WorldWideScience

Sample records for tiibeti pev prnu

  1. Tiibeti välispoliitika 20. sajandi alul / Maret Kark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kark, Maret

    2005-01-01

    Tiibeti ajaloolistest suhetest Hiina, Suurbritannia, Venemaa ja Mongooliaga, 1907. aasta Inglise-Vene konventsioonist, Mandzhu-Hiina poliitikast Tiibetis aastatel 1904-1913, Tiibeti iseseisvuse väljakuulutamisest seoses 1911. a. Hiina revolutsiooniga, 1912. aasta Mongoolia-Tiibeti lepingust, 1914. aasta Simla konventsioonist ning Tiibeti poliitilisest staatusest tänapäeval

  2. Tiibeti viimane võimalus / Roy Strider

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Strider, Roy, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Tiibeti väljaõppeta vabadusvõitlejate-meeleavaldajate piinamistest hiinlaste poolt, Hiina võimude taktikast konflikti lahendamisel. Tiibeti ülestõusu peaeesmärgiks on oma jõuriismeid kokku võttes tõmmata maailma tähelepanu kultuurilisele ja füüsilisele genotsiidile, kirjutab autor

  3. Tiibeti värske tuul / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Tiibeti kaasaegse kunsti näitus Tallinnas Temnikova & Kasela galeriis 30. sept.-ni. Pikemalt Tenzing Rigdoli loomingust. Näitus "Himaalaja tuuled" Tallinnas Tam Galeriis 17.-31.08.2011. Tiibeti paviljon Venezia biennaalil 3.06.-31.08.2011. Itaalia kunstniku Ruggero Maggi väljaspool ametlikku programmi organiseeritud näitusel oli enamik eksponeeritud töödest pühendatud Tiibetile, kuid tehtud kunstnike poolt, kes ise seal ei ela

  4. Integrating PEVs with Renewables and the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Markel, Tony; Jun, Myungsoo; Zhang, Jiucai

    2016-06-29

    This presentation is an overview of NREL's Electric Vehicle Grid Integration (EVGI) efforts toward integrating Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) with renewable energy and the grid. Efforts include managed charging, local power quality, emergency backup power, and bi-directional power flow. Discussion of future vehicle-related activities under the Grid Modernization Initiative by the Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Working Group.

  5. Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) smart charging module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason; Dobrzynski, Daniel S.

    2017-09-12

    A smart charging system for charging a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) includes an electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) configured to supply electrical power to the PEV through a smart charging module coupled to the EVSE. The smart charging module comprises an electronic circuitry which includes a processor. The electronic circuitry includes electronic components structured to receive electrical power from the EVSE, and supply the electrical power to the PEV. The electronic circuitry is configured to measure a charging parameter of the PEV. The electronic circuitry is further structured to emulate a pulse width modulated signal generated by the EVSE. The smart charging module can also include a first coupler structured to be removably couple to the EVSE and a second coupler structured to be removably coupled to the PEV.

  6. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Pilkee; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2016-12-26

    Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC) operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved.

  7. Aligning PEV Charging Times with Electricity Supply and Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are a growing source of electricity consumption that could either exacerbate supply shortages or smooth electricity demand curves. Extensive research has explored how vehicle-grid integration (VGI) can be optimized by controlling PEV charging timing or providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services, such as storing energy in vehicle batteries and returning it to the grid at peak times. While much of this research has modeled charging, implementation in the real world requires a cost-effective solution that accounts for consumer behavior. To function across different contexts, several types of charging administrators and methods of control are necessary to minimize costs in the VGI context.

  8. What Use Patterns Were Observed for PEV Drivers at Publicly Accessible AC Level 2 EVSE Sites?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The EV Project deployed over 4,000 ACL2 EVSE for drivers to charge their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) when away-from-home. The vast majority of these EVSE stations were installed to be available to all PEV drivers at publicly accessible locations. Some were also deployed for use at workplaces and fleets. This paper examines only the use patterns of PEV drivers using the EVSE intended to be publicly accessible.

  9. An Assessment of Causes of PEV Success Across U.S. Metro Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Santini, D.; Rood, M.; Bluestein, L.; Mitchell, G.; Stephens, T.; Ward, J.

    2016-06-19

    Using 2014 U.S. light duty PEV registrations by make and model, this paper assesses the causes of Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) success across U.S. states focusing on areas that had incentive and utility programs supporting PEV adoption. Market segments investigated were (1) luxury/performance (>$60,000 list price), (2) mid-market ($40-50,000), (3) mass market (<$40.000), and (4) total. States with either exclusive or preferential BEV incentives are a focus. BEV-biased incentives proved to be very effective in promoting mass market BEVs. After controlling for these attributes, case studies for several utility service areas were conducted to gauge whether PEVs were more or less successfully implemented via outreach by those utilities. These investigations suggest ways that utilities can successfully increase PEV registrations, after taking local climate and state incentives into consideration.

  10. RADIOACTIVE UHECR ASTRONOMY: CORRELATING GAMMA ANISOTROPY AND NEUTRINO PEV EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fargion

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available UHECR (Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays were expected to be protons, to fly straight and to suffer of a GZK (opacity on CMB radiation cut off. AUGER did suggest on 2007 that such early UHECR anisotropy was compatible with the foreseen Super-Galactic plane while both HIRES and AUGER confirmed such apparent GZK cut-off in the spectra. However the same AUGER composition since 2007 was favoring nuclei (and not nucleon. The recent absence of narrow angle clustering in UHECR maps, as it should be expected by protons, the missing of events along nearest Cluster Virgo, the wide spread (16° angle of UHECR along CenA are in disagreement with first proton–UHECR AUGER understanding. We claimed since 2008 a light nuclei role for CenA crowded area. On the other side the ICECUBE absence of TeVs neutrino clustering or anisotropy, its spectra steepening is favoring mostly a ruling atmospheric neutrino noise up to tens TeV. However recent two PeV neutrino event cannot easily coexist or being extrapolate with such atmospheric ruling scenario, nor with GZK (either nucleon or nuclei secondaries expected spectra. Finally tens TeV gamma anisotropy in ARGO–MILAGRO–ICECUBE maps may hardly be associated with known hadronic sources. Weimagine such anisotropy ruled by diffused gamma secondaries, being shine along UHECR bending and flight: radioactive light and heavy UHECR nuclei, while decaying in flight, may paint in the sky (by gamma, electrons and neutrinos their trajectories and bending, connecting UHECR spread events with TeV anisotropy, as well offering a very realistic source of first, otherwise puzzling, observed PeV neutrinos.

  11. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  12. Methodology for the optimal design of PEV charging systems with multiple chargers and distributed resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, Samantha Joellyn; Perreault, David J.; Suresh, Sindhu; Afridi, Khurram

    2013-01-01

    Increased penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will necessitate deployment of numerous PEV chargers. Pairing these chargers with renewable distributed generation (DG) and storage can potentially alleviate negative impacts on the distribution grid and help meet renewable portfolio goals. The optimal design of such integrated charging systems depends on many factors, including geographic location and charging profiles. This paper presents an optimization methodology for designing int...

  13. Low energy probes of PeV scale sfermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Harnik, Roni; Zupan, Jure

    2013-11-27

    We derive bounds on squark and slepton masses in mini-split supersymmetry scenario using low energy experiments. In this setup gauginos are at the TeV scale, while sfermions are heavier by a loop factor. We cover the most sensitive low energy probes including electric dipole moments (EDMs), meson oscillations and charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) transitions. A leading log resummation of the large logs of gluino to sfermion mass ratio is performed. A sensitivity to PeV squark masses is obtained at present from kaon mixing measurements. A number of observables, including neutron EDMs, mu->e transitions and charmed meson mixing, will start probing sfermion masses in the 100 TeV-1000 TeV range with the projected improvements in the experimental sensitivities. We also discuss the implications of our results for a variety of models that address the flavor hierarchy of quarks and leptons. We find that EDM searches will be a robust probe of models in which fermion masses are generated radiatively, while LFV searches remain sensitive to simple-texture based flavor models.

  14. Low energy probes of PeV scale sfermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Harnik, Roni; Zupan, Jure

    2013-11-01

    We derive bounds on squark and slepton masses in mini-split supersymmetry scenario using low energy experiments. In this setup gauginos are at the TeV scale, while sfermions are heavier by a loop factor. We cover the most sensitive low energy probes including electric dipole moments (EDMs), meson oscillations and charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) transitions. A leading log resummation of the large logs of gluino to sfermion mass ratio is performed. A sensitivity to PeV squark masses is obtained at present from kaon mixing measurements. A number of observables, including neutron EDMs, μ to e transitions and charmed meson mixing, will start probing sfermion masses in the 100 TeV-1000 TeV range with the projected improvements in the experimental sensitivities. We also discuss the implications of our results for a variety of models that address the flavor hierarchy of quarks and leptons. We find that EDM searches will be a robust probe of models in which fermion masses are generated radiatively, while LFV searches remain sensitive to simple-texture based flavor models.

  15. Second Use of PEV Batteries: A Massive Storage Resource for Revolutionizing the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad; Wood, Eric; Smith, Kandler

    2015-05-27

    The market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are both presently impeded by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies-in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market-could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary repurposed PEV batteries to serve grid applications for energy storage. The authors view this as of significant importance, as our expectation is that such batteries will be both cheap and plentiful. Understanding the dynamics of B2U will be important for customers and utilities in need of storage to understand when and where such batteries will be applicable. It will also be important for suppliers of other energy storage technologies, as repurposed PEV batteries could pose a significant threat to their business model.

  16. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  17. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  18. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Stennis Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which NASA Stennis Space Center (Stennis) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  20. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  1. Time delay of the PeV gamma ray burst after the October 1985 radio flare of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 remains a puzzling and controversial source of ultra-high-energy radiation, E ≥ 0.1 PeV. In existing data, TeV and sometimes PeV radiation has been seen episodically; such an episode is connected with the radio flare of Cyg X-3 in October 1985, when PeV radiation with no phase structure was seen. The PeV pulse was detected 3-5 days after the radio flare. The author proposes a natural explanation for the delay, in which gamma-photons of PeV energy are absorbed by radio radiation inside the source. After a delay, the gamma radiation emerges as the radio flux diminishes and absorption decreases. (author)

  2. Testing the Dark Matter Scenario for PeV Neutrinos Observed in IceCube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murase, K.; Laha, R.; Ando, S.; Ahlers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Late time decay of very heavy dark matter is considered as one of the possible explanations for diffuse PeV neutrinos observed in IceCube. We consider implications of multimessenger constraints, and show that proposed models are marginally consistent with the diffuse gamma-ray background data.

  3. PeV Neutrinos Observed by IceCube from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    I show that the high energy neutrino flux predicted to arise from active galactic nuclei cores can explain the PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube without conflicting with the constraints from the observed extragalactic cosmic-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  4. Secure Plug-in Electric Vehicle PEV Charging in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shuaib

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Charging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs exposes smart grid systems and their users to different kinds of security and privacy attacks. Hence, a secure charging protocol is required for PEV charging. Existing PEV charging protocols are usually based on insufficiently represented and simplified charging models that do not consider the user’s charging modes (charging at a private location, charging as a guest user, roaming within one’s own supplier network or roaming within other suppliers’ networks. However, the requirement for charging protocols depends greatly on the user’s charging mode. Consequently, available solutions do not provide complete protocol specifications. Moreover, existing protocols do not support anonymous user authentication and payment simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive end-to-end charging protocol that addresses the security and privacy issues in PEV charging. The proposed protocol uses nested signatures to protect users’ privacy from external suppliers, their own suppliers and third parties. Our approach supports anonymous user authentication, anonymous payment, as well as anonymous message exchange between suppliers within a hierarchical smart grid architecture. We have verified our protocol using the AVISPA software verification tool and the results showed that our protocol is secure and works as desired.

  5. Do PEV Drivers Park Near Publicly Accessible EVSE in San Diego but Not Use Them?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The PEV charging stations deployed as part of The EV Project included both residential and non-residential sites. Non-residential sites included EVSE installed in workplace environments, fleet applications and those that were publicly accessible near retail centers, parking lots, and similar locations. The EV Project utilized its Micro-Climate® planning process to determine potential sites for publicly accessible EVSE in San Diego. This process worked with local stakeholders to target EVSE deployment near areas where significant PEV traffic and parking was expected. This planning process is described in The Micro-Climate deployment Process in San Diego1. The EV Project issued its deployment plan for San Diego in November 2010, prior to the sale of PEVs by Nissan and Chevrolet. The Project deployed residential EVSE concurrent with vehicle delivery starting in December 2010. The installation of non-residential EVSE commenced in April 2011 consistent with the original Project schedule, closely following the adoption of PEVs. The residential participation portion of The EV Project was fully subscribed by January 2013 and the non-residential EVSE deployment was essentially completed by August 2013.

  6. Gulmarg estimate of PeV photon flux from Cygnus X-3 and its relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.L.; Sapru, M.L.; Razdan, H.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of atmospheric Cerenkov pulses recorded during January 1976 - December 1977, by a wide-angle photomultiplier system at Gulmarg (India), reveals a phase-dependent component exhibiting the characteristic Cygnus X-3 modulation period of 4.8h. Its amplitude, given by the number of excess events in the phase peak relative to the total phase-independent events, is found to be (1.8 ± 0.4)per cent, corresponding to a detected average flux of (1.6 ± 0.4) x 10 -12 γcm -2 s -1 above 0.5 PeV (1PeV = 10 15 eV). Taken together with the spectral data for the following years from several other experiments, there is the suggestion of a long-term reduction in the luminosity of the PeV source by a factor of ∼ 1.5 y -1 (exponential decay law with a time constant of ∼ 2.3y). This intriguing possibility is further strengthened by an examination of the Haverah Park phase-histograms of Cygnus X-3 for the period January 1979 to December 1984 and the Plateau Rosa data recorded between December 1981 - March 1985, which display analogous long-term behaviour at > 10 15 eV and > 2 x 10 13 eV respectively. After accounting for losses in the PeV photon beam due to γ-γ interactions with the 2.7deg K microwave background, a comparison of the ultra high energy photon fluxes from Cygnus X-3 with those in 10 11 - 10 12 eV energy region shows that the latter are significant by lower. This suggests that the TeV photons undergo servere circumstellar abnsorption through interactions with optical/infrared photons or/and have a production spectrum which differs in some significant manner from the one responsible for generating the PeV flux. (author)

  7. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Sinico, Chiara; Valenti, Donatella; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a few different penetration enhancers to produce elastic vesicles with soy lecithin and the influence of the obtained vesicles on in vitro (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil. To this purpose, so-called Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs) were prepared as dehydrated-rehydrated vesicles by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (Transcutol), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol), and cineole. Soy lecithin liposomes, without penetration enhancers, were used as control. Prepared formulations were characterized in terms of size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, and vesicle deformability. The influence of PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil was studied by in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin in comparison with traditional liposomes and ethanolic solutions of the drug also containing each penetration enhancer. A skin pre-treatment study using empty PEVs and conventional liposomes was also carried out. Results showed that all the used penetration enhancers were able to give more deformable vesicles than conventional liposomes with a good drug entrapment efficiency and stability. In vitro skin penetration data showed that PEVs were able to give a statistically significant improvement of minoxidil deposition in the skin in comparison with classic liposomes and penetration enhancer-containing drug ethanolic solutions without any transdermal delivery. Moreover, the most deformable PEVs, prepared with Labrasol and cineole, were also able to deliver to the skin a higher total amount of minoxidil than the PE alcoholic solutions thus suggesting that minoxidil delivery to the skin was strictly correlated to vesicle deformability, and therefore to vesicle composition.

  8. AVTA federal fleet PEV readiness data logging and characterization study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nienhueser, Ian [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  9. The Protein Elicitor PevD1 Enhances Resistance to Pathogens and Promotes Growth in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mengjie; Khan, Najeeb Ullah; Wang, Ningbo; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor PevD1, isolated from Verticillium dahlia, could enhance resistance to TMV in tobacco and Verticillium wilt in cotton. Here, the pevd1 gene was over-expressed in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, and its biological functions were investigated. Our results showed that the transgenic lines were more resistant to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 than the WT line was. In transgenic plants, both the germination time and bolting time required were significan...

  10. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  11. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs – VA Manhattan Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Manhattan Campus (VA- Manhattan) fleet to identify the daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively called PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  12. Recent results of a search for cosmogenic PeV to EeV neutrinos with IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middel Eike

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two years of IceCube data recorded between May 2010 and April 2012 have been analyzed in a search for neutrinos generated by ultra-high energetic cosmic rays at PeV to EeV energies. Two events with energies of about 1-10 PeV pass all selection criteria. At such energies it is unlikely that these events originate from neutrinos generated within cosmic-ray air showers by the decay of secondary pions and kaons. The talk describes the analysis and discusses possible interpretations of the result.

  13. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Health and Human Services – ASPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  15. The Protein Elicitor PevD1 Enhances Resistance to Pathogens and Promotes Growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengjie; Khan, Najeeb Ullah; Wang, Ningbo; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor PevD1, isolated from Verticillium dahlia, could enhance resistance to TMV in tobacco and Verticillium wilt in cotton. Here, the pevd1 gene was over-expressed in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, and its biological functions were investigated. Our results showed that the transgenic lines were more resistant to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 than the WT line was. In transgenic plants, both the germination time and bolting time required were significantly shorter and fresh weights and plant heights were significantly higher than those in the WT line. A transcriptomics study using digital gene expression profiling (DGE) was performed in transgenic and WT Arabidopsis. One hundred and thirty-six differentially expressed genes were identified. In transgenic Arabidopsis, three critical regulators of JA biosynthesis were up-regulated and JA levels were slightly increased. Three important repressors of the ABA-responsive pathway were up-regulated, indicating that ABA signal transduction may be suppressed. One CML and two WRKY TFs involved in Ca(2+)-responsive pathways were up-regulated, indicating that this pathway may have been triggered. In conclusion, we show that PevD1 is involved in regulating several plant endogenous signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks to enhance resistance and promote growth and development in Arabidopsis.

  16. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-15

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.

  17. Dispatch Control with PEV Charging and Renewables for Multiplayer Game Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Nathan; Johnson, Brian; McJunkin, Timothy; Scoffield, Don; White, Sera

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a demand response model for a hypothetical microgrid that integrates renewable resources and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging systems. It is assumed that the microgrid has black start capability and that external generation is available for purchase while grid connected to satisfy additional demand. The microgrid is developed such that in addition to renewable, non-dispatchable generation from solar, wind and run of the river hydroelectric resources, local dispatchable generation is available in the form of small hydroelectric and moderately sized gas and coal fired facilities. To accurately model demand, the load model is separated into independent residential, commercial, industrial, and PEV charging systems. These are dispatched and committed based on a mixed integer linear program developed to minimize the cost of generation and load shedding while satisfying constraints associated with line limits, conservation of energy, and ramp rates of the generation units. The model extends a research tool to longer time frames intended for policy setting and educational environments and provides a realistic and intuitive understanding of beneficial and challenging aspects of electrification of vehicles combined with integration of green electricity production.

  18. Heavy right-handed neutrino dark matter and PeV neutrinos at IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, P.S. Bhupal [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik,Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kazanas, D. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mohapatra, R.N. [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Teplitz, V.L. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75205 (United States); Zhang, Yongchao [Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles,Boulevard du Triomphe, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); School of Physics, Sun Yat-Sen University,Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2016-08-17

    We discuss a simple non-supersymmetric model based on the electroweak gauge group SU(2){sub L}×SU(2){sup ′}×U(1){sub B−L} where the lightest of the right-handed neutrinos, which are part of the leptonic doublet of SU(2){sup ′}, play the role of a long-lived unstable dark matter with mass in the multi-PeV range. We use a resonant s-channel annihilation to obtain the correct thermal relic density and relax the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. In this model, there exists a 3-body dark matter decay mode producing tau leptons and neutrinos, which could be the source for the PeV cascade events observed in the IceCube experiment. The model can be tested with more precise flavor information of the highest-energy neutrino events in future data.

  19. Testing the Dark Matter Scenario for PeV Neutrinos Observed in IceCube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kohta; Laha, Ranjan; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Ahlers, Markus

    2015-08-14

    Late time decay of very heavy dark matter is considered as one of the possible explanations for diffuse PeV neutrinos observed in IceCube. We consider implications of multimessenger constraints, and show that proposed models are marginally consistent with the diffuse γ-ray background data. Critical tests are possible by a detailed analysis and identification of the sub-TeV isotropic diffuse γ-ray data observed by Fermi and future observations of sub-PeV γ rays by observatories like HAWC or Tibet AS+MD. In addition, with several-year observations by next-generation telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2, muon neutrino searches for nearby dark matter halos such as the Virgo cluster should allow us to rule out or support the dark matter models, independently of γ-ray and anisotropy tests.

  20. A search for small-scale anisotropy of PeV cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotov, M. Yu.; Kulikov, G. V.

    2012-11-01

    Recent results of Milagro, Tibet, ARGO-YBJ, and IceCube experiments on the small-scale anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) with energies from units up to a few hundred TeV arise a question on a possible nature of the observed phenomenon, as well as on the anisotropy of CRs at higher energies. An analysis of a small-scale anisotropy of CRs with energies at around PeV registered with the EAS MSU array presented in the article, reveals a number of regions with an excessive flux. A typical size of the regions varies from 3° up to 12°. We study correlation of these regions with positions of potential astrophysical sources of CRs and discuss a possible origin of the observed anisotropy.

  1. THE CONTRIBUTION OF FERMI -2LAC BLAZARS TO DIFFUSE TEV–PEV NEUTRINO FLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005 (Australia); Abraham, K. [Physik-department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J. A.; Ansseau, I. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M. [Dept. of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ahrens, M. [Oskar Klein Centre and Dept. of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D.; Anton, G. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Andeen, K. [Department of Physics, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, 53201 (United States); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C. [Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Arguelles, C.; Axani, S. [Dept. of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Auffenberg, J. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States); Barwick, S. W., E-mail: thorsten.gluesenkamp@fau.de [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-20

    The recent discovery of a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux extending up to PeV energies raises the question of which astrophysical sources generate this signal. Blazars are one class of extragalactic sources which may produce such high-energy neutrinos. We present a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from blazars in the 2nd Fermi -LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using IceCube neutrino data set 2009-12, which was optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to those in previous searches with IceCube, the populations investigated contain up to hundreds of sources, the largest one being the entire blazar sample in the 2LAC catalog. No significant excess is observed, and upper limits for the cumulative flux from these populations are obtained. These constrain the maximum contribution of 2LAC blazars to the observed astrophysical neutrino flux to 27% or less between around 10 TeV and 2 PeV, assuming the equipartition of flavors on Earth and a single power-law spectrum with a spectral index of −2.5. We can still exclude the fact that 2LAC blazars (and their subpopulations) emit more than 50% of the observed neutrinos up to a spectral index as hard as −2.2 in the same energy range. Our result takes into account the fact that the neutrino source count distribution is unknown, and it does not assume strict proportionality of the neutrino flux to the measured 2LAC γ -ray signal for each source. Additionally, we constrain recent models for neutrino emission by blazars.

  2. An Asparagine-Rich Protein Nbnrp1 Modulate Verticillium dahliae Protein PevD1-Induced Cell Death and Disease Resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available PevD1 is a fungal protein secreted by Verticillium dahliae. Our previous researches showed that this protein could induce hypersensitive responses-like necrosis and systemic acquired resistance (SAR in cotton and tobacco. To understand immune activation mechanisms whereby PevD1 elicits defense response, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H assay was performed to explore interacting protein of PevD1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, and a partner AtNRP (At5g42050 was identified. Here, AtNRP homolog in Nicotiana benthamiana was identified and designated as Nbnrp1. The Nbnrp1 could interact with PevD1 via Y2H and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC analyses. Moreover, truncated protein binding assays demonstrated that the C-terminal 132 amino acid (development and cell death, DCD domain of Nbnrp1 is required for PevD1-Nbnrp1 interaction. To further investigate the roles of Nbnrp1 in PevD1-induced defense response, Nbnrp1-overexpressing and Nbnrp1-silence transgenic plants were generated. The overexpression of Nbnrp1 conferred enhancement of PevD1-induced necrosis activity and disease resistance against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and fungal pathogen V. dahliae. By contrast, Nbnrp1-silence lines displayed attenuated defense response compared with the wild-type. It is the first report that an asparagine-rich protein Nbnrp1 positively regulated V. dahliae secretory protein PevD1-induced cell death response and disease resistance in N. benthamiana.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the effector protein PevD1 from Verticillium dahliae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Xinqi; Qiu, Dewen

    2012-01-01

    The overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of protein elicitor PevD1 from Verticillium dahliae are reported. The effector protein PevD1 from the pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Native crystals appeared in a solution consisting of 4.0 M sodium formate. A native data set was collected at 1.9 Å resolution at 100 K using an in-house X-ray source. Because of the absence of useful methinione in the protein sequence, derivative crystals that contained iodine were obtained by soaking in 1.25 M potassium iodide, and a data set that contained anomalous signal was collected using the same X-ray facility at a wavelength of 1.54 Å. The single-wavelength anomalous dispersion method was used to successfully solve the structure based on the anomalous signal generated from iodine

  4. A Consensus-Based Cooperative Control of PEV Battery and PV Active Power Curtailment for Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraati, Mehdi; Golshan, Mohamad Esmail Hamedani; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays installed in residential houses leads to serious voltage quality problems in low voltage distribution networks (LVDNs). In this paper, a combined method using the battery energy management of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the active power...... of charge (SoC). A consensus control algorithm is also developed to fairly share the required power curtailment among PVs during overvoltage periods. The main objective is to mitigate the voltage rise due to the reverse power flow and to compensate the voltage drop resulting from the peak load. Overall......, the proposed algorithm contributes to a coordinated charging/discharging control of PEVs battery which provides a maximum utilization of available storage capacity throughout the network. In addition, the coordinated operation minimizes the required active power which is going to be curtailed from PV arrays...

  5. PROSPECTS FOR COLLIDERS AND COLLIDER PHYSICS TO THE 1 PEV ENERGY SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KING, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    A review is given of the prospects for future colliders and collider physics at the energy frontier. A proof-of-plausibility scenario is presented for maximizing the authors progress in elementary particle physics by extending the energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders as quickly and economically as might be technically and financially feasible. The scenario comprises 5 colliders beyond the LHC--one each of e + e - and hadron colliders and three μ + μ - colliders--and is able to hold to the historical rate of progress in the log-energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders, reaching the 1 PeV constituent mass scale by the early 2040's. The technical and fiscal requirements for the feasibility of the scenario are assessed and relevant long-term R and D projects are identified. Considerations of both cost and logistics seem to strongly favor housing most or all of the colliders in the scenario in a new world high energy physics laboratory

  6. On the Direct Correlation between Gamma-Rays and PeV Neutrinos from Blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shan; Pohl, Martin; Winter, Walter, E-mail: shan.gao@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    We study the frequently used assumption in multi-messenger astrophysics that the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes are directly connected because they are assumed to be produced by the same photohadronic production chain. An interesting candidate source for this test is the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS B1424-418, which recently called attention to a potential correlation between an IceCube PeV neutrino event and its burst phase. We simulate both the multi-waveband photon and the neutrino emission from this source using a self-consistent radiation model. We demonstrate that a simple hadronic model cannot adequately describe the spectral energy distribution for this source, but a lepto-hadronic model with a subdominant hadronic component can reproduce the multi-waveband photon spectrum observed during various activity phases of the blazar. As a conclusion, up to about 0.3 neutrino events may coincide with the burst, which implies that the leptonic contribution dominates in the relevant energy band. We also demonstrate that the time-wise correlation between the neutrino event and burst phase is weak.

  7. STRUCTURED JETS IN BL LAC OBJECTS: EFFICIENT PeV NEUTRINO FACTORIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Ghisellini, Gabriele [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Guetta, Dafne [INAF-Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy)

    2014-09-20

    The origin of high-energy neutrinos (0.1–1 PeV range) detected by IceCube remains a mystery. In this work, we explore the possibility that efficient neutrino production can occur in structured jets of BL Lac objects, characterized by a fast inner spine surrounded by a slower layer. This scenario has been widely discussed in the framework of the high-energy emission models for BL Lac objects and radio galaxies. One of the relevant consequences of a velocity structure is the enhancement of the inverse Compton emission caused by the radiative coupling of the two zones. We show that a similar boosting could occur for the neutrino output of the spine through the photo-meson reaction of high-energy protons scattering off the amplified soft target photon field of the layer. Assuming the local density and the cosmological evolution of γ-ray BL Lac object derived from Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we calculate the expected diffuse neutrino intensity, which can match the IceCube data for a reasonable choice of parameters.

  8. PROSPECTS FOR COLLIDERS AND COLLIDER PHYSICS TO THE 1 PEV ENERGY SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KING,B.J.

    2000-05-05

    A review is given of the prospects for future colliders and collider physics at the energy frontier. A proof-of-plausibility scenario is presented for maximizing the authors progress in elementary particle physics by extending the energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders as quickly and economically as might be technically and financially feasible. The scenario comprises 5 colliders beyond the LHC--one each of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and hadron colliders and three {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders--and is able to hold to the historical rate of progress in the log-energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders, reaching the 1 PeV constituent mass scale by the early 2040's. The technical and fiscal requirements for the feasibility of the scenario are assessed and relevant long-term R and D projects are identified. Considerations of both cost and logistics seem to strongly favor housing most or all of the colliders in the scenario in a new world high energy physics laboratory.

  9. Why PeV scale left-right symmetry is a good thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Urjit A.

    2017-10-01

    Left-right symmetric gauge theory presents a minimal paradigm to accommodate massive neutrinos with all the known conserved symmetries duly gauged. The work presented here is based on the argument that the see-saw mechanism does not force the new right-handed symmetry scale to be very high, and as such some of the species from the spectrum of the new gauge and Higgs bosons can have masses within a few orders of magnitude of the TeV scale. The scale of the left-right parity breaking in turn can be sequestered from the Planck scale by supersymmetry. We have studied several formulations of such just beyond Standard Model (JBSM) theories for their consistency with cosmology. Specifically, the need to eliminate phenomenologically undesirable domain walls gives many useful clues. The possibility that the exact left-right symmetry breaks in conjunction with supersymmetry has been explored in the context of gauge mediation, placing restrictions on the available parameter space. Finally, we have also studied a left-right symmetric model in the context of metastable supersymmetric vacua and obtained constraints on the mass scale of right-handed symmetry. In all the cases studied, the mass scale of the right-handed neutrino M_R remains bounded from above, and in some of the cases the scale 10^9 GeV favourable for supersymmetric thermal leptogenesis is disallowed. On the other hand, PeV scale remains a viable option, and the results warrant a more detailed study of such models for their observability in collider and astroparticle experiments.

  10. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs. James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, North America, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, James J. Peters VA Medical Center (VA - Bronx) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  11. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These

  12. Observation of cosmic-ray anisotropy in the decade below 1 PeV with a pentagon array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, S. Mortazavi; Bahmanabadi, M.

    2018-03-01

    The study of the anisotropy of the arrival directions is an essential tool to investigate the origin and propagation of cosmic rays primaries. A pentagon array has been designed to collect data around the knee region of cosmic ray spectrum. The experimental results of this array obtained from October 2016 to October 2017. During this period, more than 5.3 ×105 extensive air shower events at energies in the decade below 1 PeV has been accumulated by this array at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran (3 5 ° 4 3'N , 5 1 ° 2 0'E , 1200m a .s .l =890 g cm-2 ). In analyzing the data set, we have used appropriate techniques of analysis and considered environmental effects. We report the analysis of the sidereal anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). In this analysis, in addition to the Compton- Getting effect due to the motion of the earth in the Galaxy, an anisotropy has been observed which is due to a unidirectional anisotropy of cosmic ray flow along the Galactic arms.

  13. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    significant reductions in emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The Vancouver, Washington area and neighboring Portland, Oregon are leaders in adoption of PEVs in the United States1. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the FVNHS facility would be a benefit for both FVNHS fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned plug-in electric vehicles benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the FVNHS site to identify the optimal station placement for electric vehicle supply equipment. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and FVNHS for participation in this study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and FVNHS personnel

  15. Mutations in CG8878, a novel putative protein kinase, enhance P element dependent silencing (PDS and position effect variegation (PEV in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen McCracken

    Full Text Available Genes in multicellular organisms are expressed as part of a developmental program that is largely dependent on self-perpetuating higher-order chromatin states. The mechanism of establishing and maintaining these epigenetic events is well studied in Drosophila. The first known example of an epigenetic effect was that of (PEV in Drosophila, which has been shown to be due to gene silencing via heterochromatin formation. We are investigating a process similar to Position Effect Variegation (PEV using a mini-w transgene, called Pci, inserted in the upstream regulatory region of ci. The mini-white+ transgene in Pci is expressed throughout the adult eye; however, when other P or KP elements are present, a variegated eye phenotype results indicating random w+ silencing during development. This P element dependent silencing (PDS can be modified by the haplo-suppressors/triplo-enhancers, Su(var205 and Su(var3-7, indicating that these heterochromatic modifiers also act dose dependently in PDS. Here we use a spontaneous derivative mutation of Pci called PciE1 (E1 that variegates like PDS in the absence of P elements, presumably due to an adjacent gypsy element insertion, to screen for second-site modifier mutations that enhance variable silencing of white+ in E1. We isolated 7 mutations in CG8878, an essential gene, that enhance the E1 variegated phenotype. CG8878, a previously uncharacterized gene, potentially encodes a serine/threonine kinase whose closest Drosophila paralogue, ballchen (nhk-1, phosphorylates histones. These mutant alleles enhance both PDS at E1 and Position Effect Variegation (PEV at w(m4, indicating a previously unknown common silencing mechanism between the two.

  16. Mutations in CG8878, a Novel Putative Protein Kinase, Enhance P Element Dependent Silencing (PDS) and Position Effect Variegation (PEV) in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Allen; Locke, John

    2014-01-01

    Genes in multicellular organisms are expressed as part of a developmental program that is largely dependent on self-perpetuating higher-order chromatin states. The mechanism of establishing and maintaining these epigenetic events is well studied in Drosophila. The first known example of an epigenetic effect was that of (PEV) in Drosophila, which has been shown to be due to gene silencing via heterochromatin formation. We are investigating a process similar to Position Effect Variegation (PEV) using a mini-w transgene, called Pci, inserted in the upstream regulatory region of ci. The mini-white + transgene in Pci is expressed throughout the adult eye; however, when other P or KP elements are present, a variegated eye phenotype results indicating random w + silencing during development. This P element dependent silencing (PDS) can be modified by the haplo-suppressors/triplo-enhancers, Su(var)205 and Su(var)3–7, indicating that these heterochromatic modifiers also act dose dependently in PDS. Here we use a spontaneous derivative mutation of Pci called PciE1 (E1) that variegates like PDS in the absence of P elements, presumably due to an adjacent gypsy element insertion, to screen for second-site modifier mutations that enhance variable silencing of white + in E1. We isolated 7 mutations in CG8878, an essential gene, that enhance the E1 variegated phenotype. CG8878, a previously uncharacterized gene, potentially encodes a serine/threonine kinase whose closest Drosophila paralogue, ballchen (nhk-1), phosphorylates histones. These mutant alleles enhance both PDS at E1 and Position Effect Variegation (PEV) at wm4, indicating a previously unknown common silencing mechanism between the two. PMID:24614804

  17. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the United States Forest Service: Caribou-Targhee National Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort; Ian Nienhueser

    2014-06-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Caribou-Targhee National Forest (CTNF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. ITSNA acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory and CTNF for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from the Forest Service and CTNF personnel.

  18. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil: in vitro evaluation of drug permeation by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sala, Maria Chiara; Perricci, Jacopo; Pini, Elena; Sinico, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we carried out a research on new liposomal systems prepared by using in their composition a few penetration enhancers which differ for chemical structure and physicochemical properties. The penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) were prepared by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethanol (Transcutol(®)), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol(®)), and cineole.To study the influence of the PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil, in vitro diffusion experiments were performed through new born pig skin and the results were compared with that obtained applying the vesicular system without enhancer (control) after pretreatment of the skin with the various enhancers. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and FTIR imaging were used to evaluate the effective penetration of minoxidil in the skin layers and to discover the influence of the enhancer on the drug topical delivery. These analytical studies allowed us to characterize the drug formulations and to evaluate the vesicle distribution into the skin. Recorded spectra confirmed that the vesicle formulations with penetration enhancers promoted drug deposition into the skin.

  19. Micro distillation of crude oil to obtain TBP (True Boiling Points) curve; Micro destilacao de petroleo para obtencao da curva PEV (Ponto de Ebulicao Verdadeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Maria de Lourdes S.P.; Mendes, Luana de Jesus [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS and others petroleum companies adopt the ASTM norms as reference method for oil distillation, ASTM D2892 (2005) that uses columns with 14 to 18 theoretical plates and the ASTM D 5236 (2003) , that distills mixture of heavy hydrocarbons with boiling point over 150 deg C. The result of these two distillations is the TBP (True Boiling Point) curve that is the main tool to define the yield of oil derivatives, the 'royalties' payment, the oil price for commercialization and the logistic support of oil location or in new plants projects of distillation and optimization studies. This procedure has some limitations as the volume sample, at least 1L, and the time of distillation, 2 to 4 days. The objective of this work is to propose a new alternative to attain de PEV curve, developing a new methodology using micro scale distillation that uses a more efficient column than the conventional method. Graphics of both methods were created and the results between the conventional and the micro distillation received statistical treatment to prove the equivalence between them. (author)

  20. Identifying PEV early adopters and their needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed drivers and incentives for the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) as well as the potential impacts on electric utility customers. For many drivers, the adoption of EVs will result in fuel cost savings of $1200 per year. Approximately 73 per cent of Canada's population is concentrated in urban areas. Ninety-five per cent of car trips are less than 30 km in distance. Canada's federal and provincial governments support the adoption of EVs. British Columbia (BC) currently has the most attractive combination of low electricity prices and high fuel costs in North America. Provincial sales tax rebates of up to $2000 are available for EV adopters, while carbon taxes are now being applied to fossil fuel users. New homes in Vancouver are required to provide dedicated charging circuits for EVs. The use of EVs will create new demands for customer service from fuel retailers, developers, fleets and consumer services. BC is expected to have one of the highest EV adoption rates in North America. Unconstrained EV charging is expected to impact the electricity grid by 2015. tabs., figs.

  1. Repurposing PEV batteries : supporting renewables meet the drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibeau, E.

    2009-01-01

    Methods of repurposing plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries were presented. Declining fossil fuel resources and increased environmental emissions are driving the need to repurpose PHEV batteries. Current paths to address energy drivers in transportation include the use of hydrogen; the reduction of tailpipe emissions; an increased use of biofuels; and reductions in fossil fuel usage. Electric mobility can also be combined with other methods to provide a sustainable long-term approach to transportation management. An increase in electric mobility will aid in ensuring that Canada's overall energy management strategy is successful. It was concluded that the addition of renewable energy resources will increase energy efficiency and lower energy demand. tabs., figs.

  2. Eesti rokkarid pühade lehmade maal / Lauri Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leis, Lauri, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Tõnu Trubetsky bänd The Flowers Of Romance, kelle loodud on Tiibeti olümpiamängude tunnuslaul, esines Põhja-Indias Himaalaja mäestikus asuvas McLeod Ganj'i linnas toimunud Tiibeti olümpiamängude lõpukontserdil

  3. Zametjat li v Pekine estonskii flag ili jego otsutstvije? / Viktoria Savtshuk, Susanna Berezina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savtshuk, Viktoria

    2008-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu infokeskuses toimunud debatist, kus teemaks oli Pekingi olümpiamängude võimalik boikoteerimine seoses hiljutiste sündmustega Tiibetis. Debatis osalesid Riigikogu Tiibeti toetusrühma liige Silver Meikar ja parlamendiliige ning Eesti Olümpiakomitee asepresident Jüri Tamm

  4. Pevěcká interpretace moderní populární hudby

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the theme of the singing interpretation of modern popular music. The study is dedicated to all who want to learn more about vocal expression of different genres of popular music. The aim of the thesis is to point out the specifics of the singing performance of particular musical genres of popular music. In addition, the genre boundaries are examined and their wiping is gradually influenced by the combination of many styles. The theoretical part deals with the d...

  5. Why PeV scale left–right symmetry is a good thing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Left–right symmetric gauge theory presents a minimal paradigm to accommodate massive neutrinos with all the known conserved symmetries duly gauged. The work presented here is based on the argument that the see-saw mechanism does not force the new right-handed symmetry scale to be very high, ...

  6. Why PeV scale left–right symmetry is a good thing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Urjit A Yajnik

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... 3.2 Parity breaking from Planck-suppressed effects. The soft terms studied above are tied to the scale of supersymmetry breaking. Another mechanism to look into, without incurring violence to the symmetries of the superpotential, is to assume that the parity-breaking operators arise at the Planck scale [58].

  7. Fermi bubbles as sources of cosmic rays above 1 PeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermi bubbles are giant gamma-ray structures extended north and south of the Galactic center with characteristic sizes of the order of 10 kpc discovered by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Good correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission in the region covered by Fermi bubbles implies the presence of high-energy electrons in this area. Due to high energy losses it is rather problematic to transfer relativistic electrons from the Galactic disk toward the Fermi bubbles. Therefore it is natural to assume that these electrons are accelerated in-situ. Additionally this acceleration mechanism should also affect protons. In particular it may re-accelerate Galactic cosmic rays produced by supernova remnants. Unlike electrons, protons have huge life-times and therefore re-acceleration should not be a local effect but affect the whole Galaxy. The effect may even be observed near the Earth. In our model we propose that hadronic cosmic rays (CR below the “knee” of the observed CR spectrum are produced by Galactic supernova remnants distributed in the Galactic disk. Re-acceleration of these particles in Fermi Bubbles produces CRs above the knee. This model provides a natural explanation of the observed CR flux, spectral indices, and matching of spectra at the knee.

  8. Flowering to bloom of PeV scale supersymmetric left–right ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-12-29

    Dec 29, 2015 ... It is interesting to explore the possibility of such effects in conjunction with the effects that break supersymmetry in a phenomenologically acceptable way. This possibility when realized in the context of several scenarios of supersymmetry breaking, leads to an upper bound on the scale of spontaneous parity ...

  9. ANTARES constrains a blazar origin of two IceCube PeV neutrino events - Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; et al., [Unknown; Bruijn, R.; Kooijman, P.; Palioselitis, D.; de Wolf, E.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The source(s) of the neutrino excess reported by the IceCube Collaboration is unknown. The TANAMI Collaboration recently reported on the multiwavelength emission of six bright, variable blazars which are positionally coincident with two of the most energetic IceCube events. Objects like

  10. Flowering to bloom of PeV scale supersymmetric left–right ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-12-29

    Dec 29, 2015 ... Unified models incorporating right-handed neutrino in a symmetric way generically possess parity symmetry. If this is broken spontaneously, it results in the formation of domain walls in the early Universe, whose persistence is unwanted. A generic mechanism for the destabilization of such walls is a small ...

  11. Flowering to bloom of PeV scale supersymmetric left–right ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Unified models incorporating right-handed neutrino in a symmetric way generically possess parity symmetry. If this is broken spontaneously, it results in the formation of domain walls in the early Universe, whose persistence is unwanted. A generic mechanism for the destabilization of such walls is a small pressure ...

  12. PeV neutrinos from intergalactic interactions of cosmic rays emitted by active galactic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashev, Oleg E; Kusenko, Alexander; Essey, Warren

    2013-07-26

    The observed very high energy spectra of distant blazars are well described by secondary gamma rays produced in line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays with background photons. In the absence of the cosmic-ray contribution, one would not expect to observe very hard spectra from distant sources, but the cosmic ray interactions generate very high energy gamma rays relatively close to the observer, and they are not attenuated significantly. The same interactions of cosmic rays are expected to produce a flux of neutrinos with energies peaked around 1 PeV. We show that the diffuse isotropic neutrino background from many distant sources can be consistent with the neutrino events recently detected by the IceCube experiment. We also find that the flux from any individual nearby source is insufficient to account for these events. The narrow spectrum around 1 PeV implies that some active galactic nuclei can accelerate protons to EeV energies.

  13. Flowering to bloom of PeV scale supersymmetric left–right ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    intrinsically parity symmetric theory, difference in the vacua resulting in destabilization is not permitted. We may seek these effects to have arisen from the hidden sector and com- municated along with the messenger fields [14]. Constraints on the hidden sector model and the communication mechanism can be obtained in ...

  14. Heavy Right-Handed Neutrino Dark Matter and PeV Neutrinos at IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupal Dev, P. S.; Kazanas, D.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Teplitz, V. L.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a simple non-supersymmetric model based on the electroweak gauge group SU(2) (sub L) times SU(2) prime times U(1) (Sub B-L) where the lightest of the right-handed neutrinos, which are part of the leptonic doublet of SU(2) prime, play the role of a long-lived unstable dark matter with mass in the multi-Peta-electronvolt range. We use a resonant s-channel annihilation to obtain the correct thermal relic density and relax the unitarity bound on dark matter mass. In this model, there exists a 3-body dark matter decay mode producing tau leptons and neutrinos, which could be the source for the Peta-electronvolt cascade events observed in the IceCube experiment. The model can be tested with more precise flavor information of the highest-energy neutrino events in future data.

  15. Test of interaction models up to 40 PeV by studying hadronic cores of EAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apel, W.D.; Badea, A.F.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J.R.; Kampert, K.H.; Klages, H.O.; Mathes, H.J.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Risse, A.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Ulrich, H.; Buren, J. van; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Collaboration, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of extensive air shower measurements often requires a comparison with shower simulations in the atmosphere. These calculations rely on hadronic interaction models which have to extrapolate into kinematical and energy regions not explored by present-day collider experiments. The

  16. Search for Galactic PeV gamma rays with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Silva, A. H. Cruz; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegard, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Golup, G.; Goodman, J. A.; Gora, D.; Grant, D.; Gross, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jlelati, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klaes, J.; Klein, S. R.; Koehne, J-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koepke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Luenemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Meszaros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; de los Heros, C. Perez; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Raedel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H. -G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schoeneberg, S.; Schoenherr, L.; Schoenwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoessl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Strom, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.; Aartsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray induced air showers are notable for their lack of muons, compared to hadronic showers. Hence, air shower arrays with large underground muon detectors can select a sample greatly enriched in photon showers by rejecting showers containing muons. IceCube is sensitive to muons with energies

  17. Why PeV scale left–right symmetry is a good thing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Urjit A Yajnik

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Specifically, the need to eliminate phenomenologically undesirable domain walls gives many useful clues. The possibility that the exact left–right symmetry breaks in conjunction with supersymmetry has been explored in the context of gauge mediation, placing restrictions on the available parameter space.

  18. Why PeV scale left–right symmetry is a good thing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Specifically, the need to eliminate phenomenologically undesirable domainwalls gives many useful clues. The possibility that the exact left–right symmetry breaks in conjunction with supersymmetry has been explored in the context of gauge mediation, placing restrictions on the available parameter space.

  19. Pinpointing the knee of cosmic rays with diffuse PeV γ-rays and neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. Q.; Hu, H. B.; Yuan, Q.; Tian, Z.; Gao, X. J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-11-01

    The origin of the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum remains to be an unsolved fundamental problem. There are various kinds of models that predict different break positions and the compositions of the knee. In this work, we suggest the use of diffuse γ-rays and neutrinos as probes to test these models. Based on several typical types of composition models, the diffuse γ-ray and neutrino spectra are calculated and show distinctive cutoff behaviors at energies from tens of TeV to multi-PeV. The expected flux will be observable by the newly upgraded Tibet-ASγ+MD (muon detector) experiment as well as more sensitive future projects, such as LHAASO and HiSCORE. By comparing the neutrino spectrum with the recent observations by the IceCube experiment, we find that the diffuse neutrinos from interactions between the cosmic rays and the interstellar medium may not be responsible to the majority of the IceCube events. Future measurements of the neutrinos may be able to identify the Galactic diffuse component and shed further light on the problem of the knee of cosmic rays.

