs were synthesized by metal salt reduction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD peaks at 44°, 51° and 76° were indexed to the (111), (200) and (220) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of Nickel, respectively. The crystallite sizes were calculated using Scherrer's formula applied to the major intense peaks and found to be the size of 56nm. TEM images showed that the synthesized Ni NPs are spherical in shape. Biochemical analysis indicated that the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity was significantly affected by Ni NPs treated O. mossambicus. Reduced antioxidant enzymes and the contents of antioxidants were lowered in the liver and gills of fishes treated with Ni NPs. After 14 days of exposure, a significant accumulation of Ni in the Ni NPs in experimental group was observed in the gill and skin tissues, with the highest levels found in the liver. Ni NPs exposed fish showed nuclear hypertrophy (NH), nuclear degeneration (ND), necrosis (NC) and irregular-shaped nuclei were observed in liver tissue. The hyperplasia of the gill epithelium (GE), lamellar fusion of secondary lamellae (LF), dilated marginal channel (MC), epithelial lifting (EL) and epithelial rupture were observed in gill tissue. Degeneration in muscle bundles (DM), focal area of necrosis (NC) vacuolar degeneration in muscle bundles (VD), edema between muscle bundles (ED) and splitting of muscle fibers were noticed in skin tissue. Further ecotoxicological evaluation will be made concerning the risk of Ni NPs on aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate boosted immunomodulatory, disease resistance and growth enhancing effects of Lactobacillus plantarum in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doan, Hien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Tapingkae, Wanaporn; Tongsiri, Sudaporn; Khamtavee, Pimporn

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigates the effects of combined or singular administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate (LWMSA) and Lactobacillus plantarum on innate immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Three hundred and twenty fish were supplied and randomly stocked in sixteen glass tanks (150 L) assigned to four treatments as follows: 0 g kg -1 LMWSA (Control, Diet 1), 10 g kg -1 LMWSA (Diet 2), 10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum (Diet 3), and 10 g kg -1 LMWSA + 10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum (Diet 4). Following 30 and 60 days of the feeding trial, serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and alternative complement activities as well as growth performance parameters (specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio) were measured. Serum lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and alternative complement activities of fish were significantly stimulated by both LMWSA and L. plantarum diets, however, the highest innate immune response were observed in fish fed synbiotic diet. At the end of the experiment, eight fish per replication were randomly selected for a challenge test against Streptococcus agalactiae. The survival rate of the fish fed supplemented diets was significantly greater than the control treatment and the highest post challenge survival rate was observed in synbiotic diet. Furthermore, SGR and FCR were significantly improved in fish fed supplemented diets after 60 days and the highest growth performance was observed in fish fed synbiotic diet. These results suggest combined LMWSA and L. plantarum can be considered as a promising immunostimulant and growth enhancer in Nile tilapia diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of growth performance, immunological responses and disease resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 by supplementing dietary inosine monophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kader

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was investigated to examine supplemental effects of dietary inosine monophosphate (IMP on growth performance, feed utilization, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Disease resistance to experimental infection with Streptococcus agalactiae was also assessed. A semi-purified basal diet was supplemented with 0 (IMP0, Control, 1 (IMP1, 2 (IMP2, 4 (IMP4 and 8 (IMP8 g purified IMP kg−1 diet to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (0.59 g for 60 days. The results indicated that supplementation of IMP significantly (P  0.05. Among whole body proximate composition and somatic parameters, condition factor was significantly influenced by dietary supplementation of IMP. A wide variation in hematological parameters were observed and dietary supplementation increased the hematocrit content (P  0.05. Total serum protein (TSP, lysozyme activity (LA, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and bactericidal activity (BA tended to increase with the supplementation of dietary IMP. TSP and SOD were significantly improved with ≥4 g kg−1 supplementation, while LA with 8 g kg−1 and BA with ≥1 g kg−1 supplementations. IMP supplemented groups showed higher (P > 0.05 cumulative survival compared to that of supplementation free control group. IMP supplemented diet groups also showed significantly higher BA in the post challenge test. Based on the overall performances, the results of the current study indicated that the inclusion of IMP in Nile tilapia diet can improve growth performance, feed utilization, haematological and immunological parameters; and disease resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia. Keywords: Nucleotides, Inosine monophosphate, Growth, Immunity, Disease resistance, Nile tilapia, Streptococcus agalactiae

  15. Influence of water temperature and waterborne cadmium toxicity on growth performance and metallothionein-cadmium distribution in different organs of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Tawwab, Mohsen; Wafeek, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is believed to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitously distributed toxins in the aquatic system. This metal is released to the aquatic environment from both anthropogenic sources, such as industrial, agricultural and urban effluents as well as natural sources, such as rocks and soils. Otherwise, the temperature increase of water bodies, which has been observed due to global climatic changes, has been shown to increase Cd toxicity for several aquatic animal species including fish. In the present study, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), (26.0 ± 0.38 g) were reared at 20, 24, 28, or 32 °C and exposed to 0.0 or 0.5mg Cd/L for 8 weeks to investigate effects of water temperature, Cd toxicity and their interaction on fish performance as well as metallothionein (MT) and Cd distribution in different fish organs. It was found that fish reared in Cd-free group at 28 °C showed the optimum growth and feed intake, while Cd-exposed fish showed low growth and feed intake irrespective to water temperature. A synergetic relationship between water temperature and Cd toxicity was observed where Cd toxicity increased as water temperature increased and the worse growth was obtained in Cd-exposed fish reared at 32 °C. Additionally, the highest Cd residues in different fish organs were detected in Cd-exposed fish reared at 32 °C. Similarly, MT concentrations in different fish organs increased as water temperature increased especially in Cd-exposed fish groups. A high positive correlation between MT and Cd concentrations in fish organs was detected. The distribution of MT and Cd levels was in the order of liver>kidney>gills>muscles. The present study revealed that the optimum water temperature suitable for Nile tilapia growth is 28 °C. Additionally, Cd exposure had a deteriorate effect on the growth and health of Nile tilapia. This hazardous effect increased as water temperature increased. Further, liver and kidney were the prime sites of Cd accumulation

  16. Radiation decontamination and disinfestation of salted dried tilapia fish (Koobi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, J.

    2004-01-01

    Salted dried tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish locally called koobi was investigated with the view of establishing the effective radiation dose for controlling microbial and insect activity on the product. Total viable count (TVC) of market samples of koobi ranged between log 10 4.11 - 6.78 cfu/g, whilst mould and yeast count ranged between log 10 1.38-3.38 cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus counts ranged between log 10 2.85 - 4.15 cfu/g. After 4 weeks storage under ambient conditions, total viable count increased to log 10 7.5 ± 2.5 cfu/g. Significant reduction in total viable count was observed after treatment with gamma radiation. A least square regression fitted through the data points indicated that 1.3 kGy would be required to reduce the microbial population on the product by one log cycle. Insects and pink colonies of halophilic bacteria were observed on all the nonirradiated samples after 4 weeks storage. Treatment with 3 kGy gamma radiation eliminated all insect forms, while microbial population was controlled with TVC ranging between log 10 1.9 ± 1.1 and log 10 10 2.7 ± 1.6 cfu/g throughout the 16 weeks storage period. The proliferation of halophilic bacteria and subsequent appearance of pink colonies on irradiated koobi was suppressed until the 16th week. Irradiation, therefore, extended the shelf-life of koobi from 4 to 15 weeks. (au)

  17. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metal Pollution along Greater Cairo Sector of the River Nile, Egypt, Using Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Omar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate seasonal metal pollution along Greater Cairo sector of the River Nile, Egypt, using wild Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as bioindicator and to conduct a risk assessment for human consumers. Greater Cairo is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Effects of metal pollution on fish body indices were studied using condition factor (CF and scaled mass index (SMI. Metal pollution index (MPI showed that the total metal load in fish organs followed the follwoing order: kidney > liver > gill > muscle which gives a better idea about the target organs for metal accumulation. Metal concentrations in fish muscle (edible tissue showed the following arrangement: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. Metal’s bioaccumulation factor (BAF in fish muscle showed the following arrangement: Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd and Pb. The hazard index (HI as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption showed that adverse health effects are not expected to occur in most cases. However, the metals’ cumulative risk effects gave an alarming sign specifically at high fish consumption rates.

  18. Effects of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide combined with nisin edible coating on the storage quality of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengping; Zhang, Huijun; Jin, Wengang; Li, Lirong

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of tartary buckwheat polysaccharide (TBP) combined with nisin edible coatings on the preservation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets, fillets were dip treated with different concentrations of TBP (5, 10 and 15 g kg -1 ) combined with nisin and stored at 4 °C for 12 days. The pH values, thiobarbituric acid contents, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) content, total viable count (TVC), surface colors, textures and sensory properties of the tilapia fillets at storage were all periodically investigated. TBP combined with nisin-treated groups significantly improved the bacteriological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of the tilapia fillets to a greater extent compared to the control group and presented better quality preservation effects than nisin coating alone. Based on the limits of the TVB-N, TVC and sensory scores, the shelf life of the control tilapia fillets was 4 days, whereas that for nisin with TBP-coated fillets was 8-10 days. Edible coatings made from TBP combined with nisin are suitable for maintaining qualities and enhancing the shelf lives of tilapia fillets stored at 4 °C. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The effects of dietary kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate on serum immune parameters, resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae and growth performance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doan, Hien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Tapingkae, Wanaporn; Khamtavee, Pimporn

    2017-03-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of dietary kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate (LWMSA) (singular or combined) on non-specific immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish with average weight of 18.60 ± 0.04 g were supplied and randomly stocked in sixteen glass tanks (150 L) at density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed experimental diets as follows: 0 g kg -1 LMWSA (Control, Diet 1), 10 g kg -1 LMWSA (Diet 2), 40 g kg -1 kefir (Diet 3), and 10 g kg -1 LMWSA + 40 g kg -1 kefir (Diet 4) for 50 days. At the end of the feeding trial, serum lysozyme (SL), phagocytosis (PI), respiratory burst (RB), and alternative complement (ACH50) activities as well as growth performance were measured. Singular and combined administration of kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate (LMWSA) significantly increased serum SL, PI, RB, and ACH50 activities compared control group (P < 0.05); the highest innate immune responses were observed in fish fed combinational diet (kefir + LMWSA) (P < 0.05). The results of experimental challenge revealed significantly higher resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae in fish fed supplemented diets and the highest post challenge survival rate was observed in synbiotic diet (P < 0.05). Similar results obtained in case of growth parameters. Feeding on supplemented diet significantly improved SGR and FCR and the highest growth parameters was observed in fish fed synbiotic diet (P < 0.05). These finding revealed that combined administration of dietary kefir and LMWSA can be considered for improving immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contribution to the Identification of a Local and Available Food Source for Sustainable Production of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshinyama, A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in parallel with work in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with the objective to evaluate the growth performance and production costs of Nile tilapia fed diets formulated using local plant protein sources, and to compare them to those obtained with an optimized commercial fish feed. Ninety monosex male tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis niloticus; mean weight 17.3 ± 0.2 g; mean length 9.6 ± 0.1 cm were reared in 9 acrylic aquaria supplied by closed water recirculation system. Three diets were tested in triplicate: 1 Rcongo, the test diet formulated by using local feed ingredients collected in the DR-Congo; 2 Rcanada, the diet formulated with the same ingredient composition as the first one, but sourced in Canada; and 3 Rcommercial, a fishmeal-based commercial control diet. In vivo feed digestibility and biochemical analysis of samples were carried out. The effects of diet and rearing time were measured on fish performance, including fish biomass, K coefficient, weight gain (WG, feed efficiency (FE, feed conversion rate (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC and on nutrient budget and fish biochemical composition. After four weeks, the fish achieved weight gains of 52% for Rcongo diet (17.2 ± 0.4 to 26.2 ± 2.6 g, 59% for Rcanada diet (17.4 ± 0.1 to 27.6 ± 3.2 g and 153% for the commercial diet (17.3 ± 0.2 to 43.8 ± 2.0 g. The cost-benefit analysis has indicated that the Rcongo diet was economically advantageous, reducing fish production cost up to 36% compared to commercial feed.

  1. Evaluación de los parámetros de crecimiento de alevines de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp.) con dietas enriquecidas con dos aceites esenciales : cúrcuma (curcuma longa) y hierba luisa (cymbopogon citratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Almeida, Carlos Gabriel; Flores Vallejo, Carla Pamela

    2015-01-01

    The production of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) is a very important industry in the Ecuador, so it is necessary to make constant innovations that help improve productivity. Currently has encouraged the use of natural extracts to enhance the growth and survival of fish. For this purpose it was decided to evaluate the essential oils of Turmeric and Lemongrass added to food in a concentration of 0.4% w / w with 8 experimental units each one with 20 fingerlings, located in the laboratories of the...

  2. Effect of dietary probiotic dose and duration on immune and oxidative stress parameters in juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics, “living organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host”, can contribute to a more sustainable aquaculture. Their administration through the diet or raising water can modulate the host immune status, improving their resistance towards infection. The antioxidant defence system of the organism is strongly related to immune system and previous studies reported enhancement in antioxidant status of shrimps and fish after probiotic administration, contributing to enhanced resistance towards infections. Nevertheless the information on oxidative stress parameters after probiotic administration in fish is still limited. The present work evaluates the effects of dietary probiotics supplementation on innate immune and oxidative stress parameters in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. A standard diet (27.5% CP, 8.2% CL, 19.6MJ.kg-1 DM was supplemented with a commercial multi-species probiotic (Bacillus sp., Pedicoccus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. at two concentrations: A1 (3 g.kg-1; 9 × 105 CFU.g-1 and A2 (6 g.kg-1; 2 × 106 CFU.g-1 and tested against an unsupplemented diet (A0. Fish (12.8 g were hand-fed the experimental diets (3 tanks/treatment; 20 animals per tank, 3 times a day, until visual satiation for 8 weeks. Animals were reared at 24ºC in a closed recirculating freshwater system. During the experiment, at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, blood, head-kidney and liver were sampled to study the following immunological and oxidative stress parameters: plasma lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activity (expressed as ACH50, respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide production of head-kidney leucocytes and liver lipid peroxidation (LPO, catalase (CAT, total glutathione (TG, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and glutathione reductase (GR activities. Respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide production in head-kidney leucocytes were not significantly affected by probiotic treatment

  3. Effects of Olea europaea L. Leaf Metabolites on the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Three Stored Pests, Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium confusum and Acanthoscelides obtectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kısa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea L. emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments of various countries of the world, in particular Mediterranean countries. In this study, oleuropein (1, oleanolic acid (2, maslinic acid (3, a mixture of erythrodiol and uvaol (4 and 5 isolated from the leaves of olive were added at two concentrations (1g/100g feed and 4g/100 g feed into fish feed. Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia were fed twice a day with the feed during 96 hours. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes and glucose levels in the serums of fishes fed with pure compounds were found to be higher as compared with the control group. Pure metabolites affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. These results suggested that the compounds tested affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4+5 (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/Petri dish concentrations were also tested for contact toxic effects against three important stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (weevil, Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle and Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil. The toxic effects of the metabolites were lower than those of the insecticide, dichlorvos (DDVP. DDVP caused complete mortality of the insects after 48 hours of treatments, the metabolites caused the mortality rates 16.7-63.3 %, 13.3-67.0 % and 26.7-59.0 % of S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. Maslinic acid (3 has the most toxic compound with the lowest LC 50 values (0.66 mg/Petri, 0.61 mg/Petri and 1.71 mg/Petri for S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. These results show that maslinic acid (3 as well as other substances can be used as natural insecticides against these pests.

  4. Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis

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    S. W. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp. coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms. Materials and Methods: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA. Susceptibility testing of present bacterial isolates to 16 types of antibiotics (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, compound sulfonamides, doxycycline, tetracycline, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, erythromycin, ampicillin, spiramycin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin and four types of heavy metals (mercury, chromium, copper, and zinc were carried out using disk diffusion and two-fold agar dilution method, respectively. Results: Three hundred isolates of A. hydrophila and E. tarda were successfully identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing results showed that 42.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to compound sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and oxolinic acid. On the other hand, 41.6% of these isolates were resistant to novobiocin, ampicillin, spiramycin, and chloramphenicol, which resulted for multiple antibiotic resistance index values 0.416. Among tested heavy metals, bacterial isolates exhibited resistant pattern of Zn2+ > Cr6+ > Cu2+ > Hg2+. Conclusion: Results from this study indicated that A. hydrophila and E. tarda isolated from coinfected farmed red hybrid tilapia were multi-resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals. These resistant profiles could be useful information to fish farmers to avoid unnecessary use of

  5. Induction of triploidy and tetraploidy in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, A.-R.A.; Davis, K.B.; Jenkins, J.A.; Les, Torrans E.

    1999-01-01

    Induction of triploidy and tetraploidy in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated by heat shock, cold shock, hydrostatic pressure, and/ or chemicals (cytochalasin A, B, and D). Additionally, efficacy of combined protocols was determined. Heat shock 10 min after fertilization induced triploidy when incubation temperature was 24 C but not when incubation temperature was 31 C. Heat shock of 40-41 C at 4-6 min after fertilization was effective in inducing up to 100% triploidy with hatchability similar to controls. Cold shock at 13 C for 45 min five min after fertilization induced 85-100% triploids. Heat shock and multiple heat shocking were the most effective treatments for the induction of tetraploidy. Two heat treatments of 41 C applied at 65 and 80 min after fertilization for 5 min each produced approximately 80% tetraploidy in hatched fry. Immersion of fertilized eggs in cytochalasin A, B, or D at concentrations up to 10 ??g/L applied at various times and durations was ineffective in inducing triploidy or tetraploidy.

  6. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert W.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Guillette, Matthew P.; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Smit, Willem J.; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S. P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various “outbreaks” of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  7. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Bowden

    Full Text Available One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various "outbreaks" of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin, in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River.

  8. Mapping and validation of the major sex-determining region in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. Using RAD sequencing.

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    Christos Palaiokostas

    Full Text Available Sex in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia is principally determined by an XX/XY locus but other genetic and environmental factors also influence sex ratio. Restriction Associated DNA (RAD sequencing was used in two families derived from crossing XY males with females from an isogenic clonal line, in order to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and map the sex-determining region(s. We constructed a linkage map with 3,802 SNPs, which corresponded to 3,280 informative markers, and identified a major sex-determining region on linkage group 1, explaining nearly 96% of the phenotypic variance. This sex-determining region was mapped in a 2 cM interval, corresponding to approximately 1.2 Mb in the O. niloticus draft genome. In order to validate this, a diverse family (4 families; 96 individuals in total and population (40 broodstock individuals test panel were genotyped for five of the SNPs showing the highest association with phenotypic sex. From the expanded data set, SNPs Oni23063 and Oni28137 showed the highest association, which persisted both in the case of family and population data. Across the entire dataset all females were found to be homozygous for these two SNPs. Males were heterozygous, with the exception of five individuals in the population and two in the family dataset. These fish possessed the homozygous genotype expected of females. Progeny sex ratios (over 95% females from two of the males with the "female" genotype indicated that they were neomales (XX males. Sex reversal induced by elevated temperature during sexual differentiation also resulted in phenotypic males with the "female" genotype. This study narrows down the region containing the main sex-determining locus, and provides genetic markers tightly linked to this locus, with an association that persisted across the population. These markers will be of use in refining the production of genetically male O. niloticus for aquaculture.

  9. Toxicity of sediments from Bahía de Chetumal, México, as assessed by hepatic EROD induction and histology in nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Pérez, O; Simá-Alvarez, R; Noreña-Barroso, E; Güemes, J; Gold-Bouchot, G; Ortega, A; Albores-Medina, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants present in sediments obtained from Bahía de Chetumal, a bay on the border between Mexico and Belize, was studied in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) intraperitoneally injected with sediment extracts from six different sites of the Bay. Sediment samples used for the study contained a variety of organic chemicals such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total cytochrome P-450 and EROD activity were measured in fish liver. Haematological and histological analyses were also carried out. Hepatic P-450 content in treated fish increased from 43 to 240%, and EROD activity from 85 to 160% compared to controls. Extracts from two sampling sites inhibited EROD activity. There were positive significant correlations between P-450 content and the levels of PCBs 44 and 128. EROD activity correlated to HCB, op'-DDE, pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, mirex and PCB 18 concentrations. Blood examination showed cell degeneration and binucleated leukocytes with abnormal chromatin. Extract treatment also resulted in foci of hyperplasia on the basement of gill lamellae, hypertrophy and oedema in gills and liver necrosis. Control fish showed no abnormalities. The results demonstrate that sediments from Bahía of Chetumal have the potential to cause histopathological, haematological and biochemical alterations in fish. The administration of sediment extracts to fish may serve as a useful test to screen the toxicity of sediments from different areas.

  10. Espectro trófico de la tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae en la presa Infiernillo, Michoacán-Guerrero, México

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    Ma. de Lourdes Jiménez-Badillo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el espectro trófico de la tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner 1864, a través del análisis del contenido estomacal de una muestra de 153 especímenes recolectados durante 1993. El estado de alimentación se evaluó por la proporción de grasa alrededor del estómago e intestino, la replexión gástrica y el coeficiente de condición. La evaluación cuantitativa del alimento, se realizó a través de los métodos Volumétrico (V y Frecuencia de Aparición (FA y los Indices Medio Volumétrico (IMV e Importancia Relativa (IIR, los cuales se combinaron para determinar el espectro trófico de la tilapia. Se determinó que su dieta en la presa Infiernillo está constituida por: detritus y plantas vasculares como alimentos preferentes; algas unicelulares como alimento secundario y peces, insectos, semillas de gramíneas, algas filamentosas, cladóceros, ostrácodos, rotíferos y copépodos, como alimentos ocasionales. Se detectaron diferencias alimentarias entre juveniles y adultos y variaciones en el consumo de elementos alimentarios en la época de secas y lluvias. Se concluye que Oreochromis aureus es una especie omnívora con preferencia hacia el detritus y los restos de plantas vasculares. La alimentación esta determinada por la abundancia de las presas en el medio y en los adultos se basa preferentemente en el detritus. La alimentación no es un factor que limite el desarrollo de la tilapia en la presa Infiernillo.The trophic spectrum of tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner 1864, was determined by stomach content analysis in 153 organisms collected during 1993 in Michoacán-Guerrero, México. The feeding status of the fish at the time of observation was evaluated by the examination of fat surrounding the gut, gastric replection and the condition coefficient. The quantitative evaluation of the food items was carried out by the combination of the following analysis: Frequency of Occurrence, Volumetric Method, Volumetric

  11. Phosphoglycerate kinase enhanced immunity of the whole cell of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-Yen; Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chi; Jiang, Bo-Huang; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a Gram-positive bacterium and a severe aquaculture pathogen that can infect a wide range of warmwater fish species. The outer-surface proteins in bacterial pathogens play an important role in pathogenesis. We evaluated the immunogenicity of two of the identified surface proteins namely phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and ornithine carbamoyl-transferase (OCT). PGK and OCT were over-expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and used as the subunit vaccines in tilapia. Tilapia immunized with the S. agalactiae modified bacteria vaccine (whole cell preparations with recombinant PGK and OCT proteins) individually were tested for the efficacy. OCT and PGK combined with WC had a higher survival rate. A high-level protection and significant specific antibody responses against S. agalactiae challenge was observed upon the vaccinated tilapia with the purified PGK protein and S. agalactiae whole cells. The specific antibody titer against S. agalactiae antigen suggested that increased antibody titers were correlated with post-challenge survival rate. Il-1β expression profile was higher in PGK + WC-treated group. Tnf-α expression in the PGK + WC group was significantly increased. Taken together, our results suggested the combinations of recombinant protein and whole cell may elicit immune responses that reach greater protection than that of individual S. agalactiae components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus as a food source in advanced life support systems: Initial considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Tilapia are currently under evaluation as a source of food and their contribution to reducing waste in advanced life support systems (ALSS). The nutritional composition of tilapia whole bodies, fillet, and carcass residues were quantitatively determined. Carbon and nitrogen free-extract percentages were similar among whole body (53.76% and 6.96%, respectively), fillets (47.06% and 6.75%, respectively), and carcass (56.36% and 7.04%, respectively) whereas percentages of N, S, and protein were highest in fillet (13.34, 1.34, and 83.37%, respectively) than whole body (9.27, 0.62, and 57.97%, respectively) and carcass (7.70, 0.39, and 48.15%, respectively). Whole body and fillet meet and/or exceeded current nutritional recommendations for protein, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, and selenium for international space station missions. Whole body appears to be a better source of lipids and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorous than fillet. Consuming whole fish appears to optimize equivalent system mass compared to consumption of fillets. Additional research is needed to determine nutritional composition of tilapia whole body, fillet, and carcass when fed waste residues possibly encountered in an ALSS.

  13. Molecular cloning and gene expression of Foxl2 in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Deshou; Kobayashi, Tohru; Zhou Linyan; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2004-01-01

    A Foxl2 cDNA was cloned from the Nile tilapia ovary by RT-PCR and subsequent RACE. Alignment of known Foxl2 sequences from vertebrates confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame and protein sequences, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region, while some homopolymeric runs of amino acids are found only in mammals but not in non-mammalian vertebrates. RT-PCR revealed that Foxl2 is expressed in the tilapia brain (B), pituitary (P), gill, and gonads (G), with the highest level of expression in the ovary, reflecting the involvement of Foxl2 in B-P-G axis. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization also revealed an evident sexual dimorphic expression pattern in the gonads. Foxl2 mRNA was mainly detected in the granulosa cells surrounding the oocytes. The ovarian expression of Foxl2 in tilapia begins early during the differentiation of the gonads and persists until adulthood, implying the involvement of Foxl2 in fish gonad differentiation and the maintenance of ovarian function

  14. Effect of fermented, hardened, and dehulled of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) meals in digestibility and antinutrients in diets for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez-González, F.J.; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R.; García-Ulloa, M.; Cuevas-Rodríguez, B.; Rodríguez-González, H.

    2018-01-01

    Among the most typical feed sources for tilapia, plants represent a low-cost source in substituting for traditional high-cost feed ingredients. Fermentation, hardening and dehulling are common grains processing techniques to make plant nutrients available and more digestible to fish. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter and protein, and antinutrients (phytic acid and tannins) in fermented, hardened and dehulled chickpea (Cicer arietinum) meals were determined for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The highest ADC was obtained with processed (fermented, hardened and dehulled) chickpea meals compared with non-processed. Results indicated that fermentation increased the protein content by 13.1%, decreased the content of ash and phytic acid (47.5 and 45%, respectively), and increased the ingredient apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADM) by 23.2%, and the ingredient apparent digestibility of protein (ADP) by 41.9%. Dehulling meal increased the protein (5.7%) and lipid (6.4%) content of chickpea grains; decreased fiber, ash and tannin content (75.3%, 19.1%, and 84.5%, respectively); and increased ADM by 12.8%, and ADP by 10.4%. We conclude that fermented, hardened and dehulled chickpea meals represent a potential alternative in diets for juvenile O. niloticus.

  15. Efecto de la torta de Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis sobre el desempeño productivo de juveniles de tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp.

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    Ricardo Alejandro Miranda-Gelvez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cultivation of Sacha Inchi (P. volubilis has been developed in the Peruvian Amazon and in Colombia is grown mainly in the Department of Putumayo. There are proposals nowadays for implementation of this crop in the Catatumbo region (Norte de Santander. Objective: This study assessed the effect of Sacha Inchi cake (SIC (Plukenetia volubilis inclusion as a source of protein in diets for juveniles of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. Methodology: four experimental diets including SIC as a partial substitute of fishmeal were prepared in the following percentages: 0%, 5%, 10% and 20%. 144 juvenile tilapia with initial weight of 5.8 ± 0.9 g were used, being fed with eight daily rations during 55 days to assess: weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, specific growth rate (SGR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, hepatosomatic index (HI and survival rate (%S. Results: The results showed no significant differences (p> 0.05 in any of the diets for FC and %S. However, the parameters: WG, SGR, PER and HI had significantly higher values for inclusions of 0,5 and 10%, being statistically different (p <0.01 from the 20% inclusion level. Conclusion: It is concluded that P. volubilis can replace fish meal up to a 10% level of inclusion.

