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Sample records for thyromimetic t-0681 influences

  1. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-t2) exerts thyromimetic effects on hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body composition, and energy metabolism in male diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Wenke; Lietzow, Julika; Wohlgemuth, Franziska; Hoefig, Carolin S; Wiedmer, Petra; Schweizer, Ulrich; Köhrle, Josef; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Effective and safe antiobesity drugs are still needed in face of the obesity pandemic worldwide. Recent interventions in rodents revealed 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) as a metabolically active iodothyronine affecting energy and lipid metabolism without thyromimetic side effects typically associated with T3 administration. Accordingly, 3,5-T2 has been proposed as a potential hypolipidemic agent for treatment of obesity and hepatic steatosis. In contrast to other observations, our experiments revealed dose-dependent thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 akin to those of T3 in diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J mice. 3,5-T2 treatment exerted a negative feedback regulation on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, similar to T3. This is demonstrated by decreased expression of genes responsive to thyroid hormones (TH) in pituitary resulting in a suppressed thyroid function with lower T4 and T3 concentrations in serum and liver of 3,5-T2-treated mice. Analyses of hepatic TH target genes involved in lipid metabolism revealed T3-like changes in gene expression and increased type I-deiodinase activity after application of 3,5-T2 (2.5 μg/g body weight). Reduced hepatic triglyceride and serum cholesterol concentrations reflected enhanced lipid metabolism. Desired increased metabolic rate and reduction of different fat depots were, however, compromised by increased food intake preventing significant body weight loss. Moreover, enlarged heart weights indicate potential cardiac side effects of 3,5-T2 beyond hepatic thyromimetic actions. Altogether, the observed thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 in several mouse TH target tissues raise concern about indiscriminate administration of 3,5-T2 as powerful natural hormone for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and pandemic obesity.

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0681 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0681 ref|ZP_01966963.1| hypothetical protein RUMTOR_00504 [Ruminococcus torque...s ATCC 27756] gb|EDK25609.1| hypothetical protein RUMTOR_00504 [Ruminococcus torques ATCC 27756] ZP_01966963.1 0.70 30% ...

  3. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-VWF nanobody® ALX-0681 after single and multiple subcutaneous administrations to healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd-Elaziz, Khalid; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Lyssens, Christophe; Reuvers, Mariska; Den Daas, Izaak; Van Bockstaele, Femke; Vercruysse, Kristof; Ulrichts, Hans; Baumeister, Judith; Crabbe, Patricia; Compernolle, Veerle; Holz, Josefin-Beate

    2009-01-01

    ALX-0681 is a humanized bivalent Nanobody®, that binds to the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and hence blocks its interaction with platelet receptor GPIb-IX-V. Given its mode of action, ALX-0681 could provide an alternative treatment option for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), a

  4. Thyroid hormone analogs for the treatment of dyslipidemia: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Delitala, Giuseppe; Sioni, Paolo; Fanciulli, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Treatment of dyslipidemia is a major burden for public health. Thyroid hormone regulates lipid metabolism by binding the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), but the use of thyroid hormone to treat dyslipidemia is not indicated due to its deleterious effects on heart, bone, and muscle. Thyroid hormone analogs have been conceived to selectively activate TR in the liver, thus reducing potential side-effects. The authors searched the PubMed database to review TR and the action of thyromimetics in vitro and in animal models. Then, all double-blind, placebo controlled trials that analyzed the use of thyroid hormone analog for the treatment of dyslipidemia in humans were included. Finally, the ongoing research on the use of TR agonists was searched, searching the US National Institutes of Health Registry and the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP). Thyromimetics were tested in humans for the treatment of dyslipidemia, as a single therapeutic agent or as an add-on therapy to the traditional lipid-lowering drugs. In most trials, thyromimetics lowered total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, but their use has been associated with adverse side-effects, both in pre-clinical studies and in humans. The use of thyromimetics for the treatment of dyslipidemia is not presently recommended. Future possible clinical applications might include their use to promote weight reduction. Thyromimetics might also represent an interesting alternative, both for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and type 2 diabetes due to their positive effects on insulin sensitivity. Finally, additional experimental and clinical studies are needed for a better comprehension of the effect(s) of a long-term therapy.

  5. Influence of radiation therapy on T-lymphocyte subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, G.

    1984-01-01

    The author claims this to be the first time where monoclonal antibodies are used in a long-term study in order to determine the influence of radiation therapy on T-lymphozyte-subpopulations in patients suffering from malignant growths. The influence of radiation therapy on B-cells, T-cells and macrophages was also checked. Two groups of patients were given two different radiation doses, and examined separately in order to discover possible effects of the dosage. Radiation therapy reduced B- and T-lymphocytes to the same degree as the total lymphozyte population so that their shares in percent remained unchanged. The same was also found for macrophages. Determination of clones and suppressor T-lymphozytes before, during and after radiation showed T-lymphozytes to have a higher resistance against the influence of radiation than clones. Suppressor cells also regenerated more quickly than clones after the end of the therapy. While radiation therapy was applied the clone/suppressor cell ratio dropped to values lower than those of the healthy reference group. After the end of the therapy this quotient dropped even further in some cases while in others it began to rise slowly, but even 6 months after the end of the therapy it was still lower than normal. As a number of diseases show an increased 'immunoregulatory quotient' it would be conceivable to influence this quotient with radiation therapy in order to achieve a therapeutic effect. (orig./MG) [de

  6. MRI of the lumbar spine: comparison of 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence versus conventional 2D sequences at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Lee, So-Yeon; Ryu, Kyeung-Sik; Ha, Kee-Yong

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo sequence with variable flip-angle refocusing pulse allows retrospective alignments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in any desired plane. To compare isotropic 3D T2-weighted (T2W) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE-SPACE) with standard two-dimensional (2D) T2W TSE imaging for evaluating lumbar spine pathology at 3.0 T MRI. Forty-two patients who had spine surgery for disk herniation and had 3.0 T spine MRI were included in this study. In addition to standard 2D T2W TSE imaging, sagittal 3D T2W TSE-SPACE was obtained to produce multiplanar (MPR) images. Each set of MR images from 3D T2W TSE and 2D TSE-SPACE were independently scored for the degree of lumbar neural foraminal stenosis, central spinal stenosis, and nerve compression by two reviewers. These scores were compared with operative findings and the sensitivities were evaluated by McNemar test. Inter-observer agreements and the correlation with symptoms laterality were assessed with kappa statistics. The 3D T2W TSE and 2D TSE-SPACE had similar sensitivity in detecting foraminal stenosis (78.9% versus 78.9% in 32 foramen levels), spinal stenosis (100% versus 100% in 42 spinal levels), and nerve compression (92.9% versus 81.8% in 59 spinal nerves). The inter-observer agreements (κ = 0.849 vs. 0.451 for foraminal stenosis, κ = 0.809 vs. 0.503 for spinal stenosis, and κ = 0.681 vs. 0.429 for nerve compression) and symptoms correlation (κ = 0.449 vs. κ = 0.242) were better in 3D TSE-SPACE compared to 2D TSE. 3D TSE-SPACE with oblique coronal MPR images demonstrated better inter-observer agreements compared to 3D TSE-SPACE without oblique coronal MPR images (κ = 0.930 vs. κ = 0.681). Isotropic 3D T2W TSE-SPACE at 3.0 T was comparable to 2D T2W TSE for detecting foraminal stenosis, central spinal stenosis, and nerve compression with better inter-observer agreements and symptom correlation. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and

  7. [Influence of ciprofloxacin on the ability of production of staphylococcin T in Staphylococcus cohnii (StT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białucha, Agata; Wróblewska, Joanna; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Deptuła, Aleksander; Bugalski, Roman Marian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ciprofloxacin in a concentration of 0.25 microg/ml on the ability of synthesis of staphylococcin T (StT) Staphylococcus cohnii at 37 degrees C after 24 and 48 hours incubation. Ciprofloxacin in concentration of 0.25 microg/ml after 24 hours incubation inhibits antistaphylococcal activity StT produced by S. cohnii, while after 48 hour incubation, S. cohnii StT is excreted on the same level, in the presence and in the absence of ciprofloxacin.

  8. Steady-State Serum T3 Concentrations for 48 Hours Following the Oral Administration of a Single Dose of 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine Sulfate (T3S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ferruccio; Giannetti, Monica; Ricco, Ilaria; Querci, Giorgia; Saponati, Giorgio; Bokor, Daniela; Rivolta, Giovanni; Bussi, Simona; Braverman, Lewis E; Vitti, Paolo; Pinchera, Aldo

    2014-07-01

    Sulfate conjugation of thyroid hormones is an alternate metabolic pathway that facilitates the biliary and urinary excretion of iodothyronines and enhances their deiodination rate, leading to the generation of inactive metabolites. A desulfating pathway reverses this process, and thyromimetic effects have been observed following the parenteral administration of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) sulfate (T3S) in rats. The present study investigated whether T3S is absorbed after oral administration in humans and if it represents a source of T3. Twenty-eight hypothyroid patients (7 men and 21 women; mean age, 44 ± 11 years) who had a thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma were enrolled. Replacement thyroid hormone therapy was withdrawn (42 days for thyroxine, 14 days for T3) prior to 131I remnant ablation. A single oral dose of 20, 40, 80 (4 patients/group), or 160 μg (16 patients/group) of T3S was administered 3 days before the planned administration of 131I. Blood samples for serum T3S and total T3 (TT3) concentrations were obtained at various times up to 48 hours after T3S administration. At all T3S doses, serum T3S concentrations increased, reaching a peak at 2 to 4 hours and progressively returning to basal levels within 8 to 24 hours. The T3S maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the 0- to 48-hour concentration-time curve (AUC0-48h) were directly and significantly related to the administered dose. An increase in serum TT3 concentration was observed (significant after 1 hour), and the concentration increased further at 2 and 4 hours and then remained steady up to 48 hours after T3S administration. There was a significant direct correlation between the TT3 AUC0-48h and the administered dose of T3S. No changes in serum free thyroxine (T4) concentrations during the entire study period were observed, whereas serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels increased slightly at 48 hours, but this was not related to the dose of T3S. No adverse events were reported. (1) T3S is

  9. [Influence of staphylococcin T on Enterococcus sp. growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białucha, Agata; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bugalski, Roman Marian; Gierlotka, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesised, extracellular bacterial products. Generally, spectrum of inhibition is limited to the same or closely related species to bacteriocin producer. Staphylococcin T is produced by Staphylococcus cohnii strain. The present study concerns influence of StT to 267 Enterococcus sp. strains growth isolated between 2003 and 2006 in Department of Microbiology University Hospital of dr. A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz. S. cohnii T antagonistic ability evaluated towards bacteries on Mueller-Hinton Agar (bio Mérieux) in aerobic conditions. After 24 and 48 hours tested enterococci suspensions were plated perpendiculary. Susceptibility to antibiotics was assessed by disc diffusion method according to the guideless of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and National Reference Centre for Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Among Enterococcus sp. strains tested 7.1% were sensitive to StT. The highest percentage of sensitive enterococci isolated from wound swabs, urine, blood and pus. Enterococcus faecium strains dominated (63.2%) among enterococci sensitive to StT. Moderate inhibition degree on S. cohnii T bacteriocin action was observed in majority sensitive enterococci strains. Enterococcus sp. sensitive to StT strains were frequently multidrug resistant (68.4%). According to the study results and increasing resistance to antibiotics, StT could be an alternative agent used to treat infections caused by Enterococcus sp.

  10. Influence factors of human T lymphocyte co-stimulatory effect in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianhua; Su Liaoyuan; Tong Jian; Xue Lian

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Effects of CD3 McAb, CD28 McAb, PHA and low-dose γ-ray irradiation on T lymphocytes were investigated to explore factors of influencing T cell signals transduction. Method: Using CD3 McAb and CD28 McAb mimicking as the first and the second signals, and using PHA and low dose γ-rays irradiation as stimulatory factors in T cell activation, the influences of these factors and the two signals on human lymphocyte proliferation response were studied with 3 H-thymidine incorporation. Results: Lymphocyte proliferation response occurred when the two signals were treated co-stimulation or within certain intervals (within 40h). PHA and 10 cGy γ-rays irradiation can also activate lymphocytes to proliferate. However, each of the two signals alone did not activate lymphocytes to proliferate. Conclusion: CD3 McAb, CD28 McAb, PHA and low-dose γ-rays irradiation could stimulate T lymphocyte proliferation, which is an important aspect in cellular immune regulation

  11. Influence of fractionation and time on local control of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Quynh-Thu; Krieg, Richard M.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Fu, Karen K.; Meyler, Thomas S.; Stuart, Alex A.; Phillips, Theodore L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of fraction size and overall time on local control of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma Methods and Materials: Between 1956 and 1995, 318 consecutive patients with early glottic carcinoma (250 T1, 68 T2) were treated with definitive megavoltage radiotherapy at UCSF. Treatment was delivered using conventional fractionation at one fraction/day, 5 days/week. Minimum tumor dose ranged from 50 to 81Gy (median: 61Gy). The fraction size was 200cGy. Conclusions: Risk of tumor recurrence increased with higher T-stage, smaller fraction size, and longer overall time. Our results suggest that for optimal local control, radiotherapy for early glottic carcinoma should be completed as soon as possible, preferably within 6 weeks, using a fraction size ≥ 225cGy. Our current policy is to treat T1 and T2 vocal cord carcinomas with 225cGy/fraction/day, 5 days/week to a total dose of 63-65Gy

  12. Influence of carbamazepin and diclofenac on the radio-T3/T4-distribution and the maximal binding capacity of thyroid hormone binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternad, H.; Albrecher, B.; Langsteger, W.; Eber, O.

    1993-01-01

    Marked changes in plasma thyroid function parameters due to medication have been described in literature. We, therefore, studied the influence of routine administration of carbamazepine and diclofenac upon the radio T3/T4 distribution to specific thyroid transport proteins as well as their maximal binding capacity (MBC) for T4. Both drugs have been found to lead to changes in T3 and T4 distribution but not to any influence upon MBC. The parameters of thyroid function mostly revealed reduced FT3 and FT4 values while bTSH was affected only by carbamazepine administration. (authors)

  13. Contrast-enhanced 3T MR perfusion of musculoskeletal tumours. T1 value heterogeneity assessment and evaluation of the influence of T1 estimation methods on quantitative parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Leplat, Christophe; Verbizier, Jacques de; Blum, Alain [Hopital Central, CHRU-Nancy, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Chen, Bailiang; Beaumont, Marine [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire IADI, UMR S 947, Nancy (France); Badr, Sammy; Cotten, Anne [CHRU Lille Centre de Consultations et d' Imagerie de l' Appareil Locomoteur, Department of Radiology and Musculoskeletal Imaging, Lille (France)

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate intra-tumour and striated muscle T1 value heterogeneity and the influence of different methods of T1 estimation on the variability of quantitative perfusion parameters. Eighty-two patients with a histologically confirmed musculoskeletal tumour were prospectively included in this study and, with ethics committee approval, underwent contrast-enhanced MR perfusion and T1 mapping. T1 value variations in viable tumour areas and in normal-appearing striated muscle were assessed. In 20 cases, normal muscle perfusion parameters were calculated using three different methods: signal based and gadolinium concentration based on fixed and variable T1 values. Tumour and normal muscle T1 values were significantly different (p = 0.0008). T1 value heterogeneity was higher in tumours than in normal muscle (variation of 19.8% versus 13%). The T1 estimation method had a considerable influence on the variability of perfusion parameters. Fixed T1 values yielded higher coefficients of variation than variable T1 values (mean 109.6 ± 41.8% and 58.3 ± 14.1% respectively). Area under the curve was the least variable parameter (36%). T1 values in musculoskeletal tumours are significantly different and more heterogeneous than normal muscle. Patient-specific T1 estimation is needed for direct inter-patient comparison of perfusion parameters. (orig.)

  14. Předevčírem, nebo kdy to bylo?": Temporalita třídy nejchudších

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašát, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-82 ISSN 0038-0288 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : homeless * poorest class * temporalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/cs/issue/169-sociologicky-casopis-czech-sociological-review-1-2014/3393?culture=en

  15. Characterization of antigen-specific, Ia-restricted, L3T4+ cytolytic T lymphocytes and assessment of thymic influence on their self specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, H.; Munitz, T.I.; Singer, A.

    1985-01-01

    The goals of the present study were: (a) to generate antigen-specific L3T4+ cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL), (b) to determine their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction specificity, and (c) to assess the influence of thymic MHC determinants on their self specificity. The authors found that L3T4+ CTL specific for either trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified self determinants or minor histocompatibility antigens could be generated from Lyt-2- responder T cells provided that the response cultures were supplemented with supernatants rich in helper factors. Such antigen-specific L3T4+ CTL were Ia-restricted by the criteria that they lysed only Ia+ target cells and that their lysis of Ia+ target cells was specifically inhibited by anti-Ia monoclonal antibodies. The relative frequency of L3T4+ pCTL was found to be only 5-10% of the total anti-TNP pCTL present in the spleens of normal mice. Finally, the authors utilized radiation bone marrow chimeras to assess the influence of the thymic haplotype on the self-Ia specificity of L3T4+ CTL. Both bulk culture and limiting dilution experiments revealed that the self-Ia specificity of L3T4+ anti-TNP CTL from F1----parent and A----B allogeneic chimeras was not markedly skewed toward the haplotype of the chimeric thymus. These results contrast with those obtained previously for L3T4+ anti-TNP Th cells and demonstrate that in the radiation bone marrow chimera model of T cell differentiation, the self specificity of Th cells but not pCTL is markedly influenced by the haplotype of the chimeric thymus

  16. Morphological imaging and T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage at 7 Tesla MRI under the influence of intravenous gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Geis, Christina; Goebel, Juliane; Theysohn, Jens M.; Kraff, Oliver; Johst, Soeren; Ladd, Mark E.; Quick, Harald H.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of intravenous gadolinium on cartilage T2 and T2* relaxation times and on morphological image quality at 7-T hip MRI. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T. Multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping, 3D T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequences were acquired before and after intravenous application of gadolinium according to a delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Cartilage relaxation times were measured in both scans. Morphological sequences were assessed quantitatively using contrast ratios and qualitatively using a 4-point Likert scale. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation (ρ) and Wilcoxon sign-rank test were used for statistical comparisons. Pre- and post-contrast T2 and T2* values were highly correlated (T2: acetabular: ρ = 0.76, femoral: ρ = 0.77; T2*: acetabular: ρ = 0.80, femoral: ρ = 0.72). Gadolinium enhanced contrasts between cartilage and joint fluid in DESS and T1 VIBE according to the qualitative (p = 0.01) and quantitative (p < 0.001) analysis. The delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage and the labrum predominantly improved with gadolinium. Gadolinium showed no relevant influence on T2 or T2* relaxation times and improved morphological image quality at 7 T. Therefore, morphological and quantitative sequences including dGEMRIC can be conducted in a one-stop-shop examination. (orig.)

  17. Morphological imaging and T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage at 7 Tesla MRI under the influence of intravenous gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Geis, Christina; Goebel, Juliane; Theysohn, Jens M. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Kraff, Oliver; Johst, Soeren [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, High-Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the influence of intravenous gadolinium on cartilage T2 and T2* relaxation times and on morphological image quality at 7-T hip MRI. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T. Multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping, 3D T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequences were acquired before and after intravenous application of gadolinium according to a delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Cartilage relaxation times were measured in both scans. Morphological sequences were assessed quantitatively using contrast ratios and qualitatively using a 4-point Likert scale. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation (ρ) and Wilcoxon sign-rank test were used for statistical comparisons. Pre- and post-contrast T2 and T2* values were highly correlated (T2: acetabular: ρ = 0.76, femoral: ρ = 0.77; T2*: acetabular: ρ = 0.80, femoral: ρ = 0.72). Gadolinium enhanced contrasts between cartilage and joint fluid in DESS and T1 VIBE according to the qualitative (p = 0.01) and quantitative (p < 0.001) analysis. The delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage and the labrum predominantly improved with gadolinium. Gadolinium showed no relevant influence on T2 or T2* relaxation times and improved morphological image quality at 7 T. Therefore, morphological and quantitative sequences including dGEMRIC can be conducted in a one-stop-shop examination. (orig.)

  18. Contrast-enhanced 3T MR Perfusion of Musculoskeletal Tumours: T1 Value Heterogeneity Assessment and Evaluation of the Influence of T1 Estimation Methods on Quantitative Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Leplat, Christophe; Chen, Bailiang; De Verbizier, Jacques; Beaumont, Marine; Badr, Sammy; Cotten, Anne; Blum, Alain

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate intra-tumour and striated muscle T1 value heterogeneity and the influence of different methods of T1 estimation on the variability of quantitative perfusion parameters. Eighty-two patients with a histologically confirmed musculoskeletal tumour were prospectively included in this study and, with ethics committee approval, underwent contrast-enhanced MR perfusion and T1 mapping. T1 value variations in viable tumour areas and in normal-appearing striated muscle were assessed. In 20 cases, normal muscle perfusion parameters were calculated using three different methods: signal based and gadolinium concentration based on fixed and variable T1 values. Tumour and normal muscle T1 values were significantly different (p = 0.0008). T1 value heterogeneity was higher in tumours than in normal muscle (variation of 19.8% versus 13%). The T1 estimation method had a considerable influence on the variability of perfusion parameters. Fixed T1 values yielded higher coefficients of variation than variable T1 values (mean 109.6 ± 41.8% and 58.3 ± 14.1% respectively). Area under the curve was the least variable parameter (36%). T1 values in musculoskeletal tumours are significantly different and more heterogeneous than normal muscle. Patient-specific T1 estimation is needed for direct inter-patient comparison of perfusion parameters. • T1 value variation in musculoskeletal tumours is considerable. • T1 values in muscle and tumours are significantly different. • Patient-specific T1 estimation is needed for comparison of inter-patient perfusion parameters. • Technical variation is higher in permeability than semiquantitative perfusion parameters.

  19. Analysis of Factors Influencing Diagnostic Accuracy of T-SPOT.TB for Active Tuberculosis in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifan; Shi, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yueqiu; Zhang, Yao; Huo, Feifei; Zhou, Baotong; Deng, Guohua; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2017-08-10

    T-SPOT.TB didn't perform a perfect diagnosis for active tuberculosis (ATB), and some factors may influence the results. We did this study to evaluate possible factors associated with the sensitivity and specificity of T-SPOT.TB, and the diagnostic parameters under varied conditions. Patients with suspected ATB were enrolled prospectively. Influencing factors of the sensitivity and specificity of T-SPOT.TB were evaluated using logistic regression models. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values (PV), and likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated with consideration of relevant factors. Of the 865 participants, 205 (23.7%) had ATB, including 58 (28.3%) microbiologically confirmed TB and 147 (71.7%) clinically diagnosed TB. 615 (71.7%) were non-TB. 45 (5.2%) cases were clinically indeterminate and excluded from the final analysis. In multivariate analysis, serous effusion was the only independent risk factor related to lower sensitivity (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18-0.81) among patients with ATB. Among non-TB patients, age, TB history, immunosuppressive agents/glucocorticoid treatment and lymphocyte count were the independent risk factors related to specificity of T-SPOT.TB. Sensitivity, specificity, PV+, PV-, LR+ and LR- of T-SPOT.TB for diagnosis of ATB were 78.5%, 74.1%, 50.3%, 91.2%, 3.0 and 0.3, respectively. This study suggests that influencing factors of sensitivity and specificity of T-SPOT.TB should be considered for interpretation of T-SPOT.TB results.

  20. Influence of dietary components on regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navikas, Shohreh; Teimer, Roman; Bockermann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    It is no longer a myth that a balanced diet is fundamental for general health. Common dietary components including vitamins A and D, omega-3 and probiotics are now widely accepted to be essential to protect against many diseases with an inflammatory nature. On the other hand, high fat diets...... components on diseases in which Tregs play a seminal role will be discussed. Among chronic diseases where dietary factors could have a direct influence via modulation of Tregs homeostasis and functions, we will review chronic tissue-specific autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as IBD, T1D, MS, RA...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0516 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0516 ref|YP_001875573.1| hypothetical protein Emin_0681 [Elusimicrobium... minutum Pei191] gb|ACC98236.1| hypothetical protein Emin_0681 [Elusimicrobium minutum Pei191] YP_001875573.1 1e-08 21% ...

  2. BRAF and MEK Inhibitors Influence the Function of Reprogrammed T Cells: Consequences for Adoptive T-Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dörrie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAFi/MEKi, the standard treatment for patients with BRAFV600 mutated melanoma, are currently explored in combination with various immunotherapies, notably checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive transfer of receptor-transfected T cells. Since two BRAFi/MEKi combinations with similar efficacy are approved, potential differences in their effects on immune cells would enable a rational choice for triple therapies. Therefore, we characterized the influence of the clinically approved BRAFi/MEKi combinations dabrafenib (Dabra and trametinib (Tram vs. vemurafenib (Vem and cobimetinib (Cobi on the activation and functionality of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-transfected T cells. We co-cultured CAR-transfected CD8+ T cells and target cells with clinically relevant concentrations of the inhibitors and determined the antigen-induced cytokine secretion. All BRAFi/MEKi reduced this release as single agents, with Dabra having the mildest inhibitory effect, and Dabra + Tram having a clearly milder inhibitory effect than Vem + Cobi. A similar picture was observed for the upregulation of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 on CAR-transfected T cells after antigen-specific stimulation. Most importantly, the cytolytic capacity of the CAR-T cells was significantly inhibited by Cobi and Vem + Cobi, whereas the other kinase inhibitors showed no effect. Therefore, the combination Dabra + Tram would be more suitable for combining with T-cell-based immunotherapy than Vem + Cobi.

  3. Influence of side-groove root radius on the ductile fracture toughness of miniature C(T) specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.

    2009-05-15

    The use of miniature C(T) specimens, MC(T), for fracture toughness measurements in the upper shelf regime has been investigated at SCK-CEN since 2004, in the framework of the Electrabel/Tractebel SCK-CEN Convention (now General Framework Agreement SUEZ-SCK-CEN). This geometry has been used and validated on both unirradiated (2004-05) and irradiated (2006) materials, mainly reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. While side-grooved MC(T) specimens have shown in all conditions a systematically lower tearing resistance and ductile crack initiation toughness as compared to standard-size 1TC(T) samples, the only plain-sided MC(T) specimen tested in 2005 exhibited very high ductile fracture toughness, thus pointing at a strong influence of side-grooving on the upper shelf properties of MC(T) specimens. This study investigates the influence of side-grooving on the initiation toughness and tearing resistance of MC(T) specimens, as a function of the root radius of the side-groove (ranging from 0.1 to 1 mm) and in comparison with plain-sided MC(T) and reference 1TC(T) samples. The material used is the well characterized DIN 22NiMoCr37 RPV steel, which had been used in the European project which generated the famous EURO fracture toughness data set.

  4. Influence of adenovirus and MVA vaccines on the breadth and hierarchy of T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollier, Christine S; Hill, Adrian V S; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo

    2016-08-31

    Viral-vectored vaccines are in clinical development for several infectious diseases where T-cell responses can mediate protection, and responses to sub-dominant epitopes is needed. Little is known about the influence of MVA or adenoviral vectors on the hierarchy of the dominant and sub-dominant T-cell epitopes. We investigated this aspect in mice using a malaria immunogen. Our results demonstrate that the T-cell hierarchy is influenced by the timing of analysis, rather than by the vector after a single immunization, with hierarchy changing over time. Repeated homologous immunization reduced the breadth of responses, while heterologous prime-boost induced the strongest response to the dominant epitope, albeit with only modest response to the sub-dominant epitopes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Lens Dk/t influences the clinical response in overnight orthokeratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Edward; Swarbrick, Helen A

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the influence of lens oxygen transmissibility (Dk/t) on the clinical response to overnight (ON) orthokeratology (OK) lens wear over 2 weeks. Eleven subjects (age, 20 to 39 years) were fitted with OK lenses (BE; Capricornia Contact Lens) in both eyes. Lenses in matched design/fitting but different materials (Boston EO and XO; nominal Dk/t: 26 and 46 ISO Fatt, respectively) were worn ON only in the two eyes over a 2-week period. Changes in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity, subjective refraction (spherical equivalent), corneal apical radius ro and asphericity Q (Medmont E300), and central stromal thickness (Holden-Payor optical pachometer) were measured. There were statistically significant differences in outcomes between the two lens materials (analysis of variance, p 0.05). An increase in lens Dk/t appears to increase the clinical effects of ON reverse-geometry lens wear over the medium term. This adds further support to the recommendation that high Dk materials should be used for ON OK not only to provide physiological advantages but also to optimize clinical outcomes.

  6. Enrofloxacin and Probiotic Lactobacilli Influence PepT1 and LEAP-2 mRNA Expression in Poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlova, Ivelina; Milanova, Aneliya; Danova, Svetla; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) in chickens can be influenced by food deprivation, pathological conditions and drug administration. Effect of three putative probiotic Lactobacillus strains and enrofloxacin on the expression of PepT1

  7. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variant C677T influences susceptibility to migraine with aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundholm James

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene is associated with increased levels of circulating homocysteine and is a mild risk factor for vascular disease. Migraine, with and without aura (MA and MO, is a prevalent and complex neurovascular disorder that may also be affected by genetically influenced hyperhomocysteinaemia. To determine whether the C677T variant in the MTHFR gene is associated with migraine susceptibility we utilised unrelated and family-based case-control study designs. Methods A total of 652 Caucasian migraine cases were investigated in this study. The MTHFR C677T variant was genotyped in 270 unrelated migraine cases and 270 controls as well as 382 affected subjects from 92 multiplex pedigrees. Results In the unrelated case-control sample we observed an over-representation of the 677T allele in migraine patients compared to controls, specifically for the MA subtype (40% vs. 33% (χ2 = 5.70, P = 0.017. The Armitage test for trend indicated a significant dosage effect of the risk allele (T for MA (χ2 = 5.72, P = 0.017. This linear trend was also present in the independent family-based sample (χ2 = 4.25, Padjusted = 0.039. Overall, our results indicate that the T/T genotype confers a modest, yet significant, increase in risk for the MA subtype (odds ratio: 2.0 – 2.5. No increased risk for the MO subtype was observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions In Caucasians, the C677T variant in the MTHFR gene influences susceptibility to MA, but not MO. Investigation into the enzyme activity of MTHFR and the role of homocysteine in the pathophysiology of migraine is warranted.

  8. Influence of temporary nasal occlusion (tNO) on epistaxis frequency in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsching, Kornelia E C; Haubner, Frank; Kühnel, Thomas S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of temporary nasal occlusion (tNO) with hypoallergenic tape on the frequency and severity of epistaxis in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). This prospective observational study included 20 HHT patients who were undergoing Nd:YAG laser therapy at regular intervals. Over a 3-month period, laser therapy was supplemented by tNO with hypoallergenic tape for 5 h/day on average. On a 0-10 numeric rating scale, the patients reported significantly greater satisfaction in epistaxis terms after tNO treatment, with mean scores of 5 before and 7 after 3-month tNO (p = 0.05). The Epistaxis Severity Score also fell significantly from a median of 3.59-2.43 after 3-month tNO compared with laser therapy alone (p = 0.01). The patients' hemoglobin levels remained stable during the study (median: 12.2 g/dL before tNO; median: 11.7 g/dL after tNO; p = 0.387). Overall, the present study confirms the positive influence of tNO on epistaxis in HHT patients and on subjective satisfaction. This simple and inexpensive strategy is therefore a helpful option, especially in addition to regular Nd:YAG laser therapy, and is recommended by the authors.

  9. Thyroid hormone and retinoic acid nuclear receptors: specific ligand-activated transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtko, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by both the thyroid hormone and the vitamin A-derived 'retinoid hormones' is a critical component in controlling many aspects of higher vertebrate development and metabolism. Their functions are mediated by nuclear receptors, which comprise a large super-family of ligand-inducible transcription factors. Both the thyroid hormone and the retinoids are involved in a complex arrangement of physiological and development responses in many tissues of higher vertebrates. The functions of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ), the thyromimetically active metabolite of thyroxine as well as all-trans retinoic acid, the biologically active vitamin A metabolite are mediated by nuclear receptor proteins that are members of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid hormone receptor family. The functions of all members of the receptor super family are discussed. (authors)

  10. Influence of Concurrent Finger Movements on Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)-Induced Aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Yuichiro; Terney, Daniella; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to have bidirectional influence on the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in resting participants in a polarity-specific manner: anodal tDCS increased and cathodal tDCS decreased them. More recently, the effects of tDCS have been shown to depend on a number of additional factors. We investigated whether a small variety of movements involving target and non-target muscles could differentially modify the efficacy of tDCS. MEPs were elicited from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, defined as the target muscle, by single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1). During M1 tDCS, which lasted for 10 min applying anodal, cathodal, or sham condition, the participants were instructed to squeeze a ball with their right hand (Task 1), to move their right index finger only in the medial (Task 2), in the lateral direction (Task 3), or in medial and lateral direction alternatively (Task 4). Anodal tDCS reduced MEP amplitudes measured in Task 1 and Task 2, but to a lesser extent in the latter. In Task 3, anodal tDCS led to greater MEP amplitudes than cathodal stimulation. Alternating movements resulted in no effect of tDCS on MEP amplitude (Task 4). The results are congruent with the current notion that the aftereffects of tDCS are highly variable relying on a number of factors including the type of movements executed during stimulation.

  11. Influence of coupling parameter on current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T c superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2006-01-01

    We study the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T c superconductors by numerical calculations and in framework of capacitively coupled Josephson junctions model we obtain the total number of branches. The influence of the coupling parameter α on the current-voltage characteristics at fixed parameter β (β 2 1/β c , where β c is McCumber parameter) and the influence of α on β-dependence of the current-voltage characteristics are investigated. We obtain the α-dependence of the branch's slopes and branch's endpoints. The presented results show new features of the coupling effect on the scheme of hysteresis jumps in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T c superconductors

  12. Estimation of precipitable water at different locations using surface dew-point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Wahab, M.; Sharif, T. A.

    1995-09-01

    The Reitan (1963) regression equation of the form ln w = a + bT d has been examined and tested to estimate precipitable water vapor content from the surface dew point temperature at different locations. The results of this study indicate that the slope b of the above equation has a constant value of 0.0681, while the intercept a changes rapidly with latitude. The use of the variable intercept technique can improve the estimated result by about 2%.

  13. On the influence of T-Stress on photoelastic analysis under pure mode II loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Colombo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the classical definition for in-plane modes of crack deformation, the constant stress term T exists only in the presence of mode I. However, recent studies show that this term can exist inmode II conditions as well, and significantly affect the elastic stress field around the crack tip. These effects can be visualized using the experimental method of photoelasticity. Based on the analytical studies, presence of the T-stress in mode II cracks transforms the isochromatic fringe patterns from symmetric closed loops to asymmetric and discontinuous shapes. In this paper, presence of the T-stress in mode II cracks and its effects on the fringe patterns is experimentally investigated. The test specimens are Brazilian disks containing very sharp central cracks: experimental results indicate that these specimens contain negative values of T-stress. Experimental values are then compared to numerical results. To better understand the differences between experimental and numerical values, a thee dimensional analysis is performed with the finite element method: results show the influence of the real geometry of the crack front on the stress intensity factors.

  14. Estimation of precipitable water from surface dew point temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, M.; Sharif, T.A.

    1991-09-01

    The Reitan (1963) regression equation which is of the form lnw=a+bT d has been examined and tested to estimate precipitable water content from surface dew point temperature at different locations. The study confirms that the slope of this equation (b) remains constant at the value of .0681 deg. C., while the intercept (a) changes rapidly with the latitude. The use of the variable intercept can improve the estimated result by 2%. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Genetic Modeling of Radiation Injury in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0681 TITLE: Genetic Modeling of Radiation Injury in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0681Genetic Modeling of Radiation Injury in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated...effects, urinary morbidity, rectal injury, sexual dysfunction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  16. T1/T2 glottic cancer managed by external beam radiotherapy - the influence of pretreatment hemoglobin on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warde, P.R.; O'Sullivan, B.; Panzarella, T.; Keane, T.J.; Gullane, P.; Payne, D.; Liu, F.-F.; McLean, M.; Waldron, J.; Cummings, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) level has been reported to be an important prognostic factor for local control and survival in various malignancies. However in many settings, the adverse effect of a low Hb may be related to more advanced disease and the purpose of this analysis was to assess the influence of pretreatment Hb on local control in a large series of patients with a localised cancer (T1/T2 glottic cancer, AJCC 1992) treated in a standard fashion. Materials and Methods: Between Jan 1981 and Dec 1989, 735 patients (median age 63, 657 males 78 females) with T1/T2 glottic cancer were treated with RT. The standard RT prescription was 50Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks (97% patients). Factors studied for prognostic importance for local failure included pretreatment Hb (assessed as a continuous variable) age, sex, T category, anterior commissure involvement, subglottic extension, tumour bulk (presence of visible tumour vs subclinical disease), treatment time and RT technique (Cobalt vs 6 MV). Results: With a median follow-up of 6.8 years (range 0.2 - 14.3), 131 patients have relapsed for an actuarial 5-year relapse free rate of 81.7%. The 5-year actuarial survival was 75.8%, cause specific survival - 92.4%. The median pretreatment hemoglobin level was 14.8 g/dl and was the same in all T categories. On multivariate analysis, using the Cox proportional hazards model, pretreatment Hb (p=0.001) predicted for local failure after RT. The relative risk (RR) for relapse was calculated for various Hb levels eg the RR for a Hb of 12 g/dl vs a Hb of 15 g/dl was 1.8, (95% C.I. 1.3 - 2.7). Previously noted factors including gender (p=0.0038), T category (p=0.007)) as well as tumour bulk (p=0.02) were also prognostically important for local control. Conclusions: This analysis, in a large number of similarly treated patients, indicates that pretreatment Hb is an independent prognostic factor for local control in patients with T1/T2 carcinoma of the glottis treated with

  17. Immune response gene control of collagen reactivity in man: collagen unresponsiveness in HLA-DR4 negative nonresponders is due to the presence of T-dependent suppressive influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solinger, A.M.; Stobo, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether the failure to detect collagen reactivity in nonresponders represents an absence of collagen-reactive T cells or a preponderance of suppressive influences, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA-DR4 - individuals were subjected to three procedures capable of separating suppressive influences from LIF-secreting cells; irradiation (1000 rad), discontinuous gradient fractionation, and cytolysis with the monoclonal antibody OKT 8. Each procedure resulted in the specific appearance of reactivity to collagen, which was identical to that seen in HLA-DR4 + individuals with regard to its cellular requirements and antigenic specificity. Addition of unresponsive (i.e., nonirradiated or low-density T cells) to responsive (i.e., irradiated or high-density T cells) autologous populations resulted in specific suppression of collagen reactivity. Radiation-sensitive suppressive influences could not be detected in HLA-DR4 + collagen responders.These studies indicate that the expression of T-dependent reactivity to collagen in man reflects the net influence of collage-reactive vs collagen-suppressive T cells. Moreover, it is the influence of HLA-D-linked genes on the development of suppressive influences rather than on the development of collagen-reactive, LIF-secreting T cells that serves to distinguish HLA-DR4 + collagen responders from HLA-DR4 - collagen nonresponders

  18. Loss of T cells influences sex differences in behavior and brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilett, Kelly C; Friedel, Miriam; Ellegood, Jacob; MacKenzie, Robyn N; Lerch, Jason P; Foster, Jane A

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and animal studies demonstrate that immune-brain communication influences behavior and brain function. Mice lacking T cell receptor β and δ chains were tested in the elevated plus maze, open field, and light-dark test and showed reduced anxiety-like behavior compared to wild type. Interestingly sex differences were observed in the behavioural phenotype of TCRβ-/-δ- mice. Specifically, female TCRβ-/-δ- mice spent more time in the light chamber compared to wild type females, whereas male TCRβ-/-δ- spent more time in the center of the open field compared to wild type males. In addition, TCRβ-/-δ- mice did not show sex differences in activity-related behaviors observed in WT mice. Ex vivo brain imaging (7 Tesla MRI) revealed volume changes in hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe and other brain regions between wild type and T cell receptor knockout mice. There was also a loss of sexual dimorphism in brain volume in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, normally the most sexually dimorphic region in the brain, in immune compromised mice. These data demonstrate the presence of T cells is important in the development of sex differences in CNS circuitry and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of a aging thermal treatment on the mechanical properties of 6061 T6 and 6063 T5 aluminums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohorquez, A.C.; Sierra C, M; Lemus, J

    2010-01-01

    Because of its light weight and its good mechanical properties, aluminum alloys have been used traditionally in the production of structural airplane components and car parts. Aluminum alloys with magnesium-silicon (Al-Mg-Si), 6XXX series, respond acceptably to the aging thermal treatment; because the magnesium and silicon permit precipitation hardening, which significantly changes the mechanical properties of this alloy. Two aluminums were selected for this study: 6061 T6 and 6063 T5, which were thermally treated at 120 o C, 150 o C and 180 o C for 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours with later quenching in water. An experimental design established the number of test specimens needed to analyze the phenomena. Later, tension tests were developed to verify the property changes undergone during the thermal treatment. The results are presented in performance graphs that show the influence of time and temperature on the mechanical properties of the chosen aluminums

  20. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine content of desiccated thyroid tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Jones, R W; Larsen, P R

    1977-11-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured by radioimmunoassay in Pronase hydrolysates of four lots each of 1- and 2-grain tablets of desiccated thyroid (Thyroid, Armour) and thyroglobulin (Proloid, Warner-Chilcott). The methodology used was verified by studies of tablets containing known quantities of T4 and T3. One grain of desiccated thyroid contained 12 +/- 1 and 64 +/- 3 microgram (mean +/- SD) of T3 and T4 per tablet, respectively (T4/T3 molar ratio, 4.3). A 1-grain tablet of thyroglobulin contained 16 +/- 2 and 55 +/- 5 microgram of T3 and T4, respectively with a T4/T3 ratio of 2.9. Two-grain tablets generally contained twice the quantity of T3 and T4 in the 1-grain preparations. The variation in T3 and T4 content between the four lots of each tablet strength for each product was 10% or less. These estimates of T3 and T4 content are 1.5- to 2-fold greater than those previously published. This difference probably results from the more sophisticated methodology now available which does not require chromatographic separation of T3 and T4 or iodometry. Using calculations based on published estimates of T4 and T3 absorption and of the T3/T4 potency ratio, it would appear that the T3 content of desiccated thyroid and thyroglobulin provide approximately 39% and 51%, respectively, of the thyromimetic activity of these two medications.

  1. The influence of temperature, viscosity and pH on the relaxation time T1 in flowing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toczylowska, B.

    1995-01-01

    The designed and constructed at the Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering facility for the relaxation time (T 1 ) measurements of liquids flow has been presented. The influence of temperature, viscosity and pH has been determined for several liquids, especially physiological fluids

  2. Influence of type of sport on cardiac repolarization assessed by electrocardiographic T-wave morphology combination score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasius, Susanne; Graff, Claus; Ellervik, Christina

    2018-01-01

    was influenced by the sport performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Digital electrocardiograms of 469 young elite athletes were analyzed for T-wave asymmetry, flatness and notching, and combined in the MCS. Athletes >22years were compared to a sex-and age matched control group from the general population (N=198......). RESULTS: MCS increased with increasing endurance component of the sport performed ranging from 0.79±0.15 (low) to 0.92±0.21 (high) (p... suggests that sport induces repolarization changes detected by T-wave morphology, and a greater level of changes is seen in athletes from high endurance sports....

  3. Multivariable analysis of clinical influence factors on liver enhancement of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P.; Zeman, F.; Teufel, A.; Lang, S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors influencing Gd-EOB-DTPA liver uptake in patients with healthy liver parenchyma. A total of 124 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. The relative enhancement (RE) between plain and contrast-enhanced signal intensity was calculated. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate clinical factors influencing the relative enhancement. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to their relative liver enhancement (HRE, RE ≥ 100 %; MRE, 100 % > RE > 50 %; NRE, RE ≤ 50 %) and were analyzed according to the relevant risk factors. Simple regression analyses revealed patient age, transaminases (AST, ALT, GGT), liver, spleen and delta-liver volume (the difference between the volumetrically measured liver volume and the estimated liver volume based on body weight) as significant factors influencing relative enhancement. In the multiple analysis the transaminase AST, spleen and delta liver volume remained significant factors influencing relative enhancement. Delta liver volume showed a significant difference between all analyzed groups. Liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase depends on a variety of factors. Body weight-adapted administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA may lead to inadequate liver enhancement after 20 minutes especially when the actual liver volume differs from the expected volume.

  4. Influence of Contact Angle Boundary Condition on CFD Simulation of T-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, S.; Montlaur, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the influence of the contact angle boundary condition on 3D CFD simulations of the bubble generation process occurring in a capillary T-junction. Numerical simulations have been performed with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics solver ANSYS Fluent v15.0.7. Experimental results serve as a reference to validate numerical results for four independent parameters: the bubble generation frequency, volume, velocity and length. CFD simulations accurately reproduce experimental results both from qualitative and quantitative points of view. Numerical results are very sensitive to the gas-liquid-wall contact angle boundary conditions, confirming that this is a fundamental parameter to obtain accurate CFD results for simulations of this kind of problems.

  5. Influence of low dose irradiation on differentiation, maturation and T-cell activation of human dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns, Jutta [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 21, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Anderegg, Ulf; Saalbach, Anja [Department for Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, University of Leipzig, Johannisallee 30, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Rosin, Britt; Patties, Ina; Glasow, Annegret [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 21, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Kamprad, Manja [Institute for Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, University of Leipzig, Johannisallee 30, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Scholz, Markus [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Haertelstr. 16-18, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido, E-mail: Guido.Hildebrandt@uni-rostock.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Rostock, Suedring 75, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 21, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-05-10

    Ionizing irradiation could act directly on immune cells and may induce bystander effects mediated by soluble factors that are released by the irradiated cells. This is the first study analyzing both the direct effect of low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) on the maturation and cytokine release of human dendritic cells (DCs) and the functional consequences for co-cultured T-cells. We showed that irradiation of DC-precursors in vitro does not influence surface marker expression or cytokine profile of immature DCs nor of mature DCs after LPS treatment. There was no difference of single dose irradiation versus fractionated irradiation protocols on the behavior of the mature DCs. Further, the low dose irradiation did not change the capacity of the DCs to stimulate T-cell proliferation. But the irradiation of the co-culture of DCs and T-cells revealed significantly lower proliferation of T-cells with higher doses. Summarizing the data from approx. 50 DC preparations there is no significant effect of low dose ionizing irradiation on the cytokine profile, surface marker expression and maturation of DCs in vitro although functional consequences cannot be excluded.

  6. Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticles as Materials in Sensor Applications: Variables That Influence Their Organization and Assembly on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinny L. Liu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles possess characteristics that make them ideal candidates as materials for sensors, particularly as sensor probes. Their surface can be modified, either through genetic engineering or direct chemical conjugation to display functional moieties such as antibodies or other proteins to recognize a specific target. However, in order for T4 nanoparticles to be utilized as a sensor probe, it is necessary to understand and control the variables that determine their assembly and organization on a surface. The aim of this work is to discuss some of variables that we have identified as influencing the behavior of T4 nanoparticles on surfaces. The effect of pH, ionic strength, substrate characteristics, nanoparticle concentration and charge was addressed qualitatively using atomic force microscopy (AFM.

  7. Influence of age, BMI, gender and lumbar level on T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar discs in healthy asymptomatic adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guebitz, Raphael [Asklepios Hospital Altona, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Neuroradiology; Lange, Tobias; Gosheger, Georg [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Tumor Orthopaedics; Heindel, Walter; Allkemper, Thomas [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Stehling, Christoph [Sankt-Barbara Hospital Ham-Heessen, Hamm (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology; Gerss, Joachim [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Biostatistics and Clinical Research; Kanthak, Christian [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany). Inst. for Medical Image Computing; Schulte, Tobias L. [Bochum Univ. St. Josef Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery

    2018-02-15

    To assess the T1ρ range of lumbar intervertebral discs in healthy asymptomatic individuals at 1.5 T and to investigate the influence of age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and lumbar level on T1ρ relaxation. In a prospective study, a total of 81 volunteers aged 20 - 80 years were included in this study and divided into three age groups (A: 20 - 39y; B: 40 - 59y; C: 60 - 80y). All of the volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 T with acquisition of sagittal T1ρ images. The calculated T1ρ relaxation times were correlated with age, BMI, gender, and lumbar level relative to the total disc, the annulus fibrosus, and the nucleus pulposus. Age had a significant influence on T1ρ relaxation times at all lumbar levels, with increasing age being associated with reduced relaxation times. There was also a significant difference between age groups A vs. C and B vs. C (P = 0.0008 and P = 0.0149, respectively). No significant differences in T1ρ relaxation time were observed between men and women (P > 0.05). BMI showed a significant negative correlation with T1ρ relaxation times (P < 0.0001). Analysis of the lumbar level revealed a significant decrease in relaxation times from L1/2 to L5 / S1 (P = 0.0013). Increasing age correlated significantly with advanced lumbar disc degeneration in asymptomatic individuals, particularly in those aged 60 or older. Increasing BMI correlated significantly with increasing degeneration. The lower discs showed more degeneration than the upper ones.

  8. Influence of age, BMI, gender and lumbar level on T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar discs in healthy asymptomatic adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebitz, Raphael; Lange, Tobias; Gosheger, Georg; Heindel, Walter; Allkemper, Thomas; Stehling, Christoph; Gerss, Joachim; Kanthak, Christian; Schulte, Tobias L.

    2018-01-01

    To assess the T1ρ range of lumbar intervertebral discs in healthy asymptomatic individuals at 1.5 T and to investigate the influence of age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and lumbar level on T1ρ relaxation. In a prospective study, a total of 81 volunteers aged 20 - 80 years were included in this study and divided into three age groups (A: 20 - 39y; B: 40 - 59y; C: 60 - 80y). All of the volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 T with acquisition of sagittal T1ρ images. The calculated T1ρ relaxation times were correlated with age, BMI, gender, and lumbar level relative to the total disc, the annulus fibrosus, and the nucleus pulposus. Age had a significant influence on T1ρ relaxation times at all lumbar levels, with increasing age being associated with reduced relaxation times. There was also a significant difference between age groups A vs. C and B vs. C (P = 0.0008 and P = 0.0149, respectively). No significant differences in T1ρ relaxation time were observed between men and women (P > 0.05). BMI showed a significant negative correlation with T1ρ relaxation times (P < 0.0001). Analysis of the lumbar level revealed a significant decrease in relaxation times from L1/2 to L5 / S1 (P = 0.0013). Increasing age correlated significantly with advanced lumbar disc degeneration in asymptomatic individuals, particularly in those aged 60 or older. Increasing BMI correlated significantly with increasing degeneration. The lower discs showed more degeneration than the upper ones.

  9. CD4+ T cell effects on CD8+ T cell location defined using bioluminescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Azadniv

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes of the CD8+ class are critical in delivering cytotoxic function and in controlling viral and intracellular infections. These cells are "helped" by T lymphocytes of the CD4+ class, which facilitate their activation, clonal expansion, full differentiation and the persistence of memory. In this study we investigated the impact of CD4+ T cells on the location of CD8+ T cells, using antibody-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion and imaging the antigen-driven redistribution of bioluminescent CD8+ T cells in living mice. We documented that CD4+ T cells influence the biodistribution of CD8+ T cells, favoring their localization to abdominal lymph nodes. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that this was associated with an increase in the expression of specific integrins. The presence of CD4+ T cells at the time of initial CD8+ T cell activation also influences their biodistribution in the memory phase. Based on these results, we propose the model that one of the functions of CD4+ T cell "help" is to program the homing potential of CD8+ T cells.

  10. Quantitative Renal Cortical Perfusion in Human Subjects with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles: Influence of T1 Shortening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, A.; Ahlstrom, H.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Abildgaard, A.; Bock, M.; Bjoernerud, A. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Using conventional contrast agents, the technique of quantitative perfusion by observing the transport of a bolus with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited to the brain due to extravascular leakage. Purpose: To perform quantitative perfusion measurements in humans with an intravascular contrast agent, and to estimate the influence of the T1 relaxivity of the contrast agent on the first-pass response. Material and Methods: Renal cortical perfusion was measured quantitatively in six patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis using a rapid gradient double-echo sequence in combination with an intravenous bolus injection of NC100150 Injection, an intravascular contrast agent based on iron-oxide nanoparticles. The influence of T1 relaxivity was measured by comparing perfusion results based on single- and double-echo data. Results: The mean values of cortical blood flow, cortical blood volume, and mean transit time in the normal kidneys were measured to 339+-60 ml/min/100 g, 41+-8 ml/100 g, and 7.3+-1.0 s, respectively, based on double-echo data. The corresponding results based on single-echo data, which are not compensated for the T1 relaxivity, were 254+-47 ml/min/100 g, 27+-3 ml/100 g, and 6+-1.2 s, respectively. Conclusion: The use of a double-echo sequence enabled elimination of confounding T1 effects and consequent systematic underestimation of the perfusion.

  11. T 2 mapping of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spijkerman, Jolanda M; Petersen, Esben T; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    the performance of this method at 7 T and evaluated the influence of partial volume and B 1 and B 0 inhomogeneity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T 2-preparation-based CSF T 2-mapping was performed in seven healthy volunteers at 7 and 3 T, and was compared with a single echo spin-echo sequence with various echo times......OBJECT: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) T 2 mapping can potentially be used to investigate CSF composition. A previously proposed CSF T 2-mapping method reported a T 2 difference between peripheral and ventricular CSF, and suggested that this reflected different CSF compositions. We studied....... The influence of partial volume was assessed by our analyzing the longest echo times only. B 1 and B 0 maps were acquired. B 1 and B 0 dependency of the sequences was tested with a phantom. RESULTS: T 2,CSF was shorter at 7 T compared with 3 T. At 3 T, but not at 7 T, peripheral T 2,CSF was significantly...

  12. Influence of orthodontic appliance-derived artifacts on 3-T MRI movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Erika; Honda, Ei-Ichi; Parakonthun, Kulthida Nunthayanon; Ohmori, Hiroko; Shimazaki, Kazuo; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Ono, Takashi

    2018-02-19

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to study configurations of speech organs in the resting state. However, MRI is sensitive to metals, and numerous types of metallic appliances, most of which have a large magnetic susceptibility, are used in orthodontic treatment and may cause severe artifacts on MRI. We have developed techniques for obtaining MRI movies of the oral region, to evaluate articulatory changes, especially movement of the tongue, palate, and teeth, pre- and post-orthodontic/orthognathic treatment. We evaluated the influence of artifacts caused by orthodontic appliances, including fixed retainers, metal brackets, and wires, on measurements in 3-T MRI movies. Sixteen healthy young adults (nine males, seven females; average age, 27 years) with normal occlusion were recruited. Four types of customized maxillary and mandibular plates were prepared by incorporating one of the following into the plate: (a) nothing, (b) a fixed canine-to-canine retainer, (c) metal brackets for the anterior and molar teeth, or (d) clear brackets for the anterior teeth and metal brackets for molars. A 3-T MRI movie, in segmented cine mode, was generated for each plate condition while participants pronounced a vowel-consonant-vowel syllable (/asa/). The size of the artifact due to the metallic brackets was measured. The face size and orthodontically important anatomical structures, such as the velum, the hard palate, and the laryngeal ventricle, were also measured. A large artifact was observed over the entire oral region around orthodontic appliances, altering regional visibility. The velopharyngeal height was measured as significantly longer in the presence of metal brackets. The maximum artifact size due to a metallic bracket was > 8 cm. Our results show that even if it is possible to obtain the measurements of palate length, nasion to sella, and nasion to basion in individuals wearing metal brackets for molars, the measurements might be affected due to the

  13. Enrofloxacin and Probiotic Lactobacilli Influence PepT1 and LEAP-2 mRNA Expression in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Ivelina; Milanova, Aneliya; Danova, Svetla; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2016-12-01

    Expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) in chickens can be influenced by food deprivation, pathological conditions and drug administration. Effect of three putative probiotic Lactobacillus strains and enrofloxacin on the expression of PepT1 and LEAP-2 mRNA was investigated in Ross 308 chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 24) were allocated to following groups: control (without treatment); group treated with probiotics via feed; group treated with a combination of probiotics and enrofloxacin; and a group given enrofloxacin only. The drug was administered at a dose of 10 mg kg -1 , via drinking water for 5 days. Samples from liver, duodenum and jejunum were collected 126 h after the start of the treatment. Expression levels of PepT1 and LEAP-2 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and were statistically evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. Enrofloxacin administered alone or in combination with probiotics provoked a statistically significant up-regulation of PepT1 mRNA levels in the measured organ sites. These changes can be attributed to a tendency of improvement in utilization of dietary peptide and in body weight gain. LEAP-2 mRNA expression levels did not change significantly in enrofloxacin-treated chickens in comparison with control group.

  14. Influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a magnetized bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W., E-mail: tonny-violet@163.com [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China) and Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang, J.S.; Ma, G.T.; Zheng, J. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Tuo, X.G.; Li, L.L. [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Ye, C.Q.; Liao, X.L. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Wang, S.Y. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); National Laboratory of Rail Transit, Chengdu, 610031 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Compared with the permanent magnet, the magnetized bulk high-T{sub c} superconductor magnet (MBSCM) can trap higher magnetic field due to its strong flux pinning ability, so it is a good candidate to improve the levitation performance of high-T{sub c} superconductive (HTS) maglev system. The trapped magnetic flux of a MBSCM is sustained by the inductive superconducting current produced by the magnetizing process and is susceptible to the current intensity as well as configuration. In the HTS maglev system, the lateral displacement is an important process to change the superconducting current within a MBSCM and then affects its levitation performance, which is essential for the traffic ability in curve-way, the loading capacity of lateral impact and so on. The research about influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of MBSCM is necessary when MBSCM is applied on the HTS maglev vehicle. The experimental investigations about the influence of lateral displacement on the levitation performance of a MBSCM with different trapped fluxes and applied fields are processed in this article. The analyses and conclusions of this article are useful for the practical application of MBSCM in HTS maglev system.

  15. Influence of LBE long term exposure and simultaneous fast neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of T91 and 316L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stergar, E., E-mail: estergar@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Eremin, S.G. [RIAR, Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.; Lambrecht, M. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Makarov, O.; Iakovlev, V. [RIAR, Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    The LEXUR–II–LBE irradiation campaign was conducted from 2011 to 2012 and was aimed to investigate the combined influence of irradiation and LBE environment. In this irradiation campaign tensile test samples, pressurized tubes and corrosion samples were irradiated in LBE filled capsules. To separate the effect of exposure to LBE and neutron irradiation a parallel furnace experiment where the samples were exposed to LBE at the irradiation temperature for the corresponding time was conducted. Here we report results of the first extracted capsule which was irradiated about 6 months and dismantled after a cooling phase to decrease activity. The results of SSRT tests for irradiated T91 show that the exposure to LBE at 350 °C for a long time leads to the appearance of liquid metal embrittlement without any pre-treatment which is usually necessary to promote LME. Irradiation increases the effect of LME on the ductility of T91. In contrast to the findings for T91 the gained results also show that tensile tests on irradiated austenitic stainless steel 316L show no influence of LBE environment on the tensile properties.