  20. ANTARES Constrains a Blazar Origin of Two IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J. J.; Baret, B.; Barrios, J.; Basa, S.; Gehrels, N.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Context. The source(s) of the neutrino excess reported by the IceCube Collaboration is unknown. The TANAMI Collaboration recently reported on the multiwavelength emission of six bright, variable blazars which are positionally coincident with two of the most energetic IceCube events. Objects like these are prime candidates to be the source of the highest-energy cosmic rays, and thus of associated neutrino emission. Aims. We present an analysis of neutrino emission from the six blazars using observations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. Methods. The standard methods of the ANTARES candidate list search are applied to six years of data to search for an excess of muons - and hence their neutrino progenitors - from the directions of the six blazars described by the TANAMI Collaboration, and which are possibly associated with two IceCube events. Monte Carlo simulations of the detector response to both signal and background particle fluxes are used to estimate the sensitivity of this analysis for di erent possible source neutrino spectra. A maximum-likelihood approach, using the reconstructed energies and arrival directions of through-going muons, is used to identify events with properties consistent with a blazar origin. Results. Both blazars predicted to be the most neutrino-bright in the TANAMI sample (1653-329 and 1714-336) have a signal flux fitted by the likelihood analysis corresponding to approximately one event. This observation is consistent with the blazar-origin hypothesis of the IceCube event IC 14 for a broad range of blazar spectra, although an atmospheric origin cannot be excluded. No ANTARES events are observed from any of the other four blazars, including the three associated with IceCube event IC20. This excludes at a 90% confidence level the possibility that this event was produced by these blazars unless the neutrino spectrum is flatter than -2.4.

  1. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  2. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  3. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  4. Mis meil Aasiast? / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 6. august lk. 2, Põhjarannik, Koit 7. august lk. 2,6. Europarlamendiliige teeb ülevaate oma visiidist Hiinasse ja Kambodzhasse, eesmärgiga koguda infot Tiibetis toimuvast

  5. Lithuania : a democracy? / Geoffrey Vasiliauskas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasiliauskas, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Hiina presidendi Leedu-visiidi ajal ajas politsei laiali Tiibeti toetajate protestiavalduse. Autor püüab selgusele jõuda, kes andis politseile loa vägivallaks ja kas Leedus ikka valitseb demokraatia

  6. Small turnout for show-of-support for Tibet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Paljud leedulased protesteerid Hiina saatkonna ees 17. - 21. märtsini inimõiguste rikkumiste vastu Tiibetis. Ka Leedu välisministeerium tegi avalduse. Sportlased ei plaani boikoteerida Pekingi olümpiamänge

  7. Hiina õudusunenägu / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Kumus on 14. mail dokumentaalfilm Hiina Rahvavabariigi Tiibeti rahvast ja kultuuri hävitavast poliitikast "Tibet : Cray of the Snow Lion" : režissöör Tom Peosay (peaks olema Piozet) : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002

  8. Cosmic rays measurements between 1 GeV and 1 PeV by AMS and CREAM experiments; Mesures des rayons cosmiques entre le GeV et le PeV par les experiences AMS et CREAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangin-Brinet, M

    2007-11-15

    The AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) and CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass) experiments that are devoted to the detection of cosmic radiations have a similar architecture and both use a Cherenkov detector whose scintillating material is a silicon aerogel. The performance of the Cherenkov detector rests on an accurate knowledge of the refractive index of the aerogel plane. This report deals with an adequate methodology of measuring the refractive index. The first chapter reviews the contributions of AMS and CREAM experiments to the physics of cosmic radiations. The second chapter presents different methods used for mapping the refractive index of the aerogel plane. The prism method is based on the measurement of the deflection of a laser beam through the sides of an aerogel tile. The most satisfying method to measure the changes in the refractive index is to use an electron beam, in this case any change infers a change in the emission angle of the Cherenkov photons that can be detected and the value of the refractive index is deduced. A new method based on the deflection of a laser beam on the 2 parallel sides of an aerogel tile has been developed. The characterization of the 2 Cherenkov detectors are given in the second and the third chapter. The last chapter presents some aspects of the simulation works and of the data processing. (A.C.)

  9. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Traditional Alternator Traditional Alternator Stryker High Voltage Onboard Generator Bradley High Voltage Onboard Generator Components Bench Test...U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER 8/27/2015 1 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED – Distribution Statement A. Approved...stream  Performing Peak Power Shaving, Power Factor Correction, Frequency Regulation , and power management • Reduce fuel consumption and dependence

  10. Cosmic rays measurements between 1 GeV and 1 PeV by AMS and CREAM experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin-Brinet, M.

    2007-11-01

    The AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) and CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass) experiments that are devoted to the detection of cosmic radiations have a similar architecture and both use a Cherenkov detector whose scintillating material is a silicon aerogel. The performance of the Cherenkov detector rests on an accurate knowledge of the refractive index of the aerogel plane. This report deals with an adequate methodology of measuring the refractive index. The first chapter reviews the contributions of AMS and CREAM experiments to the physics of cosmic radiations. The second chapter presents different methods used for mapping the refractive index of the aerogel plane. The prism method is based on the measurement of the deflection of a laser beam through the sides of an aerogel tile. The most satisfying method to measure the changes in the refractive index is to use an electron beam, in this case any change infers a change in the emission angle of the Cherenkov photons that can be detected and the value of the refractive index is deduced. A new method based on the deflection of a laser beam on the 2 parallel sides of an aerogel tile has been developed. The characterization of the 2 Cherenkov detectors are given in the second and the third chapter. The last chapter presents some aspects of the simulation works and of the data processing. (A.C.)

  11. A possible explanation of the knee of cosmic light component spectrum from 100 TeV to 3 PeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hui; Bao, Bi-Wen; Jiang, Ze-Jun; Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    A mixed hydrogen and helium (H + He) spectrum with a clear steepening at ∼ 700 TeV has been detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate that the observed H + He spectrum can be reproduced well with a model of cosmic rays escaping from the supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy. In this model, particles are accelerated in a SNR through a non-linear diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Three components of high energy light nuclei escaped from the SNR are considered. It should be noted that the proton spectrum observed by KASCADE can be also explained by this model given a higher acceleration efficiency. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11433004, 11363006, 11103016, 11173020), Top Talents Program of Yunnan Province (2015HA030) and the Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province(2015FB103)

  12. Limiting Superluminal Electron and Neutrino Velocities Using the 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and the IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of two PetaelectronVolt (PeV)-scale neutrino events reported by Ice Cube allows one to place constraints on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the neutrino sector. After first arguing that at least one of the PetaelectronVolt IceCube events was of extragalactic origin, I derive an upper limit for the difference between putative superluminal neutrino and electron velocities of less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19) in units where c = 1, confirming that the observed PetaelectronVolt neutrinos could have reached Earth from extragalactic sources. I further derive a new constraint on the superluminal electron velocity, obtained from the observation of synchrotron radiation from the Crab Nebula flare of September, 2010. The inference that the greater than 1 GigaelectronVolt gamma-rays from synchrotron emission in the flare were produced by electrons of energy up to approx. 5.1 PetaelectronVolt indicates the nonoccurrence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation by these electrons. This implies a new, strong constraint on superluminal electron velocities delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 5 x 10(exp -21). It immediately follows that one then obtains an upper limit on the superluminal neutrino velocity alone of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19), many orders of magnitude better than the time-of-flight constraint from the SN1987A neutrino burst. However, if the electrons are subluminal the constraint on the absolute value of delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17), obtained from the Crab Nebula gamma-ray spectrum, places a weaker constraint on superluminal neutrino velocity of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17).

  13. Constraints on ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray sources from a search for neutrinos above 10 PeV with IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 109 GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high- energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5×105 GeV to above 1011 GeV. Two neutrino......-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6±0.3)×106 GeV, the highest neutrino energy observed so far, and (7.7±2.0)×105 GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3.6σ. The hypothesis that the observed events are of cosmogenic origin...... is also rejected at >99% CL because of the limited deposited energy and the nonobservation of events at higher energy, while their observation is consistent with an astrophysical origin. Our limits on cosmogenic neutrino fluxes disfavor the UHECR sources having a cosmological evolution stronger than...

  14. Development and Demonstration of Grid Integration System for PEVs, ESS, and RE: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-515

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    NREL and Ideal Power Converters (IPC) will jointly develop and demonstrate a hybrid power converter system integrating bi-directional electric vehicle charging, photovoltaic generation, and stationary battery storage using IPC's 3-Port Hybrid Converter. The organizations will also jointly investigate synergies in tightly integrating these separate power conversion systems.

  15. Experimental study of high energy muons from Extensive Air Showers in the energy range 100 TeV to 10 PeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkens, Henric George Sacha

    2003-01-01

    The L3+C experiment at CERN combines a small Air Shower array with a high resolution muon spectrometer, located under 30 m of overburden. The measurement of the shower particle density combined with the measurement of cosmic ray induced muons in the L3 spectrometer allows for a detailed check of

  16. Intense bundles of particles in cores of nuclear-electromagnetic cascades in the atmosphere with energies around 100 PeV (gamma-families with halo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkov, V.S.; Borisov, A.S.; Guseva, Z.M.; Denisova, V.G.; Kempa, J.; Kanevskaya, E.A.; Maximenko, V.M.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.; Pyatovsky, S.E.; Slavatinsky, S.A.; Amineva, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    An appreciable fraction of gamma-families are accompanied by a halo, a narrow bundle of high-energy particles (energy density > 20 TeV/mm 2 ) recorded in X-ray emulsion chambers as a diffuse dark spot in the central region of a gamma-family. Gamma-families in the experiment 'Pamir' are compared with simulations by three different codes of quark-gluon string model (MQ, MCO and QGSJet) based on extrapolating accelerator data up to energy E o = 3 * 10 18 eV and under various assumptions on mass composition of primary cosmic rays (PCR). The spectrum of halo area, S, is analyzed, especially at S > 100 mm 2 . Simulations by different codes predict that at a PCR energy E o ∼ 10 18 eV the probability of initiating a halo with S ∼ 1000 mm 2 is 60% for primary protons and 40% for Fe nuclei. The fraction of protons in PCR composition at E 0 = 10 16 /10 17 eV is estimated

  17. Techno-Economic Analysis of PEV Battery Second Use: Repurposed-Battery Selling Price and Commercial and Industrial End-User Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Williams, B.; Ferry, M.; Eyer, J.

    2012-06-01

    Accelerated market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and deployment of grid-connected energy storage are restricted by the high cost of lithium-ion batteries. Research, development, and manufacturing are underway to lower material costs, enhance process efficiencies, and increase production volumes. A fraction of the battery cost may be recovered after vehicular service by reusing the battery where it may have sufficient performance for other energy-storage applications. By extracting post-vehicle additional services and revenue from the battery, the total lifetime value of the battery is increased. The overall cost of energy-storage solutions for both primary (automotive) and secondary (grid) customer could be decreased. This techno-economic analysis of battery second use considers effects of battery degradation in both automotive and grid service, repurposing costs, balance-of-system costs, the value of aggregated energy-storage to commercial and industrial end users, and competitive technology. Batteries from plug-in electric vehicles can economically be used to serve the power quality and reliability needs of commercial and industrial end users. However, the value to the automotive battery owner is small (e.g., $20-$100/kWh) as declining future battery costs and other factors strongly affect salvage value. Repurposed automotive battery prices may range from $38/kWh to $132/kWh.

  18. Platelet extracellular vesicles as biomarkers for arterial thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasecka, Aleksandra; Böing, Anita N; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2017-05-01

    Arterial thrombosis is a major and global cause of human death and disability. Considering the socioeconomic costs of arterial thrombosis, identification of biomarkers to predict and detect arterial thrombosis at an early stage is an important public health goal. Platelet extracellular vesicles (PEV) are a new candidate biomarker of arterial thrombosis. PEV can be measured in biorepositories, thereby offering the possibility to validate PEV in multicenter clinical trials. PEV analysis has been hitherto hampered by lack of standardized methodology, but substantial technological improvements of PEV detection techniques have been achieved recently. However, before PEV emerge from research tools to clinical applications, a number of issues should be clarified. To facilitate validation of PEV as biomarkers of thrombosis, we discuss (i) whether PEV are useful as biomarkers of thrombosis, (ii) why previous conclusions on PEV concentrations, composition and functions require re-evaluation, and (iii) which questions have to be answered before PEV become clinically useful.

  19. Искусство Тибета

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Kaasaegse Himaalaja kunsti näitus "Himaalaja tuuled" Tam galeriis. Tiibeti kaasaegse maalikunsti näitus galeriis Temnikova & Kasela. Osalevad kunstnikud Dedron, Gade, Nortse, Tenzing Rigdol ja Tsering Nyandak. Näitused on korraldatud koostöös Himaalaja Kultuuride Seltsiga

  20. Pärnu Endla teatri eksperimentaalsaali Küün koridorides ja teatrikohvikus...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Rain Tamme fotonäitus "Puumaastikud". Väljas on Sahara kõrbe, Tiibeti mäestiku, Uus-Mehhiko vulkaanide jm. pildid. Epp Maria Kokamäe 2002. a. suvel Pärnumaal valminud maalide näitus "Saagu vihm, tuul ja valgus" Teatrigalerii sammassaalis

  1. Olimpiada i purizm daltonikov / Eduard Tinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tinn, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Olümpiamängude ja poliitika seostest ja lahushoidmisest. Eesti poliitikute suhtumisest Pekingi olümpiamängude toimumisse ja neist osavõtmisse seoses vägivallaga Tiibetis. Sotšis toimuvate olümpiamängude probleemist

  2. Tendrel : ühtsus kahesuses / Tarab Tulku ; tõlk. Maret Kark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tulku, Tarab

    2003-01-01

    Budistliku filosoofia mõistest tendrel, mis tähendab tiibeti keeles sõltuvuslikku tekkimist. Ettekanne konverentsil "Ühtsus kahesuses / Tendrel" 10.- 13. X 2002 Münchenis. Tõlke allikas: Unity in duality: Introduction through an exposition of Tendrel

  3. The effects of switching the camera module from BlackBerry Curve 9360 devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisolf, F.; Geradts, Z.; Verhoeven, D.; Klaver, C.

    A Photo-Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU) pattern is the 'fingerprint' of a digital camera, which is left in the images acquired with the camera. It can be used to identify the source of suspect images. For a case a BlackBerry phone with a camera was obtained and the question was if this phone was the

  4. Potential For Plug-In Electric Vehicles To Provide Grid Support Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F. G.; Luo, Y.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Hovsapian, R.; Scoffield, D.

    2017-04-01

    Since the modern-day introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), scientists have proposed leveraging PEV battery packs as distributed energy resources for the electric grid. PEV charging can be controlled not only to provide energy for transportation but also to provide grid services and to facilitate the integration of renewable energy generation. With renewable generation increasing at an unprecedented rate, most of which is non-dispatchable and intermittent, the concept of using PEVs as controllable loads is appealing to electric utilities. This additional functionality could also provide value to PEV owners and drive PEV adoption. It has been widely proposed that PEVs can provide valuable grid services, such as load shifting to provide voltage regulation. The objective this work is to address the degree to which PEVs can provide grid services and mutually benefit the electric utilities, PEV owners, and auto manufacturers.

  5. Structural determinants of electric vehicle market growth : a National Center for Sustainable Transportation research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Zero emission vehicles (ZEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are critical technologies to attain deep reductions in greenhouse gases from transportation. PEV markets, however, have grown more slowly than anticipated by many observers. In this stu...

  6. A Pattern Analysis of Daily Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles: Operational Efficiency and Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit R. Desai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs are considered one solution to reducing GHG emissions from private transport. Additionally, PEV adopters often have free access to public charging facilities. Through a pattern analysis, this study identifies five distinct clusters of daily PEV charging profiles observed at the public charging stations. Empirically observed patterns indicate a significant amount of operational inefficiency, where 54% of the total parking duration PEVs do not consume electricity, preventing other users from charging. This study identifies the opportunity cost in terms of GHG emissions savings if gasoline vehicles are replaced with potential PEV adopters. The time spent in parking without charging by current PEV users can be used by these potential PEV users to charge their PEVs and replace the use of gasoline. The results suggest that reducing inefficient station use leads to significant reductions in emissions. Overall, there is significant variability in outcomes depending on the specific cluster membership.

  7. El papel de las migraciones ilegales marroquíes hacia España en la formulación de la Política Europea de Vecindad (PEV)

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo, Martha Ligia

    2014-01-01

    La siguiente investigación sostiene que las migraciones ilegales marroquíes hacia España, propiciaron la formulación de una vertiente mediterránea en el marco de la Política Europea de Vecindad, en lo que supuso un liderazgo español en los procesos de negociación e implementación de esta estrategia mediante la retórica del codesarrollo. Con el objetivo de obtener beneficios concretos en el tratamiento del fenómeno migratorio, el papel de España implicó una europeización de...

  8. ETBP (Extended True Boiling Point) curve extension of extra heavy crudes; Extensao da curva PEV (Ponto de Ebulicao Verdadeiro) de petroleos extrapesados por destilacao molecular e ampliacao da caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rodrigo S.; Batistella, Cesar B.; Maciel, Maria Regina W.; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    For the determination of the TBP (True Boiling Point) Curve, which defines the yield of petroleum products, the ASTM D2892 method for petroleum distillation and ASTM D5236 method for vacuum distillation of heavy hydrocarbons were applied. Furthermore, from these distillations, cuts that are submitted to several analyses to determine its physical-chemical properties are obtained, and all this information generates the evaluation of petroleum. For heavy petroleum, these conventional methods have been limited, since the total distilled percentage determined for temperatures up to 565 deg C (maximum reached with ASTM D5236 method) is lower for these oils, reducing the points of the curve, limiting its information. To improve this data set for heavy oils, a methodology for the extension of TBP curve through molecular distillation was established. It was possible to reach values up to 700 deg C, representing a considerable progress for the extension of TBP curve. The objective of this work is to present the results of Extended TBP curve for a heavy petroleum and characterization carried out through the cuts and residues obtained in molecular distillation of the residue 'Zeta' 400 deg C+ (fancy name), made by ASTM D2892 method. (author)

  9. Impact of Uncoordinated Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on Residential Power Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  10. Impact of uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging on residential power demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  11. Evaluation of plug-in electric vehicles impact on cost-based unit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebizadeh, Ehsan; Rashidinejad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Amir

    2014-02-01

    Incorporating plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) to power systems may address both additional demand as well as mobile storage to support electric grid spatially. Better utilization of such potential depends on the optimal scheduling of charging and discharging PEVs. Charging management malfunction of PEVs may increase the peak load which leads to additional generation. Therefore, charging and discharging of PEVs must be scheduled intelligently to prevent overloading of the network at peak hours, take advantages of off peak charging benefits and delaying any load shedding. A charging and discharging schedule of PEVs with respect to load curve variations is proposed in this paper. The proposed methodology incorporates integrated PEVs; the so-called parking lots; into the unit commitment problem. An IEEE 10-unit test system is employed to investigate the impacts of PEVs on generation scheduling. The results obtained from simulation analysis show a significant techno-economic saving.

  12. Digital photography analysis: Analytical framework for measuring the effects of saturation on photo response non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kris

    Over the years, and through various research, it has been found there are many ways to analyze digital photography to determine its source camera for the original capture. There are many factors to consider when analyzing photography, such as the device used, the environment of the capture, the software used to process the image and any alterations or editing which may have been done. One very important technique of camera source identification is to analyze photo response non-uniformity (PRNU). It has been found every camera, or more specifically every camera's sensor, reacts differently in various conditions. The photo response non-uniformity acts as a fingerprint for a camera. In this paper, we will explore the various techniques used to determine the source of a photo. We will also explore how the unique PRNU fingerprint responds to various situations, including environments of high saturation, artificial light and natural light. Chapter 4 will provide the framework for analyzing such images through multiple case studies using different devices. This study will provide a basis and explanation of how multiple levels of saturation can affect PRNU through the camera's sensor during capture.

  13. A decentralized charging control strategy for plug-in electric vehicles to mitigate wind farm intermittency and enhance frequency regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Xia, Shiwei; Chan, Ka Wing

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized charging control strategy for a large population of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to neutralize wind power fluctuations so as to improve the regulation of system frequency. Without relying on a central control entity, each PEV autonomously adjusts its charging or discharging power in response to a communal virtual price signal and based on its own urgency level of charging. Simulation results show that under the proposed charging control, the aggregate PEV power can effectively neutralize wind power fluctuations in real-time while differential allocation of neutralization duties among the PEVs can be realized to meet the PEV users' charging requirements. Also, harmful wind-induced cyclic operations in thermal units can be mitigated. As shown in economic analysis, the proposed strategy can create cost saving opportunities for both PEV users and utility.

  14. PLANT TRANSFORMATION VECTORS AND THEIR STABILITY IN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Polóniová,Pavol Dubnický

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The stability of the plant transformation vectors pTS2, pEV2 and pEV8 was tested in two Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains LBA 4404 and C58C1 that differed in chromosomal background. The T-DNAs of all binary vectors contained the β-glucuronidase reporter and the neomycin phosphotransferase selectable marker genes. In addition, the plasmids pEV2 and pEV8 contained the Cre/loxP recombination system. The binary vectors were transformed into A. tumefaciens strains and their stability was evaluated by restriction analyses after retransformation of plasmids from A. tumefaciens into E. coli. Our results showed that plasmids pTS2 and pEV2 were stable in both bacterial strains while the pEV8 exhibited instability in A. tunmefaciens LBA 4404.

  15. Mesh Network Design for Smart Charging Infrastructure and Electric Vehicle Remote Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelev, Aleksey; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-14

    Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging today happens with little knowledge of the state of the vehicle being charged. In order to implement smart charging algorithms and other capabilities of the future smart grid, provisions for remote PEV monitoring will have to be developed and tested. The UCLA Smart-grid Energy Research Center (SMERC) is working on a smart charging research platform that includes data acquired in real time from PEVs being charged in order to investigate smart charging algorithms and demand response (DR) strategies for PEVs in large parking garage settings. The system outlined in this work allows PEVs to be remotely monitored throughout the charging process by a smart-charging controller communicating through a mesh network of charging stations and in-vehicle monitoring devices. The approach may be used for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) communication as well as PEV monitoring.

  16. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.

    2010-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

  17. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, CJR; Gopal, AR; Harris, A; Jacobson, A

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a re...

  18. Employee-Organization Pro-environmental Values Fit and Pro-environmental Behavior: The Role of Supervisors' Personal Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Liu, Xia; Chen, Hong; Long, Ruyin

    2017-12-18

    This study examines the relationship among the employees-organization pro-environmental values fit (E-O PEVs fit), supervisors' PEVs and employees' pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). Informed by the PEB, organizational values and employee-organization fit literature, we propose and test hypotheses that under egoistic, altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, E-O PEVs fit versus non-fit have significant effects on employees' private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB, identifying supervisors' PEVs as a moderator. An empirical investigation indicates that the effect of E-O PEVs fit on employees' private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB varies as the value orientation differs. More specifically, under the context of altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, if the organizational PEVs do not match the employees' PEVs, especially when the former exceeds the latter, employees' PEB will rise as the organizational PEVs increase. As for egoistic value orientation, when organizational PEVs exceed employees' PEVs, not only will public-sphere PEB stop decreasing and tend to stabilize, but also private-sphere PEB will rise to a slight degree. Furthermore, compared with altruistic and biospheric values dimensions, supervisors who promote egoistic PEVs will have a more significant effect on the relationship between global E-O PEVs fit and employees' PEB. Finally, we suggest that the goals of an organization and its supervisors need to be combined within the actual situation of Chinese corporations to truly implement corporate green practices by balancing the profit goal and the environmental goal.

  19. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Pourmousavi, Seyyed Ali; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow ...... demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage....

  20. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

  1. Regional Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Raghavan, Sesha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex issues associated with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and options in deploying charging infrastructure, there is interest in exploring scenarios of future charging infrastructure deployment to provide insight and guidance to national and regional stakeholders. The complexity and cost of PEV charging infrastructure pose challenges to decision makers, including individuals, communities, and companies considering infrastructure installations. The value of PEVs to consumers and fleet operators can be increased with well-planned and cost-effective deployment of charging infrastructure. This will increase the number of miles driven electrically and accelerate PEV market penetration, increasing the shared value of charging networks to an expanding consumer base. Given these complexities and challenges, the objective of the present study is to provide additional insight into the role of charging infrastructure in accelerating PEV market growth. To that end, existing studies on PEV infrastructure are summarized in a literature review. Next, an analysis of current markets is conducted with a focus on correlations between PEV adoption and public charging availability. A forward-looking case study is then conducted focused on supporting 300,000 PEVs by 2025 in Massachusetts. The report concludes with a discussion of potential methodology for estimating economic impacts of PEV infrastructure growth.

  2. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoffield, Don R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  3. Näitused / Mari Sobolev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sobolev, Mari, 1968-

    1998-01-01

    Rotermanni soolaladu: Mark Raidpere ja Ene-Liis Semper "Mäng 4. käel"; Kunstihoone: Tony Craggi skulptuurid; Adamson-Ericu muuseum: Eduard Ole 100. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud näitus; Kastellaanimaja galerii: "Tee Raamat": Anu Purre kirjutus-kunstistuudio EKSTEKST GRUPP ja stuudio sõprade näitus (T-särkidest raamat-installatsioonid); Tervishoiumuuseum: "In vino..."; Tammsaare muuseum:"Tiibeti muistne kultuur. Hiina maastikud"; Kullo galerii: Huvikeskuse Kullo aastanäitus.

  4. Is Flat fielding Safe for Precision CCD Astronomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Michael; Davis, Christopher P.; Roodman, Aaron

    2017-08-01

    The ambitious goals of precision cosmology with wide-field optical surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) demand precision CCD astronomy as their foundation. This in turn requires an understanding of previously uncharacterized sources of systematic error in CCD sensors, many of which manifest themselves as static effective variations in pixel area. Such variation renders a critical assumption behind the traditional procedure of flat fielding—that a sensor’s pixels comprise a uniform grid—invalid. In this work, we present a method to infer a curl-free model of a sensor’s underlying pixel grid from flat-field images, incorporating the superposition of all electrostatic sensor effects—both known and unknown—present in flat-field data. We use these pixel grid models to estimate the overall impact of sensor systematics on photometry, astrometry, and PSF shape measurements in a representative sensor from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) and a prototype LSST sensor. Applying the method to DECam data recovers known significant sensor effects for which corrections are currently being developed within DES. For an LSST prototype CCD with pixel-response non-uniformity (PRNU) of 0.4%, we find the impact of “improper” flat fielding on these observables is negligible in nominal .7″ seeing conditions. These errors scale linearly with the PRNU, so for future LSST production sensors, which may have larger PRNU, our method provides a way to assess whether pixel-level calibration beyond flat fielding will be required.

  5. Radiometric Calibration of dual Sensor Camera System, a Comparison of classical and low cost Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Misgaiski-Hass

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several identical dual camera systems with two different spectral sensitivities have to be calibrated radiometrically and geometrically. The aim of this project is to build up a calibration laboratory for the calibration of a set of identical cameras using low cost equipment and to compare the results to classical/professional equipment. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate how to use a low cost, inhomogeneous LED-backlight to measure the Pixel Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU of the investigated cameras.

  6. Severe neonatal parechovirus infection and similarity with enterovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A.; Krediet, Tannette G.; Gerards, Leo J.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris; van Loon, Anton M.

    Background: Enteroviruses (EV) are an important cause of neonatal disease including hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, and myocarditis that can lead to death or severe long-term sequelae. Less is known about severe neonatal infection caused by the parechoviruses (PeV) of which type 1 (PeV1) and type 2

  7. Optimization of polysaccharides extracted from Verbena officinalis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cell viability was evaluated by 4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of PEV on cell adhesion and invasion were evaluated by Transwell invasion, wound healing migration and adhesion assays in vitro. The effects of. PEV on the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 ...

  8. Affordability, Accessibility, and Accountability: Perceived Impacts of the Pre-Primary Education Vouchers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wong, Jessie Ming Sin; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong launched the "Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme" (PEVS) in 2007 to promote the "3A's" of early childhood education (ECE): affordability, accessibility, and accountability. The PEVS has three unique features: discriminating against profit kindergartens, promoting teacher professional development, and limiting…

  9. Efficient integration of plug-in electric vehicles via reconfigurable microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah; Khodaei, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the viability of the reconfigurable microgrids (RMGs) in facilitating the integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The reconfiguration ability of microgrids, which is enabled by the use of remotely controlled switches (RCSs), will support the high penetration of PEVs and renewable distributed generators (DGs) while reducing the total operation cost and potentially enhance microgrid reliability. The objective of the proposed optimal scheduling problem is to minimize the total cost of power supply by distributed energy resources (DERs) and upstream network energy exchange, battery degradation cost in PEVs, cost of switching during the reconfiguration, and expected customer interruption costs as a reliability index. To address the high level of the uncertainties in the problem, a scenario-based stochastic framework is devised to capture the uncertainties associated with the charging and discharging values of PEVs, number of PEVs in each fleet, time of the daily trips for PEVs, hourly load consumption, hourly output power of renewable DGs, and hourly market price. The satisfying performance and merits of the proposed model are examined on a test microgrid. - Highlights: • Introduction of reconfigurable microgrids for providing flexible structure to manage electric loads. • Assessing the effects of the reconfiguration on the integration of PEVs. • Introduction of a stochastic framework for reducing operation and reliability costs in microgrids. • Introduction of a smart charge/discharge scheme for PEVs based on V2G during the reconfiguration.

  10. Aggregation of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Power Systems for Primary Frequency Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadkhast, S.

    2017-01-01

    The number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is likely to increase in the near future and these vehicles will probably be connected to the electric grid most of the day time. PEVs are interesting options to provide a wide variety of services such as primary frequency control (PFC), because they

  11. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge Road to Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-31

    Initial progress report for EV Everywhere. The report highlights the significant cost reduction in batteries in 2014, which will enable increased PEV affordability for consumers. Also, the efforts on increasing the convenience of PEVs through the Workplace Charging Challenge, which called on U.S. employers to help develop the nation's charging infrastructure.

  12. Optimal distribution feeder reconfiguration for increasing the penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and minimizing network costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah; Abbasi, Alireza; Rostami, Mohammad-Amin; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Appearance of PEVs (Plug-in Electric Vehicles) in future transportation sector brings forward opportunities and challenges from grid perspective. Increased utilization of PEVs will result in problems such as greater total loss, unbalanced load factor, feeder congestion and voltage drop. PEVs are mobile energy storages dispersed all over the network with benefits to both owners and utilities in case of V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid) possibility. The intelligent bidirectional power flow between grid and large number of vehicles adds complexity to the system and requires operative tools to schedule V2G energy and subdue PEV impacts. In this paper, DFR (Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration) is utilized to optimally coordinate PEV operation in a stochastic framework. Uncertainty in PEVs characteristics can be due to several sources from location and time of grid connection to driving pattern and battery SoC (State-of-Charge). The proposed stochastic problem is solved with a self-adaptive evolutionary swarm algorithm based on SSO (Social Spider Optimization) algorithm. Numerical studies verify the efficacy of the proposed DFR to improve the system performance and optimal dispatch of V2G. - Highlights: • Consideration effect of PEVS on the distribution feeder reconfiguration. • Increasing the penetration of PEVS. • Introducing a new artificial optimization algorithm. • Modeling the uncertainty in network. • Investigating the degradation cost of batteries in V2G technology.

  13. Optimization of polysaccharides extracted from Verbena officinalis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate polysaccharides (PEV) extracted from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L. and their inhibitory effects on the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Methods: PEV was extracted by water and the optimization of extraction conditions was performed using a Box-Benhnken design ...

  14. Bi-Directional Coordination of Plug-In Electric Vehicles with Economic Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf A. Sha’aban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs is unveiling new opportunities to de-carbonise the vehicle parcs and promote sustainability in different parts of the globe. As battery technologies and PEV efficiency continue to improve, the use of electric cars as distributed energy resources is fast becoming a reality. While the distribution network operators (DNOs strive to ensure grid balancing and reliability, the PEV owners primarily aim at maximising their economic benefits. However, given that the PEV batteries have limited capacities and the distribution network is constrained, smart techniques are required to coordinate the charging/discharging of the PEVs. Using the economic model predictive control (EMPC technique, this paper proposes a decentralised optimisation algorithm for PEVs during the grid-to-vehicle (G2V and vehicle-to-grid (V2G operations. To capture the operational dynamics of the batteries, it considers the state-of-charge (SoC at a given time as a discrete state space and investigates PEVs performance in V2G and G2V operations. In particular, this study exploits the variability in the energy tariff across different periods of the day to schedule V2G/G2V cycles using real data from the university’s PEV infrastructure. The results show that by charging/discharging the vehicles during optimal time partitions, prosumers can take advantage of the price elasticity of supply to achieve net savings of about 63%.

  15. An Agent-Based Information System for Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    The current scarcity of public charging infrastructure is one of the major barriers to mass household adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Although most PEV drivers can recharge their vehicles at home, the limited driving range of the vehicl...

  16. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  17. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  18. Modeling Framework and Results to Inform Charging Infrastructure Investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market is experiencing rapid growth with dozens of battery electric (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) models already available and billions of dollars being invested by automotive manufacturers in the PEV space. Electric range is increasing thanks to larger and more advanced batteries and significant infrastructure investments are being made to enable higher power fast charging. Costs are falling and PEVs are becoming more competitive with conventional vehicles. Moreover, new technologies such as connectivity and automation hold the promise of enhancing the value proposition of PEVs. This presentation outlines a suite of projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Office to conduct assessments of the economic value and charging infrastructure requirements of the evolving PEV market. Individual assessments include national evaluations of PEV economic value (assuming 73M PEVs on the road in 2035), national analysis of charging infrastructure requirements (with community and corridor level resolution), and case studies of PEV ownership in Columbus, OH and Massachusetts.

  19. Utilization Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense based studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of the charging infrastructure required to support this replacement, which is the subject of a separate report.

  20. Consumer Behavior and the Plug-In Electric Vehicle Purchase Decision Process: A Research Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impact Dept.; Fujita, K. Sydney [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impact Dept.

    2018-01-31

    This report synthesizes consumer behavior research as it pertains to the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) purchase decision process. The purpose is to clarify what is known about the vital role consumers play in the U.S. PEV market as it matures to become less policy-reliant and more representative of the U.S., both spatially and demographically. A more representative PEV market will: help OEMs recoup more of their R&D investments in PEVs; help American consumers access the economic and performance benefits of PEVs; and help the U.S. become more energy independent while improving air quality-related public health and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stright, Dana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

  2. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2013-01-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand. (letter)

  3. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  4. Perception and reality: Public knowledge of plug-in electric vehicles in 21 U.S. cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Rachel M.; Carley, Sanya R.; Lane, Bradley W.; Graham, John D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the extent of consumer knowledge about plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the current policies in place to encourage their purchase and use. Data are collected via a survey administered to a sample of 2302 adult drivers in 21 of the largest cities in the United States. Almost two-thirds of the respondents provided incorrect answers to basic factual questions about PEVs and, of those, approximately 75% underestimated their private value or advantages. The vast majority (94.5%) of respondents were not aware of the current state and local incentives in place in their locale to encourage PEV purchase and use. Based on a review of consumer theory, multivariate models are developed and used to assess the factors associated with consumer interest in the two major types of PEV technologies, Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). Results show demographic and attitudinal characteristics having the largest influence on interest in either type of PEV. Misperceptions about purchase price and expected fuel and maintenance savings are likewise significant, although their impacts differ between BEVs and PHEVs. Better informing consumers about already available public incentives and advantageous aspects of existing PEV technologies offer promising steps toward their mass commercialization. - Highlights: • Survey analysis examines consumer knowledge of PEVs and current public policies. • Majority of respondents have incorrect perceptions about basic PEV characteristics. • Vast majority of respondents are not aware of current state and local PEV policies. • Misperception about fuel and maintenance savings significantly affects PEV interest

  5. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Srinivasa Raghavan, Sesha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-07

    This presentation describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

  6. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Srinivasa Raghavan, Seshadri [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This document describes a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory quantifying the charging station infrastructure required to serve the growing U.S. fleet of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). PEV sales, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), have surged recently. Most PEV charging occurs at home, but widespread PEV adoption will require the development of a national network of non-residential charging stations. Installation of these stations strategically would maximize the economic viability of early stations while enabling efficient network growth as the PEV market matures. This document describes what effective co-evolution of the PEV fleet and charging infrastructure might look like under a range of scenarios. To develop the roadmap, NREL analyzed PEV charging requirements along interstate corridors and within urban and rural communities. The results suggest that a few hundred corridor fast-charging stations could enable long-distance BEV travel between U.S. cities. Compared to interstate corridors, urban and rural communities are expected to have significantly larger charging infrastructure requirements. About 8,000 fast-charging stations would be required to provide a minimum level of coverage nationwide. In an expanding PEV market, the total number of non-residential charging outlets or 'plugs' required to meet demand ranges from around 100,000 to more than 1.2 million. Understanding what drives this large range in capacity requirements is critical. For example, whether consumers prefer long-range or short-range PEVs has a larger effect on plug requirements than does the total number of PEVs on the road. The relative success of PHEVs versus BEVs also has a major impact, as does the number of PHEVs that charge away from home. This study shows how important it is to understand consumer preferences and driving behaviors when planning charging networks.

  7. Ex vivo skin delivery of diclofenac by transcutol containing liposomes and suggested mechanism of vesicle-skin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Maria; Caddeo, Carla; Sinico, Chiara; Valenti, Donatella; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Biggio, Giovanni; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2011-05-01

    Recently, we described a novel family of liposomes, the Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs), as carriers for enhanced (trans)dermal drug delivery. In this study, to go deeply into the potential of these new vesicles and suggest the possible mechanism of vesicle-skin interaction, we investigated transcutol containing PEVs as carriers for diclofenac, in the form of either acid or sodium salt. PEVs, prepared with soy phosphatidylcholine and aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of transcutol, were characterized by size distribution, zeta potential, incorporation efficiency, thermotropic behavior, and stability. (Trans)dermal diclofenac delivery from PEVs was investigated ex vivo through new born pig skin using conventional liposomes and a commercial gel as controls. The mode of action of the vesicles was also studied by performing a pre-treatment test and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analyses. Results of the all skin permeation experiments showed an improved diclofenac (both acid and sodium salt) delivery to and through the skin when PEVs were used (especially in comparison with the commercial gel) thus suggesting intact PEVs' penetration through the pig skin. Images of the qualitative CLSM analyses support this conclusion. Thus, this work shows the superior ability of the PEVs to enhance ex vivo drug transport of both hydrophilic and lipophilic diclofenac forms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcutol containing vesicles for topical delivery of minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Valenti, Donatella; Sinico, Chiara; Vila, Amparo Ofelia; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of Transcutol (Trc) to produce elastic vesicles with soy lecithin (SL) and study the influence of the obtained vesicles on in vitro (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil. To this purpose, so-called penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) were prepared using Trc aqueous solutions (5-10-20-30% v/v) as hydrophilic phase. SL liposomes, without Trc, were used as control. Prepared formulations were characterized in terms of size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, deformability, and rheological behavior. The influence of the obtained PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil was studied by in vitro diffusion experiments through pig skin. Results showed that all prepared PEVs were able to give good entrapment efficiency (E%≈67) similar to that of conventional liposomes. Trc-containing PEVs showed to be more deformable than liposomes only when minoxidil was loaded in 5 and 10% Trc-containing vesicles. Rheological studies showed that PEVs have higher fluidity than conventional liposomes. All PEVs showed a higher stability than liposomes as shown by studying zeta potential and size distribution during three months. Results of in vitro diffusion experiments showed that Trc-containing PEVs are able to deliver minoxidil to deep skin layers without any transdermal permeation.

  9. A Study of China s Explosive Growth in the Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Shawn [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, Zhixin [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, Tianjin China; Zheng, Jihu [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, Tianjin (China); Lyu, Renzhi [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, Tianjin (China); Przesmitzki, Steven V. [Aramco Services Company, Novi, MI (United States); He, Xin [Aramco Services Company, Novi, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The year 2015 marks a turning point in China s plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) or new energy vehicle (NEV) industry, with an explosive growth in both productions and sales, following the gloomy period of 2009-2012. The PEV production in 2015 reached a record level of nearly 380,000 units, a 352 % increase from 2014, making China the largest PEV market in the world. For the potential implications on energy and the environment, it is worth studying the driving forces of China s PEV market and understanding its future trajectory and dynamics. The key findings of this report are listed in the following. Though controversial, the government monetary incentives have played a significant role to impel China to be the largest light PEV (191,100 units) market in the world. Chinese vehicle buyers appear more price sensitive on PEVs. Inexpensive low-cost micro electric vehicles are the most popular vehicle model in China s PEV market (38.9 % of the PEV market in 2015). In contrast, the premium or luxury vehicles are more popular in the gasoline vehicle segment. In fact, China is expected to be the largest premium car market in 2016. The PEV sales growth is primarily possible because of the young domestic private-owned auto manufacturers, which are mostly located in south China. Top-tier conventional vehicle automakers in China appear to be less proactive in the PEV market, based on market shares. This is in clear contrast to the U.S. market, where major automakers are generally the primary players in the PEV market. The PEVs produced by the domestic automakers are concentrated in the low-end market segment, while the high-end vehicle segment is dominated by the foreign brands. At present, the substantial market growth and government subsidies afford the domestic entrants to quickly gain profits in the low-end segment. The PEV consumers in China are very sensitive to the vehicle price, thus prefer the PEVs with cheaper prices after government subsidies, and care less about the

  10. Intelligent battery energy management and control for vehicle-to-grid via cloud computing network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Javadi, Bahman; Goscinski, Andrzej; Stojcevski, Alex; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The intelligent battery energy management substantially reduces the interactions of PEV with parking lots. • The intelligent battery energy management improves the energy efficiency. • The intelligent battery energy management predicts the road load demand for vehicles. - Abstract: Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) provide new opportunities to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission. PEVs need to draw and store energy from an electrical grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. As a result, it is important to know when PEVs batteries are available for charging and discharging. Furthermore, battery energy management and control is imperative for PEVs as the vehicle operation and even the safety of passengers depend on the battery system. Thus, scheduling the grid power electricity with parking lots would be needed for efficient charging and discharging of PEV batteries. This paper aims to propose a new intelligent battery energy management and control scheduling service charging that utilize Cloud computing networks. The proposed intelligent vehicle-to-grid scheduling service offers the computational scalability required to make decisions necessary to allow PEVs battery energy management systems to operate efficiently when the number of PEVs and charging devices are large. Experimental analyses of the proposed scheduling service as compared to a traditional scheduling service are conducted through simulations. The results show that the proposed intelligent battery energy management scheduling service substantially reduces the required number of interactions of PEV with parking lots and grid as well as predicting the load demand calculated in advance with regards to their limitations. Also it shows that the intelligent scheduling service charging using Cloud computing network is more efficient than the traditional scheduling service network for battery energy management and control

  11. Aggregation of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Power Systems for Primary Frequency Control

    OpenAIRE

    Izadkhast, Seyedmahdi

    2017-01-01

    The number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is likely to increase in the near future and these vehicles will probably be connected to the electric grid most of the day time. PEVs are interesting options to provide a wide variety of services such as primary frequency control (PFC), because they are able to quickly control their active power using electronic power converters. However, to evaluate the impact of PEVs on PFC, one should either carry out complex and time consuming simulation inv...

  12. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...... power ancillary service to the overhead power system. In that sense, when the active power is not being extracted from the grid, FESS provides the power required to sustain the continuous charging process of PEV battery. A key characteristic of the whole control system is that it is able to work without...

  13. Implementing Workplace Charging with Federal Agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret Smith

    2017-04-28

    The number of Americans that chose to purchase plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs) and all-electric vehicles (EVs), has steadily increased since 2011. Many of these drivers commute to federal worksites in communities across the country. The opportunity to charge a personal vehicle while at work is valuable to PEV drivers. Employees who have access to workplace charging are six times more likely to own a PEV than those who lack such access.

  14. New EVSE Analytical Tools/Models: Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-29

    This presentation addresses the fundamental question of how much charging infrastructure is needed in the United States to support PEVs. It complements ongoing EVSE initiatives by providing a comprehensive analysis of national PEV charging infrastructure requirements. The result is a quantitative estimate for a U.S. network of non-residential (public and workplace) EVSE that would be needed to support broader PEV adoption. The analysis provides guidance to public and private stakeholders who are seeking to provide nationwide charging coverage, improve the EVSE business case by maximizing station utilization, and promote effective use of private/public infrastructure investments.

  15. Exergetic optimization of the part-flow evaporative gas turbine cycles. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Sarabch, K.

    2005-01-01

    The evaporative gas turbine cycle is a new high efficiency power cycle that has reached the pilot plant testing stage. The latest configuration proposed for this cycle is known as part flow evaporative gas turbine cycle (PEvGT) in which humidification is combined with steam injection. Having advantages of both steam injected and humid air cycles, it is regarded as a very desirable plant for future. In this paper the exergy equations have been added to the mathematical model. Then exergy analysis and optimization of the PEvGT cycles: PEvGT and PEvGT-IC have been done. This study show that the maximum exergy destruction rate related to combustion chamber in both cycles. The exergetic optimization shows, the maximum first and second efficiency occur in the highest values of part-flow humidification rate. (author)

  16. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  17. Implementation Approach for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on Joint Base Lewis McChord (JBLM), which is located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at JBLM to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and the types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of select vehicles were identified and vehicle movements were recorded in data loggers in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. In Task 3, the results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements0, as well as the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the JBLM fleet.

  18. Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with IceTop-73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macíias, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.

    2013-08-01

    We report on the measurement of the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum with the IceTop air shower array in the energy range from 1.58 PeV to 1.26 EeV. The IceTop air shower array is the surface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographical South Pole. The analysis was performed using only information from IceTop. The data used in this work were taken from June 1, 2010 to May 13, 2011. During that period the IceTop array consisted of 73 stations, compared to 81 in its final configuration. The measured spectrum exhibits a clear deviation from a single power law above the knee around 4 PeV and below 1 EeV. We observe spectral hardening around 18 PeV and steepening around 130 PeV.

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  1. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  4. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  8. EV-Grid Integration (EVGI) Control and System Implementation - Research Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat; Markel, Tony; Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Jun, Myungsoo

    2016-03-23

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are being increasingly adopted in industry today. Microgrid applications of PEVs require the development of charging and discharging algorithms and individual characterization of vehicles including the on-board chargers and vehicle mobility. This study summarizes the capabilities of the Electric Vehicle Grid Integration (EVGI) Team at NREL and underlines different recent projects of the Team. Our studies include V1G, V2G, and V2H control of PEVs as well as test and analysis of stationary and dynamic wireless power transfer (WPT) systems. The presentation also includes the future scope of study which implements real-time simulation of PEVs in a microgrid scenario. The capabilities at Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) and Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) were described within the scope of the EVGI research.

  9. Electric Vehicle Preparedness Task 3: Detailed Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support this replacement. That is the subject of a separate report.

  10. Optimal trading of plug-in electric vehicle aggregation agents in a market environment for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Siano, P.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing a multi-stage stochastic model of a PEV aggregation agent. • Reflecting several uncertainties using a stochastic model and appropriate scenarios. • Updating bids/offers of PEV aggregation agents by taking part in the intraday market. • Taking part in Demand Response eXchange (DRX) markets. - Abstract: Ever since energy sustainability is an emergent concern, Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) significantly affect the approaching smart grids. Indeed, Demand Response (DR) brings a positive effect on the uncertainties of renewable energy sources, improving market efficiency and enhancing system reliability. This paper proposes a multi-stage stochastic model of a PEV aggregation agent to participate in day-ahead and intraday electricity markets. The stochastic model reflects several uncertainties such as the behaviour of PEV owners, electricity market prices, and activated quantity of reserve by the system operator. For this purpose, appropriate scenarios are utilized to realize the uncertain feature of the problem. Furthermore, in the proposed model, the PEV aggregation agents can update their bids/offers by taking part in the intraday market. To this end, these aggregation agents take part in Demand Response eXchange (DRX) markets designed in the intraday session by employing DR resources. The numerical results show that DR provides a perfect opportunity for PEV aggregation agents to increase the profit. In addition, the results reveal that the PEV aggregation agent not only can increase its profit by participating in the DRX market, but also can become an important player in the mentioned market.