  16. Effects of Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom substrate on mucosal and serum immune parameters, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Hien Van; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Tapingkae, Wanaporn; Chitmanat, Chanagun; Mekchay, Supamit

    2017-08-01

    The aim of present study was determination effects of dietary administration of C. militaris spent mushroom substrate (SMS) on mucosal and serum immune parameters, disease resistance, and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two hundred twenty five fish of similar weight (37.28 ± 0.10 g) were assigned to the following diets [0 (T1- Control), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 20 (T4) and 40 g kg -1 (T5) SMS]. After 60 days of feeding trial, growth performance, skin mucus lysozyme and peroxidase activities as well as serum innate immune were measured. In addition, survival rate and innate immune responses were calculated after challenge test (15 days) against Streptococcus agalactiae. The results revealed that regardless of inclusion levels, feeding Nile tilapia with SMS supplemented diets significantly increased skin mucus lysozyme and peroxidase activities as well as serum immune parameters (SL, ACH50, PI, RB, and RB) compared control group (P health status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary levels of Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS for nile-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: Intestinal Morphology

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    Flavio Endrigo Cechim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of aquaculture production systems exposes fish to numerous stressors, which may negatively affect their growth and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. In addition, fish farmers are now obliged to conform to Best Management Practices (BPMs regulations. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS are complex carbohydrates derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls. This study was set out to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dietary MOS on intestinal morphology of Nile-tilapia. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR and fed diets containing increasing levels of MOS (0.0; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% during 30 days (n=4. The proximal intestine fragment of two specimens from each replicate was taken for histological observations. The histological sections (5 μm were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H & E and documented photographically with a digital camera (DCM 130E digital camera for microscope 1.3 pixels, CMOS chip Software Scopephoto connected to a light microscope (EDUTEC 502 AC. The images were analyzed by using (BEL Eurisko software for intestinal villi measures. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. It was observed influence (p<0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia intestinal morphology. Fish fed diet containing 0.4% MOS supplementation showed increased (p<0.05 villi height (436.98±66.81 μm when compared to fish fed unsupplemented control diet (401.01±70.73 μm, 0.2% (364.59±61.68 μm and 0.8% (404.08±61.62 μm. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS are complex carbohydrates derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls and present mannose as primary carbohydrate

  18. VARIATIONS IN THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF THE HEAD AND BONE FLOURS OF TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS ADAPTED TO ESTUARINE AND FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENTS

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    Vignesh. R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of fish and fish by products assures various health benefits, but on the other hand the fish processing wastes if not discarded properly pose a serious environment threat. Tilapias are commonly available cichlid fishes which are considered to possess various biological importance. The objective of the work is to analyze and compare the similarities and differences in the nutritional quality of the exotic fish Oreochromis mossambicus found in brackish water and fresh water environments. The estuary adapted tilapia and freshwater tilapia was collected and processed as head and bone flours. The samples were further analyzed and the results in 100 g of Estuarine Tilapia Head Flour (ETHF was composed of moisture (5.87 ± 0.003%, protein (32.06 ± 0.02% total lipids (0.202 ±0.003 %, carbohydrates (1.44 ± 0.005% and ash (1.15 ± 0.006%. The results in 100 g of Estuarine Tilapia Bone Flour (ETBF was found as moisture (4.20 ± 0.006%, protein (31.48 ± 0.07%, total lipids (0.217 ± 0.002, carbohydrates (0.13 ± 0.004% and ash (0.89 ±0.004%. The proximate content in Freshwater Tilapia Head Flour (FTHF ranged as moisture (5.79 ± 0.01%, protein (32.50 ± 0.02%, total lipids (0.202 ± 0.009%, carbohydrates (1.54 ± 0.02% and ash (1.16 ± 0.003. The proximate content in Freshwater Tilapia Bone Flour (FTBF ranged as moisture (5.77 ± 0.01%, protein (32.58 ± 0.03%, total lipids (0.200 ± 0.005%, carbohydrates (1.48 ± 0.02% and ash (1.23 ± 0.01%. The fatty acid occurring in the highest proportions was alpha linolenic acid both ETHF (2.492±0.003mg and ETBF (2.374±0.002mg. The fatty acid composition in FTHF occurring in the highest proportion was palmitic acid (0.983±0.002mg and in FTBF the highest proportion was found in stearic acid (0.785±0.005mg. In the amino acid analysis, the highest values were recorded in phenyl alanine for ETHF (1.986±0.002% and lysine in ETBF (1.364±0.003%. Phenyl alanine content was found higher in both FTHF (1

  19. Determining the safety and suitability of fluorescein dye for characterization of skin ulcerations in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to identify the presence of lesions in fish skin as soon as they erupt. Fish skin lesions are either macroscopic (can be visualized by the naked eye or microscopic (difficult to detect with the naked eye. Skin wounds resulting in loss of the epithelium (superficial or deep ulcers are serious as they may interfere with osmoregulation and open portals for opportunistic pathogens. Herein, we report on the use of a fluorescein dye for the detection of skin ulcers that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Due to their importance in aquaculture endeavors in Egypt, this study focused on two indigenous species, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the scale-less African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus. Fluorescein dye was tested for safety to fish without interfering with microbiological analysis. Parallel to the use of the flourescein dye, the detected ulcers were examined for the presence of bacteria or tissue alterations. Further, we experimentally induced the formation of skin ulcers in O. niloticus physically or by injecting Aeromons hydrophila, and then assessed the utility of fluorescein dye in detecting the induced skin lesions. Results obtained in this study demonstrated that fluorescein dye application is harmless to Nile tilapia at concentrations up to 0.5 mg fluorescein/ml water for up to 15 min. Indeed, a low dose of fluorescein (0.10 mg/ml for 5 min could identify very minute skin abrasions. We highly recommend the use of fluorescein dye for the evaluation of skin health in farmed fish species and the visualization of minute skin abrasions.

  20. Analysis of monomeric and oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants in fish muscle tissues using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: Application to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from an e-waste processing area in northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Suzuki, Go; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Tuyen, Le Huu; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography (LC), a novel analytical method was developed to quantify eight monomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (m-PFRs) and three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs) in fish muscle samples. The optimization and validation experiments indicate that the developed method can determine accurately the concentrations of analytes in fish muscle samples. The recoveries of analytes in fish muscle ...

  1. Histopathological alterations in the liver and intestine of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to long-term sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab; Al-Asgah, Nasser; Ebaid, Hossam

    2015-07-01

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 1.68, 3.36, and 5.04 mg/L cadmium (as CdCl2), which represent 10%, 20%, and 30% of their previously determined 96-h LC50. After exposure for 20 days, sections of the liver and intestine of treated fish were examined histologically. Histopathological changes varied from slight to severe structural modification, depending on the exposure concentration. The hepatic tissues of fish exposed to 10% LC50 showed markedly increased vacuolation of the hepatocytes and coarse granulation of their cytoplasm. Abundant erythrocytic infiltration among the hepatocytes was observed in fish exposed to 20% LC50. In the intestinal tissues of fish exposed to all doses, goblet cells proliferated and were greatly increased in size, the longitudinal muscularis mucosa was disturbed and, in the crypts of the sub-mucosal layer, apoptosis increased, indicated by large numbers of degenerated nuclei. Large numbers of inflammatory cells and dilated blood vessels were observed in the intestine of the group treated with 30% LC50.

  2. Modulatory role of dietary Chlorella vulgaris powder against arsenic-induced immunotoxicity and oxidative stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic intoxicant have long been regarded as an impending carcinogenic, genotoxic, and immunotoxic heavy metal to human and animals as well. In this respect, we evaluated biomarkers of the innate immune response and oxidative stress metabolism in gills and liver of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after arsenic exposure, and the protective role of Chlorella vulgaris (Ch) dietary supplementation were elucidated. Protective role of C. vulgaris (Ch), as supplementary feeds (5% and 10% of the diet) was studied in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) against arsenic induced toxicity (NaAsO2 at 7 ppm) for 21 days exposure period. A significant down-regulation in innate immune response; including, respiratory burst, lysozyme, and bactericidal activity followed due to deliberately As(+3) exposure. Similarly, oxidative stress response; like nitric oxide (NO), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly decreased. Combined treatment of Ch and As(+3) significantly enhanced the innate immune response and antioxidant activity. Strikingly, Ch supplementation at 10% has been considered the optimum for Nile tilapia since it exhibited enhancement of innate immune response and antioxidant activity over the level 5%, and even better than that of control level. Thus, our results concluded that dietary Ch supplementation could protect Nile tilapia against arsenic induced immunosuppression and oxidative stresses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of dietary levels of vitamin A on growth, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental levels of vitamin A (0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 IU/kg diet) on the growth performance, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Each diet was fed to Nil...

  4. Phenotype and genetic parameters for body measurements, reproductive traits and gut lenght of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in low-input earthen ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Ponzoni, R.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for body size measurements, reproductive traits, and gut length for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in fertilized earthen ponds for two generations. Throughout the experiment, ponds were fertilized daily

  5. Heritability and genotype by environment interaction estimates for harvest weight, growth rate, and shape of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) grown in river cage and VAC in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.; Mulder, H.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Harvest weight has been the main selected trait for the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). However, growth rate and body shape are traits of increasing interest. In the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, intensive river-cage culture and low-input ponds are the most important production

  6. The potential of mixed culture of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The production performance of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems were studied in farmers' ponds at Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Fifteen ponds (200-300 m2 area and 1.0-1.5 m in depth) were used to

  7. Involvement of phospholipase C and intracellular calcium signaling in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulation of prolactin release from lactotrophs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Weber, G M; Strom, C N

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a potent stimulator of prolactin (PRL) secretion in various vertebrates including the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The mechanism by which GnRH regulates lactotroph cell function is poorly understood. Using the advantageous characteristics of the teleost...

  8. Production algale et consommation par le Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., au Lac Muhazi (Rwanda. Résumé de thèse de doctorat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukankomeje, R.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal production and consumption by the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L., in Lake Muhazi (Rwanda. The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  9. PARÁMETROS FISICOQUÍMICOS DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE SALCHICHAS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp.) PARÂMETROS FISICO-QUÍMICOS DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO DE SALSICHAS FEITAS DE TILAPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis sp.) PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING STORAGE OF SAUSAGES MADE FROM RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ IGOR HLEAP Z.; VIVIANA ANDREA VELASCO A.

    2012-01-01

    El crecimiento de la acuicultura de la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp.) en Colombia ha permitido desarrollar productos alimenticios de mayor valor agregado. Uno de estos productos, son las salchichas tipo Frankfurt. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue, analizar los parámetros fisicoquímicos que afectan la vida de anaquel de las salchichas, elaboradas con adición de almidón de sagú (Maranthaarundinacea) como material ligante o extendedor. El diseño planteado permitió evaluar las salchichas empa...

  10. Ecotoxicity of natural insecticide based on tobacco plant extract and hematological effects on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicity and hematological effects of a natural insecticide based on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum extract on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.14131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Narciso Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural insecticides derived from plant extracts have been used as an alternative to synthetic products in order to reduce environmental contamination. The present study aimed to examine the effects of Fumydro®, a natural insecticide based in the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus by determining the 48-h LC50 and evaluating their effects on hematological variables. Adult specimens of O. niloticus were exposed to four Fumydro® concentrations (200, 300, 400 and 500 μL L-1. The 48-h LC50 of Fumydro® was determined as 370 ± 50 μL L-1. Surviving fish showed increasing in the red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The thrombocytes did not change but the percentage of neutrophils increased. These results indicated that the insecticide Fumydro® is toxic to Nile tilapia and the changes of the erythrocyte variables suggested hypoxemia induction with low effect on the immune system.Natural insecticides from plant extracts represent an alternative to the highly toxic synthetic products in order to reduce environmental contamination; however some might also be toxic for non-target organisms. The present study determined the 50% lethal concentration (48h; LC50 for adults Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to the natural insecticide Fumydro®, based on the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum, and evaluated its effect on hematological variables. After preliminary tests, adult specimens of O. niloticus were exposed to four Fumydro® concentrations (200, 300, 400 and 500 μL L-1. The 48h; LC50 of Fumydro® was determined at 370 ± 50 μL L-1. The surviving fish after exposure to Fumydro® showed an increase in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The number of thrombocytes and leukocytes has not changed, unlike the differential leukocyte

  11. Syncytial Hepatitis of Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.) is Associated With Orthomyxovirus-Like Virions in Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Pozo, J; Mishra, N; Kabuusu, R; Cheetham, S; Eldar, A; Bacharach, E; Lipkin, W I; Ferguson, H W

    2017-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the presented work expands on the ultrastructural findings of an earlier report on "syncytial hepatitis," a novel disease of tilapia (SHT). Briefly, TEM confirmed the presence of an orthomyxovirus-like virus within the diseased hepatocytes but not within the endothelium. This was supported by observing extracellular and intracellular (mostly intraendosomal), 60-100 nm round virions with a trilaminar capsid containing up to 7 electron-dense aggregates. Other patterns noted included enveloped or filamentous virions and virion-containing cytoplasmic membrane folds, suggestive of endocytosis. Patterns atypical for orthymyxovirus included the formation of syncytia and the presence of virions within the perinuclear cisternae (suspected to be the Golgi apparatus). The ultrastructural morphology of SHT-associated virions is similar to that previously reported for tilapia lake virus (TiLV). A genetic homology was investigated using the available reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) probes for TiLV and comparing clinically sick with clinically normal fish and negative controls. By RT-PCR analysis, viral nucleic acid was detected only in diseased fish. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that a virus is causally associated with SHT, that this virus shares ultrastructural features with orthomyxoviruses, and it presents with partial genetic homology with TiLV (190 nucleotides).

  12. Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Mushtaq, M.; Cassidy, P.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schleis, S.M.; Sweeney, D.; Endris, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aquaflor??, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 ??C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at tilapia fillet after withdrawal from medication and depletion followed first-order kinetics with an estimated half-life of 2.32 d. The FFA tolerance limit, calculated as the 99th percentile of the potential residue level at 95% confidence, had depleted to less than the 1 ??g/g maximum residue level by 6.14 d after the dosing period.

  13. Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Mushtaq, M.; Cassidy, P.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schleis, S.M.; Sweeney, D.; Endris, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aquaflor??, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 ??C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at UV detection. Florfenicol amine is rapidly eliminated from tilapia fillet after withdrawal from medication and depletion followed first-order kinetics with an estimated half-life of 2.32 d. The FFA tolerance limit, calculated as the 99th percentile of the potential residue level at 95% confidence, had depleted to less than the 1 ??g/g maximum residue level by

  14. The use of crude extracts from traditional medicinal plants to eliminate Trichodina sp. in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanagun Chitmanat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment for ectoparasitic diseases in freshwater fish with formalin seems at present to be ineffective. For this reason it is evidently a useless cost. In addition, formalin possibly leaves toxic residues in fish flesh and in the environment which are eventually harmful to consumers. The alternative way to solve this problem is to use traditional medicinal plants instead. The purpose of this research is to determine the possibility of using garlic (Allium sativum and Indian almond (Terminalia catappa as optional chemicals to treat fish ectoparasites, Trichodina sp. The results showed that crude extracts of either garlic or Indian almond at 800 mg/l significantly (P < 0.05 eliminated Trichodina sp. infections in tilapia (average weight 3.62±0.06 g each. To evaluate the acute toxicity of these products to the host fish, groups of 20 tilapia (same size as abovewere exposed to 3 concentrations of each product for 96 h. Mortality was then determined. The 2 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to crude extract of garlic was 2,259.44 mg/L while the 16 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to Indian almond extract was 46,665.94 mg/L. This information is the beneficial and fundamental knowledge to develop guidelines to reduce the use of chemicals and antibiotics in freshwater fish culture businesses. The research is underway to determine the long-term effect of Indian almond and garlic to tilapia, if any.

  15. Bioaccumulation factor for I-131 in aquatic biota II fish - tilapia (Tilapia Mossambica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.F.; Casyao, J.M.; Bautista, E.Rb.

    1982-01-01

    The study was undertaken to provide local values for an essential parameter in the estimation of the dose contribution of I-131 through ingestion of fresh water fish. The result showed that the tilapia used in the experiment did not vary significantly in weight and no definite conclusion can be derived as to the effect of body size to bioaccumulation of I-131. (ELC)

  16. Development of Streptococcus agalactiae vaccines for tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhu, Jielian; Chen, Kangming; Gao, Tingting; Yao, Huochun; Liu, Yongjie; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2016-12-21

    Vaccination is a widely accepted and effective method to prevent most pathogenic diseases in aquaculture. Various species of tilapia, especially Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, are farmed worldwide because of their high consumer demand. Recently, the tilapia-breeding industry has been hampered by outbreaks of Streptococcus agalactiae infection, which cause high mortality and huge economic losses. Many researchers have attempted to develop effective S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia. This review provides a summary of the different kinds of S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia that have been developed recently. Among the various vaccine types, inactivated S. agalactiae vaccines showed superior protection efficiency when compared with live attenuated, recombinant and DNA vaccines. With respect to vaccination method, injecting the vaccine into tilapia provided the most effective immunoprotection. Freund's incomplete adjuvant appeared to be suitable for tilapia vaccines. Other factors, such as immunization duration and number, fish size and challenge dose, also influenced the vaccine efficacy.

  17. Growth Performance, Yields and Economic Benefits of Nile Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fish culture integration in the growth, yields and economic benefits of fish and vegetables. Two 200 m2 earthen fishponds were stocked with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 20,000 fish fingerlings per hectare. Pond A was fertilized with ...

  18. Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shalaby

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum, used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (7±1g/fish were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC, and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences

  19. Competitive Interactions between Invasive Nile Tilapia and Native Fish: The Potential for Altered Trophic Exchange and Modification of Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles W.; Valentine, Marla M.; Valentine, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted both the positive and negative impacts of species invasions. Most of these studies have been conducted on either immobile invasive plants or sessile fauna found at the base of food webs. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of vagile invasive consumers on native competitors. This is an issue of some importance given the controlling influence that consumers have on lower order plants and animals. Here, we present results of laboratory experiments designed to assess the impacts of unintended aquaculture releases of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico, on the functionally similar redspotted sunfish (Lepomis miniatus). Laboratory choice tests showed that tilapia prefer the same structured habitat that native sunfish prefer. In subsequent interspecific competition experiments, agonistic tilapia displaced sunfish from their preferred structured habitats. When a piscivore (largemouth bass) was present in the tank with both species, the survival of sunfish decreased. Based on these findings, if left unchecked, we predict that the proliferation of tilapia (and perhaps other aggressive aquaculture fishes) will have important detrimental effects on the structure of native food webs in shallow, structured coastal habitats. While it is likely that the impacts of higher trophic level invasive competitors will vary among species, these results show that consequences of unintended releases of invasive higher order consumers can be important. PMID:21200433

  20. Competitive interactions between invasive Nile tilapia and native fish: the potential for altered trophic exchange and modification of food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted both the positive and negative impacts of species invasions. Most of these studies have been conducted on either immobile invasive plants or sessile fauna found at the base of food webs. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of vagile invasive consumers on native competitors. This is an issue of some importance given the controlling influence that consumers have on lower order plants and animals. Here, we present results of laboratory experiments designed to assess the impacts of unintended aquaculture releases of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, in estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico, on the functionally similar redspotted sunfish (Lepomis miniatus. Laboratory choice tests showed that tilapia prefer the same structured habitat that native sunfish prefer. In subsequent interspecific competition experiments, agonistic tilapia displaced sunfish from their preferred structured habitats. When a piscivore (largemouth bass was present in the tank with both species, the survival of sunfish decreased. Based on these findings, if left unchecked, we predict that the proliferation of tilapia (and perhaps other aggressive aquaculture fishes will have important detrimental effects on the structure of native food webs in shallow, structured coastal habitats. While it is likely that the impacts of higher trophic level invasive competitors will vary among species, these results show that consequences of unintended releases of invasive higher order consumers can be important.

  1. Masculinization of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using extract of bull testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustiati, A.; Bangkit, I.; Zidni, I.

    2018-03-01

    Tilapia males grow faster to increase the production of the fish, there is a necessity to produce all males by using extract of bull testes. The research method used in this study was the experimental Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. The treatments were A: without immersion and without oral treatment (control); B; immersion 600 μg·L-1 without oral treatment; C: immersion 600 μg·L-1 and oral at a dose of 30 mg·kg-1 feeds, D: immersion 600 μg·L-1 and oral at a dose of 40 mg·kg-1 feeds, E: immersion 600 μg·L-1 and oral at a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 feeds. Results showed that the use of bull testicle extract mixed to media at concentration of 3 ml L-1 produced red male nile of 69.07 %. In addition, the immersion of the extract at 500 μg·L-1 resulted the male of 86.71 %. Sex reversal by dipping at 600 μg·L-1 17α-methyltestosterone combined with oral administration at 40 mg·kg-1 produced the highest male of Nile Tilapia Java carp (86.67 %) compared with dipping, which produced 65.56 % of male. These results suggested that combination of dipping and oral is more effective for sex reversal.

  2. Body composition and compensatory growth in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under different feeding intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Ziwei; Hur, Jun-wook; Lee, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the growth and body composition of Nile tilapia under five different feeding regimes. A control group was fed to satiation twice daily for 185 days; four treatment groups were fed at intervals of 2, 3, 4 or 7 days (dietary `restricted' period, days 0-80) and then fed to satiation (`refeeding' period, days 80-185). Compensatory growth in weight and length of the feed-restricted groups was observed during the refeeding period. However, the growth of none of the restricted groups caught up with that of the control group over the experimental period. Feed intake upon refeeding increased with the duration of deprivation. There were no significant differences in feed efficiency between the restricted and control groups during the refeeding stage, suggesting that hyperphagia was the mechanism responsible for the increased growth rates during this period. Tilapia preferentially used n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and nonessential amino acids during the restricted-feeding period. Higher production was achieved by higher feed consumption. We suggest that if attainment of market size in minimum time is required, fish should be consistently fed to satiation, while taking care to avoid the possible negative consequences of overfeeding.

  3. The antisickling effects of dried fish (tilapia) And dried prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antisickling effect of dried fish (Tilapia) and dried prawn (Astacus red) were investigated to ascertain the ability of the extracts of these samples to inhibit polymerisation of sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS), improve the Fe 2+/Fe 3+ ratio and lower the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood plasma. The samples ...

  4. Comparison of bacterial communities of tilapia fish from Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of bacterial communities of tilapia fish from Cameroon and Vietnam using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) ... The different PCR-DGGE 16S rDNA banding profiles obtained were analysed and results showed that there were specific bands for each geographical ...

  5. Utilization of shrimp industry waste in the formulation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino; Oliveira de Souza, Erivelto; Bora, Pushkar Singh

    2007-02-01

    A rapid expansion of fisheries is demanding an adequate supply of efficient, nutritious and inexpensive fish feed, because feed contributes highly to the cost of fish production. Shrimp head, a waste product from the shrimp export industry qualifies as an economical, abundant and good quality protein source for fish feeds. In the present work, shrimp head silage powder, which contained approximately 40% protein, was used as a substitute for fish flour. Four feeds, in the form of pellets, were prepared by substituting shrimp head silage for fish flour at 0%, 33.3%, 66.6% and 100% dietary levels. Other ingredients such as corn, soy, bovine blood, cassava and corn cob flours, soy oil, vitamin premix, salt, and other components also were used in the formulation. A commercial fish feed was used as the control. The proximate composition of these feeds did not differ significantly at p>0.05, except for the protein content of the control feed, which was about 30.6% versus 35.4-36.9% protein in the other diets. No significant differences (p>0.05 level) in weight and length of juveniles fed with the different feeds during a period of 60 days were observed. In all cases, an excellent correlation (0.9950-0.9996) between weight and length of juveniles was observed. No significant difference in growth of juveniles fed on R1, R2, R3, or R4, or the control feed, was observed. Similarly, the proximate analyses of the flesh of juveniles did not present significant differences (p>0.05). The result of the study indicates that the shrimp head silage could replace fish flour as an ingredient in tilapia feed with economic advantages and without sacrificing the quality of the feed.

  6. Aprovechamiento de semillas de hule (Hevea brasiliensis L. para alimentación de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Elías-Ogaldez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboró un concentrado artesanal para tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. con la finalidad de contribuir al aprovechamiento de los subproductos del cultivo de hule (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg y de reducir los costos de producción de la tilapia. La investigación fue tipo aplicada y experimental, realizándose en la zona costera del Pacifico guatemalteco. Se concluyó que la harina de semilla de hule es un insumo apropiado para sustituir parcial o totalmente la harina de semilla de soya, en la formulación de concentrados artesanales para tilapia. Todos los tratamientos donde se utilizó harina de semilla de hule presentaron una mejor supervivencia y FCA frente al testigo. El tratamiento T3 presentó la mejor tasa de retorno marginal frente al testigo y los demás tratamientos. Por último, se recomienda continuar la investigación tomando en cuenta que la semilla de hule es deficiente en aminoácidos esenciales, los cuales se pueden adicionar para mejorar su rendimiento nutricional.

  7. Growth, mortality and reproduction of the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Aguamilpa Reservoir, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Messina, Emilio; Tapia Varela, Raul; Velázquez Abunader, José Iván; Orbe Mendoza, Alma Araceli; Velazco Arce, Javier Marcial de Jesús Ruiz

    2010-12-01

    Tilapia production has increased in Aguamilpa Reservoir, in Nayarit, Mexico, in the last few years and represents a good economic activity for rural communities and the country. We determined growth parameters, mortality and reproductive aspects for 2413 specimens of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus in this reservoir. Samples were taken monthly from July 2000 through June 2001, of which 1 371 were males and 1 042 were females. Standard length (SL) and total weight (TW) were measured in each organism. The SL/TW relationships through power models for sexes were determined. The growth parameters L infinity k, and t0 of the von Bertalanffy equation were estimated using frequency distribution of length through ELEFAN-I computer program. Finally the reproductive cycle and size of first maturity were established using morph chromatic maturity scale. The results suggested that the males and females had negative allometric growth (b overfishing. Blue tilapia reproduces year-round; the highest activity occurs from January through May and size of first maturity was 23 cm SL. We conclude that it is necessary to establish a minimum catch size in this reservoir based on the reproductive behavior of this species.

  8. Molecular and functional characterization of CD59 from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Yishan; Zhu, Weiwei; Tang, Jufen; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe

    2015-05-01

    CD59, the major inhibitor of membrane attack complex, plays a crucial role in regulation of complement activation. In this paper, a CD59 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-CD59) was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for complement-inhibitory activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD59. In healthy Nile tilapia, the On-CD59 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the brain. When immunized with inactivated S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD59 in the skin, brain, head kidney, thymus and spleen, with quite different kinetic expressions. The assays for the complement-inhibitory activity suggested that recombinant On-CD59 protein had a species-selective inhibition of complement. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-CD59 protein may possess both binding activities to PGN and LTA and inhibiting activity of S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-CD59 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incorporation and profile of fatty acids in tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus fed with tung oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Guntendorfer Bonafé

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of tung oil enriched diet and the incorporation of conjugated linolenic acid - CLnA into fillets of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT were investigated. The diet was well accepted, and after 10 days CLnA was incorporated into the fillets with a 1.02% content of total fatty acids (FA. In addition, biosynthesis of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers - CLA (0.31% of fillet total FA content from CLnA, and the presence of alpha-linolenic acid - LNA (1.08% of fillet total FA content, eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA (2.85% of fillet total FA content and docosahexaenoic acid - DHA (3.08% of fillet total FA content were observed. Therefore, the consumption of this fish can increase the intake of different FA (CLnA, CLA, LNA, EPA and DHA, which play an important role in human metabolism.

  10. SUSTAINABLE TILAPIA PRODUCTION IN A BACKYARD SYSTEM FOR RURAL AREAS USING FISH BY-PRODUCTS IN FORMULATED DIETS

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    Servando Rueda Lopez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the feasibility of producing Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticuss, L. with formulated diets containing acid fish silage made with Hancock (Pterigoplichthys multiradiatus by-products in substitution of fishmeal. Thus four treatments containing increasing levels (0, 5, 10 and 15% of acid fish silage to substitute fishmeal were used to feed tilapia juveniles in triplicate groups (average 1.5±0.7 g and 4.3±1.0 cm.  Fish silage was prepared by adding citric and phosphoric acids at 2.6% each resulting in a liquefaction of the chop by-product mixture. After two weeks, the diets were prepared to contain 32-35% protein content. After 50 days of experimental period a total growth increase up to 827% was observed without significant differences among treatments. A specific growth rate from 3.70 to 4.10 and a survival rate from 96 to 99% was observed.  The cost analysis shows a saving on production cost up to 23.87% using the highest incorporation level of fish silage. The use of Aquaculture Recirculation System made with components normally found in a hardware store in rural or semi urban areas is discussed. It is concluded that fish offal shows a promising activity that favors the increase in fish protein production to resolve the demand of cheap protein.

  11. Edad y crecimiento del híbrido de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) en la represa “Zimapán” Hidalgo, México

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Gómez-Ponce; K. Granados-Flores; C. Padilla; M. López-Hernández; G. Núñez-Nogueira

    2011-01-01

    La edad y crecimiento de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus fueron determinados por medio de la lectura de escamas. Un total de 382 individuos fueron capturados mediante el uso de redes agalleras y atarrayas. Ocho recolectas mensuales se llevaron a cabo entre septiembre 2003-mayo 2004; se registraron los datos de longitud estándar en cm. (Le), el peso total en g (Pt) y se obtuvieron muestras de escamas para registrar el largo de la escama en mm. (Lesc) y el número de anillo...

  12. Pharmaceutical significance of Leuconostoc mesenteroides KS-TN11 isolated from Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

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    Bilal Ahmad Paray

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic animals are known for their myriad of beneficial bacteria with diverse biologically active compounds. The current study was aimed to isolate and characterize potentially beneficial lactic acid bacteria from Nile Tilapia and evaluate their pharmaceutical applications. The fish samples were dissected and stomach, intestine, and gills were collected and serially diluted for the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB on BCP agar media. Identification of isolate was carried by biochemical and molecular characterization using API kit and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, respectively. Further, KS-TN11 was assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory potential using the chromogenic method. A lactic acid bacterium KS-TN11 was isolated from the stomach of Nile Tilapia and identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Effect of KS-TN11 on lipid accumulation in adipocytes was done by using Oil Red O staining. The isolate showed strong antibacterial activity against a number of pathogenic bacteria in vitro. In addition, L. mesenteroides KS-TN11 KS-TN11 (50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml tends to inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and thus may have possible anti-obesity effects. Moreover, L. mesenteroides KS-TN11 exhibited substantial α–glucosidase inhibitory activities by 41.33% at 50 mg/ml and 64% at 100 mg/ml, respectively. The bacterium showed potent antibacterial activity against a number of pathogenic bacteria; in addition to alpha-glucosidase activity, and inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cell line. These results reinforce KS-TN11 as a novel bacterium with an impending pharmaceutical application. Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, Antimicrobial, Fish microflora, Anti-diabetic

  13. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of various concentration of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) surimi for edible coating on the shelf-life of Pangasius sp. fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnama, M. A. P.; Agustono; Sahidu, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Pangasius sp. fillets prone to deterioration the quality that will affect the appearance and the shelf life of fillets. The effort to extend the shelf life of fish fillet that is by using an edible coating. Surimi can be used as a protein-based edible coating because they have superior inhibitory and mechanical properties compared to the polysaccharides based material. Surimi can be made from freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fish. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments of surimi (0 gr, 2 gr, 4 gr, 6 gr, 8 gr) with four replications. The results showed that Pangasius sp. fillets with an edible coating 8 gr surimi have the highest value in the organoleptic test. The pH testing on Pangasius sp. fillets with edible coating 2 gr, 4 gr, 6 gr, and 8 gr surimi from the 0th hour to 18th hour have increased but slower than Pangasius sp. fillets without edible coating surimi. The best value of Total Plate Count (TPC) test is in edible coating 6 gr and 8 gr surimi as it is in accordance with SNI 2696:2013 at room temperature storage until the 18th hours.

  15. Differential effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone on ion transport protein mRNA levels in gills of two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Tipsmark, Christian K; Borski, Russell J; Madsen, Steffen S

    2011-04-01

    The role of cortisol as the only corticosteroid in fish osmoregulation has recently been challenged with the discovery of a mineralocorticoid-like hormone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and necessitates new studies of the endocrinology of osmoregulation in fish. Using an in vitro gill explant incubation approach, DOC-mediated regulation of selected osmoregulatory target genes in the gill was investigated and compared with that of cortisol in two euryhaline teleosts, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The effects were tested in gills from both fresh water (FW)- and seawater (SW)-acclimated fish. Both cortisol and DOC caused an up-regulation of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 subunit in SW-acclimated tilapia but had no effect in FW-acclimated fish. Cortisol conferred an increase in Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) isoform 1a transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated tilapia, whereas DOC had a stimulatory effect only in SW-acclimated fish. Cortisol had no effect on NKCC isoform 1b mRNA levels at both salinities, while DOC stimulated this isoform in SW-acclimated fish. In striped bass, cortisol conferred an up-regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α1 and NKCC transcript levels in FW- and SW-acclimated fish, whereas DOC resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts in FW-acclimated fish. It was also found that both corticosteroids may rapidly (30 min) alter the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway in gill, inducing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 in a salinity-dependent manner. The study shows a disparate organisation of corticosteroid signalling mechanisms involved in ion regulation in the two species and adds new evidence to a role of DOC as a mineralocorticoid hormone in teleosts.