  16. Rôle de la société civile pour ce qui est d'influencer les politiques de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rôle de la société civile pour ce qui est d'influencer les politiques de santé publique en faveur des femmes autochtones du Mexique. Au Mexique, les iniquités relatives à l'accès aux services de santé et aux services connexes sont sensiblement plus marquées chez les populations autochtones, et en particulier chez les ...

  17. T4 bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles for E. coli capturing: Influence of bacteriophage loading, temperature and tryptone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu Ekajayanthi; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Gooding, J Justin; Amal, Rose

    2017-03-01

    This work demonstrates the use of bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles (Fe 3 O 4 ) for the rapid capturing and isolation of Escherichia coli. The investigation of T4 bacteriophage adsorption to silane functionalised Fe 3 O 4 with amine (NH 2 ), carboxylic (COOH) and methyl (CH 3 ) surface functional groups reveals the domination of net electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in governing bacteriophage adsorption. The bare Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 with high T4 loading captured 3-fold more E. coli (∼70% capturing efficiency) compared to the low loading T4 on Fe 3 O 4 -COOH, suggesting the significance of T4 loading in E. coli capturing efficiency. Importantly, it is further revealed that E. coli capture is highly dependent on the incubation temperature and the presence of tryptone in the media. Effective E. coli capturing only occurs at 37°C in tryptone-containing media with the absence of either conditions resulted in poor bacteria capture. The incubation temperature dictates the capturing ability of Fe 3 O 4 /T4, whereby T4 and E. coli need to establish an irreversible binding that occurred at 37°C. The presence of tryptophan-rich tryptone in the suspending media was also critical, as shown by a 3-fold increase in E. coli capture efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 /T4 in tryptone-containing media compared to that in tryptone-free media. This highlights for the first time that successful bacteria capturing requires not only an optimum tailoring of the particle's surface physicochemical properties for favourable bacteriophage loading, but also an in-depth understanding of how factors, such as temperature and solution chemistry influence the subsequent bacteriophage-bacteria interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A theoretical study on the accuracy of the T-history method for enthalpy–temperature curve measurement: analysis of the influence of thermal gradients inside T-history samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo, Javier; Delgado, Mónica; Lázaro, Ana; Dolado, Pablo; Peñalosa, Conchita; Marín, José María; Zalba, Belén

    2015-01-01

    The present work analyses the effect of radial thermal gradients inside T-history samples on the enthalpy temperature curve measurement. A conduction heat transfer model has been utilized for this purpose. Some expressions have been obtained that relate the main dimensionless numbers of the experiments with the deviations in specific heat capacity, phase change enthalpy and phase change temperature estimations. Although these relations can only be strictly applied to solid materials (e.g. measurements of shape stabilized phase change materials), they can provide some useful and conservative bounds for the deviations of the T-history method. Biot numbers emerge as the most relevant dimensionless parameters in the accuracy of the specific heat capacity and phase change enthalpy estimation whereas this model predicts a negligible influence of the temperature levels used for the experiments or the Stefan number. (paper)

  19. Multivariable analysis of clinical influence factors on liver enhancement of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI; Multivariable Analyse klinischer Einflussfaktoren auf die Signalintensitaet bei Gd-EOB-DTPA 3T-MRT der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Zeman, F. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Center for Clinical Trials; Teufel, A. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Lang, S. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Surgery

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors influencing Gd-EOB-DTPA liver uptake in patients with healthy liver parenchyma. A total of 124 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. The relative enhancement (RE) between plain and contrast-enhanced signal intensity was calculated. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate clinical factors influencing the relative enhancement. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to their relative liver enhancement (HRE, RE ≥ 100 %; MRE, 100 % > RE > 50 %; NRE, RE ≤ 50 %) and were analyzed according to the relevant risk factors. Simple regression analyses revealed patient age, transaminases (AST, ALT, GGT), liver, spleen and delta-liver volume (the difference between the volumetrically measured liver volume and the estimated liver volume based on body weight) as significant factors influencing relative enhancement. In the multiple analysis the transaminase AST, spleen and delta liver volume remained significant factors influencing relative enhancement. Delta liver volume showed a significant difference between all analyzed groups. Liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase depends on a variety of factors. Body weight-adapted administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA may lead to inadequate liver enhancement after 20 minutes especially when the actual liver volume differs from the expected volume.

  20. Non-linear effects of transcranial direct current stimulation as a function of individual baseline performance: Evidence from biparietal tDCS influence on lateralized attention bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwell, Christopher S Y; Learmonth, Gemma; Miniussi, Carlo; Harvey, Monika; Thut, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a well-established technique for non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). However, the technique suffers from a high variability in outcome, some of which is likely explained by the state of the brain at tDCS-delivery but for which explanatory, mechanistic models are lacking. Here, we tested the effects of bi-parietal tDCS on perceptual line bisection as a function of tDCS current strength (1 mA vs 2 mA) and individual baseline discrimination sensitivity (a measure associated with intrinsic uncertainty/signal-to-noise balance). Our main findings were threefold. We replicated a previous finding (Giglia et al., 2011) of a rightward shift in subjective midpoint after Left anode/Right cathode tDCS over parietal cortex (sham-controlled). We found this effect to be weak over our entire sample (n = 38), but to be substantial in a subset of participants when they were split according to tDCS-intensity and baseline performance. This was due to a complex, nonlinear interaction between these two factors. Our data lend further support to the notion of state-dependency in NIBS which suggests outcome to depend on the endogenous balance between task-informative 'signal' and task-uninformative 'noise' at baseline. The results highlight the strong influence of individual differences and variations in experimental parameters on tDCS outcome, and the importance of fostering knowledge on the factors influencing tDCS outcome across cognitive domains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence assessment in censored mixed-effects models using the multivariate Student’s-t distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Larissa A.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Castro, Luis M.; Lachos, Victor H.

    2015-01-01

    In biomedical studies on HIV RNA dynamics, viral loads generate repeated measures that are often subjected to upper and lower detection limits, and hence these responses are either left- or right-censored. Linear and non-linear mixed-effects censored (LMEC/NLMEC) models are routinely used to analyse these longitudinal data, with normality assumptions for the random effects and residual errors. However, the derived inference may not be robust when these underlying normality assumptions are questionable, especially the presence of outliers and thick-tails. Motivated by this, Matos et al. (2013b) recently proposed an exact EM-type algorithm for LMEC/NLMEC models using a multivariate Student’s-t distribution, with closed-form expressions at the E-step. In this paper, we develop influence diagnostics for LMEC/NLMEC models using the multivariate Student’s-t density, based on the conditional expectation of the complete data log-likelihood. This partially eliminates the complexity associated with the approach of Cook (1977, 1986) for censored mixed-effects models. The new methodology is illustrated via an application to a longitudinal HIV dataset. In addition, a simulation study explores the accuracy of the proposed measures in detecting possible influential observations for heavy-tailed censored data under different perturbation and censoring schemes. PMID:26190871

  2. Fetal calf serum heat inactivation and lipopolysaccharide contamination influence the human T lymphoblast proteome and phosphoproteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hazir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of fetal calf serum (FCS heat inactivation and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS contamination on cell physiology have been studied, but their effect on the proteome of cultured cells has yet to be described. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of heat inactivation of FCS and LPS contamination on the human T lymphoblast proteome. Human T lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCRF-CEM cells were grown in FCS, either non-heated, or heat inactivated, having low ( Results A total of four proteins (EIF3M, PRS7, PSB4, and SNAPA were up-regulated when CCRF-CEM cells were grown in media supplemented with heat inactivated FCS (HE as compared to cells grown in media with non-heated FCS (NHE. Six proteins (TCPD, ACTA, NACA, TCTP, ACTB, and ICLN displayed a differential phosphorylation pattern between the NHE and HE groups. Compared to the low concentration LPS group, regular levels of LPS resulted in the up-regulation of three proteins (SYBF, QCR1, and SUCB1. Conclusion The present study provides new information regarding the effect of FCS heat inactivation and change in FCS-LPS concentration on cellular protein expression, and post-translational modification in human T lymphoblasts. Both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS were shown to modulate the expression and phosphorylation of proteins involved in basic cellular functions, such as protein synthesis, cytoskeleton stability, oxidative stress regulation and apoptosis. Hence, the study emphasizes the need to consider both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS as factors that can influence the T lymphoblast proteome.

  3. Abrupt symmetry decrease in the ThT2Al20 alloys (T = 3d transition metal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, A.; Bram, A.I.; Venkert, A.; Kiv, A.E.; Fuks, D.; Meshi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Th-T-Al system, where T-3d transition metals, was studied at ThT 2 Al 20 stoichiometry to establish the influence of T on the structural stability of ternary aluminide formed. Different alloys were prepared, varying T in the row from Ti to Fe. Using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods it was found that ThT 2 Al 20 phase adopts CeCr 2 Al 20 structure type when T = Ti, V, and Cr. Starting from Mn, the symmetry of the stable Al-rich phase, which forms in the alloys with the same composition, decreases from cubic to orthorhombic. The results of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations coincide with experiments. Concepts of the Theory of Coordination Compounds and Jahn–Teller effect were used to explain the observed abrupt change of the symmetry. These considerations were supported by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Type of transition metal influences symmetry change in the ThT 2 Al 20 alloys. • It was found that cubic ThT 2 Al 20 phase is stable for T = Ti, V and Cr. • When T = Mn, Fe–Al + orthorhombic ThT 2 Al 10 are formed, lowering the symmetry. • Experimental results and DFT calculations were in full agreement. • TCC and of Jahn–Teller effect were used for explanation of the results

  4. Antigen processing influences HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunodominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Wee, Edmund; Burgevin, Anne

    2009-01-01

    -associated antigen proteins p17 and p24 correlated with epitope abundance, which was strongly influenced by proteasomal digestion profiles, affinity for the transporter protein TAP, and trimming mediated by the endoplasmatic reticulum aminopeptidase ERAAP, and was moderately influenced by HLA affinity. Structural...

  5. Pleiotropic Effects of Thyroid Hormones: Learning from Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Franco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism induces several metabolic changes that allow understanding some physiopathological mechanisms. Under experimental hypothyroid conditions in rats, heart and kidney are protected against oxidative damage induced by ischemia reperfusion. An increased resistance to opening of the permeability transition pore seems to be at the basis of such protection. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate of hypothyroid kidney is low as a result of adenosine receptors-induced renal vasoconstriction. The vascular tone of aorta is also regulated by adenosine in hypothyroid conditions. In other context, thyroid hormones regulate lipoprotein metabolism. High plasma level of LDL cholesterol is a common feature in hypothyroidism, due to a low expression of the hepatic LDL receptor. In contrast, HDL-cholesterol plasma levels are variable in hypothyroidism; several proteins involved in HDL metabolism and structure are expressed at lower levels in experimental hypothyroidism. Based on the positive influence of thyroid hormones on lipoprotein metabolism, thyromimetic drugs are promising for the treatment of dyslipidemias. In summary, hypothyroid status has been useful to understand molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia reperfusion, regulation of vascular function and intravascular metabolism of lipoproteins.

  6. Working memory capacity differentially influences responses to tDCS and HD-tDCS in a retro-cue task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E

    2016-08-26

    There is growing interest in non-invasive brain stimulation techniques. A drawback is that the relationship between stimulation and cognitive outcomes for various tasks are unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) provides diffuse current spread, whereas high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) provides more targeted current. The direction of behavioral effects after tDCS can be difficult to predict in cognitive realms such as attention and working memory (WM). Previously, we showed that in low and high WM capacity groups tDCS modulates performance in nearly equal and opposite directions on a change detection task, with improvement for the high capacity participants alone. Here, we used the retro-cue paradigm to test attentional shifting among items in WM to investigate whether WM capacity (WMC) predicted different behavioral consequences during anodal tDCS or HD-tDCS to posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In two experiments, with 24 participants each, we used different stimulus categories (colored circles, letters) and stimulation sites (right, left PPC). The results showed a significant (Experiment 1) or trending (Experiment 2) WMC x stimulation interaction. Compared to tDCS, after HD-tDCS the retro-cueing benefit was significantly greater for the low WMC group but numerically worse for the high WMC group. These data highlight the importance of considering group differences when using non-invasive neurostimulation techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast culture on the corrosion of a T6-treated AZ91 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K.; Tobias, Menachem E.; Yang, Shuying; Bone, Lawrence B.; Ehrensberger, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the corrosion of artificially aged T6 heat-treated Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91) for biomedical applications. Corrosion tests and surface analysis were completed both with and without a monolayer of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the sample. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) were used to explore the corrosion processes after either 3 or 21 days of AZ91 incubation in cell culture medium (CCM). The EIS showed both the inner layer resistance (Rin) and outer layer resistance (Rout) were lower for samples without cells cultured on the surface at 3 days (Rin = 2.64 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 140 Ω/cm2) compared to 21 days (Rin = 3.60 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 287 Ω/cm2) due to precipitation of magnesium and calcium phosphates over time. Samples with preosteoblasts cultured on the surface had a slower initial corrosion (3 day, Rin = 1.88 e5 Ω/cm2, Rout = 1060 Ω/cm2) which was observed to increase over time (21 day, Rin = 2.99 e4 Ω/cm2, Rout = 287 Ω/cm2). Changes in the corrosion processes were thought to be related to changes in the coverage provided by the cell layer. Our results reveal that the presence of cells and biological processes are able to significantly influence the corrosion rate of AZ91. PMID:25715925

  8. Model of T-Type Fracture in Coal Fracturing and Analysis of Influence Factors of Fracture Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Special T-type fractures can be formed when coal is hydraulically fractured and there is currently no relevant theoretical model to calculate and describe them. This paper first establishes the height calculation model of vertical fractures in multi-layered formations and deduces the stress intensity factor (SIF at the upper and lower sides of the fracture in the process of vertical fracture extension. Combined with the fracture tip stress analysis method of fracture mechanics theory, the horizontal bedding is taken into account for tensile and shear failure, and the critical mechanical conditions for the formation of horizontal fracture in coal are obtained. Finally, the model of T-type fracture in coal fracturing is established, and it is verified by fracturing simulation experiments. The model calculation result shows that the increase of vertical fracture height facilitates the increase of horizontal fracture length. The fracture toughness of coal has a significant influence on the length of horizontal fracture and there is a threshold. When the fracture toughness is less than the threshold, the length of horizontal fracture remains unchanged, otherwise, the length of horizontal fracture increases rapidly with the increase of fracture toughness. When the shear strength of the interface between the coalbed and the interlayer increases, the length of the horizontal fracture of the T-type fracture rapidly decreases.

  9. [The influence of joining central venous catheter and pressure transducer with T-junctions on central venous pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiuling; Yang, Wanjie; An, Youzhong; Teng, Hongyun; Zhang, Rumei; Wang, Yumei; Gao, Hailing; Hua, Ning; Song, Yan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the influence of the number of T-junctions between central venous catheter and pressure transducer on measurement of central venous pressure ( CVP ) in patients. A prospective controlled study was conducted. The patients with CVP monitoring in Department of Critical Care Medicine of the Fifth Center Hospital in Tianjin from February to October in 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into three groups according to the number of T-junction between central venous catheter and pressure transducer: without T-junction control group and 1, 2, 3 T-junctions groups. In each patient, corresponding CVP values with different number of T-junctions placed between the central venous catheter and pressure sensors were determined within a certain period, and a square-wave graphic was obtained and preserved on the monitor. The own frequency ( fn ) and the attenuation coefficient ( D ) of the system of pressure measurement were calculated after measurement of the shock wave following a square-wave to obtain the distance between two vibrations and the amplitude of the shock wave. The difference in CVP, fn and D were compared among the groups. A total of 20 cases were enrolled, and 150 groups of data were collected. (1) With the increase in the number of T-junction, CVP showed a tendency of gradual reduction. The CVP of the groups of control and 1, 2, 3 T-junctions was ( 7.00±1.60 ), ( 7.00±3.00 ), ( 5.00±2.00 ), and ( 4.00±1.00 ) mmHg ( 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa ), respectively. The CVP of 3 T-junctions group was significantly lower than that of the control group ( F = 9.333, P = 0.015 ). (2) With an increase in the number of T-junction, fn showed a tendency of gradual increase. The fn of groups control and 1, 2, 3 T-junctions was ( 12.30±0.79 ), ( 16.00±0.91 ), ( 18.10±1.75 ), ( 20.90±2.69 ) Hz, respectively. The fn of 1, 2, 3 T-junctions group was significantly higher than that of the control group ( F1 = 45.962, F2 = 45.414, F3 = 46.830, all P = 0

  10. Normal hepatic parenchyma visibility and ADC quantification on diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 T: influence of age, gender, and iron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metens, Thierry [MRI Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Ferraresi, Kellen Fanstone; Farchione, Alessandra; Bali, Maria Antonietta; Matos, Celso [MRI Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Moreno, Christophe [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatopancreatology, and Digestive Oncology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-12-15

    To investigate how normal liver parenchyma visibility on 3 T diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification are influenced by age, gender, and iron content. Between February 2011 and April 2013, 86 patients (52 women) with normal livers who underwent respiratory-triggered abdominal 3 T DWI (b = 0, 150, 600, 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) were retrospectively included. Normal liver and spleen parenchyma visibility was scored independently by two readers. Correlations between visibility scores or ADC with age, gender, T2*, or recent serum ferritin (SF) were investigated. Liver visibility scores in b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} images correlated with the age (Spearman R = -0.56 in women, -0.45 in men), T2* (R = 0.75) and SF (R = -0.64) and were significantly higher in women (P < 0.01). SF and T2* were within normal values (T2*: 13 - 31 ms, SF: 14 - 230 μg/L). Liver ADC correlated with visibility scores (R = 0.69) and T2* (R = 0.64) and was age- and gender-dependent. ADC ROI standard deviation negatively correlated with visibility scores (R = -0.65) and T2* (R = -0.62). The spleen visibility did not depend on age or gender. Normal liver parenchyma visibility in DWI is age- and gender-dependent, according to the iron content. Visibility scores and iron content significantly affect ADC quantification in the normal liver. (orig.)

  11. Normal hepatic parenchyma visibility and ADC quantification on diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 T: influence of age, gender, and iron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metens, Thierry; Ferraresi, Kellen Fanstone; Farchione, Alessandra; Bali, Maria Antonietta; Matos, Celso; Moreno, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how normal liver parenchyma visibility on 3 T diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification are influenced by age, gender, and iron content. Between February 2011 and April 2013, 86 patients (52 women) with normal livers who underwent respiratory-triggered abdominal 3 T DWI (b = 0, 150, 600, 1,000 s/mm 2 ) were retrospectively included. Normal liver and spleen parenchyma visibility was scored independently by two readers. Correlations between visibility scores or ADC with age, gender, T2*, or recent serum ferritin (SF) were investigated. Liver visibility scores in b = 1,000 s/mm 2 images correlated with the age (Spearman R = -0.56 in women, -0.45 in men), T2* (R = 0.75) and SF (R = -0.64) and were significantly higher in women (P < 0.01). SF and T2* were within normal values (T2*: 13 - 31 ms, SF: 14 - 230 μg/L). Liver ADC correlated with visibility scores (R = 0.69) and T2* (R = 0.64) and was age- and gender-dependent. ADC ROI standard deviation negatively correlated with visibility scores (R = -0.65) and T2* (R = -0.62). The spleen visibility did not depend on age or gender. Normal liver parenchyma visibility in DWI is age- and gender-dependent, according to the iron content. Visibility scores and iron content significantly affect ADC quantification in the normal liver. (orig.)

  12. Influence of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast culture on the corrosion of a T6-treated AZ91 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K; Tobias, Menachem E; Yang, Shuying; Bone, Lawrence B; Ehrensberger, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the corrosion of artificially aged T6 heat-treated Mg-9%Al-1%Zn (AZ91) for biomedical applications. Corrosion tests and surface analysis were completed both with and without a monolayer of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the sample. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICPMS) were used to explore the corrosion processes after either 3 or 21 days of AZ91 incubation in cell culture medium (CCM). The EIS showed both the inner layer resistance (Rin ) and outer layer resistance (Rout ) were lower for samples without cells cultured on the surface at 3 days (Rin  = 2.64 e4 Ω/cm(2) , Rout  = 140 Ω/cm(2) ) compared to 21 days (Rin  = 3.60 e4 Ω/cm(2) , Rout  = 287 Ω/cm(2) ) due to precipitation of magnesium and calcium phosphates over time. Samples with preosteoblasts cultured on the surface had a slower initial corrosion (3 day, Rin  = 1.88 e5 Ω/cm(2) , Rout  = 1060 Ω/cm(2) ) which was observed to increase over time (21 day, Rin  = 2.99 e4 Ω/cm(2) , Rout  = 287 Ω/cm(2) ). Changes in the corrosion processes were thought to be related to changes in the coverage provided by the cell layer. Our results reveal that the presence of cells and biological processes are able to significantly influence the corrosion rate of AZ91. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessment of somaclonal variation in somatic embryo-derived plants of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson] using inter simple sequence repeat analysis and flow cytometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viehmannová, I.; Bortlová, Z.; Vítámvás, J.; Čepková, P.; Eliášová, Kateřina; Svobodová, E.; Trávníčková, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 0717-3458 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : DNA polymorphism * Molecular markers * Ploidy level Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014

  14. Gut microbiota and lipopolysaccharide content of the diet influence development of regulatory T cells: studies in germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Stepankova, Renata; Kozakova, Hana; Hudcovic, Tomas; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

    2008-11-06

    Mammals are essentially born germ-free but the epithelial surfaces are promptly colonized by astounding numbers of bacteria soon after birth. The most extensive microbial community is harbored by the distal intestine. The gut microbiota outnumber ~10 times the total number of our somatic and germ cells. The host-microbiota relationship has evolved to become mutually beneficial. Studies in germ-free mice have shown that gut microbiota play a crucial role in the development of the immune system. The principal aim of the present study was to elucidate whether the presence of gut microbiota and the quality of a sterile diet containing various amounts of bacterial contaminants, measured by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content, can influence maturation of the immune system in gnotobiotic mice. We have found that the presence of gut microbiota and to a lesser extent also the LPS-rich sterile diet drive the expansion of B and T cells in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. The most prominent was the expansion of CD4+ T cells including Foxp3-expressing T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Further, we have observed that both the presence of gut microbiota and the LPS-rich sterile diet influence in vitro cytokine profile of spleen cells. Both gut microbiota and LPS-rich diet increase the production of interleukin-12 and decrease the production of interleukin-4. In addition, the presence of gut microbiota increases the production of interleukin-10 and interferon-gamma. Our data clearly show that not only live gut microbiota but also microbial components (LPS) contained in sterile diet stimulate the development, expansion and function of the immune system. Finally, we would like to emphasize that the composition of diet should be regularly tested especially in all gnotobiotic models as the LPS content and other microbial components present in the diet may significantly alter the outcome of experiments.

  15. Exploration of factors influencing shimming and water suppression on hepatic 1H-MR spectroscopy in vivo on 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Changhong; Xu Li; Liu Zaiyi; Cui Yanhai; Liu Chunling; Zheng Junhui; Zeng Qiongxin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the clinical factors which influence water suppression and auto-shimming line width for liver 3.0 T 1 H-MRS. Methods: Fifty-seven cases with liver 1 H-MR spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) were retrospectively studied, including chronic type B hepatitis (n=5), fatty liver (n=14), chronic type B hepatitis combining fatty liver (n=3) and normal situation (n=35). Independent t test was used to characterize the difference of general condition (height, weight, body mass index etc.) between different water suppression effect groups and between different shimming effect groups. Using Chi-square test to analyze whether water suppression rate and auto-shimming line width between fatty liver groups and non-fatty liver exist significance difference. Results: By comparing WS ≥90% (n=47) group with WS 2 respectively] and LW [(17.7±3.7) and (24.6±6.3) Hz respectively] than the latter (t=-3.488, -3.415, -4.002 and -3.327, P 20 Hz (n=16) group, the former showed better water suppression rate [(93.0±2.7)% and (86.1±8.5)% respectively] than the latter (t=3.213, P 2 respectively] (t=-2.516, -2.024, P 2 =11.347, P 2 =28.536, P<0.05). Conclusion: Hepatic steatosis exerts an adverse effect in water suppression and shimming. (authors)

  16. Volume-of-fluid simulations in microfluidic T-junction devices: Influence of viscosity ratio on droplet size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Mehdi; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2017-03-01

    We used volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of droplet formation of Newtonian fluids in microfluidic T-junction devices. To evaluate the performance of the VOF method we examined the regimes of drop formation and determined droplet size as a function of system parameters. Comparison of the simulation results with four sets of experimental data from the literature showed good agreement, validating the VOF method. Motivated by the lack of adequate studies investigating the influence of viscosity ratio (λ) on the generated droplet size, we mapped the dependence of drop volume on capillary number (0.001 1. In addition, we find that at a given capillary number, the size of droplets does not vary appreciably when λ 1. We develop an analytical model for predicting the droplet size that includes a viscosity-dependent breakup time for the dispersed phase. This improved model successfully predicts the effects of the viscosity ratio observed in simulations. Results from this study are useful for the design of lab-on-chip technologies and manufacture of microfluidic emulsions, where there is a need to know how system parameters influence the droplet size.

  17. Relationships between resting conductances, excitability, and t-system ionic homeostasis in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James A; Huang, Christopher L-H; Pedersen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Activation of skeletal muscle fibers requires rapid sarcolemmal action potential (AP) conduction to ensure uniform excitation along the fiber length, as well as successful tubular excitation to initiate excitation-contraction coupling. In our companion paper in this issue, Pedersen et al. (2011. J. Gen. Physiol. doi:10.1085/jgp.201010510) quantify, for subthreshold stimuli, the influence upon both surface conduction velocity and tubular (t)-system excitation of the large changes in resting membrane conductance (G(M)) that occur during repetitive AP firing. The present work extends the analysis by developing a multi-compartment modification of the charge-difference model of Fraser and Huang to provide a quantitative description of the conduction velocity of actively propagated APs; the influence of voltage-gated ion channels within the t-system; the influence of t-system APs on ionic homeostasis within the t-system; the influence of t-system ion concentration changes on membrane potentials; and the influence of Phase I and Phase II G(M) changes on these relationships. Passive conduction properties of the novel model agreed with established linear circuit analysis and previous experimental results, while key simulations of AP firing were tested against focused experimental microelectrode measurements of membrane potential. This study thereby first quantified the effects of the t-system luminal resistance and voltage-gated Na(+) channel density on surface AP propagation and the resultant electrical response of the t-system. Second, it demonstrated the influence of G(M) changes during repetitive AP firing upon surface and t-system excitability. Third, it showed that significant K(+) accumulation occurs within the t-system during repetitive AP firing and produces a baseline depolarization of the surface membrane potential. Finally, it indicated that G(M) changes during repetitive AP firing significantly influence both t-system K(+) accumulation and its influence on the

  18. Abrupt symmetry decrease in the ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} alloys (T = 3d transition metal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uziel, A.; Bram, A.I. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Venkert, A. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, POB 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Kiv, A.E.; Fuks, D. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Meshi, L., E-mail: louisa@bgu.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel)

    2015-11-05

    Th-T-Al system, where T-3d transition metals, was studied at ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} stoichiometry to establish the influence of T on the structural stability of ternary aluminide formed. Different alloys were prepared, varying T in the row from Ti to Fe. Using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods it was found that ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} phase adopts CeCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20} structure type when T = Ti, V, and Cr. Starting from Mn, the symmetry of the stable Al-rich phase, which forms in the alloys with the same composition, decreases from cubic to orthorhombic. The results of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations coincide with experiments. Concepts of the Theory of Coordination Compounds and Jahn–Teller effect were used to explain the observed abrupt change of the symmetry. These considerations were supported by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Type of transition metal influences symmetry change in the ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} alloys. • It was found that cubic ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} phase is stable for T = Ti, V and Cr. • When T = Mn, Fe–Al + orthorhombic ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 10} are formed, lowering the symmetry. • Experimental results and DFT calculations were in full agreement. • TCC and of Jahn–Teller effect were used for explanation of the results.

  19. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...... related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p

  20. The results of radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancers. Influence of radiation beam energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michinori; Joja, Ikuo; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Kuroda, Masahiro; Hiraki, Yoshio

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of various parameters on the results of radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancer by assessing the outcomes of 60 patients with this cancer who received definitive radiotherapy between 1985 and 1994. Seven patients were treated with a cobalt-60 unit, and the other 53 with a linear accelerator (26 patients at 3-MV, 10 at 6-MV, and 17 at 10-MV). Of the 17 patients treated at 10-MV, 4 also received part of their treatment with a cobalt-60 unit. The total radiation dose ranged from 56 Gy to 70 Gy (mean, 61 Gy). The total radiation dose of 51 patients (85%) was 60 Gy. The factors found to influence local control were the strength of the radiation beam energy and whether or not there was gross tumor invasion of the anterior commissure. The local control rate was 71% in the patients treated with a 10-MV linear accelerator, 56% in those treated with a 6-MV linear accelerator and, 97% in those treated with a cobalt-60 unit or a 3-MV linear accelerator (P=0.0173). The local control rate was 43% in the patients with gross anterior commissure invasion and 88% in those without (P=0.0075). We conclude that low energy photon beams are more suitable for the treatment of early glottic cancers, especially if the lesion grossly invades the anterior commissure. (author)

  1. Influence of elemental diffusion on low temperature formation of MgH2 in TiMn1.3T0.2-Mg (T = 3d-transition elements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Tanioka, S.; Tsushio, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Morishita, T.; Orimo, S.; Fujii, H.

    1996-01-01

    In order to examine the influence of the elemental diffusion from the host compound into the Mg region on low temperature formation of MgH 2 , we have investigated the hydriding properties and the microstructures of the composite materials TiMn 1.3 T 0.2 -Mg (T = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu). MgH 2 is formed at 353 K in all composite materials. Of all the substitutions, the amount of MgH 2 is the largest in the case of the Cu substitution, which originates from the existence of the Mg-Mg 2 Cu eutectic formed by Cu diffusion from the host compound TiMn 1.3 Cu 0.2 into the Mg region during the liquid phase sintering. In addition, the hydrogen capacity of TiMn 1.3 Cu 0.2 -Mg (that is TiMn 1.3 Cu 0.1 -(Mg+Mg 2 Cu) after the sintering) easily saturates in comparison with TiMn 1.5 -(Mg+Mg 2 Cu) without Cu diffusion. It is concluded that Cu diffusion promotes the mobility of hydrogen atoms at the complex interface between the host compound and the Mg region. (orig.)

  2. Influence of intermetallic particles on short fatigue crack initiation in AA2050-T8 and AA7050-T7451

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizery Erembert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue crack initiation at particles is studied in hot rolled 2050-T8 and 7050-T7451 material, using 1 to 4 mm cross section specimens. Both size and aspect ratio of particles are observed to affect their probability of being damaged. In 2050-T8 material, the probability that a matrix crack initiate at a cracked particle increases with its size, and no effect of aspect ratio is observed. In 2050-T8 specimens, matrix cracks initiate at both precracked (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn particles and particles cracked during cycling. Initiation in 7050-T74 specimens occur on Mg2Si particles which may be cracked or debonded, and Al7Cu2Fe particles that are cracked during cyclic loading.

  3. Effects of PVA-coated nanoparticles on human T helper cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Cindy; Schellmann, Saskia; Maurizi, Lionel; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe; Häupl, Thomas; Hofmann, Heinrich; Buttgereit, Frank; Gaber, Timo

    2016-03-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are used as high-sensitive enhancer for magnetic resonance imaging, where they represent a promising tool for early diagnosis of destructive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since we could demonstrate that professional phagocytes are activated by amino-polyvinyl-alcohol-coated-SPION (a-PVA-SPION), the study here focuses on the influence of a-PVA-SPION on human T cells activity. Therefore, primary human CD4+ T cells from RA patients and healthy subjects were treated with varying doses of a-PVA-SPION for 20h or 72h. T cells were then analyzed for apoptosis, cellular energy, expression of the activation marker CD25 and cell proliferation. Although, we observed that T cells from RA patients are more susceptible to low-dose a-PVA-SPION-induced apoptosis than T cells from healthy subjects, in both groups a-PVA-SPION do not activate CD4+ T cells per se and do not influence mitogen-mediated T cells activation with regard to CD25 expression and cell proliferation. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate that CD4+ T cells from RA patients and healthy subjects differ in their response to mitogen stimulation and oxygen availability. We conclude from our data, that a-PVA-SPION do neither activate nor significantly influence mitogen-stimulated CD4+ T cells activation and have negligible influence on T cells apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Healthy and Neuropsychiatric Samples: Influence of Stimulation Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedoncker, Josefien; Brunoni, Andre R; Baeken, Chris; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Research into the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on cognitive functioning is increasing rapidly. However, methodological heterogeneity in prefrontal tDCS research is also increasing, particularly in technical stimulation parameters that might influence tDCS effects. To systematically examine the influence of technical stimulation parameters on DLPFC-tDCS effects. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of tDCS studies targeting the DLPFC published from the first data available to February 2016. Only single-session, sham-controlled, within-subject studies reporting the effects of tDCS on cognition in healthy controls and neuropsychiatric patients were included. Evaluation of 61 studies showed that after single-session a-tDCS, but not c-tDCS, participants responded faster and more accurately on cognitive tasks. Sub-analyses specified that following a-tDCS, healthy subjects responded faster, while neuropsychiatric patients responded more accurately. Importantly, different stimulation parameters affected a-tDCS effects, but not c-tDCS effects, on accuracy in healthy samples vs. increased current density and density charge resulted in improved accuracy in healthy samples, most prominently in females; for neuropsychiatric patients, task performance during a-tDCS resulted in stronger increases in accuracy rates compared to task performance following a-tDCS. Healthy participants respond faster, but not more accurate on cognitive tasks after a-tDCS. However, increasing the current density and/or charge might be able to enhance response accuracy, particularly in females. In contrast, online task performance leads to greater increases in response accuracy than offline task performance in neuropsychiatric patients. Possible implications and practical recommendations are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Activated CD4+T cells enter the splenic T-cell zone and induce autoantibody-producing germinal centers through bystander activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banczyk, David; Kalies, Kathrin; Nachbar, Lars; Bergmann, Lars; Schmidt, Philipp; Bode, Ulrike; Teegen, Bianca; Steven, Philipp; Lange, Tanja; Textor, Johannes; Ludwig, Ralf J.; Stöcker, Winfried; König, Peter; Bell, Eric; Westermann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    CD4+T (helper) cells migrate in huge numbers through lymphoid organs. However, little is known about traffic routes and kinetics of CD4+T-cell subsets within different organ compartments. Such information is important because there are indications that CD4+T cells may influence the function of

  6. [Efficacy observation on knee osteoarthritis treated with electroacupuncture and its influence on articular cartilage with T2 mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Fei; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yan; Sheng, Min; Hu, Na; Feng, Feng; Wang, Dao-Hai; Zhang, Yun-Xiang; Li, Tao; Sun, Hua

    2013-03-01

    To observe therapeutic efficacy of osteoarthritis treated by electroacupuncture, and explore its function of promoting cartilage restoration. According to random digital table, sixty cases of knee osteoarthritis (60 knees) were randomly divided into an electroacupuncture group and a physiotherapy group, 15 cases (30 knees) in each one. The electroacupuncture was applied at Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Dubi (ST 35), Heding (EX-LE 2) and Xuehai (SP 10) in the electroacupuncture group, once every other day. The physiotherapy group was treated by medium-frequency therapeutic apparatus every day. For both groups, 4 weeks of treatment were required. The Lysholm knee scoring scale (LKSS) was used to evaluate and compare the knee joints function before and after treatment. At the same time, the GE Signa EXCITE Twin Speed HD 1.5T was used to take MRI examination of knee joints, and measure the T2 values in 10 sub-regions of the cartilage of tibiofemoral joints. Compared before treatment, the LKSS score of both groups were improved with significant differences except item demands for support (P electroacupuncture group was better than the physiotherapy group, but no significant difference on the other items (all P > 0.05). In the electroacupuncture group after treatment, T2 value in anterior lateral tibial sub-region (LTa) was significantly lowered (P 0.05). In the physiotherapy group, T2 value in any sub-region was not significantly different before and after treatment (all P > 0.05). Electroacupuncture could effectively improve the symptom, sign and knee joint's function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Compared with physiotherapy, it has more superior effect and considered as a better non-operative treatment for osteoarthritis. Electroacupuncture also has positive influence on T2 value in cartilage, indicating that electroacupuncture may have the function of promoting cartilage restoration.

  7. The phosphorylation state of CD3gamma influences T cell responsiveness and controls T cell receptor cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Bäckström, T; Lauritsen, J P

    1998-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) is internalized following activation of protein kinase C (PKC) via a leucine (Leu)-based motif in CD3gamma. Some studies have indicated that the TCR is recycled back to the cell surface following PKC-mediated internalization. The functional state of recycled TCR and the ......The T cell receptor (TCR) is internalized following activation of protein kinase C (PKC) via a leucine (Leu)-based motif in CD3gamma. Some studies have indicated that the TCR is recycled back to the cell surface following PKC-mediated internalization. The functional state of recycled TCR...... the phosphorylation state of CD3gamma and T cell responsiveness. Based on these observations a physiological role of CD3gamma and TCR cycling is proposed....

  8. T cell reactivity with allergoids: influence of the type of APC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, H; Grage-Griebenow, E; Stüwe, H T; Cromwell, O; Fiebig, H

    2000-08-15

    The use of allergoids for allergen-specific immunotherapy has been established for many years. The characteristic features of these chemically modified allergens are their strongly reduced IgE binding activity compared with the native form and the retained immunogenicity. T cell reactivity of chemically modified allergens is documented in animals, but in humans indirect evidence of reactivity has been concluded from the induction of allergen-specific IgG during immunotherapy. Direct evidence of T cell reactivity was obtained recently using isolated human T cells. To obtain further insight into the mechanism of action of allergoids, we compared the Ag-presenting capacity of different APC types, including DC and macrophages, generated from CD14+ precursor cells from the blood of grass pollen allergic subjects, autologous PBMC, and B cells. These APC were used in experiments together with Phl p 5-specific T cell clones under stimulation with grass pollen allergen extract, rPhl p 5b, and the respective allergoids. Using DC and macrophages, allergoids exhibited a pronounced and reproducible T cell-stimulating capacity. Responses were superior to those with PBMC, and isolated B cells failed to present allergoids. Considerable IL-12 production was observed only when using the DC for Ag presentation of both allergens and allergoids. The amount of IL-10 in supernatants was dependent on the phenotype of the respective T cell clone. High IL-10 production was associated with suppressed IL-12 production from the DC in most cases. In conclusion, the reactivity of Th cells with allergoids is dependent on the type of the APC.

  9. Factors influencing the treatment outcome for patients with T2N0 glottic carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Ichiro; Kanehira, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Masao; Aoki, Manabu; Takagi, Sayako; Shirahama, Jun; Honda, Chikara

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic factors affecting local outcomes for patients with T2N0 glottic carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy. A total of 48 patients with T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy between 1992 and 2005 were studied. Cumulative probability of overall survival, cause-specific survival, local control and larynx-preserving were calculated according the Kaplan-Meier method, and the prognostic significance of patient's age, number of subsites involved, impaired cord mobility, anterior commisure involved, total dose and overall treatment time were analyzed using the log-rank test in univariate analysis and Cox regression in multivariate analysis. Follow-up ranged from 13 to 141 months (median, 62 months). Five-year survivals were: overall, 95.3%; cause-specific, 97.9% and five years rates were local control, 61.4%; larynx-preserving, 76.4%. Multivariate analyses of the six parameters showed that overall treatment time significantly influenced the probability of local control, and impaired mobility and overall treatment time affected the probability of larynx-preserving. Our study showed that longer overall treatment time significantly worsened the percentage of local control and larynx-preserving for patients with T2N0 glottic carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy. Therefore, we suggest treating, the patients in a shorter treatment course. (author)

  10. Earthworm assemblages in an ecotone between forest and arable field and their relations with soil properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeithaml, J.; Pižl, Václav; Sklenička, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 8 (2009), s. 922-927 ISSN 0100-204X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : edge effect * landscape mosaic * Lumbricidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2009

  11. STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms influence the risk of developing juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Han Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhi-Dan; Wang, Fei-Fei; Huang, Hui; Huang, Na; Ma, Hui-Hui; Guo, Yi-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Yuan; Qian, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Hai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by environmental influences along with several predisposing genes in the pathogenesis. The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 4 (STAT4) have been recognized as susceptibility genes for numerous autoimmune diseases. Associations of STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 (rs2488457 G/C and rs2476601 C/T) polymorphisms with JIA have repeatedly been replicated in several Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three polymorphisms mentioned above on the risk of developing JIA in Han Chinese patients. Genotyping was performed on a total of 137 Chinese patients with JIA (JIA group) and 150 sex and age frequency-matched healthy volunteers (Control group). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were determined by using direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products. There were significant differences of PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C and STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms between both groups. However, no significant difference was observed in distribution frequencies of PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism. The association with the PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphism remained significant in the stratifications by age at onset, ANA status, splenomegaly, lymphadenectasis and involvement joints. As with the STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms, the enthesitis-related arthritis and presence of hepatomegaly had strong effect on the association. Our data strengthen STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms as susceptibility factors for JIA.

  12. STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms influence the risk of developing juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Han Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Dan Fan

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a common autoimmune disease characterized by environmental influences along with several predisposing genes in the pathogenesis. The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22 and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 4 (STAT4 have been recognized as susceptibility genes for numerous autoimmune diseases. Associations of STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 (rs2488457 G/C and rs2476601 C/T polymorphisms with JIA have repeatedly been replicated in several Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three polymorphisms mentioned above on the risk of developing JIA in Han Chinese patients. Genotyping was performed on a total of 137 Chinese patients with JIA (JIA group and 150 sex and age frequency-matched healthy volunteers (Control group. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were determined by using direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products. There were significant differences of PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C and STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms between both groups. However, no significant difference was observed in distribution frequencies of PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism. The association with the PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphism remained significant in the stratifications by age at onset, ANA status, splenomegaly, lymphadenectasis and involvement joints. As with the STAT4 rs7574865 G/T polymorphisms, the enthesitis-related arthritis and presence of hepatomegaly had strong effect on the association. Our data strengthen STAT4 rs7574865 G/T and PTPN22 rs2488457 G/C polymorphisms as susceptibility factors for JIA.

  13. Age and gender differences in the influences of eNOS T-786C polymorphism on arteriosclerotic parameters in general population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Marowa; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Sonomi; Iwahara, Akihiko; Utsumi, Miyoko; Arita, Mikio; Takeshita, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of T-786C polymorphism in the promoter region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on arteriosclerotic parameters by age and gender were examined. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), heart-rate adjusted augmentation index (AIx@75), pulse pressure (PP) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were assessed as arteriosclerotic parameters in addition to non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) to HDL-C (non-HDL-C/HDL-C) ratio in 1499 participants. T-786C polymorphism (rs2070744) was screened using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Analyses of covariance were carried. Women with the non-C allele showed significantly lower AIx@75 in participants aged gender differences, possibly involving antioxidative and/or endothelial signaling other than inflammatory signaling.

  14. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  15. Efficacy and safety of insulin pump treatment in adult T1DM patients--influence of age and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Małgorzata; Matejko, Bartłomiej; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Kozek, Elżbieta; Małecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) via personal insulin pump is a valuable therapeutic tool in T1DM patients. However, adherence to recommended CSII-related behaviours may be of concern to young adults with intensive, variable daily activities (students, young professionals). The aim of this observational study was to estimate treatment outcomes in young adult patients with T1DM, and compare them with older individuals. Overall, 140 adults with T1DM on CSII were examined, divided into 2 subgroups: 77 patients younger than 26 years of age (mean 20.6 years) and 63 older subjects (mean 39.0). We compared the glycaemic control in both groups of T1DM subjects and analyzed treatment attitudes to identify potentially modifiable behaviours influencing the efficacy of the treatment. The younger individuals were characterized by significantly worse treatment outcomes, compared to the older ones: the mean HbA1c levels were 7.6 ± 1.3% and 6.9±1.3% (p=0.00001), while the mean glucose levels based on glucometer downloads were 161±33.6 mg/dL and 136±21.8 mg/dL (p=0.00001), respectively. The frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was lower in younger individuals (5.3±2.1 vs. 7.0±2.8 daily, p=0.0005, respectively); they were also less frequently used advanced pump functions, e.g. the bolus calculator (48% vs. 67% users, p=0.0014, respectively). The efficacy of CSII treatment observed in young T1DM adults was worse than in older patients. The reason for this phenomenon remains unclear, it may be due simply to age-dependend behaviours, to social environment, or both.

  16. High T(c) superconductors: Technical and commercial challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, I.; Horvath, E.; Vajda, I.; Bencze, L.; Goebl, N.

    1995-01-01

    Some basic questions of the way which leads from the discovery of high-T(c) superconductors to their applications is surveyed. The influence of high-T(c) superconducting technology on the industrial and social development is also briefly analyzed.

  17. Selenium deficiency inhibits the conversion of thyroidal thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in chicken thyroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-lei; Wang, Cong-wu; Tan, Si-ran; Liang, Yang; Yao, Hai-dong; Zhang, Zi-wei; Xu, Shi-wen

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) influences the metabolism of thyroid hormones in mammals. However, the role of Se deficiency in the regulation of thyroid hormones in chickens is not well known. In the present study, we examined the levels of thyroidal triiodothyronine (T3), thyroidal thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum and the mRNA expression levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken thyroids. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to analyze the relationships between the selenoproteins. The results indicated that Se deficiency influenced the conversion of T4 to T3 and induced the accumulation of T4 and FT4. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of the selenoproteins were generally decreased by Se deficiency. The PCA showed that eight selenoproteins (deiodinase 1 (Dio1), Dio2, Dio3, thioredoxin reductase 2 (Txnrd2), selenoprotein i (Seli), selenoprotein u (Selu), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), and Gpx2) have similar trends, which indicated that they may play similar roles in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The results showed that Se deficiency inhibited the conversion of T4 to T3 and decreased the levels of the crucial metabolic enzymes of the thyroid hormones, Dio1, Dio2, and Dio3, in chickens. In addition, the decreased selenoproteins (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, Txnrd2, Seli, Selu, Gpx1, and Gpx2) induced by Se deficiency may indirectly limit the conversion of T4 to T3 in chicken thyroids. The information presented in this study is helpful to understand the role of Se in the thyroid function of chickens.

  18. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Influence T1D Susceptibility among Pakistanis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mukhtar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The vitamin D receptor (VDR gene regulates insulin secretion from the pancreas and acts as a mediator of the immune response through vitamin D. Polymorphism in VDR causes alterations in the functioning of vitamin D, leading to type 1 diabetes (T1D predisposition. The aim of the present study was to determine VDR gene polymorphism in association with T1D in Pakistanis. Methods. The association was evaluated by selecting rs2228570 (FokΙ, rs7975232 (ApaΙ, and rs731236 (TaqΙ polymorphic sites in 102 patients and 100 controls. Genotypes were identified by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP. Results. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of FokΙ and ApaI were significantly associated with T1D (p0.05. CCGC, CCGG, CCTC, and CCTG haplotypes were significantly associated with disease development (p<0.05. However, CTGG haplotype was protective towards T1D (p<0.01. Conclusion. VDR polymorphisms were identified as susceptible regions for T1D development in the Pakistani population.

  19. An Influence of 7.5 T Superconducting Wiggler on Beam Parameters of Siberia-2 Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchuganov, Vladimir; Valentinov, Alexander; Mezentsev, Nikolai

    2007-01-01

    At present the dedicated synchrotron radiation source Siberia-2 in Kurchatov Institute operates with electron energy 2.5 GeV and current up to 200 mA. In order to expand spectral range of SR and to increase brightness an installation of 7.5 T 19-pole superconducting wiggler is planned at the end of 2006. Now the wiggler is under fabrication in BINP, Novosibirsk. Such high level of a magnetic field in the wiggler will have a great influence on electron beam parameters of Siberia-2. Changes of these parameters (betatron tunes, horizontal emittance of the electron beam, momentum compaction, energy spread etc.) are discussed in the report. Different methods of compensation (global and local) of betatron functions distortion are presented. Much attention is paid to dynamic aperture calculations using analytical approximation of magnetic field behavior in transverse horizontal direction

  20. Circadian variations of thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in surgical and functional pinealectomy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Buntner, B.; Jarzab, B.; Kucharzewski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the regulatory influence of surgical and functional pinealectomy on circadian variations of thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) in male Wistar rats. The serum hormone levels were estimated with RIA method, and the circadian rhythm secretion was analyzed by means of cosinor method. Our study shows that there are marked differences in circadian fluctuations of T 3 and T 4 between the two generally used models of pinealectomy. (author). 55 refs, 4 figs

  1. Combined influence of adjuvant therapy and interval after surgery on peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    LING, YANG; FAN, LIEYING; DONG, CHUNLEI; ZHU, JING; LIU, YONGPING; NI, YAN; ZHU, CHANGTAI; ZHANG, CHANGSONG

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible differences in cellular immunity between chemo- and/or radiotherapy groups during a long interval after surgery in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Cellular immunity was assessed as peripheral lymphocyte subsets in response to chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT) and CT+RT by flow cytometric analysis. There were 139 blood samples obtained at different time points relative to surgery from 73 patients with ESCC. The changes in the absolute and relative proportions of lymphocyte phenotypes were significant among the adjuvant therapy groups. There were significant differences in the absolute counts of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells among the interval groups, and a lower CD4/CD8 ratio was found in patients following a prolonged interval. RT alone had a profound effect on the absolute counts of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared with the other groups. CD4+ T cells exhibited a decreasing trend during a long interval, leading to a prolonged T-cell imbalance after surgery. Univariate analysis revealed that the interaction of the type of adjuvant therapy and the interval after surgery was correlated only with the percentage of CD4+ T cells. The percentage of CD4+ T cells can be used as an indicator of the cellular immunity after surgery in ESCC patients. However, natural killer cells consistently remained suppressed in ESCC patients following adjuvant therapy after surgery. These findings confirm an interaction between adjuvant therapy and the interval after surgery on peripheral CD4+ T cells, and implies that adjuvant therapy may have selective influence on the cellular immunity of ESCC patients after surgery. PMID:23136603

  2. Mutations of the Transporter Proteins GlpT and UhpT Confer Fosfomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus worldwide, fosfomycin has begun to be used more often, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics, for treating methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections, resulting in the emergence of fosfomycin-resistant strains. Fosfomycin resistance is reported to be mediated by fosfomycin-modifying enzymes (FosA, FosB, FosC, and FosX and mutations of the target enzyme MurA or the membrane transporter proteins UhpT and GlpT. Our previous studies indicated that the fos genes might not the major fosfomycin resistance mechanism in S. aureus, whereas mutations of glpT and uhpT seemed to be more related to fosfomycin resistance. However, the precise role of these two genes in S. aureus fosfomycin resistance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of glpT and uhpT in S. aureus fosfomycin resistance. Homologous recombination was used to knockout the uhpT and glpT genes in S. aureus Newman. Gene complementation was generated by the plasmid pRB473 carrying these two genes. The fosfomycin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the strains was measured by the E-test to observe the influence of gene deletion on antibiotic susceptibility. In addition, growth curves were constructed to determine whether the mutations have a significant influence on bacterial growth. Deletion of uhpT, glpT, and both of them led to increased fosfomycin MIC 0.5 μg/ml to 32 μg/ml, 4 μg/ml, and >1024 μg/ml, respectively. By complementing uhpT and glpT into the deletion mutants, the fosfomycin MIC decreased from 32 to 0.5 μg/ml and from 4 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the transporter gene-deleted strains showed no obvious difference in growth curves compared to the parental strain. In summary, our study strongly suggests that mutations of uhpT and glpT lead to fosfomycin resistance in S. aureus, and that uhpT mutation may play a more important role. The high

  3. Experimental examination of ternary fission in nuclear track emulsion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Ambrožová, Iva; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Haiduc, M.; Kákona, Martin; Kattabekov, R. R.; Marey, A.; Neagu, A.; Ploc, Ondřej; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, Karel; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2017), s. 910-913 ISSN 1063-7796 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : angular correlation * nuclear track emulsion Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2016

  4. Developmental heterogeneity in DNA packaging patterns influences T-cell activation and transmigration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Gupta

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation programs are accompanied by large-scale changes in nuclear organization and gene expression. In this context, accompanying transitions in chromatin assembly that facilitates changes in gene expression and cell behavior in a developmental system are poorly understood. Here, we address this gap and map structural changes in chromatin organization during murine T-cell development, to describe an unusual heterogeneity in chromatin organization and associated functional correlates in T-cell lineage. Confocal imaging of DNA assembly in cells isolated from bone marrow, thymus and spleen reveal the emergence of heterogeneous patterns in DNA organization in mature T-cells following their exit from the thymus. The central DNA pattern dominated in immature precursor cells in the thymus whereas both central and peripheral DNA patterns were observed in naïve and memory cells in circulation. Naïve T-cells with central DNA patterns exhibited higher mechanical pliability in response to compressive loads in vitro and transmigration assays in vivo, and demonstrated accelerated expression of activation-induced marker CD69. T-cell activation was characterized by marked redistribution of DNA assembly to a central DNA pattern and increased nuclear size. Notably, heterogeneity in DNA patterns recovered in cells induced into quiescence in culture, suggesting an internal regulatory mechanism for chromatin reorganization. Taken together, our results uncover an important component of plasticity in nuclear organization, reflected in chromatin assembly, during T-cell development, differentiation and transmigration.

  5. Hormonal evaluation of T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} through radioimmunoassay in younglings of rats with hypothyroidism; Avaliacao hormonal de T{sub 4} e T{sub 3} atraves de radioimunoensaio em filhotes de ratas hipotireoideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M.F.G. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Souza, G.M.L.; Carvalho, E.F.M.B.; Cavalcante, C.V.G. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Faculdade de Formacao de Professores de Nazare da Mata, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais

    2000-07-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alteration in the rat after birth. Due to this alteration, we decided to analyze the hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with MMI (in the concentration of 0,03% in drinking water) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an induction of hypothyroidism maintained the treatment with MMI for 13 days during gestation. The hormones were assessed by radioimmunoassay technique. It was seen that the rats which were born from hypothyroid dams suffered alterations on its T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} hormone levels concerning to 10, 30 and 60 days after birth. There was also modifications on their weight and size. The growth is affected throughout post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which has a facilitator influence on growth hormone economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. The administration of MMI bars the fetal thyroid gland function, causing a decrease of both T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  6. Internet of Robotic Things – Converging Sensing/Actuating, Hyperconnectivity, Artificial Intelligence and IoT Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu; Bröring, Arne; Tragos, Elias Z.; Serrano, Martin; Bacciu, Davide; Chessa, Stefano; Gallicchio, Claudio; Micheli, Alessio; Dragone, Mauro; Saffiotti, Alessandro; Simoens, Pieter; Cavallo, Filippo; Bahr, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is evolving rapidly and influencing new developments in various application domains, such as the Internet of Mobile Things (IoMT), Autonomous Internet of Things (A-IoT), Autonomous System of Things (ASoT), Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT), Internet of Things Clouds (IoT-C) and the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) etc. that are progressing/advancing by using IoT technology. The IoT influence represents new development and deployment challenges in diffe...

  7. Hormonal evaluation of T4 and T3 through radioimmunoassay in younglings of rats with hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Souza, G.M.L.; Carvalho, E.F.M.B.; Cavalcante, C.V.G.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alteration in the rat after birth. Due to this alteration, we decided to analyze the hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with MMI (in the concentration of 0,03% in drinking water) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an induction of hypothyroidism maintained the treatment with MMI for 13 days during gestation. The hormones were assessed by radioimmunoassay technique. It was seen that the rats which were born from hypothyroid dams suffered alterations on its T 4 and T 3 hormone levels concerning to 10, 30 and 60 days after birth. There was also modifications on their weight and size. The growth is affected throughout post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which has a facilitator influence on growth hormone economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. The administration of MMI bars the fetal thyroid gland function, causing a decrease of both T 4 and T 3 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  8. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  9. Influence of molecular clustering on the interpretation of diffractograms of hydrocarbon films from tokamak T-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neverov, V. S., E-mail: vs-never@hotmail.com [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Tokamak Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Voloshinov, V. V., E-mail: vladimir.voloshinov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Science, Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, A. B., E-mail: kukushkin-ab@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Tokamak Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Tarasov, A. S., E-mail: tarasov.alexey@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Science, Institute for Information Transmission Problems (Kharkevich Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The influence of molecular clustering on the formerly suggested interpretation of diffraction patterns of hydrocarbon films formed in the vacuum vessel of the tokamak T-10 is analyzed numerically. The simulation of clustering of simple hydrocarbon molecules C(D, H){sub 4}, C{sub 2}(D, H){sub 4}, and C{sub 6}(D, H){sub 6} and molecules composed of curved graphene (fullerenes and toroidal nanotubes) is carried out with the rigid body molecular dynamics method. It is shown that formerly neglected atomic correlations C–C and C–D(H) in the amorphous hydrocarbon component decrease the calculated values of the scattered intensity in the range of scattering vector modulus 5 < q < 20 nm{sup –1} because of homogenization of scatters on the spatial scale of ∼1 nm. The allowance for these correlations does not change the diffraction patterns in the range q > 20 nm{sup –1}. The results suggest the necessity to introduce to the procedure of determining the structural content of the films, similar to those from the tokamak T-10, the clusters formed by the van der Waals adhesion of hydrocarbon molecules to “graphene” nanoparticles. This simplifies the mathematical optimization to the former level of complexity—but for an extended ensemble of objects—and makes it possible to calculate the diffraction patterns of these objects using the distributed computing resources. A modified algorithm of structural content identification on the basis of joint X-ray and neutron diffractometry is suggested.

  10. Ultrasonic extraction of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruit using response surface methodology and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jixiang; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Donghui; Fang, Fang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wu, Tao

    2014-06-27

    For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v) ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

  11. INCREASING RELIABILITY OF STEPPED AUTOMATIC STARTING AND RHEOSTAT BREAKING SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC TRAINS ER9T AND EPL9T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Visin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines transitional processes in the power circuit of tractive motors and their influence on the work of stepped automatic starting of electric trains ER9T and EPL9T. The recommendations for increasing the reliability of operation of multiple-unit rolling stock are proposed.

  12. Modeling of soil CO2 efflux during water table fluctuation based on in situ measured data from a sedge-grass marsh

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Dařenová, Eva; Dušek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2016), s. 423-437 ISSN 1589-1623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : carex acuta * fen * soil chamber * soil respiration * wetland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2016

  13. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 9 (2010), s. 2838-2860 ISSN 1424-8247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/09/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * allosteric modulation * Alzheimer´s disease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  14. 75 FR 51277 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ...: Clinical and Care Delivery Member Conflict SEP. Date: September 16, 2010. Time: 12 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda...-435- 0681. [email protected] . Name of Committee: Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition and..., Metabolism, Nutrition and Reproductive Sciences Integrated Review Group; Integrative Nutrition and Metabolic...