  11. Results on the spectrum and composition of cosmic rays from the IceTop air shower array of the IceCube Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilav Serap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements of the energy spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays above 1 PeV with the data taken during the construction phase of the IceTop and IceCube detectors. We discuss our current systematics and observation of a structure in the energy spectrum above 20 PeV where the mass composition gets heavier than iron nuclei.

  12. Penetration Enhancer-Containing Vesicles: Does the Penetration Enhancer Structure Affect Topical Drug Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Carla; Manconi, Maria; Sinico, Chiara; Valenti, Donatella; Celia, Christian; Monduzzi, Maura; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of the edge activator structure on the properties of novel deformable liposomes, Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs), capable of delivering drugs to the skin. The PEVs were prepared by testing five different amphiphilic penetration enhancers as edge activators in the bilayer composition, together with soy phosphatidylcholine and oleic acid. The penetration enhancers contained the same lipophilic tail (one or more C8-C10 carbon chains) and different hydrophilic heads. Conventional phospholipid liposomes were prepared and used as a control. Lidocaine was chosen as a model drug. Liquid and gelified PEVs were obtained, depending on the penetration enhancer used. The vesicular systems were characterized by measuring size distribution, zeta potential, incorporation efficiency, and monitoring these parameters over 90 days. Accelerated ageing tests were also performed to check the stability of the dispersions. The effects of the different nature of the edge activator on the features of the obtained PEVs were assessed by TEM, SAXS and WAXS, rheological and deformability studies. Higher interactions of the most lipophilic penetration enhancers with the lipid bilayers and a consequent higher stability and elasticity of the obtained PEVs were observed. In vitro experiments through pig skin confirmed the superior potential as carriers for lidocaine of the PEVs prepared with the most lipophilic penetration enhancers, even in comparison with commercial EMLA cream.

  13. The Primary Enveloped Virion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1: Its Role in Nuclear Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, William W; Fontana, Juan; Winkler, Dennis C; Cheng, Naiqian; Heymann, J Bernard; Steven, Alasdair C

    2017-06-13

    Many viruses migrate between different cellular compartments for successive stages of assembly. The HSV-1 capsid assembles in the nucleus and then transfers into the cytoplasm. First, the capsid buds through the inner nuclear membrane, becoming coated with nuclear egress complex (NEC) protein. This yields a primary enveloped virion (PEV) whose envelope fuses with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing the capsid into the cytoplasm. We investigated the associated molecular mechanisms by isolating PEVs from US3-null-infected cells and imaging them by cryo-electron microscopy and tomography. (pUS3 is a viral protein kinase in whose absence PEVs accumulate in the perinuclear space.) Unlike mature extracellular virions, PEVs have very few glycoprotein spikes. PEVs are ~20% smaller than mature virions, and the little space available between the capsid and the NEC layer suggests that most tegument proteins are acquired later in the egress pathway. Previous studies have proposed that NEC is organized as hexamers in honeycomb arrays in PEVs, but we find arrays of heptameric rings in extracts from US3-null-infected cells. In a PEV, NEC contacts the capsid predominantly via the pUL17/pUL25 complexes which are located close to the capsid vertices. Finally, the NEC layer dissociates from the capsid as it leaves the nucleus, possibly in response to pUS3-mediated phosphorylation. Overall, nuclear egress emerges as a process driven by a program of multiple weak interactions. IMPORTANCE On its maturation pathway, the newly formed HSV-1 nucleocapsid must traverse the nuclear envelope, while respecting the integrity of that barrier. Nucleocapsids (125 nm in diameter) are too large to pass through the nuclear pore complexes that conduct most nucleocytoplasmic traffic. It is now widely accepted that the process involves envelopment/de-envelopment of a key intermediate-the primary enveloped virion. In wild-type infections, PEVs are short-lived, which has impeded study. Using a mutant

  14. On the business value of ICT-controlled plug-in electric vehicle charging in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The increasing penetration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, requires the deployment of large scale energy storage or dynamic demand side management. Leveraging the intrinsic energy storage potential of certain electric loads could be the key for an efficient transition to green power generation. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are about to be introduced on a large scale. In this paper, we investigate the savings potential of electricity retailers resulting from the ability to control the charging behavior of a fleet of PEVs using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This savings potential is important as it could jumpstart the development of advanced control infrastructures for dynamic demand side management. The paper makes three major contributions: first, it applies a novel car usage model based on data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). Second, it develops and evaluates several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements. Third, it identifies several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging. We obtain a relative savings potential of up to 45%. The absolute yearly savings per PEV, however, are rather small, which could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure. - Highlights: ► The paper presents a novel model for car usage based on NHTS. ► Several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements are developed and evaluated. ► Several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging are identified. ► PEVs can be used to reduce electricity sourcing cost by up to 45%. ► The absolute yearly savings per controlled PEV are rather small and could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure.

  15. Neuronal control of pedal sole cilia in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis appressa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Roger D; Peterman, Misa

    2013-01-01

    5-HT (serotonin) is a ubiquitous neurotransmitter that produces ciliary beating in gastropods when applied topically, but ciliary beating caused by gastropod serotonergic neurons has been described in only three neuron pairs. We extend these results to the North American Lymnaea stagnalis appressa, which is a different species from the European Lymnaea stagnalis. We describe a non-serotonergic neuron pair, PeV1, which accelerates pedal sole mucociliary transport and a serotonergic neuron pair, PeD7, which slows mucociliary transport. We compare and discuss development and identified neurons in L. s. appressa and in L. stagnalis, which have homologs to L. s. appressa PeD7 and PeV1 neurons. In addition to PeD7 and PeV1 neurons, we test neurons immunoreactive to Tritonia pedal peptide antibodies with negative results for mucociliary transport. In characterizing PeD7 and PeV1 neurons, we find that PeV1 does not excite PeD7. In semi-intact preparations, a strong increase in PeD7 neuron activity occurs during tactile stimulation, but V1 neurons are inhibited during tactile stimulation. Following tactile stimulation, PeV1 neurons show strong activity. This suggests a distinct difference in function of the two neuron pairs, which both have their axons overlying pedal sole ciliary cells. Application of 5-HT to the pedal sole initiates mucociliary transport in 1.4-1.9 s with a time course similar to that seen when stimulating a PeV1 neuron. This result appears to be through a 5-HT(1A)-like receptor on the pedal sole. We describe a possible external source of 5-HT on the pedal sole from 5-HT immunoreactive granules that are released with mucus.

  16. Increasing electric vehicle policy efficiency and effectiveness by reducing mainstream market bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Erin H.; Skerlos, Steven J.; Winebrake, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an opportunity for reducing energy use and emissions in the transportation sector. Currently, a number of federal policies are in place to incentivize deployment of PEVs to mainstream consumers with demographics and vehicle attribute preferences most common to today's new vehicle purchasers. This article argues that policies intending to give PEVs a foothold in the market should not focus on mainstream consumers and should instead focus on niche markets—specifically carsharing and postal fleets—and early adopters including green consumers. Two arguments can be made in support of eliminating the mainstream market bias of current policies toward a policy of cultivating niche markets. The first is efficiency: so far PEV policies featuring a mainstream market bias have proven to be inefficient and costly. The second is effectiveness: it is becoming increasingly evident that PEV policies would be more effective in achieving potential societal benefits if they focused on early adopters and niche markets using such approaches as strategic niche management, accessible loans and financing, and appropriately targeted incentives. PEV policies focused on early adopters and niche markets would create complementary system effects that will lead to increased PEV market penetration and realization of intended societal benefits. - Highlights: • We argue that U.S. electric vehicle policies are inefficient and ineffective. • We introduce “mainstream consumer bias” as an explanation for policy deficiencies. • We propose an alternative policy agenda to address some of these policy problems. • Proposed policy options include strategic niche management, targeted R and D and incentives, and loans

  17. Charging Electric Vehicles in Smart Cities: An EVI-Pro Analysis of Columbus, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Srinivasa Raghavan, Sesha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Stanley E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-09

    With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) worked with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to develop a plan for the expansion of the region's network of charging stations to support increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the local market. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection (EVI-Pro) model was used to generate scenarios of regional charging infrastructure to support consumer PEV adoption. Results indicate that approximately 400 Level 2 plugs at multi-unit dwellings and 350 Level 2 plugs at non-residential locations are required to support Columbus' primary PEV goal of 5,300 PEVs on the road by the end of 2019. This analysis finds that while consumer demand for fast charging is expected to remain low (due to modest anticipated adoption of short-range battery electric vehicles), a minimum level of fast charging coverage across the city is required to ease consumer range anxiety concerns by providing a safety net for unexpected charging events. Sensitivity analyses around some key assumptions have also been performed; of these, consumer preference for PHEV versus BEV and for their electric driving range, ambient conditions, and availability of residential charging at multi-unit dwellings were identified as key determinants of the non-residential PEV charging infrastructure required to support PEV adoption. The results discussed in this report can be leveraged by similar U.S. cities as part of a strategy to accelerate PEV adoption in the light-duty vehicle market.

  18. Human and Robotic Exploration Missions to Phobos Prior to Crewed Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Phobos is a scientifically significant destination that would facilitate the development and operation of the human Mars transportation infrastructure, unmanned cargo delivery systems and other Mars surface systems. In addition to developing systems relevant to Mars surface missions, Phobos offers engineering, operational, and public engagement opportunities that could enhance subsequent Mars surface operations. These opportunities include the use of low latency teleoperations to control Mars surface assets associated with exploration science, human landing-site selection and infrastructure development which may include in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to provide liquid oxygen for the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). A human mission to Mars' moons would be preceded by a cargo predeploy of a surface habitat and a pressurized excursion vehicle (PEV) to Mars orbit. Once in Mars orbit, the habitat and PEV would spiral to Phobos using solar electric propulsion based systems, with the habitat descending to the surface and the PEV remaining in orbit. When a crewed mission is launched to Phobos, it would include the remaining systems to support the crew during the Earth-Mars transit and to reach Phobos after insertion in to Mars orbit. The crew would taxi from Mars orbit to Phobos to join with the predeployed systems in a spacecraft that is based on a MAV, dock with and transfer to the PEV in Phobos orbit, and descend in the PEV to the surface habitat. A static Phobos surface habitat was chosen as a baseline architecture, in combination with the PEV that was used to descend from orbit as the main exploration vehicle. The habitat would, however, have limited capability to relocate on the surface to shorten excursion distances required by the PEV during exploration and to provide rescue capability should the PEV become disabled. To supplement exploration capabilities of the PEV, the surface habitat would utilize deployable EVA support structures that allow astronauts to work

  19. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Policy Effectiveness: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. federal government first introduced incentives for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) through the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, which provided a tax credit of up to $7,500 for a new PEV purchase. Soon after, in December 2010, two mass-market PEVs were introduced, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Chevrolet Volt and the battery electric vehicle (BEV) Nissan LEAF. Since that time, numerous additional types of PEV incentives have been provided by federal and regional (state or city) government agencies and utility companies. These incentives cover vehicle purchases as well as the purchase and installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through purchase rebates, tax credits, or discounted purchase taxes or registration fees. Additional incentives, such as free high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane access and parking benefits, may also be offered to PEV owners. Details about these incentives, such as the extent to which each type is offered by region, can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Fuel Data Center (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/). In addition to these incentives, other policies, such as zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) mandates,1 have also been implemented, and community-scale federal incentives, such as the DOE PEV Readiness Grants, have been awarded throughout the country to improve PEV market penetration. This report reviews 18 studies that analyze the impacts of past or current incentives and policies that were designed to support PEV adoption in the U.S. These studies were selected for review after a comprehensive survey of the literature and discussion with a number of experts in the field. The report summarizes the lessons learned and best practices from the experiences of these incentive programs to date, as well as the challenges they face and barriers that inhibit further market adoption of PEVs. Studies that make projections based on future policy scenarios and those that focus solely

  20. The impact of plug-in vehicles on greenhouse gas and criteria pollutants emissions in an urban air shed using a spatially and temporally resolved dispatch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    With the introduction of plug-in vehicles (PEVs) into the light-duty vehicle fleet, the tail-pipe emissions of GHGs and criteria pollutants will be partly transferred to electricity generating units. To study the impact of PEVs on well-to-wheels emissions, the U.S. Western electrical grid serving the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of California is modeled with both spatial and temporal resolution at the level of individual power plants. Electricity load is calculated and projected for future years, and the temporal electricity generation of each power plant within the SoCAB is modeled based on historical data and knowledge of electricity generation and dispatch. Due to the efficiency and pollutant controls governing the performance of the Western grid, the deployment of PEVs results in a daily reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and tail-pipe emissions, especially in the critical morning and afternoon commute hours. The extent of improvement depends on charging scenarios, future grid mix, and the number and type of plug-in vehicles. In addition, charging PEVs using wind energy that would otherwise be curtailed can result in a substantial emissions reduction. Smart control will be required to manage PEV charging in order to mitigate renewable intermittencies and decrease emissions associated with peaking power production.

  1. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  2. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadi Kordkheili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow (PF from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (QoS. The method uses genetic algorithm (GA to increase photovoltaic (PV penetration without jeopardizing PEV owners’ (QoS and grid operating limits, such as voltage level of the grid buses. The method is applied to a part of the Danish low voltage (LV grid to evaluate its effectiveness and capabilities. Different scenarios have been defined and tested using the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage.

  3. Charge Pricing Optimization Model for Private Charging Piles in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a charge pricing model for private charging piles (PCPs by considering the environmental and economic effects of private electric vehicle (PEV charging energy sources and the impact of PCP charging load on the total load. This model simulates users’ responses to different combinations of peak-valley prices based on the charging power of PCPs and user charging transfer rate. According to the regional power structure, it calculates the real-time coal consumption, carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and power generation costs of PEVs on the power generation side. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed peak-valley time-of-use charging price can not only minimize the peak-valley difference of the total load but also improve the environmental effects of PEVs and the economic income of the power system. The sensitivity analysis shows that the load-shifting effect of PCPs will be more obvious when magnifying the number of PEVs by using the proposed charging price. The case study indicates that the proposed peak, average, and valley price in Beijing should be 1.8, 1, and 0.4 yuan/kWh, which can promote the large-scale adoption of PEVs.

  4. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  5. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  6. Master-Slave Control Scheme in Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-01-01

    WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging. PMID:24982956

  7. Master-slave control scheme in electric vehicle smart charging infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-01-01

    WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging.

  8. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 Vehicle Utilization report provided the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements.

  9. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  10. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  11. A randomized placebo-controlled phase Ia malaria vaccine trial of two virosome-formulated synthetic peptides in healthy adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Genton

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virosomes represent an innovative human-compatible antigen delivery system that has already proven its suitability for subunit vaccine design. The aim of the study was to proof the concept that virosomes can also be used to elicit high titers of antibodies against synthetic peptides. The specific objective was to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of two virosome-formulated P. falciparum protein derived synthetic peptide antigens given in two different doses alone or in combination.The design was a single blind, randomized, placebo controlled, dose-escalating study involving 46 healthy Caucasian volunteers aged 18-45 years. Five groups of 8 subjects received virosomal formulations containing 10 microg or 50 microg of AMA 49-CPE, an apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 derived synthetic phospatidylethanolamine (PE-peptide conjugate or 10 ug or 50 ug of UK39, a circumsporozoite protein (CSP derived synthetic PE-peptide conjugate or 50 ug of both antigens each. A control group of 6 subjects received unmodified virosomes. Virosomal formulations of the antigens (designated PEV301 and PEV302 for the AMA-1 and the CSP virosomal vaccine, respectively or unmodified virosomes were injected i. m. on days 0, 60 and 180. In terms of safety, no serious or severe adverse events (AEs related to the vaccine were observed. 11/46 study participants reported 16 vaccine related local AEs. Of these 16 events, all being pain, 4 occurred after the 1(st, 7 after the 2(nd and 5 after the 3(rd vaccination. 6 systemic AEs probably related to the study vaccine were reported after the 1(st injection, 10 after the 2(nd and 6 after the 3(rd. Generally, no difference in the distribution of the systemic AEs between either the doses applied (10 respectively 50 microg or the synthetic antigen vaccines (PEV301 and PEV302 used for immunization was found. In terms of immunogenicity, both PEV301 and PEV302 elicited already after two injections a synthetic peptide

  12. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  13. EAS primary particle parameter estimation with the complex Pamir-XXI detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, V. I.; Borisov, A. S.; Bakhromzod, R.; Batraev, V. V.; Latipova, S.; Muqumov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Some new developments in EAS methods made in the framework of the Pamir-XXI project are presented. First, primary energy and direction definition accuracies by a network of fast scintillators are considered, optimum network cell size is defined for 10 PeV showers. Second, the same accuracies for a network of fast optical (Cherenkov) detectors are considered for 30 TeV-10 PeV showers. Third, the possibilities of separation of EAS initiated by protons, nitrogen and iron nuclei of 1 and 10 PeV energies using a wide-angle Cherenkov telescope are discussed. Finally, the results of the extraction of 30-50 TeV gamma showers from the proton shower background with the same telescope are presented. Presumably, our developments can help in the study of PCR mass composition and ultra high energy gamma ray astronomy in other projects.

  14. Interpretation of cosmic ray spectrum above the knee measured by the Tunka-133 array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sveshnikova, Lyubov, E-mail: tfl10@mail.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Leninskie Gory GSP 1, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Kuzmichev, Leonid; Korosteleva, Elena; Prosin, Vasiliy [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Leninskie Gory GSP 1, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Ptuskin, V.S. [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propogation (IZMIRAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow region 142092 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    A probable interpretation of the fine structure of all particle energy spectrum between the knee and the ankle (the sharp first knee at 3–4 PeV, the spectrum hardening at 20–30 PeV, the second knee at 200–300 PeV) as well as a (E) dependence measured recently by the Tunka-133 experiment, is presented. We show that these features are compatible with the combined model where cosmic rays around the knee are produced by the group of dedicated sources and the extragalactic light component appears in the energy region of 10{sup 16}–10{sup 17} eV and reaches about 50% of all particles around (2–3)×10{sup 17} eV.

  15. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  16. An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles †

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Ziras, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators...... management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions...

  17. Energy Management strategies for Smart Home Regarding Uncertainties: State of the art, Trends, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi, Mojtaba; Hajizadeh, Amin; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    The advent of Smart grid and high-energy demand for electricity has provided new opportunities for energy management systems (EMSs) in a smart home (SH). Energy management strategies play a key role in performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy resources, Heat Pumps (HP......), and Plug-in Electrical Vehicle (PEV) energy storages. This paper presents a critical review and analysis of different energy management strategies for SH to handle the uncertainties involved in renewable energy resources, home load demands, PEV charging requirements, and household comfort. In addition...

  18. New physics with ultra-high-energy neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Marfatia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Now that PeV neutrinos have been discovered by IceCube, we optimistically entertain the possibility that neutrinos with energy above 100 PeV exist. We evaluate the dependence of event rates of such neutrinos on the neutrino-nucleon cross section at observatories that detect particles, atmospheric fluorescence, or Cherenkov radiation, initiated by neutrino interactions. We consider how (i a simple scaling of the total standard model neutrino-nucleon cross section, (ii a new elastic neutral current interaction, and (iii a new completely inelastic interaction, individually impact event rates.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    This Program Review takes an unprecedented look at the state of workplace charging in the United States -- a report made possible by U.S. Department of Energy leadership and valuable support from our partners as they share their progress in developing robust workplace charging programs. Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 250 participants are accelerating the development the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations at more than 440 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

  20. Las políticas de protección y gestión de los recursos naturales de la Generalitat Valenciana (1984-1994)

    OpenAIRE

    Viñals Blasco, María José; Ors, Juan

    1995-01-01

    El presente trabajo intenta reflejar el impacto territorial que ha tenido la aplicación de las estrategias medioambientales autonómicas entre 1984 y 1994, periodo de duración de los PEV I y PEV II en lo referente a los recursos naturales (espacios naturales, fauna y flora). En primer lugar se analizan las peculiaridades del paisaje que han condicionado tradicionalmente el modelo territorial. Posteriormente se ha plasmado la evolución administrativa y normativa relacionada con los recursos nat...

  1. Guide to Federal Funding, Financing, and Technical Assistance for Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Charging Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-07-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Transportation have published a guide to highlight examples of federal support and technical assistance for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and charging stations. The guide provides a description of each opportunity and a point of contact to assist those interested in advancing PEV technology. The Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center provides a comprehensive database of federal and state programs that support plug-in electric vehicles and infrastructure.

  2. Impacts of Electrification of Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States, 2010 - 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohlke, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2018-01-25

    This report examines the sales of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the United States from 2010 to 2017, exploring vehicle sales, electricity consumption, petroleum reduction, and battery production, among other factors. Over 750,000 PEVs have been sold, driving nearly 16 billion miles on electricity, thereby reducing gasoline consumption by 0.1% in 2016 and 600 million gallons cumulatively through 2017, while using over 5 terawatt-hours of electricity. Over 23 gigawatt-hours of battery capacity has been placed in vehicles, and 98% of this is still on the road, assuming typical scrappage rates.

  3. The Barriers to Acceptance of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: 2017 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-09

    Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the previous version published in December 2016, details findings from a study in February 2017 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

  4. Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles -- National Benchmark Report (Second Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the version published in January 2016, details findings from a study in February 2015 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

  5. Lyapunov Based-Distributed Fuzzy-Sliding Mode Control for Building Integrated-DC Microgrid with Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed control strategy based on Fuzzy-Sliding Mode Control (FSMC) for power control of an infrastructure integrated with a DC-Microgrid, which includes photovoltaic, fuel cell and energy storage systems with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs). In order to implement...... the proposed control strategy, first a general nonlinear modeling of a DC-Microgrid based on related DC-DC converters to each DC power sources is introduced. Secondly, a power management strategy based on fuzzy control for regulating the power flow between the hybrid DC sources, PEVs is proposed. Third...

  6. Enabling Fast Charging: A Technology Gap Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-31

    Decreasing energy consumption across the U.S. transportation sector, especially in commercial light-duty vehicles, is essential for the United States to gain energy independence. Recently, powertrain electrification with plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have gained traction as an alternative due to their inherent efficiency advantages compared to the traditional internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Even though there are many different classes of PEVs, the intent of this study is to focus on non-hybrid powertrains, or battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

  7. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  8. Lamin C and chromatin organization in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wm4h; Su(var)205/lamCEX187 had nearly normal red eye colour with little evidence of variegation, in contrast to the variegated eyes of the PEV strains crossed to w1118 strains. (figure 5,A&B). Precise excisions of ..... 2003 A P- element insertion screen identified mutations in. 455 novel essential genes in Drosophila.

  9. Explaining variance in national electric vehicle policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transition studies’ understanding of differences in public policy is limited due to its tendency to focus on single-country cases. This paper assesses differences in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) policies, comprising RD&D subsidies, infrastructure investments and sales incentives, across

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, ENERGY, AND POWER TECHNOLOGY Task Order 0012: Plug In Electric Vehicle, Vehicle to Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    2017 Final 28 September 2015 – 05 December 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, ENERGY , AND POWER TECHNOLOGY Task Order 0012: Plug-In...allows the PEV battery to be marketed as an energy resource—receiving power from and providing power to the grid on a coordinated signal from the

  11. Flexible interaction of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots for efficient wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Shafie-khah, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactive incorporation of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots is investigated. • Flexible energy and reserve services are provided by electric vehicle parking lots. • Uncertain characterization of electric vehicle owners’ behavior is taken into account. • Coordinated operation of parking lots can facilitate wind power integration. - Abstract: The increasing share of uncertain wind generation has changed traditional operation scheduling of power systems. The challenges of this additional variability raise the need for an operational flexibility in providing both energy and reserve. One key solution is an effective incorporation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the power system operation process. To this end, this paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming market-clearing model considering the network constraints to achieve the optimal scheduling of conventional units as well as PEV parking lots (PLs) in providing both energy and reserve services. Different from existing works, the paper pays more attention to the uncertain characterization of PLs takes into account the arrival/departure time of PEVs to/from the PL, the initial state of charge (SOC) of PEVs, and their battery capacity through a set of scenarios in addition to wind generation scenarios. The results reveal that although the cost saving as a consequence of incorporating PL to the grid is below 1% of total system cost, however, flexible interactions of PL in the energy and reserve markets can promote the integration of wind power more than 13.5%.

  12. The Leadership Styles of Hong Kong Kindergarten Principals in a Context of Managerial Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Wai

    2014-01-01

    Since the implementation of the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme (PEVS) in 2007, its built-in quality assurance mechanism has brought about subtle changes in the work relationship between kindergarten (KG) principals and teachers. The increasing demand for accountability and the call for improvement in the quality of pre-school education are…

  13. Decaying leptophilic dark matter at IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucenna, Sofiane M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,C.P. 13, Frascati, I-00044 (Italy); Chianese, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”,Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo,Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); Mangano, Gianpiero [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo,Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); Miele, Gennaro; Morisi, Stefano; Pisanti, Ofelia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”,Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo,Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); Vitagliano, Edoardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”,Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy)

    2015-12-29

    We present a novel interpretation of IceCube high energy neutrino events (with energy larger than 60 TeV) in terms of an extraterrestrial flux due to two different contributions: a flux originated by known astrophysical sources and dominating IceCube observations up to few hundreds TeV, and a new flux component where the most energetic neutrinos come from the leptophilic three-body decays of dark matter particles with a mass of few PeV. Differently from other approaches, we provide two examples of elementary particle models that do not require extremely tiny coupling constants. We find the compatibility of the theoretical predictions with the IceCube results when the astrophysical flux has a cutoff of the order of 100 TeV (broken power law). In this case the most energetic part of the spectrum (PeV neutrinos) is due to an extra component such as the decay of a very massive dark matter component. Due to the low statistics at our disposal we have considered for simplicity the equivalence between deposited and neutrino energy, however such approximation does not affect dramatically the qualitative results. Of course, a purely astrophysical origin of the neutrino flux (no cutoff in energy below the PeV scale — unbroken power law) is still allowed. If future data will confirm the presence of a sharp cutoff above few PeV this would be in favor of a dark matter interpretation.

  14. Detection of atmospheric muon neutrinos with the IceCube 9-string detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068285175; Duvoort, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483212X; Heise, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304846260; van Eijndhoven, N.J.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072823674

    2007-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino detector is a cubic kilometer TeV to PeV neutrino detector under construction at the geographic South Pole. The dominant population of neutrinos detected in IceCube is due to meson decay in cosmic-ray air showers. These atmospheric neutrinos are relatively well-understood and

  15. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinelli, A.; Gaggero, D.; Grasso, D.; Urbano, A.; Valli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE) obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1) and the spectral

  16. Optimal scheduling for vehicle-to-grid operation with stochastic connection of plug-in electric vehicles to smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Linni; Zheng, Yanchong; Xiao, Xinping; Chan, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation is proposed. • New scheme can handle the uncertainty arising from stochastic connection of electric vehicles. • New scheme aims at minimizing the overall load variance of power grid by V2G operation. • Method to evaluate the performance of proposed scheme is elaborated and demonstrated. - Abstract: Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is attracting increasing attention since it can assist to improve the efficiency and reliability of power grid, as well as reduce the operating cost and greenhouse gas emission of electric vehicles. Within the scheme of V2G operation, PEVs are expected to serve as a novel distributed energy storage system (ESS) to help achieve the balance between supply and demand of power grid. One of the key difficulties concerning its practical implementation lies in that the availability of PEVs as ESS for grid remains highly uncertain due to their mobility as transportation tools. To address this issue, a novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for V2G operation based on the scenario of stochastic PEV connection to smart grid is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model is formulated. Secondly, the preparation of input data for systematic evaluation is introduced and the case study is conducted. Finally, statistic analysis results demonstrate that our proposed V2G scheduling scheme can dramatically smooth out the fluctuation in power load profiles

  17. Media and the 2013 Kenyan election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In March 2013, Kenya held its first election after the post-election violence (PEV) in 2008, which media were blamed for contributing to by partisan reporting and hate speech. Prior to the 2013 election, several organizations worked to raise awareness of the negative consequences of hate speech...

  18. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Steven [Green Mountain College, Poultney, VT (United States); Gowri, Krishnan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  19. Empowering Parents' Choice of Schools: The Rhetoric and Reality of How Hong Kong Kindergarten Parents Choose Schools under the Voucher Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kit-Ho Chanel; Lam, Chi-Chung

    2011-01-01

    School choice gives parents greater power over their children's education. But ever since the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme (PEVS) was introduced in Hong Kong in 2007, school choice has become a hotly debated topic. The scheme was introduced to empower kindergarten parents in choosing a school for their children by offering them direct fee…

  20. 2015 electric vehicle market summary and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The object of this research report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. markets. The : sales values for 2015 show that China leads in yearly sa...

  1. The EV Project Price/Fee Models for Publicly Accessible Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are introduced to the market place and gain more consumer acceptance, it is important for a robust and self-sustaining non-residential infrastructure of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to be established to meet the needs of PEV drivers. While federal and state financial incentives for electric vehicles were in place and remain so today, future incentives are uncertain. In order for PEVs to achieve mainstream adoption, an adequate and sustainable commercial or publicly available charging infrastructure was pursued by The EV Project to encourage increased PEV purchases by alleviating range anxiety, and by removing adoption barriers for consumers without a dedicated overnight parking location to provide a home-base charger. This included determining a business model for publicly accessible charge infrastructure. To establish this business model, The EV Project team created a fee for charge model along with various ancillary offerings related to charging that would generate revenue. And after placing chargers in the field the Project rolled out this fee structure.

  2. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  3. China's electric car surge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunshi; Sperling, Daniel; Tal, Gil; Fang, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    China's plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales, comprising both battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, surged 343% in 2015, and are expected to reach 2 million by 2020. Two factors are crucial to this sudden transformation: 1) massive central and local government subsidies, and 2) huge non-monetary incentives via exemptions from restrictions on vehicle ownership in Beijing, Shanghai, and elsewhere. Innovative business models and greatly expanded vehicle offerings, especially by local Chinese manufacturers, also helped accelerate PEV sales and infrastructure deployment. However, continued sales growth is threatened by persistent regional protectionism, the unsustainability of these large subsidies, and widely reported cheating by some automakers. We suggest some innovative policies that China might pioneer and transfer elsewhere. - Highlights: • The rapid growth was a result of massive central and local government subsidies. • Exemptions from restrictions on vehicle ownership play even more important role. • A comparative case study of Beijing and Shanghai. • Persistent regional protectionism impedes the development of China's PEV industry. • Focusing on the use of PEVs is a better way to achieve eVMT.

  4. AND THE BARBEL (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the method of Kleihauer & Betke (1957). After the determination of the haematocrit value. (p.e.v.) by centrifugation (Korzbeuv 1964) the p]asma was analysed for haemoglobin in. Zoo/ogica ..... Ed. Pavlovski, E. N.: 11-15. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations. SATCHELL, G. H. 1971. Circulation in Fishes.

  5. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    281. Flowering to bloom of PeV scale supersymmetric left–right symmetric models . . . . . .............. Urjit A Yajnik, Anishnu Sarkar, Sasmita Mishra and Debasish Borah. 295. Cosmology. Hawking radiation from quasilocal dynamical horizons . . . . . . . . . . . . Ayan Chatterjee. 307. SUSY see-saw and NMSO(10)GUT inflation after ...

  6. Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate : a path integral approach / P. Hänggi and P. Reimann. - In: International Conference on Path Integrals from peV to TeV : Proceedings of the ... / eds.: R. Casalbuoni ... - Singapore u.a. : World Scientific, 1999. - S. 407-409

  7. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem is formulated to rapidly and efficiently optimize both the control decision and parameters of the home battery energy storage system (BESS). Considering different time horizons of optimization, home BESS prices, types and control modes of PEVs, the parameters of home BESS and electric cost are systematically investigated. Based on the developed CP control law in home to vehicle (H2V) mode and vehicle to home (V2H) mode, the home with BESS does not buy electric energy from the grid during the electric price's peak periods.

  8. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins discriminates aphid clones of Sitobion avenae differing in BYDV-PAV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papura, D; Jacquot, E; Dedryver, C A; Luche, S; Riault, G; Bossis, M; Rabilloud, T

    2002-10-01

    Aset of 39 F1 Sitobion avenae clones was obtained by selfing a poorly efficient BYDV-PAV vector clone. These clones were genetically typed by 11 microsatellite loci, and tested for BYDV-PAV4 transmission to barley. The 39 clones displayed a continuum in transmission percentages, from 0% to 88% with a significant clone effect. From this set, two highly efficient (HEV) and two poorly efficient (PEV) vectoring clones were more precisely characterized for transmission of two other PAV isolates. The molecular bases of the lower transmissibility of BYDV-PAV4 by PEV clones and of the aphid vectoring properties were investigated respectively by comparing the sequences corresponding to structural proteins (CP and RTD) of BYDV, and by using proteomic analysis of aphids in two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) with immobilized pH gradients (IPG) after an improved protein extraction. Four residues specific to BYDV-PAV4 located in the CP sequence (A(24) and L(130)) or in the RTD region (M(334) and S(456)) could be responsible for the lower transmissibility of this isolate by PEV clones. Among a total of 2150 well-resoluted spots scored on S. avenae proteinic pattern, only twelve proteins were qualitatively or quantitatively different between clones. Four out of them discriminated HEV and PEV groups.

  9. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  10. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This report addresses the fundamental question of how much plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure—also known as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)—is needed in the United States to support both plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

  11. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  12. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  13. An optimization framework for workplace charging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi; Zhou, Yan

    2015-03-01

    The workplace charging (WPC) has been recently recognized as the most important secondary charging point next to residential charging for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The current WPC practice is spontaneous and grants every PEV a designated charger, which may not be practical or economic when there are a large number of PEVs present at workplace. This study is the first research undertaken that develops an optimization framework for WPC strategies to satisfy all charging demand while explicitly addressing different eligible levels of charging technology and employees’ demographic distributions. The optimization model is to minimize the lifetime cost of equipment, installations, and operations, and is formulated as an integer program. We demonstrate the applicability of the model using numerical examples based on national average data. The results indicate that the proposed optimization model can reduce the total cost of running a WPC system by up to 70% compared to the current practice. The WPC strategies are sensitive to the time windows and installation costs, and dominated by the PEV population size. The WPC has also been identified as an alternative sustainable transportation program to the public transit subsidy programs for both economic and environmental advantages.

  14. Impact of plug-in electric vehicles on voltage unbalance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the voltage unbalance due to PEVs discharging and other types of distribution generator such as solar photovoltaic and wind turbines are investigated. Finally, some voltage unbalance mitigation techniques are summarized. Keywords: Distribution Network, Electric Vehicle, G2V, V2G, Voltage Unbalance ...

  15. Effect of Storage Temperature on the Stability of Spray Dried Bacteriophage Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharon S Y; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Nguyen, An; Gengenbach, Thomas; Carter, Elizabeth A; Carrigy, Nicholas B; Wang, Hui; Vehring, Reinhard; Finlay, Warren H; Morales, Sandra; Britton, Warwick J; Kutter, Elizabeth; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2018-02-24

    This study aimed to assess the robustness of using a spray drying approach and formulation design in producing inhalable phage powders. Two types of Pseudomonas phages, PEV2 (Podovirus) and PEV40 (Myovirus) in two formulations containing different amounts of trehalose (70% and 60%) and leucine (30% and 40%) were studied. Most of the surface of the produced powders was found to be covered in crystalline leucine. The powders were stored at 4°C and 20 °C under vacuum. The phage stability and in vitro aerosol performance of the phage powders were examined on the day of production and after 1, 3 and 12 months of storage. A minor titer loss during production was observed for both phages (0.2 - 0.8 log 10 pfu/ml). The storage stability of the produced phage powders was found to be phage and formulation dependent. No further reduction in titer occurred for PEV2 powders stored at 4 °C across the study. The formulation containing 30% leucine maintained the viability of PEV2 at 20 °C, while the formulation containing 40% leucine gradually lost titer over time with a storage reduction of ∼0.9 log 10 pfu/ml measured after 12 months. In comparison, the PEV40 phage powders generally had a ∼ 0.5 log 10 pfu/ml loss upon storage regardless of temperature. When aerosolized, the total in vitro lung doses of PEV2 were of the order of 10 7 pfu, except the formulation containing 40% leucine stored at 20 °C which had a lower lung dose. The PEV40 powders also had lung doses of 10 6 - 10 7 pfu. The results demonstrate that spray dried Myoviridae and Podoviridae phage in a simple formulation of leucine and trehalose can be successfully stored for one year at 4 °C and 20 °C with vacuum packaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Benefits and Challenges of Achieving a Mainstream Market for Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungar, Edward [Taratec Corporation; Mueller, Howard [Taratec Corporation; Smith, Brett [Center for Automotive Research

    2010-08-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Final Report identified a range of policies, incentives and regulations designed to enhance the probability of success in commercializing PHEVs as they enter the automotive marketplace starting in 2010. The objective of the comprehensive PHEV Value Proposition study, which encompasses the PHEV Market Introduction Study, is to better understand the value proposition that PHEVs (as well as other plug-in electric vehicle platforms - PEVs) provide to the auto companies themselves, to the consumer and to the public at large as represented by the government and its public policies. In this report we use the more inclusive term PEVs, to include PHEVs, BEVs (battery electric vehicles that operate only on battery) and EREVs (extended range electric vehicles that combine battery electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine that charges the battery as needed). The objective of Taratec's contribution to Phase 2 of the PHEV Value Proposition Study is to develop a clear understanding of the benefits of PEVs to three stakeholders - auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), utilities, and the government - and of the technical and commercial challenges and risks to be overcome in order to achieve commercial success for these vehicles. The goal is to understand the technical and commercial challenges in moving from the 'early adopters' at the point of market introduction of these vehicles to a 'sustainable' mainstream market in which PEVs and other PEVs represent a normal, commercially available and attractive vehicle to the mainstream consumer. For the purpose of this study, that sustainable market is assumed to be in place in the 2030 timeframe. The principal focus of the study is to better understand the technical and commercial challenges in the transition from early adopters to a sustainable mainstream consumer market. Effectively, that translates to understanding the

  17. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR imaging for management of hemorrhagic esophageal varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Hideaki [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Aikata, Hiroshi, E-mail: aikata@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Takaki, Shintaro; Azakami, Takahiro; Katamura, Yoshio; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Akira; Waki, Koji; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Takahashi, Shoichi [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Toyota, Naoyuki; Ito, Katsuhide [Department of Radiology, Division of Medical Intelligence and Informatics, Programs for Applied Biomedicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: To study the correlation between changes in portosystemic collaterals, evaluated by multidetector-row computed tomography imaging using multiplanar reconstruction (MDCT-MPR), and prognosis in patients with hemorrhagic esophageal varices (EV) after endoscopic treatment. Methods: Forty-nine patients with primary hemostasis for variceal bleeding received radical endoscopic treatment: endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) or endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Patients were classified according to the rate of reduction in feeding vessel diameter on MDCT-MPR images, into the narrowing (n = 24) and no-change (n = 25) groups. We evaluated changes in portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR before and after treatment, and determined rebleeding and survival rates. Results: The left gastric and paraesophageal (PEV) veins were recognized as portosystemic collaterals in 100 and 80%, respectively, of patients with EV on MDCT-MPR images. The rebleeding rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after endoscopic treatment were 10, 15, 23, and 23%, respectively, for the narrowing group, and 17, 24, 35, and 67%, respectively, for the no-change group (P = 0.068). Among no-change group, the rebleeding rate in patients with large PEV was significantly lower than that with small PEV (P = 0.027). The rebleeding rate in patients with small PEV of the no-change group was significantly higher than that in the narrowing group (P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in rebleeding rates between the no-change group with a large PEV and narrowing group (P = 0.435). Conclusion: Changes in portosystemic collaterals evaluated by MDCT-MPR imaging correlate with rebleeding rate. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals in this manner would provide useful information for the management of hemorrhagic EV.

  18. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR imaging for management of hemorrhagic esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Hideaki; Aikata, Hiroshi; Takaki, Shintaro; Azakami, Takahiro; Katamura, Yoshio; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Akira; Waki, Koji; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Takahashi, Shoichi; Toyota, Naoyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between changes in portosystemic collaterals, evaluated by multidetector-row computed tomography imaging using multiplanar reconstruction (MDCT-MPR), and prognosis in patients with hemorrhagic esophageal varices (EV) after endoscopic treatment. Methods: Forty-nine patients with primary hemostasis for variceal bleeding received radical endoscopic treatment: endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) or endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Patients were classified according to the rate of reduction in feeding vessel diameter on MDCT-MPR images, into the narrowing (n = 24) and no-change (n = 25) groups. We evaluated changes in portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR before and after treatment, and determined rebleeding and survival rates. Results: The left gastric and paraesophageal (PEV) veins were recognized as portosystemic collaterals in 100 and 80%, respectively, of patients with EV on MDCT-MPR images. The rebleeding rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after endoscopic treatment were 10, 15, 23, and 23%, respectively, for the narrowing group, and 17, 24, 35, and 67%, respectively, for the no-change group (P = 0.068). Among no-change group, the rebleeding rate in patients with large PEV was significantly lower than that with small PEV (P = 0.027). The rebleeding rate in patients with small PEV of the no-change group was significantly higher than that in the narrowing group (P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in rebleeding rates between the no-change group with a large PEV and narrowing group (P = 0.435). Conclusion: Changes in portosystemic collaterals evaluated by MDCT-MPR imaging correlate with rebleeding rate. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals in this manner would provide useful information for the management of hemorrhagic EV.

  19. Exploration of dispatch model integrating wind generators and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Ibn Saif, A.U.N.; Nguyen, P.H.; Torbaghan, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel business model for the BRPs is analyzed. • Imbalance cost of wind generation is considered in the UC-ED model. • Smart charging of EVs is included into the UC-ED problem to mitigate the imbalance cost. • Effects of smart charging on generation cost, CO 2 emissions and total network load are assessed. - Abstract: In recent years, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity generation mix has been expanding rapidly. However, limited predictability of the RES poses challenges for traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED). This paper presents an advanced UC-ED model to incorporate wind generators as RES-based units alongside conventional centralized generators. In the proposed UC-ED model, an imbalance cost is introduced reflecting the wind generation uncertainty along with the marginal generation cost. The proposed UC-ED model aims to utilize the flexibility of fleets of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to optimally compensate for the wind generation uncertainty. A case study with 15 conventional units and 3 wind farms along with a fixed-sized PEV fleet demonstrates that shifting of PEV fleets charging at times of high wind availability realizes generation cost savings. Nevertheless, the operational cost saving incurred by controlled charging appears to diminish when dispatched wind energy becomes considerably larger than the charging energy of PEV fleets. Further analysis of the results reveals that the effectiveness of PEV control strategy in terms of CO 2 emission reduction is strongly coupled with generation mix and the proposed control strategy is favored in cases where less pollutant-based plants like nuclear and hydro power are profoundly dominant.

  20. Two-layer optimization methodology for wind distributed generation planning considering plug-in electric vehicles uncertainty: A flexible active-reactive power approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadian, Ali; Sedghi, Mahdi; Aliakbar-Golkar, Masoud; Fowler, Michael; Elkamel, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible active-reactive power control of WDGs is proposed for WDGs planning. • The uncertainty of PEVs effect is considered in WDGs planning. • The wind data is classified in four separate seasons to reach more accurate results. • The PSO algorithm is modified to overcome the complexity of problem. - Abstract: With increasing the penetration of wind power, the voltage regulation becomes a more important problem in active distribution networks. In addition, as an uncertain load Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) will introduce a new concern in voltage adjustment of future distribution networks. Hence, this paper presents a flexible active-reactive power based Wind Distributed Generation (WDG) planning procedure to address the mentioned challenges. The uncertainties related to WDGs, load demand as well as PEVs load have been handled using the Point Estimate Method (PEM). The distribution network under study is equipped to on-load tap-changer and, as a conventional voltage control component, the Capacitor Banks (CBs) will be planned simultaneously with WDGs. The planning procedure has been considered as a two-loop optimization problem that is solved using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Tabu Search (TS) algorithms. The tap position and power factor of WDGs are taken into account as stochastic variables with practical limitations. The proposed methodology is applied to a typical distribution network and several scenarios are considered and analyzed. Simulation results show that the standard deviation of power factor depends on PEVs penetration that highlights the capability curve of WDGs. The optimal penetration of wind power increases nonlinearly versus increasing of PEVs connected to the distribution network, however the fixed CBs are required to increase the optimal penetration of WDGs. The proposed Modified PSO (MPSO) is compared with the conventional PSO in numerical studies that show MPSO is more efficient than the conventional

  1. Virosome-formulated Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 & CSP derived peptides as malaria vaccine: randomized phase 1b trial in semi-immune adults & children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Georges Cech

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of two virosome formulated malaria peptidomimetics derived from Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 and CSP in malaria semi-immune adults and children.The design was a prospective randomized, double-blind, controlled, age-deescalating study with two immunizations. 10 adults and 40 children (aged 5-9 years living in a malaria endemic area were immunized with PEV3B or virosomal influenza vaccine Inflexal®V on day 0 and 90.No serious or severe adverse events (AEs related to the vaccines were observed. The only local solicited AE reported was pain at injection site, which affected more children in the Inflexal®V group compared to the PEV3B group (p = 0.014. In the PEV3B group, IgG ELISA endpoint titers specific for the AMA-1 and CSP peptide antigens were significantly higher for most time points compared to the Inflexal®V control group. Across all time points after first immunization the average ratio of endpoint titers to baseline values in PEV3B subjects ranged from 4 to 15 in adults and from 4 to 66 in children. As an exploratory outcome, we found that the incidence rate of clinical malaria episodes in children vaccinees was half the rate of the control children between study days 30 and 365 (0.0035 episodes per day at risk for PEV3B vs. 0.0069 for Inflexal®V; RR  = 0.50 [95%-CI: 0.29-0.88], p = 0.02.These findings provide a strong basis for the further development of multivalent virosomal malaria peptide vaccines.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00513669.

  2. Utilization Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense base studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at MCBCL to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of the charging infrastructure required to support this replacement, which is the subject of a separate report. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from MCBCL personnel.

  3. Micro Climate Assessment of Grid-Connected Electric Drive Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based micro-climate studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The study included Joint Base Lewis McChord, located in Washington State; Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, located in Washington State; and United States Marine Corp Base Camp Lejeune, located in North Carolina. The project was divided into four tasks for each of the three bases studied. Task 1 consisted of surveying the non-tactical fleet of vehicles to begin review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, the daily operational characteristics of the vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. Results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements). It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. In Task 4, an implementation approach was provided for near-term adoption of PEVs into the respective fleets. Each facility was provided detailed reports on each of these tasks. This paper summarizes and provides observations on the project and completes Intertek’s required actions.

  4. Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense base studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) located in North Carolina. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at MCBCL to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the MCBCL fleet. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from MCBCL personnel.

  5. BTDI detector technology for reconnaissance application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Eckardt, Andreas; Krutz, David

    2017-11-01

    The Institute of Optical Sensor Systems (OS) at the Robotics and Mechatronics Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 30 years of experience with high-resolution imaging technology. This paper shows the institute's scientific results of the leading-edge detector design in a BTDI (Bidirectional Time Delay and Integration) architecture. This project demonstrates an approved technological design for high or multi-spectral resolution spaceborne instruments. DLR OS and BAE Systems were driving the technology of new detectors and the FPA design for future projects, new manufacturing accuracy in order to keep pace with ambitious scientific and user requirements. Resulting from customer requirements and available technologies the current generation of space borne sensor systems is focusing on VIS/NIR high spectral resolution to meet the requirements on earth and planetary observation systems. The combination of large swath and high-spectral resolution with intelligent control applications and new focal plane concepts opens the door to new remote sensing and smart deep space instruments. The paper gives an overview of the detector development and verification program at DLR on detector module level and key parameters like SNR, linearity, spectral response, quantum efficiency, PRNU, DSNU and MTF.