  16. Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in γ-radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Elbaghdady, Heba Allah M.; El-Shebly, Abdallah A.; Pan, Deyu; Assanah, Edward; Lawson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and trivalent ferrates, is a potent antioxidant compound. Therefore, we examined the protective effect of MRN-100 against γ-radiation-induced lethality and damage to hematopoietic tissues in fish. A total of 216 Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control that was administered no radiation and no MRN-100 treatment. Group 2 was exposed only to γ-radiation (15 Gy). Groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated with MRN-100 at doses of either 1 ml/l or 3 ml/l in water for 1 week, and subsequently exposed to radiation while continuing to receive MRN-100 for 27 days. The survival rate was measured, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of hematopoietic tissues were performed for the different treatment groups at 1 and 4 weeks post-radiation. Exposure to radiation reduced the survival rate to 27.7%, while treatment with MRN-100 maintained the survival rate at 87.2%. In addition, fish exposed to γ-radiation for 1 week showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) series. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the total WBC count and the RBCs series when compared with irradiated fish. Furthermore, significant histological lesions were observed in the hepatopancreas, spleen and gills of irradiated fish. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the histopathology of various organs. We conclude that MRN-100 is a radioprotective agent in fish and may be useful as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the adverse side effects associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  17. Capability of some agricultural wastes for removing some heavy metals from polluted water stocked in combination with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.

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    Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy metal (HM pollution is one of the major problems that adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem and inhabiting biota. Heavy metals adsorption by low-cost adsorbents is one of the techniques used for HM removing from polluted water. In the present study, agricultural wastes (AW, i.e., rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, and maize stalks, were washed with distilled water, dried in a dry-oven, cut into small pieces (<0.5 cm long, and immersed at 1.0 g/L in aquaria containing synthetic mixture of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L., fingerlings (25.2 ± 0.88 g were stocked at a density of ten fish per 100-L aquarium for 72 h, during which fish were fed on a fish diet containing 25% crude protein ad libitum twice daily. Samples of water, AW, and fish were collected at different times to determine HM concentrations. The HM removal from polluted water was depending on the type of the metal ions, AW, and the contact time. However, HM concentrations in aquaria waters of all AW treatments decreased significantly by increasing contact time up to 24 h after which their concentrations were almost the same. Concentrations of waterborne Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in AW-containing aquaria were significantly lower than those of AW-free aquaria. The presence of any AW reduced significantly HM concentrations. In AW-free aquaria, HM-exposed fish accumulated more HM in their body than those reared in AW-containing aquaria. The results of this experiment showed that all AW had the capability to remove HM levels from the polluted water and reduce their bioaccumulation in fish body. However, rice straw was the more efficient adsorbent for all metals.

  18. Polyculture Engineering technology of larasati red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) based for protease enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidjan, I.; Rachmawati, D.

    2018-04-01

    The objective is polyculture technology of red tilapia larasati fish and white shrimp with different combinations density. The material is saline red tilapia larasati 3.29 ± 0.018 g and white shrimp with initial weight 1.39 ± 0.025 g. Seeds are density of red tilapia larasati larvae 5 and 10 larvae / m2 fish. And white shrimp 5 larvae / m2 and 10 larvae / m2. An artificial feed used enzyme dose of 2.25 g / kg. The experimental using complete randomized design 4 treatments and 3 replications that is given seeds 5 larvae / m2 larvae red tilapia larasati and given 5 larvae / m2 white shrimp (A), 5 larvae / m2 red tilapia) and 10 m2 / m2 of white shrimp (B), 10 m2 larvae and 5 m2 white shrimp (C), 10 m2 larvae and 10 m2 white shrimp (D)). The data were growth of absolute weight, survival rate, FCR, and water quality data (temperature, salinity, pH, O2, NO2, NH3). Data were analyzed of variance (F test). The results showed significantly effect (P shrimp (25.25 ± 0.95 g).

  19. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a energia digestível e a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O óxido de crômio (0,1% foi utilizado como indicador inerte em dieta semi-purificada, com coleta de fezes pelo sistema Guelph. Os peixes foram alimentados até saciedade aparente. O farelo de canola apresentou valores de energia e nutrientes digestíveis de: 77,84; 71,99; 86,92; 88,19; 67,16 e 29,86% para a matéria seca, energia, proteína, lipídios, cálcio e fósforo, respectivamente, correspondendo a 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69,97; 32,6; 1,2; 0,41 e 0,28%, de energia digestível, matéria seca, proteína e lipídios digestíveis e cálcio e fósforo disponíveis, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciam que a tilápia do Nilo pode utilizar eficientemente o farelo de canola.This study was carried out to determine the digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The chromic oxide (0.1% was used as an inert indicador in the semi-purified diet and faeces were collected by Guelph system. Fish were fed to apparent satiation. The apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal were: 77.84, 71.99, 86.92, 88.19, 67.16, and 29.86% for dry matter, energy, protein, lipids, calcium and phosphorus, respectively, corresponding to 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69.97, 32.6, 1.2, 0.41, and 0.28% of, digestible energy, dry matter, protein and lipids and available calcium and phosphorus, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment evidence that Nile tilapia may be able to utilize canola meal eficiently.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in population genetic structure of wild Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus across Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezault Etienne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructing the evolutionary history of a species is challenging. It often depends not only on the past biogeographic and climatic events but also the contemporary and ecological factors, such as current connectivity and habitat heterogeneity. In fact, these factors might interact with each other and shape the current species distribution. However, to what extent the current population genetic structure reflects the past and the contemporary factors is largely unknown. Here we investigated spatio-temporal genetic structures of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus populations, across their natural distribution in Africa. While its large biogeographic distribution can cause genetic differentiation at the paleo-biogeographic scales, its restricted dispersal capacity might induce a strong genetic structure at micro-geographic scales. Results Using nine microsatellite loci and 350 samples from ten natural populations, we found the highest genetic differentiation among the three ichthyofaunal provinces and regions (Ethiopian, Nilotic and Sudano-Sahelian (RST = 0.38 - 0.69. This result suggests the predominant effect of paleo-geographic events at macro-geographic scale. In addition, intermediate divergences were found between rivers and lakes within the regions, presumably reflecting relatively recent interruptions of gene flow between hydrographic basins (RST = 0.24 - 0.32. The lowest differentiations were observed among connected populations within a basin (RST = 0.015 in the Volta basin. Comparison of temporal sample series revealed subtle changes in the gene pools in a few generations (F = 0 - 0.053. The estimated effective population sizes were 23 - 143 and the estimated migration rate was moderate (m ~ 0.094 - 0.097 in the Volta populations. Conclusions This study revealed clear hierarchical patterns of the population genetic structuring of O. niloticus in Africa. The effects of paleo-geographic and climatic events were

  1. Effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzymes activity of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing four graded supplements of genistein: 0, 30, 300, and 3 000 μg/g. Each diet was randomly assigned in triplicate to tanks stocked with 15 juvenile tilapia (10.47±1.24 g). The results show that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant effect on growth performance of Nile tilapia, but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed the final body weight and specific growth rate. There was no significant difference in survival rate, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio or whole body composition among all dietary treatments. An assay of digestive enzymes showed that the diet containing 3 000 μg/ggenistein decreased stomach and hepatopancreas protease activity, and amylase activity in the liver and intestine, while a dietary level of 300 μg/g genistein depressed stomach protease and intestine amylase activities. However, no significant difference in stomach amylase activity was found among dietary treatments. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that a high level of dietary genistein (3 000 μg/g, or above) would significantly reduce the growth of Nile tilapia, partly because of its inhibitory effect on the activity of major digestive enzymes. Accordingly, the detrimental effects of genistein, as found in soybean products, should not be ignored when applied as an alternative ingredient source in aquaculture.

  2. Edad y crecimiento del híbrido de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae en la represa “Zimapán” Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gómez-Ponce

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La edad y crecimiento de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus fueron determinados por medio de la lectura de escamas. Un total de 382 individuos fueron capturados mediante el uso de redes agalleras y atarrayas. Ocho recolectas mensuales se llevaron a cabo entre septiembre 2003-mayo 2004; se registraron los datos de longitud estándar en cm. (Le, el peso total en g (Pt y se obtuvieron muestras de escamas para registrar el largo de la escama en mm. (Lesc y el número de anillos de crecimiento formados. Las tallas y pesos de recolecta variaron entre 38 a 232mm (Le y de 8.7 a 311.9g de peso total (Pt respectivamente. El recuento de los anillos anuales en escamas, permitió establecer cuatro grupos de edad, siendo el grupo de edad 2 el más representativo, con un 34.3% de la población muestreada. El cálculo de los incrementos marginales del crecimiento mensual de las escamas, sugirió la formación de dos anillos, uno de ellos se forma en los meses de noviembre-enero y otro en los meses de abril-mayo, los cuales coinciden con la época de bajas temperaturas y de madurez gonádica respectivamente. Los parámetros de crecimiento quedaron establecidos en: L∞=281.1mm, W∞=877.1g, K=0.33 y T0=0.88/año. Las curvas de crecimiento en longitud y peso se describieron mediante las ecuaciones de von Bertalanffy: Le=28.11 [1- e-0.33(t+0.88] y Pt=877.17 [1-e-0.33(t+0.88]³. Finalmente, se concluyó que los peces que se explotan en la represa mediante captura comercial presentan entre un año y año y medio de edad.Age and growth of the hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the dam “Zimapan” Mexico. Studies on age and growth in fishes are essential to establish models on population dynamics. The previos issues were determined in this study by scale growth analyses. Between September 2003 and May 2004, 382 organisms were captured using gill and atarraya nets. Eight samples were developed every

  3. THE OPTIMAL RATIO OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus AND COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY ON DEEP WATER POND

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    Imam Taufik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond productivity can be increased by applied polyculture system in the deep pond. The purpose of this experiment is to examine the optimal ratio between nile tilapia and common carp, in order to increase the productivity. Nine concrete tanks (15 m2 with water depth of 2.2 m and were completed by water inlet, water outlet, and aeration. Both of nile tilapia and common carp with size ranging of 5-8 cm in total length were used. Stock density was 150 ind./m2. The difference ratio of both fish tilapia and carp of fish stocked as a treatment. The fish ratio this experiment were as followed: A 100%; B 80%:20%; C 60%:40%. Fish fed by pellet until at ad libitum. The duration of experiment was 100 days. Parameters such as survival, growth, and productivity were observed every ten days during the experiment period. Water quality parameters were also periodically observed. The results showed that survival of nile tilapia among the treatments were not significantly different (P>0.05 where survival of common carp at B treatment was better than C treatment (P<0.05. The highest of growth of absolute weight (94.86±2.85 g and total length (14.71±1 cm of nile tilapia at B treatment was found (P<0.05 where the best of growth of absolute weight (106.52±10.47 g and total length (11.57±1.78 cm of common carp was also found at B treatment (P<0.05. Biomass productivity at B treatment was the highest compared with A treatment (P<0.05. Combination between polyculture and the deep water pond technology could increase productivity. The polyculture system and the deep water pond technology would be able to keep constant water quality within in the threshold accordance with the regulation for fish culture.

  4. Analyzing the effectiveness of using branchial NKA activity as a biomarker for assessing waterborne copper toxicity in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): A damage-based modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Su-Mei; Tsai, Jeng-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Nan; Chen, Wei-Yu; Shih, Wan-Yu

    2015-06-01

    Branchial Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity has been suggested as a promising biomarker for assessing metal stress in aquatic organisms. However, studies that systematically show the effectiveness of using NKA activity to detect metal exposure and toxicity at the individual level are limited. In this study, we aimed to determine whether branchial NKA activity mechanistically responds to the accumulation of waterborne copper (Cu) and accounts for observed toxicity over time under environmentally-relevant and aquafarming Cu exposure levels (0.2, 1 and 2 mg L(-1)). Temporal trends in Cu accumulation and the corresponding responses of branchial NKA activity resulting from Cu exposure were investigated in laboratory experiments conducted on juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), a freshwater teleost that shows potential as a bioindicator of real-time and historical metal pollution. We used the process-based damage assessment model (DAM) to inspect the time course of Cu toxicity by integrating the compensation process between Cu-induced inhibition and repair of branchial NKA activity. NKA activity acted as a sensitive biomarker for Cu exposure and accumulation in tilapia, which showed induced impairment of osmoregulation and lethality when they were exposed to environmentally relevant levels (0.2 mg L(-1)), but not to higher exposure levels (1 and 2 mg L(-1)) in aquaculture farms or contaminated aquatic ecosystems. This study highlights the benefits and limitations of using branchial NKA activity as a sensitive biomarker to assess the health status of a fish population and its ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. miR-122 promotes hepatic antioxidant defense of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cadmium by directly targeting a metallothionein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jun; Tao, Yi-Fan; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Bao, Jin-Wen; Sun, Yi-Lan

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate target gene expression by binding to the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the target mRNA. MiRNAs regulate a large variety of genes, including those involved in liver homeostasis and energy metabolism. Down-regulated levels of hepatic miR-122 were found in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cadmium (Cd) stress. Here, we report for the first time that reduction of miR-122 post-transcriptionally increased metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels by binding to its 3'UTR, as shown by a 3' UTR luciferase reporter assay. The expression levels of miR-122 were negatively related to MT levels in GIFT under Cd stress. We performed in vivo functional analysis of miR-122 by injecting the fish with a miR-122 antagomir. Inhibition of miR-122 levels in GIFT liver caused a significant increase in MT expression, affected white blood cell and red blood cell counts, and serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and glucose levels, all of which may help to relieve Cd stress-related liver stress. miR-122 silencing modulated oxidative stress and stimulated the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our findings indicate that miR-122 regulated MT levels by binding to the 3'UTR of MT mRNA, and this interaction affected Cd stress induction and the resistance response in GIFT. We concluded that miR-122 plays an important role in regulating the stress response in GIFT liver. Our findings may contribute to understanding the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in tilapia in response to environmental stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Depletion of florfenicol amine in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) maintained in a recirculating aquaculture system following Aquaflor(R)-medicated feed therapy (20 mg/kg BW/d for 10 days)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Whitsel, Melissa K.; Charles, Shawn; Schleis, Susan M.; Crouch, Louis S.; Endris, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaflor® [50% w w−1 florfenicol (FFC)], is approved for use in freshwater-reared warmwater finfish which include tilapia Oreochromis spp. in the United States to control mortality from Streptococcus iniae. The depletion of florfenicol amine (FFA), the marker residue of FFC, was evaluated after feeding FFC-medicated feed to deliver a nominal 20 mg FFC kg−1 BW d−1 dose (1.33× the label use of 15 mg FFC kg−1 BW d−1) to Nile tilapia O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus × O. aureus held in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) at production-scale holding densities. Florfenicol amine concentrations were determined in fillets taken from 10 fish before dosing and from 20 fish at nine time points after dosing (from 1 to 240 h post-dosing). Water samples were assayed for FFC before, during and after the dosing period. Parameters monitored included daily feed consumption and biofilter function (levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate). Mean fillet FFA concentration decreased from 13.77 μg g−1 at 1-h post dosing to 0.39 μg g−1 at 240-h post dosing. Water FFC concentration decreased from a maximum of 1400 ng mL−1 at 1 day post-dosing to 847 ng mL−1 at 240 h post-dosing. There were no adverse effects noted on fish, feed consumption or biofilter function associated with FFC-medicated feed administration to tilapia.

  7. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of IRF3 in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi-Feng; Wei, Qun; Tang, Shou-Jie; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhao, Jin-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) plays a key role in interferon (IFN) response and binding to the IFN stimulatory response elements (ISREs) within the promoter of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes followed by virus infection. In the current study, we discovered one IRF3 homologue in tilapia genome and analyzed the characterizations and functions of tilapia IRF3. Tilapia IRF3 contains 1368 bp with an ORF of 455 aa. Structurally, tilapia IRF3 protein typically shares the conserved characterizations with other species' IRF3 homologues, displaying conserved DNA-binding domain, IRF association domain, serine-rich C terminal domain, and tryptophan residue cluster. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that tilapia IRF3 belongs to the IRF3 subfamily. Real-time PCR revealed a broad expression pattern of tilapia IRF3 in various tissues. Subcellular localization analysis showed that tilapia IRF3 mainly resides in the cytoplasm, Western blot demonstrated that IRF3 was distributed in the cytoplasmic fraction. Functionally, IRF3 was found to be transcriptionally up-regulated by the poly I:C stimulation. Moreover, reporter assay elucidated that tilapia IRF3 serves as a regulator in mediating IFN response by increasing the activity of IFN-β and ISRE-containing promoter. These data supported the view that tilapia IRF3 is a potential molecule in IFN immune defense system against viral infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feeding selectivity of wild and pond-cultured Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of feeding selectivity of wild and pond-cultured Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was conducted in 2008. Water and fish samples were collected in Shirati Bay, Lake Victoria, and from fish ponds in Tarime district using a La Motte water sampler and seine nets, respectively. Cyanophytes were abundant and ...

  9. Optimum dietary protein requirement of genetically male tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein level needed for growing genetically male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Diets containing crude protein levels 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5 and 50% were formulated and tried in triplicates. Test diets were fed to 20 fish/1m3 floating hapa at 5% of fish body weight daily ...

  10. Does feeding frequency affect utilization of added amino acids in Nile tilapia?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Rezaul; Bajgai, Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the major farmed fish species, with main production in Asia, South and Central America that can tolerate a wide range of environmental stress and easily adapt with low quality of feed ingredients. The aims of the experiments were to determine effects of feeding frequency on utilization of protein and energy in Nile tilapia, to quantify differences in excretion of ammonia and ammonium in Nile tilapia fed the same daily ration, distributed over 2 a...

  11. Genetic characterization of a betanodavirus isolated from a clinical disease outbreak in farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawcharoen, J; Techangamsuwan, S; Ponpornpisit, A; Lombardini, E D; Patchimasiri, T; Pirarat, N

    2015-01-01

    Betanodavirus infection was diagnosed in larvae of farm-raised tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in central Thailand. Extensive vacuolar degeneration and neuronal necrosis were observed in histological sections with positive immunohistochemical staining for betanodavirus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the nucleotide sequences (1333 bases) of the capsid protein gene. The virus strain was highly homologous (93.07-93.88%) and closely related to red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  13. IGF-1 induces SOCS-2 but not SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 transcription in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai-Zhi; Luo, Yuan; Limbu, Samwel Mchele; Chen, Li-Qiao; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2018-05-20

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a crucial role in regulating growth in vertebrates whereas suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) act as feedback inhibitors of the GH/IGF-1 axis. Although SOCS-2 binds the IGF-1 receptor and inhibits IGF-1-induced STAT3 activation, presently there is no clear evidence as to whether IGF-1 could induce SOCS gene expression. The current study aimed to determine whether IGF-1 could induce the transcription of SOCS in juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ). We show that there is a common positive relationship between the mRNA expression of IGF-I and SOCS-2 under different nutritional statuses and stimulants, but not the mRNA expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Furthermore, rhIGF-1 treatment and transcriptional activity assay confirmed the hypothesis that IGF-1 could induce SOCS-2 expression, whereas it had no effect or even decreased the expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Overall, we obtained evidence that the transcription of SOCS-2, but not SOCS-1 or SOCS-3, could be induced by IGF signaling, suggesting that SOCS-2 serves as a feedback suppressor of the IGF-1 axis in juvenile Nile tilapia. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of marking efficiency of different alizarin red S concentrations on body fish structures in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Ibáñez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of alizarin red S (ARS marked tilapias could provide valuable fisheries management information to evaluate fish stocking events and may facilitate aquaculture management practices. As a new technique in fishes, the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the chemical marks produced in tilapia juveniles by ARS through two treatments: 1 12 hours of immersion and 2 immersion after osmotic induction. This was analyzed at three concentrations: 50, 75 and 100mg/l, and in three structures: otoliths, fish scales and caudal fin rays of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. After three culture months 80% of specimens were analyzed and significant differences (pEl uso de alizarina roja S (ARS para marcar tilapias podría proporcionar información valiosa para el manejo de su pesquería. Para evaluar pesquerías acuaculturales manejadas con siembras o repoblamientos de peces se comparó y evaluó la marca producida por la alizarina roja S, empleando dos tratamientos: 1 Inmersión en ARS durante 12h; e 2 Inmersión en ARS después de un choque osmótico. El análisis se realizó a tres concentraciones: 50, 75 y 100mg/l y en tres estructuras: otolitos, escamas y radios de la aleta caudal de Oreochromis niloticus. Ochenta por ciento de los ejemplares fueron cultivados durante tres meses y analizados posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron diferencias entre las concentraciones de la marca para el tratamiento de 12h de inmersión mientras que no hubo diferencias entre las concentraciones para el tratamiento con inducción osmótica. Se encontraron diferencias en la intensidad de la marca entre los tratamientos para otolitos y radios de las aletas pero para las escamas no hubo diferencias significativas. Todas las concentraciones produjeron marcas (desde débiles a intensas, sin embargo la concentración de 100mg/l no produjo marcas débiles. El tratamiento por inducción osmótica presentó mayores niveles de mortalidad. Después de ocho meses de

  15. Characterization of the duodenase-1 gene and its associations with resistance to Streptococuus agalactiae in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yubang; Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-08-01

    Tilapia is a group of cultured teleost fishes whose production is threatened by some diseases. Identification of DNA markers associated with disease resistance in candidate genes may facilitate to accelerate the selection of disease resistance. The gene encoding a duodenase, which can trigger immune response, has not been studied in fish. We characterized the cDNA of duodenase-1 gene of hybrid tilapia. Its ORF is 759 bp, encoding a serine protease of 252 amino acids. This gene consisted of five exons and four introns. Its expression was detected in all 10 tissues examined, and it was highly expressed in the intestine and kidney. After a challenge with the bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus agalactiae, its expression was up-regulated significantly in the intestine, liver and spleen. We identified seven SNPs in the gene and found that four of them were significantly associated with the resistance to S. agalactiae (P tilapia. The SNP markers in the duodenase-1 gene associated with resistance to the bacterial pathogen, may facilitate the selection of tilapia resistant to the bacterial disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Efficacy of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Broodstock and Larval Immunization against Streptococcus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesly Pasaribu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila have been recognized as the causative agents of mortality in tilapia larvae with single infection and coinfection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of maternal transfer and offspring protection from the immunization of monovalent and bivalent vaccines on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus broodstock and larval immunization. Four groups of broodstock were intraperitoneally injected with formalin killed whole-cells of S. agalactiae (Sa group, A. hydrophila (Ah group, the bivalent mixed vaccine of them (Biv group, and phosphate-buffered saline as a control (Pbs group. Immunization of the larvae produced from immunized broodstock with a bivalent vaccine (Biv1 group and Pbs (Pbs1 group was performed by immersion at 20 days after hatch. Larvae produced from the Pbs group were unvaccinated as the control (Pbs2 group. Changes in the specific antibody and relative percent survival were measured. The Sa and Ah groups that could increase specific antibodies and protection against pathogenic bacteria were challenged with the homologous bacteria. The Biv group stimulated and protected against both S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila. The specific antibody of the Biv1 group was higher than the Pbs1 and Pbs2 groups. The last observation in this study showed that the relative percent survival of the Biv group after challenged S. agalactiae, A. hydrophila, and coinfection were 74.74 ± 3.18%, 73.81 ± 8.58%, and 71.48 ± 5.70%, respectively. The use of bivalent vaccines on the broodstock and larvae may be a strategy to reduce mortality in Nile tilapia larvae caused by single pathogen infection of S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, or coinfection with both S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila.

  17. Genetic analysis of a red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) population undergoing three generations of selection for increased body weight at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azhar; Thoa, Ngo Phu; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis was performed on 10,919 data records collected over three generations from the selection programme for increased body weight at harvest in red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). They were offspring of 224 sires and 226 dams (50 sires and 60 dams per generation, on average). Linear mixed models were used to analyse body traits (weight, length, width and depth), whereas threshold generalised models assuming probit distribution were employed to examine genetic inheritance of survival rate, sexual maturity and body colour. The estimates of heritability for traits studied (body weight, standard length, body width, body depth, body colour, early sexual maturation and survival) across statistical models were moderate to high (0.13-0.45). Genetic correlations among body traits and survival were high and positive (0.68-0.96). Body length and width exhibited negative genetic correlations with body colour (- 0.47 to - 0.25). Sexual maturity was genetically correlated positively with measurements of body traits (weight and length). Direct and correlated genetic responses to selection were measured as estimated breeding values in each generation and expressed in genetic standard deviation units (σ G ). The cumulative improvement achieved for harvest body weight was 1.72 σ G after three generations or 12.5% per generation when the gain was expressed as a percentage of the base population. Selection for improved body weight also resulted in correlated increase in other body traits (length, width and depth) and survival rate (ranging from 0.25 to 0.81 genetic standard deviation units). Avoidance of black spot parent matings also improved the overall red colour of the selected population. It is concluded that the selective breeding programme for red tilapia has succeeded in achieving significant genetic improvement for a range of commercially important traits in this species, and the large genetic variation in body colour and survival also shows that

  18. INAA and ICP-MSHS. Metal pollutants in fish tissues Nile tilapia (Oreochromic niloticus) in Pampulha Lake, Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veado, M.A.R.V.; Heeren, A.O.; Arantes, I.A.; Grenier-Loustalot, M.F.; Cabaleiro, H.L.; Almeida, M.R.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Pampulha Lake, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is being polluted via its tributaries, Sarandi and Ressaca. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry high resolution were applied to determine Al, As, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Rb, Zn and Ti in Nile tilapia fish, Oreochromis niloticus. The organs analyzed were: intestine, spleen, heart, testicle, kidney, liver, gills and muscle. The results demonstrated relatively high concentrations of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, P and Ti in gills, Al and Cu in liver, Al in intestine and Fe in muscle and spleen. (author)

  19. miR-122 promotes hepatic antioxidant defense of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cadmium by directly targeting a metallothionein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Jun; Tao, Yi-Fan; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Bao, Jin-Wen; Sun, Yi-Lan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • MiR-122 regulated tilapia MT by directly targeting MT 3′UTR. • MiR-122 level was negatively related to MT level under Cd stress. • MiR-122 silencing caused up-regulation of MT expression. • MiR-122 loss relieved liver stress and stimulated antioxidant enzymes. - Abastract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate target gene expression by binding to the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of the target mRNA. MiRNAs regulate a large variety of genes, including those involved in liver homeostasis and energy metabolism. Down-regulated levels of hepatic miR-122 were found in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cadmium (Cd) stress. Here, we report for the first time that reduction of miR-122 post-transcriptionally increased metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels by binding to its 3′UTR, as shown by a 3′ UTR luciferase reporter assay. The expression levels of miR-122 were negatively related to MT levels in GIFT under Cd stress. We performed in vivo functional analysis of miR-122 by injecting the fish with a miR-122 antagomir. Inhibition of miR-122 levels in GIFT liver caused a significant increase in MT expression, affected white blood cell and red blood cell counts, and serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and glucose levels, all of which may help to relieve Cd stress-related liver stress. miR-122 silencing modulated oxidative stress and stimulated the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our findings indicate that miR-122 regulated MT levels by binding to the 3′UTR of MT mRNA, and this interaction affected Cd stress induction and the resistance response in GIFT. We concluded that miR-122 plays an important role in regulating the stress response in GIFT liver. Our findings may contribute to understanding the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in tilapia in response to environmental stresses.

  20. miR-122 promotes hepatic antioxidant defense of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cadmium by directly targeting a metallothionein gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Jun, E-mail: Qiangj@ffrc.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, Jiangsu (China); Tao, Yi-Fan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); He, Jie [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, Jiangsu (China); Xu, Pao, E-mail: Xup@ffrc.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, Jiangsu (China); Bao, Jin-Wen [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Sun, Yi-Lan [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • MiR-122 regulated tilapia MT by directly targeting MT 3′UTR. • MiR-122 level was negatively related to MT level under Cd stress. • MiR-122 silencing caused up-regulation of MT expression. • MiR-122 loss relieved liver stress and stimulated antioxidant enzymes. - Abastract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate target gene expression by binding to the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of the target mRNA. MiRNAs regulate a large variety of genes, including those involved in liver homeostasis and energy metabolism. Down-regulated levels of hepatic miR-122 were found in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cadmium (Cd) stress. Here, we report for the first time that reduction of miR-122 post-transcriptionally increased metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels by binding to its 3′UTR, as shown by a 3′ UTR luciferase reporter assay. The expression levels of miR-122 were negatively related to MT levels in GIFT under Cd stress. We performed in vivo functional analysis of miR-122 by injecting the fish with a miR-122 antagomir. Inhibition of miR-122 levels in GIFT liver caused a significant increase in MT expression, affected white blood cell and red blood cell counts, and serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and glucose levels, all of which may help to relieve Cd stress-related liver stress. miR-122 silencing modulated oxidative stress and stimulated the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our findings indicate that miR-122 regulated MT levels by binding to the 3′UTR of MT mRNA, and this interaction affected Cd stress induction and the resistance response in GIFT. We concluded that miR-122 plays an important role in regulating the stress response in GIFT liver. Our findings may contribute to understanding the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in tilapia in response to environmental stresses.

  1. Chitosan extends the shelf-life of filleted tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Yin, Bangzhong; Wu, Biao

    2012-09-01

    Shelf-life extension of aquatic products is of significant economical importance. To determine the potential effect of chitosan on the shelf-life of filleted tilapia, this study analyzed the bacterial community diversity in fresh and spoiled tilapia fillets stored at (4 ± 1)°C and examined the antimicrobial activity of chitosan against relevant bacteria isolates. Results showed that Pseudomonas (20%) and Aeromonas (16%) were abundant in fresh tilapia fillets, whereas Pseudomonas (52%), Aeromonas (32%) and Staphylococcus (12%) were dominant in the spoiled samples. Chitosan showed wide-spectrum antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from tilapia and 5.0 g L-1 chitosan was selected for application in preservation. We further determined the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia stored at (4 ± 1)°C based on microbiological, biochemical and sensory analyses. Results showed that the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia was extended to 12 d, whereas that of untreated, control samples was 6 d. These indicate that chitosan, as a natural preservative, has great application potential in the shelf-life extension of tilapia fillets.

  2. A Survey of Nematode Infection in Oreochromis niloticus (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence and intensity of nematode infection was investigated in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Kyoga, Uganda and 11% of the 406 fish examined were parasitized by nematodes of the genus Contracaecum. The prevalence of these parasites was greatest in the smallest and largest size classes, but this ...

  3. Natural coinfection by Streptococcus agalactiae and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, G B N; Tavares, G C; Pereira, F L; Figueiredo, H C P; Leal, C A G

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) are important pathogens for farm-raised tilapia worldwide. There are no reports of coinfection caused by S. agalactiae and Fno in fish. This study aimed to determine the aetiology of atypical mortalities in a cage farm of Nile tilapia and to characterize the genetic diversity of the isolates. Fifty-two fish were sampled and subjected to parasitological and bacteriological examination. The S. agalactiae and Fno isolates were genotyped using MLST and REP-PCR, respectively. Whole-genome sequencing was performed to confirm the MLST results. Seven fish were shown coinfected by S. agalactiae and Fno. Chronic hypoxia and a reduction in the water temperature were determined as risk factors for coinfection. Fno isolates were shown clonally related in REP-PCR. The MLST analysis revealed that the S. agalactiae isolates from seven coinfected fish were negative for the glcK gene; however, these were determined to be members of clonal complex CC-552. This is the first description of coinfection by S. agalactiae and Fno in farm-raised Nile tilapia. The coinfection was predisposed by chronic hypoxia and was caused by the main genotypes of S. agalactiae and Fno reported in Brazil. Finally, a new S. agalactiae genotype with glcK gene partially deleted was described. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Eficácia do mentol como anestésico para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Menthol efficiency as anesthetic for juveniles Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Simões

    2009-06-01

    concentrations indicating a stress response of the fish. Thus menthol is an ineffective anesthetic to juveniles tilapia during routine procedures in fish culture.