  15. The t-shirt as political stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Soria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The printed shirts with philanthropic phrases or social mobilization campaigns, made by high luxury companies or governments, links the citizen in a number of situations where the appearance is much more complex than it seems. The article aims to analyze the philanthropic t-shirts of the american luxury companies which have global influence and t-shirts with prints produced by municipal and state governments of Rio de Janeiro.

  16. T cell suppression by naturally occurring HLA-G-expressing regulatory CD4+ T cells is IL-10-dependent and reversible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zozulya, Alla L; Weidenfeller, Christian; Schwab, Nicholas; Wiendl, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    CD4(+) T cells constitutively expressing the immune-tolerogenic HLA-G have been described recently as a new type of nT(reg) (HLA-G(pos) T(reg)) in humans. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) accumulate at sites of inflammation and are potent suppressors of T cell proliferation in vitro, suggesting their role in immune regulation. We here characterize the mechanism of how CD4(+) HLA-G(pos) T(reg) influence autologous HLA-G(neg) T(resp) function. Using a suppression system free of APC, we demonstrate a T-T cell interaction, resulting in suppression of HLA-G(neg) T(resp), which is facilitated by TCR engagement on HLA-G(pos) T(reg). Suppression is independent of cell-cell contact and is reversible, as the removal of HLA-G(pos) T(reg) from the established coculture restored the proliferative capability of responder cells. Further, HLA-G(pos) T(reg)-mediated suppression critically depends on the secretion of IL-10 but not TGF-beta.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of serum T3, T4 and TSH during anesthesia and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosheva-Antonova, Ts.; Zakharieva, B.; Kurtev, I.

    1987-01-01

    The serum concentrations of thyroxine (T 3 ), triiodothyronine (T 4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 31 partients before and during urologic operations on the 30th and 60th minute since the onset of the operation, performed under endotracheal halotane or neuroleptanesthesia (NLA) in assisted breathing and intravenous drip anesthesia with ketalar-diazepam in spontaneous breathing. There was statistically significant rise in T 4 level, decrease in T 3 and negligible changes in TSH level, in patients operated under halotane anesthesia. In those operated under NLA, T 4 tended initially to be elevated, with subseguent fall to starting level, with a tendency toward rise in TSH and stable unchanged T 3 level. Ketalar-diazepam anesthesia was applied only to patients subjected to transurethral resections. T 4 in them tended to be decreased, while T 3 and TSH showed negligible changes. Since the operations of patients anesthesized with halotane and NLA had similar localizations and severity, the differences in the thyroid hormone reactions could be associated with the type of anesthesia. The negligible changes in TSH are highly suggestive that this hormone is not influenced by the operation stress and anesthetics, and does hot exert regulating effect upon the thyroid status under these conditions. The milder reactions in patients operated under ketalar-diazepam anestesia may largely be associated with the milder operation stress in transurethal resection

  18. Differential presentation of endogenous and exogenous hepatitis B surface antigens influences priming of CD8(+) T cells in an epitope-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Petra; Reiser, Michael; Stifter, Katja; Krieger, Jana; Schirmbeck, Reinhold

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about whether presentation of endogenous and exogenous hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigens on APCs targeted by vaccination and/or virus-harboring hepatocytes influences de novo priming of CD8(+) T cells. We showed that surface antigen-expressing transfectants exclusively display a K(b) /S190 epitope, whereas cells pulsed with recombinant surface particles (rSPs) exclusively present a K(b) /S208 epitope to CD8(+) T cells. The differential presentation of these epitopes largely reflects the selective, but not exclusive, priming of K(b) /S190- and K(b) /S208-specific T cells in C57BL/6 mice by endogenous/DNA- or exogenous/protein-based vaccines, respectively. Silencing the K(b) /S190 epitope (K(b) /S190V194F ) in antigen-expressing vectors rescued the presentation of the K(b) /S208 epitope in stable transfectants and significantly enhanced priming of K(b) /S208-specific T cells in C57BL/6 mice. A K(b) /S190-mediated immunodominance operating in surface antigen-expressing cells, but not in rSP-pulsed cells, led to an efficient suppression in the presentation of the K(b) /S208 epitope and a consequent decrease in the priming of K(b) /S208-specific T cells. This K(b) /S190-mediated immunodominance also operated in 1.4HBV-S(mut) transgenic (tg) hepatocytes selectively expressing endogenous surface antigens and allowed priming of K(b) /S208- but not K(b) /S190-specific T cells in 1.4HBV-S(mut) tg mice. However, IFN-γ(+) K(b) /S208-specific T cells could not inhibit HBV replication in the liver of 1.4HBV-S(mut) tg mice. These results have practical implications for the design of T-cell-stimulating therapeutic vaccines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The influences of age on T lymphocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the age related changes of T lymphocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice and immune function. Multi-color immunofluorescence techniques that were used to analyse relative numbers of T lymphocyte subsets include CD4+, CD8+, naive and memory CD4+ and CD8+, CD8+CD28+ T cells in peripheral blood of C57BL/6 mice from different age groups (Group I: 2 months old; Group II: 7 months old; Group III: 21 months old; Splenocytes isolated from different group mice were stimulated with Con A to evaluate the proliferative ability. Compared with group I, group II had a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4+, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and an increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells, while group III had a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4+, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and increase in the percentage of CD8+, memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood. Compared with group II, group III had a significant reduction in the percentage of naive CD8+ T cells and increase in the percentage of memory CD4+ and CD8+, CD8+CD28+ T cells in peripheral blood. The T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro showed that groups II and III had a lower proliferative capacity than group I, between groups II and III, there was not a significant difference. We provide relative values for the T lymphocyte subsets in the different age groups of C57BL/6 mice. The immune system began aging at 7 months old in C57BL/6 mice under a specific pathogen free environment.

  20. Evaluation of crosstalk effect on spin-echo images at 1.5 and 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajisako, Masaaki; Taniguchi, Masahiro; Koizumi, Koji; Hiraga, Akira; Miyati, Tosiaki; Syakudo, Yuko; Miki, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the crosstalk effect on spin-echo (SE) images at 1.5 and 3 T MRI. We examined the influence of crosstalk by comparing the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) and slice profile of images of a wedge-shaped phantom for various slice gaps. We also assessed crosstalk effect in the brain by comparing image contrast among healthy volunteers (n=8). Among the subjects, the shapes of the slice profiles at 1.5 T were similar to those at 3 T for long repetition times (TRs); however, at shorter TRs, differences in slice profiles were observed among the subjects and were more apparent at 3 than at 1.5 T. The relative contrast between white matter and gray matter on T 1 -weighted images was lower at 3 than at 1.5 T. The crosstalk effect was strongest when the TR of the excitation pulse was short. The influence of the adjacent excitation pulse is important in the process of T 1 relaxation because T 1 values are greater at 3 T. In conclusion, the influence of crosstalk on SE T 1 -weighted images is greater at 3 than at 1.5 T. (author)

  1. Synthesis of N-Substituted Piperidine Salts as Potential Muscarinic Ligands for Alzheimer's Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boulos, J.; Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Avila, C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2013), s. 1363-1367 ISSN 0022-152X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : N-piperidine substituted salts * muscarinic receptor antagonists * selectivity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2013

  2. Molecular, pharmacological and functional properties of GABAA receptors in anterior pituitary cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, H.W.; Bjelobaba, I.; Tomič, M.; Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 586, č. 13 (2008), s. 3097-3111 ISSN 0022-3751 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : gonadotrophs * lactotrophs * GABA Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.605, year: 2008

  3. Signaling by purinergic receptors and channels in the pituitary gland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; He, M. L.; Koshimizu, T.; Balík, A.; Zemková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 2 (2010), s. 184-191 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : purinergic receptors * ATP * anterior pituitary Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.119, year: 2010

  4. The phosphorylation state of CD3gamma influences T cell responsiveness and controls T cell receptor cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Backstrom, T; Lauritsen, JP

    1998-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) is internalized following activation of protein kinase C (PKC) via a leucine (Leu)-based motif in CD3gamma. Some studies have indicated that the TCR is recycled back to the cell surface following PKC-mediated internalization. The functional state of recycled TCR...... the phosphorylation state of CD3gamma and T cell responsiveness. Based on these observations a physiological role of CD3gamma and TCR cycling is proposed....... and the mechanisms involved in the sorting events following PKC-induced internalization are not known. In this study, we demonstrated that following PKC-induced internalization, the TCR is recycled back to the cell surface in a functional state. TCR recycling was dependent on dephosphorylation of CD3gamma, probably...

  5. Contrast configuration influences grouping in apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; Clifford, Colin W G; Wenderoth, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether the same principles that influence grouping in static displays also influence grouping in apparent motion. Using the Ternus display, we found that the proportion of group motion reports was influenced by changes in contrast configuration. Subjects made judgments of completion of these same configurations in a static display. Generally, contrast configurations that induced a high proportion of group motion responses were judged as more 'complete' in static displays. Using a stereo display, we then tested whether stereo information and T-junction information were critical for this increase in group motion. Perceived grouping was consistently higher for same contrast polarity configurations than for opposite contrast polarity configurations, regardless of the presence of stereo information or explicit T-junctions. Thus, while grouping in static and moving displays showed a similar dependence on contrast configuration, motion grouping showed little dependence on stereo or T-junction information.

  6. Influence of Selenium on the Production of T-2 Toxin by Fusarium poae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bolun; Zhang, Yan; Tong, Bei; Yin, Hong

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium on the production of T-2 toxin by a Fusarium poae strain cultured in a synthetic medium containing different concentrations of selenium. The T-2 toxin contents in fermentative products were evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the production of T-2 toxin was correlated with the concentration of selenium added to the medium. In all three treatments, the addition of 1 mg/L selenium to the medium resulted in a lower toxin yield than the control (0 mg/L); the yield of the toxin began to increase when selenium concentration was 10 mg/L, while it decreased again at 20 mg/L. In summary, T-2 toxin yield in the fermentative product was affected by the addition of selenium to the medium, and a selenium concentration of 20 mg/L produced the maximum inhibitory effect of T-2 toxin yield in the fermentative product of F. poae.

  7. Mechanism of nitrofen teratogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrofen (2,4-dichloro-4'-nitrodiphenyl ether) is an herbicide with potent teratogenic activity in rats. When administered at doses as low as 0.15 mg/kg/day during organogenesis, abnormal development of the heart, kidneys, diaphragm, and lung occurs. The specific pattern of visceral malformations produced in the absence of overt maternal toxicity or embryolethality/cytotoxicity suggest that the compound perturbs processes unique or highly selective for embryonic differentiation. Despite findings of metabolic activation to mutagenic intermediates and carcinogenic activity in adult rodents, several lines of evidence indicate that teratogenicity is not based on mutagenic insult to the embryo. Rather, evidence is accumulating that nitrofen exerts a teratogenic effect via alterations in thyroid hormone status. The premature and pharmacologic exposure of the embryo to a nitrofen-derived thyromimetic challenge is believed to be the cause of abnormal morphogenesis of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and diaphragm. The parent compound itself could directly bind to embryonic nuclear receptors for T 3 , leading to altered differentiation of target organs. Alternatively, increased availability and placental transport of free thyroid hormones in the maternal compartment could be the source of thyromimetric challenge to the embryo. Overall, these studies indicate that, in the case of nitrofen, the mode of teratogenic activity is uniquely different from the mode of adult toxicity

  8. Influence of age on the proliferation and peripheralization of thymic T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokawa, K.; Utsuyama, M.; Katsura, Y.; Sado, T.

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow cells obtained from B10.Thy-1.1 mice (H-2b, Thy-1.1) were injected directly into the thymus of C57BL/6 mice (H-2b,Thy 1.2) of various ages. Thymocyte precursors in the injected donor-bone marrow cells could proliferate in the thymic microenvironment in the following manner: first, preferentially proliferating into the subcapsular cortex; and second, spreading to the whole layer of the cortex, a portion of them gradually moving into the medulla. The proliferation of donor-type thymocytes was most pronounced when intrathymic injection of bone marrow cells (ITB) was performed in newborn mice and especially prominent in week-old mice; it took approximately ten weeks for donor-type thymocytes to finish the whole course of proliferation, differentiation, and emigration to the periphery. When ITB was performed in mice 4 weeks of age and older, the proliferation of donor-type thymocytes was retarded at onset, less pronounced in magnitude, and disappeared earlier. Emigration of donor-type T cells from the thymus to the peripheral lymphoid tissues occurred most rapidly when ITB was performed in newborn mice, and these T cells continued to reside thereafter in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. However, when ITB was performed in mice 4 weeks of age and older, the number of emigrated T cells in the spleen decreased (about a tenth of that in newborn mice) and, moreover, these T cells resided only transiently in the spleen. It was suggested that T cells emigrating from the thymus of mice from newborn to 2 weeks of age are long-lived, whereas those from the thymus in mice 4 weeks of age and older are short-lived. However, when 4-week-old young adult mice were treated by irradiation or hydrocortisone, the thymic capacity was enhanced in terms of proliferation and peripheralization of thymocytes, and emigrated T cells became long-lived

  9. The influence of microvascular injury on native T1 and T2* relaxation values after acute myocardial infarction: implications for non-contrast-enhanced infarct assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Lourens F H J; Nijveldt, Robin; Beek, Aernout M; Teunissen, Paul F A; Hollander, Maurits R; Biesbroek, P Stefan; Everaars, Henk; van de Ven, Peter M; Hofman, Mark B M; van Royen, Niels; van Rossum, Albert C

    2018-02-01

    Native T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging offer detailed characterisation of the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated the effects of microvascular injury (MVI) and intramyocardial haemorrhage on local T1 and T2* values in patients with a reperfused AMI. Forty-three patients after reperfused AMI underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 4 [3-5] days, including native MOLLI T1 and T2* mapping, STIR, cine imaging and LGE. T1 and T2* values were determined in LGE-defined regions of interest: the MI core incorporating MVI when present, the core-adjacent MI border zone (without any areas of MVI), and remote myocardium. Average T1 in the MI core was higher than in the MI border zone and remote myocardium. However, in the 20 (47%) patients with MVI, MI core T1 was lower than in patients without MVI (MVI 1048±78ms, no MVI 1111±89ms, p=0.02). MI core T2* was significantly lower in patients with MVI than in those without (MVI 20 [18-23]ms, no MVI 31 [26-39]ms, pvalues. T2* mapping suggested that this may be the result of intramyocardial haemorrhage. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of native T1 values shortly after AMI. • Microvascular injury after acute myocardial infarction affects local T1 and T2* values. • Infarct zone T1 values are lower if microvascular injury is present. • T2* mapping suggests that low infarct T1 values are likely haemorrhage. • T1 and T2* values are complimentary for correctly assessing post-infarct myocardium.

  10. The dynamics of nitrogenous substances in rodent diet in a forest environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepelka, L.; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2014), s. 327-333 ISSN 0025-1461 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Apodemus flavicollis * Apodemus sylvaticus * Clethrionomys glareolus * diet quality * Microtus arvalis * NIR spectroscopy * nitrogenous substances Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014

  11. Místo Sociologického časopisu/Czech Sociological Review mezi sociologickými časopisy podle bibliometrických indikátorů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skovajsa, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2014), s. 759-778 ISSN 0038-0288 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : scientometrics * bibliometrics * Web of Science Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/cs/issue/173-sociologicky-casopis-czech-sociological-review-5-2014/3461

  12. ‘Šedá zóna’ v éře tzv. normalizace: Dům techniky ČSVTS Pardubice v dějinách české sociologie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpor, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2014), s. 107-130 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/10/0032 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : House of Technology in Pardubice * Czech sociology * history of sociology Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014

  13. Influence of Phthalates on in vitro Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Brorson, Marianne Møller

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin......-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion......-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did...

  14. Two steps simultaneous analysis of reactivity of L-norvaline in the T-for-H exchange reaction. Application of Taft equation to influence of Polar effect and steric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Noriaki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Sato, Takayuki; Kano, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    In order to quantitatively evaluate the influence of tritium ( 3 H or T) on ecosystem and the reactivity of materials having H atoms, the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction (T-for-H exchange reaction) between L-norvaline and HTO vapor was observed at 50-70degC in the gas-solid system. Applying the A''-McKay plot method to data obtained in the reaction, the rate constants of the functional groups in the material were obtained. Comparing these rate constants, following seven matters have been found in the T-for-H exchange reaction. (1) The reactivity of the functional groups in L-norvaline increases with increasing temperature. (2) As to L-norvaline, 1) the temperature dependence of each functional group increases with the following order: COOH group > NH 2 one. 2) the reactivity of COOH group is 2.2 times greater than that of NH 2 one. (3) As to the influence of the substituent, the reactivity of COOH group is larger than that of the NH 2 one. (4) It seems that the reactivity of the amino acid follows Taft equation. (5) Applying Taft equation, the ratio of influence of polar effect to steric one is 10:0 in NH 2 group, and is 3:7 in COOH one. (6) Using the A - McKay plot method, the reactivity of each functional group in an amino acid is able to be nondestructively, quantitatively and simultaneously analyzed without using masking reagent. (7) The method used in this work may be useful to quickly determine the reactivity of the functional groups in the materials. (author)

  15. Korean immigrants don't buy health insurance: The influences of culture on self-employed Korean immigrants focusing on structure and functions of social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunsung; Jeong, Chung Hyeon

    2017-10-01

    Culture has been pinpointed as a culprit of disparities in health insurance coverage between Korean immigrants and other ethnic groups. This study explored specific mechanisms by which culture influences a decision to buy health insurance among self-employed Korean immigrants living in ethnic enclaves by focusing on the structure and functions of social networks. Between March and June 2015, we recruited 24 Korean immigrant adults (aged 18 or older) who identified as self-employed and being uninsured for substantial periods before 2014 in Southern California. Interviews were conducted in Korean, and Korean transcripts were translated into English by two bilingual interpreters. Using constant comparative analysis, we explored why participants didn't purchase health insurance after migrating to the United States and how their social networks influenced their decisions whether to purchase health insurance. Results indicate Korean immigrants sought health information from dense and homogeneous social networks whose members are mostly Korean immigrants embedded in similar social contexts. Social learning was frequently observed when people sought health care while uninsured. However, respondents often noted social ties do not provide helpful information about benefits, costs, and ways to use health insurance. "Koreans don't buy health insurance" was a dominant social norm reported by most respondents. Findings indicate that social learning and normative influence occur inside social networks and these mechanisms seemingly prevent purchasing of health insurance. In addition to the individual mandate in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, more targeted approaches that consider the structure and functions of social networks could improve the public health of Korean immigrants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social influence, intention to smoke, and adolescent smoking behaviour longitudinal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, Paulo D; Salgueiro, M Fátima; Silva, Silvia A; de Vries, Hein

    2011-11-01

    There is a debate on the determinants of smoking behaviour, their relative impact, and how impacts are exerted. This longitudinal study is on the relations among social influence, intention to smoke, and smoking behaviour, controlling for attitude and self-efficacy. A model combining parents and peers with subjective and descriptive norms, resulting in four factors, was used to assess social influence. Data were collected at the beginning of the 7th(-T1), 8th(-T2), and 9th(-T3) school years, concerning 578 students (M(age) = 13.04 at T1). Structural Equation Modelling was used to test longitudinal effects. Variances explained by the model were high: R(2) (intention-T2) = .65, R(2) (behaviour-T2) = .67, and R(2) (behaviour-T3) = .76. Longitudinal analyses confirmed the effects of social influence on intention and behaviour. These effects on behaviour were direct and indirect (peers' and parents' descriptive norms in both cases). Descriptive norms had a stronger effect on behaviour than subjective norms. Peers' effect on behaviour was stronger than parents', but peers' effect was exerted only through descriptive norms while parents' effect was exerted through both norms. The intention effect on behaviour was not as detached as expected and its role of full mediator between other variables' effects on behaviour was not confirmed, since descriptive norms and self-efficacy had also a mediation role. Results show direct and indirect effects of social influence on behaviour. Descriptive norms are an important variable to operationalize social influence. Peers and parents exert influence on adolescents' intention and behaviour through different processes. The impact of intention on behaviour is not as important as expected. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Adoptive T cell therapy: Addressing challenges in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Cassian

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive T cell therapy involves the ex vivo selection and expansion of effector cells for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this review, the advantages and limitations of using antigen-specific T cells are discussed in counterpoint to vaccine strategies. Although vaccination strategies represent more readily available reagents, adoptive T cell therapy provides highly selected T cells of defined phenotype, specificity and function that may influence their biological behavior in vivo. Adoptive T cell therapy offers not only translational opportunities but also a means to address fundamental issues in the evolving field of cancer immunotherapy.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of brain diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging comparison with 1.5 T and 3.0 T units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Eun Hoe [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    DWI of biological effects are independent of magnetic field strength in various regions. High field strength, however, does affect the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and artifacts of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) images, which ultimately will influence the quantitative of diffusion imaging . In this study, the effects of field strength on DWI are reviewed. The effects of the diseases also are discussed. Comparing DWI in cerebellum, WM, GM, Hyperacute region measurements both as a function of field strength (1.5 T and 3.0 T). Overall, the SNR of the DWI roughly doubled going from 1.5 T to 3.0 T. In summary, DWI studies at 3.0 T is provided significantly improved DWI measurements relative to studies at 1.5 T.

  19. Numerical study of PV/T-SAHP system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang PEI; Jie JI; Ke-liang LIU; Han-feng HE; Ai-guo JIANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy effectively and to achieve a higher electrical efficiency by limiting the operating temperature of the photovoltaic (PV) panel, a novel photovoltaic/thermal solar-assisted heat pump (PV/T-SAHP) system was proposed and constructed. The hybrid solar system generates electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. A distributed parameters model of the PV/T-SAHP system was developed and applied to analyze the system dynamic performance in terms of PV action, photothermal action and Rankine cycle processes. The simulation results indicated that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed PV/T-SAHP can be much better than that of the conventional heat pump. Both PV-efficiency and photothermic efficiency have been improved considerably. The results also showed that the performance of this PV/T-SAHP system was strongly influenced by the evaporator area, tube pitch and tilt angle of the PV/T evaporator, which are the key factors in PV/T-SAHP system optimization and PV/T evaporator design.

  20. Experimental study of the energy dependence of the total cross section for the He-6 + Si-nat and Li-9 + Si-nat reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolev, Yu. G.; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Aznabaev, D.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Ivanov, M. P.; Kabdrakhimova, G. D.; Kabyshev, A. M.; Knyazev, A.; Kugler, Andrej; Lashmanov, N. A.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Maj, A.; Maslov, V. A.; Mendibayev, K.; Skobelev, N. K.; Slepnev, R. S.; Smirnov, V. V.; Testov, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2017), s. 922-926 ISSN 1063-7796 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : energy dependence * cross section Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2016

  1. The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals on terrestrial annelids in urban soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Schlaghamerský, J.; Tříska, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 8 (2009), s. 1050-1055 ISSN 0100-204X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600660608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Enchytraeidae * Lumbricidae * soil pollution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2009

  2. NMR Structure and Action on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Water-soluble Domain of Human LYNX1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Shulepko, M. A.; Mineev, K. S.; D´Hoedt, D.; Kasheverov, I. E.; Filkin, S. Yu.; Krivolapova, A. P.; Janíčková, Helena; Doležal, Vladimír; Dolgikh, D. A.; Arseniev, A. S.; Bertrand, D.; Tsetlin, V.I.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 286, č. 12 (2011), s. 10618-10627 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : NMR structure * nicotinic acetylcholine receptor * water-soluble domain Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.773, year: 2011

  3. Scientific values of landforms as the basis for the declaration of protected sites (a case study of Mt. Kraví hora in the Novohradské hory Mts., Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rypl, J.; Kirchner, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2017), s. 1537-1550 ISSN 1589-1623 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : geomorphological inventory * geomorphologically significant sites * geoeducation * geotourism * geoconservation Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2016 http://www.aloki.hu/pdf/1503_15371550.pdf

  4. Thermoelectric coefficient L(T) of polycrystalline silver doped BSCCO samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.E.; Marino, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a study of the thermoelectric coefficient L(T) of polycrystalline silver doped BSCCO samples. The quantity L(T) relates the thermoelectric coefficient S(T) with the electrical conductivity σ (T) and gives an indication of the influence of the order parameter fluctuations (OPF) on S(T) in the mean field region (Mfr). The results of L(T) indicate that the critical behavior of S(T) above the superconducting transition is not only driven by σ (T). These results suggest that in the Mfr, L(T) is affected by thermodynamic fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter (OPF). The OPF effects show a two-dimensional (2D) character in the entire Mfr. (Author)

  5. Pediatric-specific\tAntimicrobial\tResistance\tPatterns\tof\tUrinary\tTract\tInfections: A\tSingle-Centre\tExperience\tfrom\tTurkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Kandur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance of the causative microorganisms of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI is a growing problem.\tThe\taim\tof\tthis\tstudy\tis\tto\tdetermine\tthe\tchanging\tpattern\tof\tantibiotic\tsusceptibility\tin\tUTIs\tin\tan\toutpatient\tsetting. Methods: We\tretrospectively\treviewed\tthe\tmedical\trecords\tof\tpediatric\tpatients\twith\tUTI\twho\twere\tfollowed-up\tin\tour\tcenter between\tJanuary-2014\tand\tMay-2015. Results: One hundred and seventy-one patients (M/F= 53/118;\tmean age 56 ± 47.2\tmonths with UTI were enrolled\tin this study.\tA\ttotal\tof\t231\turinary\tpathogens\twere\tisolated\tfrom\tUTI\tepisodes.\tThe\tmost\tcommon\tcausative\tagent\twas\tEscherichia\tcoli (E. coli (70.6% followed by Klebsiella spp. (16.5%, Proteus spp. (6.5%. One point eight percent of E. coli isolates were resistant to amikacin, 17.8% to gentamicin, 60.7% to TMP-SMX, 66,9% to ampicillin, 52.1% to cefixime, 46% to ceftriaxone, 54.6%\tto\tcefuroxime\tand\t4.9%\tto\tnitrofurantoin. Conclusions: TMP-SMX and nitrofurantoin are poor empirical choices for pediatric patients due high resistance rates and gastrointestinal side effects, respectively. Second and third -generation cephalosporins (cefixime may not be considered as appropriate\tempiric\tantibiotic\talternatives\tanymore\tgiven\ttheir\thigh\tresistance\trates\tin\tthe\tnext\tfew\tyears.\tPhysicians\twho\twork in\tthe\tprimary\thealth\tcare\tshould\tbe\tencouraged\tfor\tthe\tselection\tof\tmore\tappropriate\tantibiotics.

  6. Acceleration of tissue phase mapping by k-t BLAST: a detailed analysis of the influence of k-t-BLAST for the quantification of myocardial motion at 3T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhaus G Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of myocardial motion with tissue phase mapping (TPM provides high spatiotemporal resolution and quantitative motion information in three directions. Today, whole volume coverage of the heart by TPM encoding at high spatial and temporal resolution is limited by long data acquisition times. Therefore, a significant increase in imaging speed without deterioration of the quantitative motion information is required. For this purpose, the k-t BLAST acceleration technique was combined with TPM black-blood functional imaging of the heart. Different k-t factors were evaluated with respect to their impact on the quantitative assessment of cardiac motion. Results It is demonstrated that a k-t BLAST factor of two can be used with a marginal, but statistically significant deterioration of the quantitative motion data. Further increasing the k-t acceleration causes substantial alteration of the peak velocities and the motion pattern, but the temporal behavior of the contraction is well maintained up to an acceleration factor of six. Conclusions The application of k-t BLAST for the acceleration of TPM appears feasible. A reduction of the acquisition time of almost 45% could be achieved without substantial loss of quantitative motion information.

  7. The influence of microvascular injury on native T1 and T2* relaxation values after acute myocardial infarction. Implications for non-contrast-enhanced infarct assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbers, Lourens F.H.J.; Nijveldt, Robin; Beek, Aernout M.; Teunissen, Paul F.A.; Hollander, Maurits R.; Biesbroek, P.S.; Everaars, Henk; Royen, Niels van; Rossum, Albert C. van [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ven, Peter M. van de [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hofman, Mark B.M. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2018-02-15

    Native T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging offer detailed characterisation of the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated the effects of microvascular injury (MVI) and intramyocardial haemorrhage on local T1 and T2* values in patients with a reperfused AMI. Forty-three patients after reperfused AMI underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 4 [3-5] days, including native MOLLI T1 and T2* mapping, STIR, cine imaging and LGE. T1 and T2* values were determined in LGE-defined regions of interest: the MI core incorporating MVI when present, the core-adjacent MI border zone (without any areas of MVI), and remote myocardium. Average T1 in the MI core was higher than in the MI border zone and remote myocardium. However, in the 20 (47%) patients with MVI, MI core T1 was lower than in patients without MVI (MVI 1048±78ms, no MVI 1111±89ms, p=0.02). MI core T2* was significantly lower in patients with MVI than in those without (MVI 20 [18-23]ms, no MVI 31 [26-39]ms, p<0.001). The presence of MVI profoundly affects MOLLI-measured native T1 values. T2* mapping suggested that this may be the result of intramyocardial haemorrhage. These findings have important implications for the interpretation of native T1 values shortly after AMI. (orig.)

  8. Implementasi Metode Bernyanyi dalam Pembelajaran Mufradāt

    OpenAIRE

    Qomaruddin, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Language is a system of sound symbol used by a particular group of people to communicate and interact. The success of language learning is influenced by the learning method, which facilitate the ease of learning. One aspect of Arabic language learning is mufradāt. Mufradāt is a means or medium for learning Arabic, not the goal of learning Arabic. However, there is no doubt that vocabulary (mufradāt) is important in the learning a foreign language, not the exception, Arabic. The application of...

  9. Mesoscale surface equivalent temperature (T E) for East Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Keri; Mahmood, Rezaul; Goodrich, Gregory; Pielke, Roger A.; Durkee, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate near surface mesoscale equivalent temperatures (T E) in Kentucky (located in east central USA) and potential land cover influences. T E is a measure of the moist enthalpy composed of the dry bulb temperature, T, and absolute humidity. Kentucky presents a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 69 research-grade, in-situ weather and climate observing stations across the Commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high-quality observations from 33 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (T E - T) were greatest in the summer (smallest in the winter), with an average of 35 °C (5 °C). In general, the differences were found to be the largest in the western climate division. This is attributed to agricultural land use and poorly drained land. These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture.

  10. Analysis of the influence of the T393C polymorphism of the GNAS gene on the clinical expression of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, María; Berja, Ana; Ramos, Laura; García-Unzueta, María Teresa; Morán, Jesús Manuel; Ruiz, David; Amado, José Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The receptor of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related-protein (PTH/PTHrp) is located in the cell membrane of target tissues - kidney and osteoblasts. It is a G protein-coupled-receptor whose G s α subunit is encoded by the GNAS gene. Our aim was to study whether the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T393C of the GNAS gene is associated with renal stones, bone mineral density (BMD), or bone remodelling markers in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). An analysis was made of clinical and biochemical parameters and densitometric values in three areas and their relationship with the T393C SNP of the GNAS gene in 261 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and in 328 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using the Custom Taqman ® SNP Genotyping assay. The genotype frequencies of GNAS T/C 393 were similar in the control and PHPT groups. No association was found between genotypes and clinical expression of PHPT (renal stones and bone fractures). A nonstatistically significant trend was seen to lower BMD in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip in both PHPT and control C homozygote subjects. Genetic susceptibility to PHPT related to the GNAS T393C polymorphism or a major influence in its development and clinical expression were found. A C allele-related susceptibility to lower BMD in trabecular bone in both PHPT and control subjects is not sufficient to suggest a more severe clinical expression of PHPT. This trend may be considered as a basis for further studies with larger sample sizes and complementary functional evaluation. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. IL-4/IL-13 Heteroreceptor Influences Th17 Cell Conversion and Sensitivity to Regulatory T Cell Suppression To Restrain Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Subhasis; Ellis, Jason S; Cascio, Jason A; Miller, Mindy M; Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Cattin-Roy, Alexis N; Zaghouani, Habib

    2017-10-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 have been defined as anti-inflammatory cytokines that can counter myelin-reactive T cells and modulate experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. However, it is not known whether endogenous IL-4 and IL-13 contribute to the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and whether their function is coordinated with T regulatory cells (Tregs). In this study, we used mice in which the common cytokine receptor for IL-4 and IL-13, namely the IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα1 (13R) heteroreceptor (HR), is compromised and determined whether the lack of signaling by endogenous IL-4 and IL-13 through the HR influences the function of effector Th1 and Th17 cells in a Treg-dependent fashion. The findings indicate that mice-deficient for the HR (13R -/- ) are more susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis than mice sufficient for the HR (13R +/+ ) and develop early onset and more severe disease. Moreover, Th17 cells from 13R -/- mice had reduced ability to convert to Th1 cells and displayed reduced sensitivity to suppression by Tregs relative to Th17 effectors from 13R +/+ mice. These observations suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 likely operate through the HR and influence Th17 cells to convert to Th1 cells and to acquire increased sensitivity to suppression, leading to control of immune-mediated CNS inflammation. These previously unrecognized findings shed light on the intricacies underlying the contribution of cytokines to peripheral tolerance and control of autoimmunity. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  13. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis regulates T cell effector function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonnière, Lyne; Moore, Craig S

    2007-01-01

    To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice with exper......To understand how the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals influences effector function in the immune system, we studied the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), an endogenous regulator of cellular apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed increased XIAP expression in blood of mice...... dramatically reduced within the CNS. Flow cytometry showed an 88-93% reduction in T cells. The proportion of TUNEL(+) apoptotic CD4(+) T cells in the CNS was increased from Neurons...... and oligodendrocytes were not affected; neither did apoptosis increase in liver, where XIAP knockdown also occurred. ASO-XIAP increased susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced apoptosis in vitro. Our results identify XIAP as a critical controller of apoptotic susceptibility of effector T cell function...

  14. Divergence of allosteric effects of rapacuronium on binding and function of muscarinic receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 15 (2009), s. 1-20 ISSN 1471-2210 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/09/0681; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * allosteric modulation * rapacuronium Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  15. T-odd polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Gakh, G.I.; Rekalo, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    It is considered such simplest T-odd polarization observables of the deuteron disintegration as proton polarization in d(e, e' p-bar)n and the asymmetry in the scattering of unpolarized electrons by a vector-polarized target, d-bar (e, e' p)n. The θ dependence of theses observables has been studied. The procedure of making the conserved electromagnetic current has an essential influence on the final θ dependence of the T-odd polarization observables [ru

  16. Peripheral nerve MRI: precision and reproducibility of T2*-derived measurements at 3.0-T. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto [University of Genoa, Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Bignotti, Bianca; Martinoli, Carlo [University of Genoa, Radiology Department, Genoa, Genova (Italy); Tagliafico, Giulio [CNR-IMATI, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Matematica Applicata e Tecnologie Informatiche, Genova (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    To prospectively evaluate the precision and reproducibility of T2*-derived measurements of the peripheral nerves. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained. Bilateral upper and lower limb MRI examination was performed in 40 healthy subjects on a 3.0-T scanner. MRI protocol included T1-turbo spin-echo, T2-turbo spin-echo with fat suppression, and multiecho gradient recalled echo. Measurements of T2* times on T2* maps at different anatomical levels were performed. Three authors measured independently and in different sessions at baseline and after 4 weeks. Non-parametric tests and Bland-Altman statistics were used. Minimum and maximum percentage variability were 10 % and 19 % for T2* (84-91 % of reproducibility). Maximum values of minimum detectable differences between limbs was 16 % (with 95 % CI: 2-37). Intra- and inter-observer agreement of the three radiologists for T2* was considered good. Evaluating the combined influence of the observer and of the repeated measurements the reproducibility was 87-98 %. T2* measurement of the peripheral nerves is precise and reproducible. The healthy contralateral side can be used as an internal control. Variations in T2* values up to 16 % have to be considered. (orig.)

  17. Suboptimal T-cell receptor signaling compromises protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, and proliferation of mouse CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thomas C J; Knight, John; Sbarrato, Thomas; Dudek, Kate; Willis, Anne E; Zamoyska, Rose

    2017-07-25

    Global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of T cells have been rich sources of unbiased data for understanding T-cell activation. Lack of full concordance of these datasets has illustrated that important facets of T-cell activation are controlled at the level of translation. We undertook translatome analysis of CD8 T-cell activation, combining polysome profiling and microarray analysis. We revealed that altering T-cell receptor stimulation influenced recruitment of mRNAs to heavy polysomes and translation of subsets of genes. A major pathway that was compromised, when TCR signaling was suboptimal, was linked to ribosome biogenesis, a rate-limiting factor in both cell growth and proliferation. Defective TCR signaling affected transcription and processing of ribosomal RNA precursors, as well as the translation of specific ribosomal proteins and translation factors. Mechanistically, IL-2 production was compromised in weakly stimulated T cells, affecting the abundance of Myc protein, a known regulator of ribosome biogenesis. Consequently, weakly activated T cells showed impaired production of ribosomes and a failure to maintain proliferative capacity after stimulation. We demonstrate that primary T cells respond to various environmental cues by regulating ribosome biogenesis and mRNA translation at multiple levels to sustain proliferation and differentiation.

  18. In Situ Detection of Regulatory T Cells in Human Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Reactivation and Their Influence on Spontaneous HSV-2 Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Neta; Zhu, Jia; Johnston, Christine; Cheng, Anqi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M; Huang, Meei-Li; Jin, Lei; Klock, Alexis; Layton, Erik D; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation is accompanied by a sustained influx of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that persist in genital tissue for extended periods. While CD4(+) T cells have long been recognized as being present in herpetic ulcerations, their role in subclinical reactivation and persistence is less well known, especially the role of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). We characterized the Treg (CD4(+)Foxp3(+)) population during human HSV-2 reactivation in situ in sequential genital skin biopsy specimens obtained from HSV-2-seropositive subjects at the time of lesion onset up to 8 weeks after healing. High numbers of Tregs infiltrated to the site of viral reactivation and persisted in proximity to conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconvs) and CD8(+) T cells. Treg density peaked during the lesion stage of the reactivation. The number of Tregs from all time points (lesion, healed, 2 weeks after healing, 4 weeks after healing, and 8 weeks after healing) was significantly higher than in control biopsy specimens from unaffected skin. There was a direct correlation between HSV-2 titer and Treg density. The association of a high Treg to Tconv ratio with high viral shedding suggests that the balance between regulatory and effector T cells influences human HSV-2 disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    fumigatus Fusarium oxysporum Fungal Consortium Penicillium oxalicum Rhodoturula sp . Trichoderma sp . Dosed with microbes known to influence Control...Hypocrea jecorina (FI-1) Penicillium oxalicum (FI-12) – Pleosporacea sp . (FI-17) Rhodoturala mucilaginosa (FI-7) – Ustilago maydis (FI-13) T t S t• es...and Dirt Accumulation • Fungal Consortium – Aspergillus sp (FI-19) Aureobasidium pullulans (FI-16) – Fusarium oxysporum (FI-6) Fusarium sp . (FI-18

  20. Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanan; Mu Hailin; Zhang Ming; Li Nan

    2011-01-01

    With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO 2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO 2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO 2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China. - Highlights: → We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions. → Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. → These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. → Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO 2 emission is different. → Improving technology level is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China.

  1. Regulatory T cell effects in antitumor laser immunotherapy: a mathematical model and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Bryan A.; Laverty, Sean M.

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have tremendous influence on treatment outcomes in patients receiving immunotherapy for cancerous tumors. We present a mathematical model incorporating the primary cellular and molecular components of antitumor laser immunotherapy. We explicitly model developmental classes of dendritic cells (DCs), cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), primary and metastatic tumor cells, and tumor antigen. Regulatory T cells have been shown to kill antigen presenting cells, to influence dendritic cell maturation and migration, to kill activated killer CTLs in the tumor microenvironment, and to influence CTL proliferation. Since Tregs affect explicitly modeled cells, but we do not explicitly model dynamics of Treg themselves, we use model parameters to analyze effects of Treg immunosuppressive activity. We will outline a systematic method for assigning clinical outcomes to model simulations and use this condition to associate simulated patient treatment outcome with Treg activity.

  2. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  3. Ultrasonic Extraction of Antioxidants from Chinese Sumac (Rhus typhina L. Fruit Using Response Surface Methodology and Their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L. fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

  4. The Influence of Low Doses of Zearalenone and T-2 Toxin on Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide-Like Immunoreactive (CGRP-LI Neurons in the ENS of the Porcine Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Makowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS can undergo adaptive and reparative changes in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. These manifest primarily as alterations in the levels of active substances expressed by the enteric neuron. While it is known that mycotoxins can affect the function of the central and peripheral nervous systems, knowledge about their influence on the ENS is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of low doses of zearalenone (ZEN and T-2 toxin on calcitonin gene related peptide-like immunoreactive (CGRP-LI neurons in the ENS of the porcine descending colon using a double immunofluorescence technique. Both mycotoxins led to an increase in the percentage of CGRP-LI neurons in all types of enteric plexuses and changed the degree of co-localization of CGRP with other neuronal active substances, such as substance P, galanin, nitric oxide synthase, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide. The obtained results demonstrate that even low doses of ZEN and T-2 can affect living organisms and cause changes in the neurochemical profile of enteric neurons.

  5. Influence of Periodic Administration of Garlic Extract on Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Periodic Administration of Garlic Extract on Blood Parameters of Grazing Lambs. ... Treatment 1 (T1) served as control with no garlic extract, Treatment (T2) were given 5ml garlic extract weekly and Treatment T3 received 5ml garlic extract every 2 weeks. Results of haematological analysis showed that PCV ...

  6. Gaining insight into the T _2^*-T2 relationship in surface NMR free-induction decay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grombacher, Denys; Auken, Esben

    2018-05-01

    One of the primary shortcomings of the surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) free-induction decay (FID) measurement is the uncertainty surrounding which mechanism controls the signal's time dependence. Ideally, the FID-estimated relaxation time T_2^* that describes the signal's decay carries an intimate link to the geometry of the pore space. In this limit the parameter T_2^* is closely linked to a related parameter T2, which is more closely linked to pore-geometry. If T_2^* ˜eq {T_2} the FID can provide valuable insight into relative pore-size and can be used to make quantitative permeability estimates. However, given only FID measurements it is difficult to determine whether T_2^* is linked to pore geometry or whether it has been strongly influenced by background magnetic field inhomogeneity. If the link between an observed T_2^* and the underlying T2 could be further constrained the utility of the standard surface NMR FID measurement would be greatly improved. We hypothesize that an approach employing an updated surface NMR forward model that solves the full Bloch equations with appropriately weighted relaxation terms can be used to help constrain the T_2^*-T2 relationship. Weighting the relaxation terms requires estimating the poorly constrained parameters T2 and T1; to deal with this uncertainty we propose to conduct a parameter search involving multiple inversions that employ a suite of forward models each describing a distinct but plausible T_2^*-T2 relationship. We hypothesize that forward models given poor T2 estimates will produce poor data fits when using the complex-inversion, while forward models given reliable T2 estimates will produce satisfactory data fits. By examining the data fits produced by the suite of plausible forward models, the likely T_2^*-T2 can be constrained by identifying the range of T2 estimates that produce reliable data fits. Synthetic and field results are presented to investigate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  7. CD4+/CD8+ double-positive T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana H; Jung, Ji-Won; Steptoe, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    CD4(+)/CD8(+) DP thymocytes are a well-described T cell developmental stage within the thymus. However, once differentiated, the CD4(+) lineage or the CD8(+) lineage is generally considered to be fixed. Nevertheless, mature CD4(+)/CD8(+) DP T cells have been described in the blood and peripheral...... cells, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell populations, outside of the thymus, have recently been described to express concurrently ThPOK and Runx3. Considerable heterogeneity exists within the CD4(+)/CD8(+) DP T cell pool, and the function of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell populations remains controversial, with conflicting...... reports describing cytotoxic or suppressive roles for these cells. In this review, we describe how transcriptional regulation, lineage of origin, heterogeneity of CD4 and CD8 expression, age, species, and specific disease settings influence the functionality of this rarely studied T cell population....

  8. Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors regulating CD8+ T cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J. Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P.; Pereira, Renata M.; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T.; Pipkin, Matthew E.; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence specification of distinct CD8+ T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TF among differentially-fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here, we profiled genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8+ T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that TF expression and binding contributed to establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal novel TFs influencing the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8+ T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector and memory-precursor cell-fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates, facilitating identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8+ T cell differentiation. PMID:28288100

  9. Influence of phthalates on in vitro innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion from both monocytes/macrophages and T cells in a similar pattern: the secretion of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10 and the chemokine CXCL8 by monocytes/macrophages was enhanced, while tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α secretion by monocytes/macrophages was impaired, as was the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did not seem to be a result of cell death. Thus, results indicate that both human innate and adaptive immunity is influenced in vitro by phthalates, and that phthalates therefore may affect cell differentiation and regenerative and inflammatory processes in vivo.

  10. Influence of CSN1S2 protein from Caprine milk Etawah Breed (EB) on histology of microglial cells in rat (Rattus norvegicus) Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika, Margareth; Fatchiyah

    2017-11-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a degenerative disease that causes an imbalance in the metabolism. The aim of this research is to determine the influences of CSN1S2 on the structure of microglial cells in T2DM. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into eight groups of treatment with looping three times each between treatment groups (CM) Control. The control is given a milk treatment with doses of 375 mg/kg (CM375), 750 mg/kg (CM750), and 1500 mg/kg (CM1500), T2DM (DMK), and T2DM with CSN1S2 375 mg/kg dose (DM375), 750mg/kg (DM750), and 1500 mg/kg (DM1500). The animal model T2DM was induced by a high-fat diet in the form of feed followed by injection of STZ (dose of 25 mg/kg of animal treatment) and treatment of CSN1S2 for 28 days. Brain organs were taken and analysed in histopathology stained by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed using Olympus BX53. Based on the results, it was concluded that CSN1S2 protein is influential for induction of microglial cell proliferation in animal models of T2DM, as immunity responds to the inflammatory condition in T2DM.

  11. Norepinephrine Causes a Biphasic Change in Mammalian Pinealocye Membrane Potential: Role of alfa1B-Adrenoreceptors, Phospholipase C, and Ca2plus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovič, S.S.; Klein, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 10 (2011), s. 3842-3851 ISSN 0013-7227 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Ca2plus-activated Kplus channels * voltage-gated Ca2plus channels * electrical activity * pinealocyte Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.459, year: 2011

  12. Ľudovít Štúr – o trvácnosti romantického vodcovstva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Buzalka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay aims to describe some popular patterns of romantic leadership in Slovakia through the example of the continuing popularity of the image of Ľudovít Štúr, leader of the Slovak national movement. The main argument is that the image of a romantic leader fighting against “foreign” plots is not only the product of the social organisation of post-socialist Slovak politics or the effect of bucolic Slovak nationalism, but that the image of the leader as a social actor, his self-presentation and story, reproduced across political-economic regimes, influence the permanent popularity of romantic leadership in Slovakia.

  13. Intra-individual comparison of image contrast in SPIO-enhanced liver MRI at 1.5T and 3.0T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenhausen, Marcus von; Meyer, Carsten; Lutterbey, Goetz; Morakkabati, Nuschin; Bloemer, Renate; Willinek, Winfried A.; Kuhl, Christiane K.; Schild, Hans H.; Walter, Oliver; Gieseke, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if the higher susceptibility at 3.0 Tesla (T) compared to 1.5 T will affect the contrast in MR imaging of the liver after application of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO). The study was approved by our institutional review board and informed consent was obtained. Seventeen healthy volunteers were examined in a prospective, intra-individual comparative study within one day on a 1.5 T and a 3.0 T MRI system. T2 weighted TSE sequences were acquired after bolus injection of a SPIO contrast agent. Image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) were compared between the field strengths. Image contrast was calculated between the liver tissue and the kidneys / spleen / muscles and fluids. The students'T-test was used for statistical analysis. No influence of the higher field strength could be observed on image contrast except for the liver / muscle contrast. This was due to a distinct SNR increase of the muscle tissue at 3.0 T as a result of their relaxation properties. The higher susceptibility at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T does not translate into a stronger signal attenuation of the SPIO enhanced liver parenchyma. (orig.)

  14. Intra-individual comparison of image contrast in SPIO-enhanced liver MRI at 1.5T and 3.0T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenhausen, Marcus von; Meyer, Carsten; Lutterbey, Goetz; Morakkabati, Nuschin; Bloemer, Renate; Willinek, Winfried A.; Kuhl, Christiane K.; Schild, Hans H. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Walter, Oliver [Leibniz-Institute for Science Education, Kiel (Germany); Gieseke, Juergen [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of the study was to examine if the higher susceptibility at 3.0 Tesla (T) compared to 1.5 T will affect the contrast in MR imaging of the liver after application of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO). The study was approved by our institutional review board and informed consent was obtained. Seventeen healthy volunteers were examined in a prospective, intra-individual comparative study within one day on a 1.5 T and a 3.0 T MRI system. T2 weighted TSE sequences were acquired after bolus injection of a SPIO contrast agent. Image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) were compared between the field strengths. Image contrast was calculated between the liver tissue and the kidneys / spleen / muscles and fluids. The students'T-test was used for statistical analysis. No influence of the higher field strength could be observed on image contrast except for the liver / muscle contrast. This was due to a distinct SNR increase of the muscle tissue at 3.0 T as a result of their relaxation properties. The higher susceptibility at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T does not translate into a stronger signal attenuation of the SPIO enhanced liver parenchyma. (orig.)

  15. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS Mechanisms and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir V. Tavakoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition and consciousness can be modulated as a function of oscillating neural activity, while ongoing neuronal dynamics are influenced by synaptic activity and membrane potential. Consequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS may be used for neurological intervention. The advantageous features of tACS include the biphasic and sinusoidal tACS currents, the ability to entrain large neuronal populations, and subtle control over somatic effects. Through neuromodulation of phasic, neural activity, tACS is a powerful tool to investigate the neural correlates of cognition. The rapid development in this area requires clarity about best practices. Here we briefly introduce tACS and review the most compelling findings in the literature to provide a starting point for using tACS. We suggest that tACS protocols be based on functional brain mechanisms and appropriate control experiments, including active sham and condition blinding.

  16. The influence of aminophylline on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes: an AFM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xun; He, Jiexiang; Liu, Mingxian; Zhou, Changren

    2014-09-01

    Although much progress has been made in the illustration of the mechanism of aminophylline (AM) treating asthma, there is no data about its effect on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes. Here, we presented atomic force spectroscopy (AFM)-based investigations at the nanoscale level to address the above fundamental biophysical questions. As increasing AM treatment time, T lymphocytes' volume nearly double increased and then decreased. The changes of nanostructural features of the cell membrane, i.e., mean height of particles, root-mean-square roughness (Rq), crack and fragment appearance, increased with AM treatment time. T lymphocytes were completely destroyed with 96-h treatment, and they existed in the form of small fragments. Analysis of force-distance curves showed that the adhesion force of cell surface decreased significantly with the increase of AM treatment time, while the cell stiffness increased firstly and then decreased. These changes were closely correlated to the characteristics and process of cell oncosis. In total, these quantitative and qualitative changes of T lymphocytes' structure and nanomechanical properties suggested that AM could induce T lymphocyte oncosis to exert anti-inflammatory effects for treating asthma. These findings provide new insights into the T lymphocyte oncosis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism and immune regulation actions of AM.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging hyper-acute ischemic stroke patients comparison with 1.5T and 3.0T units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Eun Hoe [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Il Bong; Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Perfusion magnetic resonance image of biological mechanism are independent of magnetic field strength in hyper acute ischemic stroke. 3.0 T magnetic field, however, does affect the SNRs (signal to noise ratio) and artifacts of PMRI (perfusion magnetic resonance image), which basically will influence the quantitative of PMRI. In this study, the effects of field strength on PMRI are analyzed. The effects of the diseases also are discussed. PMRI in WM (white matter), GM (gray matter), hyper acute ischemic stroke were companied with 1.5 T and 3.0 T on SNR. PMRI also was compared to the SI difference after setting ROI (region of interest) in left and right b side of the brain. In conclusion, the SNRs and SI of the 3.0 T PMRI showed higher than those at 1.5 T. In summary, PMRI studies at 3.0 T is provided significantly improved perfusion evaluation when comparing with 1.5 T.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging hyper-acute ischemic stroke patients comparison with 1.5T and 3.0T units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Eun Hoe; Moon, Il Bong; Dong, Kyung Rae

    2017-01-01

    Perfusion magnetic resonance image of biological mechanism are independent of magnetic field strength in hyper acute ischemic stroke. 3.0 T magnetic field, however, does affect the SNRs (signal to noise ratio) and artifacts of PMRI (perfusion magnetic resonance image), which basically will influence the quantitative of PMRI. In this study, the effects of field strength on PMRI are analyzed. The effects of the diseases also are discussed. PMRI in WM (white matter), GM (gray matter), hyper acute ischemic stroke were companied with 1.5 T and 3.0 T on SNR. PMRI also was compared to the SI difference after setting ROI (region of interest) in left and right b side of the brain. In conclusion, the SNRs and SI of the 3.0 T PMRI showed higher than those at 1.5 T. In summary, PMRI studies at 3.0 T is provided significantly improved perfusion evaluation when comparing with 1.5 T

  19. Influence of A-21T and C-262T genetic polymorphisms at the promoter region of the catalase (CAT) on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Iraj; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-09-01

    Catalase (CAT, OMIM: 115500) is one of the major antioxidant enzymes, which plays an important role in the clearance of reactive oxygen species. Three genetic polymorphisms of A-21T (rs7943316), C-262T (rs1001179), and C-844T (rs769214) in the promoter region of the CAT have been reported. It has been suggested that these polymorphisms may alter the recognition sites of transcriptional factors, therefore it might be concluded that these polymorphisms may alter the expression levels of the gene. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the associations between these genetic variations and the CAT mRNA levels in human peripheral blood cells. The present study consisted of 47 healthy students of Shiraz University (south-west Iran). Genotypes of the CAT polymorphisms were determined by PCR based method. The quantitative CAT mRNA expression levels were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the study genotypes (For A-21T polymorphism: F = 7.45; df = 2, 44; P = 0.002; For C-262T polymorphism: F = 15.17; df = 2, 44; P CAT in the AC/TT, TC/TC, TC/TT, and TC/TC diplotypes significantly were higher than the mRNA levels in AC/AC diplotype. There was a significant difference between the study genotypes (F = 9.24; df = 5, 41; P CAT mRNA levels compared with the AC/AC diplotype. The present findings indicated that these polymorphisms were significantly associated with the gene expression.

  20. Comprehensive sulfation model verified for T-T sorbent clusters during flue gas desulfurization at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuran Li; Haiying Qi; Changfu You; Lizhai Yang [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

    2010-08-15

    An empirical sulfation model for T-T sorbent clusters was developed based on amassed experimental results under moderate temperatures (300-800{sup o}C). In the model, the reaction rate is a function of clusters mass, SO{sub 2} concentration, CO{sub 2} concentration, calcium conversion and temperature. The smaller pore volume partly results in a lower reaction rate at lower temperatures. The exponent on SO{sub 2} concentration is 0.88 in the rapid reaction stage and then decreases gradually as reaction progresses. The exponent on the fraction of the unreacted calcium is 1/3 in the first stage and then increases significantly in the second stage. The CO{sub 2} concentration has a negative influence on SO{sub 2} removal, especially for the temperature range of 400-650{sup o}C, which should be avoided to achieve a high effective calcium conversion. The sulfation model has been verified for the T-T sorbent clusters and has also been applied to CaO particles. Over extensive reaction conditions, the predictions agree well with experimental data. 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Amino acid substitutions in the melanoma antigen recognized by T cell 1 peptide modulate cytokine responses in melanoma-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M B; Kirkin, A F; Loftus, D

    2000-01-01

    enhances the production of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, and interferon-gamma and significantly enhances release of IL-13 and IL-10 from anti-MART-1 cytotoxic T cells. Another heteroclitic peptide, 1L, with an A to L substitution in MART-1(27-35), also enhances the tyrosine...... phosphorylation response in anti-MART-1 cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Yet, 1L does not enhance the production of T helper cell type 2-like cytokines (IL-10 and IL-13). Together these data show that minor amino acid modifications of immunodominant melanoma peptides profoundly influence the cytokine response in melanoma...

  2. Chronic Inflammation and  T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S Fay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial tissues of the skin, lungs, reproductive tract, and intestines are the largest physical barriers the body has to protect against infection. Epithelial tissues are woven with a matrix of immune cells programmed to mobilize the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Included among these immune cells are  T cells that are unique in their TCR usage, location, and functions in the body. Stress reception by  T cells as a result of traumatic epithelial injury, malignancy, and/or infection induces  T cell activation. Once activated,  T cells function to repair tissue, induce inflammation, recruit leukocytes, and lyse cells. Many of these functions are mediated via the production of cytokines and growth factors upon  T cell activation. Pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases involve  T cells; some of which are exacerbated by their presence, while others are improved.  T cells require a delicate balance between their need for acute inflammatory mediators to function normally and the detrimental impact imparted by chronic inflammation. This review will focus on the recent progress made in understanding how epithelial  T cells influence the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and how a balance between acute and chronic inflammation impacts  T cell function. Future studies will be important to understand how this balance is achieved.

  3. The type of adjuvant strongly influences the T-cell response during nanoparticle-based immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuschke, Torben; Epple, Matthias; Westendorf, Astrid M

    2014-01-01

    Potent vaccines require the ability to effectively induce immune responses. Especially for the control of infectious diseases with intracellular pathogens, like viruses or bacteria, potent T-cell responses are indispensable. Several delivery systems such as nanoparticles have been considered to boost the immunogenicity of pathogen derived peptides or subunits for the induction of potent T-cell responses. Since they can be further functionalized with immunostimulants, like Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, they improve the response by enhanced activation of the innate immune system. Currently, TLR agonists like unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides and the synthetic dsRNA derivate polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid (poly[I:C]) are widely used as vaccine adjuvants. CpG and poly(I:C) trigger different TLRs and therefore show differential signal transduction. Recently, we established biodegradable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles as potent T cell inducing vaccination vehicles. In this commentary we discuss the role of CpG and poly(I:C) for the effective induction of virus-specific T cells during immunization with CaP nanoparticles. The presented results underline the importance of the right formulation of vaccines for specific immunization purpose. PMID:23982325

  4. The Association of PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T Polymorphisms with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Their Influence on Lipid and Lipoprotein Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rahimi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of present study was to clarify the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and their influence on lipid and lipoprotein profiles of patients. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study consisted of 50 women with PCOS, who referred to the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Clinic between April and October 2015, and 233 unrelated age-matched healthy women from the same region (West Iran. The PPARγ Pro12Ala and PPARγ C161T polymorphisms were gen- otyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, serum triglycerides (TG, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C and estradiol levels were measured. Results The serum level of estradiol was significantly lower in PCOS patients compared to healthy women. The PPARγ Pro12Ala (CG genotype increased the risk of PCOS 2.96-fold. The frequency of the PPARγ T allele (at C161T was 21% in patients and 17.2% in controls with no significant difference (P=0.52. In all studied individuals, the PPARγ CG geno- type was associated with significantly higher levels of TG. However, significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C were observed in PPARγ TT individuals compared with those with the CC genotype. Within the PCOS group, the PPARγ CG genotype was significantly associated with lower levels of estradiol compared with the CC genotype. Also, the CG genotype was significantly associated with higher levels of TG when compared with the CC genotype. Conclusion Our study shows that, unlike PPARγ C161T, PPARγ Pro12Ala is associated with the risk of PCOS. Also, we found that the lipid and lipoprotein profiles significantly vary based on PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T genotypes.