  6. Evaluation of carbon dioxide rebreathing during exercise assisted by noninvasive ventilation with plateau exhalation valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou YE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yong-er Ou,* Zhi-min Lin,* Dong-ming Hua, Ying Jiang, Ya-ting Huo, Qun Luo, Rong-Chang Chen State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Noninvasive ventilation with a plateau exhalation valve (PEV is often used as an adjunct to exercise to achieve a physiologic training effect in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. However, during exercise, with the increase of exhalation flow and respiratory rate and limited capability of PEV to exhale gases out of the circuit, it is still unknown whether CO2 rebreathing occurs in COPD patients ventilated during exercise assisted by single-limb circuit with a PEV. A maximal symptom-limited cycle exercise test was performed while ventilated on pressure support (inspiratory:expiratory pressure 14:4 cmH2O in 18 male patients with stable severe COPD (mean ± standard deviation, forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 29.5%±6.9% predicted. At rest and during exercise, breathing pattern, mean expiratory flow, mean expiratory flow of PEV, and the mean inspiratory fraction of CO2 (tidal fractional concentration of inspired CO2 [FiCO2] reinsufflated from the circuit was measured for each breath. In comparison with rest, with the significant increase of mean expiratory flow (0.39±0.15 vs 0.82±0.27 L/s, fractional concentration of end-tidal CO2 (2.6%±0.7% vs 5.5%±0.6%, and the significant decrease of mean expiratory flow of PEV (0.41±0.02 vs 0.39±0.03 L/s, tidal FiCO2 significantly increased at peak exercise (0.48%±0.19% vs 1.8%±0.6% in patients with stable severe COPD. The inflection point of obvious CO2 rebreathing was 0.67±0.09 L/s (95% confidence interval 0.60–0.73 L/s. Ventilated by a single-limb tubing with PEV caused CO2

  7. The development of a new type of rechargeable batteries based on hybrid electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haoshen; Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping

    2010-09-24

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which have the highest energy density among all currently available rechargeable batteries, have recently been considered for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (PEV). A major challenge in this effort is to increase the energy density of LIBs to satisfy the industrial needs of HEVs, PHEVs, and PEVs. Recently, new types of lithium-air and lithium-copper batteries that employ hybrid electrolytes have attracted significant attention; these batteries are expected to succeed lithium ion batteries as next-generation power sources. Herein, we review the concept of hybrid electrolytes, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, we examine new battery types that use hybrid electrolytes.

  8. Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, Carrie; Lommele, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public well-being and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

  9. The development of the gas industry in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramkamp, F.B.; Richter, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992 the consumption of primary energy (PEV) in the Federal Republic of Germany declined 2.6% while that of natural gas declined 1.1%. This decrease is attributable to unfavourable business prospects and the fact that the weather was milder than in 1991. The share of natural gas in the PEV increased to 17.1%. Natural gas consumption within the Federal Republic of Germany was 72.6% bn m 3 , of which 65.1% bn m 3 (-2.2%) go to the old Laender and 7.5 bn m 3 (-1.3%) to the new Laender. There were no significant changes in marketing structure. (orig./BWI) [de

  10. EAS primary particle parameter estimation with the complex Pamir-XXI detector array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galkin V.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new developments in EAS methods made in the framework of the Pamir-XXI project are presented. First, primary energy and direction definition accuracies by a network of fast scintillators are considered, optimum network cell size is defined for 10 PeV showers. Second, the same accuracies for a network of fast optical (Cherenkov detectors are considered for 30 TeV–10 PeV showers. Third, the possibilities of separation of EAS initiated by protons, nitrogen and iron nuclei of 1 and 10 PeV energies using a wide-angle Cherenkov telescope are discussed. Finally, the results of the extraction of 30–50 TeV gamma showers from the proton shower background with the same telescope are presented. Presumably, our developments can help in the study of PCR mass composition and ultra high energy gamma ray astronomy in other projects.

  11. Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles in Competitive Electricity Markets and Its Impact on Distribution Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. The impact of the optimal operation strategy for electric vehicles together with the optimal load response to spot market price on the distribution power system with high wind power penetrations......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the electricity price could be transferred to the consumers and they may make some optimal charge and discharge schedules for their electric vehicles in order to minimize their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal...... operation strategy for a Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) in relation to the hourly electricity price in order to achieve minimum energy costs of the PEV. The western Danish power system, which is currently the grid area in the world that has the largest share of wind power in its generation profiles and may...

  12. Analysis of the cumulative neutrino flux from Fermi LAT blazar populations using 3 years of IceCube data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glüsenkamp Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of a diffuse neutrino flux up to PeV energies raises the question of which populations of astrophysical sources contribute to this diffuse signal. One extragalactic candidate source population to produce high-energy neutrinos are Blazars. We present results from a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from Blazar populations selected with the 2nd Fermi LAT AGN catalogue (2LAC using an IceCube data set that has been optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to previous searches with IceCube, the investigated populations contain up to hundreds of sources, the biggest one being the entire Blazar sample measured by the Fermi-LAT. No significant neutrino signal was found from any of these populations. Some implications of this non-observation for the origin of the observed PeV diffuse signal will be discussed.

  13. IceCube searches for neutrino emission from galactic and extragalactic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palczewski Tomasz Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located near the geographic South Pole, is currently the world’s largest neutrino telescope. IceCube is principally designed to detect high-energy neutrinos from galactic and extragalactic sources. The detector comprises more than a cubic-kilometer of glacial ice instrumented with 86 vertical strings, each with 60 optical sensors, and a square-kilometer array at the surface. IceCube sensors detect Cherenkov radiation from charged particles produced in all neutrino flavor interactions in the ice. We discuss the recent results from searches for high-energy neutrinos, including the first detection of a diffuse flux of extraterrestrial origin with energies between about 30 TeV and 2 PeV. The events with energies above 1 PeV are the highest energy neutrinos ever observed.

  14. Tatiana Muxart, Franck-Dominique Vivien, Bruno Villalba, Joëlle Burnouf (eds, 2003, Des milieux et des hommes: fragments d’histoires croisées, Paris, Elsevier, collection environnement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Zuindeau

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Le programme «Environnement, vie et sociétés» (PEVS du CNRS a vécu. En 2002, il a été décidé de ne plus le reconduire. Depuis, le thème qui lui correspond – l’environnement dans ses liens avec les sociétés humaines – semble connaître une situation incertaine au sein du CNRS et la communauté scientifique concernée se demande s’il fera l’objet d’une reprise et si oui, de quelle manière.Le PEVS a vécu et, dans une certaine mesure, l’ouvrage Des milieux et des hommes prend des allures de testame...

  15. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  16. Modeling plug-in electric vehicle charging demand with BEAM: the framework for behavior energy autonomy mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Colin; Waraich, Rashid; Campbell, Andrew; Pozdnukov, Alexei; Gopal, Anand R.

    2017-05-01

    This report summarizes the BEAM modeling framework (Behavior, Energy, Mobility, and Autonomy) and its application to simulating plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) mobility, energy consumption, and spatiotemporal charging demand. BEAM is an agent-based model of PEV mobility and charging behavior designed as an extension to MATSim (the Multi-Agent Transportation Simulation model). We apply BEAM to the San Francisco Bay Area and conduct a preliminary calibration and validation of its prediction of charging load based on observed charging infrastructure utilization for the region in 2016. We then explore the impact of a variety of common modeling assumptions in the literature regarding charging infrastructure availability and driver behavior. We find that accurately reproducing observed charging patterns requires an explicit representation of spatially disaggregated charging infrastructure as well as a more nuanced model of the decision to charge that balances tradeoffs people make with regards to time, cost, convenience, and range anxiety.

  17. Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Integration Requirements Study. Providing Guidance on Technology Development and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hardy, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bohn, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smart, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hovsapian, R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Saxena, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kahl, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pratt, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-28

    The report begins with a discussion of the current state of the energy and transportation systems, followed by a summary of some VGI scenarios and opportunities. The current efforts to create foundational interface standards are detailed, and the requirements for enabling PEVs as a grid resource are presented. Existing technology demonstrations that include vehicle to grid functions are summarized. The report also includes a data-based discussion on the magnitude and variability of PEVs as a grid resource, followed by an overview of existing simulation tools that vi This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. can be used to explore the expansion of VGI to larger grid functions that might offer system and customer value. The document concludes with a summary of the requirements and potential action items that would support greater adoption of VGI.

  18. Origin of the High-energy Neutrino Flux at IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceller, J. M.; Illana, J. I.; Masip, M.; Meloni, D.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the spectrum of the different components in the astrophysical neutrino flux reaching the Earth, and the possible contribution of each component to the high-energy IceCube data. We show that the diffuse flux from cosmic ray (CR) interactions with gas in our galaxy implies just two events among the 54-event sample. We argue that the neutrino flux from CR interactions in the intergalactic (intracluster) space depends critically on the transport parameter δ describing the energy dependence in the diffusion coefficient of galactic CRs. Our analysis motivates a {E}-2.1 neutrino spectrum with a drop at PeV energies that fits the data well, including the non-observation of the Glashow resonance at 6.3 PeV. We also show that a CR flux described by an unbroken power law may produce a neutrino flux with interesting spectral features (bumps and breaks) related to changes in the CR composition.

  19. Phased arrays: A strategy to lower the energy threshold for neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissel Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-ice radio arrays are optimized for detecting the highest energy, cosmogenic neutrinos expected to be produced though cosmic ray interactions with background photons. However, there are two expected populations of high energy neutrinos: the astrophysical flux observed by IceCube (~1 PeV and the cosmogenic flux (~ 1017 eV or 100 PeV. Typical radio arrays employ a noise-riding trigger, which limits their minimum energy threshold based on the background noise temperature of the ice. Phased radio arrays could lower the energy threshold by combining the signals from several channels before triggering, thereby improving the signal-to-noise at the trigger level. Reducing the energy threshold would allow radio experiments to more efficiently overlap with optical Cherenkov neutrino telescopes as well as for more efficient searches for cosmogenic neutrinos. We discuss the proposed technique and prototypical phased arrays deployed in an anechoic chamber and at Greenland’s Summit Station.

  20. Optimised performance of a plug-in electric vehicle aggregator in energy and reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Moghaddam, M.P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model is developed to optimise the performance of a PEV aggregator in the power market. • PEVs aggregator can combine the PEVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. • A new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of PEV owners is proposed. • Several uncertainties are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach. • The proposed model is proficient in significantly improving the short- and long-term behaviour. - Abstract: In this paper, a new model is developed to optimise the performance of a plug-in Electric Vehicle (EV) aggregator in electricity markets, considering both short- and long-term horizons. EV aggregator as a new player of the power market can aggregate the EVs and manage the charge/discharge of their batteries. The aggregator maximises the profit and optimises EV owners’ revenue by applying changes in tariffs to compete with other market players for retaining current customers and acquiring new owners. On this basis, a new approach to calculate the satisfaction/motivation of EV owners and their market participation is proposed in this paper. Moreover, the behaviour of owners to select their supplying company is considered. The aggregator optimises the self-scheduling programme and submits the best bidding/offering strategies to the day-ahead and real-time markets. To achieve this purpose, the day-ahead and real-time energy and reserve markets are modelled as oligopoly markets, in contrast with previous works that utilised perfectly competitive ones. Furthermore, several uncertainties and constraints are taken into account using a two-stage stochastic programing approach, which have not been addressed in previous works. The numerical studies show the effectiveness of the proposed model

  1. Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommele, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dafoe, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Using electricity to power vehicles can help advance energy security and reduce emissions, and also presents a new market opportunity for utilities looking to diversify and offer an added benefit to commercial customers. By providing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations for their employees, commercial customers can help attract and retain a cutting-edge workforce. These employers also signal a commitment to sustainability and demonstrate progressive leadership and a willingness to adopt advanced technology.

  2. IceCube Constraints on the Fermi Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherf, Nimrod; Keshet, Uri; Gurwich, Ilya

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the IceCube four-year neutrino data in search of a signal from the Fermi bubbles. No signal is found from the bubbles or from their dense shell, even when taking into account the softer background. This imposes a conservative ξ I IceCube neutrinos increases by ˜an order of magnitude, unless there is a <PeV cutoff on the CRI spectrum.

  3. Electrochemical Energy Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. DRIVE electrochemical energy storage roadmap describes ongoing and planned efforts to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The Energy Storage activity comprises a number of research areas (including advanced materials research, cell level research, battery development, and enabling R&D which includes analysis, testing and other activities) for advanced energy storage technologies (batteries and ultra-capacitors).

  4. A modified GWO technique based cascade PI-PD controller for AGC of power systems in presence of Plug in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Padhy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A Modified Grey Wolf Optimization (MGWO based cascade PI-PD controller is suggested in this paper for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of power systems in presence of Plug in Electric Vehicles (PEV. The modification in original Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO algorithm is introduced by strategy which maintains a proper balance between exploration and exploitation stages of the algorithm and gives more importance to the fittest wolves to find the new position of grey wolves during the iterations. Proposed algorithm is first tested using four bench mark test functions and compared with original GWO, Differential Evolution (DE, Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO to show its superiority. The proposed technique is then used to tune various conventional controllers in a single area three-unit power system consisting of thermal hydro and gas power plants for AGC. The superiority of proposed MGWO algorithm over some recently proposed approaches has been demonstrated. In the next step, different controllers like PI, PID, and cascaded PI-PD controller are taken and Plug in Electric Vehicles (PEVs are assumed. The proposed approach is also extended to a two-area six-unit power system. Lastly, a five unequal area nonlinear power system with PEVs and dissimilar cascade PI-PD controller in each area is considered and proposed MGWO technique is employed to optimize the controller parameters in presence of nonlinearities like rate constraint of units, dead zone of governor and communication delay. It is observed that PEVs contribute in the AGC to control system frequency.

  5. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total momentum p of the polaron is considered to be the only continuous quantum number. The dependence of the energy on the momentum (for the case of an isotropic crystal) has the form: ,. E = E., (v)+ p*E, (v)+ p"E(v)+..., (2.8). Here the quantities E9, E., E, , , , are coefficients of expansion of 28 and vis the totality of.

  6. An Implantable Neuroprosthetic Device to Normalize Bladder Function after SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    long term. Frequent urethral catheterization can cause low urinary tract infection (2). In addition, detrusor overactivity (DO) induces poor bladder ...management of neurogenic bladder and sexual dysfunction after spinal cord injury. Spine 2001;26:S129–S136. 3. van Kerrebroeck PEV, Koldewijn EL, Rosier PFWM...Wijkstra H, Debruyne FMJ. Results of the treatment of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in spinal cord injury by sacral posterior root rhizotomy and

  7. Challenges and Opportunities of Grid Modernization and Electric Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Robert L. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Francis, Julieta [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Bogacz, Richard J. [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Grid investments that support electric vehicle deployments as a part of planned modernization efforts can enable a more efficient and cost-effective transition to electric transportation and allow investor-owned electric companies and public power companies to realize new revenue resources in times of flat or declining loads. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with an increase in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and how working together both sectors stand to benefit from closer integration.

  8. Pevonedistat, a first-in-class NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor, combined with azacitidine, in patients with AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Ronan T; Coutre, Steven; Maris, Michael B; Zeidner, Joshua F; Foran, James M; Cruz, Jose; Erba, Harry P; Berdeja, Jesus G; Tam, Wayne; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Pawlikowska-Dobler, Iwona; Faessel, Hélène M; Dash, Ajeeta B; Sedarati, Farhad; Dezube, Bruce J; Faller, Douglas V; Savona, Michael R

    2018-01-18

    Pevonedistat (TAK-924/MLN4924) is a novel inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) with single-agent activity in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We performed a phase 1b study (NCT01814826) of pevonedistat (PEV) with azacitidine (AZA) based on synergistic activity seen preclinically. Primary objectives included safety and tolerability, and secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics (PK) and disease response. Patients ≥60 years with treatment-naïve AML, unfit for standard induction therapy, received PEV 20 or 30 mg/m 2 IV on days 1, 3, and 5, combined with fixed-dose AZA (75 mg/m 2 IV/SC) on days 1-5, 8, and 9, every 28 days. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were constipation (48%), nausea (42%), fatigue (42%), and anemia (39%). In total, 11 deaths were observed and considered unrelated to study therapy by the investigators. Transient elevations in AST and ALT were dose limiting. The recommended phase 2 dose of PEV in this combination is 20 mg/m 2 PEV PK was not altered by the addition of AZA. Overall response rate (ORR) based on an ITT analysis was 50% (20 CR, 5 CRi, 7 PR), with an 8.3-month median duration of remission. In patients receiving ≥6 cycles of therapy (n = 23, 44%), ORR was 83%. In patients with TP53 mutations, the composite CR/PR rate was 80% (4/5). Two of these patients stayed on study for >10 cycles. Baseline bone marrow blast percentage or cytogenetic/molecular risk did not influence ORR. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  9. Online forecasting of electrical load for distributed management of plug-in electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Basu , Kaustav; Ovalle , Andres; Guo , Baoling; Hably , Ahmad; Bacha , Seddik; Hajar , Khaled

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The paper aims at making online forecast of electrical load at the MV-LV transformer level. Optimal management of the Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) charging requires the forecast of the electrical load for future hours. The forecasting module needs to be online (i.e update and make forecast for the future hours, every hour). The inputs to the predictor are historical electrical and weather data. Various data driven machine learning algorithms are compared to derive t...

  10. On the neutron bursts origin.

    CERN Document Server

    Stenkin, Yu V

    2002-01-01

    The origin of the neutron bursts in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is explained using results of the experiments and CORSIKA based Monte-Carlo simulations. It is shown that events with very high neutron multiplicity observed last years in neutron monitors as well as in surrounding detectors, are caused by usual EAS core with primary energies > 1 PeV. No exotic processes were needed for the explanation.

  11. The molecular basis for stability of heterochromatin-mediated silencing in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiragami-Hamada Kyoko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The archetypal epigenetic phenomenon of position effect variegation (PEV in Drosophila occurs when a gene is brought abnormally close to heterochromatin, resulting in stochastic silencing of the affected gene in a proportion of cells that would normally express it. PEV has been instrumental in unraveling epigenetic mechanisms. Using an in vivo mammalian model for PEV we have extensively investigated the molecular basis for heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing. Here we distinguish 'epigenetic effects' from other cellular differences by studying ex vivo cells that are identical, apart from the expression of the variegating gene which is silenced in a proportion of the cells. By separating cells according to transgene expression we show here that silencing appears to be associated with histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3, DNA methylation and the localization of the silenced gene to a specific nuclear compartment enriched in these modifications. In contrast, histone H3 acetylation (H3Ac and lysine 4 di or tri methylation (H3K4me2/3 are the predominant modifications associated with expression where we see the gene in a euchromatic compartment. Interestingly, DNA methylation and inaccessibility, rather than H3K9me3, correlated most strongly with resistance to de-repression by cellular activation. These results have important implications for understanding the contribution of specific factors involved in the establishment and maintenance of gene silencing and activation in vivo.

  12. Optimal Coordinated Management of a Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Station under a Flexible Penalty Contract for Voltage Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jip Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs may cause a low-voltage problem in the distribution network. In particular, the introduction of charging stations where multiple PEVs are simultaneously charged at the same bus can aggravate the low-voltage problem. Unlike a distribution network operator (DNO who has the overall responsibility for stable and reliable network operation, a charging station operator (CSO may schedule PEV charging without consideration for the resulting severe voltage drop. Therefore, there is a need for the DNO to impose a coordination measure to induce the CSO to adjust its charging schedule to help mitigate the voltage problem. Although the current time-of-use (TOU tariff is an indirect coordination measure that can motivate the CSO to shift its charging demand to off-peak time by imposing a high rate at the peak time, it is limited by its rigidity in that the network voltage condition cannot be flexibly reflected in the tariff. Therefore, a flexible penalty contract (FPC for voltage security to be used as a direct coordination measure is proposed. In addition, the optimal coordinated management is formulated. Using the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E 69-bus test distribution network, the effectiveness of the coordination was verified by comparison with the current TOU tariff.

  13. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  14. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs. (letter)

  15. Probing the origin of cosmic rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Arguelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macías, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.

    2013-12-01

    We have searched for extremely high energy neutrinos using data taken with the IceCube detector between May 2010 and May 2012. Two neutrino-induced particle shower events with energies around 1 PeV were observed, as reported previously. In this work, we investigate whether these events could originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube’s large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out the corresponding models at more than 90% confidence level. The model-independent quasidifferential 90% C.L. upper limit, which amounts to E2ϕνe+νμ+ντ=1.2×10-7GeVcm-2s-1sr-1 at 1 EeV, provides the most stringent constraint in the energy range from 10 PeV to 10 EeV. Our observation disfavors strong cosmological evolution of the highest energy cosmic-ray sources such as the Fanaroff-Riley type II class of radio galaxies.

  16. End of the cosmic neutrino energy spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Anchordoqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There may be a high-energy cutoff of neutrino events in IceCube data. In particular, IceCube does not observe either continuum events above 2 PeV, or the Standard Model Glashow-resonance events expected at 6.3 PeV. There are also no higher energy neutrino signatures in the ANITA and Auger experiments. This absence of high-energy neutrino events motivates a fundamental restriction on neutrino energies above a few PeV. We postulate a simple scenario to terminate the neutrino spectrum that is Lorentz-invariance violating, but with a limiting neutrino velocity that is always smaller than the speed of light. If the limiting velocity of the neutrino applies also to its associated charged lepton, then a significant consequence is that the two-body decay modes of the charged pion are forbidden above two times the maximum neutrino energy, while the radiative decay modes are suppressed at higher energies. Such stabilized pions may serve as cosmic ray primaries.

  17. All-Particle Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum Measured with 26 Icetop Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum with the IceTop air shower array, thesurface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. The data used in this analysiswere taken between June and October, 2007, with 26 surface stations operational at that time, corresponding to about one third of the final array. The fiducial area used in this analysis was 0.122 square kilometers.The analysis investigated the energy spectrum from 1 to 100 PeV measured for three different zenithangle ranges between 0 and 46. Because of the isotropy of cosmic rays in this energy range the spectrafrom all zenith angle intervals have to agree. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum was determined under differentassumptions on the primary mass composition. Good agreement of spectra in the three zenithangle ranges was found for the assumption of pure proton and a simple two-component model. Forzenith angles theta less than 30 deg., where the mass dependence is smallest, the knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrumwas observed at about 4 PeV, with a spectral index above the knee of about -3.1. Moreover, an indicationof a flattening of the spectrum above 22 PeV was observed.

  18. IMPLICATION OF THE NON-DETECTION OF GZK NEUTRINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacobi, Lee; Guetta, Dafne; Behar, Ehud [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel)

    2016-06-01

    The IceCube telescope has detected diffuse neutrino emission up to a deposited energy of 2.6 PeV. Neutrinos with higher energies are expected from the Greisen Ztsepin Kuzmin (GZK) effect, namely the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the extragalactic background light (EBL), but have not yet been detected. Models for GZK neutrinos vary greatly due to different assumptions on the UHECR elemental composition, as well as on the cosmological evolution of their sources and of the EBL. We show that the high ratio of EeV to PeV neutrinos in essentially all GZK models excludes the currently detected PeV neutrinos from being due to the GZK effect, because many additional higher-energy neutrinos should have been detected but were not. The non-detection of GZK neutrinos, despite more than essentially 1800 observing days, already rules out at 95% confidence all of the models that predict rates of 0.6 neutrinos yr{sup −1} or more. The non-detection is further used here to quantify the confidence at which classes of GZK models can be ruled out, and to compute the additional IceCube observing time required in order to rule them out with 95% confidence, if no detection is made. Finally, the number of GZK neutrinos expected from various classes of models in the future neutrino telescopes ARA and KM3NeT is estimated.

  19. A New V2G Control Strategy for Load Factor Improvement Using Smoothing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANHOM, P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G control strategy for improving the load factor in the power network. To operate the proposed strategy, the available storage capacity of the PEVs’ batteries is considered as a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging and discharging an amount of power corresponding to the V2G power command. Due to the remarkable advantages of the technique so-called simple moving average, it is selected for applying in the proposed V2G control strategy. In this research, for investigating the load factor improvement, the essential data including the daily-load profiles with 7-day and 14-day periods are used for the 3 studied cases. These 3 studied cases present the power network with variation of the PEVs locations for describing the PEVs usage and charging or discharging behavior. The performance of the proposed strategy is simulated and verified by the MATPOWER software. The simulation results show that the load factors of the 3 studied cases are improved. Moreover, the encouragement of energy arbitrage for the PEVs owners is also discussed in this paper.

  20. H3S10 phosphorylation by the JIL-1 kinase regulates H3K9 dimethylation and gene expression at the white locus in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Cai, Weili; Li, Yeran; Girton, Jack; Johansen, Jørgen; Johansen, Kristen M

    2012-01-01

    The JIL-1 kinase is a multidomain protein that localizes specifically to euchromatin interband regions of polytene chromosomes and is the kinase responsible for histone H3S10 phosphorylation at interphase. Genetic interaction assays have suggested that the function of the epigenetic histone H3S10ph mark is to antagonize heterochromatization by participating in a dynamic balance between factors promoting repression and activation of gene expression as measured by position-effect variegation (PEV) assays. Interestingly, JIL-1 loss-of-function alleles can act either as an enhancer or indirectly as a suppressor of w(m4) PEV depending on the precise levels of JIL-1 kinase activity. In this study, we have explored the relationship between PEV and the relative levels of the H3S10ph and H3K9me2 marks at the white gene in both wild-type and w(m4) backgrounds by ChIP analysis. Our results indicate that H3K9me2 levels at the white gene directly correlate with its level of expression and that H3K9me2 levels in turn are regulated by H3S10 phosphorylation.

  1. Search for PeVatrons at the Galactic Center using a radio air-shower array at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal V., A.; Haungs, A.; Huege, T.; Schröder, F. G.

    2018-02-01

    The South Pole, which hosts the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has a complete and around-the-clock exposure to the Galactic Center. Hence, it is an ideal location to search for gamma rays of PeV energy coming from the Galactic Center. However, it is hard to detect air showers initiated by these gamma rays using cosmic-ray particle detectors due to the low elevation of the Galactic Center. The use of antennas to measure the radio footprint of these air showers will help in this case, and would allow for a 24/7 operation time. So far, only air showers with energies well above 10^{16} eV have been detected with the radio technique. Thus, the energy threshold has to be lowered for the detection of gamma-ray showers of PeV energy. This can be achieved by optimizing the frequency band in order to obtain a higher level of signal-to-noise ratio. With such an approach, PeV gamma-ray showers with high inclination can be measured at the South Pole.

  2. Effect of Penetration Enhancer Containing Vesicles on the Percutaneous Delivery of Quercetin through New Born Pig Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manconi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone exerts multiple pharmacological effects: anti-oxidant activity, induction of apoptosis, modulation of cell cycle, anti-mutagenesis, and anti-inflammatory effect. In topical formulations quercetin inhibits oxidative skin damage and the inflammatory processes induced by solar UV radiation. In this work, quercetin (2 mg/mL was loaded in vesicular Penetration Enhancer containing Vesicles (PEVs, prepared using a mixture of lipids (Phospholipon® 50, P50 and one of four selected hydrophilic penetration enhancers: Transcutol® P, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400, and Labrasol® at the same concentration (40% of water phase. Photon Correlation Spectroscopy results showed a mean diameter of drug loaded vesicles in the range 80–220 nm. All formulations showed a negative surface charge and incorporation efficiency in the range 48–75%. Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed that size and morphology varied as a function of the used penetration enhancer. The influence of PEVs on ex vivo quercetin (transdermal delivery was evaluated using Franz-type diffusion cells, new born pig skin and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Results showed that drug delivery is affected by the penetration enhancer used in the PEVs' formulation.

  3. A New Vehicle-to-Grid System for Battery Charging exploiting IoT protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachechi, Alessio; Mainetti, Luca; Palano, Laura; Patrono, Luca; Stefanizzi, Luigi; Vergallo, Roberto; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2015-03-17

    The continuously rising demand for electricity has prompted governments and industries to research more effective energy management systems. The Internet of Things paradigm is a valuable add-on for controlling and managing the energy appliances such as Plug-in Electrical Vehicles (PEV) charging stations. In this paper, we present a Demand Response implementation for PEV charging stations able to use Wireless Sensor Network technologies based on the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). We developed a self-service kiosk system by which the user can autonomously swipe his/her credit card and choose the charging station to enable. When a user plugs his/her vehicle to the station, s/he subscribes his availability to share a portion of its energy. When the grid requests a contribution from the PEVs, the kiosk sends a CoAP message to the available stations and the energy flow is inverted (Vehicle-to-Grid). At the end of the charging process, the user's credit card gets charged with a discounted bill.

  4. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 vehicle utilization report provided results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. Finally, this report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune personnel.

  5. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion Dale [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  6. Multi-Objective Scheduling of Electric Vehicles in Smart Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Deng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the energy savings and environmental protection they provide, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs are increasing in number quickly. Rapid development of PEVs brings new opportunities and challenges to the electricity distribution network’s dispatching. A high number of uncoordinated charging PEVs has significant negative impacts on the secure and economic operation of a distribution network. In this paper, a bi-level programming approach that coordinates PEVs’ charging with the network load and electricity price of the open market is presented. The major objective of the upper level model is to minimize the total network costs and the deviation of electric vehicle aggregators’ charging power and the equivalent power. The subsequent objective of the lower level model after the upper level decision is to minimize the dispatching deviation of the sum of PEVs’ charging power and their optimization charging power under the upper level model. An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to solve the bi-level programming. Numerical studies using a modified IEEE 69-bus distribution test system including six electric vehicle aggregators verify the efficiency of the proposed model.

  7. Stochastic control of smart home energy management with plug-in electric vehicle battery energy storage and photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Moura, Scott; Yin, Xiaofeng; Pickert, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Energy management strategies are instrumental in the performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy and energy storage. This article focuses on stochastic energy management of a smart home with PEV (plug-in electric vehicle) energy storage and photovoltaic (PV) array. It is motivated by the challenges associated with sustainable energy supplies and the local energy storage opportunity provided by vehicle electrification. This paper seeks to minimize a consumer's energy charges under a time-of-use tariff, while satisfying home power demand and PEV charging requirements, and accommodating the variability of solar power. First, the random-variable models are developed, including Markov Chain model of PEV mobility, as well as predictive models of home power demand and PV power supply. Second, a stochastic optimal control problem is mathematically formulated for managing the power flow among energy sources in the smart home. Finally, based on time-varying electricity price, we systematically examine the performance of the proposed control strategy. As a result, the electric cost is 493.6% less for a Tesla Model S with optimal stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) control relative to the no optimal control case, and it is by 175.89% for a Nissan Leaf.

  8. Probing the origin of cosmic-rays with extremely high energy neutrinos using the IceCube Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2013-01-01

    We have searched for extremely high energy neutrinos using data taken with the IceCube detector between May 2010 andMay 2012. Two neutrino-induced particle shower events with energies around 1 PeV were observed, as reported previously. In this work, we investigate whether these events could...... originate from cosmogenic neutrinos produced in the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with ambient photons while propagating through intergalactic space. Exploiting IceCube’s large exposure for extremely high energy neutrinos and the lack of observed events above 100 PeV, we can rule out...... the corresponding models at more than 90% confidence level. The model-independent quasidifferential 90% C.L. upper limit, which amounts to E^2ϕ_{ν_e+ν_μ+ν_τ}=1.2×10^−7 GeV cm^−2 s^−1 sr^−1 at 1 EeV, provides the most stringent constraint in the energy range from 10 PeV to 10 EeV. Our observation disfavors strong...

  9. California Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projections: 2017-2025 - Future Infrastructure Needs for Reaching the State's Zero Emission-Vehicle Deployment Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bedir, Abdulkadir [California Energy Commission; Crisostomo, Noel [California Energy Commission; Allen, Jennifer [California Energy Commission

    2018-03-27

    This report analyzes plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure needs in California from 2017 to 2025 in a scenario where the State's zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) deployment goals are achieved by household vehicles. The statewide infrastructure needs are evaluated by using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool, which incorporates representative statewide travel data from the 2012 California Household Travel Survey. The infrastructure solution presented in this assessment addresses two primary objectives: (1) enabling travel for battery electric vehicles and (2) maximizing the electric vehicle-miles traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis is performed at the county-level for each year between 2017 and 2025 while considering potential technology improvements. The results from this study present an infrastructure solution that can facilitate market growth for PEVs to reach the State's ZEV goals by 2025. The overall results show a need for 99k-130k destination chargers, including workplaces and public locations, and 9k-25k fast chargers. The results also show a need for dedicated or shared residential charging solutions at multi-family dwellings, which are expected to host about 120k PEVs by 2025. An improvement to the scientific literature, this analysis presents the significance of infrastructure reliability and accessibility on the quantification of charger demand.

  10. Trans-inactivation: Repression in a wrong place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatskikh, Aleksei S; Abramov, Yuriy A; Lavrov, Sergey A

    2017-04-03

    Trans-inactivation is the repression of genes on a normal chromosome under the influence of a rearranged homologous chromosome demonstrating the position effect variegation (PEV). This phenomenon was studied in detail on the example of brown Dominant allele causing the repression of wild-type brown gene on the opposite chromosome. We have investigated another trans-inactivation-inducing chromosome rearrangement, In(2)A4 inversion. In both cases, brown Dominant and In(2)A4, the repression seems to be the result of dragging of the euchromatic region of the normal chromosome into the heterochromatic environment. It was found that cis-inactivation (classical PEV) and trans-inactivation show different patterns of distribution along the chromosome and respond differently to PEV modifying genes. It appears that the causative mechanism of trans-inactivation is de novo heterochromatin assembly on euchromatic sequences dragged into the heterochromatic nuclear compartment. Trans-inactivation turns out to be the result of a combination of heterochromatin-induced position effect and the somatic interphase chromosome pairing that is widespread in Diptera.

  11. Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Andres

    Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i

  12. A comprehensive study of economic unit commitment of power systems integrating various renewable generations and plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhile; Li, Kang; Niu, Qun; Xue, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new UCsRP problem with flexible integrations is established. • A novel multi-zone sampling method is proposed for scenarios generation. • A meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. • A comprehensive study is conducted considering multiple weathers and seasons. • The economic effects of various scenarios are evaluated and compared. - Abstract: Significant penetration of renewable generations (RGs) and mass roll-out of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will pay a vital role in delivering the low carbon energy future and low emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) that are responsible for the global climate change. However, it is of considerable difficulties to precisely forecast the undispatchable and intermittent wind and solar power generations. The uncoordinated charging of PEVs imposes further challenges on the unit commitment in modern grid operations. In this paper, all these factors are comprehensively investigated for the first time within a novel hybrid unit commitment framework, namely UCsRP, which considers a wide range of scenarios in renewable generations and demand side management of dispatchable PEVs load. UCsRP is however an extremely challenging optimisation problem not only due to the large scale, mixed integer and nonlinearity, but also due to the double uncertainties relating to the renewable generations and PEV charging and discharging. In this paper, a meta-heuristic solving tool is introduced for solving the UCsRP problem. A key to improve the reliability of the unit commitment is to generate a range of scenarios based on multiple distributions of renewable generations under different prediction errors and extreme predicted value conditions. This is achieved by introducing a novel multi-zone sampling method. A comprehensive study considering four different cases of unit commitment problems with various weather and season scenarios using real power system data are conducted and solved, and smart

  13. sCMOS detector for imaging VNIR spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Reulke, Ralf; Schwarzer, Horst; Venus, Holger; Neumann, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The facility Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Robotics and Mechatronics Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 30 years of experience with high-resolution imaging technology. This paper shows the scientific results of the institute of leading edge instruments and focal plane designs for EnMAP VIS/NIR spectrograph. EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) is one of the selected proposals for the national German Space Program. The EnMAP project includes the technological design of the hyper spectral space borne instrument and the algorithms development of the classification. The EnMAP project is a joint response of German Earth observation research institutions, value-added resellers and the German space industry like Kayser-Threde GmbH (KT) and others to the increasing demand on information about the status of our environment. The Geo Forschungs Zentrum (GFZ) Potsdam is the Principal Investigator of EnMAP. DLR OS and KT were driving the technology of new detectors and the FPA design for this project, new manufacturing accuracy and on-chip processing capability in order to keep pace with the ambitious scientific and user requirements. In combination with the engineering research, the current generations of space borne sensor systems are focusing on VIS/NIR high spectral resolution to meet the requirements on earth and planetary observation systems. The combination of large swath and high spectral resolution with intelligent synchronization control, fast-readout ADC chains and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing and smart deep space instruments. The paper gives an overview over the detector verification program at DLR on FPA level, new control possibilities for sCMOS detectors in global shutter mode and key parameters like PRNU, DSNU, MTF, SNR, Linearity, Spectral Response, Quantum Efficiency, Flatness and Radiation Tolerance will be discussed in detail.

  14. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Kavvada, Olga; Shah, Nihar; Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23-45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6-56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location.

  15. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ˜10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  16. Cumulative Neutrino and Gamma-Ray Backgrounds from Halo and Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengchao; Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Jeong, Donghui

    2018-04-01

    The merger of dark matter halos and the gaseous structures embedded in them, such as protogalaxies, galaxies, and groups and clusters of galaxies, results in strong shocks that are capable of accelerating cosmic rays (CRs) to ≳10 PeV. These shocks will produce high-energy neutrinos and γ-rays through inelastic pp collisions. In this work, we study the contributions of these halo mergers to the diffuse neutrino flux and to the nonblazar portion of the extragalactic γ-ray background. We formulate the redshift dependence of the shock velocity, galactic radius, halo gas content, and galactic/intergalactic magnetic fields over the dark matter halo distribution up to a redshift z = 10. We find that high-redshift mergers contribute a significant amount of the CR luminosity density, and the resulting neutrino spectra could explain a large part of the observed diffuse neutrino flux above 0.1 PeV up to several PeV. We also show that our model can somewhat alleviate tensions with the extragalactic γ-ray background. First, since a larger fraction of the CR luminosity density comes from high redshifts, the accompanying γ-rays are more strongly suppressed through γγ annihilations with the cosmic microwave background and the extragalactic background light. Second, mildly radiative-cooled shocks may lead to a harder CR spectrum with spectral indices of 1.5 ≲ s ≲ 2.0. Our study suggests that halo mergers, a fraction of which may also induce starbursts in the merged galaxies, can be promising neutrino emitters without violating the existing Fermi γ-ray constraints on the nonblazar component of the extragalactic γ-ray background.

  17. Sensitivity of the IceCube detector for ultra-high energy electron neutrino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Bernhard

    2008-07-16

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope currently under construction in the glacial ice at South Pole. At the moment half of the detector is installed, when completed it will instrument 1 km{sup 3} of ice providing a unique experimental setup to detect high energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. In this work the sensitivity of the complete IceCube detector for a diffuse electron-neutrino flux is analyzed, with a focus on energies above 1 PeV. Emphasis is put on the correct simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades from charged-current electron-neutrino interactions. Since existing parameterizations lack the description of suppression effects at high energies, a simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades with energies above 1 PeV is developed, including cross sections which account for the LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair creation. An attempt is made to reconstruct the direction of these elongated showers. The analysis presented here makes use of the full charge waveform recorded with the data acquisition system of the IceCube detector. It introduces new methods to discriminate efficiently between the background of atmospheric muons, including muon bundles, and cascade signal events from electron-neutrino interactions. Within one year of operation of the complete detector a sensitivity of 1.5.10{sup -8}E{sup -2} GeVs{sup -1}sr{sup -1}cm{sup -2} is reached, which is valid for a diffuse electron neutrino flux proportional to E{sup -2} in the energy range from 16 TeV to 13 PeV. Sensitivity is defined as the upper limit that could be set in absence of a signal at 90% confidence level. Including all neutrino flavors in this analysis, an improvement of at least one order of magnitude is expected, reaching the anticipated performance of a diffuse muon analysis. (orig.)

  18. Dimensiones de personalidad y potencial evocado cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Camposano

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de la personalidad de Eysenck postula 3 dimensiones ortogonales de personalidad: extraversión (E, neuroticismo (N, psicoticismo (P. Formula predicciones conductuales y fisiológicas relacionándolas a la predisposición a ciertos trastornos. La base biológica de las dimensiones E y N se ha evidenciado en diferencias electrofisiológicas. La dimensión P, agregada posteriormente, ha sido más controvertida, postulándose que no es independiente de las dimensiones antes descritas. Con objeto de estudiar las dimensiones de Eysenck, en particular P, en relación a la reactividad sensorial y a procesos de codificación se registró potencial evocado visual (PEV por flash a 3 diferentes intensidades y P300 auditiva en 20 voluntarios sanos (x 28,5; ds 9,4 años. Se midió amplitud peak to peak y latencia de los componentes III, IV-V-VI y VII de PEV y de P300 mediante programa cursor. Hubo correlación positiva entre dimensiones N y P (spearman, r=0,52, entre P y amplitud del PEV (r=0,58 a intensidad alta y negativa entre E y latencia de P300 (r=-0,58. Según nuestros hallazgos, la dimensión P no es independiente y demostró relación con la reactividad sensorial. La dimensión E se relacionó a la velocidad de codificación, apoyando las aseveraciones de Eysenck sobre memoria y aprendizaje.

  19. The Drosophila Huntington's disease gene ortholog dhtt influences chromatin regulation during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Kevin N; Di Stefano, Luisa; Maher, Robert C; Zhu, Hui; Macdonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Walker, James A

    2015-01-15

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG expansion mutation in HTT, the gene encoding huntingtin. Evidence from both human genotype-phenotype relationships and mouse model systems suggests that the mutation acts by dysregulating some normal activity of huntingtin. Recent work in the mouse has revealed a role for huntingtin in epigenetic regulation during development. Here, we examine the role of the Drosophila huntingtin ortholog (dhtt) in chromatin regulation in the development of the fly. Although null dhtt mutants display no overt phenotype, we found that dhtt acts as a suppressor of position-effect variegation (PEV), suggesting that it influences chromatin organization. We demonstrate that dhtt affects heterochromatin spreading in a PEV model by modulating histone H3K9 methylation levels at the heterochromatin-euchromatin boundary. To gain mechanistic insights into how dhtt influences chromatin function, we conducted a candidate genetic screen using RNAi lines targeting known PEV modifier genes. We found that dhtt modifies phenotypes caused by knockdown of a number of key epigenetic regulators, including chromatin-associated proteins, histone demethylases (HDMs) and methyltransferases. Notably, dhtt strongly modifies phenotypes resulting from loss of the HDM dLsd1, in both the ovary and wing, and we demonstrate that dhtt appears to act as a facilitator of dLsd1 function in regulating global histone H3K4 methylation levels. These findings suggest that a fundamental aspect of huntingtin function in heterochromatin/euchromatin organization is evolutionarily conserved across phyla. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Reducing CO2 emissions on the electric grid through a carbon disincentive policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the operation of an electric grid with renewable wind generation and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In particular, PEVs will be the controllable demand that can mitigate the intermittency in wind generation and improve the capacity factors of the non-renewable generation assets on the grid. Optimization problems are formulated to minimize the costs of electricity generation, and two approaches are proposed to address the grid CO 2 emission in the optimization. The first approach directly penalizes CO 2 in the objective function, and the second approach adopts a carbon disincentive policy to alter the dispatch order of power plants, so that expensive low-CO 2 plants can replace cheap high-CO 2 plants. These two approaches result in very different outcomes: the first approach affects only the PEV charging demand on the grid and does not result in significant CO 2 reduction, whereas the second approach controls both the generation and load, and CO 2 can be reduced substantially. In addition, the carbon disincentive policy, unlike a carbon tax, does not collect any revenue; therefore, the increase in electricity cost is minimal. The effect of the proposed algorithms on the grid electricity cost and carbon emission is analyzed in details and reported. - Highlights: • We study the tradeoff between CO 2 emissions and generation cost on an electric grid. • The tradeoff was shown by Pareto fronts obtained from optimizations. • Pareto fronts shows that a carbon disincentive is effective in reducing emissions. • Controlling both supply and demand on the grid is necessary to reduce CO 2 and costs

  1. Effect of budesonide inhalation combined with azithromycin on pulmonary function, serum inflammatory factors and immune function of children with mycoplasma pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of budesonide inhalation combined with azithromycin on pulmonary function ,serum inflammatory factors and immune function of children with mycoplasma pneumonia. Methods: A total of 128 cases of children with MPP were selected from June 2014 to May 2016 and were randomly divided into observation group (68 cases and control group (60 cases.The control group were treated with azithromycin while the observation group were given both budesonide aerosol inhalation and azithromycin therapy. After two weeks, observe two groups of lung function index (FVC, FEV1, PEV and PEF25, the serum levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, INF-γ and the immune function (IgM, IgG, IgA. Results: After treatment, the level of FEV1, FVC, PEV and PEF25 of the two group were increased compared with before (P<0.05, and the FEV1, FVC, PEV and PEF25 of observation group after treatment were respectively significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. TNFα, IL-2, IL-6 and INF-γ in both groups were decreased compared with before (P<0.05, and the TNFα, IL-2, IL-6 and INF-γ of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05. IgM and IgA were decreased while the IgG was increased (P<0.05, the observation group was significantly lower than control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Budesonide aerosol inhalation in combination with azithromycin can significantly improve lung function, inhibit inflammation and regulate immune function strongly than that of azithromycin alone in treatment of children MPP.

  2. Sensitivity of the IceCube detector for ultra-high energy electron neutrino events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope currently under construction in the glacial ice at South Pole. At the moment half of the detector is installed, when completed it will instrument 1 km 3 of ice providing a unique experimental setup to detect high energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. In this work the sensitivity of the complete IceCube detector for a diffuse electron-neutrino flux is analyzed, with a focus on energies above 1 PeV. Emphasis is put on the correct simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades from charged-current electron-neutrino interactions. Since existing parameterizations lack the description of suppression effects at high energies, a simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades with energies above 1 PeV is developed, including cross sections which account for the LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair creation. An attempt is made to reconstruct the direction of these elongated showers. The analysis presented here makes use of the full charge waveform recorded with the data acquisition system of the IceCube detector. It introduces new methods to discriminate efficiently between the background of atmospheric muons, including muon bundles, and cascade signal events from electron-neutrino interactions. Within one year of operation of the complete detector a sensitivity of 1.5.10 -8 E -2 GeVs -1 sr -1 cm -2 is reached, which is valid for a diffuse electron neutrino flux proportional to E -2 in the energy range from 16 TeV to 13 PeV. Sensitivity is defined as the upper limit that could be set in absence of a signal at 90% confidence level. Including all neutrino flavors in this analysis, an improvement of at least one order of magnitude is expected, reaching the anticipated performance of a diffuse muon analysis. (orig.)

  3. Identification and nanoentrapment of polyphenolic phytocomplex from Fraxinus angustifolia: in vitro and in vivo wound healing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulaoui, Kenza; Caddeo, Carla; Manca, Maria Letizia; Castangia, Ines; Valenti, Donatella; Escribano, Elvira; Atmani, Djebbar; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2015-01-07

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the polyphenolic composition of Fraxinus angustifolia leaf and bark extracts, and to evaluate their efficacy in wound healing. Quercetin, catechin, rutin and tannic acid were identified as the main components of the extracts. In order to improve their skin bioavailability, the polyphenolic phytocomplexes were incorporated in different nanovesicles, namely ethosomes and phospholipid vesicles containing Transcutol(®) P (Trc) or ethylene glycol (EG). The latter had never been used before as a component of phospholipid vesicles, and it was found to play a key role in improving extract efficacy in wound healing. Results of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) showed that ethosomes and EG-PEVs were small, monodispersed, unilamellar vesicles, while Trc-PEVs were larger, less homogeneously dispersed and multilamellar, with a large bilayer thickness. Free extracts did not show relevant ability to protect in vitro human keratinocytes from H2O2 damages, while when entrapped in nanovesicles, they significantly inhibited H2O2 stress damages, probably related to a higher level of cell uptake. On the other hand, in vivo results showed that the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were provided by the phytocomplexes in EG-PEVs, which favoured wound healing. Moreover, non-entrapped F. angustifolia extracts showed a marginal effect, comparable to that of free quercetin dispersion (control). In conclusion, our results depict that these extracts may find potential applications in biomedicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P; Kavvada, Olga; Shah, Nihar; Sathre, Roger; D Scown, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23–45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6–56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location. (letter)

  5. Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, Elizabeth; Hendrickson, Chris; Klampfl, Erica; Liu, Yimin; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2012-01-01

    Electrified vehicles can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by shifting energy demand from gasoline to electricity. GHG reduction potential depends on vehicle design, adoption, driving and charging patterns, charging infrastructure, and electricity generation mix. We construct an optimization model to study these factors by determining optimal design of conventional vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) with optimal allocation of vehicle designs and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over a range of scenarios. We focus on vehicles with similar body size and acceleration to a Toyota Prius under government 5-cycle driving conditions. We find that under the current US grid mix, PHEVs offer only small GHG emissions reductions compared to HEVs, and workplace charging is insignificant. With grid decarbonization, PHEVs and BEVs offer substantial GHG emissions reductions, and workplace charging provides additional benefits. HEVs are optimal or near-optimal for minimum cost in most scenarios. High gas prices and low vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost-optimal fleet. Carbon prices have little effect. Cost and range restrictions limit penetration of BEVs. - Highlights: ► We pose an MINLP model to minimize cost and GHG emissions of electrified vehicles. ► We design PHEVs and BEVs and assign vehicles and charging infrastructure in US fleet. ► Under US grid mix, PEVs provide minor GHG reductions and work chargers do little. ► HEVs are robust; PEVs and work charging potential improve with a decarbonized grid. ► We quantify factors needed for PEVs to enter and dominate the optimal fleet.