  5. Alterações histológicas em brânquias de tilápia nilotica Oreochromis niloticus causadas pelo cádmio Histological alterations in gills of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garcia-Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos histopatológicos do cádmio nas brânquias de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus foram estudados por microscopia óptica, usando 25mgl-1 de CdCl2 durante quatro dias, com o objetivo de identificar seus efeitos agudos na estrutura das brânquias. A morfologia geral das brânquias de O. niloticus é idêntica à de outros teleósteos, apresentando quatro pares de arcos branquiais com filamentos bem desenvolvidos. Situadas lateralmente, encontram-se as lamelas provenientes do eixo central dos filamentos. No epitélio filamentar foi possível identificar células de cloro, pavimentosas e mucosas. Os peixes expostos ao cádmio mostraram sinais de lesões epiteliais; edema intersticial, vasodilatação das lamelas, destacamento do epitélio lamelar e proliferação do epitélio filamentar. As alterações observadas também incluíram fusão nas lamelas como resultado de hiperplasia e hipertrofia epitelial, ruptura do sistema de células pilar, aneurismas e necroses.The histopathogical effects of cadmium on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied by light microscopy, using 25mgl-1 of CdCl2 during four days to identified the effects of short-term exposure on gills structure. The general morphology of O. niloticus gills is similar to the other teleostean fishes, showing four pairs of gills arches with well developed filaments. Bilaterally situated, secondary lamellae branches are found from the central axis of the filaments. The filamentar epithelium showed the chloride cells, the pavement cells and mucous cells. Fish exposed to cadmium showed signs of epithelial lesion, namely the interstitial edema, swollen of the lamellae, lifting and cellular proliferation of the filamentar epithelium. The changes of the gills also included lamellar fusion as a result of epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, the breakdown of pillar cell system, and aneurisms with some ruptures and necrosis, especially in the filamentar epithelium.

  6. Growth, immune responses and protection of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus immunized with formalin-killed Streptococcus agalactiae serotype Ia and III vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atchariya Suwannasang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The protective efficacy of formalin-killed Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS serotype Ia (GBS-Ia and III (GBS-III vaccines were assessed in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The fish with an average weight of 34.45± 0.08 g were immunized by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection with 4 different formalin-killed vaccines prepared from GBS-Ia (1x1010 CFU/mL, GBS-III (1x1010 CFU/mL, and combined GBS-Ia and GBS-III in an equal volume at final concentrations 1x1010 CFU/mL and 2x1010 CFU/mL in comparison with the non-immunized control group. At 2 and 4 weeks post vaccination, no significant differences were observed (p>0.05 among treatments in growth performance or haemato-immunological parameters, except the increased red blood cell at 2 weeks. Significantly increased antibody titers (p<0.05 against GBS-Ia and GBS-III antigens were noted in the groups immunized with homologous GBS vaccines, whereas the group reacted with heterologous GBS antigen showed less antibody titer as compared with the control group. The vaccination experiment indicated that i.p. injection of Nile tilapia with formalin-killed cells prepared from GBS-Ia or GBS-III provides significant protection, with relative percent survival (RPS value of 52.17 to 71.42%, against a challenge with the homologous serotype isolate, whereas the RPS in fish challenged with a heterologous serotype isolate varied from 20.00 to 53.57%. These results suggested that vaccines from either GBS-Ia or GBS-III have insufficient cross-protective efficacy against the other serotypes. However, a mixed vaccine produced from both GBS serotypes Ia and III provided significant protection with 65.00 to 95.66% RPS which could be an excellent vaccine to protect fish against streptococcosis caused by both GBS serotypes Ia and III.

  7. Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vieira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g, estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L, alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5. O ganho de peso (GDP e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%. Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie.Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L, kept under controlled environmental conditions inside

  8. Molecular cloning, functional identification and expressional analyses of FasL in Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tai-yang; Wu, Jin-ying; Gao, Xiao-ke; Wang, Jing-yuan; Zhan, Xu-liang; Li, Wen-sheng

    2014-10-01

    FasL is the most extensively studied apoptosis ligand. In 2000, tilapia FasL was identified using anti-human FasL monoclonal antibody by Evans's research group. Recently, a tilapia FasL-like protein of smaller molecule weight was predicted in Genbank (XM_003445156.2). Based on several clues drawn from previous studies, we cast doubt on the authenticity of the formerly identified tilapia FasL. Conversely, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the existence of the predicted FasL-like was verified at the mRNA level (The Genbank accession number of the FasL mRNA sequence we cloned is KM008610). Through multiple alignments, this FasL-like protein was found to be highly similar to the FasL of the Japanese flounder. Moreover, we artificially expressed the functional region of the predicted protein and later confirmed its apoptosis-inducing activity using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, Annexin-V/Propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and DNA fragment detection. Supported by these evidences, we suggest that the predicted protein is the authentic tilapia FasL. To advance this research further, tilapia FasL mRNA and its protein across different tissues were quantified. High expression levels were identified in the tilapia immune system and sites where active cell turnover conservatively occurs. In this regard, FasL may assume an active role in the immune system and cell homeostasis maintenance in tilapia, similar to that shown in other species. In addition, because the distribution pattern of FasL mRNA did not synchronize with that of the protein, post-transcriptional expression regulation is suggested. Such regulation may be dominated by potential adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements (AREs) featuring AUUUA repeats found in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of tilapia FasL mRNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inactivation kinetics of formaldehyde on N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Ni; Bai, Ding-Ping; Lin, Xin-Yu; Chen, Qing-Xi; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Yi-Fan

    2014-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a widely used sanitizer in aquaculture in China, while the appropriate concentration is not available to be used effectively and without damage to tilapia much less to its reproductive function. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52, NAGase), hydrolyzing the oligomers of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine into monomer, is proved to be correlated with reproduction of male animals. In this paper, NAGase from spermary of tilapia was chosen as the material to study the effects of formaldehyde on its activity in order to further investigate the effects of formaldehyde use on tilapia reproduction. The results showed the relationship between the residual enzyme activity and the concentration of formaldehyde was concentration dependent, and the IC50 value was estimated to be 3.2 ± 0.1 %. Appropriate concentration of formaldehyde leaded to competitive reversible inhibition on tilapia NAGase. Moreover, formaldehyde could reduce the thermal and pH stability of the enzyme. The inactivation kinetics of formaldehyde on the enzyme was studied using the kinetic method of substrate reaction. The inactivation model was setup, and the rate constants were determined. The results showed that the inactivation of formaldehyde on tilapia NAGase was a slow, reversible reaction with partially residual activity. The results will give some basis to determine the concentration of formaldehyde used in tilapia culture.

  10. Effects of a saponin fraction extracted from Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and two commercially available saponins on sex ratio and gonad histology of Nile tilapa fry, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stadtlander, T.; Levavi-Sivan, B.; Kerem, Z.; Dweik, H.; Qutob, M.; Abu-Lafi, S.; Francis, G.; Focken, U.; Becker, K.

    2013-01-01

    Over three million tonnes (t) of tilapia, mostly Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L.), are produced annually making it the second most abundantly produced freshwater fish (FAO, 2010). Tilapia are mouthbreeders that often produce stunted populations under pond conditions; one means of prevention is to produce all-male fish with the additional advantage that males usually grow faster than females. All-male populations can be achieved by supplementing feed with androgens such as 17-α-Methylt...

  11. Endocrine disruption mechanism of o,p'-DDT in mature male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga; Kraak, Glen van der; Rodriguez-Canul, Rossanna; Gold, G.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in vivo, the potential of o,p'-DDT to disrupt the endocrine system of mature male tilapia. In particular, the possibility that o,p'-DDT effects were mediated directly via the estrogen receptor (ER). Compounds with known ability to bind to the ER were employed: estradiol to induce and tamoxifen to inhibit the estrogenic effects result of the activation of the ER. In addition, an aromatase inhibitor, 4-hydrxyandrostenedione (4-OHA), was used to assess the ability of o,p'-DDT to induce estrogenic effects in a surrounding of low estradiol concentration. The effects of estradiol and o,p'-DDT were studied alone or in the presence of tamoxifen or 4-OHA at the end of a 12-day period of exposure. The main endpoints measured were plasma alkaline-labile phosphorous (ALP; an indirect indicator of vitellogenin), estradiol, testosterone and o,p'-DDT. It was found that o,p'-DDT was able to induce the vitellogenesis (measured as plasma ALP increase) and decrease the circulating levels of estradiol and testosterone. Interestingly, o,p'-DDT kept this ability in whole fish with low concentrations of estradiol which would exclude endogenous estradiol as indirect mediator of the estrogenic effects induced by o,p'-DDT. In addition, the plasma concentration of o,p'-DDT, instead of that of estradiol, was closely related to the plasma ALP increase induced by o,p'-DDT. This indicates that o,p'-DDT could have directly activated the vitellogenesis. The antiestrogenic action of tamoxifen to inhibit the vitellogenesis and the decrease on plasma estradiol induced by o,p'-DDT indicates that o,p'-DDT can bind directly to the ER. In conclusion, this in vivo study shows that o,p'-DDT has the potential to disrupt the endocrine system and strongly supports that the estrogenic actions of o,p'-DDT involve binding to the ER

  12. Weight and morphometric growth of different strains of tilapia (Oreochromis sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bezerra Allaman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphometric growth and weight gain of strains of tilapia (Thai, Red, UFLA and Commercial by nonlinear models. Initially, 500 male fingerlings of each strain, at 85 (Red and UFLA and 86 (Thai and Commercial days of age, were stocked separately in raceways with 56 m³. Twenty fish of each strain were randomly sampled, weighed and measured monthly. Five nonlinear models (Brody, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, logistic and exponential were tested, choosing one that best fit to the data. The variables studied were: weight, standard length (SL, head length (HL, height 1 (H1, height 2 (H2, height 3 (H3, first distance (D1, second distance (D2, first width (W1, second width (W2 and third width (W3. The exponential model had the best fit to weight and morphometric data, with the exception of W2, in which the best fitted model was von Bertalanffy. The convergence of the exponential model to data indicates that the cultivation period studied was not enough for the strains to reach maturity weight. The UFLA strain presented the lowest value for parameter "a" (initial weight estimate, 8.71 g, and the highest for parameter k (specific growth rate, 0.0127, when compared with other evaluated strains. However, the highest k of UFLA was not enough to overcome the final weight observed for the Commercial strain (603.1 g, which was higher than all other strains. Regarding the morphometric measurements, the UFLA strain also had the highest k for the variables SL, HL, HH, H1, H2, H3 and D2, and similar k to Commercial and Thai strains for the variables D1 and W3 respectively. The strains differ as to weight gain and morphometric growth.

  13. Aluminium sulfate exposure: A set of effects on hydrolases from brain, muscle and digestive tract of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vagne Melo; Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Costa, Helane Maria Silva; Silva, Raquel Pereira Freitas; Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza

    2017-01-01

    Aluminium is a major pollutant due to its constant disposal in aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities. The physiological effects of this metal in fish are still scarce in the literature. This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of aluminium sulfate on the activity of enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscle cholinesterases (AChE-like and BChE-like activities), pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase. Fish were in vivo exposed during 14days when the following experimental groups were assayed: control group (CG), exposure to Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 at 1μg·mL -1 (G1) and 3μg·mL -1 (G3) (concentrations compatible with the use of aluminium sulfate as coagulant in water treatment). In vitro exposure was performed using animals of CG treatment. Both in vivo and in vitro exposure increased cholinesterase activity in relation to controls. The highest cholinesterase activity was observed for muscle BChE-like enzyme in G3. In contrast, the digestive enzymes showed decreased activity in both in vivo and in vitro exposures. The highest inhibitory effect was observed for pepsin activity. The inhibition of serine proteases was also quantitatively analyzed in zymograms using pixel optical densitometry as area under the peaks (AUP) and integrated density (ID). These results suggest that the inhibition of digestive enzymes in combination with activation of cholinesterases in O. niloticus is a set of biochemical effects that evidence the presence of aluminium in the aquatic environment. Moreover, these enzymatic alterations may support further studies on physiological changes in this species with implications for its neurological and digestive metabolisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alteration in DNA structure, molecular responses and Na+ -K+ -ATPase activities in the gill of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in response to sub-lethal verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Pandey, Pramod K; Kumar, Kundan; Poojary, Nalini

    2018-01-01

    The ecotoxicological consequences of residues from pharmaceutical drugs on aquatic biota have necessitated the development of sensitive and reliable techniques to assess the impact of these xenobiotics on aquatic organisms. This study investigated the alteration in DNA structure, molecular responses and the activities of Na + -K + -ATPase and antioxidant enzymes in the gill of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to long-term effects at the concentrations (0.14, 0.28 and 0.57mgL -1 ) of verapamil in static renewal system for 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Evaluation of DNA structure, using single cell gel electrophoresis, revealed certain degree of DNA damages in the gill in a time and concentration-dependent relationship. Transcription of mRNA of superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat) and heat shock protein (hsp70) genes in the gill of the fish showed the genes were up-regulated. Na + -K + -ATPase activity was inhibited in a concentration and time dependent manner. The indices of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation and carbonyl protein) as well as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase were elevated in the treated fish in comparison to the control. Further, the level of reduced glutathione and catalase activity were inhibited at 0.28mgL -1 after day 30. Long-term exposure to sub-lethal concentration of verapamil can cause DNA damages, molecular effects and oxidative stress in O. niloticus. The biomarkers analysed can be used as early warning signals in environmental biomonitoring and assessment of drug contamination in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of exposure to Streptococcus iniae on microRNA expression in the head kidney of genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jun; Tao, Fanyi; He, Jie; Sun, Lanyi; Xu, Pao; Bao, Wenjin

    2017-02-20

    Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) are susceptible to infection by Streptococcus iniae when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. GIFT are commercially important fishes that are cultured widely in southern China. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulatory response of GIFT to S. iniae infection has been underestimated and has not yet been well studied. Head kidney has an important immune function in teleost fishes. The main aim of this study was to determine the possible function of miRNAs in head kidney of S. iniae-infected GIFT. MiRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of their target mRNAs. MiRNAs are known to regulate immune-regulated signaling and inflammatory response pathways. High-throughput deep sequencing of two libraries (control group [CO] and infected group [IN]) of RNA extracted from GIFT head kidney tissues generated 12,089,630 (CO) and 12,624,975 (IN) clean reads. Bioinformatics analysis identified 1736 and 1729 conserved miRNAs and 164 and 165 novel miRNAs in the CO and IN libraries, respectively. Three miRNAs (miR-310-3p, miR-92, and miR-127) were found to be up-regulated and four miRNAs (miR-92d-3p, miR-375-5p, miR-146-3p, and miR-694) were found to be down-regulated in the S. iniae-infected GIFT. The expressions of these miRNAs were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. RNAhybrid and TargetScan were used to identify complementary miRNA and mRNA target sites, and the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were used to annotate and predict potential downstream regulation of biological pathways. Seven target genes, which encode immune-related proteins (complement C3, cytidine deaminase, regulator of G-protein Rgs22, mitogen-activated protein kinase Mapk1, metabotropic glutamate receptorm GluR8, calcium-sensing receptor CaSR, and microtubule-associated protein Map1S) were predicted to play crucial roles in the

  16. Energia digestível para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Digestible energy for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de energia digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Utilizaram-se 125 alevinos com peso e comprimento iniciais de 0,62±0,12 g e 3,25±0,25 cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários com capacidade de 30 L, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, em que a unidade experimental consistiu de um aquário contendo cinco alevinos. As rações, isoprotéicas (30% de proteína digestível, isofosfóricas e isocalcíticas, foram formuladas para conter 2.900; 3.025; 3.150; 3.275 e 3.400 kcal/kg de energia digestível. A quantidade de ração fornecida (quatro vezes ao dia correspondeu a 10% da biomassa. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água (oxigênio dissolvido - OD, pH e condutividade elétrica - CE foram mensurados semanalmente, à tarde, e a temperatura, diariamente, antes da primeira e da última sifonagem, apresentando médias de 8,00±0,05 mg/L; 7,91±0,19; 92,11±2,27 µS/cm e 25,61±0,90ºC, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, foram analisadas as médias de peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento final, conversão alimentar aparente, sobrevivência e fator de condição. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho de alevinos entre os diferentes tratamentos. Recomenda-se a utilização de 2.900 a 3.400 kcal de ED/kg na ração de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo.The different levels of digestible energy on the performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings were evaluated. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings averaging initial length and weight of 0.62±0.12 and 3.25±0.25 cm were allotted to 25 30L-aquariums, as a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates (an aquarium with five fingerlings was considered the experimental unit. The diets, formulated to be isonitrogenous (30% of digestible protein, isophosphorous and isocalcium

  17. PARÁMETROS GENÉTICOS PARA CRECIMIENTO COMERCIAL SOBREVIVENCIA Y MANCHADO EN TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp. EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Pulgarin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estimar los efectos genéticos para peso al momento de sexaje, crecimiento y sobrevivencia hasta cosecha, y proporción de mancha (área de mancha y presencia/ausencia de mancha durante la fase comercial en un grupo de 86 familias de hermanos enteros y 31 familias de hermanos medios de tilapia roja ( Oreochromis sp.. La media de peso durante la fase de crecimiento comercial fue de 181,4 g (184 g para machos y 178 g para hembras, los machos significativamente más grandes que las hembras (P < 0,001. Las variables de sobrevivencia, área de mancha y ausencia de mancha no presentaron diferencias entre los sexos. Las heredabilidades estimadas ( h 2 ± e . s para crecimiento comercial y sobrevivencia fueron 0,23±0,02 y 0,05±0,03, respectivamente. e l porcentaje de mancha y la ausencia y presencia de la misma mostraron heredabilidades cercanas a cero, lo cual indica que estos dos caracteres están relacionados más con efectos ambientales que con efectos genéticos aditivos. s e encontró una correlación favorable y significativa entre sobrevivencia y crecimiento comercial (0,24; P < 0,05. Los resultados de este trabajo indican que mediante la explotación de la genética aditiva es posible mejorar el desempeño de los animales para crecimiento comercial y sobrevivencia en la tilapia roja, mientras que poco progreso se puede esperar por medio de la selección para variables relacionadas con el manchado corporal en la población evaluada.

  18. Major surfome and secretome profile of Streptococcus agalactiae from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Insight into vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hai-Qing; He, Run-Zhen; Li, Yan-Wei; Su, You-Lu; Li, An-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major piscine pathogen that is responsible for huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry. Safe recombinant vaccines, based on a small number of antigenic proteins, are emerging as the most attractive, cost-effective solution against S. agalactiae. The proteins of S. agalactiae exposed to the environment, including surface proteins and secretory proteins, are important targets for the immune system and they are likely to be good vaccine candidates. To obtain a precise profile of its surface proteins, S. agalactiae strain THN0901, which was isolated from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was treated with proteinase K to cleave surface-exposed proteins, which were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Forty surface-associated proteins were identified, including ten proteins containing cell wall-anchoring motifs, eight lipoproteins, eleven membrane proteins, seven secretory proteins, three cytoplasmic proteins, and one unknown protein. In addition, culture supernatant proteins of S. agalactiae were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and all of the Coomassie-stained bands were subsequently identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of twenty-six extracellular proteins were identified, including eleven secretory proteins, seven cell wall proteins, three membrane proteins, two cytoplasmic proteins and three unknown proteins. Of these, six highly expressed surface-associated and secretory proteins are putative to be vaccine candidate of piscine S. agalactiae. Moreover, immunogenic secreted protein, a highly expressed protein screened from the secretome in the present study, was demonstrated to induce high antibody titer in tilapia, and it conferred protection against S. agalactiae, as evidenced by the relative percent survival (RPS) 48.61± 8.45%. The data reported here narrow the scope of screening protective antigens, and provide guidance in the development of a novel

  19. Effect of lead nitrate on the liver of the cichlid fish (Oreochromis niloticus): a light microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidr, Bothaina M; Mekkawy, Imam A A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ohaida, Abdel Salam M I

    2012-09-15

    The adverse impacts of heavy metals on fish liver were evident with great variability among organs and species. The present study deals with the histological changes of the hepatocytes of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following exposure to 2.5, 5, 10 ppm of lead nitrate for 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks. The present results revealed that lead nitrate exerts some histological effects on the hepatic tissue after exposure to the first concentration in the form of dilatation and congestion of the blood vessels, vacuolation of hepatic cells, proliferation of connective tissue and hepatic necrosis. Leucocyte aggregation-mostly lymphatic in nature-was seen infiltrating hepatic tissue. These alterations became more pronounced in liver of fishes exposed to second concentrations indicating more progressive signs of necrosis. The presence of eosinophilic oedematous areas surrounding some blood vessels was also observed. Finally, at the third concentration, in addition to the above alterations, melanomacrophages, which store lipofuscin at the site of necrosis, were observed. These histological results imply that the fish liver may serve as a target organ for the toxicity of sublethal concentrations of lead nitrate.

  20. Histological Changes of Liver in Overfed Young Nile Tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taddesse, F.; Huh, M.D.; Bai, S.C.; Vijverberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated histopathologically liver structural responses of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus towards overfeeding. Mixed population of O. niloticus with mean weight of 55±3.83 g was acclimated for one week. Then, the fish were separated into control and treatment groups. Glass aquariums with

  1. Growth, mortality and reproduction of the blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Aguamilpa Reservoir, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Peña Messina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia production has increased in Aguamilpa Reservoir, in Nayarit, Mexico, in the last few years and represents a good economic activity for rural communities and the country. We determined growth parameters, mortality and reproductive aspects for 2 413 specimens of blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus in this reservoir. Samples were taken monthly from July 2000 through June 2001, of which 1 371 were males and 1 042 were females. Standard length (SL and total weight (TW were measured in each organism. The SL/TW relationships through power models for sexes were determined. The growth parameters L ∞, k, and t0 of the von Bertalanffy equation were estimated using frequency distribution of length through ELEFAN-I computer program. Finally the reproductive cycle and size of first maturity were established using morph chromatic maturity scale. The results suggested that the males and females had negative allometric growth (bLos parámetros de crecimiento, reproducción y mortalidad de Oreochormis aureus en el embalse de Aguamilpa, México fueron determinados. Un total de 2 413 organismos se recolectaron entre julio de 2000 y junio de 2001, de los cuales 1 371 fueron machos y 1 042 hembras. Se analizó la relación longitud estándar (LE y peso total (PT mediante modelos potenciales. Los parámetros de crecimiento de la ecuación de von Bertalanffy fueron estimados usando la distribución de frecuencia de tallas con ayuda del programa ELEFAN-I. Finalmente se determinó el ciclo reproductivo, talla de primera madurez y fecundidad. Los resultados indicaron que tanto hembras como machos presentaron crecimiento alométrico negativo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre hembras y machos para la relación LE- PT sugiriendo modelos separados por sexo. No existieron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento por sexo y la tasa de explotación estimada (0.57/año sugiere que la pesquería durante el periodo de estudio mostró signos de

  2. Digestibility and nutrient utilisation of soybean bran-based diets in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiku, S.O.E.; Alao, I.A.; Tiamiyu, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    The digestibility and utilisation of two soybean bran-based diets and two fishmeal-based diets serving as control, at optimal (30%) and suboptimal (20%) protein levels were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus. These were Diet I (Control)-fishmeal based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet II (Control) - fishmeal based diet at 20% crude protein, Diet III - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 30% crude protein, Diet IV - hydrolysed Soybean Bran based diet at 20%. Dry matter digestibility differed i...

  3. Kaftas prepared with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to smoking techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaftas with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were developed and the effects of the smoking technique on the characteristics of chemical composition, microbiological, sensory and benzo(apyrene were investigated. The filleting chips were ground and filleting included condiments and bacon. Kaftas were molded, frozen and distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T 1 = baked in a grid; T 2 = smoked by friction and T 3 = smoked by liquid smoke with 10 replications. The kaftas subjected to hot smoke had lower moisture content (13.97%, whereas the no-smoking kaftas had the highest content (20.49%. Kaftas with liquid smoke had high crude protein content (48.06% and ash (9.49%, whereas the ash content was different only from no-smoking kaftas (8.79%. There was no significant difference in sensory parameters, except for flavor; smoked kaftas with liquid smoke were more accepted by the judges and the worst kaftas were no-smoked kaftas. Microbiological analysis showed that kaftas developed were appropriate to feed human beings within the required standards. Chips filleting is an alternative for the development of kaftas and those subjected to liquid smoke were considered the best.

  4. VAKSINASI IKAN TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus MENGGUNAKAN VAKSIN MONOVALEN DAN BIVALEN UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MOTILE AEROMONAS SEPTICEMIA DAN STREPTOCOCCOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Sugiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan respon antibodi pascavaksinasi dengan antigen tunggal dan campuran dari bakterin Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae diharapkan dapat meningkatkan daya tahan ikan tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus terhadap penyakit Motile Aeromonas Septicemia/MAS dan Streptococcosis. Sediaan vaksin disiapkan dengan metode pembuatan dan formula yang berbeda, proses inaktifasi dilakukan dengan menambahkan 3% Neutral Buffer Formalin (NBF 10% pada biakan bakteri dalam media tumbuh BHI dan TSB. Vaksinasi diberikan melalui injeksi intraperitoneal dengan sediaan vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila, monovalen S. agalactiae, dan bivalen A. hydrophila + S. agalactiae (Sel utuh, produk ektraselular/ECP, crude supernatan, campuran sel utuh + ECP, dan broth. Uji tantang dilakukan menggunakan dosis LD50 infeksi tunggal maupun ko-infeksi dari bakteri A. hydrophila dan S. agalactiae. Efektivitas dan keampuhan vaksin tersebut dihitung berdasarkan nilai RPS (Relative Percent Survival dan hasil respon hematologi. Titer antibodi dapat terdeteksi setelah satu minggu pemeliharaan pasca vaksinasi. Nilai titer antar perlakuan vaksin bivalen berbeda nyata (P<0.05 dengan vaksin monovalen dan kontrol. Nilai RPS vaksin bivalen (campuran sel utuh + ECP mencapai 100 untuk uji tantang dengan A. hydrophila dan 56,7 pada uji tantang ko-infeksi. Vaksin monovalen A. hydrophila maupun S. agalactiae hanya mampu memproteksi terhadap bakteri homolog, tidak terjadi proteksi silang di antara keduanya.

  5. Effects of dietary resveratrol supplementation on hepatic and serum pro-/anti-inflammatory activity in juvenile GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Zhao, Zhixiang; Wu, Wei; Song, Chao; Meng, Shunlong; Fan, Limin; Bing, Xuwen; Chen, Jiazhang

    2017-08-01

    Dietary resveratrol (RES) supplementation may have some pharmacological effects including anti-inflammation. Previous studies have shown that Kupffer cell activation and apoptosis induction increases the transcription of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of 0.1 or 0.3 g/kg RES as a dietary supplement in juvenile freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The results showed that hepatic and serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) significantly decreased and increased while anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the RES-treated groups. The expression of serum and hepatic IgM and anti-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-10] and its inverse inhibitor interferon (IFN)-γ significantly increased while pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription significantly decreased. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed intestinal deformation, irregular goblet cells, and apoptotic cells in the 0.3 g/kg RES groups. RES (0.3 g/kg) also induced necrosis, apoptosis, reduction in Kupffer cell number, compressed sinusoids, and deformation of epidermal cells in the liver of the treated groups. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that high doses of RES were absorbed in the gut and then damaged the liver and intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effects of sub-chronic exposure to zinc nanoparticles on tissue accumulation, serum biochemistry and histopathological changes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hasan; Duysak, Müge; Akbulut, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Sevdan; Gürkan, Mert; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Ateş, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) are among the least investigated NPs and thus their toxicological effects are not known. In this study, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg/L suspensions of small size (SS, 40–60 nm) and large size (LS, 80–100 nm) ZnNPs for 14 days under semi-static conditions. Total Zn levels in the intestine, liver, kidney, gill, muscle tissue and brain were measured. Blood serum glucose (GLU), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were examined to elucidate the physiological disturbances induced by ZnNPs. Organ pathologies were examined for the gills, liver and kidney to identify injuries associated with exposure. Significant accumulation was observed in the order of intestine, liver, kidney and gills. Zn levels exhibited time- and concentration-dependent increase in the organs. Accumulation in kidney was also dependent on particle size; NPs SS-ZnNPs were trapped more effectively than LS-ZnNPs. No significant accumulation occurred in the brain (p>0.05) while Zn levels in muscle tissue increased only marginally (p≥0.05). Significant disturbances were noted in serum GOT and LDH (p0.05). Histopathological tubular deformations and mononuclear cell infiltrations were observed in kidney sections. In addition, an increase in melano-macrophage aggregation intensity was identified on the 7th day in treatments exposed to LS-ZnNPs. Mononuclear cell infiltrations were identified in liver sections for all treatments. Both ZnNPs caused basal hyperplasia in gill sections. Fusions appeared in the gills after the 7th day in fish treated with 10 mg/L suspensions of SS-ZnNPs. In addition, separations in the secondary lamella epithelia were observed. The results indicated that exposure to ZnNPs could lead to disturbances in blood biochemistry and cause histopathological injuries in the tissues of O. niloticus. PMID:27464841

  7. Regulation of gill claudin paralogs by salinity, cortisol and prolactin in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Breves, Jason P; Rabeneck, D Brett; Trubitt, Rebecca T; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    In euryhaline teleosts, reorganization of gill tight junctions during salinity acclimation involves dynamic expression of specific claudin (Cldn) paralogs. We identified four transcripts encoding Cldn tight junction proteins in the tilapia gill transcriptome: cldn10c, cldn10e, cldn28a and cldn30. A tissue distribution experiment found cldn10c and cldn10e expression levels in the gill to be 100-fold higher than any other tissues examined. cldn28a and cldn30 levels in the gill were 10-fold greater than levels in other tissues. Expression of these genes in Mozambique tilapia was examined during acclimation to fresh water (FW), seawater (SW), and in response to hormone treatments. Transfer of tilapia from FW to SW elevated cldn10c and cldn10e, while cldn28a and cldn30 were stimulated following transfer from SW to FW. In hypophysectomized tilapia transferred to FW, pituitary extirpation induced reduced expression of cldn10c, cldn10e and cldn28a; these effects were mitigated equally by either prolactin or cortisol replacement. In vitro experiments with gill filaments showed that cortisol stimulated expression of all four cldns examined, suggesting a direct action of cortisol in situ. Our data indicate that elevated cldn10c and cldn10e expression is important during acclimation of tilapia to SW possibly by conferring ion specific paracellular permeability. On the other hand, expression of cldn28a and cldn30 appears to contribute to reorganization of branchial epithelium during FW acclimation. Hormone treatment experiments showed that particular FW- and SW-induced cldns are controlled by cortisol and prolactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PARÁMETROS FISICOQUÍMICOS DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO DE SALCHICHAS ELABORADAS A PARTIR DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp. PARÂMETROS FISICO-QUÍMICOS DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO DE SALSICHAS FEITAS DE TILAPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis sp. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING STORAGE OF SAUSAGES MADE FROM RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ IGOR HLEAP Z.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de la acuicultura de la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp. en Colombia ha permitido desarrollar productos alimenticios de mayor valor agregado. Uno de estos productos, son las salchichas tipo Frankfurt. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue, analizar los parámetros fisicoquímicos que afectan la vida de anaquel de las salchichas, elaboradas con adición de almidón de sagú (Maranthaarundinacea como material ligante o extendedor. El diseño planteado permitió evaluar las salchichas empacadas al vacío y en condiciones de refrigeración (2°C ± 2°C, a los 0, 2, 6, 10, 15, 22, 27, 31, 45, 58, 100 y 120 días de almacenamiento para los parámetros fisicoquímicos. Las salchichas se elaboraron siguiendo el procedimiento desarrollado en el Laboratorio de Tecnología de Carnes de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia - sede Palmira a partir de una pasta de tilapia previamente elaborada.Se determinó humedad, proteína, grasas, carbohidratos, cenizas, valor energético, pH, capacidad de retención de humedad y actividad de agua. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que el valor nutricional y funcional de las salchichas no se altera durante los primeros 30 días de almacenamiento, lo cual concuerdan con datos reportados en la literatura, para salchichas elaboradas a partir de otras materias primas cárnicas.O crescimento da aqüicultura de tilapia vermelha (Oreochromis sp. na Colômbia tem permitido o desenvolvimento de produtos alimentares de maior valor agregado. Um desses produtos são salsichas Frankfurt. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os parâmetros físico-químicos que afetam a vida de prateleira de salsichas, preparado com adição de amido de sagu (Maranthaarundinacea, como um fichário ou material extensor. A avaliação design levantou permitido de salsichas embaladas a vácuo e sobrefrigeração (2°C ± 2°C em 0, 2, 6, 10, 15, 22, 27, 31, 45, 58, 100 e 120 dias de armazenamento para os parâmetros f

  9. Vitamin C modulates cadmium-induced hepatic antioxidants' gene transcripts and toxicopathic changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Gazzar, Ahmed M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Ashry, Khaled M

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the naturally occurring heavy metals having adverse effects, while vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is an essential micronutrient for fish, which can attenuate tissue damage owing to its chain-breaking antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties. The adult Nile tilapia fish were exposed to Cd at 5 mg/l with and without vitamin C (500 mg/kg diet) for 45 days in addition to negative and positive controls fed with the basal diet and basal diet supplemented with vitamin C, respectively. Hepatic relative mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant function, metallothionein (MT), glutathione S-transferase (GST-α1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), was assessed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hepatic architecture was also histopathologically examined. Tilapia exposed to Cd exhibited upregulated antioxidants' gene transcript levels, GST-⍺1, GPx1, and MT by 6.10-, 4.60-, and 4.29-fold, respectively. Histopathologically, Cd caused severe hepatic changes of multifocal hepatocellular and pancreatic acinar necrosis, and lytic hepatocytes infiltrated with eosinophilic granular cells. Co-treatment of Cd-exposed fish with vitamin C overexpressed antioxidant enzyme-related genes, GST-⍺1 (16.26-fold) and GPx1 (18.68-fold), and maintained the expression of MT gene close to control (1.07-fold), averting the toxicopathic lesions induced by Cd. These results suggested that vitamin C has the potential to protect Nile tilapia from Cd hepatotoxicity via sustaining hepatic antioxidants' genes transcripts and normal histoarchitecture.