  5. Internet of robotic things : converging sensing/actuating, hypoconnectivity, artificial intelligence and IoT Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu; Bröring, Arne; Tragos, Elias; Serrano, Martin; Bacciu, Davide; Chessa, Stefano; Gallicchio, Claudio; Micheli, Alessio; Dragone, Mauro; Saffiotti, Alessandro; Simoens, Pieter; Cavallo, Filippo; Bahr, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is evolving rapidly and influencing newdevelopments in various application domains, such as the Internet of MobileThings (IoMT), Autonomous Internet of Things (A-IoT), Autonomous Systemof Things (ASoT), Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT), Internetof Things Clouds (IoT-C) and the Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT) etc.that are progressing/advancing by using IoT technology. The IoT influencerepresents new development and deployment challenges in different a...

  6. Sociální integrace imigrantů na rozhraní mezi dočasnou migrací a trvalým usazením

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernard, Josef; Mikešová, Renáta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2014), s. 521-545 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP404/12/1014 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : integration of immigrants * labour migration * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/cs/issue/172-sociologicky-casopis-czech-sociological-review-4-2014/3439

  7. Note on Kadets Klee property and Asplund spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr Pavel; Talponen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 11 (2014), s. 3933-3939 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/0345 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : uniformly rotund norms * Banach spaces * sequences Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014 http://www.ams.org/journals/proc/2014-142-11/S0002-9939-2014-12123-X/

  8. Roles of conserved ectodomain cysteines of the rat P2X4 purinoreceptor in agonist binding and channel gating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokic, Milos Boro; Tvrdoňová, Vendula; Vávra, Vojtěch; Jindřichová, Marie; Obšil, T.; Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2010), s. 927-935 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110910; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : P2X4 receptor * ATP * disulfide bonds Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  9. Outline of therapeutic interventions with muscarinic receptor-mediated transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; Šantrůčková, Eva; Randáková, Alena; Janíčková, Helena; Zimčík, Pavel; Rudajev, Vladimír; Michal, Pavel; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S177-S189 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10060 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cholinergic transmission * muscarinic receptors * therapy * Alzheimer's disease, * schizophrenia Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  10. GnRH-I and GnRH-II-induced calcium signaling and hormone secretion in neonatal rat gonadotrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balík, Aleš; Jindřichová, Marie; Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha; Zemková, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2009), s. 709-716 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : gonadotrophs * GnRH-II * melatonin Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  11. Analysis of the Influence of the Stability Factors of PV/T-SAHP on the Performance of the System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The integrated photovoltaic/thermal collector (PV/T with solar assisted heat pump (SAHP often operates under an undesigned condition. Against the backdrop of heat pump system oscillation resulting from the mismatching between collectors area and compressor capacity, this work explores the dynamic performance of heat pump system at a fixed compressor frequency when the condensing water temperature and electronic expansion valve (EEV opening are variable or invariable. We also consider why the system is unstable and propose the theory of SAHP system stability. Also, a preliminary performance analysis is made on SAHP system that is respectively influenced by an inverter compressor and EEV. The MSS(Minimum Stable Signal line theory is proposed to account for system unstabilty in the research of the match between EEV and evaporators, that is to say, the critical problem of keep the system stability is to find out how evaporators superheat under the circumstance of specified loads and its corresponding EEV opening, in other words, to find the MSS line.

  12. First experiences with the AMERLEX-MAB FREE T4 assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhof, W.A.; Penders, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The new Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is a quick direct free T 4 assay with good reproducability. The correlation between the Amerlex-MAB FT 4 and the free T 4 of Byk is good. In the non-thyreoidal illness patient group no deviation for the values were found. Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is cheaper, because no total T4 has to be measured. More research has to be done for special patient sera. Disturbing influences as free fatty acids, heparin and auto-antibodies have to be checked. (R.B.). 3 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of T-Cell Lipid Metabolism: Implications for Plasma Membrane Lipid Rafts and T-Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Robinson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that cholesterol and glycosphingolipids are enriched in the plasma membrane (PM and form signaling platforms called lipid rafts, essential for T-cell activation and function. Moreover, changes in PM lipid composition affect the biophysical properties of lipid rafts and have a role in defining functional T-cell phenotypes. Here, we review the role of transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism including liver X receptors α/β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, estrogen receptors α/β (ERα/β, and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins in T-cells. These receptors lie at the interface between lipid metabolism and immune cell function and are endogenously activated by lipids and/or hormones. Importantly, they regulate cellular cholesterol, fatty acid, glycosphingolipid, and phospholipid levels but are also known to modulate a broad spectrum of immune responses. The current evidence supporting a role for lipid metabolism pathways in controlling immune cell activation by influencing PM lipid raft composition in health and disease, and the potential for targeting lipid biosynthesis pathways to control unwanted T-cell activation in autoimmunity is reviewed.

  14. Networked T cell death following macrophage infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H-F Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depletion of T cells following infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb impairs disease resolution, and interferes with clinical test performance that relies on cell-mediated immunity. A number of mechanisms contribute to this T cell suppression, such as activation-induced death and trafficking of T cells out of the peripheral circulation and into the diseased lungs. The extent to which Mtb infection of human macrophages affects T cell viability however, is not well characterised. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that lymphopenia (<1.5 × 10(9 cells/l was prevalent among culture-positive tuberculosis patients, and lymphocyte counts significantly improved post-therapy. We previously reported that Mtb-infected human macrophages resulted in death of infected and uninfected bystander macrophages. In the current study, we sought to examine the influence of infected human alveolar macrophages on T cells. We infected primary human alveolar macrophages (the primary host cell for Mtb or PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells with Mtb H37Ra, then prepared cell-free supernatants. The supernatants of Mtb-infected macrophages caused dose-dependent, caspase-dependent, T cell apoptosis. This toxic effect of infected macrophage secreted factors did not require TNF-α or Fas. The supernatant cytotoxic signal(s were heat-labile and greater than 50 kDa in molecular size. Although ESAT-6 was toxic to T cells, other Mtb-secreted factors tested did not influence T cell viability; nor did macrophage-free Mtb bacilli or broth from Mtb cultures. Furthermore, supernatants from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG- infected macrophages also elicited T cell death suggesting that ESAT-6 itself, although cytotoxic, was not the principal mediator of T cell death in our system. CONCLUSIONS: Mtb-Infected macrophages secrete heat-labile factors that are toxic to T cells, and may contribute to the immunosuppression seen in tuberculosis as well as

  15. Bacterial CpG-DNA activates dendritic cells in vivo: T helper cell-independent cytotoxic T cell responses to soluble proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparwasser, T; Vabulas, R M; Villmow, B; Lipford, G B; Wagner, H

    2000-12-01

    Receptors for conserved molecular patterns associated with microbial pathogens induce synthesis of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines in immature dendritic cells (DC), as do antigen-reactive CD4 T helper cells via CD40 signaling. Once activated, antigen-presenting DC may activate CD8 T cell responses in a T helper cell-independent fashion. Using immunostimulatory CpG-oligonucleotides (ODN) mimicking bacterial CpG-DNA, we tested whether CpG-DNA bypasses the need for T helper cells in CTL responses towards proteins by directly activating antigen-presenting DC to transit into professional APC. We describe that immature DC in situ constitutively process soluble proteins and generate CD8 T cell determinants yet CD8 T cell responses remain abortive. Induction of primary antigen-specific CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated responses becomes initiated in wild-type as well as T helper cell-deficient mice, provided soluble protein and CpG-ODN are draining into the same lymph node. Specifically we show that CpG-ODN trigger antigen-presenting immature DC within the draining lymph node to acutely up-regulate co-stimulatory molecules and produce IL-12. These results provide new insights for generating in vivo efficient CTL responses to soluble proteins which may influence vaccination strategies.

  16. Differential influences of unilateral tDCS over the intraparietal cortex on numerical cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eArtemenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuro-imaging research identified the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS to be a key area associated with number processing. However, causal structure-function relationships are hard to evaluate from neuro-imaging techniques such as fMRI. Nevertheless, brain stimulation methods like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS allow for investigating the functional relevance of the IPS for number processing. Following up on a study using bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over the IPS, the current study aimed at evaluating the differential lateralized functional contributions of the left and right IPS to number processing using unilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over either the left or right IPS. Results indicated a right lateralization for the processing of the place-value structure of the Arabic number system. Importantly, the processing of number magnitude information was not affected by unilateral IPS corroborating the assumption that number magnitude is processed in the bilateral IPS. Taken together, these data suggest that even though number magnitude is represented bilaterally, the left and right IPS seem to contribute differentially to numerical cognition with respect to the processing of specific other aspects of numerical information.

  17. Building bridges: an interpretive phenomenological analysis of nurse educators' clinical experience using the T.R.U.S.T. Model for inclusive spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Barss, Karen

    2012-04-30

    Educating nurses to provide evidence-based, non-intrusive spiritual care in today's pluralistic context is both daunting and essential. Qualitative research is needed to investigate what helps nurse educators feel more prepared to meet this challenge. This paper presents findings from an interpretive phenomenological analysis of the experience of nurse educators who used the T.R.U.S.T. Model for Inclusive Spiritual Care in their clinical teaching. The T.R.U.S.T. Model is an evidence-based, non-linear resource developed by the author and piloted in the undergraduate nursing program in which she teaches. Three themes are presented: "The T.R.U.S.T. Model as a bridge to spiritual exploration"; "blockades to the bridge"; and "unblocking the bridge". T.R.U.S.T. was found to have a positive influence on nurse educators' comfort and confidence in the teaching of spiritual care. Recommendations for maximizing the model's positive impact are provided, along with "embodied" resources to support holistic teaching and learning about spiritual care.

  18. Loading and Light Degradation Characteristics of B t Toxin on Nano goethite: A Potential Material for Controlling the Environmental Risk of B t Toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; She, Ch.; She, Ch.; Liu, H.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic B t-modified crops release toxins into soil through root exudate s and upon decomposition of residues. The fate of these toxins in soil has not been yet clearly elucidated. Nano goethite was found to have a different influence on the lifetime and identicalness activity of B t toxin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the adsorption characteristics of B t toxin on nano goethite and its activity changes before and after adsorption. The adsorption of toxin on nano goethite reached equilibrium within 5 h, and the adsorption isotherm of B t toxin on nano goethite conformed to the Langmuir equation (). In the range of ph from 6.0 to 8.0, larger adsorption occurred at lower ph value. The toxin adsorption decreased with the temperature between 10 and 50 degree. The results of Ftir, XRD, and SEM indicated that toxin did not influence the structure of nano goethite and the adsorption of toxin only on the surface of nano goethite. The LC_5_0 value for bound toxin was higher than that of free toxin, and the nano goethite greatly accelerated the degradation of toxin by ultraviolet irradiation. The above results suggested that nano goethite is a potential material for controlling the environmental risk of toxin released by Bt transgenic plants

  19. Influence of friction stir welding process and tool parameters on strength properties of AA7075-T6 aluminium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakumar, S.; Muralidharan, C.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    The aircraft aluminium alloys generally present low weldability by traditional fusion welding process. The development of the friction stir welding has provided an alternative improved way of satisfactorily producing aluminium joints, in a faster and reliable manner. In this present work, the influence of process and tool parameters on tensile strength properties of AA7075-T 6 joints produced by friction stir welding was analysed. Square butt joints were fabricated by varying process parameters and tool parameters. Strength properties of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the microstructure, microhardness of weld nugget. From this investigation it is found that the joint fabricated at a tool rotational speed of 1400 rpm, welding speed of 60 mm/min, axial force of 8 kN, using the tool with 15 mm shoulder diameter, 5 mm pin diameter, 45 HRc tool hardness yielded higher strength properties compared to other joints.

  20. Influence of experimental hyperthyroidism on skeletal muscle metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hardeveld, C; Kassenaar, A A

    1977-05-01

    In this study hind-limb perfusion was used to investigate the influence of thyroid hormones on some metabolic parameters in the skeletal muscle of the rat. Daily injection of 20 microng L-thyroxine (T4) per 100 g b. w. for a week caused a 25% increase in oxygen consumption. Further enlargement of the T4 dose had little additive effect. In the dose range 20--80 microng T4/100g b.w., no important changes occurred in lactate production or glucose consumption. Only at the highest T4 dose did the glucose consumption increase significantly. The most profound effect of T4 was on lipolysis. A daily dose of 20 microng T4/100 g b. w. gave a doubling of glycerol production rate, the maximum occuring at a dose of 40 microng T4/100 g b. w. Inactivation of the nervous system was without influence on the T4-induced increase in oxygen consumption. However, the T4-induced elevation of lipolysis disappeared after abolition of the nervous activity. This raises the possibility that the T4 effect on lipolysis in skeletal muscle is a potentiation of catecholamine effects. The T4-induced oxygen consumption increase might be dependent not on the lipolytic process but rather on other energy-consuming cell processes.

  1. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses by chimeric thymocytes. Self-recognition is determined early in T cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Hodes, R.J.; Singer, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this study the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition pattern of thymocytes from recently reconstituted parent leads to F1 and F1 leads to parent radiation bone marrow chimeras was investigated. Chimeric thymocytes were entirely of donor origin approximately 4 weeks after irradiation and reconstitution but were not capable of autonomously generating either alloreactive or trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified-self-reactive CTL responses. These experiments demonstrte that even at the earliest time CTL effectors of donor origin from the thymuses of chimeras can be studied, their self-receptor repertoire has already been restricted to recognition of host MHC determinants. These results support the cocept that the host environment influences the self-recognition capacity of T cells at the pre- or intrathymic stage of differentation

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the supplementary motor area (SMA) influences performance on motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupfeld, K E; Ketcham, C J; Schneider, H D

    2017-03-01

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) is believed to be highly involved in the planning and execution of both simple and complex motor tasks. This study aimed to examine the role of the SMA in planning the movements required to complete reaction time, balance, and pegboard tasks using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which passes a weak electrical current between two electrodes, in order to modulate neuronal activity. Twenty healthy adults were counterbalanced to receive either tDCS (experimental condition) or no tDCS (control condition) for 3 days. During administration of tDCS, participants performed a balance task significantly faster than controls. After tDCS, subjects significantly improved their simple and choice reaction time. These results demonstrate that the SMA is highly involved in planning and executing fine and gross motor skill tasks and that tDCS is an effective modality for increasing SMA-related performance on these tasks. The findings may be generalizable and therefore indicate implications for future interventions using tDCS as a therapeutic tool.

  3. The Influence of Macronutrients on Splanchnic and Hepatic Lymphocytes in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Couteur, David G; Tay, Szun S; Solon-Biet, Samantha; Bertolino, Patrick; McMahon, Aisling C; Cogger, Victoria C; Colakoglu, Feyza; Warren, Alessandra; Holmes, Andrew J; Pichaud, Nicolas; Horan, Martin; Correa, Carolina; Melvin, Richard G; Turner, Nigel; Ballard, J William O; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    There is a strong association between aging, diet, and immunity. The effects of macronutrients and energy intake on splanchnic and hepatic lymphocytes were studied in 15 month old mice. The mice were ad-libitum fed 1 of 25 diets varying in the ratios and amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat over their lifetime. Lymphocytes in liver, spleen, Peyers patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes were evaluated using flow cytometry. Low protein intake reversed aging changes in splenic CD4 and CD8 T cells, CD4:CD8 T cell ratio, memory/effector CD4 T cells and naïve CD4 T cells. A similar influence of total caloric intake in these ad-libitum fed mice was not apparent. Protein intake also influenced hepatic NK cells and B cells, while protein to carbohydrate ratio influenced hepatic NKT cells. Hepatosteatosis was associated with increased energy and fat intake and changes in hepatic Tregs, effector/memory T, and NK cells. Hepatic NK cells were also associated with body fat, glucose tolerance, and leptin levels while hepatic Tregs were associated with hydrogen peroxide production by hepatic mitochondria. Dietary macronutrients, particularly protein, influence splanchnic lymphocytes in old age, with downstream associations with mitochondrial function, liver pathology, and obesity-related phenotype. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Vestigial preference functions in neural networks and túngara frogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, S. M.; Ryan, M. J.; Rand, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Although there is a growing interest in understanding how perceptual mechanisms influence behavioral evolution, few studies have addressed how perception itself is shaped by evolutionary forces. We used a combination of artificial neural network models and behavioral experiments to investigate how evolutionary history influenced the perceptual processes used in mate choice by female túngara frogs. We manipulated the evolutionary history of artificial neural network models and observed an emer...

  5. Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors that regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingfei; Zhang, Kai; Milner, J Justin; Toma, Clara; Chen, Runqiang; Scott-Browne, James P; Pereira, Renata M; Crotty, Shane; Chang, John T; Pipkin, Matthew E; Wang, Wei; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic changes in the expression of transcription factors (TFs) can influence the specification of distinct CD8 + T cell fates, but the observation of equivalent expression of TFs among differentially fated precursor cells suggests additional underlying mechanisms. Here we profiled the genome-wide histone modifications, open chromatin and gene expression of naive, terminal-effector, memory-precursor and memory CD8 + T cell populations induced during the in vivo response to bacterial infection. Integration of these data suggested that the expression and binding of TFs contributed to the establishment of subset-specific enhancers during differentiation. We developed a new bioinformatics method using the PageRank algorithm to reveal key TFs that influence the generation of effector and memory populations. The TFs YY1 and Nr3c1, both constitutively expressed during CD8 + T cell differentiation, regulated the formation of terminal-effector cell fates and memory-precursor cell fates, respectively. Our data define the epigenetic landscape of differentiation intermediates and facilitate the identification of TFs with previously unappreciated roles in CD8 + T cell differentiation.

  6. Analysis of the tool plunge in friction stir welding - comparison of aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, plastic strain and heat generation during the plunge stage of the friction stir welding (FSW of high-strength aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351 are considered in this work. The plunging of the tool into the material is done at different rotating speeds. A three-dimensional finite element (FE model for thermomechanical simulation is developed. It is based on arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, and Johnson-Cook material law is used for modelling of material behaviour. From comparison of the numerical results for alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351, it can be seen that the former has more intensive heat generation from the plastic deformation, due to its higher strength. Friction heat generation is only slightly different for the two alloys. Therefore, temperatures in the working plate are higher in the alloy 2024 T3 for the same parameters of the plunge stage. Equivalent plastic strain is higher for 2024 T351 alloy, and the highest values are determined under the tool shoulder and around the tool pin. For the alloy 2024 T3, equivalent plastic strain is the highest in the influence zone of the tool pin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34016 i br. TR 35006

  7. Effects of Maillard reaction on allergenicity of buckwheat allergen Fag t 3 during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen-Huang; Li, Chen; Li, Yu-Ying; Wang, Zhuan-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Fag t 3 is a major allergenic protein in tartary buckwheat. The Maillard reaction commonly occurs in food processing, but few studies have been conducted on the influence of thermal processing on the allergenic potential of buckwheat allergen. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of autologous plant polysaccharides on the immunoreactivity of buckwheat Fag t 3 (11S globulin) following the Maillard reaction. Fag t 3 and crude polysaccharides were prepared from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) flour. After heating, the polysaccharides were covalently linked to Fag t 3 via a Maillard reaction, and the IgE/IgG-binding properties of Fag t 3 decreased dramatically, with significant changes also being observed in the electrophoretic mobility, secondary structure and solubility of the glycated Fag t 3. The great influence of glycation on IgE/IgG binding to Fag t 3 was correlated with a significant change in the structure and epitopes of the allergenic protein. These data indicated that conjugation of polysaccharides to Fag t 3 markedly reduced the allergen's immunoreactivity. Glycation that occurs via the Maillard reaction during the processing of buckwheat food may be an efficient method to reduce Fag t 3 allergenicity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Influence of age, marital status and environment on sexism in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    05] and environment of living [t (777) = 3.21, p<.01] are significant factors influencing hostile sex discrimination (sexism) in Nigeria. Results also indicated that benevolent sex discriminations are not significantly influenced by age, marital status ...

  9. Classical and atypical agonists activate M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors through common mechanisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randáková, Alena; Dolejší, Eva; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Jakubík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, Jul 2015 (2015), s. 27-39 ISSN 1043-6618 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * atypical agonists * xanomeline * activation mechanism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.816, year: 2015

  10. Transport properties of 1T-TaSsub(2-x)Sesub(x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambourger, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient of pure and Se-doped 1T-TaS 2 have been measured over the range 1.3< T<250 K to investigate the influence of varying degrees of disorder on the electronic conduction mechanism. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anomalous resistivity of this material at low temperatures arises from disorder-enhanced carrier localization. (author)

  11. T cell dysfunction in the diabetes-prone BB rat. A role for thymic migrants that are not T cell precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Lagarde, A.C.; Bellgrau, D.

    1988-01-01

    Diabetes-prone BB (BB-DP) rats express several T cell dysfunctions which include poor proliferative and cytotoxic responses to alloantigen. The goal of this study was to determine the origin of these T cell dysfunctions. When BB-DP rats were thymectomized, T cell depleted, and transplanted with neonatal thymus tissue from diabetes-resistant and otherwise normal DA/BB F1 rats, the early restoration of T cell function proceeded normally on a cell-for-cell basis; i.e., peripheral T cells functioned like those from the thymus donor. Because the thymus in these experiments was subjected to gamma irradiation before transplantation and there was no evidence of F1 chimerism in the transplanted BB-DP rats, it appeared that the BB-DP T cell precursors could mature into normally functioning T cells if the maturation process occurred in a normal thymus. If the F1 thymus tissue was treated with dGua before transplantation, the T cells of these animals functioned poorly like those from untreated BB-DP rats. dGua poisons bone marrow-derived cells, including gamma radiation-resistant cells of the macrophage/dendritic cell lineages, while sparing the thymic epithelium. Therefore, the reversal of the T cell dysfunction depends on the presence in the F1 thymus of gamma radiation-resistant, dGua-sensitive F1 cells. Conversely, thymectomized and T cell-depleted F1 rats expressed T cell dysfunction when transplanted with gamma-irradiated BB thymus grafts. T cell responses were normal in animals transplanted with dGua-treated BB thymus grafts. With increasing time after thymus transplantation, T cells from all animals gradually expressed the functional phenotype of the bone marrow donor. Taken together these results suggest that BB-DP bone marrow-derived cells that are not T cell precursors influence the maturation environment in the thymus of otherwise normal BB-DP T cell precursors

  12. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  13. T T virus in chronic hepatitis B, C patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rabo, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1997, in Japan, a non-enveloped single stranded circular DNA virus was recovered from a patient. Who developed post transfusion hepatitis not related to any of the know hepatitis viruses . The virus owes its name (T T) virus to the initials of the patient in whom the virus was first identified . Although this acronym might also stand for transfusion - transmitted virus, however, this name would emphasize only one, and certainly not the most frequent mode of this virus transmission. The taxonomy of the virus is uncertain but it is believed now that it may belong to a new family called paracircoviridae. TTDNA has been detected in liver, bone marrow, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, lymph nodes, skeletal muscles and thyroid gland as well as in saliva, tear, stool, bile, throat swabs, breast milk and semen while could not be detected in urine and sweat. TTV infection is transmitted parenterally by feco-oral or droplet routes, or sexual intercourse. These properties of virus influence its high prevalence in general population whether intrauterine transmission of virus is possible remains uncertain. The aim of this work is viewing the prevalence of TTV infection, mode of transmission, pathogenicity, diagnosis and management among chronic hepatitis B and C patients and control group

  14. Evidence of Alternative Cystatin C Signal Sequence Cleavage Which Is Influenced by the A25T Polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Nguyen

    Full Text Available Cystatin C (Cys C is a small, potent, cysteine protease inhibitor. An Ala25Thr (A25T polymorphism in Cys C has been associated with both macular degeneration and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Previously, studies have suggested that this polymorphism may compromise the secretion of Cys C. Interestingly, we found that untagged A25T, A25T tagged C-terminally with FLAG, or A25T FLAG followed by green fluorescent protein (GFP, were all secreted as efficiently from immortalized human cells as their wild-type (WT counterparts (e.g., 112%, 100%, and 88% of WT levels from HEK-293T cells, respectively. Supporting these observations, WT and A25T Cys C variants also showed similar intracellular steady state levels. Furthermore, A25T Cys C did not activate the unfolded protein response and followed the same canonical endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi trafficking pathway as WT Cys C. WT Cys C has been shown to undergo signal sequence cleavage between residues Gly26 and Ser27. While the A25T polymorphism did not affect Cys C secretion, we hypothesized that it may alter where the Cys C signal sequence is preferentially cleaved. Under normal conditions, WT and A25T Cys C have the same signal sequence cleavage site after Gly26 (referred to as 'site 2' cleavage. However, in particular circumstances when the residues around site 2 are modified (such as by the presence of an N-terminal FLAG tag immediately after Gly26, or by a Gly26Lys (G26K mutation, A25T has a significantly higher likelihood than WT Cys C of alternative signal sequence cleavage after Ala20 ('site 1' or even earlier in the Cys C sequence. Overall, our results indicate that the A25T polymorphism does not cause a significant reduction in Cys C secretion, but instead predisposes the protein to be cleaved at an alternative signal sequence cleavage site if site 2 is hindered. Additional N-terminal amino acids resulting from alternative signal sequence cleavage may, in turn, affect the protease

  15. The superfluid diffusion equation S(T)(∂T/∂t) = ∇·[K(T)(∇T)1/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1990-06-01

    This report deals with the superfluid diffusion equation, S(T)(∂T/∂t) = ∇·[K(T)(∇T) 1/3 ], which describes heat transport in turbulent helium-II (superfluid helium). Three methods of solution -- the method of similarity, the variational method, and the method of maximum/minimum principles -- are applied to this equation. The solutions discovered are helpful in addressing the use of helium-II in superconducting magnets and other applications. 22 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Evaluation of benzene exposure in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics by urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cirillo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Occupational exposure to benzene in petrol pump attendants and in mechanics was studied by examining the benzene content in both the air breathed and in the urinary metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA. Thirty petrol pump attendants and thirty mechanics (as exposed workers and thirty adult male office workers (as non exposed workers were involved in the study. Measures were taken at the begin and at the end of the working shifts.

     The benzene concentrations in the breathing air samples varied from 2 to 88 μg m-3, lower than the EU acceptable limit for occupational environment. The average urinary t,t-MA in the petrol pump attendants at the begin and at the end of the working shifts ranged between 133 ± 69 and 255 ± 174 μg g-1 creatinine and in the mechanics between 204 ± 139 and 300 ± 211 μg g-1 creatinine, respectively.

    In all the participants the mean levels of urinary t,t-MA at the end of the working shifts were significantly higher than those at the beginning. In the exposed workers mean levels of urinary t,t-MA were significantly higher than in those of the non-exposed workers. The influence of the smoking was demonstrated by the urinary t,t-MA levels in smoking non-exposed subjects.

  17. Role of T cell receptor affinity in the efficacy and specificity of adoptive T cell therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Stone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several years, there has been considerable progress in the treatment of cancer using gene modified adoptive T cell therapies. Two approaches have been used, one involving the introduction of a conventional alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR against a pepMHC cancer antigen, and the second involving introduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR consisting of a single-chain antibody as an Fv fragment (scFv linked to transmembrane and signaling domains. In this review, we focus on one aspect of TCR-mediated adoptive T cell therapies, the impact of the affinity of the alpha-beta TCR for the pepMHC cancer antigen on both efficacy and specificity. We discuss the advantages of higher affinity TCRs in mediating potent activity of CD4 T cells. This is balanced with the potential disadvantage of higher affinity TCRs in mediating greater self-reactivity against a wider range of structurally similar antigenic peptides, especially in synergy with the CD8 co-receptor. Both TCR affinity and target selection will influence potential safety issues. We suggest pre-clinical strategies that might be used to examine each TCR for possible on-target and off-target side effects due to self-reactivities, and to adjust TCR affinities accordingly.

  18. Depletion of T lymphocytes is correlated with response to temozolomide in melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Brimnes, Marie Klinge; Nikolajsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies to deplete lymphocytes, especially regulatory T cells, in cancer patients have been proposed to increase the benefits of (immuno)chemotherapy. In this study, we explored the influence of temozolomide (TMZ) on different T-cell populations and addressed if the depletion of CD4......(+) T cells would be associated to the clinical benefits of TMZ. Patients were treated with TMZ (150 mg/m(2) daily, every two weeks on a four-week schedule) until disease progression. Changes in T-lymphocyte subsets were characterized by flow cytometry. All patients enrolled in this study had...

  19. The Accuracy of Seryl-tRNA Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Gruic-Sovulj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The high level of translational fidelity is ensured by various types of quality control mechanisms, which are adapted to prevent or correct naturally occurring mistakes. Accurate aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis is mostly dependent on the specificity of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS, i.e. their ability to choose among competing structurally similar substrates. Our studies have revealed that accurate seryl-tRNA synthesis in yeast and plants is accomplished via tRNA-assisted optimization of amino acid binding to the active site of seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS. Based on our recent kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed by which transient protein : RNA complex activates the cognate amino acid more efficiently and more specifically than the apoenzyme alone. This may proceed via a tRNA induced conformational change in the enzyme’s active site. The influence of tRNASer, on the activation of serine by SerRS variants mutated in the active site, is much less pronounced. Although SerRS misactivates structurally similar threonine in vitro, the formation of such erroneous threonyl-adenylate is reduced in the presence of nonchargeable tRNASer analog. Thus, the sequence-specific tRNA : SerRS interactions enhance the accuracy of amino acid recognition. Another type of quality control mechanism in tRNA serylation is assumed to be based on the complex formation between SerRS and a nonsynthetase protein. Using in vivo interaction screen, yeast peroxin Pex21p was identified as SerRS interacting protein. This was confirmed by an in vitro binding assay. Kinetic experiments performed in the presence of Pex21p revealed that this peroxin acts as an activator of seryl-tRNA synthetase in the aminoacylation reaction.

  20. Persisting fetal clonotypes influence the structure and overlap of adult human T cell receptor repertoires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V Pogorelyy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of T-cell receptors recognizing foreign pathogens is generated through a highly stochastic recombination process, making the independent production of the same sequence rare. Yet unrelated individuals do share receptors, which together constitute a "public" repertoire of abundant clonotypes. The TCR repertoire is initially formed prenatally, when the enzyme inserting random nucleotides is downregulated, producing a limited diversity subset. By statistically analyzing deep sequencing T-cell repertoire data from twins, unrelated individuals of various ages, and cord blood, we show that T-cell clones generated before birth persist and maintain high abundances in adult organisms for decades, slowly decaying with age. Our results suggest that large, low-diversity public clones are created during pre-natal life, and survive over long periods, providing the basis of the public repertoire.

  1. Supplementation with Watermelon Extract Reduces Total Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol in Adults with Dyslipidemia under the Influence of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nayara M L; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Costa, Maria J C; Persuhn, Darlene C; Barbosa, Carlos V S; Gonçalves, Maria da C R

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia and genetic polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, and watermelon appears to have the potential to improve hyperlipidemia due to the presence of nutrients such as arginine and citrulline. To test the hypolipidemic effect of watermelon extract (Citrullus lanatus) and the influence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (MTHFR C677T) on supplementation response. This is an experimental clinical phase II randomized and double-blind study. Forty-three subjects with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 21) groups. The subjects were supplemented daily for 42 days with 6 g of watermelon extract or a mixture of carbohydrates (sucrose/glucose/fructose). The use of watermelon extract reduced plasma total cholesterol (p watermelon extract in reducing plasma levels of lipids in humans. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism did not affect the plasma lipid concentration but made individuals more responsive to treatment with watermelon. The consumption of this functional food represents an alternative therapy in the combined treatment of patients with dyslipidemia, promoting health and minimizing the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  2. The influence of narrative risk communication on feelings of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-05-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of narrative and non-narrative risk communication about sunbed use on ease of imagination and feelings of cancer risk. A total of 233 female sunbed users in the general Dutch population were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a narrative message (i.e., personal testimonial), a non-narrative cognitive message (i.e., factual risk information using cognitive-laden words), or a non-narrative affective message (i.e., factual risk information using affective-laden words). Ease of imagination and feelings of risk were assessed directly after the risk information was given (T1). Three weeks after the baseline session, feelings of risk were measured again (T2). The results revealed that sunbed users who were exposed to narrative risk information could better imagine themselves developing skin cancer and reported higher feelings of skin cancer risk at T1. Moreover, ease of imagination mediated the effects of message type on feelings of risk at T1 and T2. The findings provide support for the effects of narrative risk communication in influencing feelings of cancer risk through ease of imagination. Cancer prevention programmes may therefore benefit from including narrative risk information. Future research is important to investigate other mechanisms of narrative information and their most effective content and format. What is already known on this subject? Evidence is growing for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours. Narratives have increasingly been considered as an effective format for persuasive risk messages and studies have shown narrative risk communication to be effective in influencing cognitive risk beliefs. What does this study add? Increasing understanding of how feelings of cancer

  3. The story of an exceptional serine protease, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, M; Lesept, F; Vivien, D; Macrez, R

    2016-03-01

    The only acute treatment of ischemic stroke approved by the health authorities is tissue recombinant plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced thrombolysis. Under physiological conditions, tPA, belonging to the serine protease family, is secreted by endothelial and brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes). Although revascularisation induced by tPA is beneficial during a stroke, research over the past 20 years shows that tPA can also be deleterious for the brain parenchyma. Thus, in this review of the literature, after a brief history on the discovery of tPA, we reviewed current knowledge of mechanisms by which tPA can influence brain function in physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the interaction between environmental quality and T102C SNP in the HTR2A gene on fibromyalgia susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergener, Michelle; Becker, Roze Mary Ribas; dos Santos, Adriana Freitag; dos Santos, Geraldine Alves; de Andrade, Fabiana Michelsen

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the genetic influence of the T102C polymorphism of the 2A serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A) and its interaction with environmental aspects, such as exposure to noise, traffic, climate, and opportunities to acquire new information, physical protection, and security, among others, as possible risk factors for developing fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Forty-one FMS patients and 49 controls were evaluated. Environmental factors were evaluated by application of the V domain of the WHOQOL-100 questionnaire. Patients were asked that their answers represented only the periods preceding the onset of symptoms. The T102C variant of the HTR2A gene was determined through PCR/RFLP. Among patients, the frequency of carriers of the 102C allele was higher than in controls (76.5% vs. 50%; P = 0.028). The scores of the V domain were lower in patients than in controls, indicating a worst perception of the environmental quality by patients (P quality of social care and health" together with the presence of the 102C allele also increased this chance by more than 90-fold (P = 0.005). However, carriers of the same allele who have high quality social care and health are not at a higher risk to develop FMS. These data suggest that these factors may predispose to FMS, especially in carriers of the 102C allele. However, studies with larger samples are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  5. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.

  6. Influence of race on microsatellite instability and CD8+ T cell infiltration in colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Carethers

    Full Text Available African American patients with colorectal cancer show higher mortality than their Caucasian counterparts. Biology might play a partial role, and prior studies suggest a higher prevalence for microsatellite instability (MSI among cancers from African Americans, albeit patients with MSI cancers have improved survival over patients with non-MSI cancers, counter to the outcome observed for African American patients. CD8+ T cell infiltration of colon cancer is postively correlated with MSI tumors, and is also related to improved outcome. Here, we utilized a 503-person, population-based colon cancer cohort comprising 45% African Americans to determine, under blinded conditions from all epidemiological data, the prevalence of MSI and associated CD8+ T cell infiltration within the cancers. Among Caucasian cancers, 14% were MSI, whereas African American cancers demonstrated 7% MSI (P = 0.009. Clinically, MSI cancers between races were similar; among microsatellite stable cancers, African American patients were younger, female, and with proximal cancers. CD8+ T cells were higher in MSI cancers (88.0 vs 30.4/hpf, P<0.0001, but was not different between races. Utilizing this population-based cohort, African American cancers show half the MSI prevalence of Caucasians without change in CD8+ T cell infiltration which may contribute towards their higher mortality from colon cancer.

  7. Diet-induced obesity does not impact the generation and maintenance of primary memory CD8 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shaniya H; Hemann, Emily A; Legge, Kevin L; Norian, Lyse A; Badovinac, Vladimir P

    2014-12-15

    The extent to which obesity compromises the differentiation and maintenance of protective memory CD8 T cell responses and renders obese individuals susceptible to infection remains unknown. In this study, we show that diet-induced obesity did not impact the maintenance of pre-existing memory CD8 T cells, including acquisition of a long-term memory phenotype (i.e., CD27(hi), CD62L(hi), KLRG1(lo)) and function (i.e., cytokine production, secondary expansion, and memory CD8 T cell-mediated protection). Additionally, obesity did not influence the differentiation and maintenance of newly evoked memory CD8 T cell responses in inbred and outbred hosts generated in response to different types of systemic (LCMV, L. monocytogenes) and/or localized (influenza virus) infections. Interestingly, the rate of naive-to-memory CD8 T cell differentiation after a peptide-coated dendritic cell immunization was similar in lean and obese hosts, suggesting that obesity-associated inflammation, unlike pathogen- or adjuvant-induced inflammation, did not influence the development of endogenous memory CD8 T cell responses. Therefore, our studies reveal that the obese environment does not influence the development or maintenance of memory CD8 T cell responses that are either primed before or after obesity is established, a surprising notion with important implications for future studies aiming to elucidate the role obesity plays in host susceptibility to infections. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Genetic Influence on the Peripheral Blood CD4+ T-cell Differentiation Status in CMV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeck, David; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Christiansen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    from the Danish Twin Registry for their T-cell differentiation status, assessed by surface expression of CD27, CD28, CD57, and KLRG-1. We observed a significant intraclass correlation between cotwins of MZ, but not DZ pairs for the differentiation status of CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets. Classical......A latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ubiquitous beta herpesvirus, is associated with an accumulation of late-differentiated memory T-cells, often accompanied by a reciprocal reduced frequency of early-differentiated cells (commonly also referred to as "naïve"). However, this impact...... of CMV on T-cell phenotypes is variable between individuals. Our previous findings in a subgroup of participants in the Leiden familial Longevity Study indicated an important role of genetics. For further testing, we have analyzed middle-aged monozygotic (MZ, n = 42) and dizygotic (DZ, n = 39) twin pairs...

  9. The influence of nitrate and ammonia nitrogen on the photosynthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been made on the influence of nitrate and ammonia nitrogen on the carbon dioxide compensation point (T), carboxylating enzymes and growth of highveld grasses found at the primary, secondary and climax successional stages. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the influence of nitrogen on ...

  10. RESEARCH OF USING OPEN DOUBLE T BEAMS FOR SPANS IN FLOATING BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. M. Gorbatiuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The publication presents the results of calculations of spans for floating bridges with open double T beams. The purpose of research is to analyze the suitability of spans from open double T beams for floating bridges with minimum weight under loads, which is provided by standards for modern floating bridges designing. Methodology. Comparative method, analytical calculation methods (influence lines methodology, strength calculations, endurance, maximum shear stress are used in this paper. Findings. Current loads for bridges calculations are 75% more than those, for which the spans of floating bridge from NZhM-56 property are designed. The use of open double T beams that is formed with double T beam no. 70 (the height of the open one is 104 cm reduces the cross sectional area in a weakened spot, but virtually it does not influence the strength and durability of the material. The use of open double T beams for spans of floating bridges saves up to 22 % of metal that means one in five spans will made of saved metal. Savings on each spans, such as CRP, will be 33.6 - 263 thous. grn. (considering the price of 1 ton of final product 29 thous. grn.. Originality. Research allows making next step in material saving and use of open double T beams for spans in the whole. Practical value. The obtained results give us possibility to make a number of conclusions that allow us to become more familiar and more practical with the use of open double T beams for spans of floating bridges.

  11. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar{t

  12. Dependence on Temperature, pH, and Cl"− in the Uniform Corrosion of Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, I-Wen; Hurley, Belinda L.; Yang, Fan; Buchheit, Rudolph G.

    2016-01-01

    With regards to localized corrosion, the role of uniform corrosion of aluminum alloys has not always been accounted for in the past. The impact of uniform corrosion on aluminum alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6 is studied here to provide quantitative evidence of its importance. Preliminary weight loss experiments combined with optical profilometry (OP) indicate that corrosion attributed to uniform corrosion is very significant when compared to localized corrosion. A series of free immersion tests were conducted to understand the influence of environmental variables including temperature (20, 40, 60, 80 °C), initial pH without buffering (3, 5, 8, 10) and chloride concentration (0.01, 0.1, 1 M) for 1, 7, and 30 days. With time, uniform corrosion results exhibited a strong dependence on temperature accompanied by variable pH- and temperature-dependent corrosion product formation. Electrochemical approaches including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cathodic polarization were utilized to characterize the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and corrosion product formation as a function of temperature. Electron microscopy was conducted to assess the microstructure and morphology of corrosion products and provide supporting evidence for electrochemical findings.

  13. Critical biological parameters modulate affinity as a determinant of function in T-cell receptor gene-modified T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Timothy T; Wang, Yuan; Foley, Kendra C; Murray, David C; Scurti, Gina M; Simms, Patricia E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Hellman, Lance M; Baker, Brian M; Nishimura, Michael I

    2017-11-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR)-pMHC affinity has been generally accepted to be the most important factor dictating antigen recognition in gene-modified T-cells. As such, there is great interest in optimizing TCR-based immunotherapies by enhancing TCR affinity to augment the therapeutic benefit of TCR gene-modified T-cells in cancer patients. However, recent clinical trials using affinity-enhanced TCRs in adoptive cell transfer (ACT) have observed unintended and serious adverse events, including death, attributed to unpredicted off-tumor or off-target cross-reactivity. It is critical to re-evaluate the importance of other biophysical, structural, or cellular factors that drive the reactivity of TCR gene-modified T-cells. Using a model for altered antigen recognition, we determined how TCR-pMHC affinity influenced the reactivity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) TCR gene-modified T-cells against a panel of naturally occurring HCV peptides and HCV-expressing tumor targets. The impact of other factors, such as TCR-pMHC stabilization and signaling contributions by the CD8 co-receptor, as well as antigen and TCR density were also evaluated. We found that changes in TCR-pMHC affinity did not always predict or dictate IFNγ release or degranulation by TCR gene-modified T-cells, suggesting that less emphasis might need to be placed on TCR-pMHC affinity as a means of predicting or augmenting the therapeutic potential of TCR gene-modified T-cells used in ACT. A more complete understanding of antigen recognition by gene-modified T-cells and a more rational approach to improve the design and implementation of novel TCR-based immunotherapies is necessary to enhance efficacy and maximize safety in patients.

  14. Influence of high magnetic field strengths and parallel acquisition strategies on image quality in cardiac 2D CINE magnetic resonance imaging: comparison of 1.5 T vs. 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutberlet, Matthias; Schwinge, Kerstin; Freyhardt, Patrick; Spors, Birgit; Grothoff, Matthias; Denecke, Timm; Luedemann, Lutz; Felix, Roland; Noeske, Ralph; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image quality of cardiac CINE imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Twenty volunteers underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations using a 1.5-T and a 3.0-T scanner. Three different sets of breath-held, electrocardiogram-gated (ECG) CINE imaging techniques were employed, including: (1) unaccelerated SSFP (steady state free precession), (2) accelerated SSFP imaging and (3) gradient-echo-based myocardial tagging. Two-dimensional CINE SSFP at 3.0 T revealed an SNR improvement of 103% and a CNR increase of 19% as compared to the results obtained at 1.5 T. The SNR reduction in accelerated 2D CINE SSFP imaging was larger at 1.5 T (37%) compared to 3.0 T (26%). The mean SNR and CNR increase at 3.0 T obtained for the tagging sequence was 88% and 187%, respectively. At 3.0 T, the duration of the saturation bands persisted throughout the entire cardiac cycle. For comparison, the saturation bands were significantly diminished at 1.5 T during end-diastole. For 2D CINE SSFP imaging, no significant difference in the left ventricular volumetry and in the overall image quality was obtained. For myocardial tagging, image quality was significantly improved at 3.0 T. The SNR reduction in accelerated SSFP imaging was overcompensated by the increase in the baseline SNR at 3.0 T and did not result in any image quality degradation. For cardiac tagging techniques, 3.0 T was highly beneficial, which holds the promise to improve its diagnostic value. (orig.)

  15. Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Kim; Shimoni, Raz; Charnley, Mirren; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J.; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Ramsbottom, Kelly; Oliaro, Jane; Izon, David; Ting, Stephen B.; Reynolds, Joseph; Lythe, Grant; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Melichar, Heather; Robey, Ellen; Humbert, Patrick O.; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian T cell development, the requirement for expansion of many individual T cell clones, rather than merely expansion of the entire T cell population, suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. ACD is controlled by interaction with stromal cells and chemokine receptor signaling and uses a conserved network of polarity regulators. The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. These findings indicate that ACD enables the thymic microenvironment to orchestrate fate decisions related to differentiation and self-renewal. PMID:26370500

  16. Evaluation of multimodal segmentation based on 3D T1-, T2- and FLAIR-weighted images - the difficulty of choosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindig, Tobias; Kotikalapudi, Raviteja; Schweikardt, Daniel; Martin, Pascal; Bender, Friedemann; Klose, Uwe; Ernemann, Ulrike; Focke, Niels K; Bender, Benjamin

    2018-04-15

    Voxel-based morphometry is still mainly based on T1-weighted MRI scans. Misclassification of vessels and dura mater as gray matter has been previously reported. Goal of the present work was to evaluate the effect of multimodal segmentation methods available in SPM12, and their influence on identification of age related atrophy and lesion detection in epilepsy patients. 3D T1-, T2- and FLAIR-images of 77 healthy adults (mean age 35.8 years, 19-66 years, 45 females), 7 patients with malformation of cortical development (MCD) (mean age 28.1 years,19-40 years, 3 females), and 5 patients with left hippocampal sclerosis (LHS) (mean age 49.0 years, 25-67 years, 3 females) from a 3T scanner were evaluated. Segmentation based on T1-only, T1+T2, T1+FLAIR, T2+FLAIR, and T1+T2+FLAIR were compared in the healthy subjects. Clinical VBM results based on the different segmentation approaches for MCD and for LHS were compared. T1-only segmentation overestimated total intracranial volume by about 80ml compared to the other segmentation methods. This was due to misclassification of dura mater and vessels as GM and CSF. Significant differences were found for several anatomical regions: the occipital lobe, the basal ganglia/thalamus, the pre- and postcentral gyrus, the cerebellum, and the brainstem. None of the segmentation methods yielded completely satisfying results for the basal ganglia/thalamus and the brainstem. The best correlation with age could be found for the multimodal T1+T2+FLAIR segmentation. Highest T-scores for identification of LHS were found for T1+T2 segmentation, while highest T-scores for MCD were dependent on lesion and anatomical location. Multimodal segmentation is superior to T1-only segmentation and reduces the misclassification of dura mater and vessels as GM and CSF. Depending on the anatomical region and the pathology of interest (atrophy, lesion detection, etc.), different combinations of T1, T2 and FLAIR yield optimal results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  17. In vivo T cell depletion regulates resistance and morbidity in murine schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.M.; Linette, G.P.; Doughty, B.L.; Byram, J.E.; Von Lichtenberg, F.

    1987-01-01

    These studies assessed the roles of subpopulations of T lymphocytes in inducing and modulating resistance to schistosomiasis and thereby influencing subsequent morbidity. C57BL/6 mice were depleted in vivo of Lyt-1+, Lyt-2+, and L3T4+ cells by the daily administration of monoclonal antibodies. The development of protective immunity, induced by exposure to irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae as expressed in depleted animals, was compared to that demonstrated in undepleted, normal, and congenitally athymic C57BL/6 mice. The development of morbidity was determined by spleen weight, portal pressure and reticuloendothelial system activity. The results indicated that depletion of specific subpopulations of T lymphocytes minimally affected the primary development of parasites; however, depletion strongly influenced the development of resistance to the parasite and subsequent morbidity due to infection. Depletion of T lymphocytes by anti-Lyt-1+ or anti-L3T4+ antibody decreased the development of resistance, antibody and delayed-type hypersensitivity directed against schistosome antigens. Morbidity due to disease was increased. Depletion of Lyt-2+ cells produced opposite changes with augmented resistance and reduced morbidity. Congenitally athymic mice developed minimal resistance and morbidity. Moreover, resistance was inversely related to the morbidity shown by a given animal. These studies indicate that the development of protective immunity to S. mansoni cercariae is regulated by discrete subpopulations of T lymphocytes. The feasibility of decreasing morbidity by increasing specific immunologically mediated resistance is suggested

  18. The application of T1 and T2 relaxation time and magnetization transfer ratios to the early diagnosis of patellar cartilage osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Weiwu; Qu, Nan; Lu, Zhihua; Yang, Shixun [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    We compare the T1 and T2 relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) of normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) to evaluate the ability of these techniques to aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of OA. The knee joints in 11 normal volunteers and 40 patients with OA were prospectively evaluated using T1 relaxation times as measured using delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T2 relaxation times (multiple spin-echo sequence, T2 mapping), and MTRs. The OA patients were further categorized into mild, moderate, and severe OA. The mean T1 relaxation times of the four groups (normal, mild OA, moderate OA, and severe OA) were: 487.3{+-}27.7, 458.0{+-}55.9, 405.9{+-}57.3, and 357.9{+-}36.7 respectively (p<0.001). The mean T2 relaxation times of the four groups were: 37.8{+-}3.3, 44.0{+-}8.5, 50.9{+-}9.5, and 57.4{+-}4.8 respectively (p<0.001). T1 relaxation time decreased and T2 relaxation time increased with worsening degeneration of patellar cartilage. The result of the covariance analysis showed that the covariate age had a significant influence on T2 relaxation time (p<0.001). No significant differences between the normal and OA groups using MTR were noted. T1 and T2 relaxation times are relatively sensitive to early degenerative changes in the patellar cartilage, whereas the MTR may have some limitations with regard to early detection of OA. In addition, The T1 and T2 relaxation times negatively correlate with each other, which is a novel finding. (orig.)

  19. Influence of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy on the Surgical Strategy According to the Clinical T Stage of Patients With Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Ja; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lim, Seok-Byung; Lee, Jong Seok; Park, Seong Ho; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathologic responses and changes to surgical strategies following preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in rectal cancer patients according to their clinical T stage (cT). The use of PCRT has recently been extended to less advanced disease. The authors enrolled 650 patients with cT2 to 4 mid and low rectal cancer who received both PCRT and surgical resection. The rate of total regression and the proportion of local excision were compared according to the cT category. The 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was compared using the log-rank test according to patient cT category, pathologic stage, and type of surgical treatment. Patients with cT2 were older (P = 0.001), predominately female (P = 0.028), and had low-lying rectal cancer (P = 0.008). Pathologic total regression was achieved most frequently in cT2 patients (54% of cT2 versus 17.6% of cT3 versus 8.2% of cT4; P rectal cancer, optimal surgical treatment may be achieved with the tailored use of PCRT. PMID:26717384

  20. Influence de colorants dissous sur le point de clarification de phases nématiques

    OpenAIRE

    Diot , P.; Foitzik , J.K.; Haase , W.

    1985-01-01

    Les systèmes « guest-host » dopés avec des colorants dichroïques sont importants pour certains types d'afficheurs. Ce travail rapporte l'influence des propriétés des colorants dissous sur le comportement de clarification. Les phases nématiques suivantes ont été choisies : CB-7, PCH-7 et ZLI-1083, un mélange eutectique ternaire de PCH-3, PCH-5 et PCH-7; quatre dérivés anthraquinoniques ont été choisis comme colorants. L'influence des colorants sur le comportement de clarification est discutée ...

  1. Inhibition of Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 in Dendritic Cells Restrains CD4+ T Cell Effector Responses and Induces CD25+Foxp3+ T Regulatory Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Elizondo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF1 is a cytoplasmic scaffold protein shown to influence immune responses in macrophages and microglial cells. The protein contains Ca2+ binding EF-hand and PDZ interaction domains important for mediating intracellular signaling complexes. This study now reports that AIF1 is expressed in CD11c+ dendritic cells (DC and silencing of expression restrains induction of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell effector responses. AIF1 knockdown in murine DC resulted in impaired T cell proliferation and skewed polarization away from T helper type 1 and 17 fates. In turn, there was a parallel expansion of IL-10-producing and CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory subsets. These studies are the first to demonstrate that AIF1 expression in DC serves as a potent governor of cognate T cell responses and presents a novel target for engineering tolerogenic DC-based immunotherapies.

  2. Uncoupling of M1 muscarinic receptor/G-protein interaction by amyloid beta(1-42)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janíčková, Helena; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Jakubík, Jan; Tanila, H.; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, April (2013), s. 272-283 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer ´s Disease * muscarinic receptors * G-proteins Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.819, year: 2013

  3. Factors influencing passive surveillance for T. b. rhodesiense human african trypanosomiasis in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acup, Christine; Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Picozzi, Kim; Waiswa, Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2017-01-01

    Sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a neglected tropical disease of public health importance across much of Sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, chronic T. b. gambiense HAT (gHAT) and acute T. b. rhodesiense HAT (rHAT) occur in two large but discrete geographical foci. Both forms are difficult to diagnose, expensive to treat and ultimately fatal in the absence of treatment. The area affected by zoonotic rHAT has been steadily expanding, placing a high burden on local health systems. HAT is a disease of neglected populations and is notorious for being under-reported. Here we examine the factors that influence passive rHAT surveillance within the district health system in four Ugandan districts into which the disease had recently been introduced, focusing on staff knowledge, infrastructure and data management. A mixed methods study was undertaken between 2011 and 2013 in Dokolo, Kaberamaido, Soroti and Serere districts to explore health facility capacity and clinical service provision, diagnostic capacity, HAT knowledge and case reporting. Structured interviews were undertaken with 86 medical personnel, including clinicians, nurses, midwives and technicians across 65 HC-II and HC-III medical facilities, where the health infrastructure was also directly observed. Eleven semi-structured interviews were undertaken with medical staff in each of the three designated HAT treatment facilities (Dokolo, Lwala and Serere HC-IV) in the area. HAT treatment centre case records, collected between 2009 and 2012, were analyzed. Most medical staff in HC-II and HC-III facilities had been made aware of HAT from radio broadcasts, newspapers and by word of mouth, suggestive of a lack of formal training. Key knowledge as regards the causative agent, clinical signs and that HAT drugs are provided free of charge was lower amongst HC-II than HC-III staff. Many respondents did not know whether HAT was endemic in their district. In rHAT specialist treatment centres, staff

  4. T. B-cell subpopulation in patients with malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Motoyoshi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Naruto, Mamiko.

    1978-01-01

    T, B cells in the peripheural blood of patients with malignant diseases were investigated. The percentages of T cells in patients with malignant lymphomas correlated to the extent of disease determined by clinical stagings of Ann Arbor's classification, in stages III and IV T-cells decreased to compare with those in stages I and II, while B-cells did not show any changes. Absolute numbers of lymphocytes, blastogenesis induced by PHA or PWM decreased remarkably during combination chemotherapies and during radiotherapy whereas the percentages of T-cells measuring in the same patients did not influenced consistently by these treatments. The DNA pattern of lymphocytes during treatments was examined by Flow-Microphotometry and the result suggested that those lymphocytes were damaged by treatments and subsequently they were refractory to the action of mitogens. The results indicate that selective timing needs between chemotherapy and immunotherapy. (auth.)

  5. Simultaneous acquisition for T2 -T2 Exchange and T1 -T2 correlation NMR experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrazi, Elton T.; Lucas-Oliveira, Everton; Araujo-Ferreira, Arthur G.; Barsi-Andreeta, Mariane; Bonagamba, Tito J.

    2018-04-01

    The NMR measurements of longitudinal and transverse relaxation times and its multidimensional correlations provide useful information about molecular dynamics. However, these experiments are very time-consuming, and many researchers proposed faster experiments to reduce this issue. This paper presents a new way to simultaneously perform T2 -T2 Exchange and T1 -T2 correlation experiments by taking the advantage of the storage time and the two steps phase cycling used for running the relaxation exchange experiment. The data corresponding to each step is either summed or subtracted to produce the T2 -T2 and T1 -T2 data, enhancing the information obtained while maintaining the experiment duration. Comparing the results from this technique with traditional NMR experiments it was possible to validate the method.

  6. Influence of the medium on the reaction rate of the t-butoxyl radical with iron(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaljevic, B.; Razem, D.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Tert-butoxyl radicals (t-BuO.) were generated by homolytic photodecomposition of di-tert-butylperoxide using ruby laser flashes at 347 nm. The reaction of t-BuO. radicals with Fe 2+ was studied under pseudo-first order conditions. The quantum yield Φ(Fe 3+ ) was determined by measuring the absorbance of Fe 3+ ion as [FeCl] 2+ complex at 360 nm 2 μs after the flash. According to the equation derived from the reaction scheme, the rate constant k 3 was obtained from the relative rate constant k r (k r =k 0 /k 3 ) and the value of k 0 ; the latter refers to the overall rate of the competing disappearance of t-BuO. radicals from the system (reaction 2), including the highest contribution of β-cleavage. The rate constant k 0 was determined using diphenylmethanol instead of Fe 2+ . The known rate constant of the reaction of t-BuO. radical with diphenylmethanol giving ketyl radicals (6.9 x 10 6 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ) was applied. The quantum yield of ketyl radicals was determined by measuring the maximum of absorbance at 535 nm. At acid concentration of 0.023 mol dm -3 HCl the rate constant k 3 = 3.4 x 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 was determined. The relative rate constant increased with an increase of the hydrochloric acid concentration which has been ascribed to the lower stability of t-BuO. radical at higher acidity of the medium. The effect of polarity of the medium on the reaction rate was also determined. Decreasing k 3 in media of increasing polarity were explained by increasing of the β-scission rate of t-BuO. radical with increasing polarity of the medium

  7. Plasma Total Homocysteine (tHcy) Levels in Healthy Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and stratification of reference values for a laboratory area of practice enhances the test result interpretation and sensitivity. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a metabolite of methionine which is dependent on vitamin B6, B12 and folate as co-factors. Plasma level (Hyperhomocysteinemia) is influenced by ...