  6. UHE γ-rays from point sources based on GRAPES-I observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Sreekantan, B.V.; Srivatsan, R.; Tonwar, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment called GRAPES I (Gamma Ray Astronomy at PeV EnergieS) was set up in 1984 at Ooty in India, using 24 scintillation counters, to detect Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced in the atmosphere by the primary cosmic radiation. The goal of the experiment has been to search for Ultra High Energy (UHE) γ-rays (E≥10 14 eV) from point sources in the sky. Here we discuss the results on X-ray binaries CYG X-3, HER X-1 and SCO X-1 obtained with GRAPES I experiment which covers the period 1984--87

  7. Design Overview of the DM Radio Pathfinder Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Feaver, Maximiliano; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Cho, Hsaio-Mei; Dawson, Carl; Graham, Peter; Irwin, Kent; Kuenstner, Stephen; Li, Dale; Mardon, Jeremy; Moseley, Harvey; hide

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the DM Radio, a dual search for axion and hidden photon dark matter using a tunable superconducting lumped-element resonator. We discuss the prototype DM Radio Pathfinder experiment, which will probe hidden photons in the 500 peV (100 kHz)-50 neV (10 MHz) mass range. We detail the design of the various components: the LC resonant detector, the resonant frequency tuning procedure, the differential SQUID readout circuit, the shielding, and the cryogenic mounting structure. We present the current status of the pathfinder experiment and illustrate it's potential science reach in the context of the larger experimental program.

  8. Mind the Gap on IceCube: Cosmic neutrino spectrum and muon anomalous magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, T.; Kaneko, F.; Konishi, Y.; Ota, T.; Sato, J.; Shimomura, T.

    2017-09-01

    The high energy cosmic neutrino spectrum reported by the IceCube collaboration shows a gap in the energy range between 500 TeV and 1 PeV. In this presentation, we illustrate that the IceCube gap is reproduced by the neutrino interaction mediated by the new gauge boson associated with a certain combination of the lepton avour number. The gauge interaction also explains the other long-standing gap in the lepton phenomenology: the gap between theory and experiment in the muon anomalous magnetic moment.

  9. IceCube and ANTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunner Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available IceCube and ANTARES are neutrino detectors sensitive to energies from 20 GeV up to PeV. Both detectors have been completed and take data. Several years of data have been already analysed including periods with the partly assembled detectors. The primary goal of these two neutrino telescopes is the observation of astrophysical sources of neutrinos. Results from searches for such neutrinos with different strategies will be presented as well as measurements of atmospheric neutrinos which are an irreducible background for such searches, but they are an interesting study object by themselves.

  10. Charm production in SIBYLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riehn F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SIBYLL 2.1 is an event generator for hadron interactions at the highest energies. It is commonly used to analyze and interpret extensive air shower measurements. In light of the first detection of PeV neutrinos by the IceCube collaboration the inclusive fluxes of muons and neutrinos in the atmosphere have become very important. Predicting these fluxes requires understanding of the hadronic production of charmed particles since these contribute significantly to the fluxes at high energy through their prompt decay. We will present an updated version of SIBYLL that has been tuned to describe LHC data and extended to include the production of charmed hadrons.

  11. Neutrino Astrophysics in the MeV band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Kadler, Matthias; Mannheim, Karl; Krauss, Felicia; Buson, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Photohadronic emission models suggest both neutrinos and gamma-ray photons could be produced by accelerated protons in the relativistic jets of blazars. As the background spectrum falls rapidly with increasing energy, individual events with energies of the order of PeV and above are the best candidates in the search for their astrophysical origin. We present results from our search for possible blazar counterparts to high energy neutrinos detected by IceCube and discuss how such efforts would benefit enormously from observations in the MeV regime.

  12. Charm production in SIBYLL

    CERN Document Server

    Riehn, Felix; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Stanev, Todor

    2015-08-04

    SIBYLL 2.1 is an event generator for hadron interactions at the highest energies. It is commonly used to analyze and interpret extensive air shower measurements. In light of the first detection of PeV neutrinos by the IceCube collaboration the inclusive fluxes of muons and neutrinos in the atmosphere have become very important. Predicting these fluxes requires understanding of the hadronic production of charmed particles since these contribute significantly to the fluxes at high energy through their prompt decay. We will present an updated version of SIBYLL that has been tuned to describe LHC data and extended to include the production of charmed hadrons.

  13. The TAIGA timing array HiSCORE - first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tluczykont M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of gamma rays up to several 100 TeV are particularly important to spectrally resolve the cutoff regime of the long-sought Pevatrons, the cosmic-ray PeV accelerators. One component of the TAIGA hybrid detector is the TAIGA-HiSCORE timing array, which currently consists of 28 wide angle (0.6 sr air Cherenkov timing stations distributed on an area of 0.25 km2. The HiSCORE concept is based on (non-imaging air shower front sampling with Cherenkov light. First results are presented.

  14. Search for non-random features in arrival times of air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, N.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Ohashi, A.; Okada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Nakatsuka, T.

    2001-01-01

    It was searched for non-random components in arrival times of air showers of mean energy of 1 PeV. By counting the number of air showers observed within time windows of 20-60 minutes, it was found small deviation of air shower data from the conventional view of uniformly random cosmic ray injection. The arrival directions of the non-random events concentrate at the direction of the Galactic plane. Though the significance of these events is not so high because of the lack of statistics, they may be induced by sporadic non-random injection of ultra-high energy γ-rays from the Galactic plane

  15. Palaeoredox indicators from the organic-rich Messinian early post-evaporitic deposits of the Apennines (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampalmieri, G.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Cosentino, D.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2009-04-01

    Bottom redox conditions in marine and lacustrine ancient basins are often inferred by the occurrence of peculiar sedimentological structures and microfaunal assemblages. The co-occurrence, in such environments, of authigenic uranium, framboidal pyrite, barite and Fe-Mn nodules and encrustations, provides a good constraint for palaeo reconstructions. Authigenic uranium is a common constituent of hydrocarbon source rocks: it forms at the sediment-water interface under oxygen-deficient conditions and accumulates together with organic matter (OM). Its precipitation is triggered by the reduction of the soluble U6+ion in seawater to insoluble U4+. With respect to black shales, uranium content has even been used to estimate the TOC. Also authigenic pyrite forms under anoxic conditions and replaces organic matter: 1) the increase in pyrite content and in organic matter are directly correlated; 2) the size distribution of framboidal pyrite (consistent with sulphate-reducing bacterial activity) is considered a measure of redox conditions within the sediment. Barite is an authigenic mineral related to Corg content, since its organic precipitation is triggered by sulphate-reduction processes occurring in decaying OM-bearing microenvironments. Finally, also Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide are typical indicators of redox conditions. About 6 My ago the Mediterranean Sea underwent a giant event of concentration referred to as Messinian Salinity Crisis, which can be roughly subdivided into an evaporitic and a post evaporitic phase. The post evaporitic phase (p-ev; 5.61-5.33 Ma) developed in a context of humid conditions and can be further distinguished into two steps: p-ev1 (early post evaporitic phase) and p-ev2 (late post evaporitic phase). Previous works focused on pev2, which is interpreted to represent the establishment of brackish water conditions (Lago-Mare biofacies). In other respects, the palaeoenvironment of p-ev1 deposits, mostly represented by resedimented evaporitic deposits or

  16. Particle physicist's dreams about PetaelectronVolt laser plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesztergombi, G.

    2012-01-01

    Present day accelerators are working well in the multi TeV energy scale and one is expecting exciting results in the coming years. Conventional technologies, however, can offer only incremental (factor 2 or 3) increase in beam energies which does not follow the usual speed of progress in the frontiers of high energy physics. Laser plasma accelerators theoretically provide unique possibilities to achieve orders of magnitude increases entering the PetaelectronVolt (PeV) energy range. It will be discussed what kind of new perspectives could be opened for the physics at this new energy scale. What type of accelerators would be required?.

  17. Dactylodinium pterobelotum gen. et sp. nov., a new marine woloszynskioid dinoflagellate positioned between the two families Borghiellaceae and Suessiaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Moestrup, Øjvind; Wada, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    latitudinal series) in woloszynskioid dinoflagellates assigned to the Suessiaceae and Borghiellaceae. The eyespot was of type B, composed of osmiophilic globules and brick-like material, located in- and outside of the chloroplast respectively. An apical structure comprised a pair of elongate anterior vesicles...... based on partial LSU rDNA showed the species in a basal position in the family Suessiaceae; this indicates the eyespot type B and PEV of the Borghiellaceae are ancestral states of the eyespot comprising brick-like material (type E) and an elongate apical vesicle of the Suessiaceae....

  18. Surveillance des manifestations adverses post immunisation au Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les données ont été recueillies à l'aide de trois types de questionnaires adressés respectivement aux mères d'enfants âgés de 0 à 11 mois, au chargé de la surveillance épidémiologique et du Programme élargi de = vaccination (PEV), et aux agents vaccinateurs du centre médico-social d'Agoè-Nyivé. Résultats: Au cours ...

  19. Multi-physics Modeling for Improving Li-Ion Battery Safety; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Yang, C.

    2015-04-21

    Battery performance, cost, and safety must be further improved for larger market share of HEVs/PEVs and penetration into the grid. Significant investment is being made to develop new materials, fine tune existing ones, improve cell and pack designs, and enhance manufacturing processes to increase performance, reduce cost, and make batteries safer. Modeling, simulation, and design tools can play an important role by providing insight on how to address issues, reducing the number of build-test-break prototypes, and accelerating the development cycle of generating products.

  20. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  1. Particle physicist's dreams about PetaelectronVolt laser plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesztergombi, G.

    2012-07-01

    Present day accelerators are working well in the multi TeV energy scale and one is expecting exciting results in the coming years. Conventional technologies, however, can offer only incremental (factor 2 or 3) increase in beam energies which does not follow the usual speed of progress in the frontiers of high energy physics. Laser plasma accelerators theoretically provide unique possibilities to achieve orders of magnitude increases entering the PetaelectronVolt (PeV) energy range. It will be discussed what kind of new perspectives could be opened for the physics at this new energy scale. What type of accelerators would be required?.

  2. Features of parameters of gamma-ray families formed from AA-interactions at superhigh energies above 1016 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuldashbaev, T S; Nuritdinov, Kh

    2013-01-01

    Different lateral and energetic characteristics of gamma-ray families produced in nucleus-nucleus (AA) interactions of primary cosmic rays (PCR) are studied. Primary mass composition analysis performed on the basis of 'Pamir' Collaboration X-ray emulsion chambers (XREC) data by using of selection criteria of gamma-ray families originating from AA-interactions above 10 PeV. Experimental data are compared with results of MC0 algorithm based on quark-gluon string model (QGSM). Among seven considered variables, only two lateral parameters, R 1E and ρ, are not described by the MC0 model.

  3. Impact of EV Infrastructure on the University of Southern California MicroGrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Shalalfel, Laith [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering

    2014-11-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this paper, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. University of Southern California (USC) Distribution microgrid was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts to the grid.

  4. Impact of Electric Vehicle Infrastructure on the City of Chatsworth Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Shalalfel, Laith [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J [University of Southern California

    2014-12-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this paper, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. Chatsworth distribution system was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts to the grid.

  5. [Miller Fisher's syndrome. Clinical and experimental contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebini, F; Appiotti, A; Scarzella, G

    1991-01-01

    A 19-year-old patient with acute idiopathic polyneuritis is described. Clinically, apart from ophthalmoplegia, areflexia and ataxia, the patient presented a serious bilateral and symmetrical deficiency of the VII-IX-X cranial nerve and hypanapallesthesia of trunk and extremities. Liquor examination showed albumino-cytological dissociation with an increase in liquor IgG; encephalic CT and encephalo-medullary NMR were normal; a neurophysiological study (EMG, PEV, BAER) was indicative of the PNS problems. Combined corticosteroid and plasmaferesis treatment produced complete clinical remission after about 3 months. The primary role of PNS involvement in this clinical entity is discussed.

  6. IONS FOR LHC STATUS OF THE INJECTOR CHAIN

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, Django; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Dumas, L; Fowler, T; Gourber-Pace, M; Hancock, S; Hourican, M; Jowett, John M; Küchler, D; Mahner, E; Martini, M; Maury, S; Pasinelli, S; Raich, U; Rey, A; Royer, J-P; Scrivens, R; Sermeus, L; Tranquille, G; Vallet, J L; Vandorpe, B

    2007-01-01

    The LHC will, in addition to proton runs, be operated with Pb ions and provide collisions at energies of 5.5 TeV per nucleon pair, i.e. more than 1.1 PeV per event, to experiments. The transformation of CERN's ion injector complex (Linac3-LEIR-PS-SPS) to allow collision of ions in LHC in 2008 is well under way. The status of these modifications and the latest results of commissioning will be presented. The remaining challenges are reviewed.

  7. Ions for LHC Towards Completion of the Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Manglunki, Django; Angoletta, M E; Arduini, Gianluigi; Baudrenghien, P; Bellodi, G; Belochitskii, P; Benedetto, E; Bohl, T; Carli, C; Carlier, E; Chanel, M; Damerau, H; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Jacquet, D; Jowett, John M; Kain, V; Küchler, D; Martini, M; Maury, S; Métral, E; Normann, L; Papotti, G; Pasinelli, S; Schokker, M; Scrivens, R; Tranquille, G; Vallet, J L; Vandorpe, B; Wehrle, U; Wenninger, J

    2008-01-01

    The commissioning of CERN's ion injector complex [1] to allow 1.1 PeV collisions of ions in LHC is well under way. After the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) in 2005 [2] and the Proton Synchrotron (PS) in 2006 [3], the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) has now been commissioned with the 'Early' ion beam, which should give a luminosity of $5×10^{25}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ in the LHC. This paper summarizes the operation in 2007 of all the machines involved in the ion injection chain.

  8. Atmospheric lidar co-alignment sensor: flight model electro-optical characterization campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde Guijarro, Ángel Luis; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás.; Laguna Hernandez, Hugo; Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo

    2017-10-01

    Due to the difficulty in studying the upper layer of the troposphere by using ground-based instrumentation, the conception of a space-orbit atmospheric LIDAR (ATLID) becomes necessary. ATLID born in the ESA's EarthCare Programme framework as one of its payloads, being the first instrument of this kind that will be in the Space. ATLID will provide vertical profiles of aerosols and thin clouds, separating the relative contribution of aerosol and molecular scattering to know aerosol optical depth. It operates at a wavelength of 355 nm and has a high spectral resolution receiver and depolarization channel with a vertical resolution up to 100m from ground to an altitude of 20 km and, and up to 500m from 20km to 40km. ATLID measurements will be done from a sun-synchronous orbit at 393 km altitude, and an alignment (co-alignment) sensor (CAS) is revealed as crucial due to the way in which LIDAR analyses the troposphere. As in previous models, INTA has been in charge of part of the ATLID instrument co-alignment sensor (ATLID-CAS) electro-optical characterization campaign. CAS includes a set of optical elements to take part of the useful signal, to direct it onto the memory CCD matrix (MCCD) used for the co-alignment determination, and to focus the selected signal on the MCCD. Several tests have been carried out for a proper electro-optical characterization: CAS line of sight (LoS) determination and stability, point spread function (PSF), absolute response (AbsRes), pixel response non uniformity (PRNU), response linearity (ResLin) and spectral response. In the following lines, a resume of the flight model electrooptical characterization campaign is reported on. In fact, results concerning the protoflight model (CAS PFM) will be summarized. PFM requires flight-level characterization, so most of the previously mentioned tests must be carried out under simulated working conditions, i.e., the vacuum level (around 10-5 mbar) and temperature range (between 50°C and -30°C) that

  9. Energy Storage Annual Progress Report for FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Lei [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kim, Gi-Heon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shi, Ying [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tenent, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Chuanbo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Energy Storage research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in support of the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge. PEVs could have a significant impact on the nation's goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. The Energy Storage program targets overcoming technical barriers to enable market success, including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost; (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability); (3) reducing battery weight and volume; and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports the VTO's Energy Storage program by evaluating the thermal performance of cells and packs, developing electrochemical-thermal models to accelerate the design cycle for developing batteries, investigating the behavior of lithium-ion batteries under abuse conditions such as crush, enhancing the durability of electrodes by coatings such as atomic layer deposition, synthesis of materials for higher energy density batteries, and conducting techno-economic analysis of batteries in various electric-drive vehicles. This report describes the progress made by NREL on the research and development projects funded by the DOE VTO Energy Storage subprogram in FY15.

  10. Searches for Extended and Point-like Neutrino Sources with Four Years of IceCube Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macías, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    We present results on searches for point-like sources of neutrinos using four years of IceCube data, including the first year of data from the completed 86 string detector. The total livetime of the combined data set is 1373 days. For an E -2 spectrum, the observed 90% C.L. flux upper limits are ~10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 for energies between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in the northern sky and ~10-11 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 for energies between 100 TeV and 100 PeV in the southern sky. This represents a 40% improvement compared to previous publications, resulting from both the additional year of data and the introduction of improved reconstructions. In addition, we present the first results from an all-sky search for extended sources of neutrinos. We update the results of searches for neutrino emission from stacked catalogs of sources and test five new catalogs; two of Galactic supernova remnants and three of active galactic nuclei. In all cases, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis, and upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos are reported for the sources considered.

  11. Atmospheric Muons as IceCube Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghaus Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muons of energies above 1 TeV produced in cosmic ray induced air showers account for the vast majority of events in IceCube. Its enormous size compared to previous volume detectors translates into an unprecedented amount of statistics for high-energy atmospheric muons. This offers a wide range of opportunities for original cosmic ray and particle physics. By identifying highly energetic stochastic losses within the detector volume, the single muon spectrum can be measured up to PeV energies. The result is sensitive to the cosmic ray composition around the knee and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt hadron decays. The multiplicity spectrum of muon bundles relates to the cosmic ray primary flux and composition. Clear features are visible, which can be used to constrain phenomenological models. Investigation of high-pT muons at previously inaccessible lateral separations point to shortcomings in current hadronic interaction models. Furthermore, the large event statistics allow detailed investigation of anisotropies in the arrival direction of cosmic rays for primary energies in excess of 1 PeV.

  12. Stochastic Modeling and Optimization in a Microgrid: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The future smart grid is expected to be an interconnected network of small-scale and self-contained microgrids, in addition to a large-scale electric power backbone. By utilizing microsources, such as renewable energy sources and combined heat and power plants, microgrids can supply electrical and heat loads in local areas in an economic and environment friendly way. To better adopt the intermittent and weather-dependent renewable power generation, energy storage devices, such as batteries, heat buffers and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs with vehicle-to-grid systems can be integrated in microgrids. However, significant technical challenges arise in the planning, operation and control of microgrids, due to the randomness in renewable power generation, the buffering effect of energy storage devices and the high mobility of PEVs. The two-way communication functionalities of the future smart grid provide an opportunity to address these challenges, by offering the communication links for microgrid status information collection. However, how to utilize stochastic modeling and optimization tools for efficient, reliable and economic planning, operation and control of microgrids remains an open issue. In this paper, we investigate the key features of microgrids and provide a comprehensive literature survey on the stochastic modeling and optimization tools for a microgrid. Future research directions are also identified.

  13. Neutrino Pair Cerenkov Radiation for Tachyonic Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich D. Jentschura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of a charged light lepton pair by a superluminal neutrino has been identified as a major factor in the energy loss of highly energetic neutrinos. The observation of PeV neutrinos by IceCube implies their stability against lepton pair Cerenkov radiation. Under the assumption of a Lorentz-violating dispersion relation for highly energetic superluminal neutrinos, one may thus constrain the Lorentz-violating parameters. A kinematically different situation arises when one assumes a Lorentz-covariant, space-like dispersion relation for hypothetical tachyonic neutrinos, as an alternative to Lorentz-violating theories. We here discuss a hitherto neglected decay process, where a highly energetic tachyonic neutrino may emit other (space-like, tachyonic neutrino pairs. We find that the space-like dispersion relation implies the absence of a q2 threshold for the production of a tachyonic neutrino-antineutrino pair, thus leading to the dominant additional energy loss mechanism for an oncoming tachyonic neutrino in the medium-energy domain. Surprisingly, the small absolute values of the decay rate and energy loss rate in the tachyonic model imply that these models, in contrast to the Lorentz-violating theories, are not pressured by the cosmic PeV neutrinos registered by the IceCube collaboration.

  14. A search for dark matter in the Galactic halo with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Albert, A.; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Avila Rojas, D.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Bernal, A.; Brisbois, C.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Capistrán, T.; Carramiñana, A.; Casanova, S.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; De León, C.; De la Fuente, E.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Engel, K.; Enríquez-Rivera, O.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fleischhack, H.; Fraija, N.; García-González, J. A.; Garfias, F.; González Muñoz, A.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hernandez, S.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, F.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Iriarte, A.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Joshi, V.; Kaufmann, S.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longinotti, A. L.; Luis-Raya, G.; Luna-García, R.; López-Coto, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Matthews, J. A.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Nisa, M. U.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pelayo, R.; Pretz, J.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Ren, Z.; Rho, C. D.; Rodd, N. L.; Rosa-González, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Safdi, B. R.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Springer, R. W.; Surajbali, P.; Taboada, I.; Tibolla, O.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Vianello, G.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; Álvarez, J. D.

    2018-02-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory is a wide field-of-view observatory sensitive to 500 GeV – 100 TeV gamma rays and cosmic rays. With its observations over 2/3 of the sky every day, the HAWC observatory is sensitive to a wide variety of astrophysical sources, including possible gamma rays from dark matter. Dark matter annihilation and decay in the Milky Way Galaxy should produce gamma-ray signals across many degrees on the sky. The HAWC instantaneous field-of-view of 2 sr enables observations of extended regions on the sky, such as those from dark matter in the Galactic halo. Here we show limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section and decay lifetime from HAWC observations of the Galactic halo with 15 months of data. These are some of the most robust limits on TeV and PeV dark matter, largely insensitive to the dark matter morphology. These limits begin to constrain models in which PeV IceCube neutrinos are explained by dark matter which primarily decays into hadrons.

  15. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Michalek, Jeremy J; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2016-01-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally. (letter)

  16. The HiSCORE experiment and its potential for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tluczykont, M; Hampf, D; Einhaus, U; Horns, D; Büker, M; Epimakhov, S; Kunnas, M; Maurer, A; Brückner, M; Budnev, N; Chvalaev, O; Dyachok, A; Gress, O; Ivanova, A; Konstantinov, E; Mirgazov, R; Korosteleva, E; Kuzmichev, L; Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Lubsandorzhiev, N B

    2013-01-01

    The HiSCORE (Hundred*i Square-km Cosmic ORigin Explorer) detector aims at the exploration of the accelerator sky, using indirect air-shower observations of cosmic rays from 100 TeV to 1 EeV and gamma rays in the last remaining observation window of gamma-ray astronomy from 10 TeV to several PeV. The main questions addressed by HiSCORE are cosmic ray composition and spectral measurements in the Galactic/extragalactic transition range, and the origin of cosmic rays via the search for gamma rays from Galactic PeV accelerators, the pevatrons. HiSCORE is based on non-imaging Cherenkov light-front sampling with sensitive large-area detector modules of the order of 0.5 m 2 . A prototype station was deployed on the Tunka cosmic ray experiment site in Siberia, where an engineering array of up to 1km 2 is planned for deployment in 2012/2013. Here, we address the expected physics potential of HiSCORE, the status of the project, and further plans.

  17. Modelling, Simulations, and Optimisation of Electric Vehicles for Analysis of Transmission Ratio Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure electric vehicles (PEVs provide a unique problem in powertrain design through the meeting of performance specifications whilst maximising driving range. The consideration of single speed and multispeed transmissions for electric vehicles provides two strategies for achieving desired range and performance specifications. Through the implementation of system level vehicle models, design analysis, and optimisation, this paper analyses the application of both single speed and two-speed transmission applications to electric vehicles. Initially, transmission ratios are designed based on grade and top speed requirements, and impact on vehicle traction curve is evaluated. Then performance studies are conducted for different transmission ratios using both single speed and two-speed powertrain configurations to provide a comparative assessment of the vehicles. Finally, multivariable optimisation in the form of genetic algorithms is employed to determine an optimal gear ratio selection for single speed and two-speed PEVs. Results demonstrate that the two-speed transmission is capable of achieving better results for performance requirements over a single speed transmission, including vehicle acceleration and grade climbing. However, the lower powertrain efficiency reduces the simulated range results.

  18. SEARCH FOR NEUTRINOS IN SUPER-KAMIOKANDE ASSOCIATED WITH GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE EVENTS GW150914 AND GW151226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Haga, K.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Tasaka, S.; Tomura, T. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Collaboration: Super-Kamiokande Collaboration; and others

    2016-10-10

    We report the results from a search in Super-Kamiokande for neutrino signals coincident with the first detected gravitational-wave events, GW150914 and GW151226, as well as LVT151012, using a neutrino energy range from 3.5 MeV to 100 PeV. We searched for coincident neutrino events within a time window of ±500 s around the gravitational-wave detection time. Four neutrino candidates are found for GW150914, and no candidates are found for GW151226. The remaining neutrino candidates are consistent with the expected background events. We calculated the 90% confidence level upper limits on the combined neutrino fluence for both gravitational-wave events, which depends on event energy and topologies. Considering the upward-going muon data set (1.6 GeV–100 PeV), the neutrino fluence limit for each gravitational-wave event is 14–37 (19–50) cm{sup −2} for muon neutrinos (muon antineutrinos), depending on the zenith angle of the event. In the other data sets, the combined fluence limits for both gravitational-wave events range from 2.4 × 10{sup 4} to 7.0 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}.

  19. Fast Performance Computing Model for Smart Distributed Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Younas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs are becoming the more prominent solution compared to fossil fuels cars technology due to its significant role in Greenhouse Gas (GHG reduction, flexible storage, and ancillary service provision as a Distributed Generation (DG resource in Vehicle to Grid (V2G regulation mode. However, large-scale penetration of PEVs and growing demand of energy intensive Data Centers (DCs brings undesirable higher load peaks in electricity demand hence, impose supply-demand imbalance and threaten the reliability of wholesale and retail power market. In order to overcome the aforementioned challenges, the proposed research considers smart Distributed Power System (DPS comprising conventional sources, renewable energy, V2G regulation, and flexible storage energy resources. Moreover, price and incentive based Demand Response (DR programs are implemented to sustain the balance between net demand and available generating resources in the DPS. In addition, we adapted a novel strategy to implement the computational intensive jobs of the proposed DPS model including incoming load profiles, V2G regulation, battery State of Charge (SOC indication, and fast computation in decision based automated DR algorithm using Fast Performance Computing resources of DCs. In response, DPS provide economical and stable power to DCs under strict power quality constraints. Finally, the improved results are verified using case study of ISO California integrated with hybrid generation.

  20. Potencial evocado visual em cães e ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O potencial evocado visual (PEV é técnica eletrodiagnóstica que permite avaliação das vias visuais. O PEV de 20 cães e 20 ovinos adultos, de ambos os sexos, foram obtidos para estudo normativo. Foram utilizados eletrodos de agulha monopolar posicionados em O1 e O2 (ativos, em Fpz (referência comum e em Cz (terra. O estímulo foi na forma de flash a 1Hz. Dezessete cães e 17 ovinos foram incluídos no estudo, pois apresentaram potenciais auditivos com boa qualidade técnica. Os resultados da avaliação dos dois olhos foram agrupados, totalizando 34 exames em cada espécie. O achado mais consistente em todos os exames foi uma deflexão eletropositiva, com latência média de 55,4ms em cães (P55 e 63,75ms em ovinos (P63. Outras duas ondas eletronegativas também foram identificadas: N31 e N75 em cães; e N42 e N86 em ovinos. A metodologia utilizada neste estudo permitiu obtenção de potenciais visuais com pequena variabilidade, sendo útil para avaliação de animais com suspeita de alteração nas vias visuais centrais.

  1. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  2. Potenciales evocados visuales en la enfermedad de chagas-mazza cronica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul F. Pelli-Noble

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron potenciales evocados visuales (PEV en sus variantes flash (F y pattern (P, en 17 pacientes afectados de enfermedad de Chagas crónica. La edad del grupo se halló comprendida entre los 21 y 65 anos. Se incluyeron pacientes con período de evolución mayor de 7 anos y dos serologías positivas como mínimo. La selección fue descartando a los portadores de diabetes, alcoholismo, lepra, sífilis y enfermedades degenerativas del sistema nervioso central, como así intoxicaciones de diversas etiologías y afecciones visuales detectadas en el exámen oftalmológico. Todos fueron estudiados con exámenes clínicos y complementarios de rutina, electrocardiograma, exámen oftalmológico y específicos como la reacción de Machado-Guerreiro, test de inmunofluorescência y test de hemoaglutinación. Los resultados de los PEV mostraron fundamentalmente alteraciones en la morfología del trazado y disminución de la amplitud dei potencial, en el 35% de los pacientes estudiados. Estas alteraciones electroneurofisiológicas permitirían inferir correlación a los hallazgos anatomopatológicos, que muestran perdida de grupos neuronales en autópsias de pacientes chagásicos crónicos.

  3. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  4. The Search for Muon Neutrinos from Northern HemisphereGamma-Ray Bursts with AMANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer; Achterberg, A.

    2007-05-08

    We present the results of the analysis of neutrino observations by the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) correlated with photon observations of more than 400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the Northern Hemisphere from 1997 to 2003. During this time period, AMANDA's effective collection area for muon neutrinos was larger than that of any other existing detector. Based on our observations of zero neutrinos during and immediately prior to the GRBs in the dataset, we set the most stringent upper limit on muon neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts. Assuming a Waxman-Bahcall spectrum and incorporating all systematic uncertainties, our flux upper limit has a normalization at 1 PeV of E{sup 2}{Phi}{sub {nu}} {le} 6.0 x 10{sup -9} GeV cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}sr{sup -1}, with 90% of the events expected within the energy range of {approx}10 TeV to {approx}3 PeV. The impact of this limit on several theoretical models of GRBs is discussed, as well as the future potential for detection of GRBs by next generation neutrino telescopes. Finally, we briefly describe several modifications to this analysis in order to apply it to other types of transient point sources.

  5. [Comparison of differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andía Melero, Víctor Manuel; Martín de Santa-Olalla Llanes, María; Sambo Salas, Marcel; Percovich Hualpa, Juan Carlos; Motilla de la Cámara, Marta; Collado Yurrita, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging is increasingly important due to the current trends to a less intensive therapy in low-risk patients. The TNM system is most widely used, but other systems based on follow-up of several patient cohorts have been developed. When these systems have been applied to other populations, results have been discordant. Our study evaluates the suitability of several differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population. 729 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and staging data available were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 10.8 years. The TNM, EORTC, AMES, Clinical class, MACIS, Ohio, NTCTCS, and Spanish systems were applied to all histological types. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves for each system were analyzed, and compared using the proportion of explained variation (PEV). The demographic and clinical characteristics of our population were similar to those of other Spanish and international cohorts reported. The best systems were NTCTCS, with 74.7% PEV, and TNM (68.3%), followed by the Ohio, MACIS, EORTC, and AMES systems with minimal differences between them, while the least adequate were the Spanish (55.2%) and Clinical class (47.1%) systems. The NTCTCS staging system was found to be better than TNM in our population but, because of its simplicity and greater dissemination, the TNM appears to be recommended for staging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Echocardiographic factors predictive of restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm after reduction of atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khalfallah, A; Sanaa, I

    2007-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. While the arrhythmia was initially thought to be little more than a nuisance, it is now clear that AF has a significant negative impact on quality of life and a corresponding increase in both morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify Doppler echographic patterns that allow prediction of atrial fibrillation reduction and maintenance of sinus rhythm within 12 months. One hundred and thirty patients having permanent atrial fibrillation, recent (51) or chronic (79) are included in the study, excepting those with valvular heart disease or thyroid dysfunction. The mean age was 63.5 +/- 11.3 years. Both transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography was performed using a Philips SONOS 5500 Echograph, before cardioversion. Were studied: end diastolic and systolic left ventricular diameters, left ventricular ejectionnal fraction, left atrial area (LAA), left atrial diameter, left atrial appendage area and peak emptying velocities of the left atrial appendage (PeV). Sinus rhythm was re-established in 102 patients (44 having recent and 58 chronic atrial fibrillation). Sinus rhythm was maintained for 12 months in 79 patients. Within the echographic parameters studied, the left atrial area (LAA) and peak emptying velocities of left atrial appendage (PeV) before cardioversion were the best predictors of restoration of sinus rhythm. On monovariate analysis, SOG is significantly lower and PicV is significantly higher in patients whose sinus rhythm had been restored in comparison with those with permanent atrial fibrillation. (Mean SOG: 27.7 +/- 7.62 vs. 34 +/- 7,6 cm2, ppredict on mono and multivariate analysis (p=0.05, OR=0.5, IC=0.36 à 3.56), re-establishing of sinus rhythm whereas in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation, peak emptying velocity of left atrial appendage predict better re-establishing of sinus rhythm (p=0.04, OR=1.29, IC=0.12 à 4.23). The threshold values of LAA and PeV

  7. IL-3R-alpha blockade inhibits tumor endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated vessel formation by targeting the β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Giusy; Gili, Maddalena; Grange, Cristina; Cavallari, Claudia; Dentelli, Patrizia; Togliatto, Gabriele; Taverna, Daniela; Camussi, Giovanni; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2018-03-01

    The proangiogenic cytokine Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is released by inflammatory cells in breast and ovarian cancer tissue microenvironments and also acts as an autocrine factor for human breast and kidney tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs). We have previously shown that IL-3-treated endothelial cells (ECs) release extracellular vesicles (EVs), which serve as a paracrine mechanism for neighboring ECs, by transferring active molecules. The impact of an anti-IL-3R-alpha blocking antibody on the proangiogenic effect of EVs released from TECs (anti-IL-3R-EVs) has therefore been investigated in this study. We have found that anti-IL-3R-EV treatment prevented neovessel formation and, more importantly, also induced the regression of in vivo TEC-derived neovessels. Two miRs that target the canonical wingless (Wnt)/β-catenin pathway, at different levels, were found to be differentially regulated when comparing the miR-cargo of naive TEC-derived EVs (EVs) and anti-IL-3R-EVs. miR-214-3p, which directly targets β-catenin, was found to be upregulated, whereas miR-24-3p, which targets adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), was found to be downregulated. In fact, upon their transfer into the cell, low β-catenin content and high levels of the two members of the "β-catenin destruction complex" were detected. Moreover, c-myc downregulation was found in TECs treated with anti-IL-3R-EVs, pre-miR-214-3p-EVs and antago-miR-24-3p-EVs, which is consistent with network analyses of miR-214-3p and miR-24-3p gene targeting. Finally, in vivo studies have demonstrated the impaired growth of vessels in pre-miR-214-3p-EV- and antago-miR-24-3p-EV-treated animals. These effects became much more evident when combo treatment was applied. The results of the present study identify the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a relevant mechanism of TEC-derived EV proangiogenic action. Furthermore, we herein provide evidence that IL-3R blockade may yield some

  8. Computer-aided polyp detection on CT colonography: Comparison of three systems in a high-risk human population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim@radcom.snu.ac.k [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Goo [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the detection performances of two commercial and one academic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for polyp detection on CT colonography (CTC) in a high-risk human population and to assess their detection characteristics. Materials and methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval, but informed consent was waived. Sixty-eight patients who were suspected of having colonic polyps and scheduled for colonoscopic polyp removal were included. After CTC was performed using a 64-row MDCT, two commercial (PEV, CAR) and one academic (Hessian matrix-based) CAD systems were applied to each CTC dataset. Colonoscopy using the segmental unblinded technique was performed as a standard of reference. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were calculated and compared for each CAD system. The mean number of false-positives (FPs) and false-negatives (FNs) was computed and the causes of all FPs and FNs were analyzed. Results: A total of 151 polyps in 61 patients were detected (77 polyps <6 mm, 48 6-9.9 mm, 26 {>=} 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity for PEV, CAR, and Hessian matrix-based CAD were: 71.6%, 78.4%, and 83.8% for polyps {>=}6 mm, and 88.5%, 96.2%, and 96.2% for polyps {>=}10 mm. Per-patient sensitivity for polyps {>=}6 mm was 80.4%, 89.1%, and 93.5%, and 87%, 95.7%, and 95.7% for polyps {>=}10 mm, respectively. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were not significantly different among the three CAD systems regardless of size threshold. Mean number of FPs was 6.9 for PEV, 7.3 for CAR, and 14 for Hessian matrix-based CAD. The most common cause of FPs were feces, followed by extracolonic findings, prominent folds and ileocecal valve, and rectal tube. The distribution of the causes of FPs was significantly different among the three systems. Conclusion: Sensitivity of the three CAD systems for polyp detection was comparable regardless of the polyp size threshold; however, the number of FPs was higher in the Hessian matrix

  9. Computer-aided polyp detection on CT colonography: Comparison of three systems in a high-risk human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Se Hyung; Kim, Jong Hyo; Lee, June-Goo; Kim, Sang Gyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the detection performances of two commercial and one academic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for polyp detection on CT colonography (CTC) in a high-risk human population and to assess their detection characteristics. Materials and methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval, but informed consent was waived. Sixty-eight patients who were suspected of having colonic polyps and scheduled for colonoscopic polyp removal were included. After CTC was performed using a 64-row MDCT, two commercial (PEV, CAR) and one academic (Hessian matrix-based) CAD systems were applied to each CTC dataset. Colonoscopy using the segmental unblinded technique was performed as a standard of reference. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were calculated and compared for each CAD system. The mean number of false-positives (FPs) and false-negatives (FNs) was computed and the causes of all FPs and FNs were analyzed. Results: A total of 151 polyps in 61 patients were detected (77 polyps <6 mm, 48 6-9.9 mm, 26 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity for PEV, CAR, and Hessian matrix-based CAD were: 71.6%, 78.4%, and 83.8% for polyps ≥6 mm, and 88.5%, 96.2%, and 96.2% for polyps ≥10 mm. Per-patient sensitivity for polyps ≥6 mm was 80.4%, 89.1%, and 93.5%, and 87%, 95.7%, and 95.7% for polyps ≥10 mm, respectively. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were not significantly different among the three CAD systems regardless of size threshold. Mean number of FPs was 6.9 for PEV, 7.3 for CAR, and 14 for Hessian matrix-based CAD. The most common cause of FPs were feces, followed by extracolonic findings, prominent folds and ileocecal valve, and rectal tube. The distribution of the causes of FPs was significantly different among the three systems. Conclusion: Sensitivity of the three CAD systems for polyp detection was comparable regardless of the polyp size threshold; however, the number of FPs was higher in the Hessian matrix-based CAD

  10. PeV-scale supersymmetry from new inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2012-01-01

    We show that heavy supersymmetric particles around O(100) TeV to O(1) PeV naturally appear in new inflation in which the Higgs boson responsible for the breaking of U(1) B−L plays the role of inflaton. Most important, the supersymmetric breaking scale is bounded above by the inflationary dynamics, in order to suppress the Coleman-Weinberg potential which would otherwise spoil the slow-roll inflation. Our scenario has rich phenomenological and cosmological implications: the Higgs boson mass at around 125 GeV can be easily explained, non-thermal leptogenesis works automatically, the gravitino production from inflaton decay is suppressed, the dark matter is either the lightest neutralino or the QCD axion, and the upper bound on the inflation scale for the modulus stabilization can be marginally satisfied

  11. Cosmic Ray Production in Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. M.; Ellison, D. C.; Marcowith, A.; Osipov, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    We give a brief review of the origin and acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs), emphasizing the production of CRs at different stages of supernova evolution by the first-order Fermi shock acceleration mechanism. We suggest that supernovae with trans-relativistic outflows, despite being rather rare, may accelerate CRs to energies above 10^{18} eV over the first year of their evolution. Supernovae in young compact clusters of massive stars, and interaction powered superluminous supernovae, may accelerate CRs well above the PeV regime. We discuss the acceleration of the bulk of the galactic CRs in isolated supernova remnants and re-acceleration of escaped CRs by the multiple shocks present in superbubbles produced by associations of OB stars. The effects of magnetic field amplification by CR driven instabilities, as well as superdiffusive CR transport, are discussed for nonthermal radiation produced by nonlinear shocks of all speeds including trans-relativistic ones.

  12. Search for a diffuse flux of high-energy ν with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Presti, D. Lo; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-01-01

    A search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos, using data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. A (0.83×2π) sr sky was monitored for a total of 334 days of equivalent live time. The searched signal corresponds to an excess of events, produced by astrophysical sources, over the expected atmospheric neutrino background. The observed number of events is found compatible with the background expectation. Assuming an E-2 flux spectrum, a 90% c.l. upper limit on the diffuse ν flux of E2Φ=5.3×10-8 GeVcm-2s-1sr-1 in the energy range 20 TeV-2.5 PeV is obtained. Other signal models with different energy spectra are also tested and some rejected.

  13. Evidence for high-energy extraterrestrial neutrinos at the IceCube detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M G; Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eichmann, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Unger, E; Usner, M; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-11-22

    We report on results of an all-sky search for high-energy neutrino events interacting within the IceCube neutrino detector conducted between May 2010 and May 2012. The search follows up on the previous detection of two PeV neutrino events, with improved sensitivity and extended energy coverage down to about 30 TeV. Twenty-six additional events were observed, substantially more than expected from atmospheric backgrounds. Combined, both searches reject a purely atmospheric origin for the 28 events at the 4σ level. These 28 events, which include the highest energy neutrinos ever observed, have flavors, directions, and energies inconsistent with those expected from the atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. These properties are, however, consistent with generic predictions for an additional component of extraterrestrial origin.

  14. Large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Huihai

    2010-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project focuses mainly on the study of 40 GeV-1 PeV gamma ray astronomy and 10 TeV-1 EeV cosmic ray physics. It consists of a 1 km 2 extensive air shower array with 40 000 m 2 muon detectors, 90,000m 2 water Cerenkov detector array, 5 000 m 2 shower core detector array and an air Cerenkov/fluorescence telescope array. Prototype detectors are designed with some of them already in operation. A prototype array of 1% size of LHAASO will be built at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory and used to coincidently measure cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. (authors)

  15. Extending the search for neutrino point sources with IceCube above the horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Bazo Alba, J L; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Botner, O; Bradley, L; Braun, J; Breder, D; Carson, M; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Day, C T; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Duvoort, M R; Edwards, W R; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Gozzini, R; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gunasingha, R M; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Hasegawa, Y; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülss, J-P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Imlay, R L; Inaba, M; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Knops, S; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lennarz, D; Lundberg, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McParland, C P; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miyamoto, H; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Patton, S; Paul, L; Pérez de los Heros, C; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Potthoff, N; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Roucelle, C; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schukraft, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoufer, M C; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terranova, C; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tooker, J; Tosi, D; Turcan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wiedemann, A; Wikström, G; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S

    2009-11-27

    Point source searches with the IceCube neutrino telescope have been restricted to one hemisphere, due to the exclusive selection of upward going events as a way of rejecting the atmospheric muon background. We show that the region above the horizon can be included by suppressing the background through energy-sensitive cuts. This improves the sensitivity above PeV energies, previously not accessible for declinations of more than a few degrees below the horizon due to the absorption of neutrinos in Earth. We present results based on data collected with 22 strings of IceCube, extending its field of view and energy reach for point source searches. No significant excess above the atmospheric background is observed in a sky scan and in tests of source candidates. Upper limits are reported, which for the first time cover point sources in the southern sky up to EeV energies.

  16. Constraining hadronic models of the Fermi bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Soebur

    2018-01-01

    The origin of sub-TeV gamma rays detected by Fermi-LAT from the Fermi bubbles at the Galactic center is unknown. In a hadronic model, acceleration of protons and/or nuclei and their subsequent interactions with gas in the bubble volume can produce observed gamma ray. Such interactions naturally produce high-energy neutrinos, and detection of those can discriminate between a hadronic and a leptonic origin of gamma rays. Additional constraints on the Fermi bubbles gamma-ray flux in the PeV range from recent HAWC observations restrict hadronic model parameters, which in turn disfavor Fermi bubbles as the origin of a large fraction of neutrino events detected by IceCube along the bubble directions. We revisit our hadronic model and discuss future constraints on parameters from observations in very high-energy gamma rays by CTA and in neutrinos.

  17. Astrophysical Sources of High-Energy Neutrinos in the IceCube Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, P.

    2017-10-01

    High-energy neutrino astrophysics has come of age with IceCube's discovery of neutrinos in the TeV to PeV energy range, attributable to extragalactic sources at cosmological distances. At such energies, astrophysical neutrinos must originate in cosmic-ray interactions, providing information about the sources of high-energy cosmic rays, as well as leading to the coproduction of high-energy γ-rays. The intimate link with these two independently observed types of radiation provides important tools for the quest to identify and understand the nature of the astrophysical sources of the neutrinos. These neutrinos can set important constraints on the cosmic-ray acceleration process, and because they travel essentially unimpeded, they can probe our Universe out to the farthest cosmological distances.

  18. IceCube events from heavy DM decays through the right-handed neutrino portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recently observed IceCube PeV events could be due to heavy dark matter (DM decay. In this paper, we propose a simple DM model with extra U(1X gauge symmetry and bridge it with standard model particles through heavy right-handed neutrino. The Dirac fermion DM χ with mass ∼5 PeV can dominantly decay into a dark Higgs (ϕ, the SM Higgs (h and a neutrino (ν. If the lifetime of χ is ∼O(1028 s, the resulting neutrino flux can fit data consistently. The neutrino flux from χ→ϕhν in our model is softer than the one predicted from χ→νh, for example. We also discuss a possible mechanism to produce DM with the right relic abundance.

  19. AMANDA Observations Constrain the Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halzen, Francis; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    A number of experimental techniques are currently being deployed in an effort to make the first detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos. To accomplish this goal, techniques using radio and acoustic detectors are being developed, which are optimally designed for studying neutrinos with energies in the PeV-EeV range and above. Data from the AMANDA experiment, in contrast, has been used to place limits on the cosmic neutrino flux at less extreme energies (up to {approx}10 PeV). In this letter, we show that by adopting a different analysis strategy, optimized for much higher energy neutrinos, the same AMANDA data can be used to place a limit competitive with radio techniques at EeV energies. We also discuss the sensitivity of the IceCube experiment, in various stages of deployment, to ultra-high energy neutrinos.

  20. First combined search for neutrino point-sources in the southern sky with the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-Martí J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A search for cosmic neutrino point-like sources using the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes over the Southern Hemisphere is presented. The ANTARES data were collected between January 2007 and December 2012, whereas the IceCube data ranges from April 2008 to May 2011. An unbinned maximum likelihood method is used to search for a localized excess of muon events in the southern sky assuming an E−2 neutrino source spectrum. A search over a pre-selected list of candidate sources has also been carried out for different source assumptions: spectral indices of 2.0 and 2.5, and energy cutoffs of 1 PeV, 300 TeV and 100 TeV. No significant excess over the background has been found, and upper limits for the candidate sources are presented compared to the individual experiments.