  10. Partial Replacement of soybean cake with amaranthus spinosus leaf meal in the diet of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, C.A.; Fakoya, K.A.; Omamohwo, V.R.

    2007-01-01

    The study, designed to assess the potentials of oven dried Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal as partial replacement for soybean cake in the diet of Nile Tilapia, revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) in feed and protein intake. Fish fed on Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal diets had significant (P<0.05) higher survival percentage, while that on soybean cake meal (control diet) recorded significant (P<0.05) better weight gain, average daily rate of growth, efficient feed and protein utilization as well as average final weight. (author)

  11. Análisis técnico de producción de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus y lechuga acrópolis Lactuca sativa en acuaponia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Cabrera, Sheila Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó la producción de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus y lechuga romana acropolis Lactuca sativa en sistemas acuapónicos utilizando dos sistemas: recirculación de agua sin recambio (utilizando biofiltración) y sistema sin recirculación con recambio parcial de agua. El cultivo se realizó en 4 etapas. En la primera se colocaron 800 alevines de O. niloticus de 0.2 g de peso inicial en tinas plásticas de 800 L (1600 organismos/m3de agua) durante 39 días. La segunda etapa con u...

  12. GapA, a potential vaccine candidate antigen against Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ze; Yu, Angen; Lan, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Hua; Hu, Minqiang; Cheng, Jiewei; Zhao, Lijuan; Lin, Li; Wei, Shun

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcosis due to the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) has resulted in enormous economic losses in aquaculture worldwide, especially in the tilapia culture industry. Previously, there were limited vaccines that could be employed against streptococcosis in tilapia. This study aimed to develop a vaccine candidate using the glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase protein (GapA) of S. agalactiae encoded by the gapA gene. Tilapia were intraperitoneally injected with PBS, PBS + Freund's adjuvant, PBS + Montanide's adjuvant, GapA + Freund's adjuvant, GapA + Montanide's adjuvant, killed S. agalactiae whole cells (WC)+Freund's adjuvant, or killed S. agalactiae whole cells (WC)+ Montanide's adjuvant. They were then challenged with S. agalactiae, and the relative percentage survival (RPS) was monitored 14 days after the challenge. The highest RPSs were observed in the WC groups, with 76.7% in WC + Freund's adjuvant and 74.4% in WC + Montanide's adjuvant groups; these were followed by the GapA groups, with 63.3% in GapA + Freund's adjuvant and 45.6% in GapA + Montanide's adjuvant groups. The RPS of the PBS group was 0%, and those of PBS + Freund's adjuvant and PBS + Montanide's adjuvant groups were 6.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Additionally, the IgM antibody responses elicited in GapA groups and WC groups were significantly higher than those in PBS groups. Furthermore, the expressions of cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) mRNAs in the GapA groups and WC groups were significantly higher than those in the PBS groups. Taken together, these results reveal that the GapA protein is a promising vaccine candidate that could be used to prevent streptococcosis in tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of hydrolysate from processed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus residues and assessment of its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Miotto BERNARDI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to produce protein hydrolysates from by-products of the Nile tilapia fileting process, and to assess the effects of different hydrolysis times on the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysed animal-based protein, in free form and incorporated into a food matrix. Gutted tilapia heads and carcasses were hydrolysed by Alcalase® for different hydrolysis times producing six hydrolysates. The protein content, degree of hydrolysis, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity by the ORAC, FRAP and TEAC methods were analysed. Three mini-hamburger formulations were produced and the lipidic oxidation of mini-hamburger was determined by TBARS. The protein contained in the residue was completely recovered in the process. The hydrolysates varied in their degree of hydrolysis, but presented similar levels of antioxidant activity. In the mini-hamburgers the hydrolysate was capable of delaying oxidation after 7 days of storage. Hydrolysis of tilapia processing by-products produced peptides may be used in the formulation of functional foods.

  14. Changes in the physiological parameters, fatty acid metabolism, and SCD activity and expression in juvenile GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared at three different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X Y; Qiang, J; He, J; Gabriel, N N; Xu, P

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of rearing temperature on the composition of fatty acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and gene expression in GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) tilapia. Three triplicate groups of fish were reared for 40 days at 22, 28, or 34 °C. At the end of the trial, the final body weight of juveniles reared at 28 °C was higher than that of fish reared at 22 or 34 °C. Feed intake, feed efficiency, and the protein efficiency ratio were also higher at 28 °C. The fatty acid composition of muscle tissue differed significantly (P GIFT tilapia muscle. Additionally, cold acclimation can decrease the content of TC and TG in GIFT tilapia, which can help increase cold tolerance.

  15. RAPD-SCAR Markers for Genetically Improved NEW GIFT Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) and Their Application in Strain Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Fa; Tang, Shou-Jie; Cai, Wan-Qi

    2010-04-01

    The NEW GIFT Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) is a nationally certificated new strain selected over 14 years and 9 generations from the base strain of GIFT Nile tilapia, introduced in 1994. This new variety has been extended in most of areas of China. The management of genetically improved strains, including the genetic markers for identification is needed urgently. RAPD analysis was conducted and their conversion to SCAR markers was developed. From NEW GIFT Nile tilapia, two strain-specific RAPD bands, S(304 )(624 bp ) and S(36 )(568 bp ) were identified. The strain-specific RAPD bands were gel-purified, cloned, and sequenced. Locus-specific primers were then designed to amplify the strain-specific bands. PCR amplification was conducted to test the variations in allele frequencies of two converted SCAR markers among the NEW GIFT Nile tilapia and its base strains, as well as 7 additional farmed strains worldwide. The frequency of SCAR marker I (553 bp) was 85.7% in NEW GIFT Nile tilapia, but 16.7% in the base strain. The frequency of SCAR marker II (558 bp) was 91.4% in NEW GIFT Nile tilapia, but 0% - 70% in the 7 other strains. In order to confirm the utility of these two markers, an examination was conducted for a wild population from Egypt, resulted the frequency of SCAR I and II was 10% and 70%, respectively, much lower than that of New GIFT strain. The increase in allele frequency of these two SCAR markers suggests that these markers might be genetically linked to the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlining the performance traits by long term selection, and indicate the bright potential of SCAR marker technology for tracking generations during selection progress and for distinguishing among genetically improved strain and other strains.

  16. Food and feeding behaviour of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters from Borna Reservoir of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas balasaheb Sakhare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The food analysis of 80 specimens of Oreochromis mossambicus collected from Borna Reservoir of Maharashtra, India revealed that the food of juveniles mainly consisted of rotifers (35%, followed by copepods (30%, Chlorophyceae (20%, Bacillariophyceae (10% and aquatic insects (5%. While the food items recorded in the gut of adults were Chlorophyceae (40%, followed by Bacillariophyceae (30%, rotifers (15%, copepods (10% and aquatic insects (5%. During present study it was found that the juveniles of O. mossamobicus mainly feed on zooplankton, and adults on phytoplankton. Intense feeding was noticed during summer season and juveniles were the active feeders.

  17. Tilapia and human CLIC2 structures are highly conserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiao; Li, Zhengjun; Lui, Eei Yin; Lam, Siew Hong; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2018-01-08

    Chloride intracellular channels (CLICs) exist in soluble and membrane bound forms. We have determined the crystal structure of soluble Clic2 from the euryhaline teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Structural comparison of tilapia and human CLIC2 with other CLICs shows that these proteins are highly conserved. We have also compared the expression levels of clic2 in selected osmoregulatory organs of tilapia, acclimated to freshwater, seawater and hypersaline water. Structural conservation of vertebrate CLICs implies that they might play conserved roles. Also, tissue-specific responsiveness of clic2 suggests that it might be involved in iono-osmoregulation under extreme conditions in tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial abundance and diversity in water, and immune parameters of red tilapia reared in bioflocs system with different fish density (25 fish/m3, 50 fish/m3, and 100 fish/m3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frid Agustinus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to study microbial abundance and diversity in the water, and immune parameters of red tilapia Oreochromis sp. cultured in bioflok system with different fish stocking densities. The experiment comprised of two different factors, carbon source addition (bioflocs and control, and fish stocking density (25 fish/m3, 50 fish/m3, dan 100 fish/m3, with an experimental period of 99 days. Microbial load in water was determined biweekly, whereas immune parameters represented by fish blood profile were measured on day 0, 50, and 90. There was no significant difference in total bacteria count in the water of all treatments; there was however a tendency shown by all treatments that the microbial load in water increased along with the culture period. There were 4 genera of bacteria which particularly found in bioflok system, which are Acinetobacter sp., Corynobacterium sp., Listeria sp., dan Pseudomonas sp, and are suggested to play a role in bioflok formation. The percentage of phagocytic index of fish in bioflok system was higher than that in control, and may indicate that bioflok may stimulate the fish immune system.Keywords: bioflocs, red tilapia, bacteria, blood profile. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kelimpahan dan keragaman jenis bakteri dalam air dan parameter imunitas ikan nila Oreochromis sp. yang dipelihara dalam sistem bioflok dengan kepadatan ikan yang berbeda. Penelitian terdiri atas dua faktor perlakuan yaitu penambahan sumber carbon (bioflok dan kontrol, dan padat penebaran ikan (25 ekor/m3, 50 ekor/m3, dan 100 ekor/m3 dengan lama waktu pemeliharaan ikan selama 99 hari. Kelimpahan bakteri diukur setiap 2 minggu sekali selama masa pemeliharaan. Parameter imunitas meliputi gambaran darah diukur dengan pengambilan contoh darah yang dilakukan pada tiga ekor ikan pada hari ke 0, 50, dan 99. Kelimpahan bakteri pada semua perlakuan pada setiap titik pengamatan tidak menunjukkan

  19. Broad Niche Overlap between Invasive Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and Indigenous Congenerics in Southern Africa: Should We be Concerned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsungai A. Zengeya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed niche models for the native ranges of Oreochromis andersonii, O. mortimeri, and O. mossambicus, and assessed how much of their range is climatically suitable for the establishment of O. niloticus, and then reviewed the conservation implications for indigenous congenerics as a result of overlap with O. niloticus based on documented congeneric interactions. The predicted potential geographical range of O. niloticus reveals a broad climatic suitability over most of southern Africa and overlaps with all the endemic congenerics. This is of major conservation concern because six of the eight river systems predicted to be suitable for O. niloticus have already been invaded and now support established populations. Oreochromis niloticus has been implicated in reducing the abundance of indigenous species through competitive exclusion and hybridisation. Despite these well-documented adverse ecological effects, O. niloticus remains one of the most widely cultured and propagated fish species in aquaculture and stock enhancements in the southern Africa sub-region. Aquaculture is perceived as a means of protein security, poverty alleviation, and economic development and, as such, any future decisions on its introduction will be based on the trade-off between socio-economic benefits and potential adverse ecological effects.

  20. Effect of probiotic microorganisms isolated from Hypostomus plecostomus in Oreochromis sp juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Vela-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the behavior of red tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis sp. in presence of the possible probiotic microorganisms isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of panche fish (Hypostomus plecostomus. Materials and methods. During the phase of assessment of probiotics, 120 red tilapia (Oreochromis sp juveniles were selected, with average weight of 1.28±0.22 g and average length of 2.99±0.27 cm. Three experimental treatments were formulated taking into account the nourishment needs of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. The statistical method employed was a completely random design. Results. The three strains of Lactobacillus genus (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from the digestive tract of H. plecostomus, yielded diverse results in the biometrical variables considered, as well as in the SGR, PER, AE, AC. Conclusions. The best rapports regarding the gain in length were for the treatment with native probiotics, and it is deduced that they were easily settled in the intestines of the fish (Oreochromis sp.. It is also determined that there are significant differences in the results or gain in length for the Control Concentrate feed (CC against Concentrate feed plus Native Probiotic (CNP for red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. in the juvenile stag for a 30 day time span.

  1. Composicao quimica, perfil de acidos graxos e quantificacao dos acidos ƒ¿-linolenico, eicosapentaenoico e docosahexaenoico em visceras de tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus = Percentual composition, fatty acids and quantification of the LNA (Alfa-Linolenic, EPA (Eicosapentaenoic and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acids in visceras of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a composição química de vísceras de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em cativeiro Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína bruta e lipídios totais foram de 64,4%; 1,3%; 6,3% e 18,0%, respectivamente, caracterizando alta concentração de lipídiostotais em relação a outros resíduos de peixes. Foram identificados 49 ácidos graxos, sendo majoritários os ácidos: oléico, (32,8%, seguido do palmítico, (19,9% e linoléico, (18,2%. As razões entre n-6/n-3 e ácidos poliinsaturados/saturados foram de 5,5 e 0,9, respectivamente. As quantificações dos ácidos graxos alfa-linolênico, eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico, em mg/g de lipídios totais, foram de 10,4, 1,4 e 9,3, respectivamente. O elevado teor de lipídios totais das vísceras contribuiu significativamente para as quantidadesde ácidos graxos n-3. Todos os parâmetros analisados foram satisfatórios sob o ponto de vista nutricional e neste sentido as vísceras de tilápias poderão ser utilizadaa para alimentar peixes ou outros animais.The chemical composition was evaluated in visceras of tilapias raised in captivity. The moisture, ash, crude protein and total lipids contents were 64.4%; 1.3%; 6.3% and 18.0%, respectively, characterizing high total lipids concentration in relation other residues of fish. Forty nine fatty acids were detected, the major fatty acids were oleic (32.8%, palmitic (19.9% and linoleic-1 (18.2% and oleic (9.4%. The ratio n-6/n-3 and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids, showed the values 5.5 and 0.9, respectively. The quantifications of alfa-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (in mg/g of total lipids, were 10.4, 1.4 and 0.3, respectively. The higher contents of total lipids in visceras contributed significantly for amounts of n-3 fatty acids. All the parameters analyzed were shown nutritional value satisfactory in this sense visceras of tilapias can be used in the feed of fish and other animal.

  2. Differential responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to fin clip wounding and related stress: perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Roques, J.; Geurds, F.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The debate around fish welfare is intensifying in The Netherlands. As a result, more research is carried out to enhance knowledge on fish welfare in aquaculture. Detailed information is lacking on how production procedures causing discomfort to the fish may affect welfare. That fish must perceive

  3. Bacteriological Quality of Tilapia Fish from Treated Wastewater in Peri-Urban Areas, Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, OJ; Mdegela, RH; Kusiluka, LJM

    2016-01-01

    the inlet to outlet of Mzumbe wastewater treatment pond, there was a significant reduction (pquality for human consumption based......The aim of this study was to assess faecal bacterial contamination in tilapia fish from wastewater treatment ponds at Mzumbe and in pristine water in Mindu dam. Tilapia fish (fish flesh and fish intestines) and water samples were analysed for Escherichia coli and total plate count....... The concentration of E. coli in fish intestines ranged from about 1 - 3.5 log cfu/g and water in Mindu dam ranged from 0 to 15 cfu/mL. From...

  4. The motility and motion duration of jatimbulan tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) spermatozoa in different salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, J.; Kintani, D.; Luqman, E. M.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Tilapia hatchery is still conducted in freshwater and seeds are death simultaneousy when cultivated in high salinity due to the acclimatization process. An alternative method to implement hatchery at high salinity is required. This study aims to determine the salinity of activation medium that provides the best Jatimbulan Tilapia sperm motility and motion duration at high salinity. The study applies completely randomized design (CRD), which consists of 5 treatments (0 ppt, 4 ppt, 9 ppt, 14 ppt and 19 ppt) and 4 repetitions. The parameters consists of sperm motility, motion duration, fresh sperm data (volume, color, odor, pH, consistency, and the concentration of sperm) and sperm abnormalities. The results exhibited that salinity significantly (p < 0.05). Influeneed the sperm motility and motion duration. Motility reaches its best at 0 ppt and 4 ppt (93.4 % and 87.8 %). For motion duration, best condition was in 0 ppt and 4 ppt treatments, totaling 2128 seconds and 1961.5 seconds. Meanwhile, sperm did not move when treated in waters with 9 ppt, 14 ppt and 19 ppt salinities.

  5. Nutrient retention capabilities of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support system (BLSS) waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    Nile tilapia were evaluated as a bio-regenerative sub-process for reducing solid waste potentially encountered in bio-regenerative life support systems. Ten juvenile Nile tilapia (mean weight = 2.05 g) were stocked into triplicate aquaria and fed one of seven experimental diets consisting of vegetable, bacterial, or food waste for a period of seven weeks. Weight gain (g), specific growth rate (mg/d), and daily consumption (g) was significantly higher ( p diet (37.99 and 68.54, respectively) followed by fish fed the wheat bran/wheat germ diet (23.19 and 63.67, respectively). Nitrogen, sulfur, and crude protein retention was significantly higher ( p diet (23.68, 21.89, and 23.68, respectively). A general loss of minerals was observed among all groups. Strong associations were observed between crude lipid retention and sulfur retention ( r2 = 0.94), crude lipid retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.92), WG and fiber content of dietary treatments ( r2 = 0.92), WG and carbon retention and ( r2 = 0.88), WG and lysine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.86), crude protein retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.84), sulfur retention and crude protein retention ( r2 = 0.84), and total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) content of residues and WG ( r2 = 0.81). Weaker associations existed between WG and crude lipid retention ( r2 = 0.77), crude fiber content and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.76), and WG and methionine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.75). Additional research is needed to improve the nutritional quality of fibrous residues as a means to improve tilapia's ability to utilize these residues as a food source in bio-regenerative support systems.

  6. miR-1338-5p Modulates Growth Hormone Secretion and Glucose Utilization by Regulating ghitm in Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jun; Bao, Jing Wen; Li, Hong Xia; Chen, De Ju; He, Jie; Tao, Yi Fan; Xu, Pao

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding small RNA molecules about 22 nt in length, which could regulate the expressions of target genes and participate in growth and development of organisms. Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus ) is an important economic freshwater species in China and the growth performance is one of the main breeding indicators. Growth hormone inducible transmembrane protein ( ghitm ) plays an important role in growth and development of both mammals and invertebrates; however, little studies have been reported on fish. Our previous experiments indicated that miR-1338-5p expression may be negatively correlated with ghitm expression. In this study, we firstly used qRT-PCR and northern blot to verify the expression of miR-1338-5p and ghitm , and determined the binding site of miR-1338-5p in the ghitm 3'-untranslated region (UTR) by luciferase reporter assay. Secondly, juveniles GIFT injected with miR-1338-5p antagomir were used to analyze the regulatory function of the miR-1338-5p- ghitm pair in vivo . The results showed that the ghitm 3'-UTR was complementary to the 5' 2-8-nt site of miR-1338-5p. Inhibition of miR-1338-5p promoted ghitm expression in the pituitary and liver of GIFT. ghitm could interfere in the growth hormone (Gh)-growth hormone receptor (Ghr)-insulin-like growth factor (Igf) signaling pathway by competing with the ghr1 for combination with Gh, and then reduce the growth of GIFT. Moreover, the reduction of Gh in serum may regulate insulin secretion and result in the increasing sugar and fat storage in serum and liver. Our results suggest that miR-1338-5p participates in the growth and development of GIFT through the regulation of ghitm , which provides theoretical support for the study of the fish growth mechanism.

  7. EFECTO DE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN PESQUERA DEL EMBALSE EL GUÁJARO ATLÁNTICO - COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caraballo G, M.Sc.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus sobre la producción pesquera en el embalse de El Guájaro, departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. El embalse tiene un área aproximada de 14.000 ha y allí pescan diariamente 2.500 pescadores provenientes de ocho municipios que rodean el ecosistema. Por medio de evaluaciones mensuales del desembarco durante 48 horas en todos los puertos, fue evaluada la composición y abundancia de las capturas en 1988 y 2002. Los resultados de la evaluación hecha en 2002 fueron comparados con los obtenidos en 1988. Resultados. 38 especies de peces, perteneciendo a 14 familias fueron identificadas. Sólo las dos especies que dominan las capturas, presentaron una variación en su participación global. La producción durante 2002 fue de 431 ton/mes, superior a las 84 ton/mes evaluadas en el año 1988. Durante 2002, las capturas fueron dominadas por tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (53% y arenca Triportheus magdalenae (36% lo que representa una variación en la composición de las capturas que, durante 1988 fueron respectivamente de 13% y 73%. Esta variación no afectó la proporción de herbívoros y carnívoros que se mantuvo en 90-10%. Conclusiones. La variación en la composición y abundancia de la producción total implica el desplazamiento de una especie nativa (Triportheus magdalenae por una exótica (Oreochromis niloticus, hecho que viene siendo observado en toda la cuenca del Magdalena en esta década.

  8. Charactering the ZFAND3 gene mapped in the sex-determining locus in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Keyi; Liao, Minghui; Liu, Feng; Ye, Baoqing; Sun, Fei; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Zinc finger AN1-type domain 3 (ZFAND3) is essential for spermatogenesis in mice. However, its function in teleosts remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the ZFAND3 gene (termed as OsZFAND3) in an important food fish, tilapia. The OsZFAND3 cDNA sequence is 1,050 bp in length, containing an ORF of 615 bp, which encodes a putative peptide of 204 amino acid residues. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the OsZFAND3 transcripts were exclusively expressed in the testis and ovary. In situ hybridization showed that the high expression of OsZFAND3 transcripts was predominantly localized in the spermatocyte and spermatid. These results suggest that OsZFAND3 is involved in male germ cell maturation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the introns of OsZFAND3. The OsZFAND3 gene was mapped in the sex-determining locus on linkage group 1 (LG1). The three SNPs in the OsZFAND3 gene were strictly associated with sex phenotype, suggesting that the OsZFAND3 gene is tightly linked to the sex-determining locus. Our study provides new insights into the functions of the OsZFAND3 gene in tilapia and a foundation for further detailed analysis of the OsZFAND3 gene in sex determination and differentiation. PMID:27137111

  9. Effects of coating chitosan inhibition to quality of fish fillet Oreochromis niloticus at room temperature storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Eka; Tjahjaningsih, Wahju; Patmawati

    2017-02-01

    Fresh fish shelf life can be extended by adding antibacterial compounds such as synthetic chemicals or natural materials. One of the natural ingredients that are safe to use to prolong the freshness of the fish is chitosan. Chitosan is able to provide quality deterioration inhibitory effect of fillet of tilapia. The rate of decline in the value of organoleptic fillet of tilapia treated chitosan solution is slower when compared to no treatment tilapia fillet chitosan solution. In the organoleptic test until the 18 hours of storage, 2% chitosan solution capable of maintaining the highest organoleptic value for the parameter sightings meat, texture, and smell fillet. The use of 2% chitosan solution provided the best results based on the parameters of the appearance of meat, the texture, the smell, the pH value and the value of TVB fillet.

  10. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Adu Obirikorang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal resulted in a significantly higher feed bulk density relative to the fishmeal control diet. The inclusions of copra and palm kernel meals, however, resulted in lower feed bulk densities. Sinking rates, water stabilities and nutrient retention efficiencies of feed pellets were directly related to feed bulk densities. The soybean meal diet had the fastest sinking velocities, greatest water stability and highest nutrient retention rates. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal, however, significantly impaired feed intake compared to the other three diets. Mean daily feed intakes of the control, palm kernel meal and copra meal diets corresponded to 28.88, 27.01 and 28.31 g during the experimental period and varied significantly from the mean daily intake of the soybean meal diet which corresponded to 20.01 g. Faecal matter production (g dry mass kg−1 ingested feed was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion.

  11. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous stimulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by feeding in the anterior intestine of the omnivorous GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jun Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the roles of anterior intestine in the postprandial glucose homeostasis of the omnivorous Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT. Sub-adult fish (about 173 g were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 8 and 24 h post feeding (HPF after 36 h of food deprivation, and the time course of changes in intestinal glucose transport, glycolysis, glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis at the transcription and enzyme activity level, as well as plasma glucose contents, were analyzed. Compared with 0 HPF (fasting for 36 h, the mRNA levels of both ATP-dependent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 and facilitated glucose transporter 2 increased during 1-3 HPF, decreased at 8 HPF and then leveled off. These results indicated that intestinal uptake of glucose and its transport across the intestine to blood mainly occurred during 1-3 HPF, which subsequently resulted in the increase of plasma glucose level at the same time. Intestinal glycolysis was stimulated during 1-3 HPF, while glucose storage as glycogen was induced during 3-8 HPF. Unexpectedly, intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGNG was also strongly induced during 1-3 HPF at the state of nutrient assimilation. The mRNA abundance and enzyme activities of glutamic-pyruvic and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminases increased during 1-3 HPF, suggesting that the precursors of IGNG might originate from some amino acids. Taken together, it was concluded that the anterior intestine played an important role in the regulation of postprandial glucose homeostasis in omnivorous tilapia, as it represented significant glycolytic potential and glucose storage. It was interesting that postprandial IGNG was stimulated by feeding temporarily, and its biological significance remains to be elucidated in fish.

  13. Simultaneous stimulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by feeding in the anterior intestine of the omnivorous GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Ti-Yin; Chen, Hai-Yan; Lin, Shi-Mei; Luo, Li; Wang, De-Shou

    2017-06-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the roles of anterior intestine in the postprandial glucose homeostasis of the omnivorous Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). Sub-adult fish (about 173 g) were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 8 and 24 h post feeding (HPF) after 36 h of food deprivation, and the time course of changes in intestinal glucose transport, glycolysis, glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis at the transcription and enzyme activity level, as well as plasma glucose contents, were analyzed. Compared with 0 HPF (fasting for 36 h), the mRNA levels of both ATP-dependent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 and facilitated glucose transporter 2 increased during 1-3 HPF, decreased at 8 HPF and then leveled off. These results indicated that intestinal uptake of glucose and its transport across the intestine to blood mainly occurred during 1-3 HPF, which subsequently resulted in the increase of plasma glucose level at the same time. Intestinal glycolysis was stimulated during 1-3 HPF, while glucose storage as glycogen was induced during 3-8 HPF. Unexpectedly, intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGNG) was also strongly induced during 1-3 HPF at the state of nutrient assimilation. The mRNA abundance and enzyme activities of glutamic-pyruvic and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminases increased during 1-3 HPF, suggesting that the precursors of IGNG might originate from some amino acids. Taken together, it was concluded that the anterior intestine played an important role in the regulation of postprandial glucose homeostasis in omnivorous tilapia, as it represented significant glycolytic potential and glucose storage. It was interesting that postprandial IGNG was stimulated by feeding temporarily, and its biological significance remains to be elucidated in fish. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Digestibilidade Aparente de Ingredientes pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent Digestibility of Feedstuffs by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente do milho, amido de milho, milho extrusado, germe de milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, glúten 21, glúten 60, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, farelo de algodão, farinha de peixe, farinha de carne, farinha de vísceras de aves, farinha de sangue e farinha de penas. Confeccionaram-se 18 rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio III, uma delas, basal purificada, e as demais, contendo os ingredientes. Os peixes, 100 juvenis com 100±10 g, foram alojados em cinco tanques-rede para facilitar o manejo de alimentação e a coleta de fezes e permaneceram, durante o dia, em cinco aquários (250 L de alimentação, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 17h30. Após, foram transferidos para cinco aquários (300 L de coleta de fezes, onde permaneceram até a manhã do dia subseqüente. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômio da ração e das fezes. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que, entre os ingredientes energéticos, o milho apresentou o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, seguindo-se o milho extrusado, o farelo de trigo e o farelo de arroz; dos ingredientes protéicos - vegetal, o glúten 60 e o glúten 21, seguidos do farelo de canola, apresentou os melhores coeficientes e dos protéicos - animal, destacou-se a farinha de vísceras de aves, seguida da farinha de peixes, enquanto os piores coeficientes foram proporcionados pela farinha de penas e farinha de sangue.Apparent digestibility of corn, corn-starch, extruded corn, corn-germ, sorghum, wheat middlings, rice meal, corn gluten meal, gluten 60, soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and poultry feathers hydrolyzed meal were determined for Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10 g fed purified diet and 0.10% chromic oxide. Fish were maintained in 5 aquaria (250 L at a density of 20 fish

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS PARA CLIMATIZACIÓN DE ESTANQUES CON ENERGÍA SOLAR PARA CULTIVO DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp), LOCALIZADOS EN LA ZONA FRÍA DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES FOR AIR CONDITIONING OF PONDS WITH SOLAR ENERGY FOR CULTIVATION OF RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp), LOCATED IN THE COLD AREA OF THE CAUCA VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Borja Gallardo; Luis Octavio González Salcedo; Victoria Eugenia Quintero de Vallejo

    2006-01-01

    La investigación fue desarrollada para que la tilapia roja (Oreochromis sp), especie de pez mÁs producida en Colombia, pueda ser explotada en lugares donde las condiciones óptimas para su normal desarrollo no son las adecuadas, como son las regiones altas con temperaturas por debajo de los 24 °C, aplicando metodologías relacionadas con el aprovechamiento de la energía solar. Las técnicas evaluadas fueron: climatización por medio de colectores solares, climatización por medio de manta térmica,...