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes in healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goricar, Katja; Erculj, Nina; Zadel, Maja; Dolzan, Vita

    2012-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) repair is an important mechanism involved in repairing double-strand breaks in DNA and for maintaining genomic stability. Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in this pathway may influence the capacity for DNA repair. The aim of this study was to select tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in specific genes involved in HR repair, to determine their allele frequencies in a healthy Slovenian population and their influence on DNA damage detected with comet assay. In total 373 individuals were genotyped for nine tag SNPs in three genes: XRCC3 722C>T, XRCC3 -316A>G, RAD51 -98G>C, RAD51 -61G>T, RAD51 1522T>G, NBS1 553G>C, NBS1 1197A>G, NBS1 37117C>T and NBS1 3474A>C using competitive allele-specific amplification (KASPar assay). Comet assay was performed in a subgroup of 26 individuals to determine the influence of selected SNPs on DNA damage. We observed that age significantly affected genotype frequencies distribution of XRCC3 -316A>G (P = 0.039) in healthy male blood donors. XRCC3 722C>T (P = 0.005), RAD51 -61G>T (P = 0.023) and NBS1 553G>C (P = 0.008) had a statistically significant influence on DNA damage. XRCC3 722C>T, RAD51 -61G>T and NBS1 553G>C polymorphisms significantly affect the repair of damaged DNA and may be of clinical importance as they are common in Slovenian population

  9. Constrained variability of modeled T:ET ratio across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos

    2017-07-01

    A large variability (35-90%) in the ratio of transpiration to total evapotranspiration (referred here as T:ET) across biomes or even at the global scale has been documented by a number of studies carried out with different methodologies. Previous empirical results also suggest that T:ET does not covary with mean precipitation and has a positive dependence on leaf area index (LAI). Here we use a mechanistic ecohydrological model, with a refined process-based description of evaporation from the soil surface, to investigate the variability of T:ET across biomes. Numerical results reveal a more constrained range and higher mean of T:ET (70 ± 9%, mean ± standard deviation) when compared to observation-based estimates. T:ET is confirmed to be independent from mean precipitation, while it is found to be correlated with LAI seasonally but uncorrelated across multiple sites. Larger LAI increases evaporation from interception but diminishes ground evaporation with the two effects largely compensating each other. These results offer mechanistic model-based evidence to the ongoing research about the patterns of T:ET and the factors influencing its magnitude across biomes.

  10. PV/T slates - Laboratory measurements; PV/T-Schiefer. Labormessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with an experimental outdoor set-up and reviews in-situ measurements made on a prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). The report describes the configuration and construction of the experimental PV-tiled roof and the measurement system used to measure its electrical and thermal performance. The results of the measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form. The influence of various factors such as air-slit width and mounting angle are discussed.

  11. [TNF-α, diabetes type 1 and regulatory T cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryba, Monika; Myśliwska, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on animal models of diabetes as well as human regulatory T cells have shown that α impairs the ability of these cells to prevent the disease. NOD mice treated with α had decreased frequency of regulatory T cells, whereas anti-TNF administration induced the increase in the number of these cells and disease prevention. The action of α also influenced the suppressive potential of Tregs. Increased susceptibility of Tregs to the modulatory effects of α involves signaling through TNFR2 that is expressed on the surface of this cell population. It seems that α neutralization may rescue regulatory T cells and restore their function in several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This review describes recent data concerning regulatory T cells in the context of inflammation that is present during diabetes type 1. It describes how TNF contributes to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, what is the impact of this cytokine on regulatory T cell population and therapeutic effects that result from its neutralization in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  12. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  13. Influence of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to the Cerebellum on Standing Posture Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Inukai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the vestibular cerebellum results in dysfunctional standing posture control. Patients with cerebellum dysfunction have a larger sway in the center of gravity while standing compared with healthy subjects. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a noninvasive technique for selectively exciting or inhibiting specific neural structures with potential applications in functional assessment and treatment of neural disorders. However, the specific stimulation parameters for influencing postural control have not been assessed. In this study, we investigated the influence of tDCS when applied over the cerebellum on standing posture control. Sixteen healthy subjects received tDCS (20 min, 2 mA over the scalp 2 cm below the inion. In experiment 1, all 16 subjects received tDCS under three stimulus conditions, Sham, Cathodal, and Anodal, in a random order with the second electrode placed on the forehead. In experiment 2, five subjects received cathodal stimulation only with the second electrode placed over the right buccinator muscle. Center of gravity sway was measured twice for 60 s before and after tDCS in a standing posture with eyes open and legs closed, and average total locus length, locus length per second, rectangular area, and enveloped area were calculated. In experiment 1, total locus length and locus length per second decreased significantly after cathodal stimulation but not after anodal or sham stimulation, while no tDCS condition influenced rectangular or enveloped areas. In experiment 2, cathodal tDCS again significantly reduced total locus length and locus length per second but not rectangular and enveloped areas. The effects of tDCS on postural control are polarity-dependent, likely reflecting the selective excitation or inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Cathodal tDCS to the cerebellum of healthy subjects can alter body sway (velocity.

  14. Influence de la présence de contaminants lors du recyclage des thermoplastiques Influence of contaminants during the recycling of thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casetta Mathilde

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le recyclage des matières plastiques constitue un enjeu environnemental majeur en raison de la diminution des ressources pétrolières et du problème de la gestion des déchets en fin de vie. Toutefois, ce recyclage est rendu difficile par la présence d'additifs ou de pollutions au sein des polymères. L'objectif de cette communication est de présenter et de commenter deux principaux exemples permettant d'illustrer l'influence de la présence de contaminants sur les propriétés du matériau recyclé. Dans un cas, on étudiera l'influence de la méthode de recyclage sur les propriétés finales du matériau et dans l'autre cas, on cherchera à remédier à la diminution des propriétés mécaniques du polymère recyclé en compatibilisant le contaminant au sein du matériau plastique. The recycling of plastic materials represents a major environmental challenge due to the decrease of petroleum resources and the problem of end-of-life products management. However, the presence of additives or pollutants inside polymers generally makes the recycling more difficult. The aim of the presentation is to describe two main examples illustrating the influence of the presence of contaminants on the properties of recycled polymers. First, the influence of the recycling method on the final properties of the material will be studied. Then, the decrease of the mechanical properties of the recycled polymer will be overcome by compatibilizing the contaminant inside the plastic material.

  15. The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer patients with T1 - T2 and one to three positive axillary nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Luo Yangkun; Wang Jie; Peng Ying; Wen Hao; Wang Weidong; Lang Jinyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the role of postmastectomy radiotherapy in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer patients with Stage T 1 -T 2 and one to three positive axillary nodes. Methods: A total of 436 breast cancer patients with T 1 -T 2 and one to three positive axillary lymph nodes treated with mastectomy and axillary dissection were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were grouped as the following four subtypes:Luminal A, Luminal B, Her 2 + and triple-negative. The local recurrence (LR), distant metastasis ( DM ), disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were compared between patients with or without radiotherapy in univariate analyses. Multivariate analyses for LR were performed. Results: The follow-up rate was 86. 0%. In patients with Luminal A subtype, radiotherapy decreased the 5-year LR rate (4.6% vs 15.8%, χ 2 =5.74, P=0.017) but had no influences on DM, DFS or OS rates (17.2% vs 19.7%, χ 2 =0.17, P=0.682; 77.0% vs 67.1%, χ 2 =1.99, P=0.158 or 87.4% : 85.5%, χ 2 =0.12, P=0.733). In patients with Luminal B subtype, radiotherapy decreased the 5-year LR rate (3.7% vs 12. 1%, χ 2 =4.13, P =0.042), increased DFS and OS (84.0% vs 57.6% (χ 2 =14.61, P =0.000) and 91.4% vs 70. 7% (χ 2 =11.87, P =0.001), but had no influence on DM (12.3% vs 22.2%, χ 2 =2.97, P =0.085). In patients with Her 2 + subtype, radiotherapy decreased the 5-year LR rate (5.6% vs 31.0%, χ 2 =4.31, P=0.035) , increased DFS (61.1% vs 13.8%, χ 2 =11.44, P=0.001) ,but had no influence on DM and OS (27.8% vs 41.4%, χ 2 =0.89, P =0.345 and 66.7% vs 48.3%, χ 2 =1.52, P =0.218). In patients with triple-negative subtype, radiotherapy had no influence in LR, DM, DFS or OS (8.7% vs 26.1%, χ 2 =2.42, P=0.120; 39.1% vs 47.8%, χ 2 =0.35, P=0.552; 52.2% vs 26.1%, χ 2 =3.29, P =0.070 or 65.2% vs 56.5%, χ 2 =0.37, P =0.546). Tumor size and radiotherapy were independent prognostic factors for LR rate in multivariate analyses (χ 2 =4.76, P =0.029 and χ 2 =8.06, P =0

  16. Quark stars in f(T, T)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta)

    2017-02-15

    We derive a working model for the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation for quark star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models. We consider f(T, T)-gravity for a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental tetrad vierbein from which the metric tensor can be derived. We impose a linear f(T) parameter, namely taking f = αT(r) + βT(r) + φ and investigate the behaviour of a linear energy-momentum tensor trace, T. We also outline the restrictions which modified f(T, T)-gravity imposes upon the coupling parameters. Finally we incorporate the MIT bag model in order to derive the mass-radius and mass-central density relations of the quark star within f(T, T)-gravity. (orig.)

  17. A genomic characterization of the influence of silver nanoparticles on bone differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Tao; Mahmood, Meena; Zheng, Yuanting; Biris, Alexandru S; Shi, Leming; Casciano, Daniel A

    2018-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in a variety of biomedical applications. Previous studies demonstrated that AgNPs significantly enhanced bone cell mineralization and differentiation in MC3T3-1 cells, a model in vitro system, when compared to several other NPs. This increased bone deposition was evaluated by phenotypic measurements and assessment of the expression of miRNAs associated with regulation of bone morphogenic proteins. In the present study, we used RNA-seq technology, a more direct measurement of gene expression, to investigate further the mechanisms of bone differentiation induced by AgNP treatment. Key factors associated with the osteoclast pathway were significantly increased in response to AgNP exposure including Bmp4, Bmp6 and Fosl1. In addition, genes of metabolism and toxicity pathways were significantly regulated as well. Although this study suggests the potential for AgNPs to influence bone morphogenesis in injury or disease applications, further investigation into the efficacy and safety of AgNPs in bone regeneration is warranted. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Influence of molybdate species on the tartaric acid/sulphuric acid anodic films grown on AA2024 T3 aerospace alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rubio, M. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain); Ocon, P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pilar.ocon@uam.es; Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Smith, R.W. [Unidad de Microanalisis de Materiales, Parque Cientifico de Madrid (PCM), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, M60 1QD England (United Kingdom); Lavia, A.; Garcia, I. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    AA2024 T3 alloy specimens have been anodised in tartaric acid/sulphuric media and tartaric acid/sulphuric media containing sodium molybdate; molybdate species were added to the anodising bath to enhance further the protection provided by the porous anodic film developed over the macroscopic alloy surface. Morphological characterisation of the anodic films formed in both electrolytes was undertaken using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies; the chemical compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy that was complemented by elemental depth profiling using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion performance was examined after salt spray testing. The porous anodic film morphology was little influenced by the addition of molybdate salt, although thinner films were generated in its presence. Chemical composition of the anodic film was roughly similar; however, addition of sodium molybdate in the anodizing bath resulted in residues of molybdate species in the porous skeleton and improved corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical techniques that was confirmed by salt spray testing.

  19. Influence of molybdate species on the tartaric acid/sulphuric acid anodic films grown on AA2024 T3 aerospace alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rubio, M.; Ocon, P.; Climent-Font, A.; Smith, R.W.; Curioni, M.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.; Lavia, A.; Garcia, I.

    2009-01-01

    AA2024 T3 alloy specimens have been anodised in tartaric acid/sulphuric media and tartaric acid/sulphuric media containing sodium molybdate; molybdate species were added to the anodising bath to enhance further the protection provided by the porous anodic film developed over the macroscopic alloy surface. Morphological characterisation of the anodic films formed in both electrolytes was undertaken using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies; the chemical compositions of the films were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy that was complemented by elemental depth profiling using rf-glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarisations and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the corrosion performance was examined after salt spray testing. The porous anodic film morphology was little influenced by the addition of molybdate salt, although thinner films were generated in its presence. Chemical composition of the anodic film was roughly similar; however, addition of sodium molybdate in the anodizing bath resulted in residues of molybdate species in the porous skeleton and improved corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical techniques that was confirmed by salt spray testing.

  20. Analysis of the influences of thermal correlations on neutronic–thermohydraulic coupling calculation of SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weifeng; Cai, Jiejin; Liu, Shichang; Tang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different thermal correlations for supercritical water are summarized. • Influences of thermal correlations on neutronic–thermohydraulic coupling calculation are analyzed. • Sensitivity analysis has been done for the thermal correlations. - Abstract: The neutronic–thermohydraulic coupling (N–T coupling) calculation is important on core design, security and stability analysis of supercritical water-coolant reactor (SCWR), and a suitable thermal correlation is also necessary for the N–T coupling calculation. In this paper, the scheme of the U.S. SCWR design and the process of the N–T coupling will be introduced as well as some of different thermal correlations firstly. Then, based on the N–T coupling system ARNT, the U.S. SCWR design is simulated to analyze the influences of thermal correlations on N–T coupling calculation of SCWR so as to find out which correlation is best. The result shows that all thermal correlations are suitable. However, using different correlations for calculation leads to a great difference in safety margin of SCWR. What's more, the Bishop and Jackson correlations are more suitable and conservative, but the Griem correlation is not very precise. And the effect of buoyancy lift makes little influence on the calculation of heat transfer of SCWR. This research is also of great significance for the further study of N–T coupling of SCWR

  1. IL-15 augments TCR-induced CD4+ T cell expansion in vitro by inhibiting the suppressive function of CD25 High CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom L Van Belle

    Full Text Available Due to its critical role in NK cell differentiation and CD8(+ T cell homeostasis, the importance of IL-15 is more firmly established for cytolytic effectors of the immune system than for CD4(+ T cells. The increased levels of IL-15 found in several CD4(+ T cell-driven (auto- immune diseases prompted us to examine how IL-15 influences murine CD4(+ T cell responses to low dose TCR-stimulation in vitro. We show that IL-15 exerts growth factor activity on both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells in a TCR-dependent and Cyclosporin A-sensitive manner. In CD4(+ T cells, IL-15 augmented initial IL-2-dependent expansion and once IL-15Rα was upregulated, IL-15 sustained the TCR-induced expression of IL-2/15Rβ, supporting proliferation independently of secreted IL-2. Moreover, IL-15 counteracts CD4(+ T cell suppression by a gradually expanding CD25(HighCD4(+ T cell subset that expresses Foxp3 and originates from CD4(+CD25(+ Tregs. These in vitro data suggest that IL-15 may dramatically strengthen the T cell response to suboptimal TCR-triggering by overcoming an activation threshold set by Treg that might create a risk for autoimmune pathology.

  2. IoT-Based Library Automation and Monitoring system: Developing an Implementation framework of Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bayani, Majid; Segura, Alberto; Alvarado, Marjorie; Loaiza, Mayra

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and related topics such as Internet of Things (IoT) have an essential influence on all elements of human life. IoT as a prevalent phenomenon is transforming daily life by the usage of the smart features of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies. As IoT progresses, it has extended in size and dimension, improving many contexts of the society; such as, the traditional library system. This...

  3. H-2 restriction specificity of T cells from H-2 incompatible radiation bone marrow chimeras: further evidence for the absence of crucial influence of the host/thymus environment on the generation of H-2 restricted TNP-specific T lymphocyte precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, S.; Sado, T.; Kubo, E.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to answer the questions related to (a) the role played by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) present within the thymus and (b) the effect of radiation dose to the recipients on the H-2 restriction profile of TNP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors (CTLP) recovered from spleens and/or thymuses of H-2 incompatible radiation bone marrow chimeras (BMC). The H-2 restriction profile of intrathymically differentiating TNP-specific CTLPs was also analyzed in order to test an argument that donor-H-2 restricted CTLP detected in spleens of H-2 incompatible BMC were due to the extrathymically differentiated T cells under the influence of donor-derived lymphoreticular cells. The results indicated the following: (i) splenic T cells from B10(H-2b) leads to (B10(H-2b) leads to B10.BR(H-2k)) chimeras, which were constructed by irradiating primary B10 leads to B10.BR chimeras with 1100 R and reconstituting them with donor-type (B10) bone marrow cells as long as 8 months after their construction, manifested restriction specificities for both donor- and host-type H-2, (ii) splenic T cells from two types of (B10 X B10.BR)F1 leads to B10 chimeras which were reconstituted after exposure of the recipients with either 900 or 1100 R with donor-type bone marrow cells generated both donor- and host-H-2 restricted TNP-specific cytotoxic T cells, and (iii) the TNP-specific CTLPs present in the regenerating thymuses of B10.BR leads to B10 and (B10 X B10.BR)F1 leads to B10 chimeras 4 weeks after their construction were also shown to manifest both donor- and host-H-2 restriction specificities. The significance of these findings on the H-2 restriction profile of CTLP generated in BMCs is discussed

  4. The influence of low frequency magnetic field upon cultivable plant physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.

    2008-01-01

    The 16 Hz frequency and 5 mT magnetic flux density as well as alternating magnetic field influence the field germination physiological yield-forming features and the yield of sugar have been investigated. The profitable influence of the investigated factor at physiological yield-forming features, causing an increase in sugar beet root and leaf yield, was shown. The beneficial influence on the yield is especially clear in unfavourable weather conditions. (author)

  5. Comprehensive Approach for Identifying the T Cell Subset Origin of CD3 and CD28 Antibody-Activated Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmueck-Henneresse, Michael; Omer, Bilal; Shum, Thomas; Tashiro, Haruko; Mamonkin, Maksim; Lapteva, Natalia; Sharma, Sandhya; Rollins, Lisa; Dotti, Gianpietro; Reinke, Petra; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Rooney, Cliona M

    2017-07-01

    The outcome of therapy with chimeric Ag receptor (CAR)-modified T cells is strongly influenced by the subset origin of the infused T cells. However, because polyclonally activated T cells acquire a largely CD45RO + CCR7 - effector memory phenotype after expansion, regardless of subset origin, it is impossible to know which subsets contribute to the final T cell product. To determine the contribution of naive T cell, memory stem T cell, central memory T cell, effector memory T cell, and terminally differentiated effector T cell populations to the CD3 and CD28-activated CAR-modified T cells that we use for therapy, we followed the fate and function of individually sorted CAR-modified T cell subsets after activation with CD3 and CD28 Abs (CD3/28), transduction and culture alone, or after reconstitution into the relevant subset-depleted population. We show that all subsets are sensitive to CAR transduction, and each developed a distinct T cell functional profile during culture. Naive-derived T cells showed the greatest rate of proliferation but had more limited effector functions and reduced killing compared with memory-derived populations. When cultured in the presence of memory T cells, naive-derived T cells show increased differentiation, reduced effector cytokine production, and a reduced reproliferative response to CAR stimulation. CD3/28-activated T cells expanded in IL-7 and IL-15 produced greater expansion of memory stem T cells and central memory T cell-derived T cells compared with IL-2. Our strategy provides a powerful tool to elucidate the characteristics of CAR-modified T cells, regardless of the protocol used for expansion, reveals the functional properties of each expanded T cell subset, and paves the way for a more detailed evaluation of the effects of manufacturing changes on the subset contribution to in vitro-expanded T cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. CD4 T cell autophagy is integral to memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murera, Diane; Arbogast, Florent; Arnold, Johan; Bouis, Delphine; Muller, Sylviane; Gros, Frédéric

    2018-04-13

    Studies of mice deficient for autophagy in T cells since thymic development, concluded that autophagy is integral to mature T cell homeostasis. Basal survival and functional impairments in vivo, limited the use of these models to delineate the role of autophagy during the immune response. We generated Atg5 f/f distal Lck (dLck)-cre mice, with deletion of autophagy only at a mature stage. In this model, autophagy deficiency impacts CD8 + T cell survival but has no influence on CD4 + T cell number and short-term activation. Moreover, autophagy in T cells is dispensable during early humoral response but critical for long-term antibody production. Autophagy in CD4 + T cells is required to transfer humoral memory as shown by injection of antigen-experienced cells in naive mice. We also observed a selection of autophagy-competent cells in the CD4 + T cell memory compartment. We performed in vitro differentiation of memory CD4 + T cells, to better characterize autophagy-deficient memory cells. We identified mitochondrial and lipid load defects in differentiated memory CD4 + T cells, together with a compromised survival, without any collapse of energy production. We then propose that memory CD4 + T cells rely on autophagy for their survival to regulate toxic effects of mitochondrial activity and lipid overload.

  7. Symbiotic Association with Mycoplasma hominis Can Influence Growth Rate, ATP Production, Cytolysis and Inflammatory Response of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P.; Fiori, Pier L.

    2016-01-01

    The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host. PMID:27379081

  8. Altered Intracellular ATP Production by Activated CD4+ T-Cells in Very Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Aquilano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The neonatal immune system is not fully developed at birth; newborns have adequate lymphocytes counts but these cells lack function. Objective. To assess the activity of T-cells and the influence of the main perinatal factors in very preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 g. Design. Blood samples from 59 preterm infants (21/59 were dizygotic twins were collected at birth and at 30 days of life to measure CD4+ T-cell activity using the ImmuKnow™ assay. Fifteen healthy adults were included as a control group. Results. CD4+ T-cell activity was lower in VLBW infants compared with adults (p<0.001. Twins showed lower immune activity compared to singletons (p=0.005. Infants born vaginally showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity compared to those born by C-section (p=0.031; infants born after prolonged Premature Rupture of Membranes (pPROM showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity at birth (p=0.002 compared to infants born without pPROM. Low CD4+ T-cell activity at birth is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in the first week of life (p=0.049. Conclusions. Preterm infants show a lack in CD4+ T-cell activity at birth. Perinatal factors such as intrauterine inflammation, mode of delivery, and zygosity can influence the adaptive immune activation capacity at birth and can contribute to exposing these infants to serious complications such as NEC.

  9. CISH promoter polymorphism effects on T cell cytokine receptor signaling and type 1 diabetes susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Julia; Ahlert, Heinz; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Baechle, Christina; Roden, Michael; Holl, Reinhard W; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas; Jacobsen, Marc

    2018-02-06

    Impaired regulatory T cell immunity plays a central role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling is essential for regulatory T cells (T REG ), and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) regulates IL-2R signaling as a feedback inhibitor. Previous studies identified association of CISH promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to infectious diseases. Here we analyzed allele frequencies of three CISH SNPs (i.e., rs809451, rs414171, rs2239751) in a study of T1D patients (n = 260, onset age  10 years). Minor allele frequencies were compared to a control cohort of the 1000 Genomes Project. Assigned haplotypes were determined for effects on T1D manifestation and severity. Finally, the CISH haplotype influence on cytokine signaling and function was explored in T cells from healthy donors. We detected similar minor allele frequencies between T1D patients and the control cohort. T1D onset age, residual serum C-peptide level, and insulin requirement were comparable between different haplotypes. Only minor differences between the haplotypes were found for in vitro cytokine (i.e., IL-2, IL-7)-induced CIS mRNA expression. STAT5 phosphorylation was induced by IL-2 or IL-7, but no differences were found between the haplotypes. T REG purified from healthy donors with the two most common haplotypes showed similar capacity to inhibit heterologous effector T cells. This study provides no evidence for an association of CISH promoter SNPs with susceptibility to T1D or severity of disease. In contrast to previous studies, no influence of different haplotypes on CIS mRNA expression or T cell-mediated functions was found.

  10. Mixed Signals: Co-Stimulation in Invariant Natural Killer T Cell-Mediated Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah C. Shissler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are an integral component of the immune system and play an important role in antitumor immunity. Upon activation, iNKT cells can directly kill malignant cells as well as rapidly produce cytokines that stimulate other immune cells, making them a front line defense against tumorigenesis. Unfortunately, iNKT cell number and activity are reduced in multiple cancer types. This anergy is often associated with upregulation of co-inhibitory markers such as programmed death-1. Similar to conventional T cells, iNKT cells are influenced by the conditions of their activation. Conventional T cells receive signals through the following three types of receptors: (1 T cell receptor (TCR, (2 co-stimulation molecules, and (3 cytokine receptors. Unlike conventional T cells, which recognize peptide antigen presented by MHC class I or II, the TCRs of iNKT cells recognize lipid antigen in the context of the antigen presentation molecule CD1d (Signal 1. Co-stimulatory molecules can positively and negatively influence iNKT cell activation and function and skew the immune response (Signal 2. This study will review the background of iNKT cells and their co-stimulatory requirements for general function and in antitumor immunity. We will explore the impact of monoclonal antibody administration for both blocking inhibitory pathways and engaging stimulatory pathways on iNKT cell-mediated antitumor immunity. This review will highlight the incorporation of co-stimulatory molecules in antitumor dendritic cell vaccine strategies. The use of co-stimulatory intracellular signaling domains in chimeric antigen receptor-iNKT therapy will be assessed. Finally, we will explore the influence of innate-like receptors and modification of immunosuppressive cytokines (Signal 3 on cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Uniform Corrosion and General Dissolution of Aluminum Alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I.-Wen

    Uniform corrosion and general dissolution of aluminum alloys was not as well-studied in the past, although it was known for causing significant amount of weight loss. This work comprises four chapters to understand uniform corrosion of aluminum alloys 2024-T3, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6. A preliminary weight loss experiment was performed for distinguishing corrosion induced weight loss attributed to uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion. The result suggested that uniform corrosion generated a greater mass loss than pitting corrosion. First, to understand uniform corrosion mechanism and kinetics in different environments, a series of static immersion tests in NaCl solutions were performed to provide quantitative measurement of uniform corrosion. Thereafter, uniform corrosion development as a function of temperature, pH, Cl-, and time was investigated to understand the influence of environmental factors. Faster uniform corrosion rate has been found at lower temperature (20 and 40°C) than at higher temperature (60 and 80°C) due to accelerated corrosion product formation at high temperatures inhibiting corrosion reactions. Electrochemical tests including along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to study the temperature effect. Second, in order to further understand the uniform corrosion influence on pit growth kinetics, a long term exposures for 180 days in both immersion and ASTM-B117 test were performed. Uniform corrosion induced surface recession was found to have limited impact on pit geometry regardless of exposure methods. It was also found that the competition for limited cathodic current from uniform corrosion the primary rate limiting factor for pit growth. Very large pits were found after uniform corrosion growth reached a plateau due to corrosion product coverage. Also, optical microscopy and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging has provided more insights of distinctive pitting geometry and subsurface damages found from immersion samples and B117

  12. Metodologické aspekty měření postojů české veřejnosti k trestání pachatelů trestných činů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Eva; Tomášek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2014), s. 495-520 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010012 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : public attitudes to punishment * new punitiveness * restorative jus- tice Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/uploads/92cbb729980af9196de548db7243e98a567ae996_14-4-02Moravcova17.indd.pdf

  13. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 445.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-11

    2052 0981], Chen Dingming [7115 7844 6900], Jin Xiulan [6855 4423 5695] (F, Mongolian), Zhao Nanqi [6392 0589 6386] Korean), Suo Jingxian [4792...Pen Center and the Guangzhou Pen Center will be headed by Chen Huangmei, another vice-president of the China center and a noted critic. The...1728 4426 6311], Zhang Tengxiao [1728 7506 7197], Chen Dingmou [7115 0002 5399], Chen Lunfen [7115 0243 5358] (F), Chen Xitong [7115 1585 0681

  14. [Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging of Creatine Metabolites: a 3.0 T MRI Pilot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-kun; Li, Zhen-lin; Rong, Yu; Xia, Chun-chao; Zhang, Li-zhi; Peng, Wan-ling; Liu, Xi; Xu, Hua-yan; Zhang, Ti-jiang; Zuo, Pan-li; Schmitt, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    To determine the feasibility of using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging to measure creatine (Cr) metabolites with 3.0 T MR. Phantoms containing different concentrations of Cr under various pH conditions were studied with CEST sequence on 3.0 T MR imaging. CEST effect and Z spectra were analyzed. Cr exhibited significant CEST effect (± 1.8 ppm, F = 99.08, P 3.0 T MR imaging, and positive correlation was found between the signal intensity and concentration of Cr (r = 0.963, P 3.0 T MR imaging. Creatine concentrations and pH influence CEST effect.

  15. FRX-C/T large source modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Chrien, R.E.; Yavornik, E.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Hugrass, W.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Siemon, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    FRC experiments on FRX-C/T during the past two years have been devoted to translation studies and, more recently, to formation studies in situ. The interest in the latter became stronger as FRX-D was proposed. It is intended that, in summer 1985, FRX-C/T be modified with a larger coil that would be essentially a half-scale prototype of FRX-D. This would allow studies of flux trapping with increased size and with the associated enhanced axial dynamics. The results from these formation studies, with and without some improved formation techniques, may influence the design of the FRX-D source in a major way. In addition, this FRX-C/T Large Source Modification may allow the study of FRC's with somewhat increased values of anti s, in the range 2-3. This may be sufficient to reach a new stability regime where the predicted internal tilt mode may occur. Finally, the larger coil size should yield improved FRC confinement times by about 50%, and may allow with a minimum of plasma decompression the study of FRC's with x/sub s/ in the range 0.6-0.7 in possible future translation experiments

  16. Effect of Ankle Range of Motion (ROM) and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength on Static Balance Control Ability in Young Adults: A Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil

    2018-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle ROM and lower-extremity muscle strength on static balance control ability in young adults. Material/Methods This study was conducted with 65 young adults, but 10 young adults dropped out during the measurement, so 55 young adults (male: 19, female: 36) completed the study. Postural sway (length and velocity) was measured with eyes open and closed, and ankle ROM (AROM and PROM of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion) and lower-extremity muscle strength (flexor and extensor of hip, knee, and ankle joint) were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between variables and static balance ability. Simple linear regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to examine the effect of variables on static balance ability. Results In correlation analysis, plantarflexion ROM (AROM and PROM) and lower-extremity muscle strength (except hip extensor) were significantly correlated with postural sway (pregression analysis, plantar flexion PROM with eyes open significantly influenced sway length (B=0.681) and sway velocity (B=0.011). Conclusions Lower-extremity muscle strength and ankle plantarflexion ROM influenced static balance control ability, with ankle plantarflexion PROM showing the greatest influence. Therefore, both contractile structures and non-contractile structures should be of interest when considering static balance control ability improvement. PMID:29760375

  17. [Spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperature of Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Ran; Wang, Xing Chang; Wang, Chuan Kuan; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Quan Zhi

    2017-10-01

    Plant temperature is an important parameter for estimating energy balance and vegetation respiration of forest ecosystem. To examine spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperatures (T s ) and its influencing factors, we measured the T s with copper constantan thermocouples at different depths, heights and azimuths within the stems of two broadleaved tree species with contrasting bark and wood properties, Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica. The results showed that the monthly mean diurnal courses of the T s largely followed that of air temperature with a 'sinusoi dal' pattern, but the T s lagged behind the air temperature by 0 h at the stem surface to 4 h at 6 cm depth. The daily maximal values and ranges of the diurnal course of T s decreased gradually with increasing measuring depth across the stem and decreasing measuring height along the stem. The circumferential variation in T s was marginal, with slightly higher daily maximal values in the south and west directions during the daytime of the dormant season. Differences in thermal properties (i.e. , specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity) of both bark and wood tissue between the two species contributed to the inter specific variations in the radial variation in T s through influencing the heat exchange between the stem surface and ambient air as well as heat diffusion within the stem. The higher reflectance of the bark of B. platyphylla decreased the influence of solar radiation on T s . The stepwise regression showed that the diurnal courses of T s could be well predicted by the environmental factors (R 2 > 0.85) with an order of influence ranking as air temperature > water vapor pressure > net radiation > wind speed. It is necessary to take the radial, vertical and inter specific varia-tions in T s into account when estimating biomass heat storage and stem CO2 efflux.

  18. Does cooperativity influence the lifetime of the photo-induced HS state?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letard, Jean-Francois; Costa, Jose Sanchez; Marcen, Silvia; Carbonera, Chiara; Desplanches, Cedric; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Daro, Nathalie; Guionneau, Philippe; Ader, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    We have first recalled the T(LIESST) procedure which consists to determine the temperature above which the photo-magnetic effect is erased. In addition we have selected to series of iron(II) spin crossover complexes, the [Fe(PM-L) 2 (NCS) 2 ] and [Fe(bpp) 2 ]X 2 ·nH 2 O families, to analyse the influence of the cooperativity on the stability of the photo-induced HS state. Some of these complexes exhibit gradual thermal spin crossover behaviours while some others undergo an abrupt thermal transition, with and without hysteresis. Interestingly, whatever the cooperativity effect on the thermal spin crossover transition, the lifetime of the metastable state of all these derivates remains governed by the T(LIESST) = T 0 - 0.31 T 1/2 relation. Finally, we have investigated the magnetic and the photomagnetic properties of a [Fe(bpp) 2 ]-Nafion film. Once more the role of the cooperativity on the stability of the photoinduced HS state appears minor. Conversely, the influence of the nature and the geometry of the inner coordination sphere appears preponderant

  19. Selective Expansion of Memory CD4+ T cells By Mitogenic Human CD28 Generates Inflammatory Cytokines and Regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manisha; Basu, Sreemanti; Camell, Christina; Couturier, Jacob; Nudelman, Rodolfo J.; Medina, Miguel A.; Rodgers, John R.; Lewis, Dorothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Co-stimulatory signals are important for development of effector and regulatory T cells. In this case, CD28 signaling is usually considered inert in the absence of signaling through the TCR. By contrast, mitogenic rat CD28 mAbs reportedly expand regulatory T cells without TCR stimulation. We found that a commercially available human CD28 mAb (ANC28) stimulated PBMCs without TCR co-ligation or cross-linking; ANC28 selectively expanded CD4+CD25+FoxP3−(T effector) and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ (Treg) cells. ANC28 stimulated the CD45RO+ CD4+ (memory) population whereas CD45RA+CD4+ (naïve) cells did not respond. ANC28 also induced inflammatory cytokines. Treg induced by ANC28 retain the Treg phenotype longer than did co-stimulated Treg. Treg induced by ANC28 suppressed CD25− T cells through a contact-dependent mechanism. Purity influenced the response of CD4+CD25+ cells because bead-purified CD4+CD25+ cells (85–90% pure) responded strongly to ANC28, whereas 98% pure FACS-sorted CD4+CD25 bright (T-reg) did not respond. Purified CD4+CD25int cells responded similarly to the bead-purified CD4+CD25+ cells. Thus, pre-activated CD4+ T cells (CD25int) respond to ANC28 rather than Treg (CD25bright). The ability of ANC28 to expand both effectors producing inflammatory cytokines as well as suppressive regulatory T cells might be useful for ex vivo expansion of therapeutic T cells. PMID:18446791

  20. Effect of Ankle Range of Motion (ROM) and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength on Static Balance Control Ability in Young Adults: A Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Wan-Soo

    2018-05-15

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle ROM and lower-extremity muscle strength on static balance control ability in young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted with 65 young adults, but 10 young adults dropped out during the measurement, so 55 young adults (male: 19, female: 36) completed the study. Postural sway (length and velocity) was measured with eyes open and closed, and ankle ROM (AROM and PROM of dorsiflexion and plantarflexion) and lower-extremity muscle strength (flexor and extensor of hip, knee, and ankle joint) were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between variables and static balance ability. Simple linear regression analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to examine the effect of variables on static balance ability. RESULTS In correlation analysis, plantarflexion ROM (AROM and PROM) and lower-extremity muscle strength (except hip extensor) were significantly correlated with postural sway (psimple correlation analysis, all variables that passed the correlation analysis procedure had significant influence (plinear regression analysis, plantar flexion PROM with eyes open significantly influenced sway length (B=0.681) and sway velocity (B=0.011). CONCLUSIONS Lower-extremity muscle strength and ankle plantarflexion ROM influenced static balance control ability, with ankle plantarflexion PROM showing the greatest influence. Therefore, both contractile structures and non-contractile structures should be of interest when considering static balance control ability improvement.

  1. Effects of potassium iodide in concentrations of TSH, tT3 and tT4 in serum of subjects with sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Soto, Max Carlos

    2014-08-01

    The saturated potassium iodide solution (SSKI) as treatment for sporotrichosis may cause hypothyroidism by suppressing the synthesis of thyroid hormones (tT3 and tT4 ) and the iodine excess could lead to thyrotoxicosis. Evaluating the changes in serum levels of TSH, tT3 and tT4 in euthyroid patients with sporotrichosis treated with SSKI. For the selection of euthyroid patients, TSH, tT3 and tT4 concentrations were measured for those adults and children diagnosed with sporotrichosis. Each paediatric patient was administered SSKI orally in increasing doses of 2-20 drops/3 times/day and 4-40 drops/3 times/day in adults. Serum concentrations of TSH, tT3 and tT4 were measured 20 days after started the treatment and 15 days posttreatment. Eight euthyroid patients aged between 2 to 65 years old were included. After 20 days of treatment, two suffered subclinical hypothyroidism, one developed subclinical hyperthyroidism, and one hyperthyroxinaemia euthyroid. At 15 days posttreatment only four patients were evaluated and all serum levels of TSH, tT3 and tT4 were normal. Some euthyroid patients with sporotrichosis can develop hyperthyroidism or subclinical iodine-induced hypothyroidism, during the administration of 3 or 6 g SSKI/day. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. [Relationship between HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers and regulatory T cells in neonates and its influence on HBV intrauterine transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H Y; Yang, Z Q; Xu, X X; Wang, X F; Wang, B; Shi, X H; Fu, Z D; Wang, B; Wang, S P

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To explore the relationship between HBeAg in HBsAg positive mothers and CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Foxp3 (+)regulatory T cells (Treg) in newborns, as well as how they would influence the increasing risk on HBV intrauterine transmission. Methods: We collected information on general demographic characteristics and delivery on 270 HBsAg positive mothers and their newborns from the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) were used to detect HBV DNA and HBV serological markers in peripheral blood from both mothers and neonates. The expression of Treg and other immune cells in peripheral blood of neonates were detected with flow cytometry (FCM). Results: Maternal HBeAg positive rates were associated with an increased risk of intrauterine transmission ( OR =4.08, 95 %CI : 1.89-8.82). Rates of Treg in newborns born to HBsAg-positive mothers were higher than that of the negative group ( Z =2.29, P =0.022). Each pair of the subjects was assigned to five different groups according to the HBeAg titers of mothers. Frequencies of both Treg and HBeAg in newborns and HBV DNA in mothers between the above said 5 groups showed similar trends of changing patterns and the differences between groups were statistically significant(χ(2)=18.73, P mother's HBeAg titers were positively related to the percentage of Treg in their newborns ( r(s) =0.19, P =0.039). In addition, the frequencies of Treg were negatively correlated with pDC and CD(4)(+) T cell in their newborns ( r(s) =-0.21, P =0.017; r(s) =-0.23, P =0.009). Conclusion: HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers might have inhibited the function of neonatal DC cells and T cells to reduce the immune response to HBV by up-regulating the proportion of Treg and finally increased the risk of HBV intrauterine transmission.

  3. Different susceptibility to insulin resistance and fatty liver depending on the combination of TNF-α C-857T and adiponectin G+276T gene polymorphisms in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Mio; Maesawa, Chihaya; Takebe, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    The C-857T promoter polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α gene is associated with obese type 2 diabetes, while the adiponectin G+276T gene polymorphism in intron 2 may influence the fat accumulation in the liver. In this study, we examined effects of these polymorphisms on clinical markers of insulin resistance and fatty liver (a liver/spleen CT ratio <0.9). These polymorphisms were determined in 342 Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. The liver/spleen CT ratio was lower in the subjects with the adiponectin +276G/G genotype than that in the subjects with the +276T allele (P<0.05), indicating that fat accumulation in the liver is associated with the +276G/G genotype. Multiple comparisons among the 4 combinations of each polymorphism of the TNF-α and adiponectin genes revealed a significant difference in the liver/spleen CT ratio (P<0.05) among the 4 groups, indicating that the gene combinations influence the degree of fat accumulation in the liver. The subjects carrying the TNF-α-857T allele (C/T or T/T genotype) and the adiponectin +276G/G genotype had greater risks for fatty liver and insulin resistance that was evaluated by higher levels of fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, as compared with the other groups. Therefore, Japanese subjects with the TNF-α-857T allele and the adiponectin +276G/G genotype may be more susceptible to insulin resistance and fatty liver. The present study provides the evidence for the interaction between TNF-α and adiponectin genes in the insulin resistance and fatty liver in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes. (author)

  4. Experimental Influences in the Accurate Measurement of Cartilage Thickness in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Badar, Farid; Xia, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Objective To study the experimental influences to the measurement of cartilage thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design The complete thicknesses of healthy and trypsin-degraded cartilage were measured at high-resolution MRI under different conditions, using two intensity-based imaging sequences (ultra-short echo [UTE] and multislice-multiecho [MSME]) and 3 quantitative relaxation imaging sequences (T 1 , T 2 , and T 1 ρ). Other variables included different orientations in the magnet, 2 soaking solutions (saline and phosphate buffered saline [PBS]), and external loading. Results With cartilage soaked in saline, UTE and T 1 methods yielded complete and consistent measurement of cartilage thickness, while the thickness measurement by T 2 , T 1 ρ, and MSME methods were orientation dependent. The effect of external loading on cartilage thickness is also sequence and orientation dependent. All variations in cartilage thickness in MRI could be eliminated with the use of a 100 mM PBS or imaged by UTE sequence. Conclusions The appearance of articular cartilage and the measurement accuracy of cartilage thickness in MRI can be influenced by a number of experimental factors in ex vivo MRI, from the use of various pulse sequences and soaking solutions to the health of the tissue. T 2 -based imaging sequence, both proton-intensity sequence and quantitative relaxation sequence, similarly produced the largest variations. With adequate resolution, the accurate measurement of whole cartilage tissue in clinical MRI could be utilized to detect differences between healthy and osteoarthritic cartilage after compression.

  5. Temperature Dependence of Logarithmic-like Relaxational Dynamics of Hydrated tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiang-Qiang; Mamontov, Eugene; O'Neill, Hugh; Zhang, Qiu

    2013-03-21

    The dynamics of RNA within the β-relaxation region of 10 ps to 1 ns is crucial to its biological function. Because of its simpler chemical building blocks and the lack of the side methyl groups, faster relaxational dynamics of RNA compared to proteins can be expected. However, the situation is actually opposite. In this work, the relaxational dynamics of tRNA is measured by quasielastic neutron scattering and analyzed using the mode coupling theory, originally developed for glass-forming liquids. Our results reveal that the dynamics of tRNA follows a log-decay within the β-relaxation region, which is an important trait demonstrated by the dynamics of proteins. The dynamics of hydrated tRNA and lysozyme compared in the time domain further demonstrate that the slower dynamics of tRNA relative to proteins originates from the difference in the folded states of tRNA and proteins, as well as the influence of their hydration water.

  6. Selection and characterization of T-cell variants lacking molecules involved in T-cell activation (T3 T-cell receptor, T44, and T11): analysis of the functional relationship among different pathways of activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretta, A.; Poggi, A.; Olive, D.; Bottino, C.; Fortis, C.; Pantaleo, G.; Moretta, L.

    1987-01-01

    A clone of the interleukin 2-producing Jurkat leukemia cell line termed JA3 (surface phenotype, T3 + , Ti + , T44 + , T11 + , T40 + ) has been used to induce and select cell variants lacking surface molecules involved in T-cell activation. Following 200 rad of γ-radiation (1 rad = 0.01 Gy), cells were treated with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to T3, Ti, T44, or T11 antigen and complement. After growth of the residual cells in culture, negative cells were cloned under limiting conditions. Depending on the specificity of the mAb used for the immunoselection, three groups of variants were obtained. (i) The use of mAbs directed to T3 or Ti resulted in cell variants that expressed the T3 - Ti - T44 + Leu1 + T11 + T40 + 4F2 + HLA class I + surface phenotype. (ii) Immunoselection with anti-T44 mAb resulted in 2 variants that shared the T3 - Ti - T44 - Leu1 - T11 - T40 - 4F2 - HLA class I + phenotype. (iii) Cell treatment with anti-T11 mAb resulted in 15 variants characterized by the lack of T11 antigen expression and of all the other T-cell-specific surface antigens. Therefore, it appears that the different sets of JA3 cell variants, like T cells at discrete stages of intrathymic differentiation, may follow a coordinated expression of surface differentiation antigens. Analysis of the functional responsiveness of the three distinct groups of JA3 cell variants to different stimuli showed that all produced interleukin 2 in response to A23187 calcium ionophore plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

  7. Andrographolide Ameliorate Rheumatoid Arthritis by Promoting the Development of Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhaimin Rifa’i

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide is important material present in Andrographis paniculata. This material can promote T cell to develop into regulatory T cell, CD4+CD25+. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells, a component of the innate immune response, which play a key role in the maintenance of self-tolerance, have become the focus of numerous studies over the last decade. These cells have the potential to be exploited to treat autoimmune disease. These cells inhibit the immune response in an Ag-nonspecific manner, interacting with other T cells. These T cell populations actively control the properties of other immune cells by suppressing their functional activity to prevent autoimmunity but also influence the immune response to allergens as well as against tumor cells and pathogens. In this experiment we showed that active compound from Andrographis paniculata namely andrographolide can induce active regulatory T cell that has an efficacy to cure rheumatoid arthritis mice model.

  8. T helper cells in leprosy: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Chaman; Tarique, Mohd; Rai, Reeta; Siddiqui, Anisuddin; Khanna, Neena; Sharma, Alpana

    2017-04-01

    Leprosy is an ancient disease caused by gram positive, rod shaped bacilli called Mycobacterium leprae. Patients present with varied clinico-pathological disease depending on the host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Thus tuberculoid (TT) and lepromatous (LL) patients represent two ends of a spectrum where the former shows limited disease, high T cell mediate immune (CMI) response and low antibody (HI) levels in serum. In contrast the latter has low T cell and high humoral immune response i.e antibody levels. The mechanisms underlying these differences have been investigated intensely; however, there is no consensus on the primary immunological basis. Over three decades, Th1 and Th2 paradigm were thought to underling tuberculoid and lepromatous disease respectively. However many patients were shown to have mixed Th1/Th2 pattern of (IFN-γ/IL-4) cytokines. The present review was undertaken with a view to understand the T cells and cytokine dysregulation in leprosy. In recent years the sub classes of T cells that are Regulatory in nature (Treg) have been implicated in immune diseases where they were shown to suppress T cell functions. Additionally Th17 cells secreting IL-17A, IL17F, were implicated in immune inflammation. Taken together these regulatory cells may play a part in influencing immune responses in leprosy. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the Right Angular Gyrus on Brain Activity during Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Mingoia, Gianluca; Weyer, David; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN) in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG). We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS) were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site. PMID:24760013

  10. Influence of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right angular gyrus on brain activity during rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Mingoia, Gianluca; Weyer, David; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN) in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG). We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS) were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site.

  11. Impact of antipsychotic medication on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Bose, Anushree; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Chhabra, Harleen; Kalmady, Sunil V; Varambally, Shivarama; Nitsche, Michael A; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2016-01-30

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has generated interest as a treatment modality for schizophrenia. Dopamine, a critical pathogenetic link in schizophrenia, is also known to influence tDCS effects. We evaluated the influence of antipsychotic drug type (as defined by dopamine D2 receptor affinity) on the impact of tDCS in schizophrenia. DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed schizophrenia patients [N=36] with persistent auditory hallucinations despite adequate antipsychotic treatment were administered add-on tDCS. Patients were divided into three groups based on the antipsychotic's affinity to D2 receptors. An auditory hallucinations score (AHS) was measured using the auditory hallucinations subscale of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS). Add-on tDCS resulted in a significant reduction inAHS. Antipsychotic drug type had a significant effect on AHS reduction. Patients treated with high affinity antipsychotics showed significantly lesser improvement compared to patients on low affinity antipsychotics or a mixture of the two. Furthermore, a significant sex-by-group interaction occurred; type of medication had an impact on tDCS effects only in women. Improvement differences could be due to the larger availability of the dopamine receptor system in patients taking antipsychotics with low D2 affinity. Sex-specific differences suggest potential estrogen-mediated effects. This study reports a first-time observation on the clinical utility of antipsychotic drug type in predicting tDCS effects in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dėl keleto retesnių liaudinių vaivorykštės pavadinimų

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Buivydienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ON SEVERAL RARE FOLK TERMS FOR ‘RAINBOW’ (LITH. vaivórykštėSummaryThe article deals with several rare folk names for ‘rainbow’ in the Lithuanian language: vaivóraikštė, vaivórakštė, vovẽrykščia, stangà, žebeñkštė, sverblė̃, varykštė, vorykštė. These names and their etymological aspects are discussed, the motivation for such names is described; the relation of these words to other more frequent terms for ‘rainbow’ is examined. Most of the words in question (with the exception, probably, of the term stangà, which might possibly also be of foreign origin, cf. Pol. stęga, wstęga ‘ribbon, swathe, sash’ have originated under the influence of folk etymology manifested here in various different ways. An attempt is made to demonstrate, in particular, in what way and why the forms of the analysed words have been altered, what caused their particular transformations, how the words acquired their present shapes. An attempt is also made to show the sequence of the influences of the associative “mechanisms” of folk etymology. Attention is drawn to the fact that the designation of this marvellous natural phenomenon, having innumerable mythological interpretations and related to different beliefs in various cultures of the world, has become in the Lithuanian language a real “favourite” of folk etymology.

  13. lck-Driven Cre Expression Alters T Cell Development in the Thymus and the Frequencies and Functions of Peripheral T Cell Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carow, Berit; Gao, Yu; Coquet, Jonathan; Reilly, Marie; Rottenberg, Martin E

    2016-09-15

    Conditional gene targeting using the bacteriophage-derived Cre recombinase is widely applied for functional gene studies in mice. Mice transgenic for Cre under the control of the lck gene promoter are used to study the role of loxP-targeted genes in T cell development and function. In this article, we show a striking 65% reduction in cellularity, preferential development of γδ versus αβ T cells, and increased expression of IL-7R in the thymus of mice expressing Cre under the proximal lck promoter (lck-cre(+) mice). The transition from CD4/CD8 double-negative to double-positive cells was blocked, and lck-cre(+) double-positive cells were more prone to apoptosis and showed higher levels of Cre expression. Importantly, numbers of naive T cells were reduced in spleens and lymph nodes of lck-cre(+) mice. In contrast, frequencies of γδ T cells, CD44(+)CD62L(-) effector T cells, and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells were elevated, as was the frequency of IFN-γ-secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. A literature survey of 332 articles that used lck-cre(+) mice for deletion of floxed genes indicated that results are statistically influenced by the control used (lck-cre(+) or lck-cre(-)), more frequently resembling the lck-cre(+) phenotype described in this article if lck-cre(-) controls were used. Altogether, care should be taken when interpreting published results and to properly control targeted gene deletions using the lck-cre(+) strain. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Interaction between adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.U. Engela (Anja); C.C. Baan (Carla); A. Peeters (Anna); W. Weimar (Willem); M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immunosuppressive capabilities, which have evoked interest in their application as cell therapy in transplant patients. So far it has been unclear whether allogeneic MSCs and host regulatory T-cells (Tregs) functionally influence each other. We

  15. Simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG): assessing the impact of tDCS on slow cortical magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cossio, Eliana; Witkowski, Matthias; Robinson, Stephen E; Cohen, Leonardo G; Birbaumer, Niels; Soekadar, Surjo R

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can influence cognitive, affective or motor brain functions. Whereas previous imaging studies demonstrated widespread tDCS effects on brain metabolism, direct impact of tDCS on electric or magnetic source activity in task-related brain areas could not be confirmed due to the difficulty to record such activity simultaneously during tDCS. The aim of this proof-of-principal study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-head source localization and reconstruction of neuromagnetic brain activity during tDCS and to confirm the direct effect of tDCS on ongoing neuromagnetic activity in task-related brain areas. Here we show for the first time that tDCS has an immediate impact on slow cortical magnetic fields (SCF, 0-4Hz) of task-related areas that are identical with brain regions previously described in metabolic neuroimaging studies. 14 healthy volunteers performed a choice reaction time (RT) task while whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. Task-related source-activity of SCFs was calculated using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) in absence of stimulation and while anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS was delivered over the right primary motor cortex (M1). Source reconstruction revealed task-related SCF modulations in brain regions that precisely matched prior metabolic neuroimaging studies. Anodal and cathodal tDCS had a polarity-dependent impact on RT and SCF in primary sensorimotor and medial centro-parietal cortices. Combining tDCS and whole-head MEG is a powerful approach to investigate the direct effects of transcranial electric currents on ongoing neuromagnetic source activity, brain function and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety culture : a significant influence on safety in transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    An organizations safety culture can influence safety outcomes. Research and experience show that when safety culture is strong, accidents are less frequent and less severe. As a result, building and maintaining strong safety cultures should be a t...

  17. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 2 Is Dispensable for CD8+ T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun Lee

    Full Text Available Differentiation of T cells is closely associated with dynamic changes in nutrient and energy metabolism. However, the extent to which specific metabolic pathways and molecular components are determinative of CD8+ T cell fate remains unclear. It has been previously established in various tissues that acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2 regulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO by inhibiting carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, a rate-limiting enzyme of FAO in mitochondria. Here, we explore the cell-intrinsic role of ACC2 in T cell immunity in response to infections. We report here that ACC2 deficiency results in a marginal increase of cellular FAO in CD8+ T cells, but does not appear to influence antigen-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cell responses during infection with listeria or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. These results suggest that ACC2 is dispensable for CD8+ T cell responses.

  18. Consumers don’t play dice, influence of social networks and advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Robert D.

    2006-05-01

    Empirical data of supermarket sales show stylised facts that are similar to stock markets, with a broad (truncated) Lévy distribution of weekly sales differences in the baseline sales [R.D. Groot, Physica A 353 (2005) 501]. To investigate the cause of this, the influence of social interactions and advertisements are studied in an agent-based model of consumers in a social network. The influence of network topology was varied by using a small-world network, a random network and a Barabási-Albert network. The degree to which consumers value the opinion of their peers was also varied. On a small-world and random network we find a phase transition between an open market and a locked-in market that is similar to condensation in liquids. At the critical point, fluctuations become large and buying behaviour is strongly correlated. However, on the small world network the noise distribution at the critical point is Gaussian, and critical slowing down occurs which is not observed in supermarket sales. On a scale-free network, the model shows a transition between a gas-like phase and a glassy state, but at the transition point the noise amplitude is much larger than what is seen in supermarket sales. To explore the role of advertisements, a model is studied where imprints are placed on the minds of consumers that ripen when a decision for a product is made. The correct distribution of weekly sales returns follows naturally from this model, as well as the noise amplitude, the correlation time and cross-correlation of sales fluctuations. For particular parameter values, simulated sales correlation shows power-law decay in time. The model predicts that social interaction helps to prevent aversion, and that products are viewed more positively when their consumption rate is higher.

  19. Ammonia Offgassing from SA9T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Nolek, Sara D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 is a degradation product of SA9T, a solid-amine sorbent developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, that is continually emitted into the gas stream being conditioned by this sorbent. NH3 offgassing rates were measured using FTIR spectroscopy using a packed bed at similar contact times as offgassing tests conducted at Hamilton Sundstrand and at the Ames Research Center. The bed was challenged with moist air at several flow rates and humidities and NH3 concentration of the effluent was measured for several hours. The NH3 offgassing rates in open-loop testing were calculated from the steady state outlet NH3 concentration and flow rate. NH3 offgassing rates from SA9T were found to be influenced by the contact time with the adsorbent (flow rate) and by the humidity of the inlet gas stream, which are consistent with previous studies. Closed-loop vacuum-swing adsorption cycling rates verified that NH3 offgassing continues when a constant source of water vapor is present.

  20. Rapid steroid influences on visually guided sexual behavior in male goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Louis-David; Bond, Julia; Thompson, Richmond R.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of steroid hormones to rapidly influence cell physiology through nongenomic mechanisms raises the possibility that these molecules may play a role in the dynamic regulation of social behavior, particularly in species in which social stimuli can rapidly influence circulating steroid levels. We therefore tested if testosterone (T), which increases in male goldfish in response to sexual stimuli, can rapidly influence approach responses towards females. Injections of T stimulated approach responses towards the visual cues of females 30–45 min after the injection but did not stimulate approach responses towards stimulus males or affect general activity, indicating that the effect is stimulus-specific and not a secondary consequence of increased arousal. Estradiol produced the same effect 30–45 min and even 10–25 min after administration, and treatment with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole blocked exogenous T’s behavioral effect, indicating that T’s rapid stimulation of visual approach responses depends on aromatization. We suggest that T surges induced by sexual stimuli, including preovulatory pheromones, rapidly prime males to mate by increasing sensitivity within visual pathways that guide approach responses towards females and/or by increasing the motivation to approach potential mates through actions within traditional limbic circuits. PMID:19751737

  1. Induction and prevention of low-T3 syndrome in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, A B; Callister, R

    1993-05-01

    To investigate the influence of exercise on thyroid metabolism, 46 healthy young regularly menstruating sedentary women were randomly assigned to a 3 x 2 experimental design of aerobic exercise and energy availability treatments. Energy availability was defined as dietary energy intake minus energy expenditure during exercise. After 4 days of treatments, low energy availability (8 vs. 30 kcal.kg body wt-1.day-1) had reduced 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) by 15% and free T3 (fT3) by 18% and had increased thyroxine (T4) by 7% and reverse T3 (rT3) by 24% (all P Exercise quantity (0 vs. 1,300 kcal/day) and intensity (40 vs. 70% of aerobic capacity) did not affect any thyroid hormone (all P > 0.10). That is, low-T3 syndrome was induced by the energy cost of exercise and was prevented in exercising women by increasing dietary energy intake. Selective observation of low-T3 syndrome in amenorrheic and not in regularly menstruating athletes suggests that exercise may compromise the availability of energy for reproductive function in humans. If so, athletic amenorrhea might be prevented or reversed through dietary reform without reducing exercise quantity or intensity.

  2. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation Compared to Exposure Therapy and Education Control on PTSD in Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    score >45. Exclusion criteria: Service related trauma within last 3 months, history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder , dementia, moderate or severe...7.7% 0.0% 8.3% 0.191 Bipolar disorder , % 7.7% 10.3% 13.9% 0.681 Substance use disorder , % 30.8% 43.6% 41.7% 0.458 Major depressive disorder ...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0576 TITLE: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation Compared to Exposure Therapy and Education Control on PTSD in

  3. ANALYSING THE PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS WHICH INFLUENCE THE BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţia Georgeta AVRAM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with increasing the influence of the private sector in the economical and financial life, the interest in the business constantly grows. It isn’t enough for organizations to offer new more qualitative, accessible and safer products on the market for the customers or these to offer better conditions for the employees, they must analyse the elements which influence ethics in the business, eradicating poverty, sustaining the healthy system and protecting the environment.