  1. Neutrinos and γ-rays from the Galactic Center Region after H.E.S.S. multi-TeV measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celli, Silvia; Palladino, Andrea [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila, AQ (Italy); Vissani, Francesco [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila, AQ (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    The hypothesis of a PeVatron in the Galactic Center, emerged with the recent γ-ray measurements of H.E.S.S. [1], motivates the search for neutrinos from this source. The effect of γ-ray absorption is studied: at the energies currently probed, the known background radiation fields lead to small effects, whereas it is not possible to exclude large effects due to new IR radiation fields near the very center. Precise upper limits on neutrino fluxes are derived and the underlying hypotheses are discussed. The expected number of events for ANTARES, IceCube and KM3NeT, based on the H.E.S.S. measurements, are calculated. It is shown that km{sup 3}-class telescopes in the Northern hemisphere have the potential of observing high-energy neutrinos from this important astronomical object and can check the existence of a hadronic PeV galactic accelerator. (orig.)

  2. TeV-PeV neutrinos from low-power gamma-ray burst jets inside stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kohta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-09-20

    We study high-energy neutrino production in collimated jets inside progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and supernovae, considering both collimation and internal shocks. We obtain simple, useful constraints, using the often overlooked point that shock acceleration of particles is ineffective at radiation-mediated shocks. Classical GRBs may be too powerful to produce high-energy neutrinos inside stars, which is consistent with IceCube nondetections. We find that ultralong GRBs avoid such constraints and detecting the TeV signal will support giant progenitors. Predictions for low-power GRB classes including low-luminosity GRBs can be consistent with the astrophysical neutrino background IceCube may detect, with a spectral steepening around PeV. The models can be tested with future GRB monitors.

  3. Multi-messenger aspects of cosmic neutrinos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlers Markus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of TeV-PeV neutrinos by IceCube has opened a new window to the high-energy Universe. I will discuss this signal in the context of multi-messenger astronomy. For extragalactic source scenarios the corresponding gamma-rays are not directly observable due to interactions with the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Nevertheless, the isotropic sub-TeV gamma ray background observed by Fermi-LAT contains indirect information from secondary emission produced in electromagnetic cascades. On the other hand, observation of PeV gamma rays would provide a smoking-gun signal for Galactic emission. Interestingly, the overall energy density of the observed neutrino flux is close to a theoretical limit for neutrino production in ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources and might indicate a common origin of these phenomena. I will highlight various multi-messenger relations and their implications for neutrino source scenarios.

  4. The inner 300 parsecs of the Milky Way seen by H.E.S.S.: a Pevatron in the Galactic Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galactic Centre region has been observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S. array of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes since 2004 leading to the detection of the very-high-energy γ-ray source HESS J1745-290 spatially coincident with the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*. Diffuse TeV gamma-ray emission has been detected along the Galactic plane, most likely due to hadronic cosmic-ray interactions with the dense gas of the Central Molecular Zone. The rich 2004-2013 dataset permits detailed spectral and morphological studies of the diffuse emission in the inner 300 pc of the Galactic Centre region. The new results provide an important statement regarding the location and origin of the accelerator of PeV protons. The H.E.S.S. observations of the Pevatron are discussed in the context of the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  5. Control of Flywheel Energy Storage Systems in Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo

    to impose more specific and acute challenges in short term, it is also expected to expect that grid operators will impose strict demand-response requirements for the operation of charging stations (CS)s. Accordingly, this PhD project proposed a fast charging station structure which is combined with flywheel...... energy storage system (FESS). The proposed PhD project supports a corresponding smart control strategy that could be termed “charging station to grid (CS2G)”. It explores the possibility of using a dedicated energy storage system (FESS) within the charging station to alleviate grid and market conditions......-side and providing ancillary services to distributed network, multi-functional controller in secondary control layer which enables four-quadrate operation ability is proposed to cope with different scenarios, such as PEV sudden connection and disconnection, active power compensation (load shifting), reactive power...

  6. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, H; Villasenor, L

    2008-01-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm 2 ) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-31

    The EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge aims to have 500 U.S. employers offering workplace charging by 2018. These reports describe the progress made in the Challenge. In 2015, the Workplace Charging Challenge celebrated a major milestone – it reached the halfway point to its goal of 500 Challenge partners committed to installing workplace charging by 2018. More than 250 employers have joined as Challenge partners and the installation of workplace charging as a sustainable business practice is growing across the country. Their efforts have resulted in more than 600 workplaces with over 5,500 charging stations accessible to nearly one million employees. In 2015, more than 9,000 PEV-driving employees charged at these worksites on a regular basis. Our Workplace Charging Challenge Mid-Program Review reports this progress and other statistics related to workplace charging, including employee satisfaction and charger usage.

  8. Detection of EASs at high altitude with ARGO-YBJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sciascio, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for about 5 years at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm 2 ). With a duty-cycle greater than 86% the detector collected about 5×10 11 events in a wide energy range, from few hundreds GeV up to about 10 PeV. Exploiting the full coverage approach with a high segmentation of the readout at high altitude, ARGO-YBJ imaged the front of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) with unprecedented resolution and detail. A number of important problems in galactic cosmic ray physics has been faced through different analyses. In this contribution we summarize the latest results in gamma-ray astronomy and in cosmic ray physics. (paper)

  9. Symposium on Energy Storage Materials Energy and Fuel Division, 246th ACS National Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-17

    next­generation batteries for plug­in electric  vehicles (PEVs) Peter Faguy   1:45 pm 295 Phosphate and diphosphate bimetallic cathode materials Esther...3/3   3:15 pm 452 Low cost, abundant, defective materials for large scale  electrical  energy storage Dan Steingart   3:45 pm 453 Fundamentals and...structure designs for Na­ion battery anodes Liangbing Hu   4:15 pm 454 Enhanced lithium ion battery via biological  engeneering Scott J Riley   4:35 pm

  10. The Askaryan Radio Array: Overview and Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfendner, Carl; Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is radio frequency observatory under construction at the South Pole that is searching for ultrahigh energy neutrinos via the Askaryan effect. By instrumenting several gigatons of Antarctic glacial ice, the experiment aims to detect a flux of neutrinos above 10 PeV in energy. The measurement of this expected flux of neutrinos would provide information about the highest energy processes in the universe with no local horizon. The full detector consisting of 37 stations is being constructed in a phased deployment with 3 stations already in place and two more planned for deployment in the 2017-2018 season. Recent results from an analysis of data from two stations and a search for neutrinos correlated with gamma ray bursts are presented here. Funding provided by NSF CAREER Award 1255557, NSF ARA Grant 1404266, BigData Grant 1250720.

  11. Are Crab nanoshots Schwinger sparks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, Albert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yoo, Hojin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The highest brightness temperature ever observed are from "nanoshots" from the Crab pulsar which we argue could be the signature of bursts of vacuum e± pair production. If so this would be the first time the astronomical Schwinger effect has been observed. These "Schwinger sparks" would be an intermittent but extremely powerful, ~103 L, 10 PeV e± accelerator in the heart of the Crab. These nanosecond duration sparks are generated in a volume less than 1 m3 and the existence of such sparks has implications for the small scale structure of the magnetic field of young pulsars such as the Crab. As a result, this mechanism may also play a role in producing other enigmatic bright short radio transients such as fast radio bursts.

  12. Constraints on atmospheric charmed-meson production from IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palczewski Tomasz Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At very-high energies (100 TeV - 1 PeV, the small value of Bjorken-x (≤ 10−3 − 10−7 at which the parton distribution functions are evaluated makes the calculation of charm quark production very difficult. The charm quark has mass (~1.5±0.2 GeV significantly above the ΛQCD scale (~200 MeV, and therefore its production is perturbatively calculable. However, the uncertainty in the data and the calculations cannot exclude some smaller non-perturbative contribution. To evaluate the prompt neutrino flux, one needs to know the charm production cross-section in pN -> cc̄ X, and hadronization of charm particles. This contribution briefly discusses computation of prompt neutrino flux and presents the strongest limit on prompt neutrino flux from IceCube.

  13. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...

  14. Strongly Coupled Chameleons and the Neutronic Quantum Bouncer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Pignol, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    We consider the potential detection of chameleons using bouncing ultracold neutrons. We show that the presence of a chameleon field over a planar plate would alter the energy levels of ultracold neutrons in the terrestrial gravitational field. When chameleons are strongly coupled to nuclear matter, β > or approx. 10 8 , we find that the shift in energy levels would be detectable with the forthcoming GRANIT experiment, where a sensitivity of the order of 1% of a peV is expected. We also find that an extremely large coupling β > or approx. 10 11 would lead to new bound states at a distance of order 2 μm, which is already ruled out by previous Grenoble experiments. The resulting bound, β 11 , is already 3 orders of magnitude better than the upper bound, β 14 , from precision tests of atomic spectra.

  15. Cosmogenic neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic ray models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, R.; Petrera, S. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Boncioli, D.; Grillo, A.F. [INFN/Laboratori Nazionali Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Di Matteo, A. [INFN and Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, L' Aquila (Italy); Salamida, F., E-mail: aloisio@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: denise.boncioli@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: armando.dimatteo@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: aurelio.grillo@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: sergio.petrera@aquila.infn.it, E-mail: salamida@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris 11, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2015-10-01

    We use an updated version of SimProp, a Monte Carlo simulation scheme for the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, to compute cosmogenic neutrino fluxes expected on Earth in various scenarios. These fluxes are compared with the newly detected IceCube events at PeV energies and with recent experimental limits at EeV energies of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This comparison allows us to draw some interesting conclusions about the source models for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We will show how the available experimental observations are almost at the level of constraining such models, mainly in terms of the injected chemical composition and cosmological evolution of sources. The results presented here will also be important in the evaluation of the discovery capabilities of the future planned ultra-high energy cosmic ray and neutrino observatories.

  16. Underground cosmic-ray experiment EMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuusiniemi, P.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    EMMA (Experiment with MultiMuon Array) is a new approach to study the composition of cosmic rays at the knee region (1 – 10 PeV). The array will measure the multiplicity and lateral distribution of the high-energy muon component of an air shower and its arrival direction on an event-by-event basis....... The array operates in the Pyhäsalmi Mine, Finland, at a depth of 75 metres (or 210 m.w.e) corresponding to the cut-off energy of approximately 50 GeV for vertical muons. The data recording with a partial array has started and preliminary results of the first test runs are presented....

  17. Tests of the SIBYLL 2.3 high-energy hadronic interaction model using the KASCADE-Grande muon data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arteaga-Velázquez J.C.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The KASCADE-Grande observatory was a ground-based air shower array dedicated to study the energy and composition of cosmic rays in the energy interval E = 1 PeV –1 EeV. The experiment consisted of different detector systems which allowed the simultaneous measurement of distinct components of air showers (EAS, such as the muon content. In this contribution, we study the total muon number and the lateral density distribution of muons in EAS detected by KASCADE-Grande as a function of the zenith angle and the total number of charged particles. The attenuation length of the muon content of EAS is also measured. The results are compared with the predictions of the SIBYLL 2.3 high-energy hadronic interaction model.

  18. Recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ~400 scintillator detectors and a 560 m2 large tracking muon detector (Eμ > 1 GeV, at Ooty in India. The muon detector has been used to observe acceleration of muons during thunderstorm conditions. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below 1 PeV, with an overlap with direct measurements. More recently we have explored the possibility of using the angular distribution of >1 GeV muons to identify the best from among several low- and high-energy hadronic interaction models. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in all of the areas listed above.

  19. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla, Pue., 72000 (Mexico); Villasenor, L [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, 58040 (Mexico)], E-mail: villasen@ifm.umich.mx

    2008-06-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm{sup 2}) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV.

  20. Neutrinos from Choked Jets Accompanied by Type-II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao-Ning; Kusenko, Alexander; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the IceCube neutrinos is still an open question. Upper limits from diffuse gamma-ray observations suggest that the neutrino sources are either distant or hidden from gamma-ray observations. It is possible that the neutrinos are produced in jets that are formed in core-collapsing massive stars and fail to break out, the so-called choked jets. We study neutrinos from the jets choked in the hydrogen envelopes of red supergiant stars. Fast photo-meson cooling softens the neutrino spectrum, making it hard to explain the PeV neutrinos observed by IceCube in a one-component scenario, but a two-component model can explain the spectrum. Furthermore, we predict that a newly born jet-driven type-II supernova may be observed to be associated with a neutrino burst detected by IceCube.

  1. Diffuse neutrinos from extragalactic supernova remnants: Dominating the 100 TeV IceCube flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovan Chakraborty

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available IceCube has measured a diffuse astrophysical flux of TeV–PeV neutrinos. The most plausible sources are unique high energy cosmic ray accelerators like hypernova remnants (HNRs and remnants from gamma ray bursts in star-burst galaxies, which can produce primary cosmic rays with the required energies and abundance. In this case, however, ordinary supernova remnants (SNRs, which are far more abundant than HNRs, produce a comparable or larger neutrino flux in the ranges up to 100–150 TeV energies, implying a spectral break in the IceCube signal around these energies. The SNRs contribution in the diffuse flux up to these hundred TeV energies provides a natural baseline and then constrains the expected PeV flux.

  2. Interactions Between CRs and MCs in the Vicinity of Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Supernovae are incredibly energetic events which drive the dynamic state of the interstellar medium and accelerate cosmic rays up to energies of a few PeV. I present multi-wavelength observations constraining the shocks, chemistry, dust grain processing, and magnetic fields in a large sample of supernova remnants interacting with dense clouds. These are among the most luminous Galactic sources detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Surprisingly, spectral breaks are seen between GeV and TeV energies. Radio spectral breaks have also been detected for a few remnants, providing clear evidence that supernovae are a significant source of hadronic cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Resolving the origin of these spectral breaks will allow the physics of cosmic ray acceleration and diffusion to be probed.

  3. Radiatively Generating the Higgs Potential and Electroweak Scale via the Seesaw Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, Ilaria; Trott, Michael

    2017-10-06

    The minimal seesaw scenario can radiatively generate the Higgs potential to induce electroweak symmetry breaking while supplying an origin of the Higgs vacuum expectation value from an underlying Majorana scale. If the Higgs potential and (derived) electroweak scale have this origin, the heavy SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1)_{Y} singlet states are expected to reside at m_{N}∼10-500  PeV for couplings |ω|∼10^{-4.5}-10^{-6} between the Majorana sector and the standard model. In this framework, the usual challenge of the electroweak scale hierarchy problem with a classically assumed potential is absent as the electroweak scale is not a fundamental scale. The new challenge is the need to generate or accommodate PeV Majorana mass scales while simultaneously suppressing tree-level contributions to the potential in ultraviolet models.

  4. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Cosmic Rays from the Knee to the Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haungs, Andreas

    Investigations of the energy spectrum as well as the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of PeV to EeV are important for understanding both, the origin of the galactic and the extragalactic cosmic rays. Recently, three modern experimental installations (KASCADE-Grande, IceTop, Tunka-133), dedicated to investigate this primary energy range, have published new results on the all-particle energy spectrum. In this short review these results are presented and the similarities and differences discussed. In addition, the effects of using different hadronic interaction models for interpreting the measured air-shower data will be examined. Finally, a brief discussion on the question if the present results are in agreement or in contradiction with astrophysical models for the transition from galactic to extragalactic origin of cosmic rays completes this paper.

  6. Status of the large high altitude air shower observatory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Min, E-mail: zham@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Astroparticle and Cosmic Ray, Institute of High Energy Physics, YuQuan Road 19 B, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2012-11-11

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project is a multipurpose project. The main scientific tasks can be summarized as follows: (1) searching for galactic cosmic ray origins through gamma ray source detection above 30 TeV; (2) wide field of view survey for gamma ray sources at energies higher than 100 GeV; (3) energy spectrum measurements for individual cosmic ray species from 30 TeV to 10 PeV. To target above tasks, a complex detector array is designed. This paper describes the progress on the research and development of all kind of detectors. Construction and operation of a prototype detector array at Tibet site with 4300 m a.s.l. are also presented.

  7. Measurement of the cosmic ray composition at the knee with the SPASE-2/AMANDA-B10 detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, J; Andrés, E; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Bay, R C; Becka, T; Becker, K H; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Binon, F; Biron, A; Boersma, D J; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Bouhali, O; Burgess, T; Carius, S; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Cowen, D F; Davour, A; De Clercq, C; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Dickinson, E; Ekstrom, P; Engel, R; Evenson, P; Feser, T; Gaisser, T K; Ganugapati, R; Gaug, M; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; Hauschildt, T; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hinton, J A; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Karle, A; Kim, J; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Kühn, K; Lamoureux, J I; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Lloyd Evans, J; Madsen, J; Mandli, K; Marciniewski, P; Martino, J R; Matis, H S; McParland, C P; Messarius, T; Miller, T C; Minaeva, Y; Miocinovic, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Neunhoffer, T; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogleman, H; Olbrechts, P; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Rochester, K; Ross, D; Sander, H G; Schinarakis, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schwarz, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Sulanke, K H; Taboada, I; Tilav, S; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Wang, Y R; Watson, A A; Wiebusch, C; Wiedemann, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Wu, W; Yodh, G; Young, S; Pérez de los Heros, C; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2004.04.007

    2004-01-01

    The mass composition of high-energy cosmic rays at energies above 10 /sup 15/ eV can provide crucial information for the understanding of their origin. Air showers were measured simultaneously with the SPASE-2 air shower array and the AMANDA-B10 Cherenkov telescope at the South Pole. This combination has the advantage to sample almost all high-energy shower muons and is thus a new approach to the determination of the cosmic ray composition. The change in the cosmic ray mass composition was measured versus existing data from direct measurements at low energies. Our data show an increase of the mean log atomic mass by about 0.8 between 500 TeV and 5 PeV. This trend of an increasing mass through the "knee" region is robust against a variety of systematic effects.

  8. Extending the search for neutrino point sources with IceCube above the horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.

    2009-11-20

    Point source searches with the IceCube neutrino telescope have been restricted to one hemisphere, due to the exclusive selection of upward going events as a way of rejecting the atmospheric muon background. We show that the region above the horizon can be included by suppressing the background through energy-sensitive cuts. This approach improves the sensitivity above PeV energies, previously not accessible for declinations of more than a few degrees below the horizon due to the absorption of neutrinos in Earth. We present results based on data collected with 22 strings of IceCube, extending its field of view and energy reach for point source searches. No significant excess above the atmospheric background is observed in a sky scan and in tests of source candidates. Upper limits are reported, which for the first time cover point sources in the southern sky up to EeV energies.

  9. Fuzzy classification of phantom parent groups in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikse Freddy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic evaluation models often include genetic groups to account for unequal genetic level of animals with unknown parentage. The definition of phantom parent groups usually includes a time component (e.g. years. Combining several time periods to ensure sufficiently large groups may create problems since all phantom parents in a group are considered contemporaries. Methods To avoid the downside of such distinct classification, a fuzzy logic approach is suggested. A phantom parent can be assigned to several genetic groups, with proportions between zero and one that sum to one. Rules were presented for assigning coefficients to the inverse of the relationship matrix for fuzzy-classified genetic groups. This approach was illustrated with simulated data from ten generations of mass selection. Observations and pedigree records were randomly deleted. Phantom parent groups were defined on the basis of gender and generation number. In one scenario, uncertainty about generation of birth was simulated for some animals with unknown parents. In the distinct classification, one of the two possible generations of birth was randomly chosen to assign phantom parents to genetic groups for animals with simulated uncertainty, whereas the phantom parents were assigned to both possible genetic groups in the fuzzy classification. Results The empirical prediction error variance (PEV was somewhat lower for fuzzy-classified genetic groups. The ranking of animals with unknown parents was more correct and less variable across replicates in comparison with distinct genetic groups. In another scenario, each phantom parent was assigned to three groups, one pertaining to its gender, and two pertaining to the first and last generation, with proportion depending on the (true generation of birth. Due to the lower number of groups, the empirical PEV of breeding values was smaller when genetic groups were fuzzy-classified. Conclusion Fuzzy

  10. Atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos above 1 TeV interacting in IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory was designed primarily to search for high-energy (TeV-PeV) neutrinos produced in distant astrophysical objects. A search for ≳100 TeV neutrinos interacting inside the instrumented volume has recently provided evidence for an isotropic flux of such neutrinos. At lower energies, IceCube collects large numbers of neutrinos from the weak decays of mesons in cosmic-ray air showers. Here we present the results of a search for neutrino interactions inside IceCube's instrumented volume between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in 641 days of data taken from 2010-2012, lowering the energy threshold for neutrinos from the southern sky below 10 TeV for the first time, far below the threshold of the previous high-energy analysis. Astrophysical neutrinos remain the dominant component in the southern sky down to a deposited energy of 10 TeV. From these data we derive new constraints on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino spectrum, Φν=2.0 6-0.3+0.4×1 0-18(Eν/1 05 GeV ) -2.46 ±0.12GeV-1 cm-2 sr-1 s-1 for 25 TeV PeV , as well as the strongest upper limit yet on the flux of neutrinos from charmed-meson decay in the atmosphere, 1.52 times the benchmark theoretical prediction used in previous IceCube results at 90% confidence.

  11. Search for Time-independent Neutrino Emission from Astrophysical Sources with 3 yr of IceCube Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macías, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of a search for neutrino point sources using the IceCube data collected between 2008 April and 2011 May with three partially completed configurations of the detector: the 40-, 59-, and 79-string configurations. The live-time of this data set is 1040 days. An unbinned maximum likelihood ratio test was used to search for an excess of neutrinos above the atmospheric background at any given direction in the sky. By adding two more years of data with improved event selection and reconstruction techniques, the sensitivity was improved by a factor of 3.5 or more with respect to the previously published results obtained with the 40-string configuration of IceCube. We performed an all-sky survey and a dedicated search using a catalog of a priori selected objects observed by other telescopes. In both searches, the data are compatible with the background-only hypothesis. In the absence of evidence for a signal, we set upper limits on the flux of muon neutrinos. For an E -2 neutrino spectrum, the observed limits are (0.9-5) × 10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 for energies between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in the northern sky and (0.9-23.2) × 10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 for energies between 102 TeV and 102 PeV in the southern sky. We also report upper limits for neutrino emission from groups of sources that were selected according to theoretical models or observational parameters and analyzed with a stacking approach. Some of the limits presented already reach the level necessary to quantitatively test current models of neutrino emission.

  12. High-energy neutrinos from multibody decaying dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima, Nagisa; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Kohri, Kazunori; Murase, Kohta

    2018-01-01

    Since the report of the PeV-TeV neutrinos by the IceCube Collaboration, various particle physics models have been proposed to explain the neutrino spectrum by dark matter particles decaying into neutrinos and other standard model particles. In such scenarios, simultaneous γ -ray emission is commonly expected. Therefore, multimessenger connections are generally important for the indirect searches of dark matters. The recent development of γ -ray astronomy puts stringent constraints on the properties of dark matter, especially by observations with the Fermi γ -ray satellite in the last several years. Motivated by the lack of γ -ray as well as the shape of the neutrino spectrum observed by IceCube, we discuss a scenario in which the DM is a PeV scale particle which couples strongly to other invisible particles and its decay products do not contain a charged particle. As an example to realize such possibilities, we consider a model of fermionic dark matter that decays into a neutrino and many invisible fermions. The dark matter decay is secluded in the sense that the emitted products are mostly neutrinos and dark fermions. One remarkable feature of this model is the resulting broadband neutrino spectra around the energy scale of the dark matter. We apply this model to multi-PeV dark matter, and discuss possible observable consequences in light of the IceCube data. In particular, this model could account for the large flux at medium energies of ˜10 - 100 TeV , possibly as well as the second peak at PeV, without violating the stringent γ -ray constraints from Fermi and air-shower experiments such as CASA-MIA.

  13. Effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on thyroid and reproductive function in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on (1) thyroid status and reproductive performance of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and (2) F1 embryo survival and early larval development. Using a static-renewal procedure, mixed sex populations of adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 10, and 100 mg/l nominal concentrations of waterborne perchlorate for 10 weeks. Thyroid histology was qualitatively assessed, and females and males were separated and further exposed to their respective treatments for six additional weeks. Eight females in each tank replicate (n = 3) were paired weekly with four males from the same respective treatment, and packed-egg (spawn) volume (PEV) was measured each of the last five weeks. At least once during weeks 14-16 of exposure, other end points measured included fertilization rate, fertilized egg diameter, hatching rate, standard length, and craniofacial development of 4-day-postfertilization larvae and thyroid hormone content of 3.5-h embryos and of exposed mothers. At 10 weeks of exposure, perchlorate at both concentrations caused thyroidal hypertrophy and colloid depletion. A marked reduction in PEV was observed toward the end of the 6-week spawning period, but fertilization and embryo hatching rates were unaffected. Fertilized egg diameter and larval length were increased by parental exposure to perchlorate. Larval head depth was unaffected but the forward protrusion of the lower jaw-associated cartilage complexes, Meckel's and ceratohyal, was decreased. Exposure to both concentrations of perchlorate inhibited whole-body thyroxine content in mothers and embryos, but triiodothyronine content was unchanged. In conclusion, prolonged exposure of adult zebrafish to perchlorate not only disrupts their thyroid endocrine system but also impairs reproduction and influences early F1 development. ?? 2007 Oxford University Press.

  14. Topografia y reactividad del potencial evocado visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Etcheberrigaray

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available El aumento - reducción (A-R visual es evidente para las áreas centrales y exhibe diferencias hemisféricas. Este trabajo describe las características del potencial evocado visual (PEV en derivaciones occipitales y su relación con A-R central: 16 sujetos de sexo masculino, diestros, jóvenes y sanos recibieron flashes de 10 us, frec de 1/s a intensidades de 0.36, 0.72 y 1.44 joules mediante estimulador Grass PS2. Se registró derivaciones Cz, C3, C4, Oz, O1 y 02 referidas a mastoides mediante electrodos subdérmicos. Un computador Nicolet CA-1000 promedió 100 respuestas para cada intensidad. Se midió latencia y amplitud peak to peak de los complejos P1N1 y N1P2 y se calculó pendiente intensidad/amplitud mediante regresión lineal. 10 sujetos tuvieron pendiente mayor que 0 en vertex (aumentadores y 6 menor (reductores. P1N1 presenta reducción y asimetría hemisférica en Cz, que no se observa en Oz. Los aumentadores de N1P2 a nivel de Cz son reductores a nivel de, Oz y viceversa. Se discuten estos hallazgos en relación a las etapas en el procesamiento de la información visual y la significación funcional de los componentes del PEV.

  15. What is the Impact of Utility Demand Charges on a DCFC host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The PEV Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) delivered by The EV Project included both AC Level 2 and DCFC units. Over 100 of these dual-port Blink DC fast chargers were deployed by The EV Project. These DCFCs were installed in workplaces and in publicly accessible locations near traffic hubs, retail centers, parking lots, restaurants, and similar locations. The Blink DCFC is capable of charging at power up to 60 kW. Its dual-port design sequences the charge from one port to the other, delivering power to only one of two vehicles connected at a time. The actual power delivered through a port is determined by the PEV’s on-board battery management system (BMS). Both the power and the total energy used to recharge a PEV can represent a significant cost for the charging site host. Many electric utilities impose fees for power demand as part of their commercial rate structure. The demand charge incurred by a customer is related to the peak power used during a monthly billing cycle. This is in contrast to the cumulative total energy usage that is the more familiar utility charge seen for most residential services. A demand charge is typically assessed for the highest average power over any 15 minute interval during the monthly billing cycle. One objective of The EV Project was to identify and elucidate the motivations and barriers to potential DCFC site hosts. The application of electric utility demand charges is one such potential barrier. This subject was introduced in the paper: DC Fast Charge - Demand Charge Reduction1. It discussed demand charge impact in general terms in order to focus on potential mitigation actions. This paper identifies specific cases in order to quantify the impact of demand charges on EV Project DCFC hosts.

  16. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays with the 26 station configuration of the IceTop detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislat, Fabian

    2011-09-27

    composition of primary particles. Good agreement of spectra from different zenith angle ranges has been found under the assumption of pure proton primaries, as well as for a mixture of protons and iron with a relatively large proton contribution at low energies and proton dominance at high energies. Under these assumptions the knee of the cosmic ray energy spectrum has been observed at energies between 3.97 and 4.20 PeV. The spectral index below the knee is about -2.7 and varies between -3.08 and -3.15 above the knee. Pure iron as primary particles can be excluded at a high confidence level below 25 PeV. Independent of the primary composition assumption a flattening of the energy spectrum with an index of about -3.0 has been observed above 30 PeV.

  17. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays with the 26 station configuration of the IceTop detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislat, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    composition of primary particles. Good agreement of spectra from different zenith angle ranges has been found under the assumption of pure proton primaries, as well as for a mixture of protons and iron with a relatively large proton contribution at low energies and proton dominance at high energies. Under these assumptions the knee of the cosmic ray energy spectrum has been observed at energies between 3.97 and 4.20 PeV. The spectral index below the knee is about -2.7 and varies between -3.08 and -3.15 above the knee. Pure iron as primary particles can be excluded at a high confidence level below 25 PeV. Independent of the primary composition assumption a flattening of the energy spectrum with an index of about -3.0 has been observed above 30 PeV.

  18. On the cosmic ray spectrum from type II Supernovae expanding in their red giant presupernova wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Martina

    2015-12-01

    While from the energetic point of view SNRs are viable sources of Galactic CRs, the issue of whether they can accelerate protons up to PeV remains unsolved. Here we discuss particle acceleration at the forward shock of SN and discuss the possibility that the escaping particle current may excite a non-resonant instability that in turn leads to the formation of resonant modes confining particles close to the shock and increasing the maximum energy. This mechanism works throughout the expansion of the SN explosion, from the ejecta dominated (ED) to the Sedov-Taylor (ST) phase. Because of their higher explosion rate,we focus on type II SNae expanding in the slow, dense red supergiant wind. When the explosion occurs in such winds, the transition between the ED and the ST phase is likely to take place within a few tens of years. As a result, the spectrum of accelerated particles shows a break in the slope, at the maximum energy (EM) achieved at the beginning of the ST phase. Above this energy, the spectrum becomes steeper but remains a power law than developing an exponential cutoff. We show that for type II SNae typical parameters, proton EM can easily reach PeV energies, confirming that type II SNRs are the best candidate sources for CRs at the knee. We have tried to fit KASCADE-Grande, ARGO -YBJ and YAC1-Tibet Array data with our model but we could not find any parameter combination that could explain all data sets. Indeed the recent measurement of the proton and helium spectra in the knee region, with the ARGO-YBJ and YAC1-Tibet Array, has made the situation very confused. These measurements suggest that the knee in the light component is at 650 TeV, appreciably below the overall spectrum knee. This finding would resolve the problem of reaching very high energies in SNae, but, on the other hand, it would open a critical issue in the transition region between Galactic and extragalactic CRs.

  19. Variable selection models for genomic selection using whole-genome sequence data and singular value decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Theo H E; Indahl, Ulf G; Ødegård, Jørgen

    2017-12-27

    Non-linear Bayesian genomic prediction models such as BayesA/B/C/R involve iteration and mostly Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, which are computationally expensive, especially when whole-genome sequence (WGS) data are analyzed. Singular value decomposition (SVD) of the genotype matrix can facilitate genomic prediction in large datasets, and can be used to estimate marker effects and their prediction error variances (PEV) in a computationally efficient manner. Here, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a direct, non-iterative method for the estimation of marker effects for the BayesC genomic prediction model. The BayesC model assumes a priori that markers have normally distributed effects with probability [Formula: see text] and no effect with probability (1 - [Formula: see text]). Marker effects and their PEV are estimated by using SVD and the posterior probability of the marker having a non-zero effect is calculated. These posterior probabilities are used to obtain marker-specific effect variances, which are subsequently used to approximate BayesC estimates of marker effects in a linear model. A computer simulation study was conducted to compare alternative genomic prediction methods, where a single reference generation was used to estimate marker effects, which were subsequently used for 10 generations of forward prediction, for which accuracies were evaluated. SVD-based posterior probabilities of markers having non-zero effects were generally lower than MCMC-based posterior probabilities, but for some regions the opposite occurred, resulting in clear signals for QTL-rich regions. The accuracies of breeding values estimated using SVD- and MCMC-based BayesC analyses were similar across the 10 generations of forward prediction. For an intermediate number of generations (2 to 5) of forward prediction, accuracies obtained with the BayesC model tended to be slightly higher than accuracies obtained using the best linear unbiased prediction of SNP

  20. TeV gamma-UHECR anisotropy by decaying nuclei in flight: First neutrino traces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargion Daniele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultra High Cosmic Rays made by He-like lightest nuclei might solve the AUGER extragalactic clustering along Cen A. Moreover He like UHECR nuclei cannot arrive from Virgo because the light nuclei fragility and opacity above a few Mpc, explaining the Virgo UHECR absence. UHECR signals are spreading along Cen A as observed because horizontal galactic arms magnetic fields, bending them on vertical angles. Cen A events by He-like nuclei are deflected as much as the observed clustered ones; proton will be more collimated while heavy (iron nuclei are too much dispersed. Such a light nuclei UHECR component coexist with the other Auger heavy nuclei and with the Hires nucleon composition. We foresaw (2009 that UHECR He from Cen-A AGN being fragile should partially fragment into secondaries at tens EeV multiplet (D,He3,p nearly as the recent twin multiplet discovered ones (AUGER-ICRC-2011, at 20 EeV along Cen A UHECR clustering. Their narrow crowding occur by a posteriori very low probability, below 3 ⋅ 10−5. Remaining UHECR spread group may hint for correlations with other gamma (MeV − Al26 radioactive maps, mainly due to galactic SNR sources as Vela pulsar, the brightest, nearest GeV source. Other nearest galactic gamma sources show links with UHECR via TeV correlated maps. We suggest that UHECR are also heavy radioactive galactic nuclei as Ni56, Ni57 and Co57,Co60 widely bent (tens degree up to ≥ 100o by galactic fields. UHECR radioactivity (in β and γ channels and decay in flight at hundreds keV is boosted (by huge Lorentz factor ΓNi ≃ 109 − 108 leading to PeVs electrons and consequent synchrotron TeVs gamma offering UHECR-TeV correlated sky anisotropy. Moreover also rarest and non-atmospheric τ, and e neutrinos secondaries at PeVs, as the first two rarest shower just discovered in ICECUBE, maybe the first signature of such expected radioactive secondary tail.

  1. Electric Vehicle Communications Standards Testing and Validation - Phase II: SAE J2931/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gowri, Krishnan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6

  2. On the cosmic ray spectrum from type II Supernovae expanding in their red giant presupernova wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardillo Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While from the energetic point of view SNRs are viable sources of Galactic CRs, the issue of whether they can accelerate protons up to PeV remains unsolved. Here we discuss particle acceleration at the forward shock of SN and discuss the possibility that the escaping particle current may excite a non-resonant instability that in turn leads to the formation of resonant modes confining particles close to the shock and increasing the maximum energy. This mechanism works throughout the expansion of the SN explosion, from the ejecta dominated (ED to the Sedov-Taylor (ST phase. Because of their higher explosion rate,we focus on type II SNae expanding in the slow, dense red supergiant wind. When the explosion occurs in such winds, the transition between the ED and the ST phase is likely to take place within a few tens of years. As a result, the spectrum of accelerated particles shows a break in the slope, at the maximum energy (EM achieved at the beginning of the ST phase. Above this energy, the spectrum becomes steeper but remains a power law than developing an exponential cutoff. We show that for type II SNae typical parameters, proton EM can easily reach PeV energies, confirming that type II SNRs are the best candidate sources for CRs at the knee. We have tried to fit KASCADE-Grande, ARGO -YBJ and YAC1-Tibet Array data with our model but we could not find any parameter combination that could explain all data sets. Indeed the recent measurement of the proton and helium spectra in the knee region, with the ARGO-YBJ and YAC1-Tibet Array, has made the situation very confused. These measurements suggest that the knee in the light component is at 650 TeV, appreciably below the overall spectrum knee. This finding would resolve the problem of reaching very high energies in SNae, but, on the other hand, it would open a critical issue in the transition region between Galactic and extragalactic CRs.

  3. What should vaccine developers ask? Simulation of the effectiveness of malaria vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Penny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of different malaria vaccine candidates are currently in pre-clinical or clinical development. Even though they vary greatly in their characteristics, it is unlikely that any of them will provide long-lasting sterilizing immunity against the malaria parasite. There is great uncertainty about what the minimal vaccine profile should be before registration is worthwhile; how to allocate resources between different candidates with different profiles; which candidates to consider combining; and what deployment strategies to consider. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use previously published stochastic simulation models, calibrated against extensive epidemiological data, to make quantitative predictions of the population effects of malaria vaccines on malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. The models are fitted and simulations obtained via volunteer computing. We consider a range of endemic malaria settings with deployment of vaccines via the Expanded program on immunization (EPI, with and without additional booster doses, and also via 5-yearly mass campaigns for a range of coverages. The simulation scenarios account for the dynamic effects of natural and vaccine induced immunity, for treatment of clinical episodes, and for births, ageing and deaths in the cohort. Simulated pre-erythrocytic vaccines have greatest benefits in low endemic settings (EIR of 84 PEV may lead to increased incidence of severe disease in the long term, if efficacy is moderate to low (20% malaria vaccines (either PEV or BSV when deployed through mass campaigns targeting all age-groups as well as EPI, and especially if combined with highly efficacious transmission-blocking components. CONCLUSIONS: We present for the first time a stochastic simulation approach to compare likely effects on morbidity, mortality and transmission of a range of malaria vaccines and vaccine combinations in realistic epidemiological and health systems settings. The results raise

  4. Potenciales evocados visuales en recién nacidos a término

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    Julio Montes Brown

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron 446 potenciales evocados visuales (PEV en 69 recién nacidos (RN a término, los cuales fueron estudiados en estado de vigilia y sueño espontáneo, mediante el uso de estimulación monocular tipo LED y 2 variantes de tiempo de análisis y frecuencia de estimulación (400 min y 2 Hz vs 1s y 1 Hz. Se realizaron correlaciones de los parámetros latencias y amplitud con las distintas variables perinatales. Apareció mayor número de respuestas con la utilización de un tiempo de análisis de 1s y 1 Hz de frecuencia de estimulación. Los componentes P2 y N2 aparecieron en el 100 % de las respuestas identificadas. Se produjo una prolongación de las latencias y caídas de la amplitud de los principales componentes al pasar del estado de vigilia a sueño. No se encontró correlación entre las variables peso, circunferencia cefálica y sexo con P2, pero sí con las horas de vida del RN. Se presentan las tablas de valores normativos de latencias y amplitud de los PEV para las condiciones estudiadas, cuyos resultados guardan similitud con los descritos en la literatura médica.446 visual evoked potentials (VEP were performed in 69 full-term newborns who were studied in state of wakefulness and spontaneous sleep by using LED monocular stimulation and 2 variants of time of analysis and frequency of stimulation (400 min and 2 Hz vs ls and 1 Hz. The correlations of the latency and width parameters with the different perinatal variables were stablished. A higher number of responses was obtained with the utilization of a time of analysis of 1s and 1 Hz of stimulation frequency. P2 and N2 components appeared in 100 % of the identified responses. There was a prolongation of latency and falls of width of the main components on passing from the state of wakefulness to sleep. No correlation was found between the weight, head circumference and sex variables with P2, but it was observed with the hours of life of the newborn. The tables of normative

  5. Animal Model of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sumit; Laerum, Frode; Brosstad, Frank; Kvernebo, Knut; Sakariassen, Kjell S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an animal model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: In part I of the study nine juvenile domestic pigs were used. Each external iliac vein was transluminally occluded with a balloon catheter. Thrombin was infused through a microcatheter in one leg according to one of the following protocols: (1) intraarterial (IA): 1250 U at 25 U/min in the common femoral artery (n= 3); (2) intravenous (IV): 5000 U in the popliteal vein at 500 U/min (n= 3), or at 100 U/min (n= 3). Saline was administered in the opposite leg. After the animals were killed, the mass of thrombus in the iliofemoral veins was measured. The pudendoepiploic (PEV), profunda femoris (PF), and popliteal veins (PV) were examined. Thrombosis in the tributaries of the superficial femoral vein (SFVt) was graded according to a three-point scale (0, +, ++). In part II of the study IV administration was further investigated in nine pigs using the following three regimens with 1000 U at 25 U/min serving as the control: (1) 1000 U at 100 U/min, (2) 250 U at 25 U/min, (3) 250 U at 6.25 U/min. Results: All animals survived. In part I median thrombus mass in the test limbs was 1.40 g as compared with 0.25 g in the controls (p= 0.01). PEV, PFV and PV were thrombosed in all limbs infused with thrombin. IV infusion was more effective in inducing thrombosis in both the parent veins (mass 1.32-1.78 g) and SVFt (++ in 4 of 6 legs), as compared with IA infusion (mass 0.0-1.16 g; SFVt ++ in 1 of 3 legs). In part II thrombus mass in axial veins ranged from 1.23 to 2.86 g, and showed no relationship with the dose of thrombin or the rate of infusion. Tributary thrombosis was less extensive with 250 U at 25 U/min than with the other regimens. Conclusion: Slow distal intravenous thrombin infusion in the hind legs of pigs combined with proximal venous occlusion induces thrombosis in the leg veins that closely resembles clinical DVT in distribution

  6. Very-high-energy astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube is a ≳TeV neutrino observatory operating at the South Pole. Ice-Cube has observed a flux of neutrinos of astrophysical origin, with energies beyond 2 PeV. However the sources of these neutrinos have not yet been identified. A summary of various IceCube observations is presented. The results discussed were obtained through several different analysis methods, which have varying sensitivity to the different neutrino flavors. A discussion of the spectral fit obtained for the various event selections is included, as well as the constraints on the astrophysical neutrino flavor flux ratio. Several attempts by IceCube to identify the sources of these neutrinos are described. These include studies correlating neutrino events with catalogs of sources as well as selfcorrelations among IceCube’s neutrinos. The observations of astrophysical neutrinos are limited by statistics. So an upgrade of IceCube, including a larger detector and a surface veto is planned. This upgrade is briefly discussed.

  7. High energy neutrinos from the tidal disruption of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    We study the production of high energy neutrinos in jets from the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes. The diffuse neutrino flux expected from these tidal disruption events (TDEs) is calculated both analytically and numerically, taking account the dependence of the rate of TDEs on the redshift and black hole mass. We find that ∝ 10% of the observed diffuse flux at IceCube at an energy of about 1 PeV can come from TDEs if the characteristics of known jetted tidal disruption events are assumed to apply to the whole population of these sources. If, however, plausible scalings of the jet Lorentz factor or variability timescale with the black hole mass are taken into account, the contribution of the lowest mass black holes to the neutrino flux is enhanced. In this case, TDEs can account for most of the neutrino flux detected at IceCube, describing both the neutrino flux normalization and spectral shape with moderate baryonic loadings. While the uncertainties on our assumptions are large, a possible signature of TDEs as the origin of the IceCube signal is the transition of the flux flavor composition from a pion beam to a muon damped source at the highest energies, which will also result in a suppression of Glashow resonance events.

  8. DUMAND-II (deep underwater muon and neutrino detector) progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kenneth K.

    1995-07-01

    The DUMAND II detector will search for astronomical sources of high energy neutrinos. Successful deployment of the basic infrastructure, including the shore cable, the underwater junction box, and an environmental module was accomplished in December, 1993. One optical module string was also deployed and operated, logging data for about 10 hours. The underwater cable was connected to the shore station where we were able to successfully exercise system controls and log further environmental data. After this time, water leaking into the electronics control module for the deployed string disabled the string electrical system. The acquired data are consistent with the expected rate of downgoing muons, and our ability to reconstruct muons was demonstrated. The measured acoustical backgrounds are consistent with expectation, which should allow acoustical detection of nearby PeV particle cascades. The disabled string has been recovered and is undergoing repairs ashore. We have identified the source of the water leak and implemented additional testing and QC procedures to ensure no repetition in our next deployment. We will be ready to deploy three strings and begin continuous data taking in late 1994 or early 1995.

  9. Game-Theoretic Energy Management for Residential Users with Dischargeable Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV has attracted more and more attention because of the energy crisis and environmental pollution, which is also the main shiftable load of the residential users’ demand side management (DSM system in the future smart grid (SG. In this paper, we employ game theory to provide an autonomous energy management system among residential users considering selling energy back to the utility company by discharging the PEV’s battery. By assuming all users are equipped with smart meters to execute automatic energy consumption scheduling (ECS and the energy company can adopt adequate pricing tariffs relating to time and level of energy usage, we formulate an energy management game, where the players are the residential users and the strategies are their daily schedules of household appliance use. We will show that the Nash equilibrium of the formulated energy management game can guarantee the global optimization in terms of minimizing the energy costs, where the depreciation cost of PEV’s battery because of discharging and selling energy back is also considered. Simulation results verify that the proposed game-theoretic approach can reduce the total energy cost and individual daily electricity payment. Moreover, since plug-in electric bicycles (PEBs are currently widely used in China, simulation results of residential users owing household appliances and bidirectional energy trading of PEBs are also provided and discussed.

  10. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground: Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tcaciuc, Rodica

    2006-01-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e + e − storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV e nergies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive a ir showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimete r of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at dis tances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, m ultiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muo ns. The experimental data were compared with predictions from d ifferent Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distrib ution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for prot on, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77 ± 11) % protons and (23 ± 11) % iron nuclei with a χ 2 - probability of 84 % was d...

  11. Fermion hierarchy from sfermion anarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2014-12-01

    We present a framework to generate the hierarchical flavor structure of Standard Model quarks and leptons from loops of superpartners. The simplest model consists of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with tree level Yukawa couplings for the third generation only and anarchic squark and slepton mass matrices. Agreement with constraints from low energy flavor observables, in particular Kaon mixing, is obtained for supersymmetric particles with masses at the PeV scale or above. In our framework both the second and the first generation fermion masses are generated at 1-loop. Despite this, a novel mechanism generates a hierarchy among the first and second generations without imposing a symmetry or small parameters. A second-to-first generation mass ratio of order 100 is typical. The minimal supersymmetric standard model thus includes all the necessary ingredients to realize a fermion spectrum that is qualitatively similar to observation, with hierarchical masses and mixing. The minimal framework produces only a few quantitative discrepancies with observation, most notably the muon mass is too low. We discuss simple modifications which resolve this and also investigate the compatibility of our model with gauge and Yukawa coupling Unification.

  12. The gamma-ray sky as seen with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüntemeyer, Petra

    2015-12-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) TeV Gamma-Ray Observatory located at a site about two hours drive east of Puebla, Mexico on the Sierra Negra plateau (4100 m a.s.l.) was inaugurated in March 2015. The array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors can observe large portions of the sky simultaneously and, with an energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV, is currently one of the most sensitive instruments capable of probing particle acceleration near PeV energies. HAWC has already started science operation in the Summer of 2013 and preliminary sky maps have been produced from 260 days of data taken with a partial array. Multiple > 5 σ (pre-trials) hotspots are visible along the galactic plane and some appear to coincide with known TeV sources from the H.E.S.S. catalog, SNRs and molecular cloud associations, and pulsars wind nebulae (PWNe). The sky maps based on partial HAWC array data are discussed as well as the scientific potential of the completed instrument especially in the context of multi-wavelengths studies.

  13. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F.; Medina-Tanco, G.A.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, M.E.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Sandoval, A.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, M.A.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    Muon telescopes can have several applications, ranging from astrophysical to solar-terrestrial interaction studies, and fundamental particle physics. We show the design parameters, characterization and end-to-end simulations of a detector composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fix depths ranging from 0.30 m to 3 m. Each layer is 4 m2 and is composed by 50 rectangular pixels of 4cm x 2 m, oriented at a 90 deg angle with respect to its companion layer. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips with two Bicron wavelength shifting fibers mounted on machined grooves. Scintillation light is collected by multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels, accommodating two fibers per pixel. The front-end electronics has a time resolution of 7.5 nsec. Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2 micro-seconds data collection window. All data, including signal and background, are saved to hard disk. Separation of extensive air shower signals from secondary cosmic-ray background muons and electrons is done offline using the GPS-tagged threefold coincidence signal from surface water cerenkov detectors located nearby in a triangular array. Cosmic-ray showers above 6 PeV are selected. The data acquisition system is designed to keep both, background and signals from extensive air showers for a detailed offline data.