  16. Estandarización de un proceso de extracción de colágeno a partir de los residuos de fileteo de tilapia (Oreochromis sp) y cachama (Piaractus brachypomus) / Standardization of a process for extracting collagen from filleting waste from tilapia (Oreochromis sp) and cachama (Piaractus brachypomus)

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Gaona, Jenifer Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Se estandarizó un proceso de extracción y purificación de colágeno ácido soluble a partir de pieles de tilapia (Oreochromis sp) y de cachama (Piaractus brachypomus) utilizando análisis estadísticos. Los resultados indicaron que el rendimiento de colágeno ácido soluble fue de 33,3% en base seca. El patrón de alto peso molecular utilizado para SDS – PAGE reveló que el colágeno obtenido de pieles de tilapia o de pieles de cachama es colágeno tipo I. La temperatura de desnaturalización (Td) del c...

  17. Atypical feminized male’s agonistic behavior relative to males and females of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Becerril-Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early maturity during tilapia culture is a recurring problem. To avoid this, a series of techniques have been developed, including the production of YY-males. This technique involves the use of hormones to produce phenotypic females (XY genotype. However, incomplete transformations are frequently observed and the produced atypical feminized males (AFM could display an ambiguity in the phenotypic expression of behavioral patterns. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior as well as the role that initial residence plays when involving three phenotypes (males, females and AFM. The experiment consisted of three stages. Resident fish were AFM in the first stage, males in the second and females in the third. In each stage the resident fish confronted males, females and AFM acting as intruders. Aggressive behavior was exercised more frequently by resident fish. Intersexual confrontations showed higher levels of aggression compared to intrasexual confrontations. The frequency of confrontations was not significantly different in confrontations involving AFM, however, differences were observed in intensity of aggression. It is possible that an incomplete transformation at physiological level could be responsible for an inaccurate decoding of signal during confrontations.

  18. Influence of water quality deterioration on blood profile of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, H. M.; Samir, Y. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of water quality deterioration on the haematological indices and blood profile of cultured fish, which was most frequently used in pathophy-siological investigations in fish reared in the ponds and tanks culture conditions, compared with normal healthy fish in natural water (White Nile River). The results showed that water quality characteristics of experimental tanks level of NH 4 , NH 3 , NO 3 and NO 2 concentration significantly (p 4 , NH 3 , NO 3 and NO 2 ) with moderate regression factors. Relationship between RBC, and water quality characteristics was positive and with very low regression factors. (Author)

  19. Species-specific content of As, Pb, and other elements in pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from aquaculture ponds in southern Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Helle; Alam, Md. Ariful; Rahman, Md. Mizanur

    2014-01-01

    Content of arsenic and lead and 10 other potentially toxic elements (Ba, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe,Mg,Mn, Se, Sr and Zn) was determined in tilapia and pangas from aquaculture ponds in southern Bangladesh. Tilapia had 1.6- to 4.3-fold higher content of Mn, As, Sr, and Ba than pangas, possibly caused...... by different feeding habits of the two fish. The other elements had similar concentrations in both species. Content of As in tilapia and pangas was 0.37 and 0.11 μg g−1, respectively, while Pb made up 0.056 and 0.051 μg g−1, respectively. Water treatment during the farming period (sand filtration and probiotic...... bacteria) and final depuration in groundwater for up to 48 h had no effect on content of the elements. For As, consumption of 100 g fresh fish per day contained 1.3% (pangas) and 5% (tilapia) of the maximum tolerable daily intake according to FAO recommendations. Relative to whole tilapia froma lake near...

  20. Selección por conformación de reproductores de tilapia roja Oreochromis sp., mediante prueba de progenie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Pineda S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Contribuir con la caracterización estadística y genotípica (media, media del error estándar, varianza y heredabilidad de la Longitud Total (LT y Longitud Altura del Lomo (LAL, y plantear una estrategia de selección para mejorar la calidad de la semilla de reproductores de tilapia roja Oreochromis sp. Materiales y métodos. El proyecto se realizó en la Granja Experimental y de Producción Piscícola (PCJIC, a un Km del municipio de San Jerónimo, distante 61 Km al Occidente de Medellín (Antioquia. Se conformaron tres grupos de cruzamientos, cada uno en proporción de 3 hembras por 1 macho así: un cruce Hembras Blancas (HB x Macho Rojo (MR y dos cruces Hembras Blancas (HB x Macho Blanco (MB. Las progenies fueron medidas a los 60 días post eclosión, teniendo en cuenta los supuestos estadísticos. Resultados. El ANOVA mostró que las progenies difieren significativamente (p<0.001 para ambas variables continuas. La LT fue mayor para la progenie del cruzamiento HBxMB sin reversión (8.04±1.04cm y LAL fue mayor para la progenie HBxMR (2.33±0.44cm. La correlación pareada entre las variables fue altamente significativa (r≥0.79, p<0.001. Las heredabilidades fueron 0.59 (LT y 0.64 (LAL. Los porcentajes de manchas en las progenies fueron HBxMR (34% y HBxMB no revertida (66%. Conclusiones. La progenie del Grupo 1 HBxMR tuvo los reproductores para una mejor selección por conformación, por lo que se sugiere aumentar el número de animales con mayor LAL. También, considerar la menor cantidad de manchas oscuras y realizar un manejo de reproductores por grupos independientes para selección masal.

  1. Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in tilapia fish relevant to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu and Cr) were determined in water, sediment and tissues of tilapia fish collected from Wadi Hanifah during summer 2010. The concentrations of the heavy metal in water were within the international permissible level. Cu had the highest accumulating level in fish whilst ...

  2. DESEMPEÑO PRODUCTIVO, COMPOSICIÓN Y BIODISPONIBILIDAD RELATIVA DE SELENIO EN TILAPIA NILÓTICA -Oreochromis niloticus- SUPLEMENTADA CON SELENIO ORGÁNICO E INORGÁNICO

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Vinchira; G. A. Wills; A. P. Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó el desempeño productivo, la composición corporal y la biodisponibilidad relativa de selenio en tilapia nilótica ( Oreochromis niloticus ) suplementada con selenio dietario. Una dieta basal fue suplementada con selenio en forma de selenito de sodio o seleno-levadura en niveles crecientes de suplementación (0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80 y 1.60 mg/kg de dieta). Un total de 336 individuos de tilapia nilótica, con un peso inicial de 13.41±0.12 g, fueron distribuidos de forma aleatori...

  3. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  4. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

  5. Alteration in gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles submitted to fasting and refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most important biological processes in living organisms that are affected by environmental fluctuations is growth, and the skeletal muscle growth in fish is dependent on proliferation and differentiation of myogenic precursor cells that are activated by Myogenic Regulatory Factors or inhi...

  6. Genetic variance for uniformity of harvest weight in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaw, H.L.; Ponzoni, R.W.; Yee, H.Y.; Aziz, M.A.; Mulder, H.A.; Marjanovic, J.; Bijma, P.

    2016-01-01

    Competition for resources is common in aquaculture, which inflates the variability of fish body weight. Selective breeding is one of the effective approaches that may enable a reduction of size variability (or increase in uniformity) for body weight by genetic means. The genetic variance of

  7. Vitellogenin Production by Fishmeal-Containing Diets in Male Tilapia (Oreochromis Mossambicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a number of fish species, male plasma has been shown to contain substantial levels of l7~estradiol (E z) and in certain cases, vitellogenin (Vg), an Ez-induced precursor of egg yolk protein that is specific to females. The presence ofEz and Vg in males raises questions about ...

  8. Physiological and behavioral responses to an electrical stimulus in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roques, J.A.C.; Abbink, W.; Chereau, G.; Fourneyron, A.; Spanings, T.; Burggraaf, D.; Bos, van de R.; Vis, van de J.W.; Flik, G.

    2012-01-01

    Consumer awareness of the need to improve fish welfare is increasing. Electrostunning is a clean and potentially efficient procedure more and more used to provoke loss of consciousness prior to killing or slaughtering (reviewed by Van de Vis et al. in Aquac Res 34:211–220, 2003). Little is known how

  9. Feeds, water quality, gut morphology and digestion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trần Ngọc Thiên Kim, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition, ingredient and nutrients, are important to consider for maintaining intestinal functions. Studies on both positive (using feed additives) and negative effects (using high inclusion of plant ingredients) of fish feeds are numerous, however, between studies results are often

  10. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Linne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically

  11. Myo-inositol phosphate synthase expression in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): effect of seawater acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalujnaia, Svetlana; Hazon, Neil; Cramb, Gordon

    2016-08-01

    A single MIPS gene (Isyna1/Ino1) exists in eel and tilapia genomes with a single myo-d-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS) transcript identified in all eel tissues, although two MIPS spliced variants [termed MIPS(s) and MIPS(l)] are found in all tilapia tissues. The larger tilapia transcript [MIPS(l)] results from the inclusion of the 87-nucleotide intron between exons 5 and 6 in the genomic sequence. In most tilapia tissues, the MIPS(s) transcript exhibits much higher abundance (generally >10-fold) with the exception of white skeletal muscle and oocytes, in which the MIPS(l) transcript predominates. SW acclimation resulted in large (6- to 32-fold) increases in mRNA expression for both MIPS(s) and MIPS(l) in all tilapia tissues tested, whereas in the eel, changes in expression were limited to a more modest 2.5-fold increase and only in the kidney. Western blots identified a number of species- and tissue-specific immunoreactive MIPS proteins ranging from 40 to 67 kDa molecular weight. SW acclimation failed to affect the abundance of any immunoreactive protein in any tissue tested from the eel. However, a major 67-kDa immunoreactive protein (presumed to be MIPS) found in tilapia tissues exhibited 11- and 54-fold increases in expression in gill and fin samples from SW-acclimated fish. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed specific immunoreactivity in the gill, fin, skin, and intestine taken from only SW-acclimated tilapia. Immunofluorescence indicated that MIPS was expressed within gill chondrocytes and epithelial cells of the primary filaments, basal epithelial cell layers of the skin and fin, the cytosol of columnar intestinal epithelial and mucous cells, as well as unknown entero-endocrine-like cells. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Quality of ready to serve tilapia fish curry with PUFA in retortable pouches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, K; Reddy, G V S; Nayak, B B; Basu, S; Shashidhar, K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Chouksey, M K

    2010-09-01

    Studies on the physical, chemical, and microbiological qualities of fresh tilapia meat revealed its suitability for the preparation of ready to eat fish curry packed in retort pouches. Studies on the fatty acid profile of tilapia meat suggest fortification with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to increase the nutritional value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, color, and texture profile analysis F(0) value of 6.94 and cook value of 107.24, with a total process time of 50.24 min at 116 °C was satisfactory for the development of tilapia fish curry in retort pouches. Thermally processed ready to eat south Indian type tilapia fish curry fortified with PUFA was developed and its keeping quality studied at ambient temperature. During storage, a slight increase in the fat content of fish meat was observed, with no significant change in the contents of moisture, protein, and ash. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of fish curry significantly increased during storage. Fish curry fortified with 1% cod liver oil and fish curry without fortification (control) did not show any significant difference in the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during thermal processing and storage. Sensory analysis revealed that fortification of fish curry with cod liver oil had no impact on the quality. Tilapia fish curry processed at 116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0 (with or without fortification of cod liver oil) was fit for consumption, even after a period of 1-y storage in retort pouch. Tilapia is a lean variety of fish with white flesh and therefore an ideal choice as raw material for the development of ready to serve fish products such as fish curry in retort pouches for both domestic and international markets. Ready to eat thermal processed (116 °C and F(0) value of 7.0) south Indian type tilapia fish curry enriched with PUFA and packed in retort pouch was acceptable for consumption even after a storage period of 1 y at ambient

  13. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CRESCIMENTO DE TILÁPIA-DO-NILO ALIMENTADA COM PEIXES MARINHOS PROVENIENTES DA PESCA DO CAMARÃO GROWTH IN NILE TILAPIA FED WITH MARINE FISH FROM SHRIMP FISHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyermes Araújo Lourenço

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de peixes marinhos no crescimento de tilápia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (ração para peixes com 28% de PB, Pellona harroweri e Pomadasys croco, três repetições cada. Utilizaram-se 63 peixes, com peso médio inicial de 3,059±0,846 g e 44,1±4,0 mm para o tratamento com ração, 3,015±0,892 g e 44,6±4,5 mm para o tratamento com P. harroweri e 2,736±0,803 g e 43,6±4,5 mm para o tratamento com P. croco, distribuídos homogeneamente em nove tanques de alvenaria de 2 m3 cada, contendo sete peixes por tanque. Após 91 dias, os resultados indicaram que as dietas com ração resultaram em melhores ganhos em peso e crescimento específico (P < 0,05. A tilápia-do-Nilo, mesmo sendo uma espécie omnívora, aceitou bem as dietas compostas pelas espécies de peixes marinhos utilizadas neste trabalho. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentação de peixes, aqüicultura alternativa, Oreochromis niloticus. The objective of this work was to verify the use of marine fish on Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, growth performance. Sixty three Nile tilapia juveniles, with an average weight and length of 3.059±0.846 g and 44.1±4.0 mm to treatment with ration, 3.015±0.892 g and 44.6±4.5 mm to treatment with Pellona harroweri and 2.736±0.803 g and 43.6±4.5 mm to treatment with Pomadasys croco, were stocked into nine floating cages with 2 m3 (seven fish per cage, in a complete randomized design with three treatments (ration to fish with 28% PB, P. harroweri and P. croco, in three replicates each. After ninety one days, results showed that diet with ration produced a better weight gain, specific growth rate (P < 0.05. The Nile tilapia is an omnivorous species, but fed on marine fish used in this work. KEY- WORDS: Alternatives aquaculture, feeding of fish, Oreochromis niloticus.

  15. Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karayuecel, I.

    1999-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.6±3.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM -2 for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.07±0.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.12±0.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.3±1.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.0±5.2 and 33.8±1.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.5±2.5 and 1.6±0.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62.6±9.8% compared to the

  16. Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayuecel, I

    1999-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.6{+-}3.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM{sup -2} for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.07{+-}0.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.12{+-}0.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.3{+-}1.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.0{+-}5.2 and 33.8{+-}1.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.5{+-}2.5 and 1.6{+-}0.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62

  17. Occurrence of bacterial pollution indicators in Boulti (Tilapia nilotica Linn. ) fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zanfaly, H.T.; Ibrahim, A.A.

    1982-09-01

    A study was made for the occurrence of coliform and streptococcal groups on the skin surface (32 samples), gills (32 samples), intestinal tract (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) and raw fish flesh (4 samples) of Boulti fish (Tilapia nilotica Linn.), a fresh water fish caught from Nasser's Lake in Aswan. Streptococcus group was detected in 13 samples taken from fish surface, 12 samples out of 32 swabs from gills. All intestine samples and raw fish flesh were positive for the streptococcus group. Coliform organisms were detected at nearly 43% of skin or gill samples, 100% of intestine and raw fish flesh samples.

  18. Sources and fate of antimicrobials in integrated fish-pig and non-integrated tilapia farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Zhan, Jia; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Hvidtfeldt, Kristian; Liu, Yuan; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial contamination in aquaculture products constitutes a food safety hazard, but little is known about the introduction and accumulation of antimicrobials in integrated fish-pig aquaculture. This study, conducted in 2013, aimed to determine the residues of 11 types of antimicrobials by UPLC-MS/MS analysis in fish feed (n=37), pig feed (n=9), pig manure (n=9), pond sediment (n=20), fish skin (n=20) and muscle tissue (n=20) sampled from integrated tilapia-pig farms, non-integrated tilapia farms and fish feed supply shops. There was a higher occurrence of antimicrobial residues in fish skin from both integrated and non-integrated farms, and in pig manure. Enrofloxacin (3.9-129.3μg/kg) and sulfadiazine (0.7-7.8μg/kg) were commonly detected in fish skin and muscle, pig manure and pond sediment from integrated farms, with different types of antimicrobials found in pig manure and tilapia samples. In non-integrated farms, sulfadiazine (2.5-89.9μg/kg) was the predominant antimicrobial detected in fish skin and muscle, fish feed and pond sediment. In general, antimicrobials seemed not to be commonly transmitted from pig to fish in tilapia-pig integrated farms, and fish feed, pig feed and pond sediment did not seem as important sources of the antimicrobials found in fish from both systems. The frequent findings of antimicrobial residues in fish skin compared with fish muscle was probably due to different pharmacokinetics in different tissue types, which have practical food safety implications since antimicrobial residues monitoring is usually performed analyzing mixed skin and fish muscle samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of growth hormone transgenesis on metabolic rate, exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance in tilapia hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Martinez, R; Morales, A

    2003-01-01

    Swimming respirometry was employed to compare inactive metabolic rate (Rr), maximum metabolic rate (Rmax), resultant aerobic scope and maximum sustainable (critical) swimming speed (Ucrit), in growth hormone transgenic (GHT) and wild-type (W) tilapia Oreochromis sp. hybrids. Although the Rr of GHT...... tilapia was significantly (58%) higher than their W conspecifics, there were no significant differences in their net aerobic scope because GHT tilapia exhibited a compensatory increase in Rmax that was equal to their net increase in Rr. As a consequence, the two groups had the same Ucrit. The GHT and W...... tilapia also exhibited the same capacity to regulate oxygen uptake during progressive hypoxia, despite the fact that the GHT fish were defending a higher demand for O2. The results indicate that ectopic expression of GH raises metabolic rate in tilapia, but the fish compensate for this metabolic load...

  20. Co-induction of hepatic IGF-I and progranulin mRNA by growth hormone in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambiccus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like IGF-I, progranulin (pgrn) is a growth factor involved in tumorigenesis and wound healing. We report here the identification and characterization of pgrn cDNA in tilapia and the regulation of its expression by growth hormone(GH). The tilapia pgrn cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR ampliWcation, using g...

  1. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  2. Sublethal effects of industrial chemicals on fish fingerlings (Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Key words: Tilapia guineensis, industrial chemical, bioaccumulation, surfactants. ... product that has acceptable stability in oil pipelines. (Patton, 1995). .... assays were assessed with the two-factor ANOVA (analysis of.

  3. Geographical distribution of protozoan and metazoan parasites of farmed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Yucatán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Trujillo, Amelia; Velázquez-Abunader, Iván; Torres-Irineo, Edgar; Romero, David; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2016-02-03

    In Yucatán State, southern México, as in many other parts of the world where tilapia has been introduced for aquaculture, the deficient application of management measures has led to the establishment of non-native parasites. The aims of this study were to describe the geographical distribution of protozoan and helminth parasites of farmed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) throughout the Yucatán and to examine the potential statistical associations of the prevalence and mean abundance of these parasites with management and environmental variables. All 29 Nile tilapia farms currently operating in Yucatán were surveyed. Maps were created to describe the geographical location of the parasites infecting Nile tilapia at each farm. We evaluated the statistical associations of management and environmental variables with the mean abundance values of each parasite species using a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) and generalized additive models (GAM). We also used Ripley's K to determine whether there were significant clusters of the mean abundance of particular parasite species in specific regions of the Yucatán State. A total of 580 O. niloticus were examined, and 11 species of parasites were recorded. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus was the most frequent and abundant parasite at all 29 farms, whereas Gyrodactylus cichlidarum was found in 26 of the 29 farms. The RDA showed that the most important predictors were the concentration of nitrites and ammonium and the water exchange rate. The GAM showed the significant effect of the tank capacity, no use of quarantine area and no use of prophylactic treatments on the mean abundance of G. cichlidarum. The geographical distribution patterns of the mean abundance of most parasite species exhibited clustering near to the coast of Yucatán. Two groups of farms were distinguished: (i) farms with medium to high technology, where the most frequent and abundant parasite was G. cichlidarum, and (ii) farms with low technology

  4. Unique nuclear localization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Neu4 sialidase is regulated by nuclear transport receptor importin α/β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Akinobu; Chigwechokha, Petros Kingstone; Kamada-Futagami, Yuko; Komatsu, Masaharu; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2018-06-01

    Sialidase catalyzes the removal of sialic acids from glycoconjugates. Different from Neu1 and Neu3 sialidases, Neu4 enzymatic properties such as substrate specificity and subcellular localization are not well-conserved among vertebrates. In fish only zebrafish and medaka neu4 genes have been cloned and their polypeptides have been characterized so far. Thus, characterization of Neu4 from other fish species is necessary to evaluate Neu4 physiological functions. Here, Nile tilapia was chosen for the characterization of Neu4 polypeptide considering that it is one of the major cultured fish all over the world and that its genomic sequences are now available. Coding DNA sequence of tilapia Neu4 was identified as 1,497 bp and its recombinant protein showed broad substrate specificity and optimal sialidase enzyme activity pH at 4.0. Neu4 activity was sustained even in neutral and alkali pH. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis revealed that major subcellular localization of tilapia Neu4 was nuclear, quite distinct from zebrafish (ER) and medaka Neu4 (lysosome). Bioinformatic analysis showed the existence of putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) in tilapia Neu4. In general, it is known that importin families bind to several proteins via NLS and transfer them into nucleus. Therefore, to determine the involvement of putative NLS in Neu4 nuclear localization, Neu4 mutant deleting NLS was constructed and expressed in cultured cells. As a result, NLS deletion significantly diminished the nuclear localization. Furthermore, treatment of importazole, interrupter of binding importin β and RanGTP, significantly suppressed Neu4 nuclear localization. In summary, tilapia Neu4 is a unique sialidase localized at nucleus and its transport system into nucleus is regulated by importin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Random regression analysis for body weights and main morphological traits in genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Jingli; Gao, Jin; Xu, Pao; Yang, Runqing

    2018-02-01

    To genetically analyse growth traits in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT), the body weight (BWE) and main morphological traits, including body length (BL), body depth (BD), body width (BWI), head length (HL) and length of the caudal peduncle (CPL), were measured six times in growth duration on 1451 fish from 45 mixed families of full and half sibs. A random regression model (RRM) was used to model genetic changes of the growth traits with days of age and estimate the heritability for any growth point and genetic correlations between pairwise growth points. Using the covariance function based on optimal RRMs, the heritabilities were estimated to be from 0.102 to 0.662 for BWE, 0.157 to 0.591 for BL, 0.047 to 0.621 for BD, 0.018 to 0.577 for BWI, 0.075 to 0.597 for HL and 0.032 to 0.610 for CPL between 60 and 140 days of age. All genetic correlations exceeded 0.5 between pairwise growth points. Moreover, the traits at initial days of age showed less correlation with those at later days of age. With phenotypes observed repeatedly, the model choice showed that the optimal RRMs could more precisely predict breeding values at a specific growth time than repeatability models or multiple trait animal models, which enhanced the efficiency of selection for the BWE and main morphological traits.

  6. The Quality of Edible Film Made from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Skin Gelatin with Addition of Different Type Seaweed Hydrocolloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanti, H.; Hulu, J. M.; Setyaji, A.; Eliyanti, R. N.; Aliya, K.; Dewi, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    The functional properties of fish skin’s gelatin lower than mammals, hence the gelatin proteins needed a polysaccharides hydrocolloids to form a continuous and more cohesive network of edible film. Polysaccharides hydrocolloid (carrageenan, agar and alginate) containing phenol compounds was oxidized to be converted into quinone and it was expected to act as a cross linking agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics (thickness, tensile strength, elongation, solubility and water vapour transmition rate) of edible film made from nile tilapia skin gelatin by adding different type polyssacharide hydrocolloid. Edible film was made by mixture of gelatin 5 g and addition of carrageenan (C1), agar (C2), alginate (C3) concentration ; 0,5% (v/w), all the materials were poured into 100 ml destilled water that containing 10% glycerol (w/w). The solution was then heated on a hot plate stirer at 40°C for 30 min and dehydrated in a oven at 50°C. All data were analysed using ANAVA. Based on the result it can be seen that the addition of oxidized polisacarides hydrocolloid have a significant effect on tensile strength (TS), water vapor transmision rate, solubility and elongation at break properties, but did not in thickness. Edible film gelatin with the addition of alginate has better characteristics viewed by tensile strength (23.05 Kgf/cm2), water vapor transmission rate (0.61 gram/m2/hour) and thickness (0.16 mm) than carrageenan and agar.

  7. Determinación y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus cultivada en Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Lara-Flores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en granjas de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus en el Municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Materiales y métodos. La colecta de organismos se realizó en tres granjas de cultivo de tilapia nilótica del municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Los organismos se examinaron externa e internamente y se tomó una muestra de riñón la cual fue sembrada en forma de estría en medios de cultivo: Löwesntein-Jensen, TCBS, KF y en TSA; las placas fueron incubadas a 35°C de 24 a 48 horas, los órganos fueron fijados en formalina tamponada al 10% para ser procesados para histología de rutina para análisis posteriores. Asimismo, muestras de cultivo bacteriológico y de tejido fueron teñidas con la técnica de Ziel-Neelsen con el fin de observar la presencia de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la presencia de Mycobacterium spp., es constante y en alta prevalencia y puede ser un factor que este mermando la rentabilidad del cultivo. Conclusiones. La presencia de Mycobacterium spp., representa un riesgo para el cultivo de tilapia en el municipio de Champotón, por ser una enfermedad muy persistente y difícil de erradicar una vez ocurrido e brote de infección, por lo cual es importante llevar estudios más detallados de la presencia de este género bacteriano, así como, medidas de prevención y dispersión de este patógeno en los cultivos adyacentes.