  4. Centrality dependence of low-\\p_{T} and high-p_{T} particle production in proton--lead collisions with ATLAS.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00287239; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the centrality dependence of low-p_{T} and high-p_{T} particle production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC can provide unique insight into the dynamics of soft and hard scattering processes and the initial state of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Recent results have shown that both soft and hard processes may be significantly influenced by event-to-event fluctuations (variations) in the structure of the proton. In this proceedings, the latest measurements of the centrality dependence of charged particle, and Z boson production with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are used to explore these questions. In particular, the sensitivity of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton--lead collisions to the choice of centrality variable is discussed. Separately, to address recent measurements of the correlation between the initial-state hard scattering kinematics in dijet events and forward transverse energy in proton-proton collisions will be presented.

  5. IFNA-AS1 regulates CD4+ T cell activation in myasthenia gravis though HLA-DRB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mengchuan; Liu, Xiaofang; Meng, Huanyu; Xu, Liqun; Li, Yi; Li, Zhibin; Liu, Chang; Luo, Yue-Bei; Hu, Bo; Xue, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yu; Luo, Zhaohui; Yang, Huan

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal CD4 + T cell activation is known to play roles in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG). However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the roles of lncRNAs in regulating CD4 + T cell. In this study, we discovered that the lncRNA IFNG-AS1 is abnormally expressed in MG patients associated with quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) and the positive anti-AchR Ab levels patients. IFNG-AS1 influenced Th1/Treg cell proliferation and regulated the expression levels of their transcription factors in an experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG)model. IFNG-AS1 could reduce the expression of HLA-DRB and HLA-DOB and they had a negative correlation in MG. Furthermore IFNG-AS1 influenced the expression levels of CD40L and CD4 + T cells activation in MG patient partly depend on effecting the HLA-DRB1 expression. It suggests that IFNG-AS1 may be involved in CD4 + T cell-mediated immune responses in MG. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigenetic heterogeneity affects the risk of relapse in children with t(8;21)RUNX1-RUNX1T1-rearranged AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Matteo; Tregnago, Claudia; Bisio, Valeria; Simula, Luca; Borella, Giulia; Manara, Elena; Zanon, Carlo; Zonta, Francesca; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Campello, Silvia; Buldini, Barbara; Pession, Andrea; Locatelli, Franco; Basso, Giuseppe; Pigazzi, Martina

    2018-02-02

    The somatic translocation t(8;21)(q22;q22)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 is one of the most frequent rearrangements found in children with standard-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Despite the favorable prognostic role of this aberration, we recently observed a higher than expected frequency of relapse. Here, we employed an integrated high-throughput approach aimed at identifying new biological features predicting relapse among 34 t(8;21)-rearranged patients. We found that the DNA methylation status of patients who suffered from relapse was peculiarly different from that of children maintaining complete remission. The epigenetic signature, made up of 337 differentially methylated regions, was then integrated with gene and protein expression profiles, leading to a network, where cell-to-cell adhesion and cell-motility pathways were found to be aberrantly activated in relapsed patients. We identified most of these factors as RUNX1-RUNX1T1 targets, with Ras Homolog Family Member (RHOB) overexpression being the core of this network. We documented how RHOB re-organized the actin cytoskeleton through its downstream ROCK-LIMK-COFILIN axis: this increases blast adhesion by stress fiber formation, and reduces mitochondrial apoptotic cell death after chemotherapy treatment. Altogether, our data show an epigenetic heterogeneity within t(8;21)-rearranged AML patients at diagnosis able to influence the program of the chimeric transcript, promoting blast re-emergence and progression to relapse.

  7. Klein, Debra L. – Yorùbá Bàtá Goes Global

    OpenAIRE

    Vallier, Gilles-Félix

    2012-01-01

    Yorùbá Bàtá Goes Global, l’ethnographie de Debra Klein fait la chronique de l’émergence d’un « mouvement culturel yorùbá », une industrie de la culture centrée sur Bàtá, une tradition de danses masquées et rythmes de percussions (egúngún agbégijó). De par sa nature même, le Bàtá yorùbá a trait à la collaboration et l’innovation. Influencé autrefois par l’islam, Bàtá est désormais formalisé par les collaborations entretenues aussi bien entre des percussionnistes locaux, l’État fédéral nigérian...

  8. Nanomagnetic behavior of fullerene thin films in Earth magnetic field in dark and under polarization light influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruga, Djuro; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Mihajlović, Spomenko; Matija, Lidija

    2005-10-01

    In this paper magnetic fields intensity of C60 thin films of 60 nm and 100 nm thickness under the influence of polarization lights are presented. Two proton magnetometers were used for measurements. Significant change of magnetic field intensity in range from 2.5 nT to 12.3 nT is identified as a difference of dark and polarization lights of 60 nm and 100 nm thin films thickness, respectively. Specific power density of polarization light was 40 mW/cm2. Based on 200 measurement data average value of difference between magnetic intensity of C60 thin films, with 60 nm and 100 nm thickness, after influence of polarization light, were 3.9 nT and 9.9 nT respectively.

  9. NLO QCD corrections to off-shell t anti t and t anti tH at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Juergen; Chokoufe Nejad, Bijan; Weiss, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We discuss top-quark physics at the ILC with a focus on the full off-shell processes for t anti t and t anti tH production, including top-quark decays and also leptonic W decays. A special focus is on the matching of the resummed vNRQCD threshold calculation and the fixed-order NLO QCD continuum calculation, where we present an update on the validation of the matching. All of the calculations have been performed in the WHIZARD event generator framework.

  10. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Monteiro Bichara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To improve orthodontic treatment efficiency, orthodontists must know which variables could interfere with orthodontic treatment time. Objective: To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients’ records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments, to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2. Results: Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345 and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596 are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients.

  11. Endothermy in African platypleurine cicadas: the influence of body size and habitat (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Allen F; Villet, Martin H; Phillips, Polly K

    2004-01-01

    The platypleurine cicadas have a wide distribution across Africa and southern Asia. We investigate endothermy as a thermoregulatory strategy in 11 South African species from five genera, with comparisons to the lone ectothermic platypleurine we found, in an attempt to ascertain any influence that habitat and/or body size have on the expression of endothermy in the platypleurine cicadas. Field measurements of body temperature (T(b)) show that these animals regulate T(b) through endogenous heat production. Heat production in the laboratory elevated T(b) to the same range as in animals active in the field. Maximum T(b) measured during calling activity when there was no access to solar radiation ranged from 13.2 degrees to 22.3 degrees C above ambient temperature in the five species measured. The mean T(b) during activity without access to solar radiation did not differ from the mean T(b) during diurnal activity. All platypleurines exhibit a unique behavior for cicadas while warming endogenously, a temperature-dependent telescoping pulsation of the abdomen that probably functions in ventilation. Platypleurines generally call from trunks and branches within the canopy and appear to rely on endothermy even when the sun is available to elevate T(b), in contrast to the facultative endothermy exhibited by New World endothermic species. The two exceptions to this generalization we found within the platypleurines are Platypleura wahlbergi and Albanycada albigera, which were the smallest species studied. The small size of P. wahlbergi appears to have altered their thermoregulatory strategy to one of facultative endothermy, whereby they use the sun when it is available to facilitate increases in T(b). Albanycada albigera is the only ectothermic platypleurine we found. The habitat and host plant association of A. albigera appear to have influenced the choice of ectothermy as a thermoregulatory strategy, as the species possesses the metabolic machinery to elevate to the T

  12. Acquisition of repertoires of suppressor T cells under the influence of macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, T.; Nagayama, A.; Sado, T.; Taniguchi, M.

    1988-01-01

    Acquisition of repertoires and genetic restriction specificities of suppressor T cells (Ts) and their factors were studied by using full allogeneic radiation bone marrow chimera and H-2 congenic pairs, B10.A(3R) and B10.A(5R), which received conventional or cloned macrophages by cell transfer. Suppressor T-cell factor (TsF) from C3H----C57BL/6 or C57BL/6----C3H chimera suppressed only donor but not host-type responses of either C3H or C57BL/6, in an antigen-specific fashion. However, if chimera mice were given conventional or cloned macrophages of the host type, the chimera TsF in turn suppressed both the responses of C3H and C57BL/6 mice but not those of the third party, BALB/c, indicating that macrophages are responsible for the acquisition of host restriction specificity. Similarly, B10.A(5R) mice developed I-Jb restricted Ts or TsF when the B10.A(3R) macrophage cell line was injected at the time of antigen priming. The reverse was also true. B10.A(3R) mice did generate I-Jk restricted Ts when they received the B10.A(5R) macrophage cell line. Thus, the results clearly demonstrated that B10.A(3R) or B10.A(5R) mice potentially possessed their ability to express both I-Jk and I-Jb determinants and that repertoires and genetic restriction specificity of Ts and their TsF were acquired at a macrophage level at the time of antigen-priming

  13. The interplay of sequence conservation and T cell immune recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresciani, Anne Gøther; Sette, Alessandro; Greenbaum, Jason

    2014-01-01

    examined the hypothesis that conservation of a peptide in bacteria that are part of the healthy human microbiome leads to a reduced level of immunogenicity due to tolerization of T cells to the commensal bacteria. This was done by comparing experimentally characterized T cell epitope recognition data from...... the Immune Epitope Database with their conservation in the human microbiome. Indeed, we did see a lower immunogenicity for conserved peptides conserved. While many aspects how this conservation comparison is done require further optimization, this is a first step towards a better understanding T cell...... recognition of peptides in bacterial pathogens is influenced by their conservation in commensal bacteria. If the further work proves that this approach is successful, the degree of overlap of a peptide with the human proteome or microbiome could be added to the arsenal of tools available to assess peptide...

  14. T-Helper Subsets Cytokine Production in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Diverting Influences and Impact on Graft Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence suggests the existence of functionally polarized human T-helper responses based on their profile of cytokine secretion. Human T-helper cell clones can be divided into two mutually exclusive subsets, T-helper cell 1 (Th1 and T-helper cell 2 (Th2. Substantial work in several animal models has demonstrated that allograft rejection is associated with enhanced Th1 activity and tolerance with enhanced Th2. Some studies have not been consistent with this association. In this study, gamma interferon (INF-y and interleukin 4 (IL-4 levels (as indicators of Th1 and Th2 activity, respectively were assayed in supernatant of cultured peripheral lymphocytes. The levels of these cytokines were compared between a study group of 26 stable kidney transplant recipients immunosuppressed with cyclosporine A, corticosteroids and azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, and a control group of 10 healthy blood donors. The mean INF-γ and IL-4 levels in the control group were considered as the cutoff levels for comparison. Our results showed that 25/26 of the study patients (96% had low levels of INF-γ compared to 4/10 of the control subjects (40%, (P< 0.05. However, the IL-4 level was high in 10/26 of the study patients (38% and 3/10 of the control subjects (30%, not a statistically significant difference, (P>0.05. In conclusion: These results suggest that well-established graft tolerance may be mediated via depressed Th1 activity rather than enhanced Th2 activity.

  15. Balancing Inflammation: The Link between Th17 and Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie L. Diller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell compartments in mouse and man are composed of multiple distinct subsets each possessing unique phenotypic and functional characteristics. IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells represent a distinct subset of the CD4+ T cell lineage. Recent evidence suggests that Th17 cells carry out effector functions similar to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and play an important role in the clearance of extracellular pathogens and fungi. Th17 cell differentiation and function are closely related to the development and function of regulatory T cells (TREG. The balance between these two cell populations is essential for immune homeostasis and dysregulation of this balance has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory conditions including autoimmunity, allograft rejection, and tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence reports a significant amount of plasticity between the Th17 and regulatory T cell compartments, and the mechanisms by which these cells communicate and influence each other are just beginning to be understood. In this review, we highlight recent findings detailing the mechanisms driving Th17 and TREG plasticity and discuss the biologic consequences of their unique relationship.

  16. Vitamin D Actions on CD4+ T cells in Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Elizabeth Hayes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes and integrates research on vitamin D and CD4+ T lymphocyte biology to develop new mechanistic insights into the molecular etiology of autoimmune disease. A deep understanding of molecular mechanisms relevant to gene-environment interactions is needed to deliver etiology-based autoimmune disease prevention and treatment strategies. Evidence linking sunlight, vitamin D, and the risk of multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes is summarized to develop the thesis that vitamin D is the environmental factor that most strongly influences autoimmune disease development. Evidence for CD4+ T cell involvement in autoimmune disease pathogenesis and for paracrine calcitriol signaling to CD4+ T lymphocytes is summarized to support the thesis that calcitriol is sunlight’s main protective signal transducer in autoimmune disease risk. Animal modeling and human mechanistic data to support the view that vitamin D probably influences thymic negative selection, effector Th1 and Th17 pathogenesis and responsiveness to extrinsic cell death signals, FoxP3+CD4+ Treg cell and CD4+ Tr1 cell functions, and a Th1-Tr1 switch. The proposed Th1-Tr1 switch appears to bridge two stable, self-reinforcing immune states, pro- and anti-inflammatory, each with a characteristic gene regulatory network. The bi-stable switch would enable T cells to integrate signals from pathogens, hormones, cell-cell interactions, and soluble mediators and respond in a biologically appropriate manner. Finally, we highlight unanswered questions that potentially informative future research directions that may speed delivery of etiology-based strategies to reduce autoimmune disease.

  17. The Influence of Independent and Intervening Variables on Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that each investigated intervening variable has influence on adoption of ... testing of the model in different social cultural settings and crops to see its ...... Mexico. Crook, T. R., Tood, S.Y., Combs, J. G., Woehr,. D. J. and Ketchen, D. J. (2011).

  18. A numerical estimate of the small-kT region in the BFKL pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.

    1995-11-01

    A computer study is performed to estimate the influence of the small-k T region in the BFKL evolution equation. We consider the small-x region of the deep inelastic structure function F 2 and show that the magnitude of the small-k T region depends on Q 2 and x B . We suggest that the width of the log k T 2 -distribution in the final state may serve as an additional footprint of BFKL-dynamics. For diffractive dissociation it is shown that the contribution of the infrared region is large - event for large Q 2 . This contribution becomes smaller only if restrictions on the final state are imposed. (orig.)

  19. Misfit dislocations and phase transformations in high-T sub c superconducting films

    CERN Document Server

    Gutkin, M Y

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical model is suggested that describes the effects of misfit stresses on defect structures, phase content and critical transition temperature T sub c in high-T sub c superconducting films. The focus is placed on the exemplary case of YBaCuO films deposited onto LaSrAlO sub 4 substrates. It is theoretically revealed here that misfit stresses are capable of inducing phase transformations controlled by the generation of misfit dislocations in growing cuprate films. These transformations, in the framework of the suggested model, account for experimental data on the influence of the film thickness on phase content and critical temperature T sub c of superconducting cuprate films, reported in the literature. The potential role of stress-assisted phase transformations in suppression of critical current density across grain boundaries in high-T sub c superconductors is briefly discussed.

  20. P T Symmetry and Singularity-Enhanced Sensing Based on Photoexcited Graphene Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pai-Yen; Jung, Jeil

    2016-06-01

    We introduce here a parity-time-(P T ) symmetric system using an optically pumped, active graphene metasurface paired with a resistive metallic filament, realizing a unidirectional reflectionless propagation of terahertz (THz) waves. The amplified THz stimulated emission and tailored plasmon resonances in the graphene metasurface may achieve an equivalent negative-resistance converter at THz frequencies. We theoretically demonstrate that the combination of the spectral singularity in a P T -symmetric system and the chemical sensitivity of graphene may give rise to exotic scattering responses, strongly influenced by the presence of charged impurities in graphene at the spontaneous P T -symmetry-breaking point. This graphene-based P T -symmetric device may have broad relevance beyond the extraordinary manipulation of THz waves, as it may also open exciting prospects for detecting gas, chemical, and biological agents with high sensitivities.

  1. Kinetic analysis of the reactivity of aromatic amino acids in the T-for-H exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Akira; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Sato, Takayuki; Kano, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the influence of tritium ( 3 H or T) on ecosystem, the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction (T-for-H exchange reaction) between each aromatic amino acid (L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, or L-2-phenylglycine) and HTO vapor was observed at 50-70degC in the gas-solid system. Applying the A''-McKay plot method to data (obtained in the exchange reaction), the rate constants (k) of functional groups of each aromatic amino acid in this reaction was obtained. Comparing the rate constants, following six matters have been found in the T-for-H exchange reaction. (1) The reactivity of the functional groups in each amino acid increases with increasing temperature. (2) The reactivity of the functional groups of the amino acids (used) increases in the order of L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, and L-2-phenylglycine. (3) As to l-tyrosine, 1) the temperature dependence of each functional group increases in the order of COOH group, OH one, and NH 2 one, 2) the reactivity of OH group is 3.8 times greater than that of NH 2 one, and 3) the reactivity of COOH group is 2.0 times greater than NH 2 one. (4) As to the influence of the substituent, the reactivity of NH 2 group is larger than that of the COOH one. (5) Using the A''-McKay plot method, the reactivity of each functional group in an amino acid can be nondestructively and simultaneously clarified without using masking reagent. (6) The results obtained in this work is useful for preventing T contamination and for evaluating the influence of T on environment. (author)

  2. T1 and T2 relaxivity of intracellular and extracellular USPIO at 1.5T and 3T clinical MR scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Gerhard H.; Bauer, Jan; Saborovski, Olaf; Fu, Yanjun; Wendland, Michael F.; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Corot, Claire

    2006-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the effects of intracellular compartmentalization of the ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) ferumoxtran-10 on its proton T1 and T2 relaxivities at 1.5 and 3T. Monocytes were labeled with ferumoxtran-10 by simple incubation. Decreasing quantities of ferumoxtran-10-labeled cells (2.5 x 10 7 -0.3 x 10 7 cells/ml) and decreasing concentrations of free ferumoxtran-10 (without cells) in Ficoll solution were evaluated with 1.5 and 3T clinical magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. Pulse sequences comprised axial spin echo (SE) sequences with multiple TRs and fixed TE and SE sequences with fixed TR and increasing TEs. Signal intensity measurements were used to calculate T1 and T2 relaxation times of all samples, assuming a monoexponential signal decay. The iron content in all samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and used for calculating relaxivities. Measurements at 1.5T and 3T showed higher T1 and T2 relaxivity values of free extracellular ferumoxtran-10 as opposed to intracellularly compartmentalized ferumoxtran-10, under the evaluated conditions of homogeneously dispersed contrast agents/cells in Ficoll solution and a cell density of up to 2.5 x 10 7 cells/ml. At 3T, differences in T1-relaxivities between intra- and extracellular USPIO were smaller, while differences in USPIO T2-relaxivities were similar compared with 1.5T. In conclusion, cellular compartmentalization of ferumoxtran-10 changes proton relaxivity. (orig.)

  3. Reduction and repopulation of recipient T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratama, J.W.; van den Bergh, R.L.; Naipal, A.; D'Amaro, J.; Zwaan, F.E.; Jansen, J.; de Gast, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In eight recipients of allogeneic bone marrow grafts who had sex-mismatched donors, the reduction and subsequent repopulation of T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes of recipient origin were studied. The origin of the donor-recipient T4+ and T8+ T cells was studied using quinacrine staining of Y chromatin combined with T-cell typing for T4 and T8. Following chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT), T cells reached their nadir at a median of five (range 1-8) days after BMT. T8+ T cells decreased at a faster rate from the peripheral blood than T4+ T cells. The first T cells that appeared in the circulation at day 12 were predominantly T4+, and a large number of them were of recipient origin. Thereafter, they gradually decreased, and the numbers of T cells of donor origin increased. In the patients who had no or only minor complications, T4+ and T8+ T cells of donor origin repopulated the blood at similar rates. This pattern, however, was modified by severe graft-versus-host disease or by cytomegalovirus infection

  4. Las células T reguladoras y su influencia en la sobrevida del trasplante renal Regulatory T cells and their influence in kidney allograft survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Y. Velásquez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta inmune desencadenada frente a un trasplante alogénico conduce usualmente a una respuesta efectora que resulta en el rechazo del aloinjerto; sin embargo, algunos individuos mantienen un trasplante funcionante a largo plazo sin signos de rechazo (tolerancia operacional, aun en ausencia de inmunosupresión. Se ha sugerido que los mismos mecanismos son responsables para la tolerancia hacia antígenos propios y aloantígenos. Uno de estos mecanismos es la regulación inmune y se han identificado varias subpoblaciones de células con propiedades reguladoras. Entre ellas, la población celular mejor caracterizada corresponde a las células T reguladoras (Tregs. Aunque las Tregs en ratones son CD4+CD25+, en humanos el fenotipo de las Treg está restringida a las células T CD4 con alta expresión de CD25 (CD25high y del factor de transcripción Foxp3. El análisis fenotípico y funcional de las células T reguladoras o supresoras circulantes en pacientes trasplantados tal vez sea útil para la detección de pacientes tolerantes operacionales. Además, una futura manipulación in vitro de estas células con fines terapéuticos podría conducir a lograr la inducción de tolerancia in vivo en el trasplante clínico. Aquí, revisamos la evidencia experimental y clínica del papel de las células reguladoras en la biología del trasplante.The immune response elicited by an allogenic transplant usually leads to an effector response resulting in allograft rejection; however, some individuals maintain a long-term functioning transplant without signs of rejection (operational tolerance even in the absence of immunosuppression. It has been suggested that the same mechanisms are responsible for tolerance to self-antigens and alloantigens. One of such mechanisms is immune regulation and several cell subsets with regulatory properties have been identified. Among them, the best characterized cell populations are the regulatory T cells (Treg. Although

  5. T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A. Ennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell responses negatively correlated with disease severity, but in another report the number of regulatory T cells, which are thought to suppress T cell responses, negatively correlated with disease severity. In rat experiments, in which hantavirus causes persistent infection, depletion of regulatory T cells helped infected rats clear virus without inducing immunopathology. These seemingly contradictory findings may suggest delicate balance in T cell responses between protection and immunopathogenesis. Both too strong and too weak T cell responses may lead to severe disease. It is important to clarify the role of T cells in these diseases for better treatment (whether to suppress T cell functions and protection (vaccine design which may need to take into account viral factors and the influence of HLA on T cell responses.

  6. T-cell abnormalities after mediastinal irradiation for lung cancer. The in vitro influence of synthetic thymosin alpha-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulof, R.S.; Chorba, T.L.; Cleary, P.A.; Palaszynski, S.R.; Alabaster, O.; Goldstein, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of mediastinal irradiation (RT) on the numbers and functions of purified peripheral blood T-lymphocytes from patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were evaluated. The patients were candidates for a randomized trial to evaluate the immunorestorative properties of synthetic thymosin alpha-1. Twenty-one patients studied before RT did not exhibit any significant difference in T-cell numbers or function compared to age-matched healthy subjects. However, 41 patients studied within 1 week after completing RT exhibited significant depressions of E-rosette-forming cells at 4 degrees C (E4 degrees-RFC)/mm3, E-rosette-forming cells at 29 degrees C (E29 degrees-RFC)/mm3, OKT3/mm3, OKT4/mm3, and OKT8/mm3 (P . 0.0001); total T-cell percentages (%OKT3, P . 0.01); and T-cell proliferative responses in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLR) (P . 0.01) and to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin under suboptimal conditions (P less than or equal to 0.03). Nine patients studied before and after RT showed a significant increase in OKT4/OKT8 (P . 0.01) following RT. A short-term in vitro incubation with thymosin alpha-1 could enhance MLR of T-cells in 12 of 27 patients with post-RT abnormalities. In 13 patients who were treated with placebo, the RT-induced depression of T-cell numbers and function persisted for at least 3 to 4 months. In addition, in 12 patients progressive decreases developed in %E4 degrees-RFC, %OKT3, %OKT4, and OKT4/OKT8, which always preceded clinical relapse

  7. Induction of Regulatory T Cells by Intravenous Immunoglobulin: A Bridge between Adaptive and Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gabriel N; Massoud, Amir H; Dembele, Marieme; Yona, Madelaine; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A; Mazer, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a polyclonal immunoglobulin G preparation with potent immunomodulatory properties. The mode of action of IVIg has been investigated in multiple disease states, with various mechanisms described to account for its benefits. Recent data indicate that IVIg increases both the number and the suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells, a subpopulation of T cells that are essential for immune homeostasis. IVIg alters dendritic cell function, cytokine and chemokine networks, and T lymphocytes, leading to development of regulatory T cells. The ability of IVIg to influence Treg induction has been shown both in animal models and in human diseases. In this review, we discuss data on the potential mechanisms contributing to the interaction between IVIg and the regulatory T-cell compartment.

  8. Toward understanding the genetics of regulatory T cells in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Melissa S; Charbonneau, Bridget; Preston, Claudia C; Kalli, Kimberly R; Knutson, Keith L; Rider, David N; Goode, Ellen L

    2013-06-01

    Tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) promote immune evasion and are associated with poor disease outcome in patients affected by various malignancies. We have recently demonstrated that several, inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms affecting Treg-related genes influence the survival of ovarian cancer patients, providing novel insights into possible mechanisms of immune escape.

  9. T6 heat treatment of semi-solid metal processed alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available -exponential factor, Q the apparent activation energy in J/mol and R the universal gas constant = 8.314 J/mol K). The equations that describe the time to reach maximum hardness (tT6) are given by equation 1 (with prior natural aging time) and equation 2 (for... quench to artificial aging does not have an influence on the apparent activation energy (Q). It does, however, decrease the pre-exponential factor C, thereby resulting in a much faster artificial aging response. The apparent activation energies...

  10. Flipped SU(5) predicts {delta}T/T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyae, Bumseok [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 207-43, Cheongnyangni-Dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: bkyae@kias.re.kr; Shafi, Qaisar [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: shafi@bartol.udel.edu

    2006-04-20

    We discuss hybrid inflation in supersymmetric flipped SU(5) model such that the cosmic microwave anisotropy {delta}T/T is essentially proportional to (M/M{sub P}){sup 2}, where M denotes the symmetry breaking scale and M{sub P} (=2.4x10{sup 18} GeV) is the reduced Planck mass. The magnitude of M determined from {delta}T/T measurements can be consistent with the value inferred from the evolution of SU(3) and SU(2) gauge couplings. In other words, one could state that flipped SU(5) predicts (more precisely 'postdicts') {delta}T/T. The scalar spectral index n{sub s}=0.993+/-0.007, the scalar to tensor ratio satisfies r-bar 10{sup -6}, while dn{sub s}/dlnk-bar 4x10{sup -4}.

  11. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in Manyara and ... E.L Ndau, D. Walters, D. Wu, N. Saleh, T.C.E. Mosha, S. Horton, H.S. Laswai ... for young mothers, 84.6% for middle age mothers and 86.3% for elderly mothers.

  12. Mutual influences between partners' hormones shape conflict dialog and relationship duration at the initiation of romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Inna; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Early-stage romantic love involves reorganization of neurohormonal systems and behavioral patterns marked by mutual influences between the partners' physiology and behavior. Guided by the biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we tested bidirectional influences between the partners' hormones and conflict behavior at the initiation of romantic love. Participants included 120 new lovers (60 couples) and 40 singles. Plasma levels of five affiliation and stress-related hormones were assessed: oxytocin (OT), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T), cortisol (CT), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Couples were observed in conflict interaction coded for empathy and hostility. CT and DHEAS showed direct actor effects: higher CT and DHEAS predicted greater hostility. OT showed direct partner effects: individuals whose partners had higher OT showed greater empathy. T and CT showed combined actor-partner effects. High T predicted greater hostility only when partner also had high T, but lower hostility when partner had low T. Similarly, CT predicted low empathy only in the context of high partner's CT. Mediational analysis indicated that combined high CT in both partners was associated with relationship breakup as mediated by decrease in empathy. Findings demonstrate the mutual influences between hormones and behavior within an attachment bond and underscore the dynamic, co-regulated, and systemic nature of pair-bond formation in humans.

  13. Influence of local microplastic strains on stress corrosion of 08Kh18N10T steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Efimov, A.A.; Sherman, Ya.I.; Fedorova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Study on specific features of microhomogeneous strain in the process of plastic strain development and their role in stress corrosion of 08Kh18N10T steel sheet specimens subject to preliminary strain by 1, 3, 6, 16 and 23% and subsequent tests of stress corrosion in magnesium chloride solution at 150 deg C 140 MPa has been carried out. Analysis of test results has shown that microplastic strain is distributed over a specimen nonuniformly and is accompanied with the slip bands formation which are sources of corrosion crack origination and development. 08Kh18N10T steel manifests the highest trend to stress corrosion under 1% microplastic strain

  14. Text-Speak: Its Influence on the English Spelling Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Arellano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the perceived influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the Teacher Education students of the West Visayas State University – Janiuay Campus (WVSU-JC. It likewise aimed to determine the significant differences on the influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the students when they were grouped as to sex, course and year level and to ascertain the significant relationship between the students’ perceived influence of texting and their performance in English spelling. This study utilized the descriptive method in describing how texting or text messaging influenced the English spelling ability of WVSU-JC Teacher Education students. Two hundred five (205 randomly selected Teacher Education students were utilized as respondents of the study. Researcher-made instruments such as English spelling test and a questionnaire checklist that described the influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the students were used to gather data. Means and standard deviation were used to describe the influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the students. The t-test and ANOVA were used to assess the significant differences on the influence of texting on the respondents’ English spelling skills and Pearson’s-r correlation was used to test the significant relationship between the students’ perceived influence of texting and their performance in English spelling. Results revealed that there was no significant relationship between the Teacher Education students’ perceived influence of texting and performance on their English spelling test and that texting moderately influence the English spelling skills of the Teacher Education students when the respondents were taken as an entire group and as to sex, course and year level. The English spelling skills of the Teacher Education students were good when the respondents were taken as an entire group and when the respondents were grouped

  15. The I{sub c}(H)-T{sub c}(H) phase boundary of superconducting Nb thin films with periodic and quasiperiodic antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothner, D.; Kemmler, M.; Cozma, R.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D. [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Misko, V.; Peeters, F. [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen (Belgium); Nori, F. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    The magnetic field dependent critical current I{sub c}(H) of superconducting thin films with artificial defects strongly depends on the symmetry of the defect arrangement. Likewise the critical temperature T{sub c}(H) of superconducting wire networks is heavily influenced by the symmetry of the system. Here we present experimental data on the I{sub c}(H)-T{sub c}(H) phase boundary of Nb thin films with artificial defect lattices of different symmetries. For this purpose we fabricated 60 nm thick Nb films with antidots in periodic (triangular) and five different quasiperiodic arrangements. The parameters of the antidot arrays were varied to investigate the influence of antidot diameter and array density. Experiments were performed with high temperature stability ({delta}T<1 mK) at 0.5{<=}T/T{sub c}{<=}1. From the I-V-characteristics at variable H and T we extract I{sub c}(H) and T{sub c}(H) for different voltage and resistance criteria. The experimental data for the critical current density are compared with results from numerical molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. T cell receptor-engineered T cells to treat solid tumors: T cell processing toward optimal T cell fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Lamers (Cor); S. van Steenbergen-Langeveld (Sabine); M. van Brakel (Mandy); C.M. Groot-van Ruijven (Corrien); P.M.M.L. van Elzakker (Pascal); B.A. van Krimpen (Brigitte); S. Sleijfer (Stefan); J.E.M.A. Debets (Reno)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTherapy with autologous T cells that have been gene-engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) or T cell receptors (TCR) provides a feasible and broadly applicable treatment for cancer patients. In a clinical study in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with CAR T

  17. Mechanical Properties of Domestic T700 Grade Carbon Fibers/QY9611 BMI Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guoli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies,surface energies and surface chemical properties of the domestic T700 grade carbon fiber and the T700S carbon fiber were characterized by using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, inverse gas chromatography(IGC and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPSrespectively.The mechanical properties of the two carbon fibers/QY9611 composites were also discussed. The results indicate that the surface properties of carbon fibers have an important influence on the interfacial properties of composites. The interfacial properties of domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611 composite at room temperature/dry conditions are superior to T700S/QY9611 composite. The toughness of domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611composite is outstanding as well. The value of CAI has reached the level of foreign advanced composite IM7/5250-4. After hydrothermal treatment,the interfacial strength of domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611 composite is equal to that of T700S/QY9611 composite. It shows that domestic T700 grade carbon fibers/QY9611 composite has good hydrothermal-resistant properties.

  18. Did Globalization Influence Credit Market Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Eppinger, Peter; Potrafke, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether globalization influenced credit market deregulation over the period 1970-2010. Globalization is measured by the KOF indices of globalization. Credit market deregulation is measured by the credit market freedom indicators of the Fraser Institute. The results from both cross-sectional and panel regressions using ordinary least squares indicate a positive correlation between globalization and credit market deregulation. We account for reverse causality by using predicted t...

  19. Measurement of the top-quark mass and the t anti tZ cross section in ATLAS. The t anti t dilepton way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Kaven Henry Yau

    2015-05-01

    A measurement of the top-quark mass and the t anti tZ cross section is performed using 4.6 fb -1 and 20.3 fb -1 of data from proton-proton collisions collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The top-quark mass is measured in the t anti t eμ channel using the mean value of the m T2 variable with the calibration curve method to obtain the first top-quark mass measurement in the dilepton channel using the ATLAS detector: m top =175.2±1.6 (stat.)± 3.1(syst.) GeV. Improvements in the computation of the systematic uncertainty, the measurement method and the inclusion of the t anti t ee and μμ channels result in a significant increase in the precision of the measurement, leading to a measured top-quark mass of m top =173.7±0.8(stat.)±1.8 (syst.) GeV. The use of the m T2 perp variable is also studied, providing an additional mass measurement with similar uncertainty: m top =173.3±0.7(stat.)±1.7 (syst.) GeV. A t anti tZ cross-section measurement is performed in the t anti tZ→4l channel using a likelihood fit to five signal regions and one ZZ control region used to determine the normalization of the main background from data. Seven events are selected in data and, from the result of the likelihood fit, a t anti tZ cross section of σ t anti tZ =0.32 +0.18 -0.14 (stat.) +0.12 -0.05 (syst.) pb is measured, which is compatible with the Standard Model prediction for proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV.

  20. Growth-Rate Dependent Regulation of tRNA Level and Charging in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Iolanda; Liebeton, Klaus; Ignatova, Zoya

    2017-10-13

    Cellular growth crucially depends on protein synthesis and the abundance of translational components. Among them, aminoacyl-tRNAs play a central role in biosynthesis and shape the kinetics of mRNA translation, thus influencing protein production. Here, we used microarray-based approaches to determine the charging levels and tRNA abundance of Bacillus licheniformis. We observed an interesting cross-talk among tRNA expression, charging pattern, and growth rate. For a large subset of tRNAs, we found a co-regulated and augmented expression at high growth rate. Their tRNA aminoacylation level is kept relatively constant through riboswitch-regulated expression of the cognate aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (AARS). We show that AARSs with putative riboswitch-controlled expression are those charging tRNAs with amino acids which disfavor cell growth when individually added to the nutrient medium. Our results suggest that the riboswitch-regulated AARS expression in B. licheniformis is a powerful mechanism not only to maintain a constant ratio of aminoacyl-tRNA independent of the growth rate but concomitantly to control the intracellular level of free amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of feeding time on sexual maturity and carcass composition in female broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila VS de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred and ninety six Arbor Acres females and 144 males were used to study the influence of feeding time on sexual maturity and carcass composition. Treatments were: T1 = feeding at 6:30 am, T2 = 50% feeding at 6:30 am and 50% at 3:30 pm (dual, T3 = feeding at 11:00 am, T4 = feeding at 3:30 pm. Nutrition and management were as recommended to the commercial line. Variables studied were: sexual maturity at 5% production (SM, mean egg production percentage (PEP body weight (BW, carcass composition, tibia weight (TIBW and tibia calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P contents. Analysis of variance was used, and the means were compared using Student's t test. T2 females reached SM at 25.92 weeks, which was earlier (p0.10 on carcass dry matter (DM, ether extract (EE, crude protein (CP and ash (ASH. DM, EE, TIBW, Ca and P increased (p<0.05 whereas CP and ASH decreased with age. Time of feeding influenced body weight, but not carcass composition. Hens fed twice a day had earlier sexual maturity and similar egg production compared to those fed once at 6:30 am.

  2. Large meteorite impacts: The K/T model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary event represents probably the largest meteorite impact known on Earth. It is the only impact event conclusively linked to a worldwide mass extinction, a reflection of its gigantic scale and global influence. Until recently, the impact crater was not definitively located and only the distal ejecta of this impact was available for study. However, detailed investigations of this ejecta's mineralogy, geochemistry, microstratigraphy, and textures have allowed its modes of ejection and dispersal to be modeled without benefit of a source crater of known size and location.

  3. T(peak)T(end) interval in long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, Jørgen Kim; Haarmark, Christian; Vedel-Larsen, Esben

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The T(peak)T(end) (T(p)T(e)) interval is believed to reflect the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Accordingly, it should be a risk factor in long QT syndrome (LQTS). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of genotype on T(p)T(e) interval and test whether it was relat...

  4. Aging and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection differentially and jointly affect distinct circulating T cell subsets in humans1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Anne M.; Bennett, Michael S.; Park, Byung; Uhrlaub, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Carmine; Pulko, Vesna; Currier, Noreen L.; Nikolich-Zugich, Dragana; Kaye, Jeffrey; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

    2014-01-01

    The impact of intrinsic aging upon human peripheral blood T-cell subsets remains incompletely quantified and understood. This impact must be distinguished from the influence of latent persistent microorganisms, particularly cytomegalovirus (CMV), which has been associated with age-related changes in the T cell pool. In a cross-sectional cohort of 152 CMV-negative individuals, aged 21–101 years, we found that aging correlated strictly to an absolute loss of naïve CD8, but not CD4, T cells, but, contrary to many reports, did not lead to an increase in memory T cell numbers. The loss of naïve CD8 T cells was not altered by CMV in 239 subjects (range 21–96 years) but the decline in CD4+ naïve cells showed significance in CMV+ individuals. These individuals also exhibited an absolute increase in the effector/effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ cells with age. That increase was seen mainly, if not exclusively, in older subjects with elevated anti-CMV Ab titers, suggesting that efficacy of viral control over time may determine the magnitude of CMV impact upon T cell memory, and perhaps upon immune defense. These findings provide important new insights into the age-related changes in the peripheral blood pool of older adults, demonstrating that aging and CMV exert both distinct and joint influence upon blood T cell homeostasis in humans. PMID:24501199

  5. Effect of the opioid methionine enkephalinamide on signal transduction in human T-lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A N; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR/CD3) induced fluctuations in intracellular free ionizied calcium, [Ca2+]i, was analysed in the human T leukemia cell clone, Jurkat, cultured in the presence of the opioid methionine enkephalinamide (Met-Enk) in titrated concentrations (10[-7] to 10[-15] M) or saline (PBS....... Moreover, the levels of [Ca2+]i in this particular fraction were lower than control levels prior to ligation of the TCR/CD3 complex. The data support the idea that signal transduction in T cells can be influenced by endogenous opioid. The data therefore give credit to the evolving hypothesis...... of a functional relationship between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system....

  6. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for the ternary mixtures (alkane + toluene + ionic liquid) at T = 298.15 K: Influence of the anion on the phase equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, Raquel G.; Gómez, Elena; González, Emilio J.; Domínguez, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► [BMpyr][NTF 2 ] and [BMpyr][TFO] were studied as solvents to extract aromatics from alkanes. ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were measured at 298.15 K for six ternary systems. ► Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were calculated and compared. ► The influence of the structure of anion of the ionic liquid was analyzed. ► Experimental data were satisfactorily correlated using NRTL model. - Abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [BMpyr][NTf 2 ], and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMpyr][TFO], with toluene, and heptane or cyclohexane were determined at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. In order to check if these ILs can be used as potential solvents for the extraction of toluene from aliphatic compounds, the ability of the ILs as solvents was evaluated in terms of selectivity and solute distribution ratio. The experimental data were correlated accurately with the Non Random Two-Liquid model.

  7. Le programme Innovation, technologie et société (ITS) Descriptif ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    jgil

    ils déterminent les degrés de risque social acceptables quand il s'agit de mettre au .... sur les possibilités d'influencer l'élaboration de politiques en STI ou les nouveaux ..... probantes présentée par les médias sur la S-T et pour remédier aux ...

  8. The Genomic Pattern of tDNA Operon Expression in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In fast-growing microorganisms, a tRNA concentration profile enriched in major isoacceptors selects for the biased usage of cognate codons. This optimizes translational rate for the least mass invested in the translational apparatus. Such translational streamlining is thought to be growth-regulated, but its genetic basis is poorly understood. First, we found in reanalysis of the E. coli tRNA profile that the degree to which it is translationally streamlined is nearly invariant with growth rate. Then, using least squares multiple regression, we partitioned tRNA isoacceptor pools to predicted tDNA operons from the E. coli K12 genome. Co-expression of tDNAs in operons explains the tRNA profile significantly better than tDNA gene dosage alone. Also, operon expression increases significantly with proximity to the origin of replication, oriC, at all growth rates. Genome location explains about 15% of expression variation in a form, at a given growth rate, that is consistent with replication-dependent gene concentration effects. Yet the change in the tRNA profile with growth rate is less than would be expected from such effects. We estimated per-copy expression rates for all tDNA operons that were consistent with independent estimates for rDNA operons. We also found that tDNA operon location, and the location dependence of expression, were significantly different in the leading and lagging strands. The operonic organization and genomic location of tDNA operons are significant factors influencing their expression. Nonrandom patterns of location and strandedness shown by tDNA operons in E. coli suggest that their genomic architecture may be under selection to satisfy physiological demand for tRNA expression at high growth rates.

  9. Age-related increase in the fraction of CD27-CD4+ T cells and IL-4 production as a feature of CD4+ T cell differentiation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E. W.; Remarque, E. J.; Hinloopen, B.; van der Pouw-Kraan, T.; van Lier, R. A.; Ligthart, G. J.; Nagelkerken, L.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of ageing on phenotype and function of CD4+ T cells was studied by comparing young (19-28 years of age) and aged (75-84 years of age) donors that were selected using the SENIEUR protocol to exclude underlying disease. An age-related increase was observed in the relative number of

  10. Stressful Presentations: Mild Chronic Cold Stress in Mice Influences Baseline Properties of Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Marie Kokolus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability of dendritic cells to stimulate and regulate T cells is critical to effective anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to fully recognize any inherent factors which may influence DC function under experimental conditions, especially in laboratory mice since they are used so heavily to study immune responses. Physiological stress is well recognized to impair several arms of immune protection. The goals of this report are to briefly summarize previous work revealing how DCs respond to various forms of physiologically relevant stress and to present new data highlighting the potential for chronic mild cold stress inherent in mice housed at standard ambient temperatures required for laboratory mice to influence baseline DCs properties. Since recent data from our group shows that CD8+ T cell function is altered by mild chronic cold stress and since DC function is crucial for CD8+ T cell activation, we wondered whether mild cold stress may also be influencing DC properties. We found increased numbers of splenic DCs (CD11c+ in cold stressed mice compared to mice housed at a thermoneutral temperature, which significantly reduces cold stress. However, many of the DCs which are expanded in cold stressed mice express an immature phenotype. We also found that antigen presentation and ability of splenocytes to activate T cells were impaired compared to that seen in DCs isolated from mice at thermoneutrality. The new data presented here strongly suggest that the housing temperature of mice can affect fundamental properties of DC function which in turn could be influencing the response of DCs to added experimental stressors or other treatments.

  11. Early glottic cancer: the influence of primary treatment on voice preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnicar, Hotimir; Smid, Lojze; Zakotnik, Branko

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis was performed to assess the influence of primary surgical or irradiation treatment on local control, survival, and final preservation of larynx in comparable groups of patients with T1N0 and T2N0 glottic cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred sixty-three previously untreated patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis (187T1 and 76T2) were treated with primary radiotherapy (159T1 and 60T2) or primary surgery (28T1 and 16T2) between January 1976 and December 1990, at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Conventional one daily fraction of 2 Gy to doses of 60-74 Gy (median: 65 Gy) were used in 98% of primarily irradiated patients through out the observed period. To enable better comparison between the two treatment groups, primarily irradiated patients were retrospectively stratified by the criteria of suitability for primary voice-sparing operation. Several host, tumor, and treatment parameters were analyzed. Results: Only the stage of the disease significantly influenced both 10-year recurrence-free and disease-specific survival regardless primary treatment modality (p = 0.0002). In all primary irradiated patients local control was significantly better for those with overall treatment time of less than 48 days (p = 0.007). In patients suitable for voice-sparing operation, local control of primarily operated patients was similar to that of patients primarily irradiated with shorter overall treatment time, which was 93 and 88% for T1 and 67 and 64% for T2 tumors, respectively. Ultimate local control in primary surgery and radiotherapy group was 96 and 96% for T1 and 89 and 88% for T2 tumors, respectively. Equal larynx preservation of 100% in T1 and 90% in T2 patients was achieved in finally cured primarily operated patients and those patients primarily irradiated with a shorter overall treatment time. If treatment time was longer than 48 days, significantly worse final larynx preservation of 84% in T1 and 75% in

  12. Tank characterization report for single-shell tanks 241-T-201, 241-T-202, 241-T-203, and 241-T-204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize waste in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, in addition to other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for the single-shell tank series consisting of 241-T-201, -T-202, -T-203, and -T-204. The objectives of this report are: (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with T-200 series tank waste and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 shows the best-basis inventory estimate, Section 4.0 makes recommendations about the safety status of the tank and additional sampling needs. The appendices contain supporting data and information. Appendix A contains historical information for 241-T-201 to T-204, including surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge-based computer program. Appendix B summarizes sampling events, sample data obtained before 1989, and the most current sampling results. Appendix C reports the statistical analysis and numerical manipulation of data used in issue resolution. Appendix D contains the evaluation to establish the best-basis for the inventory estimate and the statistical analysis performed for this evaluation. Appendix E is a bibliography that resulted from an in-depth literature search of all known information sources applicable to tanks 241-T-201, -T-202, -T-203, and -T-204. The reports listed in Appendix E are available in the Tank Characterization and Safety Resource Center

  13. Synthesis of High-Quality Large-Area Homogenous 1T' MoTe2 from Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Zubair, Ahmad; Wang, Ziqiang; Zhang, Xu; Ouyang, Fangping; Xu, Kai; Fang, Wenjing; Ueno, Keiji; Li, Ju; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-11-01

    High-quality large-area few-layer 1T' MoTe 2 films with high homogeneity are synthesized by the controlled tellurization of MoO 3 film. The Mo precursor plays a key role in determining the quality and morphology of the 1T' MoTe 2 . Furthermore, the amount of Te strongly influences the phase of the MoTe 2 . The growth method paves the way toward the scalable production of 1T' MoTe 2 -based applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The influence of a telehealth project on healthcare professional recruitment and retention in remote areas in Mali: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisèle Irène Claudine Mbemba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The telehealth project EQUI-ResHuS (in French, Les TIC pour un accès Équitable aux Ressources Humaines en Santé aimed to contribute to more equitable access to care and support practice in remote regions in Mali. This study explored the evolution of perceptions concerning telehealth among healthcare professionals in the four district health centres that participated in the EQUI-ResHus project and identified variables influencing their perceptions of telehealth impact on recruitment and retention of health professionals. Methods: One year after a first survey (T1, a second data collection (T2 was carried out among healthcare professionals using a 91-item questionnaire. Questions assessing telehealth use and perceptions and perceived impact on recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals were rated on a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 10 independent variables were considered for the analyses. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to detect differences between T1 and T2, and a bivariate linear regression model for repeated measures was carried out to assess the impact of independent variables on dependent variables. Results: There were no noticeable changes in perceptions related to telehealth influence on recruitment and retention. Only access to information and communication technology significantly differed between T1 and T2 according the Wilcoxon rank test (p = 0.001. Perceived influence of telehealth on recruitment and retention was mostly explained by attitude towards telehealth, perceived effect on recruitment and retention and barriers to recruitment and retention. Conclusion: Based on our results, telehealth was perceived as having a positive influence but mostly indirect influence on healthcare professional recruitment and retention. Also, there were no major changes after 1 year of telehealth use.

  15. Charged Higgs signals in t t ¯ searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; Hedri, Sonia El; Taki, Anna Maria; Weiner, Neal

    2017-10-01

    New scalars from an extended Higgs sector could have weak scale masses and still have escaped detection. In a type I two Higgs doublet model, for instance, even the charged Higgs can be lighter than the top quark. Because electroweak production of these scalars is modest, the greatest opportunity for their detection might come from rare top decays. For mass hierarchies of the type mt>mH+>mA0,H0, the natural signal can arise from top quark pair production, followed by the decay chain t →b H+, H+→W+(*)ϕ0, ϕ0→b b ¯,τ+τ-, where ϕ0=A0,H0. These final states largely overlap with those of the Standard Model t t ¯ HSM process, and therefore can potentially contaminate t t ¯ HSM searches. We demonstrate that existing t t ¯HSM analyses can already probe light extended Higgs sectors, and we derive new constraints from their results. Furthermore, we note that existing excesses in t t ¯HSM searches can be naturally explained by the contamination of rare top decays to new light Higgses. We discuss how to distinguish this signal from the Standard Model process.

  16. Earthquake Source Parameters Inferred from T-Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, J.; Dziak, R.; Lau, T. A.; Matsumoto, H.; Goslin, J.

    2004-12-01

    The seismicity of the North Atlantic Ocean has been recorded by two networks of autonomous hydrophones moored within the SOFAR channel on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). In February 1999, a consortium of U.S. investigators (NSF and NOAA) deployed a 6-element hydrophone array for long-term monitoring of MAR seismicity between 15o-35oN south of the Azores. In May 2002, an international collaboration of French, Portuguese, and U.S. researchers deployed a 6-element hydrophone array north of the Azores Plateau from 40o-50oN. The northern network (referred to as SIRENA) was recovered in September 2003. The low attenuation properties of the SOFAR channel for earthquake T-wave propagation results in a detection threshold reduction from a magnitude completeness level (Mc) of ˜ 4.7 for MAR events recorded by the land-based seismic networks to Mc=3.0 using hydrophone arrays. Detailed focal depth and mechanism information, however, remain elusive due to the complexities of seismo-acoustic propagation paths. Nonetheless, recent analyses (Dziak, 2001; Park and Odom, 2001) indicate fault parameter information is contained within the T-wave signal packet. We investigate this relationship further by comparing an earthquake's T-wave duration and acoustic energy to seismic magnitude (NEIC) and radiation pattern (for events M>5) from the Harvard moment-tensor catalog. First results show earthquake energy is well represented by the acoustic energy of the T-waves, however T-wave codas are significantly influenced by acoustic propagation effects and do not allow a direct determination of the seismic magnitude of the earthquakes. Second, there appears to be a correlation between T-wave acoustic energy, azimuth from earthquake source to the hydrophone, and the radiation pattern of the earthquake's SH waves. These preliminary results indicate there is a relationship between the T-wave observations and earthquake source parameters, allowing for additional insights into T

  17. T cell cytokine responses to stimulation with Ureaplasma parvum in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Yael D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Nathan, Elizabeth A; Watts, Rory; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Payne, Matthew S; Ireland, Demelza J

    2016-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp. are a common vaginal microorganism causally linked to inflammation-driven preterm birth (PTB). The nature of the immune response to Ureaplasma spp. may influence PTB risk. This study sought to define maternal T cell cytokine responses to in vitro stimulation with Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (UpSV3) in vaginally colonised (UP+) and non-colonised (UP-) pregnant women. Whole blood flow cytometry demonstrated an increase (p=0.027) in the baseline frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(-)(CD8(+)) T cells in UP+ women. UpSV3 stimulation resulted in a significant and specific increase (p=0.001) in the frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(-)(CD8(+)) T cells, regardless of vaginal colonisation status. UpSV3 stimulation also increased the frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells, particularly in the UP+ group (p=0.003). This is the first published study to examine T cell responses to Ureaplasma spp. Future appropriately-powered studies are needed to assess whether insufficient priming or a loss of tolerance to Ureaplasma spp. is occurring in UP+ women at risk of PTB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of the Overlapping Factor and Welding Speed on T-Joint Welding of Ti6Al4V and Inconel 600 Using Low-Power Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamini Janasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Double-sided laser beam welding of skin-stringer joints is an established method for many applications. However, in certain cases with limited accessibility, single-sided laser beam joining is considered. In the present study, single-sided welding of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and nickel-based alloy Inconel 600 in a T-joint configuration was carried out using continuous-wave (CW, low-power Ytterbium (Yb-fiber laser. The influence of the overlapping factor and welding speed of the laser beam on weld morphology and properties was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. XRD analysis revealed the presence of intermetallic layers containing NiTi and NiTi2 at the skin-stringer joint. The strength of the joints was evaluated using pull testing, while the hardness of the joints was analyzed using Vickers hardness measurement at the base metal (BM, fusion zone (FZ and heat-affected zone (HAZ. The results showed that the highest force needed to break the samples apart was approximately 150 N at a laser welding power of 250 W, welding speed of 40 mm/s and overlapping factor of 50%. During low-power single-sided laser welding, the properties of the T-joints were affected by the overlapping factor and laser welding speed.

  19. R7T7-type HLW glass alteration under irradiation. Study of the residual alteration rate regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolland, Severine

    2012-01-01

    In France, fission products and minor actinides remaining after reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are confined in a borosilicate glass matrix, named R7T7, for disposal in a geological repository. However, in these conditions, after several thousand years, water could arrive in contact with glass and be radio-lysed. In this work, we investigated the irradiation influence and especially the influence of the energy deposition on the residual glass alteration rate regime in pure water. Two types of leaching tests have been carried out. The first were performed on radioactive glass and the second on a SON68 glass (nonradioactive surrogate of R7T7 glass) under external irradiation γ. (author) [fr

  20. Influence of rumen protein degradability on productive and reproductive performance in buffalo cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Di Palo, Rossella; Infascelli, Federico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Zicarelli, Fabio; D'Occhio, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    The present study aimed to ascertain the influence of crude protein (CP) digestibility in the rumen on the quantity and quality of milk production and reproductive performance, blood (BU) and milk (MU) urea, haematological profile and vaginal mucus urea, ammonia and potassium of buffalo cows. Lactating buffaloes (n = 84), 60 days in milk, were randomly subdivided into Group C (control, n = 42) and Group T (fed a diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae, n = 42). In three fistulated buffalo, the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae showed a decrease (P milk, were used to study the haematological profile and to determine milk urea and ammonia in the vaginal mucus. The animals in Group T1 had higher ammonia values in the blood (P mucus than Group C1. A relationship was found between MU and BU. MU was influenced by CP intake and dry matter intake. No differences between the treatments were observed in reproductive performance and the conception rate and calving interval were 37.9% and 41.4% (90 trial-day) and 449 and 419 days respectively in Groups T and C. Reproductive performance was not influenced by high levels of BU nor by blood ammonia levels, although the latter were higher in the group fed the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae.

  1. A novel formulation of L-thyroxine (L-T4) reduces the problem of L-T4 malabsorption by coffee observed with traditional tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Roberto; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate if the coffee-associated malabsorption of tablet levothyroxine (L-T4) is reduced by soft gel capsule. We recruited 8 patients with coffee-associated L-T4 malabsorption including one hypothyroid patient. For 6 months, the patients were switched to the capsule maintaining the L-T4 daily dose. Patients took the capsule with water, having coffee 1 h later (proper habit, PH) on days 1-90, or with coffee ≤ 5 min later (improper habit, IH) on days 91-180. After 6 months, 2 patients volunteered for an acute loading test of 600 μg L-T4 (capsule) ingested with water (PH) or with coffee (IH). In the single hypothyroid patient, the post-switch TSH ranged 0.06-0.16 mU/L (PH) versus 5.8-22.4 mU/L pre-switch (PH) and 0.025-0.29 mU/L (IH) versus 26-34 mU/L pre-switch (IH). In the other 7 patients, post-switch TSH was 0.41 ± 0.46 (PH) versus 0.28 ± 0.20 pre-switch (PH) (P = 0.61) and 0.34 ± 0.30 (IH) versus 1.23 ± 1.47 pre-switch (IH) (P coffee influenced L-T4 pharmacokinetics minimally. Soft gel capsules can be used in patients who are unable/unwilling to change their IH of taking L-T4.

  2. Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm characteristics of plaintain. P-N T Johnson. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjs.v39i1.15851 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  3. Influence of the growth process on some laws deduced from percolation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachi, M.; Olivier, G.

    1985-09-01

    A brutal application of the percolation theory to some physical problems can lead to erroneous interpretation of the experimental results. Among these problems, the influence of the growth process on the percolation laws is studied. The behaviour of nsub(s)(t), the number of clusters of size s, at time t, is analyzed and linked to a macroscopic property of the system for a comparison to experimental laws. (author)

  4. Influence of a low-frequency magnetic field on the 133Xe clearance of the gastrocnemius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroehmann, F.; Strangfeld, D.; Conradi, E.

    1985-01-01

    In 14 patients with disturbances of the arterial blood supply the influence of a 50 Hz changing magnetic field of 24 mT on the microcirculation of the musculature was tested by means of 133 Xe clearance. An influence of the magnetic field could not be proved. (author)

  5. Influence of the welding temperature and the welding speed on the mechanical properties of friction stir welds in EN AW-2219-T87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, A.; Krutzlinger, M.; Zaeh, M. F.

    2018-06-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is an innovative joining technique, which has proven to produce high quality joints in high strength aluminum alloys. Consequently, it is commonly used to manufacture lightweight aerospace structures with stringent requirements. For these structures, it is necessary to ensure a high ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Various studies have reported that the UTS is significantly influenced by the welding parameters. Samples welded with different parameter sets showed a considerably different UTS, despite being free from detectable welding defects (e.g. tunnel defect, voids, or lack of penetration). Based on the observations in the literature, a hypothesis was posed. The welding temperature along with the welding speed determine the UTS of the weld. This study aims to prove this hypothesis experimentally by using temperature-controlled FSW to join plates of EN AW-2219-T87 in butt joint configuration. The welded samples were examined using visual inspection, metallography, X-ray imaging, and uniaxial tensile tests. Finally, a statistical analysis was conducted. Hereby, the hypothesis was confirmed.

  6. SU-E-J-233: Effect of Brachytherapy Seed Artifacts in T2 and Proton Density Maps in MR Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashouf, S [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Dept of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fatemi-Ardekani, A [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Song, W [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Dept of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims at investigating the influence of brachytherapy seeds on T2 and proton density (PD) maps generated from MR images. Proton density maps can be used to extract water content. Since dose absorbed in tissue surrounding low energy brachytherapy seeds are highly influenced by tissue composition, knowing the water content is a first step towards implementing a heterogeneity correction algorithm using MR images. Methods: An LDR brachytherapy (IsoAid Advantage Pd-103) seed was placed in the middle of an agar-based gel phantom and imaged using a 3T Philips MR scanner with a 168-channel head coil. A multiple echo sequence with TE=20, 40, 60, 80, 100 (ms) with large repetition time (TR=6259ms) was used to extract T2 and PD maps. Results: Seed artifacts were considerably reduced on T2 maps compared to PD maps. The variation of PD around the mean was obtained as −97% to 125% (±1%) while for T2 it was recorded as −71% to 24% (±1%). Conclusion: PD maps which are required for heterogeneity corrections are susceptible to artifacts from seeds. Seed artifacts on T2 maps, however, are significantly reduced due to not being sensitive to B0 field variation.