  14. Spin light of neutrino in astrophysical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Alexander; Lokhov, Alexey; Studenikin, Alexander; Ternov, Alexei

    2017-11-01

    The spin light of neutrino (SLν) is a new possible mechanism of electromagnetic radiation by a massive neutrino (with a nonzero magnetic moment) moving in media. Since the prediction of this mechanism, the question has been debated in a number of publications as whether the effect can be of any significance for realistic astrophysical conditions. Although this effect is strongly suppressed due to smallness of neutrino magnetic moment, for ultra-high energy neutrinos (PeV neutrinos recently observed by the IceCube collaboration, for instance) the SLν might be of interest in the case of neutrinos propagating in dense matter. An advanced view on the SLν in matter is given, and several astrophysical settings (a neutron star, supernova, Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB), and relic neutrino background) for which the effect can be realized are considered. Taking into account the threshold condition and also several competing processes, we determine conditions for which the SLν mechanism is possible. We conclude that the most favorable case of the effect manifestation is provided by ultra dense matter of neutron stars and ultrahigh energy of the radiating neutrino, and note that these conditions can be met within galaxy clusters. It is also shown that due to the SLν specific polarization properties this electromagnetic mechanism is of interest in the connection with the observed polarization of GRB emission.

  15. Chromatic changes to artificial irises produced using different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannwart, Lisiane Cristina; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Moreno, Amália; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; de Medeiros, Rodrigo Antonio

    2013-05-01

    Ocular prostheses are important determinants of their users' aesthetic recovery and self-esteem. Because of use, ocular prostheses longevity is strongly affected by instability of the iris color due to polymerization. The goal of this study is to examine how the color of the artificial iris button is affected by different techniques of artificial wear and by the application of varnish following polymerization of the colorless acrylic resin that covers the colored paint. We produce 60 samples (n=10) according to the wear technique applied: conventional technique without varnish (PE); conventional technique with varnish (PEV); technique involving a prefabricated cap without varnish (CA); technique involving a prefabricated cap with varnish (CAV); technique involving inverted painting without varnish (PI); and technique involving inverted painting with varnish (PIV). Color readings using a spectrophotometer are taken before and after polymerization. We submitted the data obtained to analyses of variance and Tukey's test (P<0.05). The color test shows significant changes after polymerization in all groups. The PE and PI techniques have clinically acceptable values of ΔE, independent of whether we apply varnish to protect the paint. The PI technique produces the least color change, whereas the PE and CA techniques significantly improve color stability.

  16. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested for many researchers and network operators. Using Electrical Vehicles (PEVs and wind power for energy production is one of the newest proposed methods for replacing fossil fuels.One of the effective strategies for analyzing of the effects of Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G and wind power in optimal operation of generation is running of SCUC for power systems that are equipped with V2G and wind power resources. In this paper, game theory method is employed for deterministic solution of day-ahead unit commitment with considering security constraints in the simultaneous presence of V2G and wind power units. This problem for two scenarios of grid-controlled mode and consumer-controlled mode in three different days with light, medium and heavy load profiles is analyzed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the presence of V2G and wind power for decreasing of generation cost and improving operation indices of power systems.

  17. Small Body Hopper Mobility Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lee, Dave E.; Crues, E. Zack; Dexter, Dan E.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Chappell, Steve P.; Nguyen, Hung T.

    2015-01-01

    A propellant-saving hopper mobility system was studied that could help facilitate the exploration of small bodies such as Phobos for long-duration human missions. The NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) has proposed a mission to the moons of Mars as a transitional step for eventual Mars surface exploration. While a Mars transit habitat would be parked in High-Mars Orbit (HMO), crew members would visit the surface of Phobos multiple times for up to 14 days duration (up to 50 days at a time with logistics support). This paper describes a small body surface mobility concept that is capable of transporting a small, two-person Pressurized Exploration Vehicle (PEV) cabin to various sites of interest in the low-gravity environment. Using stored kinetic energy between bounces, a propellant-saving hopper mobility system can release the energy to vector the vehicle away from the surface in a specified direction. Alternatively, the stored energy can be retained for later use while the vehicle is stationary in respect to the surface. The hopper actuation was modeled using a variety of launch velocities, and the hopper mobility was evaluated using NASA Exploration Systems Simulations (NExSyS) for transit between surface sites of interest. A hopper system with linear electromagnetic motors and mechanical spring actuators coupled with Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) for attitude control will use renewable electrical power, resulting in a significant propellant savings.

  18. POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics) Science and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Perkins, Jeremy S.; POEMMA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In this poster we describe the preliminary design of POEMMA (Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics). The two satellites flying in formation consists of an innovative Schmidt telescope design optimized for low energy threshold and large geometry factor for observations. The 4 meter mirror was designed to fit in a dual manifest launch vehicle. A novel corrector lens and fast optics are design to optimized the full field of view to 45 degrees. The large focal surface will be populated by two systems: a multi-anode PMT (MAPMT) array for fluorescence detection and a Silicon PM (SiPM) array for Cherenkov detection around the limb of the Earth. At an altitude of 525 km, the LEO orbit will have a 28.5o inclination the mission can be launched from KSC and have a mission life of 3 years with a 5 year goal. The mission will improve by orders of magnitude the observations of ultra-high energy cosmic rays above tens of EeV and search for neutrinos above tens of PeVs.

  19. Development of a general analysis and unfolding scheme and its application to measure the energy spectrum of atmospheric neutrinos with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H. P.; Brown, A. M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J. H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.; Morik, K.

    2015-03-01

    We present the development and application of a generic analysis scheme for the measurement of neutrino spectra with the IceCube detector. This scheme is based on regularized unfolding, preceded by an event selection which uses a Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance algorithm to select the relevant variables and a random forest for the classification of events. The analysis has been developed using IceCube data from the 59-string configuration of the detector. 27,771 neutrino candidates were detected in 346 days of livetime. A rejection of 99.9999 % of the atmospheric muon background is achieved. The energy spectrum of the atmospheric neutrino flux is obtained using the TRUEE unfolding program. The unfolded spectrum of atmospheric muon neutrinos covers an energy range from 100 GeV to 1 PeV. Compared to the previous measurement using the detector in the 40-string configuration, the analysis presented here, extends the upper end of the atmospheric neutrino spectrum by more than a factor of two, reaching an energy region that has not been previously accessed by spectral measurements.

  20. Uses and Effects of MySpace among Christian Teens and Young Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Jeffress

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, MySpace was one of the world’s top Internet destinations.  Behind only Google and Yahoo in Internet traffic in America, it was the most popular social networking site (SNS with some 300,000 profiles being added daily. Although MySpace would soon be supplanted in the SNS world by the likes of Facebook and Twitter, it still has over 50 million unique users each month and over 300,000 video views monthly.  Research performed during the period of its height in popularity is still valuable not only for historical perspective, but also for what it teaches about the habits of SNS users today. This study of the uses and effects of MySpace among Christian teens and young adults (n = 242, computes four composite variables: a Positive Effects Variable (PEV, a Negative Effects Variable (NEV, an Expressing Faith Variable (EFV, and a Friends and Family Variable (FFV, in order to consider interaction effects among various categories such as, age, gender, church attendance frequency, MySpace use experience and frequency, number of MySpace friends, etc.  The results provide important insights for those who wish to maintain and promote a group identity through SNS platforms.

  1. The GENIE neutrino Monte Carlo generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreopoulos, C.; Bell, A.; Bhattacharya, D.; Cavanna, F.; Dobson, J.; Dytman, S.; Gallagher, H.; Guzowski, P.; Hatcher, R.; Kehayias, P.; Meregaglia, A.; Naples, D.; Pearce, G.; Rubbia, A.; Whalley, M.; Yang, T.

    2010-01-01

    GENIE is a new neutrino event generator for the experimental neutrino physics community. The goal of the project is to develop a 'canonical' neutrino interaction physics Monte Carlo whose validity extends to all nuclear targets and neutrino flavors from MeV to PeV energy scales. Currently, emphasis is on the few-GeV energy range, the challenging boundary between the non-perturbative and perturbative regimes, which is relevant for the current and near future long-baseline precision neutrino experiments using accelerator-made beams. The design of the package addresses many challenges unique to neutrino simulations and supports the full life-cycle of simulation and generator-related analysis tasks. GENIE is a large-scale software system, consisting of ∼120000 lines of C++ code, featuring a modern object-oriented design and extensively validated physics content. The first official physics release of GENIE was made available in August 2007, and at the time of the writing of this article, the latest available version was v2.4.4.

  2. IceCube can constrain the intrinsic charm of the proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laha, Ranjan; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of extraterrestrial neutrinos in the ˜30 TeV - PeV energy range by IceCube provides new constraints on high energy astrophysics. An important background to the signal are the prompt neutrinos which originate from the decay of charm hadrons produced by high energy cosmic-ray particles interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. It is conventional to use the calculations of charm hadroproduction using gluon splitting g →c c ¯ alone. However, QCD predicts an additional "intrinsic" component of the heavy quark distribution which arises from diagrams where heavy quarks are multiply connected to the proton's valence quarks. We estimate the prompt neutrino spectrum due to intrinsic charm. We find that the atmospheric prompt neutrino flux from intrinsic charm is comparable to those calculated using QCD computations not including intrinsic charm, once we normalize the intrinsic charm differential cross sections to the ISR and the LEBC-MPS collaboration data. In the future, IceCube will constrain the intrinsic charm content of the proton and will contribute to one of the major questions in high energy physics phenomenology.

  3. Measurement of the ν _{μ } energy spectrum with IceCube-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bagherpour, H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradascio, F.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kyriacou, A.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Micallef, J.; Momenté, G.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Tung, C. F.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Waza, A.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.

    2017-10-01

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory deployed in the glacial ice at the geographic South Pole. The ν _μ energy unfolding described in this paper is based on data taken with IceCube in its 79-string configuration. A sample of muon neutrino charged-current interactions with a purity of 99.5% was selected by means of a multivariate classification process based on machine learning. The subsequent unfolding was performed using the software Truee. The resulting spectrum covers an E_ν -range of more than four orders of magnitude from 125 GeV to 3.2 PeV. Compared to the Honda atmospheric neutrino flux model, the energy spectrum shows an excess of more than 1.9 σ in four adjacent bins for neutrino energies E_ν ≥ 177.8 {TeV}. The obtained spectrum is fully compatible with previous measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux and recent IceCube measurements of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos.

  4. Constraining the mass scale of a Lorentz-violating Hamiltonian with the measurement of astrophysical neutrino-flavor composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lai, Wei-Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin

    2017-12-01

    We study Lorentz violation effects on flavor transitions of high energy astrophysical neutrinos. It is shown that the appearance of a Lorentz-violating Hamiltonian can drastically change the flavor transition probabilities of astrophysical neutrinos. Predictions of Lorentz-violation effects on flavor compositions of astrophysical neutrinos arriving on Earth are compared with IceCube flavor composition measurement which analyzes astrophysical neutrino events in the energy range between 25 TeV and 2.8 PeV. Such a comparison indicates that the future IceCube-Gen2 will be able to place stringent constraints on a Lorentz-violating Hamiltonian in the neutrino sector. We work out the expected sensitivities by IceCube-Gen2 on dimension-3 C P T -odd and dimension-4 C P T -even operators in a Lorentz-violating Hamiltonian. The expected sensitivities can improve on the current constraints obtained from other types of experiments by more than two orders of magnitudes for certain ranges of the parameter space.

  5. Imaging Galactic Dark Matter with High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos A.; Kheirandish, Ali; Vincent, Aaron C.

    2017-11-01

    We show that the high-energy cosmic neutrinos seen by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory can be used to probe interactions between neutrinos and the dark sector that cannot be reached by current cosmological methods. The origin of the observed neutrinos is still unknown, and their arrival directions are compatible with an isotropic distribution. This observation, together with dedicated studies of Galactic plane correlations, suggests a predominantly extragalactic origin. Interactions between this isotropic extragalactic flux and the dense dark matter (DM) bulge of the Milky Way would thus lead to an observable imprint on the distribution, which would be seen by IceCube as (i) slightly suppressed fluxes at energies below a PeV and (ii) a deficit of events in the direction of the Galactic center. We perform an extended unbinned likelihood analysis using the four-year high-energy starting event data set to constrain the strength of DM-neutrino interactions for two model classes. We find that, in spite of low statistics, IceCube can probe regions of the parameter space inaccessible to current cosmological methods.

  6. Early decay of Peccei–Quinn fermion and the IceCube neutrino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Yohei, E-mail: ema@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Moroi, Takeo

    2016-11-10

    IceCube observed high-energy neutrino flux in the energy region from TeV to PeV. The decay of a massive long-lived particle in the early universe can be the origin of the IceCube neutrino events, which we call an “early decay scenario.” In this paper, we construct a particle physics model that contains such a massive long-lived particle based on the Peccei–Quinn model. We calculate the present neutrino flux, taking account of realistic initial energy distributions of particles produced by the decay of the massive long-lived particle. We show that the early decay scenario naturally fits into the Peccei–Quinn model, and that the neutrino flux observed by IceCube can be explained in such a framework. We also see that, based on that model, a consistent cosmological history that explains the abundance of the massive long-lived particle is realized.

  7. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015 to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF.

  8. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE, Universite de Haute Alsace, Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposicio, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Folger, F.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia) c/Catedratico Jose Beltran, 2, 46980, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [LAM, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruijn, R.; Melis, K. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Science, 077125, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Celli, S. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Chiarusi, T. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Coleiro, A. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia) c/Catedratico Jose Beltran, 2, 46980, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [CNRS, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Geoazur, UCA, Sophia Antipolis (France); Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Donzaud, C. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Eberl, T. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, B.P.717, Oujda (Morocco); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Gay, P. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont Universite, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Giordano, V. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Glotin, H. [LSIS, Aix Marseille Universite CNRS ENSAM LSIS UMR 7296, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon CNRS LSIS UMR 7296, La Garde (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (Netherlands); Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (RU); Lefevre, D. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille Cedex 9 (FR); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (FR); Leonora, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (IT); Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (FR); Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Marinelli, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (IT); Mele, R.; Vivolo, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT); Migliozzi, P. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Organokov, M.; Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, Strasbourg (FR); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed V in Rabat, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (MA)

    2017-06-15

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6 {sup circle} for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with reconstructed shower energies above 10 TeV are observed. This is consistent with the expectation of about 5 events from atmospheric backgrounds, but also compatible with diffuse astrophysical flux measurements by the IceCube collaboration, from which 2-4 additional events are expected. A 90% C.L. upper limit on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux with a value per neutrino flavour of E{sup 2} . Φ{sup 90%} = 4.9 . 10{sup -8} GeV . cm{sup -2} . s{sup -1} . sr{sup -1} is set, applicable to the energy range from 23 TeV to 7.8 PeV, assuming an unbroken E{sup -2} spectrum and neutrino flavour equipartition at Earth. (orig.)

  9. Capability of the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory for the Indirect Detection of Ultrahigh-Energy Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes León Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, with energies in the PeV range or above, is a topic of great interest in modern astroparticle physics. The importance comes from the fact that these neutrinos point back to the most energetic particle accelerators in the Universe and provide information about their underlying acceleration mechanisms. Atmospheric neutrinos are a background for these challenging measurements, but their rate is expected to be negligible above ≈1 PeV. In this work we describe the feasibility to study ultrahigh-energy neutrinos based on the Earth-skimming technique, by detecting the charged leptons produced in neutrino-nucleon interactions in a high mass target. We propose to detect the charged leptons, or their decay products, with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC observatory and use as a large-mass target for the neutrino interactions the Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. In this work we develop an estimate of the detection rate using a geometrical model to calculate the effective area of the observatory. Our results show that it may be feasible to perform measurements of the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux from cosmic origin during the expected lifetime of the HAWC observatory.

  10. High energy neutrinos from the tidal disruption of stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunardini, Cecilia [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Winter, Walter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-05-17

    We study the production of high energy neutrinos in jets from the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes. The diffuse neutrino flux expected from these tidal disruption events (TDEs) is calculated both analytically and numerically, taking account the dependence of the rate of TDEs on the redshift and black hole mass. We find that ∝ 10% of the observed diffuse flux at IceCube at an energy of about 1 PeV can come from TDEs if the characteristics of known jetted tidal disruption events are assumed to apply to the whole population of these sources. If, however, plausible scalings of the jet Lorentz factor or variability timescale with the black hole mass are taken into account, the contribution of the lowest mass black holes to the neutrino flux is enhanced. In this case, TDEs can account for most of the neutrino flux detected at IceCube, describing both the neutrino flux normalization and spectral shape with moderate baryonic loadings. While the uncertainties on our assumptions are large, a possible signature of TDEs as the origin of the IceCube signal is the transition of the flux flavor composition from a pion beam to a muon damped source at the highest energies, which will also result in a suppression of Glashow resonance events.

  11. Imaging Galactic Dark Matter with High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Kheirandish, Ali; Vincent, Aaron C

    2017-11-17

    We show that the high-energy cosmic neutrinos seen by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory can be used to probe interactions between neutrinos and the dark sector that cannot be reached by current cosmological methods. The origin of the observed neutrinos is still unknown, and their arrival directions are compatible with an isotropic distribution. This observation, together with dedicated studies of Galactic plane correlations, suggests a predominantly extragalactic origin. Interactions between this isotropic extragalactic flux and the dense dark matter (DM) bulge of the Milky Way would thus lead to an observable imprint on the distribution, which would be seen by IceCube as (i) slightly suppressed fluxes at energies below a PeV and (ii) a deficit of events in the direction of the Galactic center. We perform an extended unbinned likelihood analysis using the four-year high-energy starting event data set to constrain the strength of DM-neutrino interactions for two model classes. We find that, in spite of low statistics, IceCube can probe regions of the parameter space inaccessible to current cosmological methods.

  12. First observation of PeV-energy neutrinos with IceCube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M G; Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2013-07-12

    We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of 1.04±0.16 and 1.14±0.17 PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current ν(e,μ,τ) (ν(e,μ,τ)) or charged-current ν(e) (ν(e)) interactions within the IceCube detector. The events were discovered in a search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos using data corresponding to 615.9 days effective live time. The expected number of atmospheric background is 0.082±0.004(stat)(-0.057)(+0.041)(syst). The probability of observing two or more candidate events under the atmospheric background-only hypothesis is 2.9×10(-3) (2.8σ) taking into account the uncertainty on the expected number of background events. These two events could be a first indication of an astrophysical neutrino flux; the moderate significance, however, does not permit a definitive conclusion at this time.

  13. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1 and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than 5σ. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model a extra-Galactic component derived from the astrophysical muonic neutrinos reconstructed in the Northern hemisphere. A good agreement between the expected astrophysical neutrino flux and the IceCube data is found for the full sky as well as for the Galactic plane region.

  14. Measurements of the Suitability of Large Rock Salt Formations for Radio Detection of High-Energy Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odian, Allen C.

    2001-09-14

    We have investigated the possibility that large rock salt formations might be suitable as target masses for detection of neutrinos of energies about 10 PeV and above. In neutrino interactions at these energies, the secondary electromagnetic cascade produces a coherent radio pulse well above ambient thermal noise via the Askaryan effect. We describe measurements of radio-frequency attenuation lengths and ambient thermal noise in two salt formations. Measurements in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in an evaporite salt bed in Carlsbad, NM yielded short attenuation lengths, 3-7 m over 150-300 MHz. However, measurements at United Salt's Hockley mine, located in a salt dome near Houston, Texas yielded attenuation lengths in excess of 250 m at similar frequencies. We have also analyzed early ground-penetrating radar data at Hockley mine and have found additional evidence for attenuation lengths in excess of several hundred meters at 440 MHz. We conclude that salt domes, which may individually contain several hundred cubic kilometer water-equivalent mass, provide attractive sites for next-generation high-energy neutrino detectors.

  15. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Folger, F.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T.; Bruijn, R.; Melis, K.; Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Coleiro, A.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M.; Donzaud, C.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Haren, H. van; Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B.; Marinelli, A.; Mele, R.; Vivolo, D.; Migliozzi, P.; Organokov, M.; Pradier, T.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tayalati, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6 circle for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with reconstructed shower energies above 10 TeV are observed. This is consistent with the expectation of about 5 events from atmospheric backgrounds, but also compatible with diffuse astrophysical flux measurements by the IceCube collaboration, from which 2-4 additional events are expected. A 90% C.L. upper limit on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux with a value per neutrino flavour of E 2 . Φ 90% = 4.9 . 10 -8 GeV . cm -2 . s -1 . sr -1 is set, applicable to the energy range from 23 TeV to 7.8 PeV, assuming an unbroken E -2 spectrum and neutrino flavour equipartition at Earth. (orig.)

  16. All-sky search for high-energy neutrinos from gravitational wave event GW170104 with the Antares neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Belhorma, B.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T.; Branzas, H.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Bruijn, R.; Melis, K.; Capone, A.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; El Khayati, N.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Tayalati, Y.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Coleiro, A.; Diaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; De Bonis, G.; Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M.; Donzaud, C.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Haren, H. van; Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B.; Marinelli, A.; Mele, R.; Vivolo, D.; Migliozzi, P.; Navas, S.; Organokov, M.; Pradier, T.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO detected a significant gravitational wave signal (GW170104) originating from the coalescence of two black holes during the second observation run on January 4th, 2017. An all-sky high-energy neutrino follow-up search has been made using data from the Antares neutrino telescope, including both upgoing and downgoing events in two separate analyses. No neutrino candidates were found within ±500 s around the GW event time nor any time clustering of events over an extended time window of ±3 months. The non-detection is used to constrain isotropic-equivalent high-energy neutrino emission from GW170104 to less than ∝ 1.2 x 10 55 erg for a E -2 spectrum. This constraint is valid in the energy range corresponding to the 5-95% quantiles of the neutrino flux [3.2 TeV; 3.6 PeV], if the GW emitter was below the Antares horizon at the alert time. (orig.)

  17. Highly-resolved modeling of personal transportation energy consumption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratori, Matteo; Moran, Michael J.; Serra, Emmanuele; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    This paper centers on the estimation of the total primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States, to include gasoline and/or electricity consumption, depending on vehicle type. The bottom-up sector-based estimation method introduced here contributes to a computational tool under development at The Ohio State University for assisting decision making in energy policy, pricing, and investment. In order to simulate highly-resolved consumption profiles three main modeling steps are needed: modeling the behavior of drivers, generating realistic driving profiles, and simulating energy consumption of different kinds of vehicles. The modeling proposed allows for evaluating the impact of plug-in electric vehicles on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level. It can serve as a tool to compare different vehicle types and assist policy-makers in estimating their impact on primary energy consumption and the role transportation can play to reduce oil dependency. - Highlights: • Modeling primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States. • Behavior of drivers has been simulated in order to establish when driving events occur and the length of each event. • Realistic driving profiles for each driving event are generated using a stochastic model. • The model allows for comparing the initial cost of different vehicles and their expected energy-use operating cost. • Evaluation of the impact of PEVs on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level – can be performed

  18. Atmospheric and astrophysical Neutrinos above 1 TeV Interacting in IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Ackermann, M.; Adam, J.

    2015-01-01

    . At lower energies, IceCube collects large numbers of neutrinos from the weak decays of mesons in cosmic-ray air showers. Here we present the results of a search for neutrino interactions inside IceCube’s instrumented volume between 1 TeV and 1 PeV in 641 days of data taken from 2010–2012, lowering...... the energy threshold for neutrinos from the southern sky below 10 TeV for the first time, far below the threshold of the previous high-energy analysis. Astrophysical neutrinos remain the dominant component in the southern sky down to a deposited energy of 10 TeV. From these data we derive new constraints...... on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino spectrum, Φ_ν=2.06_{-0.3}^{+0.4}×10-18(E_ν/10^5  GeV)^{-2.46±0.12} GeV^-1 cm^−2 sr^−1 s^-1 for 25  TeVtimes the benchmark theoretical prediction...

  19. Spaced-based Cosmic Ray Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2016-03-01

    The bulk of cosmic ray data has been obtained with great success by balloon-borne instruments, particularly with NASA's long duration flights over Antarctica. More recently, PAMELA on a Russian Satellite and AMS-02 on the International Space Station (ISS) started providing exciting measurements of particles and anti-particles with unprecedented precision upto TeV energies. In order to address open questions in cosmic ray astrophysics, future missions require spaceflight exposures for rare species, such as isotopes, ultra-heavy elements, and high (the ``knee'' and above) energies. Isotopic composition measurements up to about 10 GeV/nucleon that are critical for understanding interstellar propagation and origin of the elements are still to be accomplished. The cosmic ray composition in the knee (PeV) region holds a key to understanding the origin of cosmic rays. Just last year, the JAXA-led CALET ISS mission, and the DAMPE Chinese Satellite were launched. NASA's ISS-CREAM completed its final verification at GSFC, and was delivered to KSC to await launch on SpaceX. In addition, a EUSO-like mission for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and an HNX-like mission for ultraheavy nuclei could accomplish a vision for a cosmic ray observatory in space. Strong support of NASA's Explorer Program category of payloads would be needed for completion of these missions over the next decade.

  20. New clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic models and calculators in patients with locally diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma. A prognostic factor analysis of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour Group Study 26951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlia, Thierry; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Brandes, Alba A; Kros, Johan M; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Kouwenhoven, Mathilde C M; Bernsen, H J J A; Frénay, Marc; Tijssen, Cees C; Lacombe, Denis; van den Bent, Martin J

    2013-11-01

    The prognosis of patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD) and oligoastrocytomas (AOA) is variable. Biomarkers might be helpful to identify more homogeneous disease subtypes and improve therapeutic index. The aim of this study is to develop new clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic models for locally diagnosed anaplastic gliomas with oligodendroglial features (AOD or AOA). Data from 368 patients with AOD or AOA recruited in The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trial 26951 on adjuvant PCV (Procarbazine, CCNU, Vincristine) chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumours were used to develop multifactor models to predict progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Different models were compared by their percentage of explained variation (PEV). Prognostic calculators were derived from these new models. Treatment (for PFS only), younger age, confirmed absence of residual tumour on imaging, frontal location, good World Health Organisation (WHO) performance status, absence of endothelial abnormalities and/or necrosis, 1p/19q codeletion and Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation were independent factors that predicted better PFS and OS. We identified important prognostic factors for AOD and AOA and showed that molecular markers added a major contribution to clinical and pathological factors in explaining PFS and OS. With a positive predictive value of 92% for PFS and 94% for OS, our models allow physicians to precisely identify high risk patients and aid in making therapeutic decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Luminescence of water or ice as a new detection method for magnetic monopoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, Anna Obertacke

    2017-12-01

    Cosmic ray detectors use air as a radiator for luminescence. In water and ice, Cherenkov light is the dominant light producing mechanism when the particle's velocity exceeds the Cherenkov threshold, approximately three quarters of the speed of light in vacuum. Luminescence is produced by highly ionizing particles passing through matter due to the electronic excitation of the surrounding molecules. The observables of luminescence, such as the wavelength spectrum and decay times, are highly dependent on the properties of the medium, in particular, temperature and purity. The results for the light yield of luminescence of previous measurements vary by two orders of magnitude. It will be shown that even for the lowest measured light yield, luminescence is an important signature of highly ionizing particles below the Cherenkov threshold. These could be magnetic monopoles or other massive and highly ionizing exotic particles. With the highest observed efficiencies, luminescence may even contribute significantly to the light output of standard model particles such as the PeV IceCube neutrinos. We present analysis techniques to use luminescence in neutrino telescopes and discuss experimental setups to measure the light yield of luminescence for the particular conditions in neutrino detectors.

  2. A comparison of the cosmic-ray energy scales of Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande via their radio extensions Tunka-Rex and LOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Apel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The radio technique is a promising method for detection of cosmic-ray air showers of energies around 100PeV and higher with an array of radio antennas. Since the amplitude of the radio signal can be measured absolutely and increases with the shower energy, radio measurements can be used to determine the air-shower energy on an absolute scale. We show that calibrated measurements of radio detectors operated in coincidence with host experiments measuring air showers based on other techniques can be used for comparing the energy scales of these host experiments. Using two approaches, first via direct amplitude measurements, and second via comparison of measurements with air shower simulations, we compare the energy scales of the air-shower experiments Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande, using their radio extensions, Tunka-Rex and LOPES, respectively. Due to the consistent amplitude calibration for Tunka-Rex and LOPES achieved by using the same reference source, this comparison reaches an accuracy of approximately 10% – limited by some shortcomings of LOPES, which was a prototype experiment for the digital radio technique for air showers. In particular we show that the energy scales of cosmic-ray measurements by the independently calibrated experiments KASCADE-Grande and Tunka-133 are consistent with each other on this level.

  3. Measurements of the suitability of large rock salt formations for radio detection of high-energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, Peter; Saltzberg, David; Odian, Allen; Williams, Dawn; Besson, David; Frichter, George; Tantawi, Sami

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility that large rock salt formations might be suitable as target masses for detection of neutrinos of energies about 10 PeV and above. In neutrino interactions at these energies, the secondary electromagnetic cascade produces a coherent radio pulse well above ambient thermal noise via the Askaryan effect. We describe measurements of radio-frequency attenuation lengths and ambient thermal noise in two salt formations. Measurements in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, located in an evaporite salt bed in Carlsbad, NM yielded short attenuation lengths, 3-7 m over 150-300 MHz. However, measurements at United Salt's Hockley mine, located in a salt dome near Houston, Texas yielded attenuation lengths in excess of 250 m at similar frequencies. We have also analyzed early ground-penetrating radar data at Hockley mine and have found additional evidence for attenuation lengths in excess of several hundred meters at 440 MHz. We conclude that salt domes, which may individually contain several hundred cubic kilometer water-equivalent mass, provide attractive sites for next-generation high-energy neutrino detectors

  4. The gamma-ray sky as seen with HAWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüntemeyer Petra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC TeV Gamma-Ray Observatory located at a site about two hours drive east of Puebla, Mexico on the Sierra Negra plateau (4100 m a.s.l. was inaugurated in March 2015. The array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors can observe large portions of the sky simultaneously and, with an energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV, is currently one of the most sensitive instruments capable of probing particle acceleration near PeV energies. HAWC has already started science operation in the Summer of 2013 and preliminary sky maps have been produced from 260 days of data taken with a partial array. Multiple > 5 σ (pre-trials hotspots are visible along the galactic plane and some appear to coincide with known TeV sources from the H.E.S.S. catalog, SNRs and molecular cloud associations, and pulsars wind nebulae (PWNe. The sky maps based on partial HAWC array data are discussed as well as the scientific potential of the completed instrument especially in the context of multi-wavelengths studies.

  5. The water Cherenkov detector array for studies of cosmic rays at the University of Puebla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Murrieta, T.; Palma, B.; Perez, E.; Salazar, H.; Villasenor, L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 - bar N, 90 - bar W, 800g/cm 2 ) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1PeV, i.e., around the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum. The array consists of 3 water Cherenkov detectors of 1.86m 2 cross-section and 12 liquid scintillator detectors of 1m 2 distributed in a square grid with a detector spacing of 20m over an area of 4000m 2 . We discuss the calibration and stability of the array for both sets of detectors and report on preliminary measurements and reconstruction of the lateral distributions for the electromagnetic (EM) and muonic components of extensive air showers. We also discuss how the hybrid character of the array can be used to measure mass composition of the primary cosmic rays by estimating the relative contents of muons with respect to the EM component of extensive air showers. This facility is also used to train students interested in the field of cosmic rays

  6. Ev eksenli çalışan kadınlar ve Denizli örneği

    OpenAIRE

    DURUSOY ÖZTEPE, Nagihan

    2012-01-01

    <p>Ev eksenli çalışma, tüm dünyadaki kilit endüstrilerde giderek artan oranlarda kullanılan, yaygın bir çalışma Şekli olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Üretimden kaynaklı maliyetleri minimuma indirmeyi amaçlayan fason üretim sistemi, büyük firmalar ile ev eksenli çalışanları aynı üretim zincirinin farklı kutuplarında bir araya getirmektedir. Ev eksenli çalışanlar, bu üretim sisteminin düşük ücretli, güvencesiz, düzensiz ve örgütsüz çalışan geleneksel işçileri olarak uluslararası üretim zinc...

  7. EVOLUÇÃO E CONCENTRAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO DE LENHA E CARVÃO VEGETAL DA SILVICULTURA NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio José Simioni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of firewood and charcoal produced from forest plantations has presented growth trends in the Brazilian energy matrix. These renewable energy sources have been the focus of studies and public policies aimed at restructuring of production chains for the supply of demand. The aim of this study was to analyze market dynamics of firewood and charcoal of forestry in Brazil, considering the evolution of production and prices, the concentration of production and its geographical location in the municipalities and in Brazilian states. It was used as a base data, production and value of the production hall, obtained by the Brazilian Institute of geography and Statistics (IBGE and the Extraction Vegetal and Forestry Research (PEVS, considering the period between 2001 and 2011. The growth rate of production, Lorenz Curve, Gini index and the spatial distribution maps of production of firewood and charcoal in Brazil were the analysis tools used. The main results show a concentration of the production of firewood in the three states of southern Brazil and charcoal in Minas Gerais state. The rise in prices indicates that the demand is not being sufficiently supplied, especially in the states where the production is still incipient.

  8. Viral metagenomics analysis demonstrates the diversity of viral flora in piglet diarrhoeic faeces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Tang, Cheng; Yue, Hua; Ren, Yupeng; Song, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the diversity of viral flora, we used metagenomics to study the viral communities in a pooled faecal sample of 27 diarrhoeic piglets from intensive commercial farms in China. The 15 distinct mammalian viruses identified in the pooled diarrhoeic sample were, in order of abundance of nucleic acid sequence, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), sapovirus, porcine bocavirus-4 (PBoV-4), sapelovirus, torovirus, coronavirus, PBoV-2, stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (poSCV), astrovirus (AstV), kobuvirus, posavirus-1, porcine enterovirus-9 (PEV-9), porcine circovirus-like (po-circo-like) virus, picobirnavirus (PBV) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2). The prevalence rate of each virus was verified from diarrhoeic and healthy piglets by PCR assay. A mean of 5.5 different viruses were shed in diarrhoeic piglets, and one piglet was in fact co-infected with 11 different viruses. By contrast, healthy piglets shed a mean of 3.2 different viruses. Compared with samples from healthy piglets, the co-infection of PEDV and PBoV had a high prevalence rate in diarrhoea samples, suggesting a correlation with the appearance of diarrhoea in piglets. Furthermore, we report here for the first time the presence of several recently described viruses in China, and the identification of novel genotypes. Therefore, our investigation results provide an unbiased survey of viral communities and prevalence in faecal samples of piglets. © 2014 The Authors.

  9. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembinski Hans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  10. IC at IC: IceCube can constrain the intrinsic charm of the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, Ranjan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2016-08-09

    The discovery of extraterrestrial neutrinos in the 30 TeV { PeV energy range by IceCube provides new constraints on high energy astrophysics. An important background to the signal are the prompt neutrinos which originate from the decay of charm hadrons produced by high energy cosmic- ray particles interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. It is conventional to use pQCD calculations of charm hadroproduction based on gluon splitting g ! c c alone. However, QCD predicts an additional \\intrinsic" component of the heavy quark distribution which arises from diagrams where heavy quarks are multiply connected to the proton's valence quarks. We estimate the prompt neutrino spectrum due to intrinsic charm. We nd that the atmospheric prompt neutrino ux from intrinsic charm is comparable to the pQCD contribution once we normalize the intrinsic charm di erential cross sections to the ISR and the LEBC-MPS collaboration data. In future, IceCube will constrain the intrinsic charm content of the proton and will contribute to one of the major uncertainties in high energy physics phenomenology.

  11. Interpretation of astrophysical neutrinos observed by IceCube experiment by setting Galactic and extra-Galactic spectral components

    CERN Document Server

    Marinelli, Antonio; Grasso, Dario; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The last IceCube catalog of High Energy Starting Events (HESE) obtained with a livetime of 1347 days comprises 54 neutrino events equally-distributed between the three families with energies between 25 TeV and few PeVs. Considering the homogeneous flavors distribution (1:1:1) and the spectral features of these neutrinos the IceCube collaboration claims the astrophysical origin of these events with more than $5\\sigma$. The spatial distribution of cited events does not show a clear correlation with known astrophysical accelerators leaving opened both the Galactic and the extra-Galactic origin interpretations. Here, we compute the neutrino diffuse emission of our Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially-dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show that the astrophysical spectrum measured by IceCube experiment can be well explained adding to the diffuse Galactic neutrino flux (obtained with this new model) a extra-Galactic component derived from the as...

  12. Dark Matter Ignition of Type Ia Supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-10-02

    Recent studies of low redshift type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) indicate that half explode from less than Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, implying ignition must proceed from something besides the canonical criticality of Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia progenitors. We show that 1-100 PeV mass asymmetric dark matter, with imminently detectable nucleon scattering interactions, can accumulate to the point of self-gravitation in a white dwarf and collapse, shedding gravitational potential energy by scattering off nuclei, thereby heating the white dwarf and igniting the flame front that precedes SN Ia. We combine data on SN Ia masses with data on the ages of SN Ia-adjacent stars. This combination reveals a 2.8σ inverse correlation between SN Ia masses and ignition ages, which could result from increased capture of dark matter in 1.4 vs 1.1 solar mass white dwarfs. Future studies of SN Ia in galactic centers will provide additional tests of dark-matter-induced type Ia ignition. Remarkably, both bosonic and fermionic SN Ia-igniting dark matter also resolve the missing pulsar problem by forming black holes in ≳10  Myr old pulsars at the center of the Milky Way.

  13. Probing decaying heavy dark matter with the 4-year IceCube HESE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Atri [Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Esmaili, Arman [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 38071, 22452- 970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Sarcevic, Ina, E-mail: a.bhattacharya@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: arman@puc-rio.br, E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: ina@physics.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, 1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    After the first four years of data taking, the IceCube neutrino telescope has observed 54 high-energy starting events (HESE) with deposited energies between 20 TeV and 2 PeV . The background from atmospheric muons and neutrinos is expected to be of about 20 events, all below 100 TeV, thus pointing towards the astrophysical origin of about 8 events per year in that data set. However, their precise origin remains unknown. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of this event sample (considering simultaneously the energy, hemisphere and topology of the events) by assuming two contributions for the signal events: an isotropic power-law flux and a flux from decaying heavy dark matter. We fit the mass and lifetime of the dark matter and the normalization and spectral index of an isotropic power-law flux, for various decay channels of dark matter. We find that a significant contribution from dark matter decay is always slightly favored, either to explain the excess below 100 TeV, as in the case of decays to quarks or, as in the case of neutrino channels, to explain the three multi-PeV events. Also, we consider the possibility to interpret all the data by dark matter decays only, considering various combinations of two decay channels. We show that the decaying dark matter scenario provides a better fit to HESE data than the isotropic power-law flux.

  14. Method for detecting neutrinos from internal shocks in GRB fireballs with AMANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatikos, M

    2004-01-01

    Neutrino-based astronomy provides a new window on the most energetic processes in the universe. The discovery of high-energy (E >or= 10 /sup 14/ eV) muonic neutrinos (v/sub mu /) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) would confirm hadronic acceleration in the relativistic GRB- wind, validate the phenomenology of the canonical fireball model and possibly reveal an acceleration mechanism for the highest energy cosmic rays (CRs). The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is the world's largest operational neutrino telescope with a PeV muon effective area (averaged over zenith angle) ~ 50,000 m/sup 2 /. AMANDA uses the natural ice at the geographic South Pole as a Cherenkov medium and has been successfully calibrated on the signal of atmospheric neutrinos (v/sub atm/). Contrary to previous diffuse searches, we describe an analysis based upon confronting AMANDA observations of individual GRBs, adequately modeled by fireball phenomenology, with the predictions of the canonical fireball model. The expected neut...

  15. Measurement of the ν{sub μ} energy spectrum with IceCube-79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Kyriacou, A.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide (Australia); Ackermann, M.; Bernardini, E.; Blot, S.; Bradascio, F.; Bretz, H.P.; Franckowiak, A.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Kintscher, T.; Kunwar, S.; Nahnhauer, R.; Satalecka, K.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stasik, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Santen, J. van [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J.; Bagherpour, H. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O' Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hoshina, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; Krueger, C.; Mancina, S.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Rossem, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Xu, D.L. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Al Samarai, I.; Bron, S.; Carver, T.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T. [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique nucleaire et corpusculaire, Geneva (Switzerland); Altmann, D.; Anton, G.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Katz, U.; Kittler, T.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Andeen, K. [Marquette University, Department of Physics, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Anderson, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eller, P.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Pankova, D.V.; Quinnan, M.; Tesic, G.; Weiss, M.J. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Del Pino Rosendo, E.; Di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Foesig, C.C.; Koepke, L.; Krueckl, G.; Momente, G.; Peiffer, P.; Sandroos, J.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Argueelles, C.; Axani, S.; Collin, G.H.; Conrad, J.M.; Jones, B.J.P.; Moulai, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Auffenberg, J.; Glauch, T.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, T.; Konietz, R.; Leuermann, M.; Penek, Oe.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stettner, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Wallraff, M.; Waza, A.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebusch, C.H. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Physics Department, Rapid City, SD (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Tenholt, F. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Kopper, S.; Lauber, F.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Soldin, D. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); BenZvi, S.; Cross, R. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Friedman, E.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G.W. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Palczewski, T.; Tatar, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boerner, M.; Fuchs, T.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Pieloth, D.; Rhode, W.; Ruhe, T.; Sandrock, A.; Schlunder, P. [TU Dortmund University, Department of Physics, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2017-10-15

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory deployed in the glacial ice at the geographic South Pole. The ν{sub μ} energy unfolding described in this paper is based on data taken with IceCube in its 79-string configuration. A sample of muon neutrino charged-current interactions with a purity of 99.5% was selected by means of a multivariate classification process based on machine learning. The subsequent unfolding was performed using the software Truee. The resulting spectrum covers an E{sub ν}-range of more than four orders of magnitude from 125 GeV to 3.2 PeV. Compared to the Honda atmospheric neutrino flux model, the energy spectrum shows an excess of more than 1.9σ in four adjacent bins for neutrino energies E{sub ν} ≥ 177.8 TeV. The obtained spectrum is fully compatible with previous measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux and recent IceCube measurements of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. (orig.)

  16. Astrophysical neutrino production diagnostics with the Glashow resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biehl, Daniel; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Winter, Walter [DESY, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen, 15738 Germany (Germany); Palladino, Andrea [Department of Astroparticle Physics, Gran Sasso Science Institute, Via Francesco Crispi 7, L' Aquila, 67100 Italy (Italy); Weiler, Tom J., E-mail: daniel.biehl@desy.de, E-mail: anatoli.fedynitch@desy.de, E-mail: andrea.palladino@gssi.infn.it, E-mail: tom.weiler@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: walter.winter@desy.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We study the Glashow resonance ν-bar {sub e} + e {sup −} → W {sup −} → hadrons at 6.3 PeV as diagnostic of the production processes of ultra-high energy neutrinos. The focus lies on describing the physics of neutrino production from pion decay as accurate as possible by including the kinematics of weak decays and Monte Carlo simulations of pp and pγ interactions. We discuss optically thick (to photohadronic interactions) sources, sources of cosmic ray ''nuclei'' and muon damped sources. Even in the proposed upgrade IceCube-Gen2, a discrimination of scenarios such as pp versus pγ is extremely challenging under realistic assumptions. Nonetheless, the Glashow resonance can serve as a smoking gun signature of neutrino production from photohadronic (Aγ) interactions of heavier nuclei, as the expected Glashow event rate exceeds that of pp interactions. We finally quantify the exposures for which the non-observation of Glashow events exerts pressure on certain scenarios.

  17. Construction and test of a tungsten/Sci-Fi imaging calorimeter for the CREAM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Marrocchesi, P S; Bagliesi, M G; Basti, A; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Ganel, O; Lee, M H; Lomtadze, T A; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Meucci, M; Millucci, V; Morsani, F; Seo, E S; Zinn, S Y

    2004-01-01

    Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to perform direct measurements of cosmic ray composition over the elemental range from proton to iron to the supernova energy scale of 10 **1**5eV in a series of balloon flights using the new Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) capability under development by NASA. The first flight of CREAM will take place at the end of 2004 from Antarctica. The instrument includes a sampling tungsten /scintillating fiber calorimeter preceded by a graphite target with scintillating fiber hodoscopes, a pixelated silicon charge detector, a transition radiation detector and a segmented timing-based particle-charge detector. The thin ionization calorimeter has been designed to operate in the range of energies from a few hundred GeV to 1 PeV providing imaging capability in the reconstruction of the showers originating from the interaction of primary nuclei in the carbon target. A twin calorimeter for the second CREAM payload has been built and tested at C...

  18. Lead-ion collisions: the LHC achieves a new energy record

    CERN Multimedia

    John Jowett

    2015-01-01

    After the Bevatron (Berkeley, 1954) – which broke the energy barrier of billions of electronvolts – and the Tevatron (Fermilab, 1987) – which reached a trillion electronvolts – the LHC is now reaching the peta- (quadrillion) electronvolt level with its heavy-ion collisions (see here). However, one should remember that the average energy per colliding nucleon pair, within the 1 PeV “fireball”, is 5 TeV (compared to 13 TeV in the recent proton-proton collisions).   Heavy-ion collision events from the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments. Two of the great particle accelerators of the past were named after the symbolic energy barrier that they broke. The Bevatron (for "billions of electronvolts synchrotron"), at Berkeley in 1954, was the first to break the barrier of a billion electronvolts or BeV (now known as a gigaelectronvolt or GeV) in the centre-of-mass, by a large enough margin to create the laboratory’s ...

  19. “Go Back and Tell Them Who the Real Men Are!” Gendering Our Understanding of Kibera’s Post-election Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Wanjiku Kihato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a gendered analysis, this article examines the post election violence (PEV in Kibera, Kenya, between December 2007 and February 2008. Through indepth interviews with Kibera residents, the article interrogates how gender influenced violent mobilizations in Kenya’s most notorious slum. Most scholarly analyses have tended to understand the post-election violence as a result of politicized ethnic identities, class, and local socio-economic dynamics. Implicitly or explicitly, these frameworks assume that women are victims of violence while men are its perpetrators, and ignore the ways in which gender, which cuts across these categories, produces and shapes conflict. Kibera’s conflict is often ascribed to the mobilization of disaffected male youths by political “Big Men.” But the research findings show how men, who would ordinarily not go to war, are obliged to fight to “save face” in their communities and how women become integral to the production of violent exclusionary mobilizations. Significantly, notions of masculinity and femininity modified the character of Kibera’s conflict. Acts of gender-based violence, gang rapes, and forced circumcisions became intensely entwined with ethno-political performances to annihilate opposing groups. The battle for political power was also a battle of masculinities.

  20. Search for neutrino-induced particle showers with IceCube-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2014-01-01

    optimized for different energy regimes. The analysis with the lowest energy threshold (2 TeV) targeted atmospheric neutrinos. A total of 67 events were found, consistent with the expectation of 41 atmospheric muons and 30 atmospheric neutrino events. The two other analyses targeted a harder, astrophysical...... neutrino flux. The analysis with an intermediate threshold of 25 TeV lead to the observation of 14 cascade-like events, again consistent with the prediction of 3.0 atmospheric neutrino and 7.7 atmospheric muon events. We hence set an upper limit of E^2Φ_lim≤7.46×10^−8 GeV sr^−1 s^−1 cm^−2 (90% C.......L.) on the diffuse flux from astrophysical neutrinos of all neutrino flavors, applicable to the energy range 25 TeV to 5 PeV, assuming an E^−2 ν spectrum and a neutrino flavor ratio of 1:1:1 at the Earth. The third analysis utilized a larger and optimized sample of atmospheric muon background simulation, leading...