  8. Pathological analysis, detection of antigens, FasL expression analysis and leucocytes survival analysis in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after infection with green fluorescent protein labeled Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyuan; Wu, Jinying; Yi, Liyuan; Hou, Zengxin; Li, Wensheng

    2017-03-01

    The pathogenesis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia has not been fully described. To understand this, we investigated the clinic-pathological features of acute experimental septicemia in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after receiving an intra-peritoneal injection with S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP. Immunohistochemistry and sections of pathological tissues were used to estimate the level of damage in the head-kidney, liver, spleen and trunk-kidney. The expression of FasL was analyzed by western blotting in these samples based on their damage levels. Leucocytes were isolated from the head-kidney and incubated with S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP. Then, phagocytosis, programmed cell death and the expression of FasL were analyzed. The infected tissues showed varying degrees of necrosis and histolysis. The serous membrane of the intestine was dissolved by S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP. Antigens of S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP accumulated in different parts of the infected organs. In the head-kidney and spleen, the expression of FasL was up-regulated in parallel with increased tissue damage. After being incubated with S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP, the phagocytic capacity and ability were both very high and the expression of FasL remained high in leucocytes. S. agalactiae THN-1901GFP was able to survive for a long period of time after being engulfed by phagocytic cells. These findings offer insight into the pathogenesis of S. agalactiae infection in tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and characterization of lipid metabolism-related microRNAs in the liver of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi-Fan; Qiang, Jun; Yin, Guo-Jun; Xu, Pao; Shi, Qiong; Bao, Jing-Wen

    2017-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in modulating diverse metabolic processes in the liver, including lipid metabolism. Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus), an important aquaculture species in China, is susceptible to hepatic steatosis when reared in intensive culture systems. To investigate the miRNAs involved in GIFT lipid metabolism, two hepatic small RNA libraries from high-fat diet-fed and normal-fat diet-fed GIFT were constructed and sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 204 known and 56 novel miRNAs were identified by aligning the sequencing data with known Danio rerio miRNAs listed in miRBase 21.0. Six known miRNAs (miR-30a-5p, miR-34a, miR-145-5p, miR-29a, miR-205-5p, and miR-23a-3p) that were differentially expressed between the high-fat diet and normal-fat diet groups were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the potential target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs, and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated that these miRNAs may play important roles in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in GIFT. Our results provide a foundation for further studies of the role of miRNAs in tilapia lipid homeostasis regulation, and may help to identify novel targets for therapeutic interventions to reduce the occurrence of fatty liver disease in farmed tilapia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of thermal treatments during cooking, microwave oven and boiling, on the unconjugated microcystin concentration in muscle of fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto, Ana I; Moreno, Isabel; Soria, Ma Eugenia; Cameán, Ana M

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the risk from fish consumption is a relevant public health concern due to potential adverse effects of cyanobacterial toxins. The aim of this work was to study the influence of two usual cooking practices, microwave oven and boiling, on the microcystin (MCs) concentration in fish muscle (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus) spiked with a stock solution (500 μL) containing a mixture of three toxins (MC-LR, MC-RR, and MC-YR) (1.5 μg/mL of each toxin). Two different variables were investigated: time of cooking in the microwaves treatment (1 or 5 min), and way of boiling, "boiled muscle" or "continuously heated muscle". All samples were then lyophilized and MCs were extracted and purified (Oasis HLB cartridge) and quantified by HPLC-MS. Furthermore, the waters in which the samples boiled were also analyzed after their purification. The results suggest a reduction on MC-LR (36%) and MC-YR (24.6%) in samples cooked in the microwave for 5 min. Major changes were found when the fish was cooked by the continuous boiling, with a decrease of 45.0% (MC-RR), 56.4% (MC-YR) and 59.3% (MC-LR). More studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved when aquatic food is submitted to usual cooking practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of metal contamination in an urban drainage system (using water and tilapia, Oreochromis spp.) in view of human health effect. A case study of some selected communities in Cape Coast township in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baidoo, I.K.; Opata, N.S.; Sarfo, D.K.; Sarsah, L.A.; Appenteng, M.K.; Kaka, E.A.; Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This research work aimed at studying the metal content of water and tilapia fish sample, Oreochromis spp., from a wastewater-fed pond around the University of Cape Coast community using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The metals studied were Al, As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, V and Zn. In the water samples the order of elemental concentrations at sampling point 1, in μg/g, was K (75.96 ± 0.92), Na (18.52 ± 0.35), Al (6.00 ± 0.89), Mn (3.28 ± 0.44), As (3.08 ± 0.40), Mg (1.56 ± 0.17), Ca (0.70 ± 0.08), Cu (0.54 ± 0.08) and V (0.04 ± 0.01). Co, Cr, Fe and Zn were below detection limits of INAA. The order of elemental concentrations in the water at point 2 was as follows: Na (4.99 ± 0.14), K (4.82 ± 0.89), Mn (4.40 ± 0.53), Mg (2.92 ± 0.37), Al (1.98 ± 0.21), As (0.69 ± 0.10), Ca (0.24 ± 0.07) and V (0.23 ± 0.06) with Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn falling below the detection limit of INAA. The concentrations recorded for Al, As, Cu and Mn in the water samples were all above WHO permissible limits. The mean levels of heavy metals in the soft tissue of tilapia was of the order: K > Mg > Fe > Ca > Na > Al > Mn > Zn > V > Cu > Cr > Co. Arsenic was below detection limit. The transfer factor values calculated for the metals Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V were all greater than one indicating movement of metals from the water column to the tilapia species. The hazard index (HI) calculated for Al, Fe, Mn and V suggested possible occurrence of adverse health effects (HI > 1) where as the HI value obtained for Cr, Cu and Zn (i.e., HI < 1) suggested unlikely adverse effects occurring. (author)

  12. Isolation of Streptococcus spp from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and quality of water in hapas nets in North Region of Parana State, Brazil/ Isolamento de Streptococcus spp de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e qualidade da água de tanques rede na Região Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Machado Moreno

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated 12 intensive breed of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in four properties localized in the north of Parana State, Brazil. In the period of 13 months, 71 fishes were collected and analyzed of hapas nets that presenting morbidity and mortality of tilapias. Parallel, to evaluate the quality of the water of these hapas nets, there was measured the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia. Of the 71 fishes, were collected 220 biological samples. 17 (23.94% fishes were positive for Streptococcus spp. Of the 53 biological samples from 17 fishes, in 24 (45.28% were isolated streptococci. The main clinical signs and macroscopic lesions in the fishes with isolation of Streptococcus spp. were hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, skin lesion and base of the fins and exoftalmia with cornea opacity. The higher incidence of infections caused by streptococci happened in the months with higher temperatures, mainly in the transition period winter for spring. The values of dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia of the water were normal.Foram estudados doze tanques-rede de quatro propriedades de criação intensiva de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochomis niloticus da região Norte do Paraná, Brasil. No período de 13 meses foram analisados 71 peixes provenientes de tanques apresentando morbidade e mortalidade de tilápias. Paralelamente, para avaliar a qualidade da água destes tanques, foi medida a temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, alcalinidade, nitrito e amônia. Dos 71 peixes, foram coletadas 220 materiais biológicos. Em 17 (23.94% peixes foram isolados Streptococcus spp e dos 53 materiais biológicos provenientes destes peixes, 24 (45.28% apresentaram Streptococcus spp. Os principais sinais clínicos e lesões macroscópicas nos peixes com isolamento de Streptococcus spp foram hepatomegalia e esplenomegalia, lesão de pele e base das nadadeiras e exoftalmia com opacidade de córnea. O maior número de

  13. Effects of long term feeding of Quillaja saponins on sex ratio, muscle and serum cholesterol and LH levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, George; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Avitan, Ayelet; Becker, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    Seventeen-day-old Nile tilapia fry were fed a standard diet (C) or diets containing 50-700 mg kg(-1) Quillaja saponin (QS) extract (groups S50, S150, S300, S500 and S700). After the first 8 weeks, 30 randomly selected tilapia from each of the treatments were placed in separate aquaria and fed the standard diet without saponins from then on (these were designated S50/C, S150/C, S300/C, S500/C and S700/C). The fish grew from an initial average weight of approximately 30 mg to a final average weight of 79 g during the 6-month feeding period. The difference between the average weight of C-fed tilapia and the treatment with the highest average weight after 6 months was 53.5%. The sex ratio of tilapia in the saponin-fed groups deviated from the normal 50:50 male:female ratio, with the S700 group showing a significantly higher number of males. Quillaja saponin stimulated LH release from dispersed tilapia pituitary cells in vitro. This effect was abolished in the presence of dilute calf serum. Serum LH values did not show any diet-dependent trend in either male or female tilapia in vivo. In both continuously saponin-fed and only-initially saponin-fed groups, the average serum (but not muscle) cholesterol levels in males showed an increasing trend (R(2) values of 0.62 and 0.69) with increasing dietary saponin level. It was concluded that dietary QS has the potential to change the sex-ratio in favour of males. More investigations are required to determine the mechanism of action and the optimum dietary level of QS for maximum effects.

  14. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  15. Comparison of the growth of males and females of tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus cultured in cages

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    Carlos Alvarado-Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating productive performance and potential weight gain capacity of snapper O. Niloticus without reversing, we evaluated the growth of males and females raised in floating cages in captivity grouped by gender. The experiment was conducted for a term of 150 days.  We used a simple 4 836 alevins of 26.2±19.7g, fish that were nourished until they visibly reached sexual differentiation to 119.3±56.5 g to be separated by sex and nourished in floating cages to a final average weight of 387.0±128.9g (harvestto determine differences in growth. The weight distribution of the undefined gender sample showed a decrease in the coefficient of variation (CV of 75.13% to 31.49 and 30.22 for males and females respectively. This indicates that the distribution of sizes of the samples tended to become normal during the cycle of harvest. Significant differences (P=0.05 for the weight of harvest 429.2±135.1g and 339.65±102.64 g.   For the growth rate 2.74±0.86g day y 2.18±0.68 g day were determined between males and females respectively. The standard error of the estimation of the difference of average weight between males and females was 89.62±7.23g for an accuracy level of 95%. Males displayed  better growth rate and weight gain for harvest.

  16. The effects of composting on the nutritional composition of fibrous bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues and its impact on the growth of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Lowry, Brett A.; Brown, Paul B.; Beyl, Caula A.; Nyochemberg, Leopold

    2009-04-01

    Utilization of bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues as a nutritional source by Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) has proven problematic as a result of high concentrations of fibrous compounds in the plant waste residues. Nutritional improvement of plant waste residues by composting with the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus), and the effects on growth and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia fed such residues were evaluated. Five Nile tilapia (mean weight = 70.9 ± 3.1 g) were stocked in triplicate aquaria and fed one of two experimental diets, cowpea (CP) and composted cowpea (CCP), twice daily for a period of 8 weeks. Composting of cowpea residue resulted in reduced concentrations of nitrogen-free extract, hemi-cellulose and trypsin inhibitor activity, though trypsin inhibitor activity remained high. Composting did not reduce crude fiber, lignin, or cellulose concentrations in the diet. No significant differences ( P tilapia fed CP and CCP. These results suggest that P. ostreatus is not a suitable candidate for culture in conjunction with the culture of Nile tilapia. Additional work is needed to determine what, if any, benefit can be obtained from incorporating composted residue as feed for Nile tilapia.

  17. Processing yield of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: head cut types and two weight classes Rendimento do processamento da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus: tipos de corte da cabeça em duas categorias de peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the best type of head cut of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus resulting in better fillet processing yields. The experiment was carried out at the Pisciculture Station of UEM/Codapar, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. One hundred and twenty specimens were slaughtered, head cut, eviscerated, and had their fin, skin and fillet removed. The fillet processing was undertaken by a single person. Plotting was completely randomized by a 2x3 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of two weight categories ( W1=250-400g and W2=401-550g and three types of head cut (C1=oblique, OB; C2=Contour, CO, and C3=strainght, ST, with 20 replicates. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Mean values of yield were expressed in relation to fish body weight. There was an influence of head cut types and weight categories on the dressed out and fillet yield. The yields in W2 (OB=50.42%, 35.27%; CO=50.70%, 35.18% and ST=48.50%, 33.82% were higher (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o melhor tipo de corte de cabeça para decapitação da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, que resulte em melhores rendimentos de filetagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação de Piscicultura da UEM/Codapar, Maringá, PR. Foram abatidos 120 exemplares cortadas as cabeças, eviscerados, removidas as nadadeiras, pele e filés. O processo de filetagem foi realizado por uma única pessoa. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x3. Os tratamentos foram: duas categorias de peso (P1= 250-400 g e P2= 401-550 g e três tipos de corte de cabeça (C1=oblíquo, OB; C2=contornado, CO e C3=reto, RE, com 20 repetições. Cada peixe foi considerado a unidade experimental. Os valores médios de rendimento foram expressos em relação ao peso corporal do peixe. Houve influência do tipo de corte e categoria de peso sobre o rendimento do tronco limpo e filé. Os rendimentos em P2 (OB=50,42%, 35,27%; CO=50,70%, 35,18% e RE=48

  18. Management measures to control diseases reported by tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farmers in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    production area in China. Tilapia farmers (25) mainly reported streptococcosis (9) and exophthalmia disease (9) which often was treated with sulfadiazine, florfenicol and vitamins or rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) extract, although farmers thought the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment has decreased...

  19. COMPARACIÓN SENSORIAL DE TRES FORMULACIONES DE HAMBURGUESAS ELABORADAS A BASE DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ IGOR HLEAP ZAPATA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron sensorialmente hamburguesas elaboradas a base de tilapia roja y dos formulaciones adicionales, en las cuales se sustituyó un porcentaje de tilapia roja por carne de res, en una, y de cerdo, en la otra. Se plantearon tres formulaciones diferentes: solo de carne de tilapia roja codificada con la cifra aleatoria 8204 y carne de tilapia adicionadas con carne de res y carne de cerdo, identificadas con las cifras 6271 y 3522 respectivamente. Las hamburguesas se sometieron a degustaciones realizadas por un panel de 100 consumidores no entrenados, utilizando una escala hedónica de siete puntos. Se valoró estadísticamente la aprobación de los productos y se determinó que hubo buen agrado y buena aceptación. Los resultados indicaron una conformidad del 75% para la muestra 8204, mientras que para las muestras 6271 y 3522, ésta fue respectivamente de 78% y 82%. A pesar de que se presentaron algunas diferencias entre el porcentaje de aceptación de las tres formulaciones, el intervalo de varianza no es significativo, lo cual permitió concluir que los tres productos analizados fueron de completa satisfacción. Se concluyó que las diferencias entre las hamburguesas elaboradas solo a base de tilapia versus las elaboradas a base de tilapia con adición de otras carnes no influyeron en la aceptación por los consumidores.

  20. Substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo teor de tanino em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989 Replacement of corn by sorghum silage with low and high tannin contents in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo como fonte de energia para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Foram formuladas 3 dietas práticas isocalóricas (3000kcal de energia digestível e isoprotéica (28% de proteína bruta. O farelo de milho foi substituído pela silagem de sorgo de baixo (0,44% (SSBT e alto (1,14% (SSAT teor de tanino. Os peixes (55,09 ± 0,94g foram distribuídos em tanques de fibro-cimento (1000L e alimentados com dietas experimentais até à saciedade 3 vezes ao dia, durante 67 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas sobre a conversão alimentar, eficiência protéica, índice hepato-somático, gordura visceral e taxa de sobrevivência. O ganho de peso dos peixes alimentados com SSBT foi significativamente maior que os alimentados com dietas contendo milho e SSAT. Os peixes alimentados com dietas contendo SSBT consumiram mais ração do que os peixes alimentados com a dieta com SSAT. Os resultados indicaram que a inclusão de 44% de silagem de sorgo nas dietas podem suportar normal crescimento nos juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, com potencial para substituir o milho.This work was carried out to evaluate the replacement of corn by sorghum silage as an energy source for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Three isocaloric (3000kcal of digestible energy and isoproteic (28% of crude protein practical diets were formulated. Corn meal was totally substituted by low (0.44% (LTSS and high (1.14% (HTSS tannin contents silage sorghum. Fish (55.09 ± 0.94g were reared in fiberglass tanks (1000L and hand-fed with experimental diets until reach they satiation, three times a day during 67 days. Feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat and survival ratio of fish fed with the diets were not significantly different. Weight gain of fish fed with LTSS diet was significantly higher than those

  1. Effects of dietary Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immunological parameters, intestinal morphology and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Biao; Long, Wei-Qing; He, Ju-Yun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Si, Yu-Qi; Tian, Li-Xia

    2015-10-01

    The effects of oral administration of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immunity, intestinal morphology and disease resistance of juvenile tilapia were investigated. Six experimental diets supplemented with different concentrations of B. licheniformis (0%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08% and 0.1% of AlCare(®), containing live germ 2 × 10(10) CFU/g) were formulated, viz. control, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 30 fishes (3.83 ± 0.03 g). After 10 weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG), final body wet weight (FBW) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased significantly in groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared with control and T1 (p 0.05). Compared with control, dietary B. licheniformis supplementation increased the content of complement C3 in serum significantly (P licheniformis supplementation (P > 0.05). When tilapia were challenged against Streptococcus iniae, survival rate improved significantly when tilapia fed with T2, T3, T4 and T5 (P licheniformis (T2, T3, T4, T5) tended to be regularly arranged and exhibited less exfoliation, twist and fusion. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of B. licheniformis not only increased the growth, immune response and disease resistance of juvenile tilapia, but also influenced anterior intestinal development and integrity. Furthermore, in our study, the optimal concentration of B. licheniformis in diets for tilapia was greater than or equal to 4.4 × 10(6) CFU/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of heavy metals and estimation of human health risk in Tilapia fish from Naik lake of Nagpur, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Giripunje, M.D.; Fulke, A.B.; Meshram, P.U.

    /g dw respectively. These levels were above the maximum permissible limits of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organisation (WHO). The results confirmed that tilapia fish from Naik lake are not safe for human consumption. Further...

  3. Karyotypical characterization from stock of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, at Londrina State University, PR, Brazil, through several techniques of chromosomes band/ Caracterização cariotípica de um estoque de tilápia do Nilo,Oreochromis niloticus, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, mediante diversas técnicas de bandamento cromossômico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Hermann Leonhardt

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available 14 specimens of Nile’s tilapia were analyzed cytogenetically, Oreochromis niloticus, that belong to the stock of fish breeding from the Freshwater Aquaculture Station of the Londrina State University in the Paraná, Brazil. All specimens presented the same disploid number of 44 chromosomes. The NORs were observed in four chromosomes with marks in terminal position of the short arm and the hybridization “in situ” (FISH with probe of 18 S also evidenced the presence of two pairs of chromosomes containing ribbosomic cistrons. The treatment with the fluochromes CMA3 and DAPI, respectively, didn’t show shinning bands in any chromosome of the complement. The band C (CBG evidenced regions of heterochromatin distributed on several chromosomes in the centromeric regions, being observed some marks in telomeric regions, mainly on the biggest pair of chromosomes of the complement, a pair presented itself almost totally heterochromatic. The obtained results are in accordance with the data found in literature, nevertheless when the C bands and NORs were analyzed, were evidenced some differences that apparently characterized the local fish population of the Londrina State University. Key words: Cytogenetics, Oreochromis niloticus, NORs, CMA3, DAPI, fish, heterochromatin.Foram analisados citogeneticamente 14 indivíduos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus que fazem parte do estoque de reposição de reprodutores da Estação de Piscicultura da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. Todos os indivíduos apresentaram o mesmo número diplóide de 44 cromossomos. As NORs foram observadas em quatro cromossomos com marcações em posição terminal do braço curto e a hibridação “in situ” (FISH com sonda de 18S também evidenciou a presença de dois pares de cromossomos contendo cístrons ribossômicos. O tratamento com os fluorocromos CMA3 e DAPI, respectivamente, não mostrou bandas brilhantes em nenhum cromossomo do complemento. A

  4. Apparent digestibility coefficient of chickpea, maize, high-quality protein maize, and beans diets in juvenile and adult Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus

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    Magnolia Montoya-Mejía

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the apparent digestibility of plant ingredients in diets for juvenile (50 g and adult (220 g Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients of four plant-derived feedstuffs (chickpea, maize, high-quality maize protein, and beans were tested. The beans diet had the lowest apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter (ADCDM (69.41%, while no significant differences were detected in ADCDM among the other diets; ADCDM was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (77.02 vs. 73.76%. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients (ADCI was significantly higher in the chickpea (70.48% and high-quality protein maize (71.09% ingredients, and lower in the beans (52.79% ingredient. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (72.56 vs. 56.80%. The protein digestibility of diet (ADCCP was significantly higher in the reference diet (93.68%, while the lowest corresponded to the maize (87.86% and beans (87.29% diets. Significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCICP was obtained with the high-quality maize protein (59.11% and maize (49.48% ingredients, while higher ADCICP was obtained with the chickpea and beans ingredients (71.31 and 63.89%, respectively. The apparent digestibility coefficient of ingredient crude protein ADCICP was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (67.35 vs. 53.46. Digestibility is generally higher in juveniles, and we recommend using chickpea as an ingredient in diets for Nile tilapia.

  5. Toxicidade aguda e efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat na brânquia e no fígado da tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus = Acute toxicity and histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on the gill and liver of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A concentração letal 50% e os efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat para a tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus foram avaliados em três experimentos. Os peixes foram expostos às concentrações de 0; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; e 60 mg de diquat L-1 e a histologia da brânquia e do fígado foi avaliada nos peixes sobreviventes. A CL (I 50-96h do diquat estimada foi de 37,28 mg L-1, com limite inferior de 33,12 mg L-1 e superior de 41,44mg L-1. No tratamento com 30, 35 e 40 mg L-1, ocorreram início de fusão apical das lamelas secundárias; com 45 e 50 mg L-1 ocorreram congestão nas lamelas primárias e no tratamento com 55 mg L-1, ocorreu congestão sangüínea nas lamelas secundárias. O fígado dos peixes dos tratamentos controle, 30 e 35 mg L-1 estavam com organização cordonal dos hepatócitos. Nos tratamentos com 40 e 45 mg L-1, ocorreram hipertrofia dos hepatócitos; com 50 e 55 mg L-1 ocorreram fusão celular e presença de vacúolos. O diquat apresentoubaixo risco de intoxicação à tilápia nilótica e as alterações histopatológicas mais severas ocorreram somente nas concentrações mais elevadas.The lethal concentration of 50% (LC (I 50-96h and the histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fish were evaluated in three experiments. The fishes were exposed to concentrations of 0, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 mg diquat L-1, and gill and liver histology were evaluated in the surviving fishes. The estimated LC (I (50-96h of diquat was37.28 mg L-1, with lower limits of 33.12 mg L-1 and upper limits of 41.44 mg L-1. In the treatment with 30, 35 and 40 mg L-1, signs of apical fusion of the secondary lamellae were observed; with 45 and 50 mg L-1, congestion of the primary lamellae was observed; in thetreatment with 55 mg L-1, congestion of blood vessels on secondary lamellae took place. The livers of fishes in treatments with 0, 25, 30 and 35 mg L-1 showed cordonal

  6. Fatty acid concentration and proximate composition of acid silage from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) waste, farmed in Indaiatuba – SP

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Ronaldo de Oliveira; Universidade Federal do Ceará; Park, Kil Jin; Universidade Estadual de Campinas; de Morais, Selene Maia; Universidade Estadual de Ceará

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition and fatty acid profile of the Nile tilapia waste silage with the aim of investigating its nutritional potential. Four lots (5 kg each) of Nile tilapia waste was ground with 3% (w/w) formic acid, stored at 27°C room temperature for 90 days in polyethylene boxes with holes, through which gases went out and then the levels of moisture, protein, ash and total lipids were analyzed obtaining: 77.25, 16.31, 3.17 and 3.26% respectively. 22 types o...

  7. Histological variations in liver of freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Broos, K.V.; Stalin, A.; Singhal, R.K.; Venubabu, P.

    2012-01-01

    The irradiation effect of 60 Co at the three dose level of 3 mGy, 30 mGy and 300 mGy on the histology of liver of the freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated. The liver of O. mossambicus was dissected out and processed for light microscopy studies. 60 Co exposed O. mossambicus were found to result in several alterations in the histoarchitecture of liver. The alterations included mild congestion of blood vessels, structural alteration, cellular swelling, vacuolation and necrotic liver cells, indicating a definite response to 60 Co irradiation. The results suggest that the liver of O. mossambicus exposed to 60 Co were structurally altered with increasing dose levels. It is to record that alteration in the liver does not affect the physiology, behaviour or lethality of the individuals. Self regulating mechanisms would have influenced the liver to remain sustained. To confirm the same further studies in the direction by increasing dose level is required. - Highlights: ► Fish Oreochromis mossambicus irradiated to the dose of 3 mGy, 30 mGy and 300 mGy. ► Histoarchitecture of liver altered with increasing dose levels of 60 Co. ► Alteration in the liver does not affect the physiology, behaviour or lethality. ► Self regulating mechanisms might have prevented from Lethality. ► HSI index value for exposed group reported ( 60 Co.

  8. Toxicity, distribution, accumulation and cooking loss of malathion in tissues of tilapia and common carp fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, I. M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of malathion as an organophosphorus pesticide to both of the tested fish species, i.e. Tilapia nilotica (tilapia and cyprinus carpio (Common carp was followed by estimating the LC50 at intervals from 24h up to 96h. Tilapia was much more susceptible to malathion toxicity when compared with carp and the available data proved that the LG50 of malathion to common carp fish was 5-7 times the LC50 for tilapia. Accumulation of malathion pesticide in some organs (muscles, gills, intestine and liver of both fish species was studied after application of 200, 300 and 400 ppb malathion in water for 28 days. A proportional relation was found in the two fish species between exposure time and the applied concentrations. The rate of malathion accumulation was higher in liver followed by intestine and gills whereas the lowest concentration was found in muscles. Accumulated malathion in tilapia muscles was higher than carp; while a reversible trend was observed in most other organs. Cooking of the same fish species reduced effectively malathion content in their muscles. Frying of fish in oil lead to a higher loss percent of malathion than did the other methods of cooking.

    La toxicidad aguda de malatión, pesticida organofosforado, para las dos especies de pescado analizadas, Tilapia nilotica (tilapia y Cyprinus carpio (carpa común, fue seguida por estimación de la CL50 a intervalos desde las 24h hasta las 96h. Tilapia fue mucho más susceptible a la toxicidad del malatión cuando se comparó con carpa, y los datos disponibles proporcionaron que la CL50 del malatión para carpa común fue de 5-7 veces la GL50 para tilapia. La acumulación del pesticida malatión en algunos órganos (músculos, agallas, intestino e hígado de ambas especies de pescado fue estudiada después de la aplicación de concentraciones de 200, 300 y 400 ppb de malatión en agua durante 28 días. Se encontró una relaci

  9. Pertumbuhan dan Kelangsungan Hidup Benih Ikan Nila Gesit (Oreochromis Niloticus) pada Sistem Akuaponik dengan Jenis Tanaman yang Berbeda

    OpenAIRE

    Mulqan, Muhammad; El Rahimi, Sayyid Afdhal; Dewiyanti, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Aquaponics system is a farming system which saving land use and improving the efficiency of nutrient utilization of residual feed and fish metabolism. This system is environmentally friendly fish farming. This research was aimed to measure the growth and survival rate of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on the use of Aquaponics system with different plant species. The difference treatment consisted of four treatments and three repetitions which used plant kale, collards, lettuce and control. R...

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of an oral DNA vaccine encoding Sip of Streptococcus agalactiae from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus delivered by live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L Y; Wang, K Y; Xiao, D; Chen, D F; Geng, Y; Wang, J; He, Y; Wang, E L; Huang, J L; Xiao, G Y

    2014-05-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207 was used as a carrier for a reconstructed DNA vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae. A 1.02 kb DNA fragment, encoding for a portion of the surface immunogenic protein (Sip) of S. agalactiae was inserted into pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sip was transfected in EPC cells to detect the transient expression by an indirect immunofluorescence assay, together with Western blot analysis. The pVAX1-sip was transformed by electroporation into SL7207. The stability of pVAX1-sip into Salmonella was over 90% after 50 generations with antibiotic selection in vitro while remained stable over 80% during 35 generations under antibiotic-free conditions. The LD50 of SL/pVAX1-sip was 1.7 × 10(11) CFU/fish by intragastric administration which indicated a quite low virulence. Tilapias were inoculated orally at 10(8) CFU/fish, the recombinant bacteria were found present in intestinal tract, spleens and livers and eventually eliminated from the tissues 4 weeks after immunization. Fish immunized at 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/fish with different immunization times caused various levels of serum antibody and an effective protection against lethal challenge with the wild-type strain S. agalactiae. Integration studies showed that the pVAX1-sip did not integrate with tilapia chromosomes. The DNA vaccine SL/pVAX1-sip was proved to be safe and effective in protecting tilapias against S. agalactiae infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synchronization to light and mealtime of daily rhythms of locomotor activity, plasma glucose and digestive enzymes in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Santos, Bartira; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; de Mattos, Bruno Olivetti; Baião, Alice Borba; Pereira, Denise Soledade Peixoto; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Cerqueira, Robson Bahia; Albinati, Ricardo Castelo Branco; Fortes-Silva, Rodrigo

    2017-02-01

    The light-dark cycle and feeding can be the most important factors acting as synchronizers of biological rhythms. In this research we aimed to evaluate synchronization to feeding schedule of daily rhythms of locomotor activity and digestive enzymes of tilapia. For that purpose, 120 tilapias (65.0±0.6g) were distributed in 12 tanks (10 fish per tank) and divided into two groups. One group was fed once a day at 11:00h (zeitgeber time, ZT6) (ML group) and the other group was fed at 23:00h (ZT18) (MD group). The fish were anesthetized to collect samples of blood, stomach and midgut at 4-hour intervals over a period of 24h. Fish fed at ML showed a diurnal locomotor activity (74% of the total daily activity occurring during the light phase) and synchronization to the feeding schedule, as this group showed anticipation to the feeding time. Fish fed at MD showed a disruption in the pattern of locomotor activity and became less diurnal (59%). Alkaline protease activity in the midgut showed daily rhythm with the achrophase at the beginning of the dark phase in both ML and MD groups. Acid protease and amylase did not show significant daily rhythms. Plasma glucose showed a daily rhythm with the achrophase shifted by 12h in the ML and MD groups. These results revealed that the feeding time and light cycle synchronize differently the daily rhythms of behavior, digestive physiology and plasma metabolites in the Nile tilapia, which indicate the plasticity of the circadian system and its synchronizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology in Ghana. PKA Dartey, RK Bam, J Ofori. Abstract. Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was ...

  13. Preliminary studies in rice-fish culture in a rainfed lowland ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed farms of rice and fish are yet to receive attention in Ghana, despite lowland rice being grown under inundation in most areas nationwide. In a preliminary study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was successfully cultured in a rainfed lowland rice farm, although no additional care was provided for fishes. The highest ...

  14. Impact of microcystin containing diets on physiological performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) concerning stress and growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziková, A.; Trubiroha, A.; Wiegand, C.; Wuertz, S.; Rennert, B.; Pflugmacher, S.; Kopp, Radovan; Mareš, J.; Kloas, W.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2010), s. 561-568 ISSN 0730-7268 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : microcystin * Nile tilapia * physiological performance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.026, year: 2010

  15. Time related alterations in digestibility and faecal characteristics as affected by dietary composition in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkolaie, A.K.; Schrama, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    After being shifted to a new diet, time related alterations in digestibility, faecal waste production and faeces recovery in Nile tilapia were assessed in relation with dietary ingredient composition. Four experimental diets were formulated according to a 2 by 2 factorial design: two starch

  16. Control of leptin by metabolic state and its regulatory interactions with pituitary growth hormone and hepatic growth hormone receptors and insulin like growth factors in the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Jonathan D; Baltzegar, David A; Mankiewicz, Jamie; Taylor, Jordan; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Lerner, Darren T; Seale, Andre P; Grau, E Gordon; Breves, Jason P; Borski, Russell J

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is an important cytokine for regulating energy homeostasis, however, relatively little is known about its function and control in teleost fishes or other ectotherms, particularly with regard to interactions with the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) growth regulatory axis. Here we assessed the regulation of LepA, the dominant paralog in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and other teleosts under altered nutritional state, and evaluated how LepA might alter pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) that are known to be disparately regulated by metabolic state. Circulating LepA, and lepa and lepr gene expression increased after 3-weeks fasting and declined to control levels 10days following refeeding. This pattern of leptin regulation by metabolic state is similar to that previously observed for pituitary GH and opposite that of hepatic GHR and/or IGF dynamics in tilapia and other fishes. We therefore evaluated if LepA might differentially regulate pituitary GH, and hepatic GH receptors (GHRs) and IGFs. Recombinant tilapia LepA (rtLepA) increased hepatic gene expression of igf-1, igf-2, ghr-1, and ghr-2 from isolated hepatocytes following 24h incubation. Intraperitoneal rtLepA injection, on the other hand, stimulated hepatic igf-1, but had little effect on hepatic igf-2, ghr1, or ghr2 mRNA abundance. LepA suppressed GH accumulation and gh mRNA in pituitaries in vitro, but had no effect on GH release. We next sought to test if abolition of pituitary GH via hypophysectomy (Hx) affects the expression of hepatic lepa and lepr. Hypophysectomy significantly increases hepatic lepa mRNA abundance, while GH replacement in Hx fish restores lepa mRNA levels to that of sham controls. Leptin receptor (lepr) mRNA was unchanged by Hx. In in vitro hepatocyte incubations, GH inhibits lepa and lepr mRNA expression at low concentrations, while higher concentration stimulates lepa expression. Taken together, these findings

  17. Physiological response and microRNA expression profiles in head kidney of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to acute cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Jun; Cui, Yan T; Tao, Fan Y; Bao, Wen J; He, Jie; Li, Xia H; Xu, Pao; Sun, Lan Y

    2018-01-09

    Cold stress has a serious impact on the overwintering survival and yield of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus). Understanding the physiological and molecular regulation mechanisms of low-temperature adaptation is necessary to help breed new tolerant strains. The semi-lethal low temperature of juvenile GIFT at 96 h was determined as 9.4 °C. We constructed and sequenced two small RNA libraries from head kidney tissues, one for the control (CO) group and one for the 9.4 °C-stressed (LTS) group, and identified 1736 and 1481 known microRNAs (miRNAs), and 164 and 152 novel miRNAs in the CO and LTS libraries, respectively. We verify the expression of nine up-regulated miRNAs and eight down-regulation miRNAs by qRT-PCR, and found their expression patterns were consistent with the sequencing results. We found that cold stress may have produced dysregulation of free radical and lipid metabolism, decreased superoxide dismutase activity, reduced respiratory burst and phagocytic activity of macrophages, increased malondialdehyde content, and adversely affected the physiological adaptation of GIFT, eventually leading to death. This study revealed interactions among miRNAs and signal regulated pathways in GIFT under cold stress that may help to understand the pathways involved in cold resistance.