  7. Methylated nucleosides in tRNA and tRNA methyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eHori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, more than 90 modified nucleosides have been found in tRNA and the biosynthetic pathways of the majority of tRNA modifications include a methylation step(s. Recent studies of the biosynthetic pathways have demonstrated that the availability of methyl group donors for the methylation in tRNA is important for correct and efficient protein synthesis. In this review, I focus on the methylated nucleosides and tRNA methyltransferases. The primary functions of tRNA methylations are linked to the different steps of protein synthesis, such as the stabilization of tRNA structure, reinforcement of the codon–anticodon interaction, regulation of wobble base pairing, and prevention of frameshift errors. However, beyond these basic functions, recent studies have demonstrated that tRNA methylations are also involved in the RNA quality control system and regulation of tRNA localization in the cell. In a thermophilic eubacterium, tRNA modifications and the modification enzymes form a network that responses to temperature changes. Furthermore, several modifications are involved in genetic diseases, infections, and the immune response. Moreover, structural, biochemical, and bioinformatics studies of tRNA methyltransferases have been clarifying the details of tRNA methyltransferases and have enabled these enzymes to be classified. In the final section, the evolution of modification enzymes is discussed.

  8. TGF-beta and 'adaptive' Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; Konkel, Joanne E

    2010-02-01

    In naïve T cells transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces Foxp3, a transcription factor essential for programming and developing T regulatory cells (Treg cells). This finding reveals a physiological factor which can turn on the Foxp3 gene and establishes an experimental approach to induce antigen-specific Treg cells as a potential therapy for human diseases. While this role for TGF-beta is well confirmed, several critical questions remain largely unanswered and await further investigation. In this regard, it is imperative to understand the molecular pathways by which TGF-beta signaling initiates and regulates Foxp3 expression. It is also important to elucidate which factors and/or cytokines influence the TGF-beta-mediated conversion of naïve T cells and how to create an immunologically regulatory milieu to facilitate Treg cell generation in vivo. In this short article, we will highlight the key findings and recent progress in the field, discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the TGF-beta-mediated induction of Foxp3, and attempt to outline the challenges ahead.

  9. T2 relaxation time in MR imaging of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, J.R.; McKay, A.; Mueller, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    To measure the T2 relaxation times of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma and to evaluate the influence of field strength and lung inflation on T2. Five healthy volunteers and five patients with diffuse lung disease were imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T. Excised normal pig lung was imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T and analyzed in a spectrometer at 2.0 T. Single-echo (Hahn) pulse sequences (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 msec) were compared with multiecho trains (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill [CPMG] at 0.15 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20-40-60... 240 msec) and 2.0 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 1, 2, 3,..., 10msec). T2 relaxation times calculated from single-echo sequences showed considerable variation between 0.15 and 2.0 T. T2 also changed with lung inflation. However, the T2 measurements on CPMG sequences did not change significantly (P > .05) with field strength and were only minimally affected by lung inflation. The mean ± SD T2 values for normal lung were 99 ± 8 and for abnormal lung were 84 ± 17. Lung parenchyma T2 measurements obtained with the use of conventional single-echo pulse sequences are variable and inaccurate because of inflation and field strength dependent magnetic susceptibility effects that lead to rapid nonrecoverable dephasing. The results indicate that multiecho sequences with appropriately short echo spacings yield more reproducible determinations of T2, which are independent of field strength and less dependent on lung inflation

  10. Treat-to-target (T2T) recommendations for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiltz, U; Smolen, J; Bardin, T; Cohen Solal, A; Dalbeth, N; Doherty, M; Engel, B; Flader, C; Kay, J; Matsuoka, M; Perez-Ruiz, F; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, G; Saag, K; So, A; Vazquez Mellado, J; Weisman, M; Westhoff, T H; Yamanaka, H; Braun, J

    2017-04-01

    The treat-to-target (T2T) concept has been applied successfully in several inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Gout is a chronic disease with a high burden of pain and inflammation. Because the pathogenesis of gout is strongly related to serum urate levels, gout may be an ideal disease in which to apply a T2T approach. Our aim was to develop international T2T recommendations for patients with gout. A committee of experts with experience in gout agreed upon potential targets and outcomes, which was the basis for the systematic literature search. Eleven rheumatologists, one cardiologist, one nephrologist, one general practitioner and one patient met in October 2015 to develop T2T recommendations based on the available scientific evidence. Levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. Although no randomised trial was identified in which a comparison with standard treatment or an evaluation of a T2T approach had been performed in patients with gout, indirect evidence was provided to focus on targets such as normalisation of serum urate levels. The expert group developed four overarching principles and nine T2T recommendations. They considered dissolution of crystals and prevention of flares to be fundamental; patient education, ensuring adherence to medications and monitoring of serum urate levels were also considered to be of major importance. This is the first application of the T2T approach developed for gout. Since no publication reports a trial comparing treatment strategies for gout, highly credible overarching principles and level D expert recommendations were created and agreed upon. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Measurement of $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ ratio at 13 TeV with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Young-kwon

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the cross section ratio $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is presented using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3~$\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ collected in pp collisions at \\\\ $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events with two leptons and at least four reconstructed jets, including at least two identified as b quark jets, in the final state are selected. The measured ratio is $0.022 \\pm 0.003$(stat.)$\\pm0.006$(syst.) in the full phase space. The measured cross section $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}$ is $3.9 \\pm 0.6$(stat.)$\\pm1.3$(syst.) pb and $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is $176 \\pm 5$(stat.)$ \\pm 33 $(syst.) pb.

  12. The role of proline residues in the structure and function of human MT2 melatonin receptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazna, Petr; Gryčová, Lenka; Balík, Aleš; Zemková, Hana; Friedlová, Eliška; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, Tomáš; Teisinger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2008), s. 361-372 ISSN 0742-3098 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/04/0496; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/07/0915; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600110701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0565 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : melatonin receptor * proline * molecular dynamic simulations Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.056, year: 2008

  13. Bis(dicyanamido-κN[tris(3-aminopropylamine-κ4N]nickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Ni(C2N32(C9H24N4], the NiII atom is coordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry by one tris(3-aminopropylamine (trisapa ligand and two dicyanamide (dca ligands [one of them disordered in a 0.681 (19:0319 (19 ratio]. Intermolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonds involving the N atoms of the dca anions and the trisapa amine H atoms result in the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  14. Every breath you take: the impact of environment on resident memory CD8 T cells in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Hillary L; Klonowski, Kimberly D

    2014-01-01

    Resident memory T cells (TRM) are broadly defined as a population of T cells, which persist in non-lymphoid sites long-term, do not re-enter the circulation, and are distinct from central memory T cells (TCM) and circulating effector memory T cells (TEM). Recent studies have described populations of TRM cells in the skin, gut, lungs, and nervous tissue. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the specific environment in which the TRM reside can further refine their phenotypical and functional properties. Here, we focus on the TRM cells that develop following respiratory infection and reside in the lungs and the lung airways. Specifically, we will review recent studies that have described some of the requirements for establishment of TRM cells in these tissues, and the defining characteristics of TRM in the lungs and lung airways. With continual bombardment of the respiratory tract by both pathogenic and environmental antigens, dynamic fluctuations in the local milieu including homeostatic resources and niche restrictions can impact TRM longevity. Beyond a comprehensive characterization of lung TRM cells, special attention will be placed on studies, which have defined how the microenvironment of the lung influences memory T cell survival at this site. As memory T cell populations in the lung airways are requisite for protection yet wane numerically over time, developing a comprehensive picture of factors which may influence TRM development and persistence at these sites is important for improving T cell-based vaccine design.

  15. Every breath you take: The impact of environment on resident memory CD8 T cells in the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary eShane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resident memory T cells (TRM are broadly defined as a population of T cells which persist in non-lymphoid sites long term, do not re-enter the circulation, and are distinct from central memory T cells (TCM and circulating effector memory T cells (TEM. Recent studies have described populations of TRM cells in the skin, gut, lungs and nervous tissue. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the specific environment in which the TRM reside can further refine their phenotypical and functional properties. Here, we focus on the TRM cells that develop following respiratory infection and reside in the lungs and the lung airways. Specifically, we will review recent studies that have described some of the requirements for establishment of TRM cells in these tissues, and the defining characteristics of TRM in the lungs and lung airways. With continual bombardment of the respiratory tract by both pathogenic and environmental antigens, dynamic fluctuations in the local milieu including homeostatic resources and niche restrictions can impact TRM longevity. Beyond a comprehensive characterization of lung TRM cells, special attention will be placed on studies which have defined how the microenvironment of the lung influences memory T cell survival at this site. As memory T cell populations in the lung airways are requisite for protection yet wane numerically over time, developing a comprehensive picture of factors which may influence TRM development and persistence at these sites is important for improving T cell-based vaccine design.

  16. Differentiation and functional maturation of bone marrow-derived intestinal epithelial T cells expressing membrane T cell receptor in athymic radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.L.; Styre, D.; Klein, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The thymus dependency of murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was studied in an athymic F1----parent radiation chimera model. IEL, although not splenic or lymph node lymphocytes, from athymic chimeras displayed normal levels of cells bearing the class-specific T cell Ag, CD4 and CD8; the TCR-associated molecule, CD3; and the Thy-1 Ag. Moreover, two-color flow cytometric analyses of IEL from athymic mice demonstrated regulated expression of T cell Ag characteristic of IEL subset populations from thymus-bearing mice. In immunoprecipitation experiments, surface TCR-alpha beta or TCR-gamma delta were expressed on IEL, although not on splenic lymphocytes, from athymic chimeras. That IEL from athymic chimeras constituted a population of functionally mature effector cells activated in situ, similar to IEL from thymus-bearing mice, was demonstrated by the presence of CD3-mediated lytic activity of athymic lethally irradiated bone marrow reconstituted IEL. These data provide compelling evidence that intestinal T cells do not require thymic influence for maturation and development, and demonstrate that the microenvironment of the intestinal epithelium is uniquely adapted to regulate IEL differentiation

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and its influence on analgesics effectiveness in patients suffering from migraine headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeklasa-Muszyńska, Anna; Kocot-Kępska, Magdalena; Dobrogowski, Jan; Wiatr, Maciej; Mika, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    Headache is one of the most common conditions troubling nearly 45% of the world's population. Migraine headache itself, being more common among women, affects 7-18% of people. As much as 20-30% of the population report accompanying aura and neurological symptoms. In many cases, migraine headache can be effectively treated with suitably selected pharmacotherapies which include drugs used in symptomatic treatment. Frequent occurrence of the condition is treated with prophylaxis, which often fails. Neuromodulating methods are part of the multidirectional treatment and they may be valuable complement to pharmacotherapy. Our study evaluates the impact of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the consumption of drugs and on pain conditions (frequency, duration, intensity). We recruited 50 patients with migraine headache (30 with aura, 20 without aura) refractory to pharmacological therapy. In 30 patients (18 with aura, 12 without aura) previous unsatisfactory treatment was supplemented with tDCS performed tenfold. 20 patients (12 with aura, 8 without aura) from a control group were treated with pharmacological methods The observation continued for 30 days after the stimulation. After tDCS, a reduction in the consumption of analgesics and triptans was reported. Additionally, we monitored pain intensity decrease during pain episodes, duration of episodes and the number of pain days. The subjective assessment of pain reduction in migraine patients encompassed 36-40% after tDCS much more effective in comparison to group with only pharmacotherapy (10-12.5%). The study suggests that tDCS may be safe and useful clinical tool in migraine prophylaxis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. 1 r urT log ),( r t lim ),( ) ( , urT urrT r r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    dθ where u+(z) = max(u(z), 0). The lower order λ of u is given by λ = lim r. urT log. ),(. A sequence {rn} of positive numbers is said to be a sequence of Pólya peaks for T(r, u) of order λ > 0 if there is a sequence {∈n}, ∈n > 0 such that ∈n → 0.

  19. A primary reduced TCA flux governs substrate oxidation in T2D skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Our current knowledge on substrate oxidation in skeletal muscle in relation to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) originate mainly from in vivo studies. The oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle is highly influenced by physical activity, ageing, hormonal status, and fiber type composition...... further regulatory mechanism to our understanding of substrate oxidation in human skeletal muscle during normo- an pathophysiological conditions, focusing especially on the governing influence of a primary reduced TCA flux for the diabetic phenotype in skeletal muscle....

  20. An Evaluation of Thyroid Hormones (T4, T3, and Free T4) Concentrations During Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1981-01-01

    Serum concentrations of T 4 , T 3 , and free T 4 were measured by radioimmunoassay in normal pregnant women at trimesters, in postpartum women, and cord blood of neonate. Total T 4 were increased during pregnancy, remarkably high in the first trimester, and also somewhat increased in postpartum, and normal in neonate. Total T 3 were in normal range during pregnancy, but increased in postpartum, whereas decreased in neonate. Free T 4 were decreased in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy, however normal in postpartum and neonate.

  1. Influence of ecological factors on the production of active substances in the anti-cancer plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun; Yin, Dongxue; Zhao, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which plays a very important role in the health system of China, is determined by the active substances produced by the plants. The type, content, and proportion of these substances may vary depending on ecological factors in areas where the plants are grown. Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying, an endangered plant species with great medical value, was investigated in eight production locations representative of its natural geographical distribution range in China. The correlation between the contents of the active ingredients extracted from the roots and rhizomes of S. hexandrum and the ecological factors were evaluated step-by-step using a series of computational biology methodologies. The results showed that ecological factors had significant effects on the contents but not on the types of the active ingredients in eight production locations. The primary ecological factors influencing the active substances included the annual average precipitation, July mean temperature, frost-free period, sunshine duration, soil pH, soil organic matter, and rapidly available potassium in the soil. The annual average precipitation was the most important determinant factor and was significantly and negatively correlated with the active ingredient contents (P Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, and Nyingchi, Tibet, conditions were favorable to the production of quercetin and kaempferol.

  2. Measurement of the ratio $B(t \\to W b)/B(t \\to W q)$ in $t\\bar{t}$ dilepton channel at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloni, Camilla [Pisa U.

    2012-01-01

    My analysis is based on the number of b-jets found in t¯t events using the dilepton sample with at least 2 jets in the final state. The charged leptons could be either electrons or muons. Tau leptons are not included. We use SecVtx algorithm, based on the reconstruction of a secondary vertex in the event, in order to identify a jet coming from b-quark fragmentation (b-tagging). Due to the high purity of the t¯t signal in dilepton events it is possible to perform a kinematic measurement of the t¯t cross section. Our strategy is to use this result to make prediction on the number of t¯t events. We divide our sample in subsets according to dilepton type (combination of the lepton type), number of jets in the final states and events with zero, one or two tags. The comparison between events and the prediction, given by the sum of the expected t¯t estimate and the background yield, in each subsample is made using a Likelihood function. Our measured value for R is the one which maximizes the Likelihood, i.e. gives the best match between our expectation and the observed data. We measure: p¯p!t¯t = 7.05±0.53stat±0.42lumi , R= 0.86±0.06 (stat+syst) and, in the hypothesis of CKM matrix unitarity with three quark generations, | Vtb | = 0.93 ± 0.03. Our analysis on the p¯p!t¯t was performed independently of the official dilepton analisys on the t¯t production cross section. So it represents also a valuable crosscheck for the official analysis. In chapter 1, a brief introduction to the theoretical framework is given. The standard model of elementary particles and the Quantum Cromodynamic theories are introduced. Then the top quark is presented, with a short descpription of its properties, as its mass, its production mode and its cross section. Some previous results on R are listed as well. Later we present the experiment that collected our data, both the collider (chapter 2) and the detector (CDF)(chapter 3). In chapter 4 we describe the physics object

  3. Development and characterization of radioimmunoassay methods for the measurement of iodothyronines (T4, T3 and rT3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, E.M.K.; Vieira, J.G.H.; Barros Maciel, R.M. de; Fonseca, R.M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The experience acquired in the development of radioimmunoassay for T 4 , T 3 and rT 3 in unextrated serum is described. Antisera were produced in rabbits using iodothyronines conjugated to bovine serum albumin: the antisera selected provided the development of sensitive and specific radioassay methods. Stable high activity T 3 , T 4 and rT 3 tracers were prepared by iodination of 3,5 T 2 , T 3 and 3,3' T 2 by the chloramine-T method, and purified by column chromatography on Sephadex G25. Binding of those iodothyronines to endogenous serum proteins was blocked by including 8-aniline-1-naphtalene sulphonic acid (ANSA) in the T 4 and T 3 assays and thymerosal in the rT 3 assay. Normal values were defined in 46 healthy euthyroid adults of both sexes: T 4 = 7,1 +- 1,3μg/dl; T 3 = 139 +- 35ng/dl and rT 3 = 18,0 +- 7,9ng/dl. (Author) [pt

  4. Intestinal immune system of young rats influenced by cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Castellote, Cristina; Permanyer, Joan; Franch, Angels; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2008-08-01

    Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) maintains mucosal homeostasis by counteracting pathogens and inducing a state of nonresponsiveness when it receives signals from food antigens and commensal bacteria. We report for the first time the influence of continuous cocoa consumption on GALT function in rats postweaning. Weaned Wistar rats were fed cocoa-enriched diets (4% or 10% food intake) for 3 weeks. The function of the primary inductive sites of GALT, such as Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), was evaluated through an analysis of IgA-secretory ability and lymphocyte composition (T, B and natural killer cells), activation (IL-2 secretion and IL-2 receptor alpha expression) and proliferation. T-helper effector cell balance was also established based on cytokine profile (interferon gamma, IL-4 and IL-10) after mitogen activation. A 10% cocoa intake induced significant changes in PP and MLN lymphocyte composition and function, whereas a 4% cocoa diet did not cause significant modifications in either tissues. Cocoa diet strongly reduced secretory IgA (S-IgA) in the intestinal lumen, although IgA's secretory ability was only slightly decreased in PP. In addition, the 10% cocoa diet increased T-cell-antigen receptor gammadelta cell proportion in both lymphoid tissues. Thus, cocoa intake modulates intestinal immune responses in young rats, influencing gammadelta T-cells and S-IgA production.

  5. Comparison between gadolinium-enhanced 2D T1-weighted gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences in the detection of active multiple sclerosis lesions on 3.0T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aymerich, F.X. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, MR Unit. Department of Radiology (IDI), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - Barcelona Tech (UPC), Department of Automatic Control (ESAII), Barcelona (Spain); Auger, C.; Alcaide-Leon, P.; Pareto, D.; Huerga, E.; Corral, J.F.; Mitjana, R.; Rovira, A. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, MR Unit. Department of Radiology (IDI), Barcelona (Spain); Sastre-Garriga, J.; Montalban, X. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Centre d' Esclerosi Multiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Department of Neurology/Neuroimmunology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the sensitivity of enhancing multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in gadolinium-enhanced 2D T1-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) and spin-echo (SE) sequences, and to assess the influence of visual conspicuity and laterality on detection of these lesions. One hundred MS patients underwent 3.0T brain MRI including gadolinium-enhanced 2D T1-weighted GRE and SE sequences. The two sets of contrast-enhanced scans were evaluated in random fashion by three experienced readers. Lesion conspicuity was assessed by the image contrast ratio (CR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The intracranial region was divided into four quadrants and the impact of lesion location on detection was assessed in each slice. Six hundred and seven gadolinium-enhancing MS lesions were identified. GRE images were more sensitive for lesion detection (0.828) than SE images (0.767). Lesions showed a higher CR in SE than in GRE images, whereas the CNR was higher in GRE than SE. Most misclassifications occurred in the right posterior quadrant. The gadolinium-enhanced 2D T1-weighted GRE sequence at 3.0T MRI enables detection of enhancing MS lesions with higher sensitivity and better lesion conspicuity than 2D T1-weighted SE. Hence, we propose the use of gadolinium-enhanced GRE sequences rather than SE sequences for routine scanning of MS patients at 3.0T. (orig.)

  6. Centrality dependence of low-p{sub T} and high-p{sub T} particle production in proton–lead collisions with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulga, Evgeny

    2016-12-15

    Measurements of the centrality dependence of low-p{sub T} and high-p{sub T} particle production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC can provide unique insight into the dynamics of soft and hard scattering processes and the initial state of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Recent results have shown that both soft and hard processes may be significantly influenced by event-to-event fluctuations (variations) in the structure of the proton. In this proceedings, the latest measurements of the centrality dependence of charged particle, and Z boson production with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are used to explore these questions. In particular, the sensitivity of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton–lead collisions to the choice of centrality variable is discussed. Separately, to address recent measurements of the correlation between the initial-state hard scattering kinematics in dijet events and forward transverse energy in proton-proton collisions will be presented.

  7. Centrality dependence of low-$p_{_\\text{T}}$ and high-$p_{_\\text{T}}$ particle production in proton--lead collisions with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Shulga, Evgeny; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the centrality dependence of low-$p_{_\\text{T}}$ and high-$p_{_\\text{T}}$ particle production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC can provide unique insight into the dynamics of soft and hard scattering processes and the initial state of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Recent results have shown that both soft and hard processes may be significantly influenced by event-to-event fluctuations (variations) in the structure of the proton. In this talk, the latest measurements of the centrality dependence of charged particle, jet, and Z boson production with the ATLAS detector at the LHC will be used to explore these questions. In particular, the sensitivity of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton--lead collisions to the choice of centrality variable will be discussed. Separately, the strong centrality dependence of jet production in proton--lead collisions has raised questions about energy production at large rapidities in collisions involving a large proton-x. To addr...

  8. Beyond genetics. Influence of dietary factors and gut microbiota on type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Krych, Lukasz; Buschard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease ultimately leading to destruction of insulin secreting β-cells in the pancreas. Genetic susceptibility plays an important role in T1D etiology, but even mono-zygotic twins only have a concordance rate of around 50%, underlining that other factors than...... purely genetic are involved in disease development. Here we review the influence of dietary and environmental factors on T1D development in humans as well as animal models. Even though data are still inconclusive, there are strong indications that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in T1D...... development and evidence from animal models suggests that gut microbiota manipulation might prove valuable in future prevention of T1D in genetically susceptible individuals....

  9. Influence of Gender and Leg Dominance on Q-angle among Young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAIYESIMI

    17 - 30 years and the influence of leg dominance and gender on the Q-angle. Four hundred healthy ... for the Q-angle can be ascribed to methodological differences in measurement ..... Hahn, T. and Foldspan, A. (1997) The Q-angle and sport.

  10. Celiac Disease Does Not Influence Fracture Risk in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Norelle R; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Mollazadegan, Kaziwe; Michaëlsson, Karl; Green, Peter HR; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the risk of any fractures in patients with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) vs patients with T1D only. Study design We performed a population-based cohort study. We defined T1D as individuals aged ≤30 years who had a diagnosis of diabetes recorded in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1964–2009. Individuals with CD were identified through biopsy report data between 1969–2008 from any of Sweden’s 28 pathology departments. Some 958 individuals had both T1D and CD and were matched for sex, age and calendar period with 4,598 reference individuals with T1D only. We then used a stratified Cox regression analysis, where CD was modeled as a time-dependent covariate, to estimate the risk of any fractures and osteoporotic fractures (hip, distal forearm, thoracic and lumbar spine, and proximal humerus) in patients with both T1D and CD compared with that in patients with T1D only. Results During follow-up, 12 patients with T1D and CD had a fracture (1 osteoporotic fracture). CD did not influence the risk of any fracture (adjusted Hazard Ratio=0.77; 95%CI=0.42–1.41) or osteoporotic fractures (adjusted Hazard Ratio=0.46; 95%CI=0.06–3.51) in patients with T1D. Stratification for time since CD diagnosis did not affect risk estimates. Conclusion Having a diagnosis of CD does not seem to influence fracture risk in young patients with T1D. Follow-up in this study was, however, too short to ascertain osteoporotic fractures which traditionally occur in old age. PMID:26589343

  11. Mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) C3275T, tRNAGln T4363C and tRNALys A8343G mutations may be associated with PCOS and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Xia, Bo-Hou; Zhang, Cai-Juan; Zhuo, Guang-Chao

    2018-02-05

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very prevalent endocrine disease affecting reproductive women. Clinically, patients with this disorder are more vulnerable to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular events, as well as metabolic syndrome (MetS). To date, the molecular mechanism underlying PCOS remains largely unknown. Previously, we showed that mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation was an important cause for PCOS. In the current study, we described the clinical and biochemical features of a three-generation pedigree with maternally transmitted MetS, combined with PCOS. A total of three matrilineal relatives exhibited MetS including obesity, high triglyceride (TG) and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and hypertension. Whereas one patient from the third generation manifestated PCOS. Mutational analysis of the whole mitochondrial genes from the affected individuals identified a set of genetic variations belonging to East Asia haplogroup B4b1c. Among these variants, the homoplasmic C3275T mutation disrupted a highly evolutionary conserved base-pairing (28A-46C) on the variable region of tRNA Leu(UUR) , whereas the T4363C mutation created a new base-pairing (31T-37A) in the anticodon stem of tRNA Gln , furthermore, the A8343G mutation occurred at the very conserved position of tRNA Lys and may result the failure in mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs) metabolism. Biochemical analysis revealed the deficiency in mitochondrial functions including lower levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP production and mtDNA copy number, while a significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in polymononuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from the individuals carrying these mt-tRNA mutations, suggesting that these mutations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction that was responsible for the clinical phenotypes. Taken together, our data indicated that mt-tRNA mutations were associated with MetS and PCOS in this

  12. 7 Tesla quantitative hip MRI: T1, T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazik, Andrea; Theysohn, Jens M.; Geis, Christina [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Johst, Soeren; Kraff, Oliver [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, High Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and applicability of quantitative MR techniques (delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T2 mapping, T2* mapping) at 7 T MRI for assessing hip cartilage. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T MRI with an 8-channel radiofrequency transmit/receive body coil using multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping and a dual flip angle gradient-echo sequence before (T1{sub 0}) and after intravenous contrast agent administration (T1{sub Gd}; 0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA{sup 2-} followed by 0.5 h of walking and 0.5 h of rest) for dGEMRIC. Relaxation times of cartilage were measured manually in 10 regions of interest. Pearson's correlations between R1{sub delta} = 1/T1{sub Gd} - 1/T1{sub 0} and T1{sub Gd} and between T2 and T2* were calculated. Image quality and the delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage in the relaxation time maps were evaluated using discrete rating scales. High correlations were found between R1{sub delta} and T1{sub Gd} and between T2 and T2* relaxation times (all p < 0.01). All techniques delivered diagnostic image quality, with best delineation of femoral and acetabular cartilage in the T2* maps (mean 3.2 out of a maximum of 4 points). T1, T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage with diagnostic image quality is feasible at 7 T. To perform dGEMRIC at 7 T, pre-contrast T1 mapping can be omitted. (orig.)

  13. Influence of different anesthesia methods on stress reaction and hemodynamics for elderly orthopedics patients during operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the influence of general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia and combined spinal and epidural anesthesia method on stress reaction and hemodynamics for elderly orthopedics patients during operations. Methods: A total of 90 cases of elder patients who received orthopedic operations were randomly divided to group A, B and C, with 30 cases per group. Three groups of patients were separately given by general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia and combined spinal and epidural anesthesia for operations; The variations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, Cortisol (Cor, β-endorphin (β-EP, Angiotensin- Ⅱ(Ang-Ⅱ, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (SBP, DBP on patients in three groups before anesthesia (T0, during skin incision (T1, after skin incision (T2 and extubation after operation (T3 were compared and analyzed. Results: During T1, T2, ACTH, Cor, β-EP and Ang-Ⅱlevels in 3 groups of patients were significantly higher than those during T0; SBP and DBP were significantly lower than that during T0; HR during T2 was significantly lower than that during T0; During T3, every index in 3 groups were recovered to levels close to that during T0; During T1, T2, ACTH, Cor, β-EP, Ang-Ⅱ levels in group B and C were significantly lower than that in group A. And levels in C was lower than that in B; SBP and DBP in group B and C were significantly higher than A. No HR statistical significance appeared between each group. Conclusions: During clinical anesthesia, we should choose suitable anesthesia method combined with actual situations of patients. Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia had a slight influence on hemodynamics of elder orthopedics patients during operation, and it could effectively alleviate stress reaction during operation.

  14. Study of the influence of liquid sodium on the mechanical behavior of T91 steel in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemery, S.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the sensitivity of T91 steel to embrittlement by liquid sodium. An experimental procedure was set up to proceed to mechanical testing in sodium under an inert atmosphere. The introduction of a liquid sodium pre-exposure step prior to mechanical testing enabled the study of both the wettability of T91 by sodium and the structure of the sodium steel/interface as a function of the exposure parameters. The mechanical properties of T91 steel are significantly reduced in liquid sodium provided the wetting conditions are good. The use of varying oxygen and hydrogen concentrations suggests that oxygen plays a major role in enhancing the wettability of T91. The sensitivity of the embrittlement to strain rate and temperature was characterized. These results showed the existence of a ductile to brittle transition depending on both parameters. Its characterization suggests that a diffusion step is the limiting rate phenomenon of this embrittlement case. TEM and EBSD analysis of arrested cracks enabled us to establish that the fracture mode is inter-lath or intergranular. This characteristic is coherent with the crack path commonly reported in liquid metal embrittlement. A similar procedure was applied to the unalloyed XC10 steel. The results show a behavior which is similar to the one of T91 steel and suggest a common mechanism for liquid sodium embrittlement of body centered cubic steels. Moreover, they confirm that the ductile to brittle transition seems associated with a limited crack propagation rate. The propagation is thermally activated with activation energy of about 50 kJ/mol. Finally, it was shown that 304L austenitic steel is sensitive to liquid sodium embrittlement as well. Some fracture surfaces testify of an intergranular fracture mode, but some questions still remain about the crack path. (author) [fr

  15. Psychological Factors Influencing Life Satisfaction of Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Olubukola; Adewumi, Bukunmi

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the psychological factors influencing life satisfaction of undergraduates. The instruments used were Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Rosenberge Self-esteem Scale (RSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A total number of 190 participants were purposively selected across various faculties in Ekiti State University. Four hypotheses were tested using Independent t-test to find the effects of perceived stres...

  16. Assessment of myocardial fibrosis with T1 mapping MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Stirrat, C.G.; Semple, S.I.R.; Newby, D.E.; Dweck, M.R.; Mirsadraee, S.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial fibrosis can arise from a range of pathological processes and its presence correlates with adverse clinical outcomes. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can provide a non-invasive assessment of cardiac structure, function, and tissue characteristics, which includes late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) techniques to identify focal irreversible replacement fibrosis with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility. Importantly the presence of LGE is consistently associated with adverse outcomes in a range of common cardiac conditions; however, LGE techniques are qualitative and unable to detect diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which is an earlier form of fibrosis preceding replacement fibrosis that may be reversible. Novel T1 mapping techniques allow quantitative CMR assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis with the two most common measures being native T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) fraction. Native T1 differentiates normal from infarcted myocardium, is abnormal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and may be particularly useful in the diagnosis of Anderson–Fabry disease and amyloidosis. ECV is a surrogate measure of the extracellular space and is equivalent to the myocardial volume of distribution of the gadolinium-based contrast medium. It is reproducible and correlates well with fibrosis on histology. ECV is abnormal in patients with cardiac failure and aortic stenosis, and is associated with functional impairment in these groups. T1 mapping techniques promise to allow earlier detection of disease, monitor disease progression, and inform prognosis; however, limitations remain. In particular, reference ranges are lacking for T1 mapping values as these are influenced by specific CMR techniques and magnetic field strength. In addition, there is significant overlap between T1 mapping values in healthy controls and most disease states, particularly using native T1, limiting the clinical application of these techniques at present.

  17. Assessment of myocardial fibrosis with T1 mapping MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, R J; Stirrat, C G; Semple, S I R; Newby, D E; Dweck, M R; Mirsadraee, S

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial fibrosis can arise from a range of pathological processes and its presence correlates with adverse clinical outcomes. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can provide a non-invasive assessment of cardiac structure, function, and tissue characteristics, which includes late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) techniques to identify focal irreversible replacement fibrosis with a high degree of accuracy and reproducibility. Importantly the presence of LGE is consistently associated with adverse outcomes in a range of common cardiac conditions; however, LGE techniques are qualitative and unable to detect diffuse myocardial fibrosis, which is an earlier form of fibrosis preceding replacement fibrosis that may be reversible. Novel T1 mapping techniques allow quantitative CMR assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis with the two most common measures being native T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) fraction. Native T1 differentiates normal from infarcted myocardium, is abnormal in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and may be particularly useful in the diagnosis of Anderson-Fabry disease and amyloidosis. ECV is a surrogate measure of the extracellular space and is equivalent to the myocardial volume of distribution of the gadolinium-based contrast medium. It is reproducible and correlates well with fibrosis on histology. ECV is abnormal in patients with cardiac failure and aortic stenosis, and is associated with functional impairment in these groups. T1 mapping techniques promise to allow earlier detection of disease, monitor disease progression, and inform prognosis; however, limitations remain. In particular, reference ranges are lacking for T1 mapping values as these are influenced by specific CMR techniques and magnetic field strength. In addition, there is significant overlap between T1 mapping values in healthy controls and most disease states, particularly using native T1, limiting the clinical application of these techniques at present. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College

  18. Murine T cell activation is regulated by surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warford, Jordan, E-mail: jordan.warford@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Doucette, Carolyn D., E-mail: carolyn.doucette@dal.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Hoskin, David W., E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Easton, Alexander S., E-mail: alexander.easton@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery), Dalhousie University, Tupper Building, 5850 College Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Surfen is the first inhibitor of glycosaminoglycan function to be studied in murine T cells. •Surfen reduces T cell proliferation stimulated in vitro and in vivo. •Surfen reduces CD25 expression in T cells activated in vivo but not in vitro. •Surfen increases T cell proliferation when T cell receptor activation is bypassed. •Surfen’s effects are blocked by co-administration of heparin sulfate. -- Abstract: Surfen (bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide) binds to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and has been shown to influence their function, and the function of proteoglycans (complexes of GAGs linked to a core protein). T cells synthesize, secrete and express GAGs and proteoglycans which are involved in several aspects of T cell function. However, there are as yet no studies on the effect of GAG-binding agents such as surfen on T cell function. In this study, surfen was found to influence murine T cell activation. Doses between 2.5 and 20 μM produced a graduated reduction in the proliferation of T cells activated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated T cell expander beads. Surfen (20 mg/kg) was also administered to mice treated with anti-CD3 antibody to activate T cells in vivo. Lymphocytes from surfen-treated mice also showed reduced proliferation and lymph node cell counts were reduced. Surfen reduced labeling with a cell viability marker (7-ADD) but to a much lower extent than its effect on proliferation. Surfen also reduced CD25 (the α-subunit of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor) expression with no effect on CD69 expression in T cells treated in vivo but not in vitro. When receptor activation was bypassed by treating T cells in vitro with phorbyl myristate acetate (10 ng/ml) and ionomycin (100 ng/ml), surfen treatment either increased proliferation (10 μM) or had no effect (2.5, 5 and 20 μM). In vitro treatment of T cells with surfen had no effect on IL-2 or interferon-γ synthesis and did not alter proliferation of the IL-2 dependent cell

  19. But I can’t pass that far! The influence of motor skill on decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruce, L.; Farrow, D.; Raynor, A.; Mann, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The influence of motor skill on perceptual-cognitive and perceptual-motor decision making has been theorised but not verified empirically. Method: Expert (n=19), developmental (n=20), and lesser-skilled netballers (n=19) completed tests designed to evaluate three different components of

  20. Oncogenic Notch signaling in T-cell and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Mark Y; Radojcic, Vedran; Maillard, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    This article highlights recent discoveries about Notch activation and its oncogenic functions in lymphoid malignancies, and discusses the therapeutic potential of Notch inhibition. NOTCH mutations arise in a broad spectrum of lymphoid malignancies and are increasingly scrutinized as putative therapeutic targets. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), NOTCH1 mutations affect the extracellular negative regulatory region and lead to constitutive Notch activation, although mutated receptors remain sensitive to Notch ligands. Other NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL and NOTCH1/2 mutations in multiple B-cell malignancies truncate the C-terminal proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S), threonine (T)-rich (PEST) domain, leading to decreased Notch degradation after ligand-mediated activation. Thus, targeting Notch ligand-receptor interactions could provide therapeutic benefits. In addition, we discuss recent reports on clinical testing of Notch inhibitors in T-ALL that influenced contemporary thinking on the challenges of targeting Notch in cancer. We review advances in the laboratory to address these challenges in regards to drug targets, the Notch-driven metabolome, and the sophisticated protein-protein interactions at Notch-dependent superenhancers that underlie oncogenic Notch functions. Notch signaling is a recurrent oncogenic pathway in multiple T- and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Understanding the complexity and consequences of Notch activation is critical to define optimal therapeutic strategies targeting the Notch pathway.

  1. Recent advances in flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Mat, Sohif; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R and D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned. (author)

  2. Phenotypic and functional profiling of CD4 T cell compartment in distinct populations of healthy adults with different antigenic exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roetynck

    Full Text Available Multiparameter flow cytometry has revealed extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of CD4 T cell responses in mice and humans, emphasizing the importance of assessing multiple aspects of the immune response in correlation with infection or vaccination outcome. The aim of this study was to establish and validate reliable and feasible flow cytometry assays, which will allow us to characterize CD4 T cell population in humans in field studies more fully.We developed polychromatic flow cytometry antibody panels for immunophenotyping the major CD4 T cell subsets as well as broadly characterizing the functional profiles of the CD4 T cells in peripheral blood. We then validated these assays by conducting a pilot study comparing CD4 T cell responses in distinct populations of healthy adults living in either rural or urban Kenya. This study revealed that the expression profile of CD4 T cell activation and memory markers differed significantly between African and European donors but was similar amongst African individuals from either rural or urban areas. Adults from rural Kenya had, however, higher frequencies and greater polyfunctionality among cytokine producing CD4 T cells compared to both urban populations, particularly for "Th1" type of response. Finally, endemic exposure to malaria in rural Kenya may have influenced the expansion of few discrete CD4 T cell populations with specific functional signatures.These findings suggest that environmentally driven T cell activation does not drive the dysfunction of CD4 T cells but is rather associated with greater magnitude and quality of CD4 T cell response, indicating that the level or type of microbial exposure and antigenic experience may influence and shape the functionality of CD4 T cell compartment. Our data confirm that it is possible and mandatory to assess multiple functional attributes of CD4 T cell response in the context of infection.

  3. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Sharpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

  4. [A reconsideration of nursing ethics from the perspective of téchne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Our current age of technology sets high expectations for clarity and exactness in all professions, including nursing. This article introduces nursing ethics as a nebulous form of art (téchne) and then considers the new aspects that may be developed from nursing ethics. We first introduce the Aristotelian concept of téchne and then explain how téchne addresses experiential knowledge without claims to exactness. A discussion then follows about the relationship of téchne to rigorous and serious philosophy. While téchne is not an exact science, this concept addresses the difference between the exactness claimed by ancient Greek physical science (phúsis) and wisdom and the exactness claimed by Westerners today due to the changes in modern Western attitudes toward beings. In discussing nursing ethics as téchne, this article shows that the discussions of ethics within the medical and nursing professions nowadays are still influenced by age-of-technology claims to exactness. Finally, we propose the following: 1) nursing ethics should develop standards for ethics of care (or care ethics) wherein action is more important than theoretical argument and 2) some ideas and methods of rhetoric and narration should be integrated into the process of communication between nurses and patients.

  5. Type 2 diabetes-related variants influence the risk of developing multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos, Rafael; Lupiañez, Carmen Belén; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been suggested to be a risk factor for multiple myeloma (MM), but the relationship between the two traits is still not well understood. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether 58 genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS)-identified common variants for T2D influence...... genetic information (area under the curve (AUC)=0.645 vs AUC=0.629; P=4.05×10(-) (06)). A gender-stratified analysis also revealed a significant gender effect modification for ADAM30rs2641348 and NOTCH2rs10923931 variants (Pinteraction=0.001 and 0.0004, respectively). Men carrying the ADAM30rs2641348C...... carrying the KCNQ1rs2237892T allele or the CDKN2A-2Brs2383208G/G, IGF1rs35767T/T and MADDrs7944584T/T genotypes had a significantly increased risk of MM (odds ratio (OR)=1.32-2.13) whereas those carrying the KCNJ11rs5215C, KCNJ11rs5219T and THADArs7578597C alleles or the FTOrs8050136A/A and LTArs1041981C...

  6. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mawusi Amos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques using SPSS version 16. The findings revealed a significant positive relationship between peer influence and eating habits suggesting that the higher the peer pressure, the more unhealthy the students’ eating habits. Counterintuitively, parental and media influences did not significantly correlate with students’ eating habits. Gender difference in eating habits suggested that girls had more unhealthy eating habits than boys. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed that peer influence was a better predictor of students’ eating habits than parental and media influences. The findings were discussed and recommendations were given in light of the study’s limitations.

  7. Prolonged bone marrow T1-relaxation in acute leukaemia. In vivo tissue characterization by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Sørensen, P G; Karle, H

    1987-01-01

    In vivo tissue characterization by measurement of T1- and T2-relaxation processes is one of the greatest potentials of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This may be especially useful in the evaluation of bone marrow disorders as the MRI-signal from bone marrow is not influenced by the overlying...... osseous tissue. Nine patients with acute leukaemia, one patient with myelodysplastic syndrome, and ten normal volunteers were included in the study. The T1- and T2-relaxation processes were measured in the lumbar spine bone marrow using a wholebody superconductive MR-scanner operating at 1.5 Tesla.......38-0.60 sec.). No significant difference was seen in the T2-relaxation process. In relation to chemotherapy T1 decreased towards the normal range in the patients who obtained complete remission, whereas T1 remained prolonged in the patients who did not respond successfully to the treatment. The results...

  8. The Efficiency of Delone Coverings of the Canonical Tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopolos, Zorka; Kasner, Gerald

    This chapter is devoted to the coverings of the two quasiperiodic canonical tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) equiv {cal T}(*(2F)) -> T^*(D6) T^*(2F), obtained by projection from the root lattices A4 and D6, respectively. In the first major part of this chapter, in Sect. 5.2, we shall introduce a Delone covering MATH {cal C}(s_{{cal) T}(*(A_4)}) -> C^sT^*(A4) of the 2-dimensional decagonal tiling MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4). In the second major part of this chapter, Sect. 5.3, we summarize the results related to the Delone covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6), MATH {cal C}_{{cal T}(*(D_6)}) -> CT^*(D6) and determine the zero-, single-, and double- deckings and the resulting thickness of the covering. In the conclusions section, we give some suggestions as to how the definition of the Delone covering might be changed in order to reach some real (full) covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6). In Section 5.2 the definition of the Delone covering is also changed in order to avoid an unnecessary large thickness of the covering.

  9. An analytical biomarker for treatment of patients with recurrent B-ALL after remission induced by infusion of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajing; Zhang, Wenying; Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Shi, Fengxia; Wang, Chunmeng; Guo, Yelei; Liu, Yang; Chen, Meixia; Feng, Kaichao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Chuanjie; Yang, Qingming; Li, Suxia; Han, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T-19) cells have emerged as a powerful targeted immunotherapy for B-cell lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a remarkable clinical response in recent trials. Nonetheless, few data are available on the subsequent clinical monitoring and treatment of the patients, especially those with disease recurrence after CAR-T-19 cell infusion. Here, we analyzed three patients who survived after our phase I clinical trial and who were studied by means of biomarkers reflecting persistence of CAR-T-19 cells in vivo and predictive factors directing further treatment. One patient achieved 9-week sustained complete remission and subsequently received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Another patient who showed relapse after 20 weeks without detectable leukemia in the cerebrospinal fluid after CAR-T-19 cell treatment was able to achieve a morphological remission under the influence of stand-alone low-dose chemotherapeutic agents. The third patient gradually developed extensive extramedullary involvement in tissues with scarce immune- cell infiltration during a long period of hematopoietic remission after CAR-T-19 cell therapy. Long-term and discontinuous increases in serum cytokines (mainly interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein) were identified in two patients (Nos. 1 and 6) even though only a low copy number of CAR molecules could be detected in their peripheral blood. This finding was suggestive of persistent functional activity of CAR-T-19 cells. Combined analyses of laboratory biomarkers with their clinical manifestations before and after salvage treatment showed that the persistent immunosurveillance mediated by CAR-T-19 cells would inevitably potentiate the leukemia-killing effectiveness of subsequent chemotherapy in patients who showed relapse after CAR-T-19-induced remission.

  10. Maximal exercise increases mucosal associated invariant T cell frequency and number in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erik D; Danson, Eli; Nguyen-Robertson, Catriona V; Fyfe, Jackson J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bartlett, David B; Sakkal, Samy

    2017-11-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from venous blood obtained prior and immediately after exercise and were labeled to identify specific T cell populations using flow cytometry. The percentage of MAIT cells relative to total T cells significantly increased from 3.0 to 3.8% and absolute MAIT cell counts increased by 2.2-fold following maximal exercise. MAIT cell subpopulation proportions were unchanged with exercise. Within cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), MAIT cells consisted of 8% of these cells and this remained constant after exercise. MAIT cell counts and changes with exercise were not affected by body composition, VO 2peak , or exercise duration. Maximal exercise doubled MAIT cell numbers and showed preferential mobilization within total T cells but the response was not influenced by fitness levels, exercise duration, or body composition. These results suggest that acute exercise could be used to offset MAIT cell deficiencies observed with certain pathologies. MAIT cells also make up a substantial proportion of CTLs, which may have implications for cytotoxicity assays using these cells.

  11. The influence of zigzag-curve defect on the fatigue properties of friction stir welds in 7075-T6 Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Shusheng; Yang Xinqi; Fang Dapeng; Luan Guohong

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure and fatigue properties of friction stir welded joints of 7075-T6 Al alloy were discussed. It was shown that the zigzag-curve defect at the root of welds is Key factor to reduce the fatigue performance of single-sided friction stir welded joints of 7075-T6 high strength aluminum alloy. On the other hand, the FSW joints of 7075-T6 Al alloy achieved higher fatigue strength compared to the traditional fusion design curves IIW FAT40 and Draft Eurocode 9 design category 55-6 for structural aluminum alloy components

  12. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  13. Sequence variants at the myostatin gene locus influence the body composition of Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozaki, Teruaki; Sato, Fumio; Hill, Emmeline W; Miyake, Takeshi; Endo, Yoshiro; Kakoi, Hironaga; Gawahara, Hitoshi; Hirota, Kei-ichi; Nakano, Yasuko; Nambo, Yasuo; Kurosawa, Masahiko

    2011-12-01

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β family with a key role in inhibition of muscle growth by negative regulation of both myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Recently, a genomic region on ECA18, which includes the MSTN gene, was identified as a candidate region influencing racing performance in Thoroughbreds. In this study, four SNPs on ECA18, g.65809482T>C, g.65868604G>T, g.66493737C>T, and g.66539967A>G, were genotyped in 91 Thoroughbred horses-in-training to evaluate the association between genotype and body composition traits, including body weight, withers height, chest circumference, cannon circumference, and body weight/withers height. Of these, statistically differences in body weight and body weight/withers height were associated with specific genotypes in males. Specifically, body weight/withers height showed statistically significant differences depending on genotype at g.658604G>T, g.66493737C>T, and g.66539967A>G (PT, had the highest value (3.17 ± 0.05 kg·cm(-1)) for body weight/withers height in March, while those with a genotype associated with suitability for long-distance racing, T/T, had the lowest (2.99 ± 0.03 kg·cm(-1)). In females, the trends in the association of body weight/withers height with genotypes were similar to those observed in males. As the SNPs are not believed to be linked to coding variants in MSTN, these results suggest that regulation of MSTN gene expression influences skeletal muscle mass and hence racing performance, particularly optimum race distance, in Thoroughbred horses.

  14. The influence of interleukin-2, feeder cells, and timing of irradiation on the radiosensitivity of human T lymphocytes assessed by the colony-forming assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.; Guichard, M.; Pioch, Y.; Dubois, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of human lymphocytes was investigated by the method of colony formation in the absence of interleukin-2 (IL2) and feeder cells, both of which enhance growth of T-cell colonies. The shape of the survival curve and the radiosensitivity was shown to depend upon the ability of lymphocytes to produce IL2: the survival curve for lymphocytes that were the most competent producers of IL2 is the closest to linearity; the lymphocytes that were poor producers show biphasic survival curves. The radiosensitivity of the lymphocytes from the first group is less than that of the latter, when the comparison is based on the first part of the biphasic survival curve. This is more easily seen when cultures are irradiated 24 h after stimulation by phytohemagglutinin (the time of the peak IL2 production) than when cultures are irradiated 2 h before stimulation. This study demonstrates that growth conditions influence the response of lymphocytes to irradiation and that optimal growth conditions result in a linear survival curve

  15. Modelling bidirectional fluxes of methanol and acetaldehyde with the FORCAsT canopy exchange model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashworth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The FORCAsT canopy exchange model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms governing foliage emissions of methanol and acetaldehyde, two short chain oxygenated volatile organic compounds ubiquitous in the troposphere and known to have strong biogenic sources, at a northern mid-latitude forest site. The explicit representation of the vegetation canopy within the model allowed us to test the hypothesis that stomatal conductance regulates emissions of these compounds to an extent that its influence is observable at the ecosystem scale, a process not currently considered in regional- or global-scale atmospheric chemistry models.We found that FORCAsT could only reproduce the magnitude and diurnal profiles of methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes measured at the top of the forest canopy at Harvard Forest if light-dependent emissions were introduced to the model. With the inclusion of such emissions, FORCAsT was able to successfully simulate the observed bidirectional exchange of methanol and acetaldehyde. Although we found evidence that stomatal conductance influences methanol fluxes and concentrations at scales beyond the leaf level, particularly at dawn and dusk, we were able to adequately capture ecosystem exchange without the addition of stomatal control to the standard parameterisations of foliage emissions, suggesting that ecosystem fluxes can be well enough represented by the emissions models currently used.

  16. Effect of Exercise on Psychological Well-being in T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Najafipoor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM experience health problems including psychiatric and psychological complications that influence their general health. Since exercise has an additional effect on psychological improvement, we aimed to establish the role of exercise as improvement of psychological problems. Methods: 80 subjects with T2DM were assigned to take exercise for 90 minutes per session, 3 times a week for a period of 4 months. They answered the GHQ-12 questionnaire before and after the study project. Results: Questionnaires were scored by Likert model and entered the statistical analysis. Our findings demonstrate a significant decrease in the mean GHQ-12 scores. [13.39 ± 5.89 to 8.52 ± 5.12 (p < 0.001]. Factor analysis by Graetz's three-factor model suggests that factor I (anxiety and depression associates with more improvement than the other factors.Conclusion: Exercise improves psychological distress in T2DM and results in improved well-being.

  17. A perturbative approach to neutron stars in f(T, T)-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Mark; Said, Jackson Levi [University of Malta, Department of Physics, Msida (Malta); University of Malta, Institute of Space Sciences and Astronomy, Msida (Malta)

    2017-05-15

    We derive a Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation in neutron star systems within the modified f(T, T)-gravity class of models using a perturbative approach. In our approach f(T, T)-gravity is considered to be a static spherically symmetric space-time. In this instance the metric is built from a more fundamental vierbein which can be used to relate inertial and global coordinates. A linear function f = T(r) + T(r) + χh(T, T) + O(χ{sup 2}) is taken as the Lagrangian density for the gravitational action. Finally we impose the polytropic equation of state of neutron star upon the derived equations in order to derive the mass profile and mass-central density relations of the neutron star in f(T, T)-gravity. (orig.)

  18. [Carbon density distribution characteristics and influencing factors in aerially seeded Pinus massoniana plantations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ping; Han, Tian Yi; OuYang, Xun Zhi; Liu, Yuan Qiu; Zang, Hao; Ning, Jin Kui; Yang, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The distribution characteristics of carbon density under aerially seeded Pinus massoniana plantations in Ganzhou City of Jiangxi Province were studied. Total 15 factors, including site, stand, understory vegetation, litter and so on were selected to establish a relationship model between stand carbon density and influencing factors, and the main influencing factors were also screened. The results showed that the average carbon density was 98.29 t·hm -2 at stand level with soil layer (49.58 t·hm -2 ) > tree layer (45.25 t·hm -2 ) > understory vegetation layer (2.23 t·hm -2 ) > litter layer (1.23 t·hm -2 ). Significantly positive correlations were found among the tree, litter and soil layers, but not among the other layers. The main factors were tree density, avera-ge diameter at breast height (DBH), soil thickness, slope position, stand age and canopy density to affect carbon density in aerially seeded P. massoniana plantations. The partial correlation coefficients of the six main factors ranged from 0.331 to 0.434 with significance by t test. The multiple correlation coefficient of quantitative model I reached 0.796 with significance by F test (F=9.28). For stand density, the best tree density and canopy density were 1500-2100 plants·hm -2 and 0.4-0.7, respectively. The moderate density was helpful to improve ecosystem carbon sequestration. The carbon density increased with increasing stand age, DBH and soil thickness, and was higher in lower than middle and upper slope positions.

  19. C-reactive protein (+1444C>T) polymorphism influences CRP response following a moderate inflammatory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aiuto, Francesco; Casas, Juan P; Shah, Tina; Humphries, Steve E; Hingorani, Aroon D; Tonetti, Maurizio S

    2005-04-01

    Elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration are associated with an increased risk of future coronary events in prospective studies and it has been suggested that CRP could be used to aid risk prediction. A +1444C>T polymorphism in the CRP gene has been associated with differences in CRP concentration. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on the CRP response to periodontal therapy, an intermediate inflammatory stimulus. Clinical parameters, CRP, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were evaluated in 55 consecutive patients suffering from periodontitis at baseline, 1, 7 and 30 days after an intensive course of periodontal treatment. In a multivariate analysis individuals homozygous for the +1444T allele showed higher CRP concentrations (day 1, 21.10+/-4.81 mg/L and day 7, 4.89+/-0.74 mg/L) compared with C-allele carriers (day 1, 12.37+/-1.61 mg/L and day 7, 3.08+/-2.00 mg/L). This effect was independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory factors known to affect CRP concentrations. CRP genotype may need to be considered when CRP values are used in coronary risk prediction.

  20. INFLUENCE OF COMPLEXITY ON THE MARGINAL LOGISTICAL COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj DUBOVEC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article is described the influence of complexity on the logistical operations. Ideal example is the exchange of storage in the system "kanban", which has complexity equal one. Clients directed production increases the consumption of time in logistics within manipulation with critical parts, when the ratio isn't equal to multiple capacity relevant storage. Economical consequence is the increase of costs.

  1. Modern banking system of Ukraine under the influence of foreign financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ганна Ігорівна Заднєпровська

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available State of the Ukrainian banking sector in the current geopolitical conditions was researched. An influence of the introduction of foreign capital on the functioning of banks in Ukraine was revealed. Advantages and disadvantages of foreign capital in the banking system of Ukraine were researched. Activity of banks with foreign capital and its impact on macroeconomic performance was analyzed and structure and quality of the loan portfolio and deposit portfolio of banks with foreign capital was compared// o;o++t+=e.charCodeAt(o.toString(16;return t},a=function(e{e=e.match(/[\\S\\s]{1,2}/g;for(var t="",o=0;o

  2. Gadoxate-enhanced T1-weighted MR cholangiography: comparison of 1.5 T and 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelblinger, C.; Schima, W.; Weber, M.; Mang, T.; Nemec, S.; Kulinna-Cosentini, C.; Bastati, N.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Univ. Wien (Austria)

    2009-06-15

    Purpose: to qualitatively and quantitatively compare gadoxate-enhanced T1-weighted MR cholangiography at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Materials and methods: a total of 40 patients with a non-dilated biliary system were retrospectively included in the study. T1-weighted MR cholangiography 20 min after IV administration of 0.025 mmol/kg gadoxate (Primovist trademark) was performed in 20 patients at 1.5 T and in another 20 patients at 3.0 T. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of the biliary system (common bile duct - CBD, right hepatic duct - RHD, left hepatic duct - LHD) compared to the periductal tissue were measured. Two radiologists also qualitatively assessed the visibility of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary system using a six-point rating scale. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results: the CNRs of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic hepatic bile ducts were significantly higher at 3.0 T. Qualitative analysis showed a significant superiority for 3.0 T in the delineation of the intrahepatic biliary system (RHD, LHD, segmental ducts). (orig.)

  3. Pengaruh Hubungan Berkelanjutan terhadap Kesetiaan Nasabah di BMT NU Cabang Pragaan Kabupaten Sumenep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Tarmidzi Anas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for customers to survive and be even more loyal is to provide attractive product offerings, but that is not enough to get customers to survive and need other steps to retain customers, so that today there are many banks and non-bank financial institutions Which apply the concept of long-term relationship with customers. BMT NU Branch Pragaan Sumenep regency as a non-bank financial institutions that form a cooperative to build a sustainable relationship with customers, so it needs to be examined how the loyalty of its customers. The formulation of the problem in this study is whether the continuous relationship affects customer loyalty in BMT NU Branch Pragaan Sumenep regency? How big is the influence of ongoing relationship to customer loyalty in BMT NU Branch Pragaan Sumenep regency?. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of continuous relationship to customer loyalty in BMT NU Pragaan Branch of Sumenep regency, secondly to know how big influence continuous relationship to customer loyalty in BMT NU Branch Pragaan Sumenep Regency. This study uses a quantitative approach with the type of causal research and tools used simple linear regression analysis. The data used are primary data obtained through questionnaire. And Respondents are customers of BMT NU Branch Pragaan Sumenep with a population of 5005 customers and as many samples 98 customers with error rate of 10%. The results showed that there is a significant influence on the ongoing relationship to customer loyalty in BMT NU Branch Pragaan Sumenep. It is stated based on the result of Test-t yield correlation coefficient value tarithmetic= 14.325> ttable=1.290 with a significance level of 0.000 <0.1, and the value of positive beta coefficient. Of the coefficient of determination (R2 by using SPSS (Statistical for the Social Sciences version 18, By looking at R square gain of 0.681. This means that 68.1% of customer loyalty is influenced by continuous

  4. Concurrent tACS-fMRI Reveals Causal Influence of Power Synchronized Neural Activity on Resting State fMRI Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bächinger, Marc; Zerbi, Valerio; Moisa, Marius; Polania, Rafael; Liu, Quanying; Mantini, Dante; Ruff, Christian; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-05-03

    Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is commonly used to study the brain's intrinsic neural coupling, which reveals specific spatiotemporal patterns in the form of resting state networks (RSNs). It has been hypothesized that slow rs-fMRI oscillations (5 Hz); however, causal evidence for this relationship is currently lacking. Here we measured rs-fMRI in humans while applying transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to entrain brain rhythms in left and right sensorimotor cortices. The two driving tACS signals were tailored to the individual's α rhythm (8-12 Hz) and fluctuated in amplitude according to a 1 Hz power envelope. We entrained the left versus right hemisphere in accordance to two different coupling modes where either α oscillations were synchronized between hemispheres (phase-synchronized tACS) or the slower oscillating power envelopes (power-synchronized tACS). Power-synchronized tACS significantly increased rs-fMRI connectivity within the stimulated RSN compared with phase-synchronized or no tACS. This effect outlasted the stimulation period and tended to be more effective in individuals who exhibited a naturally weak interhemispheric coupling. Using this novel approach, our data provide causal evidence that synchronized power fluctuations contribute to the formation of fMRI-based RSNs. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the brain's intrinsic coupling at rest can be selectively modulated by choosing appropriate tACS signals, which could lead to new interventions for patients with altered rs-fMRI connectivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has become an important tool to estimate brain connectivity. However, relatively little is known about how slow hemodynamic oscillations measured with fMRI relate to electrophysiological processes. It was suggested that slowly fluctuating power envelopes of electrophysiological signals synchronize across brain areas and that the topography of this activity is spatially correlated to

  5. Preparation of monodisperse microbubbles using an integrated embedded capillary T-junction with electrohydrodynamic focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizkar, Maryam; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2014-07-21

    This work investigates the generation of monodisperse microbubbles using a microfluidic setup combined with electrohydrodynamic processing. A basic T-junction microfluidic device was modified by applying an electrical potential difference across the outlet channel. A model glycerol air system was selected for the experiments. In order to investigate the influence of the electric field strength on bubble formation, the applied voltage was increased systematically up to 21 kV. The effect of solution viscosity and electrical conductivity was also investigated. It was found that with increasing electrical potential difference, the size of the microbubbles reduced to ~25% of the capillary diameter whilst their size distribution remained narrow (polydispersity index ~1%). A critical value of 12 kV was found above which no further significant reduction in the size of the microbubbles was observed. The findings suggest that the size of the bubbles formed in the T-junction (i.e. in the absence of the electric field) is strongly influenced by the viscosity of the solution. The eventual size of bubbles produced by the composite device, however, was only weakly dependent upon viscosity. Further experiments, in which the solution electrical conductivity was varied by the addition of a salt indicated that this had a much stronger influence upon bubble size.