  1. Astrophysical neutrinos and atmospheric leptons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaisser T.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube measurements of the neutrino flux from TeV to PeV show the signal of astrophysical neutrinos standing out at high energy well above the steeply falling foreground of atmospheric neutrinos. The astrophysical signal appears both in measurements of neutrino-induced muons and in the starting event sample, which responds preferentially to electron and tau neutrinos, but which also includes muon neutrinos. Searches for point sources of astrophysical neutrinos have, however, not yet identified a single source or class of sources for the astrophysical component. Some constraints on astrophysical sources implied by the current observations will be described in this talk. Uncertainties in the fluxes of atmospheric leptons resulting from an incomplete knowledge of the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and from a limited understanding of meson production, including charm will also be reviewed. The ultimate goal is to improve the understanding of the astrophysical spectrum in the transition to lower energy where atmospheric neutrinos dominate. The main aspects of this presentation will be included in the author's Review Talk at the end of the Symposium.

  2. Tunka-Rex: Status, Plans, and Recent Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder F. G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunka-Rex, the Tunka Radio extension at the TAIGA facility (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy in Siberia, has recently been expanded to a total number of 63 SALLA antennas, most of them distributed on an area of one square kilometer. In the first years of operation, Tunka-Rex was solely triggered by the co-located air-Cherenkov array Tunka-133. The correlation of the measurements by both detectors has provided direct experimental proof that radio arrays can measure the position of the shower maximum. The precision achieved so far is 40 g/cm2, and several methodical improvements are under study. Moreover, the cross-comparison of Tunka-Rex and Tunka-133 shows that the energy reconstruction of Tunka-Rex is precise to 15 %, with a total accuracy of 20 % including the absolute energy scale. By using exactly the same calibration source for Tunka-Rex and LOPES, the energy scale of their host experiments, Tunka-133 and KASCADE-Grande, respectively, can be compared even more accurately with a remaining uncertainty of about 10 %. The main goal of Tunka-Rex for the next years is a study of the cosmic-ray mass composition in the energy range above 100 PeV: For this purpose, Tunka-Rex now is triggered also during daytime by the particle detector array Tunka-Grande featuring surface and underground scintillators for electron and muon detection.

  3. The water Cherenkov detector array for studies of cosmic rays at the University of Puebla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotzomi, J. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Moreno, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Murrieta, T. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Palma, B. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Perez, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico); Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico)]. E-mail: hsalazar@fcfm.buap.mx; Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla Pue. 72570 (Mexico)

    2005-11-11

    We describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19{sup -}bar N, 90{sup -}bar W, 800g/cm{sup 2}) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1PeV, i.e., around the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum. The array consists of 3 water Cherenkov detectors of 1.86m{sup 2} cross-section and 12 liquid scintillator detectors of 1m{sup 2} distributed in a square grid with a detector spacing of 20m over an area of 4000m{sup 2}. We discuss the calibration and stability of the array for both sets of detectors and report on preliminary measurements and reconstruction of the lateral distributions for the electromagnetic (EM) and muonic components of extensive air showers. We also discuss how the hybrid character of the array can be used to measure mass composition of the primary cosmic rays by estimating the relative contents of muons with respect to the EM component of extensive air showers. This facility is also used to train students interested in the field of cosmic rays.

  4. Cosmic-ray world with gamma-ray astronomy: a wealth on information, an even more open issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardillo Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since from their discovery in 1912, Cosmic-Rays (CRs are one of the most debated issues of the high energy astrophysics. Their origin is still a fundamental problem and is the subject of very intense research. Until now, the best candidate sources of Galactic CR component are Supernova Remnants (SNRs but final proof for the origin of CRs up to the knee can only be obtained through two fundamental signatures, the detection of a clear gamma-ray signature of π0 decay in Galactic sources and the identification of sources emitting a photon spectrum up to PeV energies. Both indications are quite difficult to obtain. The two gamma-ray satellites, AGILE and Fermi, together with ground telescopes operating in the TeV energy range (HESS, VERITAS and MAGIC, collected a great amount of data from SNRs. In spite of the recent discovery of the neutral pion spectral signature in the SNR W44 spectrum by AGILE (and confirmed by Fermi-LAT, all gamma-ray data collected at GeV and TeV energies for several young and middle-aged SNRs provide interesting challenges to current theoretical models. The emerging view from gamma-ray and particle detection is intriguing and lead to revisit the CR-SNR paradigm, considering also the contribution of other kind of sources.

  5. Gamma-ray puzzle in Cygnus X: Implications for high-energy neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Gallagher, John S.; Halzen, Francis; Kheirandish, Ali; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2017-08-01

    The Cygnus X region contains giant molecular cloud complexes and populous associates of massive young stars. The discovery of spatially extended, hard γ -ray emission in Cygnus X by both Milagro and Fermi indicates that Cygnus X is also a potential source of high-energy Galactic neutrinos. Here, we adapt our single-zone model for cosmic ray interactions in the central molecular zones of starburst galaxies for use in Cygnus X. We calculate the potential neutrino flux corresponding to the hard γ -ray emission from the "Cygnus Cocoon" and to the soft, diffuse interstellar γ -ray emission. We check our results by comparing the corresponding γ -ray emission against the Fermi interstellar emission model and Milagro, ARGO-YBJ, and HAWC observations. In comparing our results against a recent IceCube analysis and the current sensitivity limits, we find that neutrino emission from the Cocoon has a large enough flux that it could plausibly be detected, provided hadronic interactions are occurring at sufficiently high energies. High-energy neutrinos from Cygnus X would provide direct evidence for the presence of as yet unidentified PeV energy accelerators in the Galactic disk.

  6. Variability of Battery Wear in Light Duty Plug-In Electric Vehicles Subject to Ambient Temperature, Battery Size, and Consumer Usage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Brooker, A. D.; Gonder, J.; Smith, K. A.

    2012-08-01

    Battery wear in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is a complex function of ambient temperature, battery size, and disparate usage. Simulations capturing varying ambient temperature profiles, battery sizes, and driving patterns are of great value to battery and vehicle manufacturers. A predictive battery wear model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory captures the effects of multiple cycling and storage conditions in a representative lithium chemistry. The sensitivity of battery wear rates to ambient conditions, maximum allowable depth-of-discharge, and vehicle miles travelled is explored for two midsize vehicles: a battery electric vehicle (BEV) with a nominal range of 75 mi (121 km) and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with a nominal charge-depleting range of 40 mi (64 km). Driving distance distributions represent the variability of vehicle use, both vehicle-to-vehicle and day-to-day. Battery wear over an 8-year period was dominated by ambient conditions for the BEV with capacity fade ranging from 19% to 32% while the PHEV was most sensitive to maximum allowable depth-of-discharge with capacity fade ranging from 16% to 24%. The BEV and PHEV were comparable in terms of petroleum displacement potential after 8 years of service, due to the BEV?s limited utility for accomplishing long trips.

  7. 3D Simulations of the Emission from Young Supernova Remnants Including Efficient Particle Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar; Decourchelle, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Within our Galaxy, supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the major sources of cosmic rays up to the “knee” (~1 PeV). The detection of non-thermal radiation from these objects, in X-rays over the past two decades, and finally in gamma-rays over the past decade, has proved the presence of energetic particles. However important questions remain regarding the share of the hadronic and leptonic components as well as the fraction of the supernova energy channelled into these components. We will show how such questions can be addressed by means of 3D numerical simulations of SNRs that combine a hydrodynamic treatment of the shock wave with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. Performing 3D simulations of SNRs allows us to produce synthetic projected maps and spectra, that can be compared with observations (in X-rays for the thermal emission and multi-wavelength for the non-thermal emission). In particular, we will show how the presence of energetic protons can be inferred from the broadband emission of the remnant. We will contrast the properties of the remnants from the two different kinds of supernovae: thermonuclear supernovae (like Tycho) that usually occur in a mostly undisturbed medium, and core-collapse supernovae (like Cas A) that occur in a more complex medium bearing the imprint of the winds of the progenitor star.

  8. The “Carpet-3” air shower array to search for diffuse gamma rays with energy Eγ>100TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhappuev, D. D.; I, V. B. Petkov V.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Volchenko, V. I.; Volchenko, G. V.; Gorbacheva, E. A.; Dzaparova, I. M.; Klimenko, N. F.; Kurenya, A. N.; Mikhilova, O. I.; Khadzhiev, M. M.; Yanin, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    At present an experiment for measuring the flux of cosmic diffuse gamma rays with energy higher than 100 TeV (experiment “Carpet-3”) is being prepared at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences. The preparation of the experiment implies considerable enlargement of the area of both muon detector and surface part of the shower array. At the moment the plastic scintillation counters with a total continuous area of 410 m2 are installed in the muon detector (MD) underground tunnels, and they are totally equipped with electronics. Adjusting of the counters and their electronic circuits is in progress. Six modules of shower detectors (out of twenty planned to be installed) have already been placed on the surface of the MD absorber. A new liquid scintillation detector is developed for modules of the ground –surface part of the array, whose characteristics are presented. It is shown that the “Carpet-3” air shower array will have the best sensitivity to the flux of primary gamma rays with energies in the range 100TeV – 1PeV, being quite competitive in gamma-ray astronomy at such energies.

  9. Geometry and optics calibration of WFCTA prototype telescopes using star light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lingling; Bai Yunxiang; Cao Zhen; Chen Mingjun; Chen Lihong; Chen Songzhan; Chen Yao; Ding Kaiqi; He Huihai; Liu Jia; Liu Jiali; Li Xiaoxiao; Ma Xinhua; Sheng Xiangdong; Xiao Gang; Zha Min; Zhang Shoushan; Zhang Yong; Zhao Jing; Zhou Bin

    2011-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project is proposed to study high energy gamma ray astronomy (40 GeV-1 PeV) and cosmic ray physics (20 TeV-1 EeV). The wide field of view Cherenkov telescope array, as a component of the LHAASO project, will be used to study the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays by measuring the total Cherenkov light generated by air showers and the shower maximum depth. Two prototype telescopes have been in operation since 2008. The pointing accuracy of each telescope is crucial for the direction reconstruction of the primary particles. On the other hand, the primary energy reconstruction relies on the shape of the Cherenkov image on the camera and the unrecorded photons due to the imperfect connections between the photomultiplier tubes. UV bright stars are used as point-like objects to calibrate the pointing and to study the optical properties of the camera, the spot size and the fractions of unrecorded photons in the insensitive areas of the camera. (authors)

  10. Do high energy astrophysical neutrinos trace star formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emig, Kimberly; Windhorst, Rogier [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 450 E. Tyler Mall, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1404 (United States); Lunardini, Cecilia, E-mail: Kimberly.Emig@asu.edu, E-mail: Cecilia.Lunardini@asu.edu, E-mail: Rogier.Windhorst@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, 450 E. Tyler Mall, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1504 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has provided the first map of the high energy (∼ 0.01–1 PeV) sky in neutrinos. Since neutrinos propagate undeflected, their arrival direction is an important identifier for sources of high energy particle acceleration. Reconstructed arrival directions are consistent with an extragalactic origin, with possibly a galactic component, of the neutrino flux. We present a statistical analysis of positional coincidences of the IceCube neutrinos with known astrophysical objects from several catalogs. When considering starburst galaxies with the highest flux in gamma-rays and infrared radiation, up to n=8 coincidences are found, representing an excess over the ∼4 predicted for the randomized, or ''null'' distribution. The probability that this excess is realized in the null case, the p-value, is p=0.042. This value falls to p=0.003 for a partial subset of gamma-ray-detected starburst galaxies and superbubble regions in the galactic neighborhood. Therefore, it is possible that starburst galaxies, and the typically hundreds of superbubble regions within them, might account for a portion of IceCube neutrinos. The physical plausibility of such correlation is discussed briefly.

  11. Self-assembly Columnar Structure in Active Layer of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cheng; Segui, Jennifer; Yu, Yingjie; Li, Hongfei; Akgun, Bulent; Satijia, Sushil. K.; Gersappe, Dilip; Nam, Chang-Yong; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2012-02-01

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells are an area of intense interest due to their flexibility and relatively low cost. However, due to the disordered inner structure in active layer, the power conversion efficiency of BHJ solar cell is relatively low. Our research provides the method to produce ordered self-assembly columnar structure within active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell by introducing polystyrene (PS) into the active layer. The blend thin film of polystyrene, poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) at different ratio are spin coated on substrate and annealed in vacuum oven for certain time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show uniform phase segregation on the surface of polymer blend thin film and highly ordered columnar structure is then proven by etching the film with ion sputtering. TEM cross-section technology is also used to investigate the column structure. Neutron reflectometry was taken to establish the confinement of PCBM at the interface of PS and P3HT. The different morphological structures formed via phase segregation will be correlated with the performance of the PEV cells to be fabricated at the BNL-CFN.

  12. Relativistic MHD modeling of magnetized neutron stars, pulsar winds, and their nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zanna, L.; Pili, A. G.; Olmi, B.; Bucciantini, N.; Amato, E.

    2018-01-01

    Neutron stars are among the most fascinating astrophysical sources, being characterized by strong gravity, densities about the nuclear one or even above, and huge magnetic fields. Their observational signatures can be extremely diverse across the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from the periodic and low-frequency signals of radio pulsars, up to the abrupt high-energy gamma-ray flares of magnetars, where energies of ∼ {10}46 {erg} are released in a few seconds. Fast-rotating and highly magnetized neutron stars are expected to launch powerful relativistic winds, whose interaction with the supernova remnants gives rise to the non-thermal emission of pulsar wind nebulae, which are known cosmic accelerators of electrons and positrons up to PeV energies. In the extreme cases of proto-magnetars (magnetic fields of ∼ {10}15 G and millisecond periods), a similar mechanism is likely to provide a viable engine for the still mysterious gamma-ray bursts. The key ingredient in all these spectacular manifestations of neutron stars is the presence of strong magnetic fields in their constituent plasma. Here we will present recent updates of a couple of state-of-the-art numerical investigations by the high-energy astrophysics group in Arcetri: a comprehensive modeling of the steady-state axisymmetric structure of rotating magnetized neutron stars in general relativity, and dynamical 3D MHD simulations of relativistic pulsar winds and their associated nebulae.

  13. Université de Genève | Séminaire de physique corpusculaire | 13 November

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Dark Matter searches in IceCube, Dr Carlos De Los Heros, Uppsala University.   Wednesday 13 November 2013, 11:15 a.m. Science III, Auditoire 1S081 Boulevard d’Yvoy, 1211 Genève 4 Abstract: The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole is the world's largest neutrino telescope. It instruments a kilometer cube of ice with more than 5000 optical sensors that detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced in neutrino-nucleon interactions in the ice. Covering a wide range of neutrino energies, from 10s of GeVs to PeVs, its physics program is extremely rich. The talk will focus on dark matter searches. In many models, dark matter gravitationally concentrated at the center of the Sun or the galactic center can self-annihilate to standard model particles, producing a flux of neutrinos from the decays of the annihilation products. IceCube can look for such neutrino flux, and competitive limits on the dark matter-nucleon cross section and on the dark m...

  14. LHC Report: serving a hot, dense soup for Christmas

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes Alemany for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    With just a few days left until the end of the year, the LHC is finishing 2015 with yet another successful heavy-ion run. This has been possible thanks to a great deal of dedication and professionalism on the part of many people throughout the Organization.   As already reported in previous Bulletin articles, the last leg of the race started on 14 November with the 5.02 TeV intermediate energy proton run, the preparation for which was interleaved with the beginning of commissioning for the ion run. Early in the morning of 17 November, lead-lead collisions were produced for the first time at a new energy frontier: 5.02 TeV centre-of-mass energy per colliding nucleon pair (or 1.045 PeV total). With the proton-proton reference run safely out of the way, commissioning and validation with ions was then completed, opening the way for Stable Beams and the start of data-taking at ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The following days were eventful. Steady improvements were made in various accelerator chain systems ...

  15. Clean Cities 2015 Annual Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, whose territory covers 80% of the U.S. population, brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction (IR) measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge. Each year, DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Progress reports and information are submitted online as a function of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators report a range of information that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also document activities in their region related to the development of refueling/charging infrastructure, sales of alternative fuels; deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy improvement activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use and GHG emission reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  16. All-sky search for high-energy neutrinos from gravitational wave event GW170104 with the Antares neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [Universite de Haute Alsace - Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, GRPHE, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D. [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (France); Belhorma, B. [National Center for Energy Sciences and Nuclear Techniques, Rabat (Morocco); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Branzas, H.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Science, Bucharest (Romania); Bruijn, R.; Melis, K. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Celli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; El Khayati, N.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed V, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (Morocco); Chiarusi, T. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A. [INFN-Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Coleiro, A. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Diaz, A.F. [University of Granada, Department of Computer Architecture and Technology/CITIC, Granada (Spain); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [Geoazur, UCA, CNRS, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Sophia Antipolis (France); De Bonis, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Donzaud, C. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, Oujda (Morocco); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Gay, P. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (France); Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Giordano, V. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Glotin, H. [LSIS, Aix Marseille Universite CNRS ENSAM LSIS UMR 7296, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon CNRS LSIS UMR 7296, La Garde (FR); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (FR); Haren, H. van [Utrecht University, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (NL); Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (FR); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (FR); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (DE); Kulikovskiy, V. [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (FR); Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (RU); Lefevre, D. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille (FR); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde (FR); Leonora, E. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (IT); Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B. [Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, APC, Paris (FR); Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers-Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Marinelli, A. [INFN-Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (IT); Mele, R.; Vivolo, D. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT); Migliozzi, P. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Navas, S. [University of Granada, Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y C.A.F.P.E., Granada (ES); Organokov, M.; Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, Strasbourg (FR); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers-Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Collaboration: The ANTARES Collaboration

    2017-12-15

    Advanced LIGO detected a significant gravitational wave signal (GW170104) originating from the coalescence of two black holes during the second observation run on January 4th, 2017. An all-sky high-energy neutrino follow-up search has been made using data from the Antares neutrino telescope, including both upgoing and downgoing events in two separate analyses. No neutrino candidates were found within ±500 s around the GW event time nor any time clustering of events over an extended time window of ±3 months. The non-detection is used to constrain isotropic-equivalent high-energy neutrino emission from GW170104 to less than ∝ 1.2 x 10{sup 55} erg for a E{sup -2} spectrum. This constraint is valid in the energy range corresponding to the 5-95% quantiles of the neutrino flux [3.2 TeV; 3.6 PeV], if the GW emitter was below the Antares horizon at the alert time. (orig.)

  17. Status of LHAASO updates from ARGO-YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) is a multipurpose project with a complex detector array for high energy gamma ray and cosmic ray detection. The array of 1 km{sup 2} is composed of five types of detectors to measure shower arrival direction, total number of secondary particles, muon content, Cherenkov image and high energy gamma rays near shower core, respectively. The main scientific goals are (1) searching for galactic cosmic ray origins by extensive spectroscopy investigations of gamma ray sources above 30 TeV; (2) all sky survey for gamma ray sources at energies higher than 300 GeV; (3) energy spectrum and composition measurements of cosmic rays over a wide range covering knees with fixed energy scale and known fluxes for all species at the low energy end. In this paper, the progress on relevant detector developments is reported, including constructions of prototype detectors at Tibet site and coincidence operation with the ARGO-YBJ resistive plat chamber full coverage array at 4300 m a.s.l. The energy spectrum of cosmic ray hydrogen and Helium nuclei up to 0.8 PeV is reported as the first piece of physics measurements by the LHAASO experiment.

  18. ARGO-YBJ: Physics results and detector stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarri, P., E-mail: camarri@roma2.infn.it [Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment at 4300 m above sea level on the Tibet plateau is a full-coverage array of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) operated in streamer mode, covering a surface of 74×78 m{sup 2} surrounded by a guard ring. It was designed to detect extensive air showers generated by primary cosmic rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV up to about 1 PeV. It has been running uninterruptedly with its complete layout since October 2007, providing results in γ-ray astrophysics and cosmic-ray physics. Some of the main results obtained by ARGO-YBJ in the study of TeV γ rays from Supernova Remnants and from Active Galactic Nuclei and in the study of the medium-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy will be described. We also discuss the results of a test which proves the feasibility of the control procedure devised to stabilize the response of the detector.

  19. Describing the observed cosmic neutrinos by interactions of nuclei with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Walter

    2014-07-01

    IceCube have observed neutrinos which are presumably of extra-galactic origin. Since specific sources have not yet been identified, we discuss what could be learned from the conceptual point of view. We use a simple model for neutrino production from the interactions between nuclei and matter, and we focus on the description of the spectral shape and flavor composition observed by IceCube. Our main parameters are spectral index, maximal energy, magnetic field, and composition of the accelerated nuclei. We show that a cutoff at PeV energies can be achieved by soft enough spectra, a cutoff of the primary energy, or strong enough magnetic fields. These options, however, are difficult to reconcile with the hypothesis that these neutrinos originate from the same sources as the ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We demonstrate that heavier nuclei accelerated in the sources may be a possible way out if the maximal energy scales appropriately with the mass number of the nuclei. In this scenario, neutrino observations can actually be used to test the UHECR acceleration mechanism. We also emphasize the need for a volume upgrade of the IceCube detector for future precision physics, for which the flavor information becomes a statistical meaningful model discriminator as qualitatively new ingredient.

  20. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-TeV gamma ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with TAIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tluczykont, Martin [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentalphysik; Collaboration: TAIGA Kollaboration

    2016-07-01

    The very high energy gamma-ray regime is the key to several questions in high energy astrophysics, the most prominent being the search for the origin of cosmic rays. Observations of gamma rays up to several 100 TeV are particularly important to spectrally resolve the cutoff regime of the long-sought Pevatrons, the accelerators of PeV cosmic rays. TAIGA is an international collaboration that has, in the past 3 years, installed the air Cherenkov timing array HiSCORE on an area of 0.25 square-km, and are currently installing a first 4m diameter imaging air Cherenkov telescope (IACT), to be operated in parallel with the timing array. Our aim is to combine the timing and imaging techniques on a large scale in order to optimize the air Cherenkov detection technique for energies above 10 TeV and up to several 100 TeV. Simulations show a clear potential of the planned hybrid event reconstruction, especially in the energy regime from 10 TeV to 100 TeV. The TAIGA experiment will be complemented by scintillator based particle detectors for a measurement of the muon content of the air shower at higher energies. The status of our experiment and the planned 1 square-km stage of TAIGA are discussed.

  2. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuel cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  3. Identification of QTL and Qualitative Trait Loci for Agronomic Traits Using SNP Markers in the Adzuki Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Yang, Kai; Yang, Wei; Chu, Liwei; Chen, Chunhai; Zhao, Bo; Li, Yisong; Jian, Jianbo; Yin, Zhichao; Wang, Tianqi; Wan, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The adzuki bean ( Vigna angularis ) is an important grain legume. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and qualitative trait genes plays an important role in gene cloning, molecular-marker-assisted selection (MAS), and trait improvement. However, the genetic control of agronomic traits in the adzuki bean remains poorly understood. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are invaluable in the construction of high-density genetic maps. We mapped 26 agronomic QTLs and five qualitative trait genes related to pigmentation using 1,571 polymorphic SNP markers from the adzuki bean genome via restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing of 150 members of an F 2 population derived from a cross between cultivated and wild adzuki beans. We mapped 11 QTLs for flowering time and pod maturity on chromosomes 4, 7, and 10. Six 100-seed weight (SD100WT) QTLs were detected. Two major flowering time QTLs were located on chromosome 4, firstly VaFld4.1 (PEVs 71.3%), co-segregating with SNP marker s690-144110, and VaFld4.2 (PEVs 67.6%) at a 0.974 cM genetic distance from the SNP marker s165-116310. Three QTLs for seed number per pod ( Snp3.1, Snp3.2 , and Snp4.1 ) were mapped on chromosomes 3 and 4. One QTL VaSdt4.1 of seed thickness (SDT) and three QTLs for branch number on the main stem were detected on chromosome 4. QTLs for maximum leaf width (LFMW) and stem internode length were mapped to chromosomes 2 and 9, respectively. Trait genes controlling the color of the seed coat, pod, stem and flower were mapped to chromosomes 3 and 1. Three candidate genes, VaAGL, VaPhyE , and VaAP2 , were identified for flowering time and pod maturity. VaAGL encodes an agamous-like MADS-box protein of 379 amino acids. VaPhyE encodes a phytochrome E protein of 1,121 amino acids. Four phytochrome genes ( VaPhyA1, VaPhyA2, VaPhyB , and VaPhyE ) were identified in the adzuki bean genome. We found candidate genes VaAP2/ERF.81 and VaAP2/ERF.82 of SD100WT, VaAP2-s4 of SDT, and VaAP2/ERF.86 of LFMW. A

  4. Autonomous Household Energy Management Based on a Double Cooperative Game Approach in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of two-way communication infrastructure and bidirectional energy trading between utility companies and customers in the future smart grid (SG, autonomous energy management programs become crucial to the demand-side management (DSM. Most of the existing autonomous energy management schemes are for the scenario with a single utility company or the scenario with one-way energy trading. In this paper, an autonomous household energy management system with multiple utility companies and multiple residential customers is studied by considering the bidirectional energy trading. To minimize the overall costs of both the utility companies and the residential customers, the energy management system is formulated as a double cooperative game. That is, the interaction among the residential users is formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the customers and the strategies are the daily schedules of their household appliances; and the interaction among the utility companies is also formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the suppliers and the strategies are the proportions of the daily total energy they provide for the customers. Without loss of generality, the bidirectional energy trading in the double cooperative game is formulated by allowing plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs to discharge and sell energy back. Two distributed algorithms will be provided to realize the global optimal performance in terms of minimizing the energy costs, which can be guaranteed at the Nash equilibriums of the formulated cooperative games. Finally, simulation results illustrated that the proposed double cooperative game can benefit both the utility companies and residential users significantly.

  5. Study of the γ/p discrimination at ∼100 TeV energy range with LHAASO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Ye; Guo, Yiqing; Ma, Xinhua; Hu, Hongbo

    2018-05-01

    The observation of high energy γ-rays is essential to unveil the long-standing enigma of the origin and acceleration of Galactic Cosmic Rays (CRs). Given its powerful capability of distinguishing between protons and γ-rays owing to its very large area of underground muon detectors, the LHAASO observatory will be the most sensitive ground-based detectors for γ-rays at 100 TeV with a CRs background rejection rate better than 10-5. To evaluate the very small rejection rate with sufficient precision at energies above 100 TeV, one needs a large number of Monte Carlo events which is time consuming and challenging. As only the μ-poor events are interesting in the calculation of the rejection rate and take up a tiny fraction of the all CRs events, we modify the popular air shower simulation package, CORSIKA, by outputting only the μ-poor events for the following full detector simulation. As a result, our method is fully consistent with the evaluation made with the official CORSIKA at lower energy. Particularly, our improvement significantly escalate the calculation efficiency above 100 TeV, where it can be at least 50 times faster than using all events in simulation. By virtue of this new method, the γ/p discrimination of the LHAASO experiment at energies above 100 TeV is obtained for the first time, which indicates that LHAASO can reject CR backgrounds at a level of 10-5 and 10-9 at 100 TeV and 1 PeV respectively.

  6. A cut-off in the TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the SNR Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colak, M.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Inada, T.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Righi, C.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in supernova remnants (SNRs). However, no observational evidence of the presence of particles of PeV energies in SNRs has yet been found. The young historical SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) appears as one of the best candidates to study acceleration processes. Between 2014 December and 2016 October, we observed Cas A with the MAGIC telescopes, accumulating 158 h of good quality data. We derived the spectrum of the source from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We also analysed ∼8 yr of Fermi-LAT to obtain the spectral shape between 60 MeV and 500 GeV. The spectra measured by the LAT and MAGIC telescopes are compatible within the errors and show a clear turn-off (4.6σ) at the highest energies, which can be described with an exponential cut-off at E_c = 3.5(^{+1.6}_{-1.0})_{stat} (^{+0.8}_{-0.9})_{sys} TeV. The gamma-ray emission from 60 MeV to 10 TeV can be attributed to a population of high-energy protons with a spectral index of ∼2.2 and an energy cut-off at ∼10 TeV. This result indicates that Cas A is not contributing to the high energy (∼PeV) cosmic ray sea in a significant manner at the present moment. A one-zone leptonic model fails to reproduce by itself the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. Besides, if a non-negligible fraction of the flux seen by MAGIC is produced by leptons, the radiation should be emitted in a region with a low magnetic field (B⪅180 μG) like in the reverse shock.

  7. Repeat Composition of CenH3-chromatin and H3K9me2-marked heterochromatin in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowar, Teresa; Zakrzewski, Falk; Macas, Jiří; Kobližková, Andrea; Viehoever, Prisca; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-26

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climate zones, which provides nearly 30 % of the world's annual sugar needs. From the total genome size of 758 Mb, only 567 Mb were incorporated in the recently published genome sequence, due to the fact that regions with high repetitive DNA contents (e.g. satellite DNAs) are only partially included. Therefore, to fill these gaps and to gain information about the repeat composition of centromeres and heterochromatic regions, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) using antibodies against the centromere-specific histone H3 variant of sugar beet (CenH3) and the heterochromatic mark of dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed that active centromeres containing CenH3 consist of the satellite pBV and the Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon Beetle7, while heterochromatin marked by H3K9me2 exhibits heterogeneity in repeat composition. H3K9me2 was mainly associated with the satellite family pEV, the Ty1-copia retrotransposon family Cotzilla and the DNA transposon superfamily of the En/Spm type. In members of the section Beta within the genus Beta, immunostaining using the CenH3 antibody was successful, indicating that orthologous CenH3 proteins are present in closely related species within this section. The identification of repetitive genome portions by ChIP-Seq experiments complemented the sugar beet reference sequence by providing insights into the repeat composition of poorly characterized CenH3-chromatin and H3K9me2-heterochromatin. Therefore, our work provides the basis for future research and application concerning the sugar beet centromere and repeat-rich heterochromatic regions characterized by the presence of H3K9me2.

  8. Recent Ultra High Energy neutrino bounds and multimessenger observations with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zas Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall picture of the highest energy particles produced in the Universe is changing because of measurements made with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Composition studies of cosmic rays point towards an unexpected mixed composition of intermediate mass nuclei, more isotropic than anticipated, which is reshaping the future of the field and underlining the priority to understand composition at the highest energies. The Observatory is competitive in the search for neutrinos of all flavors above about 100 PeV by looking for very inclined showers produced deep in the atmosphere by neutrinos interacting either in the atmosphere or in the Earth’s crust. It covers a large field of view between −85◦ and 60◦ declination in equatorial coordinates. Neutrinos are expected because of the existence of ultra high energy cosmic rays. They provide valuable complementary information, their fluxes being sensitive to the primary cosmic ray masses and their directions reflecting the source positions. We report the results of the neutrino search providing competitive bounds to neutrino production and strong constraints to a number of production models including cosmogenic neutrinos due to ultra high energy protons. We also report on two recent contributions of the Observatory to multimessenger studies by searching for correlations of neutrinos both with cosmic rays and with gravitational waves. The correlations of the directions of the highest energy astrophysical neutrinos discovered with IceCube with the highest energy cosmic rays detected with the Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array revealed an excess that is not statistically significant and is being monitored. The targeted search for neutrinos correlated with the discovery of the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 with advanced LIGO has led to the first bounds on the energy emitted by black hole mergers in Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos.

  9. Recent Ultra High Energy neutrino bounds and multimessenger observations with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    The overall picture of the highest energy particles produced in the Universe is changing because of measurements made with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Composition studies of cosmic rays point towards an unexpected mixed composition of intermediate mass nuclei, more isotropic than anticipated, which is reshaping the future of the field and underlining the priority to understand composition at the highest energies. The Observatory is competitive in the search for neutrinos of all flavors above about 100 PeV by looking for very inclined showers produced deep in the atmosphere by neutrinos interacting either in the atmosphere or in the Earth's crust. It covers a large field of view between -85° and 60° declination in equatorial coordinates. Neutrinos are expected because of the existence of ultra high energy cosmic rays. They provide valuable complementary information, their fluxes being sensitive to the primary cosmic ray masses and their directions reflecting the source positions. We report the results of the neutrino search providing competitive bounds to neutrino production and strong constraints to a number of production models including cosmogenic neutrinos due to ultra high energy protons. We also report on two recent contributions of the Observatory to multimessenger studies by searching for correlations of neutrinos both with cosmic rays and with gravitational waves. The correlations of the directions of the highest energy astrophysical neutrinos discovered with IceCube with the highest energy cosmic rays detected with the Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array revealed an excess that is not statistically significant and is being monitored. The targeted search for neutrinos correlated with the discovery of the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 with advanced LIGO has led to the first bounds on the energy emitted by black hole mergers in Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos.

  10. Characterization of the atmospheric muon flux in IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Glagla, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yáñez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.

    2016-05-01

    Muons produced in atmospheric cosmic ray showers account for the by far dominant part of the event yield in large-volume underground particle detectors. The IceCube detector, with an instrumented volume of about a cubic kilometer, has the potential to conduct unique investigations on atmospheric muons by exploiting the large collection area and the possibility to track particles over a long distance. Through detailed reconstruction of energy deposition along the tracks, the characteristics of muon bundles can be quantified, and individual particles of exceptionally high energy identified. The data can then be used to constrain the cosmic ray primary flux and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. In this paper, techniques for the extraction of physical measurements from atmospheric muon events are described and first results are presented. The multiplicity spectrum of TeV muons in cosmic ray air showers for primaries in the energy range from the knee to the ankle is derived and found to be consistent with recent results from surface detectors. The single muon energy spectrum is determined up to PeV energies and shows a clear indication for the emergence of a distinct spectral component from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. The magnitude of the prompt flux, which should include a substantial contribution from light vector meson di-muon decays, is consistent with current theoretical predictions. The variety of measurements and high event statistics can also be exploited for the evaluation of systematic effects. In the course of this study, internal inconsistencies in the zenith angle distribution of events were found which indicate the presence of an unexplained effect outside the currently applied range of detector systematics. The underlying cause could be related to the hadronic interaction models used to describe muon production in air showers.

  11. Search for neutrino-induced particle showers with IceCube-40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grandmont, D. T.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Jagielski, K.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Macías, O.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    We report on the search for neutrino-induced particle showers, so-called cascades, in the IceCube-40 detector. The data for this search were collected between April 2008 and May 2009 when the first 40 IceCube strings were deployed and operational. Three complementary searches were performed, each optimized for different energy regimes. The analysis with the lowest energy threshold (2 TeV) targeted atmospheric neutrinos. A total of 67 events were found, consistent with the expectation of 41 atmospheric muons and 30 atmospheric neutrino events. The two other analyses targeted a harder, astrophysical neutrino flux. The analysis with an intermediate threshold of 25 TeV leads to the observation of 14 cascadelike events, again consistent with the prediction of 3.0 atmospheric neutrino and 7.7 atmospheric muon events. We hence set an upper limit of E2Φlim≤7.46×10-8 GeV sr-1 s-1 cm-2 (90% C.L.) on the diffuse flux from astrophysical neutrinos of all neutrino flavors, applicable to the energy range 25 TeV to 5 PeV, assuming an Eν-2 spectrum and a neutrino flavor ratio of 1∶1∶1 at the Earth. The third analysis utilized a larger and optimized sample of atmospheric muon background simulation, leading to a higher energy threshold of 100 TeV. Three events were found over a background prediction of 0.04 atmospheric muon events and 0.21 events from the flux of conventional and prompt atmospheric neutrinos. Including systematic errors this corresponds to a 2.7σ excess with respect to the background-only hypothesis. Our observation of neutrino event candidates above 100 TeV complements IceCube's recently observed evidence for high-energy astrophysical neutrinos.

  12. Hidden Glashow resonance in neutrino–nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alikhanov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today it is widely believed that s-channel excitation of an on-shell W boson, commonly known as the Glashow resonance, can be initiated in matter only by the electron antineutrino in the process ν¯ee−→W− at the laboratory energy around 6.3 PeV. In this Letter we argue that the Glashow resonance within the Standard Model also occurs in neutrino–nucleus collisions. The main conclusions are as follows. 1 The Glashow resonance can be excited by both neutrinos and antineutrinos of all the three flavors scattering in the Coulomb field of a nucleus. 2 The Glashow resonance in a neutrino–nucleus reaction does not manifest itself as a Breit–Wigner-like peak in the cross section but the latter exhibits instead a slow logarithmic-law growth with the neutrino energy. The resonance turns thus out to be hidden. 3 More than 98% of W bosons produced in the sub-PeV region in neutrino-initiated reactions in water/ice will be from the Glashow resonance. 4 The vast majority of the Glashow resonance events in a neutrino detector are expected at energies from a few TeV to a few tens of TeV, being mostly initiated by the conventional atmospheric neutrinos dominant in this energy range. Calculations of the cross sections for Glashow resonance excitation on the oxygen nucleus as well as on the proton are carried out in detail. The results of this Letter can be useful for studies of neutrino interactions at large volume water/ice neutrino detectors. For example, in the IceCube detector one can expect 0.3 Glashow resonance events with shower-like topologies and the deposited energies above 300 TeV per year. It is therefore likely already to have at least one Glashow resonance event in the IceCube data set.

  13. Ultrahigh energy neutrino afterglows of nearby long duration gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jessymol K.; Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur

    2017-11-01

    Detection of ultrahigh energy (UHE, ≳1 PeV ) neutrinos from astrophysical sources will be a major advancement in identifying and understanding the sources of UHE cosmic rays (CRs) in nature. Long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) blast waves have been considered as potential acceleration sites of UHECRs. These CRs are expected to interact with GRB afterglow photons, which are synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons coaccelerated with CRs in the blast wave, and naturally produce UHE neutrinos. Fluxes of these neutrinos are uncertain, however, and crucially depend on the observed afterglow modeling. We have selected a sample of 23 long duration GRBs within redshift 0.5 for which adequate electromagnetic afterglow data are available and which could produce high flux of UHE afterglow neutrinos, being nearby. We fit optical, x-ray, and γ -ray afterglow data with an adiabatic blast wave model in a constant density interstellar medium and in a wind environment where the density of the wind decreases as the inverse square of the radius from the center of the GRB. The blast wave model parameters extracted from these fits are then used for calculating UHECR acceleration and p γ interactions to produce UHE neutrino fluxes from these GRBs. We have also explored the detectability of these neutrinos by currently running and upcoming large area neutrino detectors, such as the Pierre Auger Observatory, IceCube Gen-2, and KM3NeT observatories. We find that our realistic flux models from nearby GRBs will be unconstrained in the foreseeable future.

  14. New constraints on all flavor Galactic diffuse neutrino emission with the ANTARES telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A. F.; Deschamps, A.; de Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pǎvǎlaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Gaggero, D.; Grasso, D.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The flux of very high-energy neutrinos produced in our Galaxy by the interaction of accelerated cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is not yet determined. The characterization of this flux will shed light on Galactic accelerator features, gas distribution morphology and Galactic cosmic ray transport. The central Galactic plane can be the site of an enhanced neutrino production, thus leading to anisotropies in the extraterrestrial neutrino signal as measured by the IceCube Collaboration. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located in the Mediterranean Sea, offers a favorable view of this part of the sky, thereby allowing for a contribution to the determination of this flux. The expected diffuse Galactic neutrino emission can be obtained, linking a model of generation and propagation of cosmic rays with the morphology of the gas distribution in the Milky Way. In this paper, the so-called "gamma model" introduced recently to explain the high-energy gamma-ray diffuse Galactic emission is assumed as reference. The neutrino flux predicted by the "gamma model" depends on the assumed primary cosmic ray spectrum cutoff. Considering a radially dependent diffusion coefficient, this proposed scenario is able to account for the local cosmic ray measurements, as well as for the Galactic gamma-ray observations. Nine years of ANTARES data are used in this work to search for a possible Galactic contribution according to this scenario. All flavor neutrino interactions are considered. No excess of events is observed, and an upper limit is set on the neutrino flux of 1.1 (1.2) times the prediction of the "gamma model," assuming the primary cosmic ray spectrum cutoff at 5 (50) PeV. This limit excludes the diffuse Galactic neutrino emission as the major cause of the "spectral anomaly" between the two hemispheres measured by IceCube.

  15. DECIPHERING CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND FROM 2 GeV TO 2 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Necib, Lina; Safdi, Benjamin R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Astrophysical sources outside the Milky Way, such as active galactic nuclei and star-forming galaxies, leave their imprint on the gamma-ray sky as nearly isotropic emission referred to as the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB). While the brightest of these sources may be individually resolved, their fainter counterparts contribute diffusely. In this work, we use a recently developed analysis method, called the Non-Poissonian Template Fit, on up to 93 months of publicly available data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to determine the properties of the point sources (PSs) that comprise the EGB. This analysis takes advantage of photon-count statistics to probe the aggregate properties of these source populations below the sensitivity threshold of published catalogs. We measure the source-count distributions and PS intensities, as a function of energy, from ∼2 GeV to 2 TeV. We find that the EGB is dominated by PSs, likely blazars, in all seven energy sub-bins considered. These results have implications for the interpretation of IceCube’s PeV neutrinos, which may originate from sources that contribute to the non-blazar component of the EGB. Additionally, we comment on implications for future TeV observatories such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array. We provide sky maps showing locations most likely to contain these new sources at both low (≲50 GeV) and high (≳50 GeV) energies for use in future observations and cross-correlation studies.

  16. Lateral distribution of cosmic ray muons underground. Results from the CosmoALEPH experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcaciuc, R.

    2006-07-01

    The CosmoALEPH experiment, located underground at the LEP e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring at CERN at a depth of 320 m water equivalent, was used to study the chemical composition of primary cosmic rays up to 10 PeV energies from the measurement of high energy muons, created in extensive air showers by interactions of primary nuclei in the atmosphere. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the Hadron Calorimeter of the ALEPH detector and six scintillator stations located at distances up to 1 km from each other were used to analyse the decoherence curve, multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of energetic cosmic muons. The experimental data were compared with predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) models and mass composition approaches. From a comparison between the measured decoherence distribution with CosmoALEPH and the MC predicted decoherence curves for proton, helium and iron, a primary composition of (77{+-}11) % protons and (23{+-}11) % iron nuclei with a {chi}{sup 2}-probability of 84 % was determined, based on the predictions of the VENUS model with the constant mass composition approach. The analysis of the decoherence curve, with consideration of correlations between the measured CosmoALEPH parameters, leads to a composition of (88{+-}8) % protons and (12{+-}8) % iron nuclei for cosmic rays with a {chi}{sup 2} -probability of 53 %. The absolute comparison between the measured multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions in the TPC and those predicted by different Monte Carlo models results also in a dominant light composition. The experimental data are in a good agreement with MC data lying between proton and helium primaries. The results obtained for the primary composition of cosmic rays up to the knee region are consistent with the results from other experiments. (orig.)

  17. Search for GeV and X-Ray Flares Associated with the IceCube Track-like Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Wang, Xiang-Yu, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Dozens of high-energy neutrinos have been detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope, but no clear association with any classes of astrophysical sources has been identified so far. Recently, Kadler et al. reported that a PeV cascade-like neutrino event occurred in positional and temporal coincidence with a giant gamma-ray flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418. Since IceCube track-like events have much better angular resolution, we here search for possible short-term gamma-ray flares that are associated with the IceCube track-like events with Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. Among them, three track-like neutrino events occur within the field of view of Fermi -LAT at the time of the detection, so searching for the prompt gamma-ray emission associated with neutrinos is possible. Assuming a point source origin and a single power-law spectrum for the possible gamma-ray sources associated with neutrinos, a likelihood analysis of 0.2–100 GeV photons observed by Fermi -LAT on the timescales of ∼12 hr and one year are performed, and for the three special neutrinos, the analyses are also performed on the timescales of thousands of seconds before and after the neutrino detection. No significant GeV excesses over the background are found and upper limit fluxes at the 95% confidence level are obtained for different timescales. We also search for possible the Swift hard X-ray transient sources associated with the IceCube track-like neutrino events, but the search also yields null results. We discuss the implication of the non-detection of gamma-ray flares for the constraints on the neutrino source density.

  18. Unifying leptogenesis, dark matter and high-energy neutrinos with right-handed neutrino mixing via Higgs portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Pasquale Di; Ludl, Patrick Otto [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València,Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2016-11-21

    We revisit a model in which neutrino masses and mixing are described by a two right-handed (RH) neutrino seesaw scenario, implying a strictly hierarchical light neutrino spectrum. A third decoupled RH neutrino, N{sub DM} with mass M{sub DM}, plays the role of cold dark matter (DM) and is produced by the mixing with a source RH neutrino, N{sub S} with mass M{sub S}, induced by Higgs portal interactions. The same interactions are also responsible for N{sub DM} decays. We discuss in detail the constraints coming from DM abundance and stability conditions showing that in the hierarchical case, for M{sub DM}≫M{sub S}, there is an allowed window on M{sub DM} values necessarily implying a contribution, from DM decays, to the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by IceCube. We also show how the model can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis in the quasi-degenerate limit. In this case, the DM mass should be within the range 300 GeV ≲M{sub S}PeV. We discuss the specific properties of this high-energy neutrino flux and show the predicted event spectrum for two exemplary cases. Although DM decays, with a relatively hard spectrum, cannot account for all the IceCube high-energy data, we illustrate how this extra source of high-energy neutrinos could reasonably explain some potential features in the observed spectrum. In this way, this represents a unified scenario for leptogenesis and DM that could be tested during the next years with more high-energy neutrino events.

  19. Impact of Wireless Power Transfer in Transportation: Future Transportation Enabler, or Near Term Distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While the total liquid fuels consumed in the U.S. for transportation of goods and people is expected to hold steady, or decline slightly over the next few decades, the world wide consumption is projected to increase of over 30% according to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 [1]. The balance of energy consumption for transportation between petroleum fuels and electric energy, and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced consuming either, is of particular interest to government administrations, vehicle OEMs, and energy suppliers. The market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) appears to be inhibited by many factors relating to the energy storage system (ESS) and charging infrastructure. Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies have been identified as a key enabling technology to increase the acceptance of EVs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in many research areas related to understanding the impacts, opportunities, challenges and costs related to various deployments of WPT technology for transportation use. Though the initial outlook for WPT deployment looks promising, many other emerging technologies have met unfavorable market launches due to unforeseen technology limitations, sometimes due to the complex system in which the new technology was placed. This paper will summarize research and development (R&D) performed at ORNL in the area of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT). ORNL s advanced transportation technology R&D activities provide a unique set of experienced researchers to assist in the creation of a transportation system level view. These activities range from fundamental technology development at the component level to subsystem controls and interactions to applicable system level analysis of impending market and industry responses and beyond.

  20. Investigación en Progreso: Estudio y Evaluación de Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación para el Desarrollo de Ciudades Inteligentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luis Vivas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los avances tecnológicos, la globalización, la demanda social para poder disponer de diversos servicios, la evolución en las comunicaciones, y el impulso político, han provocado que nos encontremos frente a una sociedad en la cual se generan cambios significativos en la forma de trabajar, de aprender, de pensar, de comunicarse y de vivir afectando a los ciudadanos a todos los niveles. Por esto, la forma en la que concebimos a las ciudades tradicionales se encuentra cambiando a lo que se conoce como ciudades inteligentes; las ciudades ahora comienzan a ser vistas como medios innovadores que ayudan al desarrollo y al progreso de las regiones e inclusive del país del que forman parte, logrando así una integración de las diversas áreas urbanas hacia la Sociedad de la Información. En nuestra región (Provincia de Rio Negro – Argentina se ha podido identificar la necesidad de contar con desarrollos innovadores de tecnología para transformar dichas áreas urbanas en ciudades inteligentes. Esta evolución se verá apalancada por el aprovechamiento de las siguientes tecnologías: Televisión Digital Terrestre (TDT, Soluciones móviles, Internet de las Cosas (M2M, Plataformas Educativas Virtuales (PEV. El desafío de este proyecto es construir capacidades y herramientas de software para ciudades inteligentes, maximizando los beneficios en la aplicación correcta y eficiente de las citadas tecnologías. Como, así también, la aplicación de marcos referenciales de planificación y calidad durante el proceso de desarrollo y apropiación de dichos recursos.