  18. Mapping QTL for Sex and Growth Traits in Salt-Tolerant Tilapia (Oreochromis spp. X O. mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace; Chua, Elaine; Orban, Laszlo; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    In aquaculture, growth and sex are economically important traits. To accelerate genetic improvement in increasing growth in salt-tolerant tilapia, we conducted QTL mapping for growth traits and sex with an F2 family, including 522 offspring and two parents. We used 144 polymorphic microsatellites evenly covering the genome of tilapia to genotype the family. QTL analyses were carried out using interval mapping for all individuals, males and females in the family, respectively. Using all individuals, three suggestive QTL for body weight, body length and body thickness respectively were detected in LG20, LG22 and LG12 and explained 2.4% to 3.1% of phenotypic variance (PV). When considering only males, five QTL for body weight were detected on five LGs, and explained 4.1 to 6.3% of PV. Using only females from the F2 family, three QTL for body weight were detected on LG1, LG6 and LG8, and explained 7.9-14.3% of PV. The QTL for body weight in males and females were located in different LGs, suggesting that in salt-tolerant tilapia, different set of genes 'switches' control the growth in males and females. QTL for sex were mapped on LG1 and LG22, indicating multigene sex determination in the salt-tolerant tilapia. This study provides new insights on the locations and effects of QTL for growth traits and sex, and sets the foundation for fine mapping for future marker-assisted selection for growth and sex in salt-tolerant tilapia aquaculture.

  19. Effects of water physico-chemical parameters on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus growth in earthen ponds in Teso North Sub-County, Busia County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agano J. Makori

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small-scale fish farmers in developing countries are faced with challenges owing to their limited information on aquaculture management. Nile tilapia farmers in Teso North Sub-County recorded lower yields than expected in 2009 despite having been provided with required inputs. Water quality was suspected to be the key factor responsible for the low yields. This study sought to assess the effects of earthen pond water physico-chemical parameters on the growth of Nile tilapia in six earthen fish ponds under semi-intensive culture system in Teso North Sub-County. The study was longitudinal in nature with pond water and fish being the units of analysis. Systematic sampling was used to select five ponds while a control pond was purposively selected based on its previously high harvest. Four ponds were fed by surface flow and two by underground water. Each pond was fertilized and stocked with 900 fry of averagely 1.4 g and 4.4 cm. Physico-chemical parameters were measured in-situ using a multi-parameter probe. Sixty fish samples were randomly obtained from each pond fortnightly for four months using a 10 mm mesh size and measured, weighed and returned into the pond. Mean range of physico-chemical parameters were: dissolved oxygen (DO 4.86–10.53 mg/l, temperature 24-26 °C, pH 6.1–8.3, conductivity 35–87 μS/cm and ammonia 0.01–0.3 mg/l. Temperature (p = 0.012 and conductivity (p = 0.0001 levels varied significantly between ponds. Overall Specific Growth Rate ranged between 1.8% (0.1692 g/day and 3.8% (1.9 g/day. Ammonia, DO and pH in the ponds were within the optimal levels for growth of tilapia, while temperature and conductivity were below optimal levels. As temperature and DO increased, growth rate of tilapia increased. However, increase in conductivity, pH and ammonia decreased fish growth rate. Temperature and DO ranging between 27 and 30 °C and 5–23 mg/l, respectively, and SGR of 3.8%/day and above are

  20. [Influences of ration level and initial body weight on growth and size hierarchy of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan

    2003-02-01

    72 hybrid tilapia were distributed into twelve tanks, each stocked in six fish (A, B, C, D, E, F) with different body size. The initial body weight was 62.69 +/- 1.46 g for fish A, 56.48 +/- 1.30 g for B, 50.75 +/- 1.19 g for C, 35.56 +/- 1.18 g for D, 31.05 +/- 0.88 g for E, and 27.35 +/- 0.95 g for F (mean +/- SE). The fish were reared under four ration levels (deprived of feed, fed at 1.5% body weight per day (BW.d-1), fed at 3.0% BW.d-1, or fed excess) throughout four weeks, respectively. The specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) of the fish increased with increasing ration level up to 3.0% BW.d-1, and then, SGR maintained at a constant level while FE dropped with continuing increase of ration. The variance coefficient of SGR and final body weight was relatively high in the fish that fed at 1.5% BW.d-1. For fish A, SGR was not significantly different, between 1.5% BW.d-1, 3.0% BW.d-1 and fed excess, while in fish F, relatively high variations were found among different ration treatments. This experiment revealed that the growth and size hierarchy of hybrid tilapia were related to their ration level and initial body size. Under ration levels more than 3.0% BW.d-1, SGR was usually high, and size hierarchy was relatively weak.

  1. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Belém-Costa,Andréa; Cyrino,José Eurico Possebon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  2. Effects of salinity on metabolic rate and branchial expression of genes involved in ion transport and metabolism in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikos, Aris; Seale, Andre P; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Korsmeyer, Keith E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of two rearing salinities, and acute salinity transfer, on the energetic costs of osmoregulation and the expression of metabolic and osmoregulatory genes in the gill of Mozambique tilapia. Using automated, intermittent-flow respirometry, measured standard metabolic rates (SMRs) of tilapia reared in seawater (SW, 130 mg O₂ kg⁻¹ h⁻¹) were greater than those reared in fresh water (FW, 103 mg O₂ kg⁻¹ h⁻¹), when normalized to a common mass of 0.05 kg and at 25±1°C. Transfer from FW to 75% SW increased SMR within 18h, to levels similar to SW-reared fish, while transfer from SW to FW decreased SMR to levels similar to FW-reared fish. Branchial gene expression of Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ cotransporter (NKCC), an indicator of SW-type mitochondria-rich (MR) cells, was positively correlated with SMR, while Na⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporter (NCC), an indicator of FW-type MR cells, was negatively correlated. Principal Components Analysis also revealed that branchial expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and a putative mitochondrial biogenesis regulator in fish, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), were correlated with a higher SMR, plasma osmolality, and environmental salinity, while expression of glycogen synthase (GS), PGC-1β, and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) had negative correlations. These results suggest that the energetic costs of osmoregulation are higher in SW than in FW, which may be related to the salinity-dependent differences in osmoregulatory mechanisms found in the gills of Mozambique tilapia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Edad y crecimiento del híbrido de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae en la represa “Zimapán” Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gómez-Ponce

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La edad y crecimiento de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus fueron determinados por medio de la lectura de escamas. Un total de 382 individuos fueron capturados mediante el uso de redes agalleras y atarrayas. Ocho recolectas mensuales se llevaron a cabo entre septiembre 2003-mayo 2004; se registraron los datos de longitud estándar en cm. (Le, el peso total en g (Pt y se obtuvieron muestras de escamas para registrar el largo de la escama en mm. (Lesc y el número de anillos de crecimiento formados. Las tallas y pesos de recolecta variaron entre 38 a 232mm (Le y de 8.7 a 311.9g de peso total (Pt respectivamente. El recuento de los anillos anuales en escamas, permitió establecer cuatro grupos de edad, siendo el grupo de edad 2 el más representativo, con un 34.3% de la población muestreada. El cálculo de los incrementos marginales del crecimiento mensual de las escamas, sugirió la formación de dos anillos, uno de ellos se forma en los meses de noviembre-enero y otro en los meses de abril-mayo, los cuales coinciden con la época de bajas temperaturas y de madurez gonádica respectivamente. Los parámetros de crecimiento quedaron establecidos en: L∞=281.1mm, W∞=877.1g, K=0.33 y T0=0.88/año. Las curvas de crecimiento en longitud y peso se describieron mediante las ecuaciones de von Bertalanffy: Le=28.11 [1- e-0.33(t+0.88] y Pt=877.17 [1-e-0.33(t+0.88]³. Finalmente, se concluyó que los peces que se explotan en la represa mediante captura comercial presentan entre un año y año y medio de edad.

  4. Densidade de estocagem no desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., durante a reversão sexual Stocking density effect on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. fry performance during sex reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Eduardo Ferrari Sanches

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar os efeitos da densidade de estocagem no desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, durante a fase de reversão sexual em águas verdes, foram estocadas 1.500 larvas com peso médio de 12,41mg e comprimento total médio de 9,38mm em tanques-rede de 12,5 litros, nas densidades de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 larvas/litro, em delineamento totalmente aleatório com 4 repetições. Essas foram tratadas com ração comercial fina com 43% de PB, contendo 60mg de metiltestosterona/kg, 6 vezes por dia, durante 28 dias. O aumento da densidade resultou em menor peso e comprimento médios finais, definidos por modelos de regressão. O efeito da densidade sobre a diminuição do crescimento se evidenciou a partir da terceira semana de criação. A biomassa total e a conversão alimentar mostraram-se incrementadas com o aumento da densidade. A sobrevivência, o fator de condição e o coeficiente de variação foram independentes da densidade. Conclui-se que 2 larvas/litro devem ser usadas, quando se objetiva produção de alevinos maiores; mas densidades maiores podem ser utilizadas, obtendo-se alevinos menores, porém incrementando a biomassa total.To study the effects of stocking density on the performance of newborn fries of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, during sex reversal stage in green waters, 1500 fries were stocked with 12.41mg of average weight and 9.38mm of total average length in hapas of 12,5 litres, at densities of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 fries/litre, in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. They were fed with a fine commercial diet containing 43% CP, and 60mg of methyltestosterone/kg, six times a day, during 28 days. The density increase resulted in lower final average weight and length defined by regression models. The effect of density on the growth decrease started to be significative on the second week of rearing, while the total biomass and feed conversion were increased with the density increase

  5. Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Peixoto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de controle respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I e com succinato (complexo II foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1 na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte.A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3.3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I or succinate (complex II, respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1 in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

  6. Influence of Cooking (Microwaving and Broiling) on Cylindrospermopsin Concentration in Muscle of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Characterization of Decomposition Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana I; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Valderrama-Fernández, Rocío; Jos, Ángeles; Cameán, Ana M

    2017-05-26

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has become increasingly important as a freshwater algal toxin, showing cytotoxic effects. This toxin is able to bioaccumulate in freshwater food webs, representing a serious human health problem. Normally, fish is cooked before consumption, and CYN concentration can be altered. For the first time, the effects of microwaving and broiling for 1 and 2 min on CYN concentration and its decomposition products in fish muscle ( Oreochromis niloticus ) contaminated in the laboratory were investigated, using UPLC-MS/MS and Orbitrap. The results show that cooking the fish reduced unconjugated CYN levels by 11, 10 and 15% after microwaving for 1 and 2 min, and broiling for 2 min, respectively, compared to control fish. Different CYN decomposition products with m / z 416.1234 (7-epi-CYN) and m / z 336.16663 (diasteroisomers C-3A, C-3C, C-3D, C-3E, C-3F) are generated in fish samples submitted to cooking. Based on the relative abundance of the decomposition products, the possible degradation pathways taking place by microwaving may be through the formation of 7-epi-CYN and m / z 336.16663 compounds, whereas in the case of broiling the last route is the only one observed in this study. The influence of cooking and the toxicity characterization of the degradation products generated in CYN-contaminated fish are of importance for more realistic risk evaluation related to their consumption.

  7. Effect of methomyl on sex steroid hormone and vitellogenin levels in serum of male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and recovery pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shun-Long; Qiu, Li-Ping; Hu, Geng-Dong; Fan, Li-Min; Song, Chao; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jian-Hong; Li, Dan-Dan; Chen, Jia-Zhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-07-01

    Tilapia were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0, 0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μg/L for 30 days, then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. E 2 , T, 11-KTand VTG in serum were examined. There were no significant changes in all the parameters in serum of tilapia exposed to 0.2 μg/L and 2 μg/L methomyl compared to the control. However, 20 μg/L and 200 μg/L have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of male tilapia, as shown by its ability to increase VTG and E 2 and decrease T and 11-KT in serum. Thus it would appear the no observed adverse effect level for sexual steroid hormones of methomyl is lower than 2 μg/L. Recovery data showed that the effects produced by 20μg/L were reversible but not at 200μg/L. Furthermore, the sensitivity of above parameters to methomyl followed the order of VTG>E 2 >11-KT>T>GSI, suggesting VTG being the better biomarkers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Efeito da lavagem e da adição de aditivos sobre a estabilidade de carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus durante estocagem a -18 ºC Effect of washing and increase of additives on minced stability of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during storage under -18 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gaberz Kirschnik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da lavagem e da adição de eritorbato de sódio e tripolifosfato de sódio na estabilidade de Carne Mecanicamente Separada (CMS de tilápia de Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus durante 6 meses de armazenamento a -18 ºC. A CMS obtida por meio de máquina separadora de carne e ossos foi dividida em quatro tratamentos (CMS lavada com e sem aditivos, e CMS não lavada com e sem aditivos e mantida sob congelamento a -18 ºC, por 180 dias. A estabilidade foi avaliada por meio de análises microbiológicas e determinações de nitrogênio não proteico (NNP, bases nitrogenadas voláteis (BNV, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, pH e drip (perda de água no descongelamento. O processo de lavagem causou redução de aproximadamente 41, 44 e 66% nos teores de proteína bruta, lipídios e cinzas, respectivamente, reduzindo também os valores iniciais de NNP, BNV e TBARS. Durante o armazenamento, foram observados aumentos (p 0,05 os teores de TBARS. Os parâmetros microbiológicos avaliados não ultrapassaram os limites permitidos pela legislação. As CMS permaneceram estáveis e em boas condições de utilização, independentemente da inclusão de aditivo, sendo viável sua estocagem a -18 ºC por 180 dias.This study evaluates the influence of washing and adding sodium erythorbate and sodium tripolyphosphate on the stability of minced Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during 6 months of storage under -18 ºC. The minced fish was obtained using a meat bone separator and was divided into four treatments (washed minced fish with or without additives and non-washed minced fish with or without additives and kept at -18 ºC for 180 days. The stability of the minced fish was evaluated by microbiological analyses and the following parameters non-proteic nitrogen (NNP, total nitrogen volatile bases (BNV, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS, pH, and Drip (loss of water in thaw

  9. Pig-duck-fish-azolla integration in La Union, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Gavina, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Three studies on pig-duck-fish-azolla integration were conducted simultaneously in La Union, Philippines. Growth performance of pigs and ducks as affected by different levels of azolla meal in their feed, and that of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under varying stocking rates are presented and discussed.

  10. Hybridisation between native Oreochromis species and introduced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus has been introduced throughout Africa outside its native range for aquaculture purposes. Hybridisation between escaped O. niloticus and native Oreochromis species is of concern due to potential negative effects on wild genetic resources for conservation, aquaculture and capture ...

  11. Enhancing benefits from polycultures including tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) within integrated pond-dike systems: A participatory trial with households of varying socio-economic level in rural and peri-urban areas of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, M.; Little, D.C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Telfer, T.; Wahab, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Linkages between the fish ponds and surrounding land for horticulture are a distinctive feature of farming households in Bangladesh. It was hypothesised that integration of fish ponds in integrated farming system enhances livelihoods and reduces poverty. The effects of introducing tilapia into

  12. Expression of Key Ion Transporters in the Gill and Esophageal-Gastrointestinal Tract of Euryhaline Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus Acclimated to Fresh Water, Seawater and Hypersaline Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Lui, Eei Yin; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Ip, Yuen Kwong; Lin, Qingsong; Lam, Toong Jin; Lam, Siew Hong

    2014-01-01

    The ability of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia to tolerate extreme environmental salinities makes it an excellent model for investigating iono-regulation. This study aimed to characterize and fill important information gap of the expression levels of key ion transporters for Na+ and Cl− in the gill and esophageal-gastrointestinal tract of Mozambique tilapia acclimated to freshwater (0 ppt), seawater (30 ppt) and hypersaline (70 ppt) environments. Among the seven genes studied, it was found that nkcc2, nkcc1a, cftr, nka-α1 and nka-α3, were more responsive to salinity challenge than nkcc1b and ncc within the investigated tissues. The ncc expression was restricted to gills of freshwater-acclimated fish while nkcc2 expression was restricted to intestinal segments irrespective of salinity challenge. Among the tissues investigated, gill and posterior intestine were found to be highly responsive to salinity changes, followed by anterior and middle intestine. Both esophagus and stomach displayed significant up-regulation of nka-α1 and nka-α3, but not nkcc isoforms and cftr, in hypersaline-acclimated fish suggesting a response to hypersalinity challenge and involvement of other forms of transporters in iono-regulation. Changes in gene expression levels were partly corroborated by immunohistochemical localization of transport proteins. Apical expression of Ncc was found in Nka-immunoreactive cells in freshwater-acclimated gills while Nkcc co-localized with Nka-immunoreactive cells expressing Cftr apically in seawater- and hypersaline-acclimated gills. In the intestine, Nkcc-stained apical brush border was found in Nka-immunoreactive cells at greater levels under hypersaline conditions. These findings provided new insights into the responsiveness of these genes and tissues under hypersalinity challenge, specifically the posterior intestine being vital for salt absorption and iono-osmoregulation in the Mozambique tilapia; its ability to survive in hypersalinity may be in

  13. EFFECTS OF THE HEAVY METAL, ZINC, ON THE FRESHWATER FISH TILAPIA NILOTICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGINIA S. CARING

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills, gonads, and blood of Tilapia nilotica exposed to different concentrations of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4. 7H2O exhibited histological effects. Gills of posthatch larvae exposed chronically for 21 days to 2 ppm zinc sulfate and fingerlings to 10 ppm sublethal zinc concentrations exhibited hyperplasia that resulted in fusion of adjacent secondary gill lamellae. The same effects were observed in 4-hour short-term exposure to 30 ppm lethal dose. Posthatch larvae subjected to 2 and 5 ppm sublethal levels of zinc for 30 days retained undifferentiated gonads with differentiation with oogonial proliferation. Ovaries of control fish demonstrated healthy oocyte growth and other normal histological features after 57 days. In contrast, ovaries in treated groups exhibited excessive amounts of connective tissue, hyperemia and markedly reduced oocyte number. Oocytes had wavy irregular surface outlines. Deviation from normal was observed to be dose dependent. In juvenile tilapia, spermatogenesis was observed in control testes. Testes of zinc-exposed fish, on the other hand, remained immature. Hyperemia was markedly pronounced in both testes and ovary after 90 days exposure to zinc. Blood of Tilapia nilotica fingerlings exposed to sublethal concentrations of 2, 5, and 10 ppm zinc for 30, 60, and 90 days exhibited anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. There was an increase in hematocrit values in zinc-reared fish which, however, reverted to control/near control levels at day 90. Hemoglobin values were inversely proportional to the level of zinc in the rearing water. The marked reduction in hemoglobin values in fish reared at the higher zinc concentrations of 5 and 10 ppm suggests the development of some degree of anemia which is also supported by the observations of anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. INTRODUCTION Heavy metal contamination of aquatic environments has become a current serious problem because of increased industrialization. In the Philippines, data gathered

  14. Desempenho de diferentes linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus na fase de reversão sexual - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1794 Performance of different Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains, during sex reversal phase - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1794

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Barros

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento utilizou 4 linhagens de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus chamadas de CESP, Pernambuco, Santa Catarina e Tailandesa. O objetivo do projeto foi comparar o desempenho e a sobrevivência dessas diferentes linhagens de tilápia do Nilo na fase de reversão sexual. As pós-larvas foram estocadas em aquários de 4,5L em sistema de recirculação e com temperatura constante. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração contendo 60mg/kg de 17 alfa-metiltestosterona, fornecida 6 vezes ao dia, por período de 30 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos (linhagens e 7 repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: comprimento total, ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico, taxa de sobrevivência e eficiência de reversão sexual. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. A análise de reversão foi submetida ao teste de qui-quadrado. O resultado demonstra que houve maior eficiência na taxa de reversão sexual nas linhagens Santa Catarina e Pernambuco quando comparados com a CESP e a Tailandesa. As linhagens Tailandesa e Santa Catarina obtiveram maior taxa de sobrevivência e desempenho satisfatório durante a fase de reversão sexual, portanto, apresentam-se como as mais propícias para a criação em sistema de recirculação na fase de reversão sexual.This experiment aimed at comparing growth performance and survival of four Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains called CESP, Pernambuco, Santa Catarina and Thailand in sex reversal phase. Thirty Nile tilapia fries were stocked in 4.5L aquaria (6.66 fries/L with recirculation system and water temperature control. The fishes were fed with ration containing 60mg/kg of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, six times a day during 30 days. The experimental design was randomized with four treatments (strains and seven replications. Total length, weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate and sexual

  15. Effect of synbiotics between Bacillus licheniformis and yeast extract on growth, hematological and biochemical indices of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Hassaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve practical diets were formulated to contain four levels of Bacillus licheniformis (0.0, 0.24 × 106, 0.48 × 106 and 0.96 × 106 CFU g−1, respectively, with three yeast extract levels (0%, 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to duplicate groups of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.99 ± 0.03 g in 24 concrete ponds (0.5 m3 and 1.25 m depth for 12 weeks. Increasing dietary B. licheniformis levels in O. niloticus and yeast extract levels significantly (P < 0.01 improved growth performance and nutrient utilization. Supplementation of the experimental diets with, 0.48 × 106 CFU/g−1 and 1.0% yeast extract showed the best nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. All probiotic levels significantly (P < 0.01 increased chemical composition (P < 0.05 compared to the control group, while increasing yeast extract did not significantly alter chemical composition. Hematological indices, total protein and albumin of O. niloticus significantly increased while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase significantly (P < 0.01 decreased with an increase in B. licheniformis level up to 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1. Increasing levels of yeast extract had no effect on hematological parameters and the diets supplemented with 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1 and 0.5% yeast extract showed the highest hematological values.

  16. EVALUACIÓN DEL ENSILAJE DE VÍSCERAS DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis spp EN ALIMENTACIÓN DE POLLOS DE ENGORDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILMA M. GOMEZ N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los mayores costos de producción en la avicultura, son debidos a la alimentación, de ahí la importancia de generar estrategias encaminadas a su reducción, por ello, se planteó como objetivo, evaluar el efecto de la inclusión del ensilaje biológico de vísceras de tilapia roja (Oreochromis spp en la alimentación de pollos de engorde, durante la etapa de iniciación. Para ello se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar, con cuatro tratamientos, cuatro réplicas por tratamiento y 8 pollos por repetición. Los niveles de inclusión empleados fueron 0%, 10%, 20% y 30%. Se tomaron como variables de respuesta, el consumo de alimento, ganancia de peso, conversión alimenticia y su respectivo análisis económico. En la etapa de iniciación, solamente se presentaron diferencias estadísticas (p>0,05, para la variable consumo de alimento, mientras que en la etapa de finalización, donde no se incluyo ensilaje, no se presentaron diferencias significativas. Respecto al análisis económico, se determino que en la medida que se aumenta el nivel de inclusión de ensilaje, se reducen los costos de producción, hasta en un 22,2%, para el caso del tratamiento 3.

  17. Whole-body calcium flux rates in cichlid teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus adapted to freshwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flik, G.; Fenwick, J.C.; Kolar, Z.; Mayer-Gostan, N.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques were used to measure influx and efflux rates of Ca 2+ in freshwater-adapted Oreochromis mossambicus. The influx rate of Ca 2+ is related to body weight (W) as Fin = 50W0.805 nmol Ca 2+ /h. For a 20-g fish the calculated influx rate was 558 nmol Ca 2+ /h, and this was attributed largely to extraintestinal uptake since the drinking rate was estimated to be only 28 microliter water/h, which corresponds to an intake of 22.4 nmol Ca 2+ /h. The Ca 2+ efflux rate was calculated using the initial rate of appearance of radiotracer in the ambient water and the specific activity of plasma Ca 2+ . Tracer efflux rates were constant over 6-8 h, which indicated that there was no substantial loss of tracer in either the urine or the feces because this would have resulted in random bursts of tracer loss. Efflux rates then primarily represent integumentary and presumably branchial efflux rates. The efflux rate of Ca 2+ is related to body weight as Fout = 30W0.563 nmol Ca 2+ /h, which means an efflux rate of 162 nmol Ca 2+ /h for a 20-g fish. The net whole-body Ca 2+ influx, calculated as Fnet = Fin - Fout, was 396 nmol/h for a 20-g fish, which proves that the ambient water is an important source of Ca 2+

  18. Induction of hsp70 by the herbicide oxyfluorfen (Goal) in the Egyptian Nile fish, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, H M; Banhawy, M A; Soliman, F M; Abdel-Rehim, S A; Müller, W E; Schröder, H C

    1999-07-01

    This paper deals with the expression of the biomarker hsp70 in the liver and kidney of the freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to the herbicide oxyfluorfen (Goal). Fishes were exposed to three concentrations, the 96-h LC50 (3 mg/L), the 96-h (1/2)LC50 (1.5 mg/L), and the 96-h (1/4)LC50 (0.75 mg/L) of oxyfluorfen for 6, 15, and 24 days, respectively, and samples were taken at three different time periods for each concentration. The livers responded to the herbicide by an induction of the expression of both the constitutive (hsp75; Mr 75 kDa) and the inducible (hsp73; Mr 73 kDa) hsp70 proteins. In kidney, the herbicide induced a time-dependent increase in the expression of the constitutive hsp70 (hsp75) as well, but the inducible hsp70 (hsp73) required much longer incubation periods to reach maximal levels (15 and 24 days). Our results suggest that expression of hsp70 in fish is a sensitive indicator of cellular responses to herbicide exposure in the aquatic environment.

  19. Effect of stocking densities on growth, production and survival rate of red tilapia in hapa at fish hatchery Chilya Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malik Daudpota

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of stocking density on growth, production and survival of red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. niloticus were conducted in hapa for 60 days at Chilya Thatta. Tilapia fry (4.5±0.02 cm, 2.0±0.01 g were stocked into hapa (4.5x2.4x1 m. Three treatments with two replicates were used: T1-200; T2-250 and T3-300 fry/hapa. Fry were fed twice a daily with pelleted feed containing 35% protein, 5% of total biomass. After 60 days, the highest growth were determined in T1 (49.8±0.0 g while in T3 lowest growth (29.09±0.0 g was recorded. Production (9.56, 10.13 and 8.12 kg/m3/60days in T1, T2 and T3 respectively were significantly different (P0.05. Survival was significantly different among treatments (P<0.01. Highest survival (100% was attained in T1 with lower stocking density, followed by T2 (98% and T3 (95%. Water quality parameters recorded throughout the study period were found within the ranges for fish culture such as temperature 27.2 to 28.5 °C, dissolved oxygen 5.8 to 6.4 mg/l, pH 6.9 to 7.6, ammonia from 0.45 to 0.51 mg/l, hardness 106 to 110 ppm and nitrite 0.151 to 0.162 mg/l.

  20. Farelo de canola para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem Chitralada - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896 Canola meal for juvenile Nile tilapia, Chitralada strain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Romano Fernandes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de diferentes níveis de farelo de canola em rações, sobre o desempenho e composição de carcaça de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., linhagem Chitralada. Foram utilizadas 15 caixas de polipropileno com capacidade para 310L, com dez peixes por unidade. Os peixes foram alimentados à saciação com cinco rações isoprotéicas (28% e isocalóricas (2900 Kcal ED/Kg, duas vezes ao dia, durante seis meses. O farelo de canola foi utilizado em quatro níveis (TT=0%, T1=8%, T2=16%, T3=24%, e T4=32%/dieta, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p0,1 sobre a composição corporal dos peixes, sendo que os níveis de 16% e 24% de farelo de canola proporcionaram os melhores ganhos de peso. Conclui-se que a utilização do farelo de canola é viável quando incluído em até 24% na ração para a tilápia do Nilo, linhagem Chitralada.This work evaluated the inclusion of several levels of canola meal in ration used in the development and carcass compositions of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., Chitralada strain. Were used 15 polypropylene boxes, with 310 liters (10 fish each. The fish were fed with five isonitrogenous (28% and isocaloric ration (2900 Kcal EM/kg, twice a day for six months. The canola meal was used in four levels (TT = 0%, T1 = 8%, T2 = 16%, T3 = 24% and T4 = 32% / diet, in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and three repetitions each. The data obtained were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA and the averages compared by the Tukey test (p0,1 on fishes body composition, however had best body weight gain with canola meal on levels 16% and 24%. These values seem to show that for the Nile Tilapia, Chilatrada strain, the use of canola meal is viable when included in up

  1. Comparing the effects of different dietary organic acids on the growth, intestinal short-chain fatty acids, and liver histopathology of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and potential use of these as preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Daeman, Nor Hafizah; Chong, Chou Min; Karami, Ali; Kumar, Vikas; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Romano, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    Dietary organic acids are increasingly being investigated as a potential means of improving growth and nutrient utilization in aquatic animals. A 9-week study was performed to compare equal amounts (2%) of different organic acids (sodium butyrate, acetate, propionate, or formate) on the growth, muscle proximate composition, fatty acid composition, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation, differential cell counts, plasma biochemistry, intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level, and liver histopathology to red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) (initial mean weight of 2.87 g). A second experiment was performed to determine their effects on lipid peroxidation and trimethylamine (TMA) when added at 1% to tilapia meat and left out for 24 h. The results of the first experiment showed no treatment effect to growth, feeding efficiencies, or muscle fatty acid composition, but all dietary organic acids significantly decreased intestinal SCFA. Dietary butyrate and propionate significantly decreased muscle lipid peroxidation compared to the control group, but the dietary formate treatment had the lowest lipid peroxidation compared to all treatments. Muscle crude protein and lipid in tilapia fed the formate diet were significantly lower and higher, respectively, and showed evidence of stress based on the differential cell counts, significantly higher plasma glucose and liver glycogen, as well as inflammatory responses in the liver. Although a potential benefit of dietary organic acids was a reduction to lipid peroxidation, this could be accomplished post-harvest by direct additions to the meat. In addition, inclusions of butyrate and propionate to tilapia meat significantly decreased TMA, which might be a more cost-effective option to improve the shelf life of tilapia products.

  2. Characterization of derived natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, A. N. K. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite, (HAp), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is recognised as a biomaterial that is widely used for bone implant due to its chemical and structural similarity to the mineral components in human bone and enamel. The elements of HAp are primarily composed of calcium and phosphorus molar ratio of calcium to phosphorous is 1.67 capable to promote bone in-growth into prosthetic implant. Enormous amounts of by-product waste produced from fish factories generated an undesirable environmental impact. Thus, this study was conducted to obtain natural biological HAp from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales from fishery waste. Therefore, fish bones and scales can be as cheap source to produce biological HAp for medical applications. For this purpose, fish bones and scales of tilapia fish were boiled at 100°C to remove adhering meat and other impurities. Later, fish bones and scales were separated into several groups and subjected to different calcination temperatures of 800° C and 900° C for 3h respectively. Afterward, all calcined samples were crushed to form a fine powder. The XRD result revealed the presence of derived Hapfrom the samples powder and were identical with standard Hap. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was carried out to show the thermal stability of the HAp powder from different types of fish bones and scales. SEM results show porous structure appeared in calcined samples compared to raw samples. The findings are the promising alternative to produce calcium and phosphorus from fishery wastes that beneficial to medical applications.

  3. Evaluation of the technological quality presented for a canned Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusAvaliação da qualidade tecnológica apresentada por tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus enlatada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice Sarmento

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fish is qui