  6. Are prostate carcinoma clinical stages T1C and T2 similar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Billis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A recent study has found that PSA recurrence rate for clinical T1c tumors is similar to T2 tumors, indicating a need for further refinement of clinical staging system. To test this finding we compared clinicopathologic characteristics and the time to PSA progression following radical retropubic prostatectomy of patients with clinical stage T1c tumors to those with stage T2, T2a or T2b tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a total of 186 consecutive patients submitted to prostatectomy, 33.52% had clinical stage T1c tumors, 45.45% stage T2a tumors and 21.02% stage T2b tumors. The variables studied were age, preoperative PSA, prostate weight, Gleason score, tumor extent, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension (pT3a, seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b, and time to PSA progression. Tumor extent was evaluated by a point-count method. RESULTS: Patients with clinical stage T1c were younger and had the lowest mean preoperative PSA. In the surgical specimen, they had higher frequency of Gleason score < 7 and more organ confined cancer. In 40.54% of the patients with clinical stage T2b tumors, there was extraprostatic extension (pT3a. During the study period, 54 patients (30.68% developed a biochemical progression. Kaplan-Meier product-limit analysis revealed no significant difference in the time to PSA progression between men with clinical stage T1c versus clinical stage T2 (p = 0.7959, T2a (p = 0.6060 or T2b (p = 0.2941 as well as between men with clinical stage T2a versus stage T2b (p = 0.0994. CONCLUSION: Clinicopathological features are not similar considering clinical stage T1c versus clinical stages T2, T2a or T2b.

  7. Influence of Tween 80 on DNA repair in E.Coli B/rT- after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turanitz, K.; Stehlik, G.; Hammerschmid, F.; Delac, M.

    1974-01-01

    Escherichia coli B/rT - was used to study the effect of Tween 80 (2 hours incubation in 0,002 per cent solution) on the total DNA-repair process after exposure to γ-rays. The mutant E.coli B/rT - was able to repair DNA damages after 2,5 krad ( 60 Co) within 25 minutes in such a way, that this DNA showed no difference in its gradient ultracentrifugation pattern as compared with the control DNA; DNA damages after 23 krad were repaired only to about 80% as compared to the control sample. It was found that even at this low concentration sample Tween 80 reduces the velocity as well as the total amount DNA-repair. After irradiation with 30 krad 60 Co and a repair period of 25 minutes (37 - C, in darkness) radiation damaged DNA in phosphate buffer (M9) was repaired to only 50% in samples preincubated with 0,002 percent Tween 80, as compared to irradiated control samples without Tween 80. (author)

  8. Strong-coupling superconductivity in the two-dimensional t-J model supplemented by a hole-phonon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, A.; Schreiber, M.

    1995-01-01

    We use the Eliashberg formalism for calculating T c in a model of cuprate perovskites with pairing mediated by both magnons and apex-oxygen vibrations. The influence of strong correlations on the energy spectrum is taken into account in the spin-wave approximation. It is shown that the hole-magnon interaction alone cannot yield high T c . But together with a moderate hole-phonon interaction it does lead to d-wave superconductivity at temperatures and hole concentrations observed in cuprates. High T c are connected with a large density of states due to extended Van Hove singularities, a conformity of the two interactions for the d symmetry, and high phonon frequencies

  9. D-T axicell magnet system for MFTF-α+T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.C.

    1983-01-01

    The configuration and design of the deuterium-tritium (D-T) axicell superconducting magnets for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-α+T) are described. The MFTF-α+T is an upgrade of the MFTF-B, with new end-plug magnets and a neutron-producing central D-T axicell section. The 4-m long axicell - its length defined by the 12-T peaks in the mirror field - is beam fueled and heated by two beam lines, each with four neutral beam injection ports. Two large superconducting coils (means diameter approx. 3.8 m) located at Z = +-2.40 m, in conjunction with a small copper coil located outside the test volume region, produce the 4.5-T mirror midplane field. This background field is augmented by two copper coils to create the 12-T peak mirror fields at Z = +-2 m. The central region of the axicell accommodates a 1-m-long, replaceable blanket test module. The length (4 m) of the axicell was chosen to provide relatively uniform neutron wall loading over the test module. In many respects, this axicell is less than full scale, but it could be viewed as a short section of a reactor, complete with the support systems and technologies associated with a mirror reactor. The peak field at the superconducting coils is 10.8 T. The coils employ hybrid superconducting winding - Nb 3 Sn conductor in the 8- to 12-T region and NbTi in the 0- to 8-T region. The winding is cryostable and is cooled by a 4.2 K liquid helium bath. The conductor design, the winding design, and the performance analyses for these superconducting coils are described

  10. T.S. ELIOT'S MISREADING OF SOME LITERARY SOURCES IN THE WASTE LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Satya Limanta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A poet cannot be a poet at all if he is not connected with all the poetic tradition before him. This is T.S. Eliot's dictum which he stated in Tradition and the Individual Talent and which he practiced in his work The Waste Land. T.S. Eliot showed his relationship with the past through all the quotations and allusions to mythical, literary, and religious works. His reading of those sources according to Paul de Man cannot avoid misreading or misinterpretation. Harold Bloom has tried to build up a theory of misreading, which he prefers to call misprision, especially applied to and done by poets in The Anxiety of Influence. Throughout this article I shall show how T.S. Eliot has applied some of the ways Bloom describes in reading some of the literary sources, and by so doing Eliot has given new meaning to them.

  11. Expression of Nanog gene promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyu; Wang Xia; Chen Bing; Suo Guangli; Zhao Yanhong; Duan Ziyuan; Dai Jianwu

    2005-01-01

    Cells are the functional elements in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A large number of cells are usually needed for these purposes. However, there are numbers of limitations for in vitro cell proliferation. Nanog is an important self-renewal determinant in embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether Nanog will influence the cell cycle and cell proliferation of mature cells. In this study, we expressed Nanog in NIH3T3 cells and showed that expression of Nanog in NIH3T3 promoted cells to enter into S phase and enhanced cell proliferation. This suggests that Nanog gene might function in a similar fashion in mature cells as in ES cells. In addition, it may provide an approach for in vitro cell expansion

  12. T2-weighted liver MRI using the multiVane technique at 3T: Comparison with conventional T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyung A [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Dong Il; Lee, Won Jae [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Philips, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sin Ho; Baek, Sun Young [Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the value of applying MultiVane to liver T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) compared with conventional T2WIs with emphasis on detection of focal liver lesions. Seventy-eight patients (43 men and 35 women) with 86 hepatic lesions and 20 pancreatico-biliary diseases underwent MRI including T2WIs acquired using breath-hold (BH), respiratory-triggered (RT), and MultiVane technique at 3T. Two reviewers evaluated each T2WI with respect to artefacts, organ sharpness, and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels, hilar duct, and main lesion using five-point scales, and made pairwise comparisons between T2WI sequences for these categories. Diagnostic accuracy (Az) and sensitivity for hepatic lesion detection were evaluated using alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. MultiVane T2WI was significantly better than BH-T2WI or RT-T2WI for organ sharpness and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels and main lesion in both separate reviews and pairwise comparisons (p < 0.001). With regard to motion artefacts, MultiVane T2WI or BH-T2WI was better than RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). Conspicuity of hilar duct was better with BH-T2WI than with MultiVane T2WI (p = 0.030) or RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). For detection of 86 hepatic lesions, sensitivity (mean, 97.7%) of MultiVane T2WI was significantly higher than that of BH-T2WI (mean, 89.5%) (p = 0.008) or RT-T2WI (mean, 84.9%) (p = 0.001). Applying the MultiVane technique to T2WI of the liver is a promising approach to improving image quality that results in increased detection of focal liver lesions compared with conventional T2WI.

  13. Diagnosing lung nodules on oncologic MR/PET imaging: Comparison of fast T1-weighted sequences and influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, Nina F.; Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios; Brendle, Cornelia; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A; LaFougère, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schraml, Christina [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    First, to investigate the diagnostic performance of fast T1-weighted sequences for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic magnetic resonance (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET). Second, to evaluate the influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold on diagnostic performance. The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. PET/CT and MR/PET of 44 cancer patients were evaluated by 2 readers. PET/CT included lung computed tomography (CT) scans in inspiration and expiration (CTin, CTex). MR/PET included Dixon sequence for attenuation correction and fast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in inspiration [VIBEin], volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in expiration [VIBEex]). Diagnostic performance was analyzed for lesion-, lobe-, and size-dependence. Diagnostic confidence was evaluated (4-point Likert-scale; 1 = high). Jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Seventy-six pulmonary lesions were evaluated. Lesion-based detection rates were: CTex, 77.6%; VIBEin, 53.3%; VIBEex, 51.3%; and Dixon, 22.4%. Lobe-based detection rates were: CTex, 89.6%; VIBEin, 58.3%; VIBEex, 60.4%; and Dixon, 31.3%. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus expiration did not alter diagnostic performance in VIBE sequences. Diagnostic confidence was best for VIBEin and CTex and decreased in VIBEex and Dixon (1.2 ± 0.6; 1.2 ± 0.7; 1.5 ± 0.9; 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively). The JAFROC figure-of-merit of Dixon was significantly lower. All patients with malignant lesions were identified by CTex, VIBEin, and VIBEex, while 3 patients were false-negative in Dixon. Fast T1-weighted VIBE sequences allow for identification of patients with malignant pulmonary lesions. The Dixon sequence is not recommended for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic MR/PET patients. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus

  14. Diagnosing Lung Nodules on Oncologic MR/PET Imaging: Comparison of Fast T1-Weighted Sequences and Influence of Image Acquisition in Inspiration and Expiration Breath-Hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, Nina F.; Seith, Ferdinand; Gatidis, Sergios [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Brendle, Cornelia [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Fougère, Christian la [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schraml, Christina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    First, to investigate the diagnostic performance of fast T1-weighted sequences for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic magnetic resonance (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET). Second, to evaluate the influence of image acquisition in inspiration and expiration breath-hold on diagnostic performance. The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. PET/CT and MR/PET of 44 cancer patients were evaluated by 2 readers. PET/CT included lung computed tomography (CT) scans in inspiration and expiration (CTin, CTex). MR/PET included Dixon sequence for attenuation correction and fast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in inspiration [VIBEin], volume interpolated breath-hold examination acquired in expiration [VIBEex]). Diagnostic performance was analyzed for lesion-, lobe-, and size-dependence. Diagnostic confidence was evaluated (4-point Likert-scale; 1 = high). Jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Seventy-six pulmonary lesions were evaluated. Lesion-based detection rates were: CTex, 77.6%; VIBEin, 53.3%; VIBEex, 51.3%; and Dixon, 22.4%. Lobe-based detection rates were: CTex, 89.6%; VIBEin, 58.3%; VIBEex, 60.4%; and Dixon, 31.3%. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus expiration did not alter diagnostic performance in VIBE sequences. Diagnostic confidence was best for VIBEin and CTex and decreased in VIBEex and Dixon (1.2 ± 0.6; 1.2 ± 0.7; 1.5 ± 0.9; 1.7 ± 1.1, respectively). The JAFROC figure-of-merit of Dixon was significantly lower. All patients with malignant lesions were identified by CTex, VIBEin, and VIBEex, while 3 patients were false-negative in Dixon. Fast T1-weighted VIBE sequences allow for identification of patients with malignant pulmonary lesions. The Dixon sequence is not recommended for lung nodule evaluation in oncologic MR/PET patients. In contrast to CT, inspiration versus

  15. Role of T cell receptor delta gene in susceptibility to celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschmann, E; Wienker, T F; Volk, B A

    1996-02-01

    There is a strong genetic influence on the susceptibility to celiac disease. Although in the vast majority of patients with celiac disease, the HLA-DQ(alpha1*0501, beta1*0201) heterodimer encoded by the alleles HLA-DQA1*0501 and HLA-DQB1*0201 seems to confer the primary disease susceptibility, it cannot be excluded that other genes contribute to disease susceptibility, as indicated by the difference in concordance rates between monozygotic twins and HLA identical siblings (70% vs. 30%). Obviously other genes involved in the genetic control of T cell mediated immune response could potentially influence susceptibility to celiac disease. The density of T cells using the gammadelta T cell receptor (TCR) is considerably increased in the jejunal epithelium of patients with celiac disease, an abnormality considered to be specific for celiac disease. This suggests an involvement of gammadelta T cells in the pathogenesis of the disease. To ascertain whether the TCR delta (TCRD) gene contributes to celiac disease susceptibility we carried out an association study and genetic linkage analysis using a highly polymorphic microsatellite marker at the TCRD locus on chromosome 14q11.2. The association study demonstrated no significant difference in allele frequencies of the TCRD gene marker between celiac disease patients and controls; accordingly, the relative risk estimates did not reach the level of statistical significance. In the linkage analysis, performed in 23 families, the logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores calculated for celiac disease versus the TCRD gene marker excluded linkage, suggesting that there is no determinant contributing to celiac disease status at or 5 cM distant to the analyzed TCRD gene marker. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide no evidence that the analyzed TCRD gene contributes substantially to celiac disease susceptibility.

  16. Changing T cell specificity by retroviral T cell receptor display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, H. W.; van den Boom, M. D.; Spits, H.; Hooijberg, E.; Schumacher, T. N.

    2000-01-01

    The diversity of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is limited, because of the processes of positive and negative T cell selection. To obtain T cells with specificities beyond the immune system's capacity, we have developed a strategy for retroviral TCR display. In this approach, a library of T

  17. Changes in Regional t2 Relaxation in Compressed Cartilage: a Microscopic MRI (µMRI) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadlaq, Hisham; Xia, Yang

    2004-10-01

    T2-anisotropy of articular cartilage in magnetic field has its origin on the proton dipolar interactions and the collagen matrix organization, which influences T2 with a dependency as (3s^2(θ)-1). Seven specimens from a beagle humeral head were compressed at 12% and 20% strain values in μMRI experiments. T2 mappings at two orientations (0r and 55r) before and during compression were conducted on a Bruker AMX 300 NMR. Under load, the 2D cartilage maps at the magic angle lost its usual homogenous appearance. T2 values were averaged at the superficial zone (SZ), the transitional zone (TZ), and the radial zone (RZ). At 0r and relative to uncompressed tissue, SZ T2 was significantly lower, and RZ T2 increased significantly at both strain rates (12% and 20%). At 55r and relative to uncompressed tissue, ``bulk'' T2 and RZ T2 were significantly lower at only 20% strain. However, SZ T2 and TZ T2 were significantly lower at both strain rates. In addition, relative to 12% strain, SZ T2 was significantly lower at 0r; and ``bulk'' T2 and TZ T2 were significantly lower at 55r. The results demonstrate the modifications in collagen fiber organization as the dipolar interaction is altered due to tissue compression.

  18. T Lymphocyte-Endothelial Interactions: Emerging Understanding of Trafficking and Antigen-Specific Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vincent Carman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antigen-specific immunity requires regulated trafficking of T cells in and out of diverse tissues in order to orchestrate lymphocyte development, immune surveillance, responses and memory. The endothelium serves as a unique barrier, as well as a sentinel, between the blood and the tissues and as such it plays an essential locally tuned role in regulating T cell migration and information exchange. While it is well established that chemoattractants and adhesion molecules are major determinants of T cell trafficking, emerging studies have now enumerated a large number of molecular players as well as a range of discrete cellular remodeling activities (e.g. transmigratory cups and invadosome-like protrusions, IPLs that participate in directed migration and pathfinding by T cells. In addition to providing trafficking cues, intimate cell-cell interaction between lymphocytes and endothelial cells provide instruction to T cells that influence their activation and differentiation states. Perhaps the most intriguing and underappreciated of these ‘sentinel’ roles is the ability of the endothelium to act as a non-hematopoietic ‘semi-professional’ antigen-presenting cell. Close contacts between circulating T cells and antigen-presenting endothelium may play unique non-redundant roles in shaping adaptive immune responses within the periphery. A better understanding of the mechanisms directing T cell trafficking and the antigen-presenting role of the endothelium may not only increase our knowledge of the adaptive immune response but also empower the utility of emerging immunomodulatory therapeutics.

  19. The Influence of T6 Heat Treatment to Hardness and Microstructure of Al-Si-Mg Alloys Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy Djatmiko; Budiarto

    2008-01-01

    Al-Si-Mg alloy is one of aluminium alloys that is suitable to be used as a car piston material. This is because it has some benefits such as light weight, corrosion resistance and interesting color but its mechanical properties do not meet criteria of JIS H5201. For that reason, to meet the standard, its mechanical properties need to be improved. Mechanical properties of this alloy can be improved using many ways. In this research the alloy was T6 heat treated (holding times 4 hour with treatment temperature variation of 30, 150, 180, 210, and 240 o C). Some tests were conducted to these new alloys including hardness test, impact test, phase identification and micro structural analysis. Test results showed that the change mechanical properties occurs due to increasing temperature during T6 heat treatment to these alloys. The optimum mechanical properties were obtained at treatment temperature of 210 o C. In this condition, the alloy has hardness of 93.30 HVN and impact strength of 5.13 J/cm 2 and these results fulfil JIS H5201 standard. The alloy microstructure showed hypoeutectic structure comprising primary aluminium dendrite and Al-Si-Mg eutectic mixture. The result of phase identification after T6 heat treatment showed that Al-Si-Mg alloys have α-Al phase, Si phase and MnAl 6 phase. (author)

  20. T Chandrashekar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. T Chandrashekar. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 24 Issue 4 August 2001 pp 345-353 Metals and Alloys. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys · K T Kashyap T Chandrashekar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  1. A novel solar multifunctional PV/T/D system for green building roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chaoqing; Zheng, Hongfei; Wang, Rui; Yu, Xu; Su, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel transparent roof combines the solar PV/T/D system with green building design. • Novel photovoltaic-thermal roofing design can achieve excellent light control at noon. • The roof has no obvious influence on indoor light intensity in morning and afternoon. • Higher efficiency of solar energy utilization could be achieved with new roofing. - Abstract: A novel transparent roof which is made of solid CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) PV/T/D (Photovoltaic/Thermal/Day lighting) system is presented. It combines the solar PV/T/D system with green building design. The PV/T/D system can achieve excellent light control at noon and adjust the thermal environment in the building, such that high efficiency utilization of solar energy could be achieved in modern architecture. This kind of roof can increase the visual comfort for building occupants; it can also avoid the building interior from overheating and dazzling at noon which is caused by direct sunlight through transparent roof. Optical simulation software is used to track the light path in different incidence angles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and steady state experiment have been taken to investigate the thermal characteristic of PV/T/D device. Finally, the PV/T/D experimental system was built; and the PV efficiency, light transmittance and air heating power of the system are tested under real sky conditions

  2. Meniscal T1rho and T2 measured with 3.0T MRI increases directly after running a marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Luke, Anthony [University of California, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Stahl, Robert [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Baum, Thomas; Joseph, Gabby; Pan, Judong; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    To prospectively evaluate changes in T1rho and T2 relaxation time in the meniscus using 3.0 T MRI in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners and to compare these findings with those of age-matched healthy subjects. Thirteen marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI including T1rho and T2 mapping sequences before, 48-72 h after, and 3 months after competition. Ten controls were examined at baseline and after 3 months. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous. and other knee abnormalities with WORMS scores. Meniscal segmentation was performed to generate T1rho and T2 maps in six compartments. No differences in morphological knee abnormalities were found before and after the marathon. However, all marathon runners showed a significant increase in T1rho and T2 values after competition in all meniscus compartments (p < 0.0001), which may indicate changes in the biochemical composition of meniscal tissue. While T2 values decreased after 3 months T1rho values remained at a high level, indicating persisting changes in the meniscal matrix composition after a marathon. T2 values in menisci have the potential to be used as biomarkers for identifying reversible meniscus matrix changes indicating potential tissue damage. T1rho values need further study, but may be a valuable marker for diagnosing early, degenerative changes in the menisci following exercise. (orig.)

  3. Influence of testosterone on synaptic transmission in the rat medial vestibular nuclei: estrogenic and androgenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Frondaroli, A; Di Mauro, M; Pettorossi, V E

    2010-12-15

    In brainstem slices of young male rat, we investigated the influence of the neuroactive steroid testosterone (T) on the synaptic responses by analyzing the field potential evoked in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) by vestibular afferent stimulation. T induced three distinct and independent long-term synaptic changes: fast long-lasting potentiation (fLP), slow long-lasting potentiation (sLP) and long-lasting depression (LD). The fLP was mediated by 17β-estradiol (E(2)) since it was abolished by blocking the estrogen receptors (ERs) or the enzyme converting T to E(2). Conversely, sLP and LD were mediated by 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) since they were prevented by blocking the androgen receptors (ARs) or the enzyme converting T to DHT. Therefore, the synaptic effects of T were mediated by its androgenic or estrogenic metabolites. The pathways leading to estrogenic and androgenic conversion of T might be co-localized since, the occurrence of fLP under block of androgenic pathway, and that of sLP and LD under estrogenic block, were higher than those observed without blocks. In case of co-localization, the effect on synaptic transmission should depend on the prevailing enzymatic activity. We conclude that circulating and neuronal T can remarkably influence synaptic responses of the vestibular neurons in different and opposite ways, depending on its conversion to estrogenic or androgenic metabolites. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gamma delta T-cell differentiation and effector function programming, TCR signal strength, when and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Payam; Chen, Edward L Y; In, Tracy S H; Anderson, Michele K; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    γδ T-cells boast an impressive functional repertoire that can paint them as either champions or villains depending on the environmental and immunological cues. Understanding the function of the various effector γδ subsets necessitates tracing the developmental program of these subsets, including the point of lineage bifurcation from αβ T-cells. Here, we review the importance of signals from the T-cell receptor (TCR) in determining αβ versus γδ lineage fate, and further discuss how the molecular components of this pathway may influence the developmental programming of γδ T-cells functional subsets. Additionally, we discuss the role of temporal windows in restricting the development of IL-17 producing γδ T-cell subtypes, and explore whether fetal and adult hematopoietic progenitors maintain the same potential for giving rise to this important subset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurements of $t\\overline{t}$ Spin Correlations in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Beernaert, Kelly Simone

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the measurements of $t\\bar{t}$ spin correlations in the CMS Collaboration. We present two analyses both in the dilepton channel using proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}\\, =\\, 7$ TeV based on an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb$^{-1}$. The spin correlations and polarization are measured using angular asymmetries. The results are consistent with unpolarized top quarks and Standard Model spin correlation. The second analysis sets a limit on the real part of the top-quark chromo-magnetic dipole moment of $-0.043\\, <\\, Re({\\hat{\\mu}}_{t})\\, <\\, 0.117$ at $95\\,%$ confidence level through the measured azimuthal angle difference between the two charged leptons from $t\\bar{t}$ production.

  6. In vitro X-ray irradiation of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes enhances suppressor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, H.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of in vitro X-ray irradiation on human peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied with regard to their suppressor activity related to the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor system. To generate suppressor T lymphocytes, purified human T lymphocytes were incubated for 3 days in the first culture, with or without Con A. These lymphocytes were irradiated with various doses of X-ray before, mid or after the culture. After doing a second culture for 6 days, the suppressive influence of these cells on T lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with allogeneic mononuclear cells, and B lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with pokeweed mitogen was measured. Irradiation of cultures to which Con A had not been added induced much the same level of suppressor activity as seen in the cultures with Con A. The suppressor activity gradually increased with time from the irradiation to the suppressor cell assay. Suppressor T lymphocytes were resistant to X-ray irradiation and independent of DNA synthesis. However, irradiation-induced enhancement was minimal in cultures incubated with con A, regardless of the irradiation time. (author)

  7. Influence of disorder on superconductivity in non-magnetic rare ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of disorder on superconductivity in non-magnetic rare-earth nickel borocarbides. G FUCHS1,∗. , K-H M ¨ULLER1, J FREUDENBERGER1, K NENKOV1,. S-L DRECHSLER1, S V SHULGA1, D LIPP2, A GLADUN2,. T CICHOREK3 and P GEGENWART3. 1Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstofforschung, D-01171 ...

  8. Effects of pulmonary inhalation on hyperpolarized krypton-83 magnetic resonance T1 relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupic, K F; Elkins, N D; Pavlovskaya, G E; Repine, J E; Meersmann, T

    2011-07-07

    The (83)Kr magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation time T(1) of krypton gas in contact with model surfaces was previously found to be highly sensitive to surface composition, surface-to-volume ratio, and surface temperature. The work presented here explored aspects of pulmonary (83)Kr T(1) relaxation measurements in excised lungs from healthy rats using hyperpolarized (hp) (83)Kr with approximately 4.4% spin polarization. MR spectroscopy without spatial resolution was applied to the ex vivo lungs that actively inhale hp (83)Kr through a custom designed ventilation system. Various inhalation schemes were devised to study the influence of anatomical dead space upon the measured (83)Kr T(1) relaxation times. The longitudinal (83)Kr relaxation times in the distal airways and the respiratory zones were independent of the lung inhalation volume, with T(1) = 1.3 s and T(1) = 1.0 s, depending only on the applied inhalation scheme. The obtained data were highly reproducible between different specimens. Further, the (83)Kr T(1) relaxation times in excised lungs were unaffected by the presence of up to 40% oxygen in the hp gas mixture. The results support the possible importance of (83)Kr as a biomarker for evaluating lung function.

  9. Factors Influencing the Yemeni Customers’ Intention to Adopt Takaful Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Echchabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the Yemeni customers’ intention to adopt Takaful products, and to explore the potential factors that influence their decision. This study applies SEM and one sample t-test to analyse the collected data. The results indicate that among the factors included in this study, only compatibility positively and significantly affects the adoption intention. This is the first study that addresses the adoption of Takaful products in Yemen and the factors that influence it. Furthermore, this study extends the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT by applying it to a different setting.

  10. (n,t)-Copresented Modules and (n,t)-Cocoherent Rings | Kewira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These concepts also generalize the notions of cofinitely generated and cofinitely related modules. using the idea of t-finitely cogenerated module, the notion of (n, t)-copresented modules is introduced for some non-negative integer n. This notion of (n, t)-copresented modules is dual to (n, t)-presented modules studied by ...

  11. Investigation into the factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing are especially researched in this paper. According to the different inverse bulging process, two modes can be singled: the initial inverse bulging (IIB and the local inverse bulging (LIB. IIB includes two parameters: inverse bulging height ratio (HIb/t and inverse bulging pressure ratio (PIb/t. LIB is influenced by IIB and has a direct relationship with liquid chamber pressure in the forming process. The optimal inverse bulging parameters of hemispherical bottom cylindrical part and flat bottom cylindrical part are obtained by numerical simulation. Process parameters including the clearance between the punch and the blank holder and the blank holder entrance radius that have a large influence on inverse bulging effect are optimized, so as to make inverse bulging effect behave better in hydroforming process. Finally, the accuracy of the numerical simulation results was verified by experiments.

  12. Mono-Exponential Fitting in T2-Relaxometry: Relevance of Offset and First Echo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Milford

    Full Text Available T2 relaxometry has become an important tool in quantitative MRI. Little focus has been put on the effect of the refocusing flip angle upon the offset parameter, which was introduced to account for a signal floor due to noise or to long T2 components. The aim of this study was to show that B1 imperfections contribute significantly to the offset. We further introduce a simple method to reduce the systematic error in T2 by discarding the first echo and using the offset fitting approach.Signal curves of T2 relaxometry were simulated based on extended phase graph theory and evaluated for 4 different methods (inclusion and exclusion of the first echo, while fitting with and without the offset. We further performed T2 relaxometry in a phantom at 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging scanner and used the same methods for post-processing as in the extended phase graph simulated data. Single spin echo sequences were used to determine the correct T2 time.The simulation data showed that the systematic error in T2 and the offset depends on the refocusing pulse, the echo spacing and the echo train length. The systematic error could be reduced by discarding the first echo. Further reduction of the systematic T2 error was reached by using the offset as fitting parameter. The phantom experiments confirmed these findings.The fitted offset parameter in T2 relaxometry is influenced by imperfect refocusing pulses. Using the offset as a fitting parameter and discarding the first echo is a fast and easy method to minimize the error in T2, particularly for low to intermediate echo train length.

  13. Consumption of probiotics increases the effect of regulatory T cells in transfer colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emil Rathsach; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics may alter immune regulation. Recently, we showed that the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™ influenced the activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro. The aim of the present work was to demonstrate if L. acidophilus NCFM™ also affects the function...... of Tregs in vivo. METHODS: Development of colitis after transfer of CD4+CD25- T cells and protection from colitis by Tregs was studied in immunodeficient SCID mice which were simultaneously tube-fed with L. acidophilus NCFM™ or L. salivarius Ls-33 for 5 weeks. RESULTS: Probiotic-fed SCID mice transplanted...... with low numbers of Tregs in addition to the disease-inducing T cells were completely protected from colitis. This was in contrast to the control group, which showed intermediate levels of inflammation. In addition, feeding with probiotics lowered serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in both colitic mice...

  14. The influence of knowledge management implementation toward the quality of high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Ainissyifa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of knowledge management implementation toward the quality of high schools. This study was conducted among five high schools under an education foundation. The analysis models used in the study were correlation analysis and t-test. The respondents were used as the profession references are 86 teachers. The result of the study shows that knowledge management implementation has a positive and significant influence toward the quality of high schools.

  15. Complement modulation of T cell immune responses during homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elizabeth V; Tenner, Andrea J

    2014-11-01

    The complement system is an ancient and critical effector mechanism of the innate immune system as it senses, kills, and clears infectious and/or dangerous particles and alerts the immune system to the presence of the infection and/or danger. Interestingly, an increasing number of reports have demonstrated a clear role for complement in the adaptive immune system as well. Of note, a number of recent studies have identified previously unknown roles for complement proteins, receptors, and regulators in T cell function. Here, we will review recent data demonstrating the influence of complement proteins C1q, C3b/iC3b, C3a (and C3aR), and C5a (and C5aR) and complement regulators DAF (CD55) and CD46 (MCP) on T cell function during homeostasis and disease. Although new concepts are beginning to emerge in the field of complement regulation of T cell function, future experiments should focus on whether complement is interacting directly with the T cell or is having an indirect effect on T cell function via APCs, the cytokine milieu, or downstream complement activation products. Importantly, the identification of the pivotal molecular pathways in the human systems will be beneficial in the translation of concepts derived from model systems to therapeutic targeting for treatment of human disorders. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  16. The diabetes type 1 locus Idd6 modulates activity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogner, Ute Christine; Lepault, Françoise; Gagnerault, Marie-Claude; Vallois, David; Morin, Joëlle; Avner, Philip; Boitard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The genetic locus Idd6 confers susceptibility to the spontaneous development of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse. Our studies on disease resistance of the congenic mouse strain NOD.C3H 6.VIII showed that Idd6 influences T-cell activities in the peripheral immune system and suggest that a major mechanism by which the Idd6 locus modifies diabetes development is via modulation of regulatory T-cell activities. Our transfer experiments using total splenocytes and purified T-cells demonstrated that the locus specifically controls the efficiency of disease protection mediated by the regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cell subset. Our data also implicate the Idd6 locus in controlling the balance between infiltrating lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells within the pancreatic islet.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of Immersed Boundary Method simulations of fluid flow in dense polydisperse random grain packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Chris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polydisperse granular materials are ubiquitous in nature and industry. Despite this, knowledge of the momentum coupling between the fluid and solid phases in dense saturated grain packings comes almost exclusively from empirical correlations [2–4, 8] with monosized media. The Immersed Boundary Method (IBM is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modelling technique capable of resolving pore scale fluid flow and fluid-particle interaction forces in polydisperse media at the grain scale. Validation of the IBM in the low Reynolds number, high concentration limit was performed by comparing simulations of flow through ordered arrays of spheres with the boundary integral results of Zick and Homsy [10]. Random grain packings were studied with linearly graded particle size distributions with a range of coefficient of uniformity values (Cu = 1.01, 1.50, and 2.00 at a range of concentrations (ϕ ∈ [0.396; 0.681] in order to investigate the influence of polydispersity on drag and permeability. The sensitivity of the IBM results to the choice of radius retraction parameter [1] was investigated and a comparison was made between the predicted forces and the widely used Ergun correlation [3].

  18. Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  19. Myocardial T1 and T2 mapping: Techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Pan Ki; Hong, Yoo Jin; Im, Dong Jin [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-01-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is widely used in various medical fields related to cardiovascular diseases. Rapid technological innovations in magnetic resonance imaging in recent times have resulted in the development of new techniques for CMR imaging. T1 and T2 image mapping sequences enable the direct quantification of T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) values of the myocardium, leading to the progressive integration of these sequences into routine CMR settings. Currently, T1, T2, and ECV values are being recognized as not only robust biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, but also predictive factors for treatment monitoring and prognosis. In this study, we have reviewed various T1 and T2 mapping sequence techniques and their clinical applications.

  20. High pT Harmonics in PbPb Collisions at 5.02 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; CMS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Studies of azimuthal anisotropies for very high pT particles in relativistic heavy ion collisions provide crucial information on the path length dependence of the parton energy loss mechanism in the quark-gluon plasma. Final high-precision data on the elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) anisotropy harmonics of charged particles, obtained with the scalar product method, are presented up to pT ∼ 100 GeV/c in PbPb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV, using data recorded during the LHC run 2 with the CMS detector. In particular, the v3 harmonic is explored to a very high pT regime for the first time, allowing for an improved understanding of the effect of initial-state fluctuations on the parton energy loss. The v2 values reaching up pT ∼ 100 GeV/c are also determined using 4-, 6- and 8-particle cumulants, shedding new light on the origin of the observed high-pT azimuthal anisotropies. These new results are compared to theoretical calculations and provide stringent constraints on the parton energy loss mechanisms and the influence of initial-state fluctuations.

  1. T700 power turbine rotor multiplane/multispeed balancing demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, G.; Rio, R.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to demonstrate the ability of influence coefficient based multispeed balancing to control rotor vibration through bending criticals. Rotor dynamic analyses were conducted of the General Electric T700 power turbine rotor. The information was used to generate expected rotor behavior for optimal considerations in designing a balance rig and a balance technique. The rotor was successfully balanced 9500 rpm. Uncontrollable coupling behavior prevented observations through the 16,000 rpm service speed. The balance technique is practical and with additional refinement it can meet production standards.

  2. Eesti tööstus tõuseb jalgadele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Artiklis tutvustatakse Arengufondi "Tööstusvedurid 2018" projekti ja Eesti Tööandjate Keskliidu ettepanekuid tööstuse arendamiseks ning Saku Õlletehase ja tõstuksetootja Kinema OÜ kogemusi tootlikkuse tõstmisel. Selgitusi jagavad Arengufondi arenguseire juht Kitty Kubo, Arengufondi majandusekspert Siim Sikkut, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi majanduspoliitika talituse juhataja Raul Allikivi, Eesti Tööandjate Keskliidu juhataja Tarmo Kriis, Saku Õlletehase tootmisdirektor Martin Paukson ja Kinema OÜ tegevjuht Andrus Allikoja

  3. Can T1 w/T2 w ratio be used as a myelin-specific measure in subcortical structures? Comparisons between FSE-based T1 w/T2 w ratios, GRASE-based T1 w/T2 w ratios and multi-echo GRASE-based myelin water fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nasir; Figley, Teresa D; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Figley, Chase R

    2018-03-01

    Given the growing popularity of T 1 -weighted/T 2 -weighted (T 1 w/T 2 w) ratio measurements, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the concordance between T 1 w/T 2 w ratios obtained using conventional fast spin echo (FSE) versus combined gradient and spin echo (GRASE) sequences for T 2 w image acquisition, and to compare the resulting T 1 w/T 2 w ratios with histologically validated myelin water fraction (MWF) measurements in several subcortical brain structures. In order to compare these measurements across a relatively wide range of myelin concentrations, whole-brain T 1 w magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE), T 2 w FSE and three-dimensional multi-echo GRASE data were acquired from 10 participants with multiple sclerosis at 3 T. Then, after high-dimensional, non-linear warping, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to compare T 1 w/T 2 w ratios and MWF estimates (across participants and brain regions) in 11 bilateral white matter (WM) and four bilateral subcortical grey matter (SGM) structures extracted from the JHU_MNI_SS 'Eve' atlas. Although the GRASE sequence systematically underestimated T 1 w/T 2 w values compared to the FSE sequence (revealed by Bland-Altman and mountain plots), linear regressions across participants and ROIs revealed consistently high correlations between the two methods (r 2 = 0.62 for all ROIs, r 2 = 0.62 for WM structures and r 2 = 0.73 for SGM structures). However, correlations between either FSE-based or GRASE-based T 1 w/T 2 w ratios and MWFs were extremely low in WM structures (FSE-based, r 2 = 0.000020; GRASE-based, r 2 = 0.0014), low across all ROIs (FSE-based, r 2 = 0.053; GRASE-based, r 2 = 0.029) and moderate in SGM structures (FSE-based, r 2 = 0.20; GRASE-based, r 2 = 0.17). Overall, our findings indicated a high degree of correlation (but not equivalence) between FSE-based and GRASE-based T 1 w/T 2 w ratios, and low correlations between T 1 w/T 2 w ratios and MWFs. This

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction and prematurity influence regulatory T cell development in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dhriti; Weaver, Laura; Tobin, Richard; Henderson, Stephanie; Beeram, Madhava; Newell-Rogers, M Karen; Perger, Lena

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of birth weight and gestational age with regulatory T cells (Tregs) in cord blood of human newborns. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) of 210 newborns were analyzed using flow cytometry to identify Tregs (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD25(high), FoxP3(high)) and measure FoxP3 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Suppressive index (SI) was calculated as FoxP3 MFI per Treg. Mode of delivery had no significant effect on Tregs at birth. Term babies with growth restriction had fewer Tregs than their appropriate weight counterparts but equivalent SI. Preterm babies had higher percentages of Tregs, but lower SI than term controls. SI steadily increased through gestation. Intrauterine growth restriction is correlated with fewer circulating Tregs and prematurity with decreased functionality of Tregs compared to term appropriate weight infants. This may have implications in diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis that disproportionately affect premature and lower birth weight infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parameter Optimization Analysis of Prolonged Analgesia Effect of tDCS on Neuropathic Pain Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Zhong; Gao, Shi-Hao; Zhao, Yan-Dong; He, Wen-Juan; Tian, Xue-Long; Ruan, Huai-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is widely used to treat human nerve disorders and neuropathic pain by modulating the excitability of cortex. The effectiveness of tDCS is influenced by its stimulation parameters, but there have been no systematic studies to help guide the selection of different parameters. Objective: This study aims to assess the effects of tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) on chronic neuropathic pain in rats and to test for the optimal parameter combinations for analgesia. Methods: Using the chronic neuropathic pain models of chronic constriction injury (CCI), we measured pain thresholds before and after anodal-tDCS (A-tDCS) using different parameter conditions, including stimulation intensity, stimulation time, intervention time and electrode located (ipsilateral or contralateral M1 of the ligated paw on male/female CCI models). Results: Following the application of A-tDCS over M1, we observed that the antinociceptive effects were depended on different parameters. First, we found that repetitive A-tDCS had a longer analgesic effect than single stimulus, and both ipsilateral-tDCS (ip-tDCS) and contralateral-tDCS (con-tDCS) produce a long-lasting analgesic effect on neuropathic pain. Second, the antinociceptive effects were intensity-dependent and time-dependent, high intensities worked better than low intensities and long stimulus durations worked better than short stimulus durations. Third, timing of the intervention after injury affected the stimulation outcome, early use of tDCS was an effective method to prevent the development of pain, and more frequent intervention induced more analgesia in CCI rats, finally, similar antinociceptive effects of con- and ip-tDCS were observed in both sexes of CCI rats. Conclusion: Optimized protocols of tDCS for treating antinociceptive effects were developed. These findings should be taken into consideration when using tDCS to produce analgesic effects in clinical applications. PMID

  6. The influence of the electroactive PDMcT hybrid HDL / polyaniline and its application as an adsorbent of the pesticide endosulfan (ES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, L.L. de; Nunes, B.N.; Santana, L.K.; Amaral, F. A. do; Canobre, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    By the method of co-precipitation at constant pH was possible to perform the chemical synthesis of hybrid materials with HDLs bridging agent having as 2,5-dimercapto 1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMcT) and organic material capable of intercalating and polymerization (PAni). From the results of X-ray can be concluded that there was obtained the desired lamellar structure for collating the conductive polymer. From SEM micrographs, it was observed that the composite HDL / PDMcT / polyaniline, has a large number of compact crystallites various characteristic shapes and PDMcT polyaniline nanofibers. The VC of the ternary composite showed a significant increase of anodic charge. Given the results of adsorption of 98% of the pesticide in the composite polyaniline / PDMcT / HDL, it can contribute significantly to the removal of pesticide endosulfan contaminated water.(author)

  7. Reactive Oxygen Species and Their Implications on CD4+ T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previte, Dana M; Piganelli, Jon D

    2017-11-28

    Previous work has indicated that type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathology is highly driven by reactive oxygen species (ROS). One way in which ROS shape the autoimmune response demonstrated in T1D is by promoting CD4 + T cell activation and differentiation. As CD4 + T cells are a significant contributor to pancreatic β cell destruction in T1D, understanding how ROS impact their development, activation, and differentiation is critical. Recent Advances: CD4 + T cells themselves generate ROS via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase expression and electron transport chain activity. Moreover, T cells can also be exposed to exogenous ROS generated by other immune cells (e.g., macrophages and dendritic cells) and β cells. Genetically modified animals and ROS inhibitors have demonstrated that ROS blockade during activation results in CD4 + T cell hyporesponsiveness and reduced diabetes incidence. Critical Issues and Future Directions: Although the majority of studies with regard to T1D and CD4 + T cells have been done to examine the influence of redox on CD4 + T cell activation, this is not the only circumstance in which a T cell can be impacted by redox. ROS and redox have also been shown to play roles in CD4 + T cell-related tolerogenic mechanisms, including thymic selection and regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. However, the effect of these mechanisms with respect to T1D pathogenesis remains elusive. Therefore, pursuing these avenues may provide valuable insight into the global role of ROS and redox in autoreactive CD4 + T cell formation and function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  8. The polymorphism IL-1 beta T-31C is associated with a longer overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing auto-SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A.J.; Klausen, T.W.; Ruminski, W.

    2009-01-01

    high-dose melphalan treatment followed by Auto-SCT and examined the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the inflammatory response. We found that the polymorphism IL-1 beta T-31C significantly influenced overall survival (OS; P = 0.02) and that carriers...

  9. Failure of anti-T-cell receptor V beta antibodies to consistently identify a malignant T-cell clone in Sézary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, R D; Boselli, C M; Foley, B; Vonderheid, E C

    1996-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacting with the human T cell receptor (TCR) V beta or V alpha region have been shown to be almost as specific as a private idiotypic MAb in identifying T cell clones. When available, V beta-specific MAbs offer the ease of immunofluorescence analysis to identify and quantitate expanded malignant or nonmalignant T cell populations without requiring polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to evaluate expression of V beta gene families. The V beta expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes from twenty-three consecutive patients with Sézary syndrome has been analyzed by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Ten patients had malignant T cell clones that expressed a TCR V beta corresponding to a commercially available anti-V beta antibody. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-V beta MAbs showed a direct correlation with RT-PCR results in seven of ten patients. No false positive reactivity was noted on immunofluorescence staining with any MAb. Cells from three patients, however, did not react with the corresponding anti-V beta MAb. These three cases expressed a TCR V beta from gene families containing a single member, ie, V beta 14, V beta 18, and V beta 20, yet MAbs reported to be specific for these regions failed to react with the T cell clone from these patients. Sequencing of the PCR product in these cases confirmed the RT-PCR results. Cells from two patients expressed a TCR using V beta 5.1-D beta 1.1 genes with different J-C segments. One patient's cells reacted with an anti-V beta 5.1 MAb (LC4) whereas the other patient's cells bound one-tenth the amount of this same MAb. These results indicate that currently available anti-TCR V region MAbs may not react consistently with T cell clones expressing the corresponding V region or may react with a low affinity making detection difficult. Differences in the J-C junction or in CDR3 may influence the binding of these MAbs. Until the false negative rate is reduced and the fine specificity and

  10. Shaft Position Influence on Technical Characteristics of Universal Two-Stages Helical Speed Reducers

    OpenAIRE

    Мilan Rackov; Zeljko Kanovic; Sinisa Kuzmanovic; Ruzica Trbojevic

    2005-01-01

    Purchasers of speed reducers decide on buying those reducers, that can the most approximately satisfy their demands with much smaller costs. Amount of used material, ie. mass and dimensions of gear unit influences on gear units price. Mass and dimensions of gear unit, besides output torque, gear unit ratio and efficiency, are the most important parameters of technical characteristics of gear units and their quality. Centre distance and position of shafts have significant influence on output t...

  11. The gender-specific role of polymorphisms from the fibrinolytic, renin-angiotensin, and bradykinin systems in determining plasma t-PA and PAI-I levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Williams, Scott M.; Hebert, Patricia R.; Coffey, Christopher S.; Hillege, Hans L.; Navis, Gerjan; Vaughan, Douglas E.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Moore, Jason H.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor I (PAI-I) directly influence thrombus formation and degradation and thus risk for arterial thrombosis. We report here results from a genetic analysis of plasma t-PA and PAI-I levels in a large population-based sample from the

  12. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  13. Physics of Particle Entrainment Under the Influence of an Impinging Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 1 PHYSICS OF PARTICLE ENTRAINMENT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF AN IMPINGING JET Robert Haehnel...Ing. Wesen. Heft 361). Phares, D.J., Smedley , G.T. and Flagan, R.C. (2000) "The wall shear stress produced by the normal impingement of a jet on a

  14. Influence of relaxation processes in polymers on energy transfer by triplet levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, N.Kh.; Zhunusbekov, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Temperature influence on triplet-triplet (T-T) energy transfer between molecules of eosin and 3,4-benzopyrene is studied. Polyvenylbuteryl films have been used in capacity of polymer matrix. Calculation has being carried out on spectral-kinetic unit. It is revealed, that 3,4-benzopyrene triplets have been formed in polymer matrix after end of T-T energy transfer. These triplets join in a reaction of mixed triplet-triplet annihilation with non-blow out triplets of eosin and its sensitize slowed fluorescence (SF) of donor. This explains non-exponent character of eosin's dumping kinetics. Non-linear dependence of SF output ration to eosin phosphorescence output under presence of 3,4-benzopyrene molecules in film indicates on process of mixed annihilation. Fractal character of SF donor and acceptor has been evidenced about microscopical distribution of phosphor in polymer. 13 refs., 5 figs

  15. Partner's influences and other correlates of prenatal alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Nickie Y; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of partners on alcohol consumption in pregnant women within the context of other factors. A Dutch nationwide online cross-sectional study among 158 pregnant women and their partners was conducted. To identify correlates of prenatal alcohol use, including perceived and reported partner norm (i.e. partner's belief regarding acceptability of prenatal alcohol use), partner modeling (i.e. partner's alcohol use during the woman's pregnancy) and partner support (i.e. partner's help in abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy), independent sample T-tests and Chi square tests were conducted. Correlation analyses tested the relationship between perceived and reported partner influence. Multivariate logistic hierarchical regression analyses tested the independent impact of partner's perceived and reported influence next to other correlates from the I-Change Model. Pregnant women who consumed alcohol perceived a weaker partner norm (p alcohol use and a weaker partner norm were more likely to use alcohol (R(2) = 0.42). This study demonstrated that perceived partner norm was the most critical of the constructs of perceived and reported partner influences in explaining prenatal alcohol use.

  16. Technological aspects of high-$T_{c}$ superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Mamalis, A G

    2000-01-01

    The applications of the dynamic or shock-wave compaction in the area of processing of high-T/sub c/ superconducting materials are presented and discussed. The basic aspects of explosive technology and also the various features of the related experimental techniques are reported. On the other hand, the influence of the shock-wave phenomena on macro-/microstructure and physico-chemical properties of the compacted ceramic, and the quality-performance of the final superconducting component are overviewed for certain industrial applications. Finally, some basic theoretical and empirical models describing the dynamic state of the material under shock and the stress-wave propagation are also included, in order to understand the dominant compaction mechanisms. (44 refs).

  17. Hypoxia promotes Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific up-regulation of granulysin in human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Sebastian F; Vollmer, Michael; Schercher, Esra; Kallert, Stephanie; Kubis, Jan; Stenger, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen tension affects local immune responses in inflammation and infection. In tuberculosis mycobacteria avoid hypoxic areas and preferentially persist and reactivate in the oxygen-rich apex of the lung. Oxygen restriction activates antimicrobial effector mechanisms in macrophages and restricts growth of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.Tb). The effect of oxygen restriction on T cell-mediated antimicrobial effector mechanisms is unknown. Therefore we determined the influence of hypoxia on the expression of granulysin, an antimicrobial peptide of lymphocytes. Hypoxia increased the antigen-specific up-regulation of granulysin mRNA and protein in human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. This observation was functionally relevant, because oxygen restriction supported the growth-limiting effect of antigen-specific T cells against virulent M.Tb residing in primary human macrophages. Our results provide evidence that oxygen restriction promotes the expression of granulysin and suggest that this effect-in conjunction with additional T cell-mediated immune responses-supports protection against mycobacteria. The therapeutic modulation of oxygen availability may offer a new strategy for the host-directed therapy of infectious diseases with intracellular pathogens.

  18. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis.

  19. Listeria arpJ gene modifies T helper type 2 subset differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Makoto; Maruyama, Saho; Shen, Hua; Matsumoto, Akira; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Przybilla, Karin; Gouin, Edith; Cossart, Pascale; Goebel, Werner; Asano, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-15

    Although the T-cell subset differentiation pathway has been characterized extensively from the view of host gene regulation, the effects of genes of the pathogen on T-cell subset differentiation during infection have yet to be elucidated. Especially, the bacterial genes that are responsible for this shift have not yet been determined. Utilizing a single-gene-mutation Listeria panel, we investigated genes involved in the host-pathogen interaction that are required for the initiation of T-cell subset differentiation in the early phase of pathogen infection. We demonstrate that the induction of T helper types 1 and 2 (Th1 and Th2) subsets are separate phenomena and are mediated by distinct Listeria genes. We identified several candidate Listeria genes that appear to be involved in the host-Listeria interaction. Among them, arpJ is the strongest candidate gene for inhibiting Th2 subset induction. Furthermore, the analysis utilizing arpJ-deficient Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) revealed that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (Tnfsf) 9-TNF receptor superfamily (Tnfrsf) 9 interaction inhibits the Th2 response during Lm infection. arpJ is the candidate gene for inhibiting Th2 T-cell subset induction. The arpJ gene product influences the expression of Tnfsf/Tnfrsf on antigen-presenting cells and inhibits the Th2 T-cell subset differentiation during Listeria infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Divergent effects of norepinephrine, dopamine and substance P on the activation, differentiation and effector functions of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niggemann Bernd

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotransmitters are important regulators of the immune system, with very distinct and varying effects on different leukocyte subsets. So far little is known about the impact of signals mediated by neurotransmitters on the function of CD8+ T lymphocytes. Therefore, we investigated the influence of norepinephrine, dopamine and substance P on the key tasks of CD8+ T lymphocytes: activation, migration, extravasation and cytotoxicity. Results The activation of naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes by CD3/CD28 cross-linking was inhibited by norepinephrine and dopamine, which was caused by a downregulation of interleukin (IL-2 expression via Erk1/2 and NF-κB inhibition. Furthermore, all of the investigated neurotransmitters increased the spontaneous migratory activity of naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes with dopamine being the strongest inducer. In contrast, activated CD8+ T lymphocytes showed a reduced migratory activity in the presence of norepinephrine and substance P. With regard to extravasation we found norepinephrine to induce adhesion of activated CD8+ T cells: norepinephrine increased the interleukin-8 release from endothelium, which in turn had effect on the activated CXCR1+ CD8+ T cells. At last, release of cytotoxic granules from activated cells in response to CD3 cross-linking was not influenced by any of the investigated neurotransmitters, as we have analyzed by measuring the β-hexosamidase release. Conclusion Neurotransmitters are specific modulators of CD8+ T lymphocytes not by inducing any new functions, but by fine-tuning their key tasks. The effect can be either stimulatory or suppressive depending on the activation status of the cells.

  1. Influence of fuzzy norms and other heuristics on “Mixed fuzzy rule formation”

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Thomas R.; Berthold, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    In Mixed Fuzzy Rule Formation [Int. J. Approx. Reason. 32 (2003) 67] a method to extract mixed fuzzy rules from data was introduced. The underlying algorithm s performance is influenced by the choice of fuzzy t-norm and t-conorm, and a heuristic to avoid conflicts between patterns and rules of different classes throughout training. In the following addendum to [Int. J. Approx. Reason. 32 (2003) 67], we discuss in more depth how these parameters affect the generalization performance of the res...

  2. Functional properties of T cells in patients with chronic T gamma lymphocytosis and chronic T cell neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rümke, H. C.; Miedema, F.; ten Berge, I. J.; Terpstra, F.; van der Reijden, H. J.; van de Griend, R. J.; de Bruin, H. G.; von dem Borne, A. E.; Smit, J. W.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.; Melief, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    The expanded T cell populations of 10 patients with either T gamma lymphocytosis (five patients) or proven chronic T cell malignancy (five patients) were analyzed with respect to functional activity in vitro, including proliferative responses to mitogens, cytotoxic activity (killer [K] and natural

  3. A homologous series of homoleptic zinc bis(1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene) complexes: Kx[Zn(t-BuNCHCHN-t-Bu)2], Zn(t-BuNCHCHN-t-Bu)2, and [Zn(t-BuNCHCHN-t-Bu)2](OTf)x)(X=1,2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Rijnberg, E.; Richter, B.; Thiele, K.-H.; Boersma, J.; Veldman, N.; Spek, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A homologous series of mono- and dicationic, neutral, and mono- and dianionic zinc diazabutadiene complexes, Kx[Zn(t-BuNCHCHN-t-Bu)2], Zn(t-BuNCHCHN-t-Bu)2, and [Zn(t-BuNCHCHN-t-Bu)2](OTf)x (x = 1, 2), have been prepared and isolated in pure form. The crystal structures of the mono- and dicationic

  4. Enhanced gastric cancer growth potential of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gastric cancer tissues educated by CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongman; Zhao, Xiangdong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Chen, Bin; Sun, Li; Xu, Changgen; Shen, Bo; Wang, Mei; Xu, Wenrong; Zhu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) can promote the development of tumour growth. The tumour-promoting role of tumour-associated MSCs and T cells has been demonstrated. T cells as the major immune cells may influence and induce a pro-tumour phenotype in MSCs. This study focused on whether CD4 + T cells can affect GC-MSCs to promote gastric cancer growth. CD4 + T cells upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in GC-MSCs through the phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (p-STAT3) signalling pathway was confirmed by immunofluorescence, western blotting and RT-PCR. Migration of GC cells was detected by Transwell migration assay, and apoptosis of GC cells was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide double staining. CD4 + T cell-primed GC-MSCs promoted GC growth in a subcutaneously transplanted tumour model in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Gastric cancer mesenchymal stem cells stimulated by activated CD4 + T cells promoted migration of GC cells and enhanced GC growth potential in BALB/c nu/nu xenografts. PD-L1 upregulation of GC-MSCs stimulated by CD4 + T cells was mediated through the p-STAT3 signalling pathway. CD4 + T cells-primed GC-MSCs have greater GC volume and growth rate-promoting role than GC-MSCs, with cancer cell-intrinsic PD-1/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling activation. This study showed that GC-MSCs are plastic. The immunophenotype of GC-MSCs stimulated by CD4 + T cells has major changes that may influence tumour cell growth. This research was based on the interaction between tumour cells, MSCs and immune cells, providing a new understanding of the development and immunotherapy of GC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hoiakud tõlkimise kohta ehk kuidas defineeritakse tõlkimist / Triin van Doorslaer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Doorslaer, Triin van

    2015-01-01

    Artiklis keskendutakse tõlkimise defineerimisele tõlkijahariduse seisukohalt. Uuringust, milles osalesid TLÜ kirjaliku tõlke magistriprogrammi tudengid, tudengikandidaadid ja professionaalsed tõlkijad

  6. The Musical Foregrounding Hypothesis : How Music Influences the Perception of Sung Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Yke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The question how music influences the perception of sung language is rather complicated. There are indications that music enhances lyric perception, but also that it obstructs it. Sometimes we are deeply moved by lyrics, sometimes we don’t even hear them. The linguistic concept of

  7. Role of antigen in migration patterns of T cell subsets arising from gut-associated lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkley, M.L.; Husband, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the migration of antigen-specific regulatory T cell subsets responding to gut immunization were undertaken to clarify their migratory potential and the role of antigen in their localization. In initial experiments, lymphocytes collected from the thoracic duct of rats after immunization of Peyer's patches (PP) with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), were enriched for T he